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Sample records for oxidized regenerated cellulose

  1. Randomized controlled trial on collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose/silver treatment

    Gottrup, Finn; Cullen, Breda Mary; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2013-01-01

    Collagen/oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC)/silver therapy has been designed to facilitate wound healing by normalizing the microenvironment and correcting biochemical imbalances in chronic wounds. The aim of this study was to compare collagen/ORC/silver therapy to control (standard treatment)....

  2. Injectable TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose/biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel for bone regeneration.

    Safwat, Engie; Hassan, Mohammad L; Saniour, Sayed; Zaki, Dalia Yehia; Eldeftar, Mervat; Saba, Dalia; Zazou, Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Nanofibrillated cellulose, obtained from rice straw agricultural wastes was used as a substrate for the preparation of a new injectable and mineralized hydrogel for bone regeneration. Tetramethyl pyridine oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose, was mineralized through the incorporation of a prepared and characterized biphasic calcium phosphate at a fixed ratio of 50 wt%. The TEMPO-oxidized rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and carboxylic content determination. The injectability and viscosity of the prepared hydrogel were evaluated using universal testing machine and rheometer testing, respectively. Cytotoxicity and alkaline phosphatase level tests on osteoblast like-cells for in vitro assessment of the biocompatibility were investigated. Results revealed that the isolated rice straw nanofibrillated cellulose is a nanocomposite of the cellulose nanofibers and silica nanoparticles. Rheological properties of the tested materials are suitable for use as injectable material and of nontoxic effect on osteoblast-like cells, as revealed by the positive alkaline phosphate assay. However, nanofibrillated cellulose/ biphasic calcium phosphate hydrogel showed higher cytotoxicity and lower bioactivity test results when compared to that of nanofibrillated cellulose.

  3. Bronchoscopic hemostatic tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose for major hemoptysis control: two case reports

    C.C. Nogueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemoptysis is a common and alarming clinical problem. Acute massive hemoptysis is a life threatening condition. Different therapeutic strategies such as surgery, endovascular treatment and/or bronchoscopy have been applied. We report two cases of patients with severe hemoptysis who were treated by bronchoscopy guided topical hemostatic tamponade therapy with oxidized regenerated cellulose. Resumo: Hemoptises são um problema clinico comum e grave. Nalguns casos, como nas hemoptises maciças, podem causar mortalidade elevada. Para o seu controlo e/ou tratamento têm sido aplicadas diferentes estratégias como a cirurgia, embolização das artérias brônquicas e tratamentos broncoscópicos. Os autores descrevem dois casos clinicos de pacientes com hemoptises graves, cujo controlo foi efectuado por broncoscopia com aplicação de tamponamento hemostático com celulose oxidade regenerada (Surgicell®, Johnson and Johnson's, London. Keywords: Hemoptysis, Bronchoscopic hemostatic therapy, Oxidized regenerated cellulose, Palavras-chave: Hemoptises, Terapêutica broncoscópica hemostática, Celulose oxidada regenerada

  4. Hyaluronate acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose prevent adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models

    Zhang Y

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yan Zhang, Qin Liu, Ning Yang, Xuegang Zhang Department of Gynecology, Kunshan Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Postsurgical adhesion formation is the most common complication in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Adhesiolysis is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesion formation but is often followed by adhesion reformation. Therefore, an efficient strategy should be adopted to solve these problems. This study aimed to explore whether hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC could prevent adhesion formation and reformation. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each and subjected to different treatments during the first and second surgery. The control group was treated with isotonic sodium chloride, the ORC group was treated with ORC (1.5×1 cm, and the medical sodium hyaluronate (MSH group was treated with 1% MSH (0.5 mL. At 2 weeks after the first surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (1.90±0.99 and the ORC group (1.40±0.97 were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.00±0.82 (P=0.005. Similarly, 2 weeks after the second surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (2.00±0.82 and the ORC group (1.50±1.27 were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.50±0.53 (P=0.001. In addition, body weights in the MSH group and the ORC group did not change significantly, whereas the control group showed a consistent decrease in body weight during the experiment. Histological examination revealed that inflammatory infiltration was involved in both adhesion formation and reformation. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid and ORC were both efficient in reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat model. Keywords: hyaluronic acid, oxidized regenerated cellulose, adhesion formation, adhesion reformation, rat model 

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of oxidized regenerated cellulose in breast cancer surgery.

    Giuliani, Michela; Rella, Rossella; Fubelli, Rita; Patrolecco, Federica; Di Giovanni, Silvia Eleonora; Buccheri, Chiara; Padovano, Federico; Belli, Paolo; Romani, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Bufi, Enida; Franceschini, Gianluca; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) implantation in surgical cavity. We retrospectively reviewed 51 MRI examinations performed between January 2009 and January 2014 in 51 patients who underwent BCS with ORC implantation. In 29/51 (57 %) cases, MRIs showed abnormal findings with three main MRI patterns: (1) complex masses: hyperintense collections on T2-weighted (w) images with internal round hypointense nodules without contrast enhancement (55 %); (2) completely hyperintense collections (17 %); and (3) completely hypointense lesions (28 %). All lesions showed rim enhancement on T1w images obtained in the late phase of the dynamic study with a type 1 curve. Diffusion-weighted imaging was negative in all MRIs and, in particular, 22/29 (76 %) lesions were hyperintense but showing ADC values >1.4 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, while the remaining 7/29 (24 %) lesions were hypointense. In four cases, linear non-mass-like enhancement was detected at the periphery of surgical cavity; these patients were addressed to a short-term follow-up, and the subsequent examinations showed the resolution of these findings. When applied to surgical residual cavity, ORC can lead alterations in surgical scar. This could induce radiologists to misinterpret ultrasonographic and mammographic findings, addressing patients to MRI or biopsy; so knowledge of MRI specific features of ORC, it is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of recurrence.

  6. Mammographic and Ultrasonographic Findings of Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose in Breast Cancer Surgery: A 5-Year Experience.

    Giuliani, Michela; Fubelli, Rita; Patrolecco, Federica; Rella, Rossella; Borelli, Cristina; Buccheri, Chiara; Di Giovanni, Silvia Eleonora; Belli, Paolo; Romani, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Bufi, Enida; Franceschini, Gianluca; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic (US) and mammographic (MX) findings in patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) implantation in the surgical cavity and their size variations in follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed 417 MX and 743 US images performed between January 2009 and January 2014 for 262 women who underwent breast-conserving surgery. All patients underwent US, only 203 women underwent MX examination. In 170 of 262 patients, US examinations showed abnormal findings. Three main US patterns were identified: (1) complex masses: well-encapsulated ipoisoechoic lesions with circumscribed margins with internal hyperechoic nodules (56%); (2) hypoanechoic lesions without internal hyperechoic nodules (24%); and (3) completely anechoic collections (20%). Moreover, Doppler ultrasound examination was performed on all of the patients. In 95 of 203 patients, MX examinations showed abnormalities. Four main MX patterns were identified: (1) round or oval opacity with circumscribed margins (58%); (2) round or oval opacity with indistinct or ill-defined margins (17%); (3) irregular opacity with indistinct or spiculated margins (9%); and (4) architectural distortion or focal asymmetry (15%). Most of the lesions showed a decrease in size at US and MX follow-up examination and the decrease was statistically significant (P < .01). When applied to the surgical residual cavity, ORC aids to control local hemorrhage and reduce the risk of postoperative infections, but can lead to alterations in surgical scar. Thus, knowledge of the radiological findings might allow avoidance of misdiagnosis of tumor recurrence or unnecessary diagnostic examinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose prevent adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qin; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Xuegang

    2016-01-01

    Postsurgical adhesion formation is the most common complication in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Adhesiolysis is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesion formation but is often followed by adhesion reformation. Therefore, an efficient strategy should be adopted to solve these problems. This study aimed to explore whether hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC) could prevent adhesion formation and reformation. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 each) and subjected to different treatments during the first and second surgery. The control group was treated with isotonic sodium chloride, the ORC group was treated with ORC (1.5×1 cm), and the medical sodium hyaluronate (MSH) group was treated with 1% MSH (0.5 mL). At 2 weeks after the first surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (1.90±0.99) and the ORC group (1.40±0.97) were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.00±0.82) (P=0.005). Similarly, 2 weeks after the second surgery, adhesion scores in the MSH group (2.00±0.82) and the ORC group (1.50±1.27) were significantly lower than those in the control group (3.50±0.53) (P=0.001). In addition, body weights in the MSH group and the ORC group did not change significantly, whereas the control group showed a consistent decrease in body weight during the experiment. Histological examination revealed that inflammatory infiltration was involved in both adhesion formation and reformation. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid and ORC were both efficient in reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat model. PMID:27822014

  8. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Ali, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration

  9. Prospective randomized controlled study on the validity and safety of an absorbable adhesion barrier (Interceed®) made of oxidized regenerated cellulose for laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Naito, Masanori; Ogura, Naoto; Yamanashi, Takahiro; Sato, Takeo; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Miura, Hirohisa; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Yasutoshi; Tanaka, Rieko; Kumagai, Yuji; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2017-02-01

    Clinical use of an adhesion barrier made of oxidized, regenerated cellulose, Interceed®, has been reported in the field of obstetrics and gynecology to help prevent adhesions between the peritoneum and the bowel in various types of operations. In gastrointestinal surgery, sodium hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose has been reported as an absorbable membrane to reduce postoperative adhesions. The present study was a prospective randomized controlled study to investigate the safety and usefulness of Interceed in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. We analyzed 99 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery from 2013 to 2014. The patients were randomly allocated to the group that used Interceed (Interceed group) or the group that did not (Non-Interceed group). Fifty cases used Interceed, and 49 cases did not. The incidence of adverse events was 12.0% in the Interceed group and 16.3% in the Non-Interceed group (P = 0.58). There were no significant differences, and no adhesive bowel obstructions were observed in the Interceed group. We have shown that using Interceed in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is valid and technically safe. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. High Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Ali, Ola

    2013-05-01

    Regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes are extensively used in medical and pharmaceutical separation processes due to their biocompatibility, low fouling tendency and solvent resistant properties. They typically possess ultrafiltration and microfiltration separation characteristics, but recently, there have been attempts to widen their pool of applications in nanofiltration processes. In this work, a novel method for preparing high performance composite RC membranes was developed. These membranes reveal molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of less than 250 daltons, which possibly put them ahead of all commercial RC membranes and in competition with high performance nanofiltration membranes. The membranes were prepared by acidic hydrolysis of dip-coated trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC) films. TMSC, with a degree of silylation (DS) of 2.8, was prepared from microcrystalline cellulose by reaction with hexamethyldisilazane under the homogeneous conditions of LiCl/DMAC solvent system. Effects of parameters, such as coating solution concentration and drying rates, were investigated. It was concluded that higher TMSC concentrations as well as higher solvent evaporation rates favor better MWCOs, mainly due to increase in the selective layer thickness. Successful cross-linking of prepared membranes with glyoxal solutions, in the presence of boric acid as a catalyst, resulted in MWCOs less than 250 daltons. The suitability of this crosslinking reaction for large scale productions was already proven in the manufacturing of durable-press fabrics. For us, the inexpensive raw materials as well as the low reaction times and temperatures were of interest. Moreover, the non-toxic nature of glyoxal is a key advantage in medical and pharmaceutical applications. The membranes prepared in this work are strong candidates for separation of small organic solutes from organic solvents streams in pharmaceutical industries. Their hydrophilicity, compared to typical nanofiltration membranes, offer

  11. Chitosan Based Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Functionalized with Plasma and Ultrasound

    Urška Vrabič Brodnjak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The great potential of regenerated cellulose fibers, which offer excellent possibilities as a matrix for the design of bioactive materials, was the lead for our research. We focused on the surface modification of fibers to improve the sorption properties of regenerated cellulose and biocomposite regenerated cellulose/chitosan fibers, which are on the market. The purpose of our investigation was also the modification of regenerated cellulose fibers with the functionalization by chitosan as a means of obtaining similar properties to biocomposite regenerated cellulose/chitosan fibers on the market. Argon gas plasma was used for fiber surface activation and chitosan adsorption. Ultrasound was also used as a treatment procedure for the surface activation of regenerated cellulose fibers and treatment with chitosan. Analyses have shown that ultrasonic energy or plasma change the accessibility of free functional groups, structure and reactivity, especially in regenerated cellulose fibers. Changes that occurred in the morphology and in the structure of fibers were also reflected in their physical and chemical properties. Consequently, moisture content, sorption properties and water retention improved.

  12. Characterisation of cellulose films regenerated from acetone/water coagulants.

    Geng, Hongjuan; Yuan, Zaiwu; Fan, Qingrui; Dai, Xiaonan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua

    2014-02-15

    A precooled aqueous solution of 7 wt% NaOH/12 wt% urea was used to dissolve cellulose up to a concentration of 2 wt%, which was then coagulated in an acetone/water mixture to regenerate cellulose film. The volume ratio of acetone to water (φ) had a dominant influence on film dimensional stability, film-forming ability, micromorphology, and mechanical strength. The film regenerated at φ=2.0 showed excellent performance in both dimensional stability and film-forming ability. Compared to that from pure acetone, the cellulose film from the acetone/water mixture with φ=2.0 was more densely interwoven, since the cellulosic fibrils formed during regeneration had pores with smaller average diameter. The alkali capsulated in the film during film formation could be released at quite a slow rate into the surrounding aqueous solution. The regenerated cellulose film with adjustable structure and properties may have potential applications in drug release and ultra filtration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Aldehyde Crosslinked Kenaf Regenerated Cellulose Film

    Hatika Kaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Regenerated cellulose film with better mechanical properties was successfully produced by introducing aldehyde crosslinker during the regeneration process. The cellulose source material was derived from kenaf core powder and dissolved in LiOH/urea solvent at −13 °C to form a cellulose solution. The cellulose solution was cast and coagulated in a crosslinker bath at different percentages of glutaraldehyde (GA and glyoxal (GX to form a regenerated cellulose film. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectra, the hydroxyl group of the cellulose was reduced, reducing the percentage of swelling as the percentage of crosslinker was increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that the crystallinity index of the crosslinked film was decreased. The pore size of the films decreased as the percentage of crosslinker was increased, resulting in decreased film transparency. The pore volume and percentage of swelling in water of the films also increased with decreases in the pore size as the percentage of crosslinker was increased. The tensile strengths of the GA- and GX-crosslinked films increased by 20 and 15% with the addition of 20% of each crosslinker, respectively.

  14. CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY OXIDATIVE ENZYMES

    Maria Dimarogona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass has attracted intensive research interest for the production of economically viable biofuels. Here we present an overview of the recent findings on biocatalysts implicated in the oxidative cleavage of cellulose, including polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs or LPMOs which stands for lytic PMOs, cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs and members of carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33. PMOs, a novel class of enzymes previously termed GH61s, boost the efficiency of common cellulases resulting in increased hydrolysis yields while lowering the protein loading needed. They act on the crystalline part of cellulose by generating oxidized and non-oxidized chain ends. An external electron donor is required for boosting the activity of PMOs. We discuss recent findings concerning their mechanism of action and identify issues and questions to be addressed in the future.

  15. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings

    Hassan K. Sreenath; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented...

  16. Characteristics of regenerated nanocellulosic fibers from cellulose dissolution in aqueous solutions for wood fiber/polypropylene composites

    Sangyeob Lee; Hui Pan; Chung Y. Hse; Alfred R. Gunasekaran; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    The effects of aqueous solutions were evaluated on the properties of regenerated cellulosic nanofibers prepared from pure cellulose fibers in various formulations of aqueous solutions. Thermoplastic composites were prepared with reinforcement of the regenerated cellulosic nanofibers. The regenerated cellulosic fibers from cellulosic woody biomass were obtained from...

  17. Versatile High-Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes Prepared using Trimethylsilyl Cellulose as a Precursor

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-05-01

    Cellulose has emerged as an indispensable membrane material due to its abundant availability, low cost, fascinating physiochemical properties and environment benignancy. However, it is believed that the potential of this polymer is not fully explored yet due to its insolubility in the common organic solvents, encouraging the use of derivatization-regeneration method as a viable alternative to the direct dissolution in exotic or reactive solvents. In this work, we use trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), a highly soluble cellulose derivative, as a precursor for the fabrication of cellulose thin film composite membranes. TMSC is an attractive precursor to assemble thin cellulose films with good deposition behavior and film morphology; cumbersome solvents used in the one step cellulose processing are avoided. This derivative is prepared from cellulose by the known silylation reaction. The complete transformation of TMSC back into cellulose after the membrane formation is carried out by vapor-phase acid treatment, which is simple, scalable and reproducible. This process along with the initial TMSC concentration determines the membrane sieving characteristics. Unlike the typical regenerated cellulose membranes with meso- or macropores, membranes regenerated from TMSC display micropores suitable for the selective separation of nanomolecules in aqueous and organic solvent nanofiltration. The membranes introduced in this thesis represent the first polymeric membranes ever reported for highly selective separation of similarly sized small organic molecules based on charge and size differences with outstanding fluxes. Owing to its strong hydrophilic and amorphous character, the membranes also demonstrate excellent air-dehumidification performance as compared to previously reported thin film composite membranes. Moreover, the use of TMSC enables the creation of the previously unfeasible cellulose–polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and cellulose–polyethyleneimine (PEI) blend membranes

  18. Transparent and Printable Regenerated Kenaf Cellulose/PVA Film

    Hatika Kaco

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose was extracted from kenaf core powder by a series of bleaching processes and subsequently dissolved using an alkaline LiOH/urea solvent at low temperatures. The produced cellulose solution was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA with different ratios of cellulose/PVA and coagulated to produce regenerated transparent films. The films were then air dried to produce transparent film. The effects of PVA content on tensile index, transparency, pore size, and printability of the films were studied. A slight reduction of 7% on the tensile index of the film was observed when the content of PVA increased to 10%. Nevertheless, the addition of 10% of PVA increased the porosity of the regenerated cellulose/PVA film, while the transparency of the film increased by 10%. The films were color-printed using a laser printer and can be recycled, in which the printed ink can be removed easily from the films with higher amount of PVA content. In addition, the films can be reprinted repeatedly several times.

  19. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO 2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose-SnO 2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  20. Characterization of TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose

    Nascimento, Eligenes S.; Pereira, Andre L.S.; Lima, Helder L.; Barroso, Maria K. de A.; Barros, Matheus de O.; Morais, Joao P.S.; Borges, Maria de F.; Rosa, Morsyleide de F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose, as a preliminary research for further application in nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose (BC) was selectively oxidized at C-6 carbon by TEMPO radical. Oxidized bacterial cellulose (BCOX) was characterized by TGA, FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. BCOX suspension was stable at pH 7.0, presented a crystallinity index of 83%, in spite of 92% of BC, because of decrease in the free hydroxyl number. FTIR spectra showed characteristic BC bands and, in addition, band of carboxylic group, proving the oxidation. BCOX DTG showed, in addition to characteristic BC thermal events, a maximum degradation peak at 233 °C, related to sodium anhydro-glucuronate groups formed during the cellulose oxidation. Thus, BC can be TEMPO-oxidized without great loss in its structure and properties. (author)

  1. Bacterial Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration

    S. Saska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and to evaluate the biological properties of bacterial cellulose-hydroxyapatite (BC-HA nanocomposite membranes for bone regeneration. Nanocomposites were prepared from bacterial cellulose membranes sequentially incubated in solutions of CaCl2 followed by Na2HPO4. BC-HA membranes were evaluated in noncritical bone defects in rat tibiae at 1, 4, and 16 weeks. Thermogravimetric analyses showed that the amount of the mineral phase was 40%–50% of the total weight. Spectroscopy, electronic microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and X-ray diffraction showed formation of HA crystals on BC nanofibres. Low crystallinity HA crystals presented Ca/P a molar ratio of 1.5 (calcium-deficient HA, similar to physiological bone. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis showed bands assigned to phosphate and carbonate ions. In vivo tests showed no inflammatory reaction after 1 week. After 4 weeks, defects were observed to be completely filled in by new bone tissue. The BC-HA membranes were effective for bone regeneration.

  2. Optimization of Deacetylation Process for Regenerated Cellulose Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Xuezhong He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA hollow fibers were spun from a CA+ Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP/H2O dope solution and regenerated by deacetylation. The complete deacetylation time of 0.5 h was found at a high concentration (0.2 M NaOH ethanol (96% solution. The reaction rate of deacetylation with 0.5 M NaOH was faster in a 50% ethanol compared to a 96 vol.% ethanol. The hydrogen bond between CA and tertiary amide group of PVP was confirmed. The deacetylation parameters of NaOH concentration, reaction time, swelling time, and solution were investigated by orthogonal experimental design (OED method. The degree of cross-linking, the residual acetyl content, and the PVP content in the deacetylated membranes were determined by FTIR analysis. The conjoint analysis in the Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS software was used to analyze the OED results, and the importance of the deacetylation parameters was sorted as Solution > Swelling time > Reaction time > Concentration. The optimal deacetylation condition of 96 vol.% ethanol solution, swelling time 24 h, the concentration of NaOH (0.075 M, and the reaction time (2 h were identified. The regenerated cellulose hollow fibers under the optimal deacetylation condition can be further used as precursors for preparation of hollow fiber carbon membranes.

  3. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings.

    Sreenath, Hassan K; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented sausages, and other fungi, which were introduced to enable the curing process, produced small amounts of cellulases on RCC in both liquid and solid cultivations. During continued incubation for 15-60 days in solid substrate cultivation (SSC) on RCC support, the fungus Penicillium sp isolate BT-F-1 degraded the casings' dry weights by 15-50% and decreased their tensile strengths by ~75%. Similarly commercial cellulase(s) resulted in 20-50% degradation of RCC in 48 h. During incubation with Penicillium sp BT-F-1, the surface structure of RCC collapsed, resulting in loss of strength and stability of casings. The matrix of industrial RCC comprised 88-93% glucose polymer residues with 0.8-4% xylan impurities. Premature casing failure appeared to result from operating conditions in the manufacturing process that allowed xylan to build up in the extrusion bath. The sausage fungus Penicillium sp BT-F-1 produced xylanases to break down soft xylan pockets prior to slow cellulosic dissolution of RCC.

  4. Chemistry, Technology and Aplications of Oxidized Celluloses

    Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Suchý, P.; Masteikova, R.; Bajerová, M.; Gajdziok, J.; Milichovský, M.; Švorčík, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, C (2010), s. 205-245. ISBN 978-1-608-76-388-7 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : oxidation * cellulose * in-vitro Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php? products _id=14049

  5. Versatile High-Performance Regenerated Cellulose Membranes Prepared using Trimethylsilyl Cellulose as a Precursor

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-01-01

    (TMSC), a highly soluble cellulose derivative, as a precursor for the fabrication of cellulose thin film composite membranes. TMSC is an attractive precursor to assemble thin cellulose films with good deposition behavior and film morphology; cumbersome

  6. Preparation and characterization of regenerated cellulose membranes from natural cotton fiber

    Yanjuan CAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of organic solutions with different cellulose concentrations are prepared by dissolving natural cotton fibers in lithium chloride/dimethyl acetamide (LiCl/DMAC solvent system after the activation of cotton fibers. Under different coagulating bath, the regenerated cellulose membranes are formed in two kinds of coagulation baths, and two coating methods including high-speed spin technique (KW-4A spin coating machine and low-speed scraping (AFA-Ⅱ Film Applicator are selected in this paper. The macromolecular structure, mechanical properties, crystallinity, thermal stability and wetting property of the regenerated cellulose membrane are characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR,X-ray diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric analysis (TG and contacting angle tester. The effects of mass fraction, coagulation bath type, membrane forming process on the regenerated membrane properties are investigated. Experimental results show that the performance of regenerated cellulose membrane is relatively excellent under the condition of using the KW-4A high-speed spin method, water coagulation bath, and when mass fraction of cellulose is 3.5%. The crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose membrane changes a lot compared with natural cotton fibers. The variation trend of thermal stability is similar with that of cotton fiber. But thermal stability is reduced to some degree, while the wetting ability is improved obviously.

  7. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  8. Active packaging using regenerated cellulose and hydroxypropyl amylopectin for fresh food products

    As an alternate to non-sustainable plastic packaging, polymer blends were engineered using regenerated cellulose and a hydroxypropyl functionalized starch derivative. Initially, films were cast out of solution to determine optimum blend composition, and then components were reactively extruded to in...

  9. Development of regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube bionanocomposite films with ionic liquid.

    Soheilmoghaddam, Mohammad; Wahit, Mat Uzir

    2013-07-01

    In this study, novel nanocomposite films based on regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube (RC/HNT) have been prepared using an environmentally friendly ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) through a simple green method. The structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of the RC/HNT nanocomposites were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermal analysis and tensile strength measurements. The results obtained revealed interactions between the halloysite nanotubes and regenerated cellulose matrix. The thermal stability and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films, compared with pure regenerated cellulose film, were significantly improved When the halloysite nanotube (HNT) loading was only 2 wt.%, the 20% weight loss temperature (T20) increased 20°C. The Young's modulus increased from 1.8 to 4.1 GPa, while tensile strength increased from 35.30 to 60.50 MPa when 8 wt.% halloysite nanotube (HNT) was incorporated, interestingly without loss of ductility. The nanocomposite films exhibited improved oxygen barrier properties and water absorption resistance compared to regenerated cellulose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immobilization of collagen peptide on dialdehyde bacterial cellulose nanofibers via covalent bonds for tissue engineering and regeneration

    Wen XX

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoxiao Wen,1 Yudong Zheng,1 Jian Wu,2 Lu-Ning Wang,1 Zhenya Yuan,1 Jiang Peng,3 Haoye Meng3 1School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Soochow, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bacterial cellulose (BC is an alternative nanostructured biomaterial to be utilized for a wide range of biomedical applications. Because of its low bioactivity, which restricted its practical application, collagen and collagen hydrolysate were usually composited into BC. It is necessary to develop a new method to generate covalent bonds between collagen and cellulose to improve the immobilization of collagen on BC. This study describes a facile dialdehyde BC/collagen peptide nanocomposite. BC was oxidized into dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DBC by regioselective oxidation, and then composited with collagen peptide (Col-p via covalent bonds to form Schiff’s base type compounds, which was demonstrated by the results of microstructures, contact angle, Col-p content, and peptide-binding ratio. The peptide-binding ratio was further affected by the degree of oxidation, pH value, and zeta potential. In vitro desorption measurement of Col-p suggested a controlled release mechanism of the nanocomposite. Cell tests indicated that the prepared DBC/Col-p composite was bioactive and suitable for cell adhesion and attachment. This work demonstrates that the DBC/Col-p composite is a promising material for tissue engineering and regeneration. Keywords: bacterial cellulose, dialdehyde cellulose, collagen peptide, composite materials, cytoactivity 

  11. All-cellulose composites of regenerated cellulose fibres by surface selective dissolution

    Soykeabkaew, N.; Nishino, T.; Peijs, Ton

    2009-01-01

    All-cellulose composites of Lyocell and high modulus/strength cellulose fibres were successfully prepared using a surface selective dissolution method. The effect of immersion time of the fibres in the solvent during composite's preparation and the effect of the starting fibre's structure on their

  12. Autohydrolysis processing as an alternative to enhance cellulose solubility and preparation of its regenerated bio-based materials

    Gan, Sinyee, E-mail: gansinyee@hotmail.com; Zakaria, Sarani, E-mail: szakaria@ukm.edu.my; Chen, Ruey Shan; Chia, Chin Hua; Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedehmaryam

    2017-05-01

    Kenaf core pulp has been successfully autohydrolysed using an autoclave heated in oil bath at various reaction temperature at 100, 120 and 140 °C. Membranes, hydrogels and aerogels were then prepared from autohydrolysed kenaf in urea/alkaline medium by casting on the glass plate, by using epichlorohydrin (ECH) as cross-linker via stirring and freeze-drying method, respectively. The autohydrolysis process reduced the molecular weight of cellulose and enhanced cellulose solubility and viscosity. Structure and properties of the regenerated products were measured with Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer and swelling testing. As the autohydrolysis temperature increased, the porosity of cellulose membranes (as seen from the morphology) increased. The autohydrolysis process improved the swelling porperties and transparency of regenerated cellulose hydrogels. This finding is expected to be useful in reducing molecular weight of cellulose in order to produce regenerated bio-based cellulose materials. - Highlights: • Autohydrolysis temperature is negatively correlated to cellulose molecular weight. • Cellulose solubility and viscosity are improved after cellulose pretreatment. • Autohydrolysis improved the properties of regenerated cellulose materials.

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose dissolved in N-methyl morpholine oxide/water solutions.

    Ramakrishnan, S; Collier, J; Oyetunji, R; Stutts, B; Burnett, R

    2010-07-01

    In situ hydrolysis of cellulose (dissolving pulp) in N-methyl morpholine oxide (NMMO) solutions by commercially available Accellerase1000 is carried out. The yield of reducing sugars is followed as a function of time at three different temperatures and four different enzyme loadings to study the effect of system parameters on enzymatic hydrolysis. Initial results show that rates of hydrolysis of cellulose and yields of reducing sugars in the presence of NMMO-water is superior initially (ratio of initial reaction rates approximately 4) and comparable to that of regenerated cellulose (for times greater than 5h) when suspended in aqueous solutions. The usage of Accellerase1000 results predominantly in the formation of glucose with minimal amounts of cellobiose. This study proves the ability of cellulases to remain active in NMMO to carry out an in situ saccharification of cellulose thus eliminating the need to recover regenerated cellulose. Thus this work will form the basis for developing a continuous process for conversion of biomass to hydrogen, ethanol and other hydrocarbons. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved Properties of Coconut Shell Regenerated Cellulose Biocomposite Films using Butyl Methacrylate

    Farah Norain Hahary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Butyl methacrylate acid (BMA was used to enhance the properties of coconut shell (CS and regenerated cellulose (RC biocomposite films. The effects of coconut shell content and BMA on the tensile properties, crystallinity index (CrI, thermal properties, and morphology of biocomposite films were investigated. An increase in CS content, up to 3 wt.%, increased the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, but decreased the elongation at break. The CS-RC biocomposite films treated with BMA exhibited higher tensile strength and modulus of elasticity but lower elongation at break. The crystallinity index (CrI and thermal stability of CS-RC biocomposite films increased with increasing CS up to 3 wt.%. Treated CS biocomposite films had better thermal stability than untreated CS biocomposite films. The presence of BMA increased the crystallinity of CS regenerated cellulose biocomposite films. Enhancement of the interfacial interaction of CS-RC biocomposite films was revealed by morphological study.

  16. Construction of a Bacterial Cellulase Cocktail for Saccharification of Regenerated Cellulose and Pretreated Corn Stover

    Alei Geng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To apply bacterial cellulases for efficient saccharification of biomass, three Clostridium thermocellum cellulases and a Thermoanaerobacter brockii β-1,4-glucosidase were synthesized in Escherichia coli, and the proportions among them were optimized. When the activities of CelD, CBHA, CBH48Y, and CglT were set at 554, 0.91, 0.91, and 856 mU per assay, respectively, the percent conversion of regenerated cellulose (0.92 g/L reached 80.9% within 24 h at 60 °C without shaking. Meanwhile, the percent conversion of pretreated corn stover (0.62 g/L reached 70.1%. Gradually raising the loads of regenerated cellulose from 0.92 to 4.58 g/L resulted in a linear increase in glucose production from 870 to 3208 μg (R2=0.997, as well as a decrease in the percent conversion from 80.9% to 59.6%. These findings suggested that the cellulase cocktail is efficient in saccharification of regenerated cellulose, as well as pretreated corn stover, and has potential applications in the biofuels industry.

  17. Single-molecule study of oxidative enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose.

    Eibinger, Manuel; Sattelkow, Jürgen; Ganner, Thomas; Plank, Harald; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2017-10-12

    LPMO (lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase) represents a unique paradigm of cellulosic biomass degradation by an oxidative mechanism. Understanding the role of LPMO in deconstructing crystalline cellulose is fundamental to the enzyme's biological function and will help to specify the use of LPMO in biorefinery applications. Here we show with real-time atomic force microscopy that C1 and C4 oxidizing types of LPMO from Neurospora crassa (NcLPMO9F, NcLPMO9C) bind to nanocrystalline cellulose with high preference for the very same substrate surfaces that are also used by a processive cellulase (Trichoderma reesei CBH I) to move along during hydrolytic cellulose degradation. The bound LPMOs, however, are immobile during their adsorbed residence time ( ~ 1.0 min for NcLPMO9F) on cellulose. Treatment with LPMO resulted in fibrillation of crystalline cellulose and strongly ( ≥ 2-fold) enhanced the cellulase adsorption. It also increased enzyme turnover on the cellulose surface, thus boosting the hydrolytic conversion.Understanding the role of enzymes in biomass depolymerization is essential for the development of more efficient biorefineries. Here, the authors show by atomic force microscopy the real-time mechanism of cellulose deconstruction by lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases.

  18. Fabrication and investigation of a biocompatible microfilament with high mechanical performance based on regenerated bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose.

    Wu, Huan-Ling; Bremner, David H; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Jun-Zi; Li, He-Yu; Wu, Jian-Rong; Niu, Shi-Wei; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-10-01

    A high-strength regenerated bacterial cellulose (RBC)/bacterial cellulose (BC) microfilament of potential use as a biomaterial was successfully prepared via a wet spinning process. The BC not only consists of a 3-D network composed of nanofibers with a diameter of several hundred nanometers but also has a secondary structure consisting of highly oriented nanofibrils with a diameter ranging from a few nanometers to tens of nanometers which explains the reason for the high mechanical strength of BC. Furthermore, a strategy of partially dissolving BC was used and this greatly enhanced the mechanical performance of spun filament and a method called post-treatment was utilized to remove residual solvents from the RBC/BC filaments. A comparison of structure, properties, as well as cytocompatibility between BC nanofibers and RBC/BC microfilaments was achieved using morphology, mechanical properties, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay. The RBC/BC microfilament has a uniform groove structure with a diameter of 50-60μm and XRD indicated that the crystal form was transformed from cellulose Iα to cellulose III I and the degree of crystallinity of RBC/BC (33.22%) was much lower than the original BC (60.29%). The enzymatic hydrolysis assay proved that the RBC/BC material was more easily degraded than BC. ICP detection indicated that the residual amount of lithium was 0.07mg/g (w/w) and GC-MS analysis showed the residual amount of DMAc to be 8.51μg/g (w/w) demonstrating that the post-treatment process is necessary and effective for removal of residual materials from the RBC/BC microfilaments. Also, a cell viability assay demonstrated that after post-treatment the RBC/BC filaments had good cytocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spent oxide fuel regeneration by crystallization in molybdate melts

    Ustinov, O.A.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Yakunin, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to regenerate spent oxide fuel by its crystallization in molybdate melts. Paper presents the process procedures to regenerate spent fuel of both fast and thermal neutron reactors. One analyzes the advantages of the elaborated procedure [ru

  20. Electrocatalytic oxidation of cellulose at a gold electrode.

    Sugano, Yasuhito; Latonen, Rose-Marie; Akieh-Pirkanniemi, Marceline; Bobacka, Johan; Ivaska, Ari

    2014-08-01

    The electrochemical properties of cellulose dissolved in NaOH solution at a Au surface were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, FTIR spectroscopy, the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance technique, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The reaction products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The results imply that cellulose is irreversibly oxidized. Adsorption and desorption of hydroxide ions at the Au surface during potential cycling have an important catalytic role in the reaction (e.g., approach of cellulose to the electrode surface, electron transfer, adsorption/desorption of the reaction species at the electrode surface). Moreover, two types of cellulose derivatives were obtained as products. One is a water-soluble cellulose derivative in which some hydroxyl groups are oxidized to carboxylic groups. The other derivative is a water-insoluble hybrid material composed of cellulose and Au nanoparticles (≈4 nm). Furthermore, a reaction scheme of the electrocatalytic oxidation of cellulose at a gold electrode in a basic medium is proposed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose

    Zhang, Sizhao; Feng, Jian; Feng, Junzong; Jiang, Yonggang; Ding, Feng

    2018-05-01

    Although carbon aerogels derived from naturally occurring materials have been developed extensively, a reasonable synthetic approach using cellulose-resource remains unclear. Here, we report a strategy to prepare carbon aerogels originated from cellulose position-selectively oxidized by TEMPO-oxidized process. Contrary to non-TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived carbon aerogels (NCCA) with relative loose structure, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived carbon aerogels (TCCA) with tight fibrillar-continuous network are monitored, suggesting the importance of TEMPO-oxidized modification towards creating the architecture of subsequently produced carbon aerogels. TCCA endows a higher BET area despite owning slightly dense bulk density comparing with that of NCCA. The structural texture of TCCA could be maintained in a way in comparison to TEMPO-oxidized cellulose-derived aerogel, due to the integration and aggregation effect by losing the electric double layer repulsion via ionization of the surface carboxyl groups. FTIR and XPS analyses signify the evidence of non-functionalized carbon-skeleton network formation in terms of TCCA. Further, the mechanism concerning the creation of carbon aerogels is also established. These findings not only provide new insights into the production of carbon aerogels but also open up a new opportunity in the field of functional carbon materials.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of regenerated cellulose films obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Nor Amalini, A.; Melina Cheah, M. Y.; Wan Rosli, W. D.; Hayati, S.; Mohamad Haafiz, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Development of regenerated cellulose (RC) derived from underutilized cellulosic biomass has recently gained attention as potential petroleum-based polymer replacers. The objective of this current work is to evaluate the properties of RC films obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) through environmental process. The RC films were fabricated by using different amounts of OPEFB-MCC (4, 6 and 8 %) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) was used as green OPEFB-MCC dissolving medium. The resultant RC films were then characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical, thermal and morphological properties by using tensile test, differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. Increase in OPEFB-MCC amounts from 4 to 8 % enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break of RC by 101 and 78 %, respectively, indicating stronger and more flexible films were formed. It is interesting to note that the Tg (101-154 °C) and Tm(130-187 °C) were found shifted to higher temperature with higher proportions of OPEFB-MCC in RC films. Meanwhile, FTIR analysis showed no new peak presented in RC films, suggesting that BMIMCl is a non-derivatizing solvent to OPEFB-MCC. Conspicuous changes in the spectra of RC films compared to OPEFB-MCC at 3200-3600 cm-1, 1430 cm-1, 1162 cm-1, 1111 cm-1, 1020-1040 cm-1 and 896 cm-1 were associated with transformation of cellulose I to cellulose II structure or/and decrease in crystallinity occurred after regeneration process. SEM micrographs of the RC films revealed that higher OPEFB-MCC contents exhibited smoother and more homogeneous surfaces morphology. Overall, OPEFB-MCC exhibited good film forming ability for RC production and may offer potential application in various industries including food packaging, medical goods and electronic devices.

  3. Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube nanocomposite films prepared with an ionic liquid

    Soheilmoghaddam, Mohammad [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor (Malaysia); Wahit, Mat Uzir, E-mail: mat.uzir@cheme.utm.my [Center for Composites, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Mahmoudian, Shaya [Department of Textile Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanid, Nurbaiti Abdul [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor (Malaysia)

    2013-09-16

    Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube (RC/HNT) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) using solution casting method. The structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of RC/HNT nanocomposites were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cellulose II crystalline structure and well dispersed HNT in RC/HNT nanocomposite films. At 6 wt.% HNT film, tensile strength and Young's modulus of RC films improved by 55.3% and 100%, respectively. Moisture absorption by the nanocomposites in an environment with 75% constant relative humidity was reduced by the addition of HNT to the RC. The presence of HNT enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of RC. The significant reinforcing effects of HNTs demonstrated that there is a possible interface interaction between cellulose and HNT which yielded better thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films as compared to pure RC. - Highlights: • The RC/HNT nanocomposite films were prepared via ionic liquid, BMIMCl. • XRD diffraction patterns and FESEM revealed well dispersed HNT in cellulose matrix. • The nanocomposite films exhibited excellent mechanical properties. • Moisture absorption and diffusion coefficient of RC reduced by HNT incorporation. • Addition of HNT enhanced thermal stability and activation energy of the RC.

  4. Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube nanocomposite films prepared with an ionic liquid

    Soheilmoghaddam, Mohammad; Wahit, Mat Uzir; Mahmoudian, Shaya; Hanid, Nurbaiti Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube (RC/HNT) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) using solution casting method. The structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of RC/HNT nanocomposites were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cellulose II crystalline structure and well dispersed HNT in RC/HNT nanocomposite films. At 6 wt.% HNT film, tensile strength and Young's modulus of RC films improved by 55.3% and 100%, respectively. Moisture absorption by the nanocomposites in an environment with 75% constant relative humidity was reduced by the addition of HNT to the RC. The presence of HNT enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of RC. The significant reinforcing effects of HNTs demonstrated that there is a possible interface interaction between cellulose and HNT which yielded better thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films as compared to pure RC. - Highlights: • The RC/HNT nanocomposite films were prepared via ionic liquid, BMIMCl. • XRD diffraction patterns and FESEM revealed well dispersed HNT in cellulose matrix. • The nanocomposite films exhibited excellent mechanical properties. • Moisture absorption and diffusion coefficient of RC reduced by HNT incorporation. • Addition of HNT enhanced thermal stability and activation energy of the RC

  5. Regeneration of cello-oligomers via selective depolymerization of cellulose fibers derived from printed paper wastes.

    Voon, Lee Ken; Pang, Suh Cem; Chin, Suk Fun

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose extracted from printed paper wastes were selectively depolymerized under controlled conditions into cello-oligomers of controllable chain lengths via dissolution in an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl), and in the presence of an acid catalyst, Amberlyst 15DRY. The depolymerization process was optimized against reaction temperature, concentration of acid catalyst, and reaction time. Despite rapid initial depolymerization process, the rate of cellulose depolymerization slowed down gradually upon prolonged reaction time, with 75.0 wt% yield of regenerated cello-oligomers (mean Viscosimetric Degree of Polymerization value of 81) obtained after 40 min. The depolymerization of cellulose fibers at 80 °C appeared to proceed via a second-order kinetic reaction with respect to the catalyst concentration of 0.23 mmol H3O(+). As such, the cellulose depolymerization process could afford some degree of control on the degree of polymerization or chain lengths of cello-oligomers formed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of amino-functionalized regenerated cellulose membranes with high catalytic activity.

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Qian; Liang, Tao; Bai, Huiyu; Liu, Xiaoya

    2017-09-01

    The modification of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes was carried out by using silane coupling agents presenting primary and secondary amino-groups. The grafting of the amino groups onto the modified cellulose molecule was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. The crystallinity of the cellulose membranes (CM) decreased after chemical modification as indicated by the X-ray diffraction results. Moreover, a denser structure was observed at the surface and cross section of the modified membranes by SEM images. The contact angle measurements showed that the silane coupling treatment enhanced the hydrophobicity of the obtained materials. Then the catalytic properties of two types of modified membranes were studied in a batch process by evaluating their catalytic performance in a Knoevenagel condensation. The results indicated that the cellulose membrane grafted with many secondary amines exhibited a better catalytic activity compared to the one grafted only by primary amines. In addition, the compact structure of the modified membranes permitted their application in a pervaporation catalytic membrane reactor. Therefore, functional CM that prepared in this paper represented a promising material in the field of industrial catalysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell

    Cable, Thomas L.

    1995-04-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC

  8. Dietary cellulose has no effect on the regeneration of hemoglobin in growing rats with iron deficiency anemia

    M. Catani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of cellulose on intestinal iron absorption in rats during recovery from iron deficiency anemia. Twenty-one-day-old male Wistar-EPM rats were fed an iron-free ration for two weeks to induce anemia. At 5 weeks of age, the rats were divided into two groups (both groups receiving 35 mg of elemental iron per kg diet: cellulose group (N = 12, receiving a diet containing 100 g of cellulose/kg and control (N = 12, receiving a diet containing no cellulose. The fresh weight of the feces collected over a 3-day period between the 15th and 18th day of dietary treatment was 10.7 ± 3.5 g in the group receiving cellulose and 1.9 ± 1.2 g in the control group (P<0.001. Total food intake was higher in the cellulose group (343.4 ± 22.0 g than in the control (322.1 ± 13.1 g, P = 0.009 during the 3 weeks of dietary treatment. No significant difference was observed in weight gain (cellulose group = 132.8 ± 19.2, control = 128.0 ± 16.3 g, hemoglobin increment (cellulose group = 8.0 ± 0.8, control = 8.0 ± 1.0 g/dl, hemoglobin level (cellulose group = 12.3 ± 1.2, control = 12.1 ± 1.3 g/dl or in hepatic iron levels (cellulose group = 333.6 ± 112.4, control = 398.4 ± 168.0 µg/g dry tissue. We conclude that cellulose does not adversely affect the regeneration of hemoglobin, hepatic iron level or the growth of rats during recovery from iron deficiency anemia.

  9. Utilization of cotton waste for regenerated cellulose fibres: Influence of degree of polymerization on mechanical properties.

    De Silva, Rasike; Byrne, Nolene

    2017-10-15

    Cotton accounts for 30% of total fibre production worldwide with over 50% of cotton being used for apparel. In the process from cotton bud to finished textile product many steps are required, and significant cotton waste is generated. Typically only 30% of pre consumer cotton is recycled. Here we use cotton waste lint to produce regenerated cellulose fibres (RCF). We find the RCF from waste cotton lint had increased mechanical properties compared to RCF produced from wood pulp. We show that this is likely linked to the higher degree of polymerization (DP) of waste cotton lint. An ionic liquid is used to dissolve the cotton lint and the rheology of the spinning is measured. The properties of the RCF are characterized and compared to wood pulp RCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions

    Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

    2006-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

  11. Effects of Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase Oxidation on Cellulose Structure and Binding of Oxidized Cellulose Oligomers to Cellulases

    Vermaas, Josh V.; Crowley, Michael F.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Payne, Christina M.

    2015-05-21

    In nature, polysaccharide glycosidic bonds are cleaved by hydrolytic enzymes for a vast array of biological functions. Recently, a new class of enzymes that utilize an oxidative mechanism to cleave glycosidic linkages was discovered; these enzymes are called lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO). These oxidative enzymes are synergistic with cocktails of hydrolytic enzymes and are thought to act primarily on crystalline regions, in turn providing new sites of productive attachment and detachment for processive hydrolytic enzymes. In the case of cellulose, the homopolymer of ..beta..-1,4-d-glucose, enzymatic oxidation occurs at either the reducing end or the nonreducing end of glucose, depending on enzymatic specificity, and results in the generation of oxidized chemical substituents at polymer chain ends. LPMO oxidation of cellulose is thought to produce either a lactone at the reducing end of glucose that can spontaneously or enzymatically convert to aldonic acid or 4-keto-aldose at the nonreducing end that may further oxidize to a geminal diol. Here, we use molecular simulation to examine the effect of oxidation on the structure of crystalline cellulose. The simulations highlight variations in behaviors depending on the chemical identity of the oxidized species and its location within the cellulose fibril, as different oxidized species introduce steric effects that disrupt local crystallinity and in some cases reduce the work needed for polymer decrystallization. Reducing-end oxidations are easiest to decrystallize when located at the end of the fibril, whereas nonreducing end oxidations readily decrystallize from internal cleavage sites despite their lower solvent accessibility. The differential in decrystallization free energy suggests a molecular mechanism consistent with experimentally observed LPMO/cellobiohydrolase synergy. Additionally, the soluble oxidized cellobiose products released by hydrolytic cellulases may bind to the active sites of cellulases

  12. Thermally activated persulfate oxidation regeneration of NOM- and MTBE- spent granular activated carbon

    Chemical oxidation is a developing technology used to regenerate contaminant-spent GAC. Chemical regeneration of GAC represents a viable option to thermal regeneration methods that are energy intensive resulting in significant consumption of fossil fuels and production of greenho...

  13. The Feasibility Study of Persulfate Oxidation to Regenerating of Spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Chemical oxidation is a developing technology used to regenerate contaminant-spent GAC. Chemical regeneration of GAC represents a viable option to thermal regeneration methods that are energy intensive resulting in significant consumption of fossil fuels and production of greenho...

  14. Two-Sided Surface Oxidized Cellulose Membranes Modified with PEI: Preparation, Characterization and Application for Dyes Removal

    Wei Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Porous regenerated cellulose (RC membranes were prepared with cotton linter pulp as a raw material. These membranes were first oxidized on both sides by a modified (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yloxyl (TEMPO oxidation system using a controlled oxidation reaction technique. Then, the oxidized RC membranes were functionalized with polyethylenimine (PEI via the glutaraldehyde crosslinking method to obtain bifunctional (carboxyl and amino porous RC membranes, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, elemental analysis and zeta potential measurement. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the tests of the mechanical properties and permeability characteristics of modified RC membranes demonstrated that the porous structure and certain mechanical properties could be retained. The adsorption performance of the modified membranes towards dyes was subsequently investigated. The modified membranes displayed good adsorption capacities, rapid adsorption equilibrium and removal efficiencies towards both anionic (xylenol orange (XO and cationic (methylene blue (MB dyes, making them suitable bioadsorbents for wastewater treatment.

  15. Comparison between Cellulose Nanocrystal and Cellulose Nanofibril Reinforced Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofibers and Their Novel Shish-Kebab-Like Crystalline Structures

    Xuezhu Xu; Haoran Wang; Long Jiang; Xinnan Wang; Scott A. Payne; J.Y. Zhu; Ruipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofiber mats were produced by electrospinning. Biobased cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as reinforcement nanofillers were also added to the polymer to produce composite nanofiber mats. The effects of the two cellulose nanofillers on the rheological properties of the PEO solutions and the microstructure,...

  16. Ultra-high mechanical properties of porous composites based on regenerated cellulose and cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol).

    Teng, Jian; Yang, Biao; Zhang, Liang-Qing; Lin, Sheng-Qiang; Xu, Ling; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Tang, Jian-Hua; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The ultra-high mechanical, biocompatible and biodegradable porous regenerated cellulose/poly(ethylene glycol) (RC/PEG) composites with double network structure were fabricated via an simple method to dissolve cellulose followed by UV irradiation. The porous structure of RC/PEG was sensitively altered by PEG contents, which led to the porous structure morphology transition from 3D fibrillar network to close-grained sheet-like-network with the loading of cross-linked PEG. The porous RC/PEG showed excellent mechanical properties, i.e., the compressive strength can reach 33 times higher than that of neat RC (0.07MPa) at the compressive strain of 30%. Porous RC/PEG also displayed outstanding properties with openly porous structure and structural stabilization. Besides, porous RC/PEG exhibited good water absorbency, which the water absorbency ratio at equilibrium state was 83% higher than that of porous RC. This work provides an environmentally friendly and simple pathway to prepare non-toxic and biocompatible porous regenerated cellulose-based composites with high strength, structural stabilization and good water absorbency, which could be useful for packaging, biomedical applications, sewage purification, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and properties of regenerated cellulose-based hydrogels with high strength and transparency for potential use as an ocular bandage

    Patchan, M.; Graham, J.L.; Xia, Z.; Maranchi, J.P.; McCally, R.; Schein, O.; Elisseeff, J.H.; Trexler, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is a biologically derived material with excellent wound-healing properties. The high strength of cellulose fibers and the ability to synthesize gels with high optical transparency make these materials suitable for ocular applications. In this study, cellulose materials derived from wood pulp, cotton, and bacterial sources were dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide to form regenerated cellulose hydrogels. Material properties of the resulting hydrogels, including water content, optical transparency, and tensile and tear strengths, were evaluated. Synthesis parameters, including activation time, dissolution time, relative humidity, and cellulose concentration, were found to impact the material properties of the resulting hydrogels. Overnight activation time improves the optical transparency of the hydrogels from 77% to 97% at 550 nm, whereas controlling cellulose concentration improves their tear strength by as much as 200%. On the basis of the measured transmittance and strength values of the regenerated hydrogels prepared via the optimized synthesis parameters, Avicel PH 101, Sigma-Aldrich microcrystalline cellulose 435236, and bacterial cellulose types were prioritized for future biocompatibility testing and potential clinical investigation. - Highlights: • Hydrogels were prepared (via LiCl/DMAc) from 7 different types of cellulose. • Synthesis parameters (activation, gelation, and concentration) were optimized. • Impact of synthesis parameters on transparency and strength was explored

  18. Synthesis and properties of regenerated cellulose-based hydrogels with high strength and transparency for potential use as an ocular bandage

    Patchan, M. [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Graham, J.L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue/Ross 720, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Xia, Z.; Maranchi, J.P. [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); McCally, R. [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Schein, O. [Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Elisseeff, J.H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue/Ross 720, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Trexler, M.M., E-mail: morgana.trexler@jhuapl.edu [Research and Exploratory Development Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cellulose is a biologically derived material with excellent wound-healing properties. The high strength of cellulose fibers and the ability to synthesize gels with high optical transparency make these materials suitable for ocular applications. In this study, cellulose materials derived from wood pulp, cotton, and bacterial sources were dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide to form regenerated cellulose hydrogels. Material properties of the resulting hydrogels, including water content, optical transparency, and tensile and tear strengths, were evaluated. Synthesis parameters, including activation time, dissolution time, relative humidity, and cellulose concentration, were found to impact the material properties of the resulting hydrogels. Overnight activation time improves the optical transparency of the hydrogels from 77% to 97% at 550 nm, whereas controlling cellulose concentration improves their tear strength by as much as 200%. On the basis of the measured transmittance and strength values of the regenerated hydrogels prepared via the optimized synthesis parameters, Avicel PH 101, Sigma-Aldrich microcrystalline cellulose 435236, and bacterial cellulose types were prioritized for future biocompatibility testing and potential clinical investigation. - Highlights: • Hydrogels were prepared (via LiCl/DMAc) from 7 different types of cellulose. • Synthesis parameters (activation, gelation, and concentration) were optimized. • Impact of synthesis parameters on transparency and strength was explored.

  19. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet for antimicrobial activity.

    Bhutiya, Priyank L; Mahajan, Mayur S; Abdul Rasheed, M; Pandey, Manoj; Zaheer Hasan, S; Misra, Nirendra

    2018-06-01

    Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes. Such deposited sheet has potential applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, water treatment and biotechnological industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellulose nanofibers/reduced graphene oxide flexible transparent conductive paper.

    Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Wu, Xue; Wang, Xi; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yunhua; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun

    2013-08-14

    The cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) paper exhibit high visible light transmittance, high mechanical strength, and excellent flexibility. Therefore, CNFs paper may be an excellent substrate material for flexible transparent electronic devices. In this paper, we endeavor to prepare CNFs-based flexible transparent conductive paper by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly using divalent copper ions (Cu(2+)) as the crosslinking agent. The thickness of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) active layer in the CNFs paper can be controlled by the cycle times of the LbL assembly. CNFs/[RGO]20 paper has the sheet resistances of ∼2.5 kΩ/□, and the transmittance of about 76% at a wavelength of 550 nm. Furthermore, CNFs/[RGO]20 paper inherits the excellent mechanical properties of CNFs paper, and the ultimate strength is about 136 MPa. CNFs-based flexible transparent conductive paper also exhibits excellent electrical stability and flexibility. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Characterization of TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose; Caracterizacao de celulose bacteriana tempo-oxidada

    Nascimento, Eligenes S.; Pereira, Andre L.S.; Lima, Helder L.; Barroso, Maria K. de A., E-mail: eligenessampaio@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Barros, Matheus de O. [Instituto Federal do Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Morais, Joao P.S. [Embrapa Algodao, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Borges, Maria de F.; Rosa, Morsyleide de F. [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose, as a preliminary research for further application in nanocomposites. Bacterial cellulose (BC) was selectively oxidized at C-6 carbon by TEMPO radical. Oxidized bacterial cellulose (BCOX) was characterized by TGA, FTIR, XRD, and zeta potential. BCOX suspension was stable at pH 7.0, presented a crystallinity index of 83%, in spite of 92% of BC, because of decrease in the free hydroxyl number. FTIR spectra showed characteristic BC bands and, in addition, band of carboxylic group, proving the oxidation. BCOX DTG showed, in addition to characteristic BC thermal events, a maximum degradation peak at 233 °C, related to sodium anhydro-glucuronate groups formed during the cellulose oxidation. Thus, BC can be TEMPO-oxidized without great loss in its structure and properties. (author)

  2. Radioactive intermediate products in the photolysis of the system [1-14C] tributyltin oxide cellulose

    Kloetzer, D.

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between matrix and applied biocide in the photochemical degradation of the system [1- 14 C] tributyltin oxide/cellulose have been investigated. The intermediate formation of [1- 14 C] tributylstannyl cellulose ethers was found to be the most important step. The photochemical preparation of bis [8- 14 C] tributylstannyl glucose ether is described. (author)

  3. Susceptibility of Iα- and Iβ-Dominated Cellulose to TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation.

    Carlsson, Daniel O; Lindh, Jonas; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert

    2015-05-11

    The susceptibility of Iα- and Iβ-dominated cellulose to TEMPO-mediated oxidation was studied in this work since the cellulose Iα-allomorph is generally considered to be thermodynamically less stable and therefore more reactive than the cellulose Iβ-allomorph. Highly crystalline Cladophora nanocellulose, which is dominated by the Iα-allomorph, was oxidized to various degrees with TEMPO oxidant via bulk electrolysis in the absence of co-oxidants. Further, the Cladophora nanocellulose was thermally annealed in glycerol to produce its Iβ-dominated form and then oxidized. The produced materials were subsequently studied using FTIR, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, XRD, and SEM. The solid-state analyses confirmed that the annealed Cladophora cellulose was successfully transformed from an Iα- to an Iβ-dominated form. The results of the analyses of pristine and annealed TEMPO-oxidized samples suggest that Iα- and Iβ-dominated cellulose do not differ in susceptibility to TEMPO-oxidation. This work hence suggests that cellulose from different sources are not expected to differ in susceptibility to the oxidation due to differences in allomorph composition.

  4. POLYPYRROLE COATED CELLULOSIC SUBSTRATE MODIFIED BY COPPER OXIDE AS ELECTRODE FOR NITRATE ELECTROREDUCTION

    A. HAMAM; D. OUKIL; A. DIB; H. HAMMACHE; L. MAKHLOUFI; B. SAIDANI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) films on nonconducting cellulosic substrate and modified by copper oxide particles for use in the nitrate electroreduction process. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is conducted by using FeCl3 as an oxidant and pyrrole as monomer. The thickness and topography of the different PPy films obtained were estimated using a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electr...

  5. Destruction of organic wastes by ammonium peroxydisulfate with electrolytic regeneration of the oxidant

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, J.F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.

    1997-01-01

    Research is reported concerning a new aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes. This process uses acidified ammonium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at 80- to 100 degrees C. The oxidant may be efficiently regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by-product at Pt anodes, even in the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants expected to be entrained in the cycle. Integral rate constants were determined for the oxidation of 25 diverse organic compounds at low (50 ppm) concentrations through fixed-time experiments with excess oxidant and a Pt wire catalyst. For high initial concentrations, uncatalyzed mineralization rates were measured for waste surrogates including kerosene, triethylamine, ion exchange resin, oxalic acid, trinitrotoluene, and cellulose. A packed bed reactor was tested with ethylene glycol, with offgas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Rate data extrapolate to throughputs of approximately 200 kg/m 3 -day. The process may benefit the destruction of highly toxic or specialized industrial wastes as well as the organic fraction of mixed wastes

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Resorbable Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Treated by Electron Beam Irradiation for Guided Bone Regeneration

    Sung-Jun An

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose (BC is an excellent biomaterial with many medical applications. In this study, resorbable BC membranes were prepared for guided bone regeneration (GBR using an irradiation technique for applications in the dental field. Electron beam irradiation (EI increases biodegradation by severing the glucose bonds of BC. BC membranes irradiated at 100 kGy or 300 kGy were used to determine optimal electron beam doses. Electron beam irradiated BC membranes (EI-BCMs were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, and using wet tensile strength measurements. In addition, in vitro cell studies were conducted in order to confirm the cytocompatibility of EI-BCMs. Cell viabilities of NIH3T3 cells on 100k and 300k EI-BCMs (100 kGy and 300 kGy irradiated BC membranes were significantly greater than on NI-BCMs after 3 and 7 days (p < 0.05. Bone regeneration by EI-BCMs and their biodegradabilities were also evaluated using in vivo rat calvarial defect models for 4 and 8 weeks. Histometric results showed 100k EI-BCMs exhibited significantly larger new bone area (NBA; % than 300k EI-BCMs at 8 weeks after implantation (p < 0.05. Mechanical, chemical, and biological analyses showed EI-BCMs effectively interacted with cells and promoted bone regeneration.

  7. Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide: influence of synthesis conditions on their morphological behavior and thermal stability

    Ma Mingguo; Zhu Jiefang; Li Shuming; Jia Ning; Sun Runcang

    2012-01-01

    Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method using cellulose solution and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O at 180 °C. The cellulose solution was obtained by the dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solution, which is a good system to dissolve cellulose and favors the synthesis of iron oxide without needing any template or other reagents. The phases, microstructure, and morphologies of nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS). The effects of the heating time, heating temperature, cellulose concentration, and ferric nitrate concentration on the morphological behavior of products were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the cellulose concentration played an important role in both the phase and shape of iron oxide in nanocomposites. Moreover, the nanocomposites synthesized by using different cellulose concentrations displayed different thermal stabilities. - Highlights: ► Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide have been prepared by hydrothermal method. ► The cellulose concentration played an important role in the phase of iron oxide. ► The cellulose concentration played an important role in the shape of iron oxide. ► The samples displayed different thermal stabilities.

  8. Adsorption of Xyloglucan onto Cellulose Surfaces of Different Morphologies: An Entropy-Driven Process.

    Benselfelt, Tobias; Cranston, Emily D; Ondaral, Sedat; Johansson, Erik; Brumer, Harry; Rutland, Mark W; Wågberg, Lars

    2016-09-12

    The temperature-dependence of xyloglucan (XG) adsorption onto smooth cellulose model films regenerated from N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) was investigated using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and it was found that the adsorbed amount increased with increasing temperature. This implies that the adsorption of XG to NMMO-regenerated cellulose is endothermic and supports the hypothesis that the adsorption of XG onto cellulose is an entropy-driven process. We suggest that XG adsorption is mainly driven by the release of water molecules from the highly hydrated cellulose surfaces and from the XG molecules, rather than through hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces as previously suggested. To test this hypothesis, the adsorption of XG onto cellulose was studied using cellulose films with different morphologies prepared from cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), semicrystalline NMMO-regenerated cellulose, and amorphous cellulose regenerated from lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide. The total amount of high molecular weight xyloglucan (XGHMW) adsorbed was studied by quartz crystal microbalance and reflectometry measurements, and it was found that the adsorption was greatest on the amorphous cellulose followed by the CNC and NMMO-regenerated cellulose films. There was a significant correlation between the cellulose dry film thickness and the adsorbed XG amount, indicating that XG penetrated into the films. There was also a correlation between the swelling of the films and the adsorbed amounts and conformation of XG, which further strengthened the conclusion that the water content and the subsequent release of the water upon adsorption are important components of the adsorption process.

  9. Environmentally friendly procedure for in-situ coating of regenerated cellulose fibres with silver nanoparticles.

    Pivec, Tanja; Hribernik, Silvo; Kolar, Mitja; Kleinschek, Karin Stana

    2017-05-01

    This study introduces a novel green in-situ procedure for introduction of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on and into cellulose fibres in a three-stage process. First-stage of the process includes the activation of cellulose fibres in alkaline solution, followed by reduction of silver nitrate to Ag NPs in the second stage, while the last stage of process involves washing and neutralization of fibres. Efficiency of the method towards incorporation of silver particles into the fibres' internal structure was characterized; the coatings' morphology and determination of spatial presence of Ag particles were imagining by the scanning electron microscopy and accompanying energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis; prepared fibres have superior durability of particles' coating against washing and excellent antimicrobial activity even after 20 washing cycles. Additionally, the water retention of silver treated fibres was improved, while the mechanical properties were not significantly impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regenerated cellulose micro-nano fiber matrices for transdermal drug release

    Liu, Yue; Nguyen, Andrew; Allen, Alicia; Zoldan, Janet; Huang, Yuxiang; Chen, Jonathan Y.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, biobased fibrous membranes with micro- and nano-fibers are fabricated for use as drug delivery carries because of their biocompatibility, eco-friendly approach, and potential for scale-up. The cellulose micro-/nano-fiber (CMF) matrices were prepared by electrospinning of pulp in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. A model drug, ibuprofen (IBU), was loaded on the CMF matrices by a simple immersing method. The amount of IBU loading was about 6% based on the weight of cellulose membrane. The IBU-loaded CMF matrices were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The test of ibuprofen release was carried out in an acetate buffer solution of pH 5.5 and examined by UV–Vis spectroscopy. Release profiles from the CMF matrices indicated that the drug release rate could be determined by a Fickian diffusion mechanism. - Highlights: • Cellulose micro-nano fiber matrix was prepared by dry-wet electrospinning. • Ibuprofen was loaded on the matrix by a simple immersing method. • The drug loaded matrix showed a biphasic release profile. • The drug release was determined by a Fickian diffusion mechanism.

  11. Regenerated cellulose micro-nano fiber matrices for transdermal drug release

    Liu, Yue [School of Human Ecology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Nguyen, Andrew; Allen, Alicia; Zoldan, Janet [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Huang, Yuxiang [School of Human Ecology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Chen, Jonathan Y., E-mail: jychen2@austin.utexas.edu [School of Human Ecology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In this work, biobased fibrous membranes with micro- and nano-fibers are fabricated for use as drug delivery carries because of their biocompatibility, eco-friendly approach, and potential for scale-up. The cellulose micro-/nano-fiber (CMF) matrices were prepared by electrospinning of pulp in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. A model drug, ibuprofen (IBU), was loaded on the CMF matrices by a simple immersing method. The amount of IBU loading was about 6% based on the weight of cellulose membrane. The IBU-loaded CMF matrices were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The test of ibuprofen release was carried out in an acetate buffer solution of pH 5.5 and examined by UV–Vis spectroscopy. Release profiles from the CMF matrices indicated that the drug release rate could be determined by a Fickian diffusion mechanism. - Highlights: • Cellulose micro-nano fiber matrix was prepared by dry-wet electrospinning. • Ibuprofen was loaded on the matrix by a simple immersing method. • The drug loaded matrix showed a biphasic release profile. • The drug release was determined by a Fickian diffusion mechanism.

  12. Persulfate Oxidation Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon: Reversible Impacts on Sorption Behavior

    Chemical oxidation regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) is a developing technology that can be carried out utilizing thermally-activated persulfate. During chemical regeneration of GAC, aggressive oxidative conditions lead to high acidity (pH < 2) and the accumulation ...

  13. Hybrid composite thin films composed of tin oxide nanoparticles and cellulose

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Nayak, Jyoti; Kim, Jaehwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of hybrid thin films consisting of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles and cellulose. SnO 2 nanoparticle loaded cellulose hybrid thin films were fabricated by a solution blending technique, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a dispersion agent. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed uniform dispersion of the SnO 2 nanoparticles in the cellulose matrix. Reduction in the crystalline melting transition temperature and tensile properties of cellulose was observed due to the SnO 2 nanoparticle loading. Potential application of these hybrid thin films as low cost, flexible and biodegradable humidity sensors is examined in terms of the change in electrical resistivity of the material exposed to a wide range of humidity as well as its response–recovery behavior. (paper)

  14. Lignocellulose pretreatment technologies affect the level of enzymatic cellulose oxidation by LPMO

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Ursula Fabiola; Cannella, David; de Campos Giordano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    of the cellulose oxidizing enzyme lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO). The highest activity of LPMO was observed for the hydrothermally pretreated biomasses, which also contained the highest level of lignin. All hydrolysis were done at high dry matter levels, using a commercial enzyme preparation containing......Sugarcane bagasse, corn stover, and wheat straw are among the most available resources for production of cellulosic ethanol. For these biomasses we study the influence of pre-treatment methods on the chemical composition, as well as on the subsequent reactions of enzymatic hydrolysis and oxidation...

  15. Gaining electricity from in situ oxidation of hydrogen produced by fermentative cellulose degradation.

    Niessen, J; Schröder, U; Harnisch, F; Scholz, F

    2005-01-01

    To exploit the fermentative hydrogen generation and direct hydrogen oxidation for the generation of electric current from the degradation of cellulose. Utilizing the metabolic activity of the mesophilic anaerobe Clostridium cellulolyticum and the thermophilic Clostridium thermocellum we show that electricity generation is possible from cellulose fermentation. The current generation is based on an in situ oxidation of microbially synthesized hydrogen at platinum-poly(tetrafluoroaniline) (Pt-PTFA) composite electrodes. Current densities of 130 mA l(-1) (with 3 g cellulose per litre medium) were achieved in poised potential experiments under batch and semi-batch conditions. The presented results show that electricity generation is possible by the in situ oxidation of hydrogen, product of the anaerobic degradation of cellulose by cellulolytic bacteria. For the first time, it is shown that an insoluble complex carbohydrate like cellulose can be used for electricity generation in a microbial fuel cell. The concept represents a first step to the utilization of macromolecular biomass components for microbial electricity generation.

  16. Regeneration

    George A. Schier; Wayne D. Shepperd; John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    There are basically two approaches to regenerating aspen stands-sexual reproduction using seed, or vegetative regeneration by root suckering. In the West, root suckering is the most practical method. The advantage of having an existing, well established root system capable of producing numerous root suckers easily outweighs natural or artificial reforestation in the...

  17. Iridescent cellulose nanocrystal/polyethylene oxide composite films with low coefficient of thermal expansion

    Jairo A. Diaz; Julia L. Braun; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous control over optical and thermal properties is particularly challenging and highly desired in fields like organic electronics. Here we incorporated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into polyethylene oxide (PEO) in an attempt to preserve the iridescent CNC optical reflection given by their chiral nematic organisation, while reducing the composite thermal...

  18. Application of NAD(P)H oxidase for cofactor regeneration in dehydrogenase catalyzed oxidations

    Rehn, Gustav; Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; Woodley, John

    2016-01-01

    alcohol dehydrogenases. However, their effective use requires an effective regeneration of the oxidized nicotinamide cofactor (NAD(P)+), which is critical for the economic feasibility of the process. NAD(P)H oxidase is an enzyme class of particular interest for this cofactor regeneration since it enables...

  19. In vitro evaluation of osteoblastic cells on bacterial cellulose modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as scaffold for bone regeneration

    Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel [Coordination for Innovation and Application of Science and Technology, Autonomous University San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper Research, University Guadalajara, 45110 Guadalajara (Mexico); Escobar-García, Diana María [Laboratory of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Autonomous University San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Escalante, Alfredo [Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper Research, University Guadalajara, 45110 Guadalajara (Mexico); Flores, Hector [Laboratory of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Autonomous University San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); González, Francisco Javier [Coordination for Innovation and Application of Science and Technology, Autonomous University San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Gatenholm, Paul [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Biopolymer Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Toriz, Guillermo, E-mail: gtoriz@dmcyp.cucei.udg.mx [Department of Wood, Cellulose and Paper Research, University Guadalajara, 45110 Guadalajara (Mexico); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Biopolymer Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we explore the use of native bacterial cellulose (BC) in combination with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as an original biomaterial, suitable three-dimensional (3D) scaffold for osteoblastic cell culture. Functionalized MWNTs were mixed with native BC (secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) with the aim of reinforcing the mechanical properties of BC. The results indicate that BC-MWNTs scaffolds support osteoblast viability, adhesion and proliferation at higher levels as compared to traditional culture substrates. Chemically functionalized MWNTs are also an excellent material to be used as scaffold because these did not affect cell viability and showed an enhanced osteoblast adhesion. These results suggest the potential for this combination of biomaterials, i.e. BC and carbon nanomaterials, as scaffolds for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups for reduces their toxicity against osteoblastic cells. • Use of native bacterial cellulose with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as scaffolds for tissue engineering. • Bacterial cellulose with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as scaffolds give an excellent option to be used in bone regeneration.

  20. In vitro evaluation of osteoblastic cells on bacterial cellulose modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as scaffold for bone regeneration

    Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel; Escobar-García, Diana María; Escalante, Alfredo; Flores, Hector; González, Francisco Javier; Gatenholm, Paul; Toriz, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of native bacterial cellulose (BC) in combination with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as an original biomaterial, suitable three-dimensional (3D) scaffold for osteoblastic cell culture. Functionalized MWNTs were mixed with native BC (secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) with the aim of reinforcing the mechanical properties of BC. The results indicate that BC-MWNTs scaffolds support osteoblast viability, adhesion and proliferation at higher levels as compared to traditional culture substrates. Chemically functionalized MWNTs are also an excellent material to be used as scaffold because these did not affect cell viability and showed an enhanced osteoblast adhesion. These results suggest the potential for this combination of biomaterials, i.e. BC and carbon nanomaterials, as scaffolds for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups for reduces their toxicity against osteoblastic cells. • Use of native bacterial cellulose with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as scaffolds for tissue engineering. • Bacterial cellulose with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as scaffolds give an excellent option to be used in bone regeneration.

  1. Surface grafting of cellulose nanocrystals with poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous media.

    Kloser, Elisabeth; Gray, Derek G

    2010-08-17

    Aqueous suspensions of poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted nanocrystalline cellulose (PEO-grafted NCC) were prepared in order to achieve steric instead of electrostatic stabilization. A two-step process was employed: in the first step NCC suspensions prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis were desulfated with sodium hydroxide, and in the second step the surfaces of the crystals were functionalized with epoxy-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO epoxide) under alkaline conditions. The PEO-grafted samples were analyzed by conductometric titration, ATR-IR, solid-state NMR, MALDI-TOF MS, SEC MALLS, and AFM. The covalent nature of the linkage was confirmed by weight increase and MALDI-TOF analysis. The PEO-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) formed a stable colloidal suspension that remained well dispersed, while the desulfated nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated. Upon concentration of the PEO-grafted aqueous NCC suspension, a chiral nematic phase was observed.

  2. Fabrication of transparent cellulose acetate/graphene oxide nanocomposite film for UV shielding

    Jahan, Nusrat; Khan, Wasi, E-mail: wasiamu@gmail.com; Azam, Ameer; Naqvi, A. H. [Department of Applied Physics, Z.H. College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh - 202002 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work, we have fabricated transparent cellulose acetate/graphene oxide nanocomposite (CAGONC) films for ultraviolet radiations (UVR) shielding. Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by modified Hummer’s method and CAGONC films were fabricated by solvent casting method. The films were analyzed using characterization techniques like x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) equipped scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ultra-violet visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. Four films were prepared by varying the wt% of GO (0.1wt%, 0.2wt% and 0.3wt%) with respect to cellulose acetate (CA). UV-vis measurements exhibit optical transparency in the range of 76-99% for visible light while ultra-violet radiation was substantially shielded.

  3. Grafting of model primary amine compounds to cellulose nanowhiskers through periodate oxidation

    Rajalaxmi Dash; Thomas Elder; Arthur Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrates regioselective oxidation of cellulose nanowhiskers using 2.80–10.02 mmols of sodium periodate per 5 g of whiskers followed by grafting with methyl and butyl amines through a Schiff base reaction to obtain their amine derivatives in 80–90 % yield. We found a corresponding increase in carbonyl content (0.06–0.14 mmols/g) of the dialdehyde...

  4. Use of micro-tomography for validation of method to identify interfacial shear strength from tensile tests of short regenerated cellulose fibre composites

    Hajlane, A.; Miettinen, A.; Madsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The interfacial shear strength of short regenerated cellulose fibre/polylactide composites was characterized by means of an industry-friendly adhesion test method. The interfacial shear strength was back-calculated from the experimental tensile stress-strain curves of composites by using a micro......-mechanical model. The parameters characterizing the microstructure of the composites, e.g. fibre length and orientation distributions, used as input in the model were obtained by micro-tomography. The investigation was carried out on composites with untreated and surface treated fibres with various fibre weight...

  5. One-Step Preparation of Graphene Oxide/Cellulose Nanofibril Hybrid Aerogel for Adsorptive Removal of Four Kinds of Antibiotics

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Via a one-step ultrasonication method, cellulose nanofibril/graphene oxide hybrid (GO-CNF aerogel was successfully prepared. The as-prepared GO-CNF possessed interconnected 3D network microstructure based on GO nanosheets grown along CNF through hydrogen bonds. The aerogel exhibited superior adsorption capacity toward four kinds of antibiotics. The removal percentages (R% of these antibiotics were 81.5%, 79.5%, 79.1%, and 73.9% for Doxycycline (DXC, Chlortetracycline (CTC, Oxytetracycline (OTC, and tetracycline (TC, respectively. Simultaneously, the adsorption isotherms were well fitted to Langmuir model and kinetics study implied that the adsorption process was attributed to pseudo-second-order model. The maximum theoretical adsorption capacities of GO-CNF were 469.7, 396.5, 386.5, and 343.8 mg·g−1 for DXC, CTC, OTC, and TC, respectively, calculated by the Langmuir isotherm models. After five cycles, importantly, the regenerated aerogels still could be used with little degradation of adsorption property. Consequently, the as-synthesized GO-CNF was a successful application of effective removal of antibiotics.

  6. Influence of the type of cellulosic derivatives on the texture, and oxidative and thermal stability of soybean oil oleogel

    Totosaus, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, R.; Fragoso, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use oleogels (defined as edible oils entrapped in a three-dimensional network employing a self-assembled structuring agent) has recently been proposed to replace saturated fat or trans-fats in foods. In this work the effects of different cellulose derivative mixtures (Avicel, ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose) on lipid stability, glass transition temperature and the texture of soybean oil oleogels were determined by employing a mixture design approach. Avicel affected lipid stability, increasing the oxidative rancidity and peroxide values of oleogels. Oleogels with higher proportions of Avicel also presented higher transition temperatures. A higher percent of ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose in the oleogel mixture resulted in a more stable system with lower oil rancidity and lower glass transition temperatures. In addition, Avicel resulted in a softer and less tacky texture, an important characteristic to consider for food applications. [es

  7. Oxidative cleavage and hydrolytic boosting of cellulose in soybean spent flakes by Trichoderma reesei Cel61A lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase.

    Pierce, Brian C; Agger, Jane Wittrup; Wichmann, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S

    2017-03-01

    The auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9) copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) from Trichoderma reesei (EG4; TrCel61A) was investigated for its ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides from soybean. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was assessed against a variety of substrates, including both soy spent flake, a by-product of the soy food industry, and soy spent flake pretreated with sodium hydroxide. Products from enzymatic treatments were analyzed using mass spectrometry and high performance anion exchange chromatography. We demonstrate that TrCel61A is capable of oxidizing cellulose from both pretreated soy spent flake and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, oxidizing at both the C1 and C4 positions. In addition, we show that the oxidative activity of TrCel61A displays a synergistic effect capable of boosting endoglucanase activity, and thereby substrate depolymerization of soy cellulose, by 27%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    Luo, Honglin; Xiong, Guangyao; Hu, Da; Ren, Kaijing; Yao, Fanglian; Zhu, Yong; Gao, Chuan; Wan, Yizao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of active groups on the surface of bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers is one of the promising routes of tailoring the performance of BC scaffolds for tissue engineering. This paper reported the introduction of aldehyde groups to BC nanofibers by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation and evaluation of the potential of the TEMPO-oxidized BC as tissue engineering scaffolds. Periodate oxidation was also conducted for comparison. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out to determine the existence of aldehyde groups on BC nanofibers and the crystallinity. In addition, properties relevant to scaffold applications such as morphology, fiber diameter, mechanical properties, and in vitro degradation were characterized. The results indicated that periodate oxidation could introduce free aldehyde to BC nanofibers and the free aldehyde groups on the TEMPO-oxidized BC tended to transfer to acetal groups. It was also found that the advantageous 3D structure of BC scaffolds remained unchanged and that no significant changes in morphology, fiber diameter, tensile structure and in vitro degradation were found after TEMPO-mediated oxidation while significant differences were observed upon periodate oxidation. The present study revealed that TEMPO-oxidation could impart BC scaffolds with new functions while did not degrade their intrinsic advantages. - Highlights: • TEMPO-mediated oxidation on BC scaffold for tissue engineering use was conducted. • TEMPO-mediated oxidation did not degrade the intrinsic advantages of BC scaffold. • TEMPO-mediated oxidation could impart BC scaffold with new functional groups. • Feasibility of TEMPO-oxidized BC as tissue engineering scaffold was confirmed

  9. Polypyrrole Coated Cellulosic Substrate Modified by Copper Oxide as Electrode for Nitrate Electroreduction

    Hamam, A.; Oukil, D.; Dib, A.; Hammache, H.; Makhloufi, L.; Saidani, B.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work is to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) films on nonconducting cellulosic substrate and modified by copper oxide particles for use in the nitrate electroreduction process. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is conducted by using FeCl3 as an oxidant and pyrrole as monomer. The thickness and topography of the different PPy films obtained were estimated using a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electrodes was tested by voltamperometry technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Secondly, the modification of the PPy film surface by incorporation of copper oxide particles is conducted by applying a galvanostatic procedure from a CuCl2 solution. The SEM, EDX and XRD analysis showed the presence of CuO particles in the polymer films with dimensions less than 50 nm. From cyclic voltamperometry experiments, the composite activity for the nitrate electroreduction reaction was evaluated and the peak of nitrate reduction is found to vary linearly with initial nitrate concentration.

  10. Wet oxidative degradation of cellulosic wastes 5- chemical and thermal properties of the final waste forms

    Eskander, S.B.; Saleh, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the residual solution arising from the wet oxidative degradation of solid organic cellulosic materials, as one of the component of radioactive solid wastes, using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Were incorporated into ordinary Portland cement matrix. Leaching as well as thermal characterizations of the final solidified waste forms were evaluated to meet the final disposal requirements. Factors, such as the amount of the residual solution incorporated, types of leachant. Release of different radionuclides and freezing-thaw treatment, that may affect the leaching characterization. Were studied systematically from the data obtained, it was found that the final solid waste from containing 35% residual solution in tap water is higher than that in ground water or sea water. Based on the data obtained from thermal analysis, it could be concluded that incorporating the residual solution form the wet oxidative degradation of cellulosic materials has no negative effect on the hydration of cement materials and consequently on the thermal stability of the final solid waste from during the disposal process

  11. Obtaining and Application of New Cellulose- and Graphene Oxide-Based Adsorbents for Treatment of Industrial Waste Containing Heavy Metals

    Beata Fryczkowska

    2017-11-01

    The studies show that doping of cellulose with graphene oxide clearly affects the physical properties of this biopolymer. GO improves the water absorption of CEL/GO composite cellulose granules only in the concentration above 0.05% w/w. For a concentration of 0.1% w/w of GO in cellulose, water absorption is increased by ~108% compared to pure cellulose granules. In addition, the use of dry and wet granules in the study changes their sorption properties with respect to all tested substances. Studies on test solutions have shown that the sorption of cellulose granules decreases with increasing molar mass of test compounds, in the following order: FeCl3, methylene blue (MB and bovine albumin (BSA. This means that the cellulose granules obtained in the experiment are made up of small micropores, which makes the diffusion of compounds of high molecular weight difficult. The best sorption results were obtained for ferric ions and amounted to 66-72% for FeCl3 solution, and ~92% for the wastewater that was sorbed on pure cellulose granules.

  12. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  13. Transparent and flexible cellulose nanocrystal/reduced graphene oxide film for proximity sensing.

    Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Kafy, Abdullahil; Zhai, Lindong; Ko, Hyun-U; Mun, Seongcheol; Kim, Jaehwan

    2015-02-25

    The rapid development of touch screens as well as photoelectric sensors has stimulated the fabrication of reliable, convenient, and human-friendly devices. Other than sensors that detect physical touch or are based on pressure sensing, proximity sensors offer controlled sensibility without physical contact. In this work we present a transparent and eco-friendly sensor made through layer-by-layer spraying of modified graphene oxide filled cellulose nanocrystals on lithographic patterns of interdigitated electrodes on polymer substrates, which help to realize the precise location of approaching objects. Stable and reproducible signals generated by keeping the finger in close proximity to the sensor can be controlled by humidity, temperature, and the distance and number of sprayed layers. The chemical modification and reduction of the graphene oxide/cellulose crystal composite and its excellent nanostructure enable the development of proximity sensors with faster response and higher sensitivity, the integration of which resolves nearly all of the technological issues imposed on optoelectronic sensing devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. In-Situ Regeneration of Saturated Granular Activated Carbon by an Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) can remove trace organic pollutants and natural organic matter (NOM) from industrial and municipal waters. This paper evaluates an iron nanocatalyst approach, based on Fenton-like oxidation reactions, to regenerate spent GAC within a packed bed con...

  15. Photocatalytic self-cleaning properties of cellulosic fibers modified by nano-sized zinc oxide

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah, E-mail: a.f.shojaie@guilan.ac.ir; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-03-31

    Nano-sized zinc oxide was synthesized and deposited onto cellulosic fibers using the sol-gel process at ambient temperature. The prepared materials were characterized using several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction studies of the ZnO-coated fiber indicate formation of the hexagonal crystal phase which was satisfactory crystallized on the fiber surface. The electron micrographs show formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles within 10-15 nm in size which have been homogeneously dispersed on the fiber surface. The prepared materials show significant photocatalytic self-cleaning activity, which was monitored by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoactivity was studied upon measuring the photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish under UV-Vis irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the treated fabrics was fully maintained performing several cycles of photodegradation.

  16. Photocatalytic self-cleaning properties of cellulosic fibers modified by nano-sized zinc oxide

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali

    2011-01-01

    Nano-sized zinc oxide was synthesized and deposited onto cellulosic fibers using the sol-gel process at ambient temperature. The prepared materials were characterized using several techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. X-ray diffraction studies of the ZnO-coated fiber indicate formation of the hexagonal crystal phase which was satisfactory crystallized on the fiber surface. The electron micrographs show formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles within 10-15 nm in size which have been homogeneously dispersed on the fiber surface. The prepared materials show significant photocatalytic self-cleaning activity, which was monitored by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photoactivity was studied upon measuring the photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish under UV-Vis irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the treated fabrics was fully maintained performing several cycles of photodegradation.

  17. Removal of carbonaceous deposits from the surface of cobalt-molybdate catalyst via oxidative regeneration

    Yoshimura, Y.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-10-01

    The oxidative regeneration of cobalt-molybdate catalyst used during the hydrodeoxygenation of a phenol solution and for hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor. SO/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ were analysed as the major products. The surface area of the spent catalysts was the main factor influencing the initial rate of regeneration, i.e. the greater the surface area the higher the initial rate. A mechanism proposed includes 12 reactions which may play an important role in the overall burn-off of hydrotreatment catalysts. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Pt nanocatalysts supported on reduced graphene oxide for selective conversion of cellulose or cellobiose to sorbitol.

    Wang, Ding; Niu, Wenqi; Tan, Minghui; Wu, Mingbo; Zheng, Xuejun; Li, Yanpeng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2014-05-01

    Pt nanocatalysts loaded on reduced graphene oxide (Pt/RGO) were prepared by means of a convenient microwave-assisted reduction approach with ethylene glycol as reductant. The conversion of cellulose or cellobiose into sorbitol was used as an application reaction to investigate their catalytic performance. Various metal nanocatalysts loaded on RGO were compared and RGO-supported Pt exhibited the highest catalytic activity with 91.5 % of sorbitol yield from cellobiose. The catalytic performances of Pt nanocatalysts supported on different carbon materials or on silica support were also compared. The results showed that RGO was the best catalyst support, and the yield of sorbitol was as high as 91.5 % from cellobiose and 58.9 % from cellulose, respectively. The improvement of catalytic activity was attributed to the appropriate Pt particle size and hydrogen spillover effect of Pt/RGO catalyst. Interestingly, the size and dispersion of supported Pt particles could be easily regulated by convenient adjustment of the microwave heating temperature. The catalytic performance was found to initially increase and then decrease with increasing particle size. The optimum Pt particle size was 3.6 nm. These findings may offer useful guidelines for designing novel catalysts with beneficial catalytic performance for biomass conversion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Enhanced mechanical properties of hydrothermal carbamated cellulose nanocomposite film reinforced with graphene oxide.

    Gan, Sinyee; Zakaria, Sarani; Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah

    2017-09-15

    Cellulose carbamate (CC) was synthesized via hydrothermal process and mixed with graphene oxide (GO) to form a homogeneous cellulose matrix nanocomposite films. The properties of CC/GO nanocomposite films fabricated using simple solution-mixing method with different GO loadings were studied. Transmission electron microscope analysis showed the exfoliation of self-synthesized GO nanosheets within the CC matrix. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the crystalline structure of CC/GO films as the CC/GO mass ratio increased from 100/0 to 100/4. The mechanical properties of CC/GO film were significantly improved as compared to neat CC film. From thermogravimetric analysis result, the introduction of GO enhanced the thermal stability and carbon yields. The 3D homogeneous porous structures of the CC/GO films were observed under Field emission scanning electron microscope. These improvements in nanocomposite film properties could be confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy due to the strong and good interactions between CC and GO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Zhenqiang Ma; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4 poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors...

  1. Metallic oxide reduction in molten chlorides: electrochemical solvent regeneration

    Martin, A.

    2005-11-01

    We consider the reaction MeO 2 + 2 Ca → Me + 2 CaO in CaCl 2 at 850 C. We want to re-use the molten media, which is a CaO-CaCl 2 melt at the end of the reaction. For that we want to de-oxidize it. When we electrolyse CaO we obtain Ca and O 2 ; it presents three difficult points that we want to solve: (1) it is difficult to oxidize O 2 - without oxidizing Cl - because their oxidation potential are very closed, (2) the chemical or electrochemical anodic corrosion, (3) the anodically produced gas dissolution in the mell One way of avoiding chlorine gas evolution is to prevent chloride ions from reaching the anode, for example using a selective membrane. Furthermore, the best prevention of the anodically produced gas dissolution in the melt can be done with a compartment, physically separating the anode from the rest of the reactional media. Thus in this work we have used an yttria stabilized zirconia membrane as a selective membrane for the deoxidation of a CaO-CaCl 2 melt at 850 C. (author)

  2. UV-activated persulfate oxidation and regeneration of NOM-Saturated granular activated carbon.

    An, Dong; Westerhoff, Paul; Zheng, Mengxin; Wu, Mengyuan; Yang, Yu; Chiu, Chao-An

    2015-04-15

    A new method of ultraviolet light (UV) activated persulfate (PS) oxidation was investigated to regenerate granular activated carbon (GAC) in drinking water applications. The improvements in iodine and methylene blue numbers measured in the GAC after ultraviolet- (UV) activated persulfate suggested that the GAC preloaded with natural organic matter (NOM) was chemically regenerated. An experimental matrix for UV-activated persulfate regeneration included a range of persulfate doses and different UV wavelengths. Over 87% of the initial iodine number for GAC was restored under the optimum conditions, perfulfate dosage 60 g/L and UV exposure 1.75 × 10(4) mJ/cm(2). The persulfate dosages had little effect on the recovery of the methylene blue number, which was approximately 65%. Persulfate activation at 185 nm was superior to activation at 254 nm. UV activation of persulfate in the presence of GAC produced acid, lowering the solution pH. Higher persulfate concentrations and UV exposure resulted in greater GAC regeneration. Typical organic and inorganic byproducts (e.g., benzene compounds and sulfate ions) were measured as a component of treated water quality safety. This study provides a proof-of-concept that can be used to optimize pilot-scale and full-scale UV-activated persulfate for regeneration of NOM-saturated GAC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    Nurhadini,, E-mail: nur-chem@yahoo.co.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institiut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  4. Reductive mineralization of cellulose with vanadium, iron and tungsten chlorides and access to MxOy metal oxides and MxOy/C metal oxide/carbon composites.

    Henry, Aurélien; Hesemann, Peter; Alauzun, Johan G; Boury, Bruno

    2017-10-15

    M x O y and M x O y /C composites (M=V, Fe and W) were obtained by mineralization of cellulose with several metal chlorides. Cellulose was used both as a templating agent and as an oxygen and a carbon source. Soluble chloride molecules (VOCl 3 and WCl 6 ) and a poorly soluble ionic chloride compound (FeCl 3 ) were chosen as metal oxide precursors. In a first time, primary metal oxide/cellulose composites were obtained via a thermal treatment by reacting urea impregnated filter paper with the corresponding metal chlorides in an autoclave at 150°C after 3days. After either pyrolysis or calcination steps of these intermediate materials, interesting metal oxides with various morphologies were obtained (V 2 O 5, V 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , WO 3, H 0.23 WO 3 ), composites (V 2 O 3 /C) as well as carbides (hexagonal W 2 C and WC, Fe 3 C) This result highlight the reductive role that can play cellulose during the pyrolysis step that allows to tune the composition of M x O y /C composites. The materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, TGA, XRD and SEM. This study highlights that cellulose can be used for a convenient preparation of a variety of highly demanded M x O y and M x O y /C composites with original shapes and morphologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic changes of carbon isotope apparent fractionation factor to describe transition to syntrophic acetate oxidation during cellulose and acetate methanization.

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V

    2017-05-01

    To identify predominant metabolic pathway for cellulose methanization new equations that take into account dynamics of 13C are added to the basic model of cellulose methanization. The correct stoichiometry of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps including biomass is considered. Using experimental data by Laukenmann et al. [Identification of methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters using stable carbon isotopes. Eng. Life Sci. 2010;10:1-6], who reported about the importance of ace`tate oxidation during mesophilic cellulose methanization, the model confirmed that, at high biomass concentration of acetate oxidizers, the carbon isotope fractionation factor amounts to about 1.085. The same model, suggested firstly for cellulose degradation, was used to describe, secondly, changes in, and in methane and carbon dioxide during mesophylic acetate methanization measured by Grossin-Debattista [Fractionnements isotopiques (13C/12C) engendres par la methanogenese: apports pour la comprehension des processus de biodegradation lors de la digestion anaerobie [doctoral thesis]. 2011. Bordeaux: Universite Bordeaux-1;2011. Available from: http://ori-oai.u-bordeaux1.fr/pdf/2011/GROSSIN-DEBATTISTA_JULIEN_2011.pdf . French].The model showed that under various ammonium concentrations, at dominating acetoclastic methanogenesis, the value decreases over time to a low level (1.016), while at dominating syntrophic acetate oxidation, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, slightly increases, reaching 1.060 at the end of incubation.

  6. Hyaluronic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose prevent adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qin; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Xuegang

    2016-01-01

    Yan Zhang, Qin Liu, Ning Yang, Xuegang Zhang Department of Gynecology, Kunshan Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Postsurgical adhesion formation is the most common complication in abdominal and pelvic surgery. Adhesiolysis is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesion formation but is often followed by adhesion reformation. Therefore, an efficient strategy should be adopted to solve these problems. This study ai...

  7. Global Kinetic Constants for Thermal Oxidative Degradation of a Cellulosic Paper

    Kashiwagi, Takashi; Nambu, Hidesaburo

    1992-01-01

    Values of global kinetic constants for pyrolysis, thermal oxidative degradation, and char oxidation of a cellulosic paper were determined by a derivative thermal gravimetric study. The study was conducted at heating rates of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, and 5 C/min in ambient atmospheres of nitrogen, 0.28, 1.08, 5.2 percent oxygen concentrations, and air. Sample weight loss rate, concentrations of CO, CO2, and H2O in the degradation products, and oxygen consumption were continuously measured during the experiment. Values of activation energy, preexponential factor, orders of reaction, and yields of CO, CO2, H2O, total hydrocarbons, and char for each degradation reaction were derived from the results. Heat of reaction for each reaction was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. A comparison of the calculated CO, CO2, H2O, total hydrocarbons, sample weight loss rate, and oxygen consumption was made with the measured results using the derived kinetic constants, and the accuracy of the values of kinetic constants was discussed.

  8. TEMPO-Oxidized Nanofibrillated Cellulose as a High Density Carrier for Bioactive Molecules.

    Weishaupt, Ramon; Siqueira, Gilberto; Schubert, Mark; Tingaut, Philippe; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Zimmermann, Tanja; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Faccio, Greta; Ihssen, Julian

    2015-11-09

    Controlled and efficient immobilization of specific biomolecules is a key technology to introduce new, favorable functions to materials suitable for biomedical applications. Here, we describe an innovative and efficient, two-step methodology for the stable immobilization of various biomolecules, including small peptides and enzymes onto TEMPO oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (TO-NFC). The introduction of carboxylate groups to NFC by TEMPO oxidation provided a high surface density of negative charges able to drive the adsorption of biomolecules and take part in covalent cross-linking reactions with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDAC) and glutaraldehyde (Ga) chemistry. Up to 0.27 μmol of different biomolecules per mg of TO-NFC could be reversibly immobilized by electrostatic interaction. An additional chemical cross-linking step prevented desorption of more than 80% of these molecules. Using the cysteine-protease papain as model, a highly active papain-TO-NFC conjugate was achieved. Once papain was immobilized, 40% of the initial enzymatic activity was retained, with an increase in kcat from 213 to >700 s(-1) for the covalently immobilized enzymes. The methodology presented in this work expands the range of application for TO-NFC in the biomedical field by enabling well-defined hybrid biomaterials with a high density of functionalization.

  9. Novel regeneration method for phosphate loaded granular ferric (hydr)oxide--a contribution to phosphorus recycling.

    Kunaschk, Marco; Schmalz, Viktor; Dietrich, Norman; Dittmar, Thomas; Worch, Eckhard

    2015-03-15

    At a progressive rate, small wastewater treatment plants in rural areas need to be equipped with an additional phosphorus removal stage in order to achieve a good chemical status in the receiving natural water bodies. A conventional regeneration method for ferric (hydr)oxides such as phosphate specific adsorbents, which can be applied to remove and recover phosphorus in fixed bed filters, was investigated and improved. It was shown that a loss of up to 85% of the initial capacity can be observed when regeneration with 1 M NaOH is implemented. The losses are caused by surface blocking with different calcium-containing compounds as revealed by an EDX analysis. These blocking compounds could be removed completely with an additional acidic regeneration step at pH = 2.5. During the alkaline desorption that followed, complete phosphorus removal and a full recovery of the adsorption capacity were achieved for goethite-rich Bayoxide(®) E 33 HC (E33HC) and akaganéite-rich GEH(®) 104 (GEH). The regeneration procedure was repeated up to eight times without any signs of further decline in the phosphate adsorption capacity or any changes in the specific surface area or pore size distribution of the adsorbent. In contrast to GEH and E33HC, ferric hydroxide- and calcite-rich FerroSorp(®) Plus (FSP) was partly dissolved during acid treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Porous stable poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by a combined method for bone regeneration.

    Mao, Daoyong; Li, Qing; Bai, Ningning; Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Daikun

    2018-01-15

    A major challenge in bone tissue engineering is the development of biomimetic scaffolds which should simultaneously meet mechanical strength and pore structure requirements. Herein, we combined technologies of high concentration solvent casting, particulate leaching, and room temperature compression molding to prepare a novel poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite (PLA/EC/HA) scaffold. The functional, structural and mechanical properties of the obtained porous scaffolds were characterized. The results indicated that the PLA/EC/HA scaffolds at the 20wt% HA loading level showed optimal mechanical properties and desired porous structure. Its porosity, contact angle, compressive yield strength and weight loss after 56days were 84.28±7.04%, 45.13±2.40°, 1.57±0.09MPa and 4.77±0.32%, respectively, which could satisfy the physiological demands to guide bone regeneration. Thus, the developed scaffolds have potential to be used as a bone substitute material for bone tissue engineering application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Benzoic acid fermentation from starch and cellulose via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway in Streptomyces maritimus

    Noda Shuhei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzoic acid is one of the most useful aromatic compounds. Despite its versatility and simple structure, benzoic acid production using microbes has not been reported previously. Streptomyces are aerobic, Gram-positive, mycelia-forming soil bacteria, and are known to produce various kinds of antibiotics composed of many aromatic residues. S. maritimus possess a complex amino acid modification pathway and can serve as a new platform microbe to produce aromatic building-block compounds. In this study, we carried out benzoate fermentation using S. maritimus. In order to enhance benzoate productivity using cellulose as the carbon source, we constructed endo-glucanase secreting S. maritimus. Results After 4 days of cultivation using glucose, cellobiose, or starch as a carbon source, the maximal level of benzoate reached 257, 337, and 460 mg/l, respectively. S. maritimus expressed β-glucosidase and high amylase-retaining activity compared to those of S. lividans and S. coelicolor. In addition, for effective benzoate production from cellulosic materials, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. This transformant efficiently degraded the phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC and then produced 125 mg/l benzoate. Conclusions Wild-type S. maritimus produce benzoate via a plant-like β-oxidation pathway and can assimilate various carbon sources for benzoate production. In order to encourage cellulose degradation and improve benzoate productivity from cellulose, we constructed endo-glucanase-secreting S. maritimus. Using this transformant, we also demonstrated the direct fermentation of benzoate from cellulose. To achieve further benzoate productivity, the L-phenylalanine availability needs to be improved in future.

  12. Metal adsorption of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl cellulose/polyethylene oxide blend films

    El-Naggar, Amal A.; Magida, M. M.; Ibrahim, Sayeda M.

    2016-03-01

    Blend films of different ratios of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) were prepared by the solution casting method. To investigate the effect of irradiation on all properties of prepared blend, it was exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy). Physical properties such as gel fraction (GF) (%) and swelling (SW) (%) were investigated. It was found that the GF (%) increases with increasing irradiation dose up to 20 kGy, while SW (%) decreases with an increase in the irradiation doses for all blend compositions. Moreover, the structural and mechanical properties of the prepared films were studied. The results of the mechanical properties obtained showed that there is an improvement in these properties with an increase in both CMC and irradiation dose up to 20 kGy. The efficiency of metal ions uptake was measured using a UV spectrophotometer. The prepared films showed good tendency to absorb and release metal ions from aqueous media. Thus, the CMC/PEO film can be used in agricultural domain.

  13. Green synthesis of hybrid graphene oxide/microcrystalline cellulose aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    Wei, Xiao; Huang, Ting; Yang, Jing-hui; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Zuo-wan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid GO/MCC aerogels were prepared using LiBr aqueous solution as the solvent. • GO was exfoliated by MCC through the strong interaction between them. • The adsorption ability of GO per unit mass in the hybrid aerogels was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: In this work, we developed a green synthesis method to prepare the hybrid aerogels containing graphene oxide (GO) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution as the solvent, which insured the complete dissolution of MCC. The interaction between GO and MCC was investigated through different methods The results demonstrate that there is a strong interaction between GO and MCC molecules, which promotes the exfoliation of GO in the hybrid aerogels. The hybrid GO/MCC aerogels exhibit typical three dimensional porous structure and the pore morphology can be well adjusted by changing the content of GO. The adsorption ability of the hybrid aerogels was measured using methylene blue (MB) as an adsorbate. The results show that the adsorption ability of GO per unit mass is greatly enhanced compared with the pure GO aerogel, especially at relatively low GO content the adsorption amount of GO per unit mass is enhanced up to 2630 mg/g. Further results demonstrate that the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels still obey the pseudo-second-order adsorption model, which is similar to that of the pure GO aerogel. The mechanism for the amplified adsorption ability of GO in the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels is then analyzed.

  14. Surface-modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane with hydroxyethyl celluloses as a matrix for bilirubin removal.

    Xue, Maoqiang; Ling, Yisheng; Wu, Guisen; Liu, Xin; Ge, Dongtao; Shi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Microporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were modified by 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to produce terminal epoxy groups. These were used to covalently link hydroxyethyl celluloses (HEC) to amplify reactive groups of AAO membrane. The hydroxyl groups of HEC-AAO composite membrane were further modified with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether to link arginine as an affinity ligand. The contents of HEC and arginine of arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membrane were 52.1 and 19.7mg/g membrane, respectively. As biomedical adsorbents, the arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membranes were tested for bilirubin removal. The non-specific bilirubin adsorption on the unmodified HEC-AAO composite membranes was 0.8mg/g membrane. Higher bilirubin adsorption values, up to 52.6mg/g membrane, were obtained with the arginine-immobilized HEC-AAO membranes. Elution of bilirubin showed desorption ratio was up to 85% using 0.3M NaSCN solution as the desorption agent. Comparisons equilibrium and dynamic capacities showed that dynamic capacities were lower than the equilibrium capacities. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of bilirubin and the effects of temperature, initial concentration of bilirubin, albumin concentration and ionic strength on adsorption were also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Green synthesis of hybrid graphene oxide/microcrystalline cellulose aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    Wei, Xiao; Huang, Ting; Yang, Jing-hui; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong, E-mail: yongwang1976@163.com; Zhou, Zuo-wan

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Hybrid GO/MCC aerogels were prepared using LiBr aqueous solution as the solvent. • GO was exfoliated by MCC through the strong interaction between them. • The adsorption ability of GO per unit mass in the hybrid aerogels was greatly enhanced. - Abstract: In this work, we developed a green synthesis method to prepare the hybrid aerogels containing graphene oxide (GO) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) using lithium bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution as the solvent, which insured the complete dissolution of MCC. The interaction between GO and MCC was investigated through different methods The results demonstrate that there is a strong interaction between GO and MCC molecules, which promotes the exfoliation of GO in the hybrid aerogels. The hybrid GO/MCC aerogels exhibit typical three dimensional porous structure and the pore morphology can be well adjusted by changing the content of GO. The adsorption ability of the hybrid aerogels was measured using methylene blue (MB) as an adsorbate. The results show that the adsorption ability of GO per unit mass is greatly enhanced compared with the pure GO aerogel, especially at relatively low GO content the adsorption amount of GO per unit mass is enhanced up to 2630 mg/g. Further results demonstrate that the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels still obey the pseudo-second-order adsorption model, which is similar to that of the pure GO aerogel. The mechanism for the amplified adsorption ability of GO in the hybrid GO/MCC aerogels is then analyzed.

  16. Physical and mechanical properties of hybrid montmorillonite/zinc oxide reinforced carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposites.

    Zahedi, Younes; Fathi-Achachlouei, Bahram; Yousefi, Ali Reza

    2018-03-01

    In this research, a novel carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based nanocomposite films containing sodium montmorillonite (MMT) (5%wt) and zinc oxide (ZnO) (1, 2, 3 and 4%wt) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated via casting method. The results revealed that addition of NPs decreased water vapor permeability of the films by about 53%, while moisture content, density and glass transition temperature increased. The nanomaterials enhanced resistance of the nanocomposites against tensile stress at the expense of elongation at break. Nano-ZnO was very effective than nanoclay in UV-light blocking (99% vs. 60%) associated with sacrificing the films transparency. Formation of hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of CMC and MMT was evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy. According to the XRD analysis, clay nanolayers formed an exfoliated structure in the nanocomposites, whereas ZnO NPs raised crystallinity. SEM micrographs showed well-dispersed MMT and ZnO NPs through the films surface. Antibacterial test showed that vulnerability of Gram-positive S. aureus toward ZnO NPs was more than that of Gram-negative E. Coli. In conclusion, simultaneous incorporation of MMT and ZnO NPs improved the functional characteristics of CMC film and extended the potential for food packaging applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    Westereng, Bjorge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2015-01-01

    cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds...

  18. High Dehumidification Performance of Amorphous Cellulose Composite Membranes prepared from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Puspasari, Tiara; Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Alharbi, Ohoud; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2018-01-01

    Cellulose is widely regarded as an environmentally friendly, natural and low cost material which can significantly contribute the sustainable economic growth. In this study, cellulose composite membranes were prepared via regeneration

  19. Reduced graphene oxide aerogel networks with soft interfacial template for applications in bone tissue regeneration

    Asha, S.; Ananth, A. Nimrodh; Jose, Sujin P.; Rajan, M. A. Jothi

    2018-05-01

    Reduced Graphene Oxide aerogels (A-RGO), functionalized with chitosan, were found to induce and/or accelerate the mineralization of hydroxyapatite. The functionalized chitosan acts as a soft interfacial template on the surface of A-RGO assisting the growth of hydroxyapatite particles. The mineralization on these soft aerogel networks was performed by soaking the aerogels in simulated body fluid, relative to time. Polymer-induced mineralization exhibited an ordered arrangement of hydroxyapatite particles on reduced graphene oxide aerogel networks with a higher crystalline index (IC) of 1.7, which mimics the natural bone formation indicating the importance of the polymeric interfacial template. These mineralized aerogels which mimic the structure and composition of natural bone exhibit relatively higher rate of cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and osteoid matrix formation proving it to be a potential scaffold for bone tissue regeneration.

  20. Effects of oxidized regenerated methylcellulose on lymphocyst formation and peritoneum in gynecologic cancer patients.

    Ayhan, Ali; Basaran, Ahmet; Güler, Tolga Omer

    2010-01-01

    The role of oxidized regenerated methylcellulose (ORC) in the lymphocyst formation after systematic lymphadenectomy. This was a retrospective case-control study. Patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent systematic lymphadenectomy from May 2000 to April 2006 were considered. Retroperitoneal "no closure" method was performed in all patients. Two groups were identified according to ORC use. The lymphocysts were evaluated via ultrasonography/computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging between the third and sixth months after surgery. The overall lymphocyst incidence was found to be 75 (29.8%) of 252, and lymphocyst incidence in the ORC and control groups was 45 (30%) of 150 and 30 (29.4%) of 102, respectively. The mean (SD) total number of extracted lymph nodes in the ORC group was 27.5 (10.6), which was significantly higher than that in the control group (22.1 [10.8]; P = 0.001). Duration of drain was significantly longer in the ORC group (P = 0.028). However, when confounding variables were included into the binary logistic regression analysis for the prediction of the duration of drains, only the stage of disease predicted the duration of drains. Use of ORC does not seem to affect lymphocyst formation. Oxidized regenerated methylcellulose use does not affect the duration of drains, hence ORC does not seem to pose a stimulatory effect on the peritoneum.

  1. Regeneration of CO poisoned PEM fuel cells by periodic pulsed oxidation

    Adams, W.A.; Blair, J.; Bullock, K.R.; Gardner, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    CO poisoning is a major issue when reformate is used as a fuel in PEM fuel cells. Normally it is necessary to reduce the CO to very low levels (∼5 ppm) and CO tolerant catalysts, such as Pt-Ru, are often employed. As an alternative approach, we have studied the use of pulsed oxidation for the regeneration of CO poisoned cells. Results are presented for the regeneration of Pt and Pt-Ru anodes in a PEM fuel cell fed with CO concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm. The results show periodic removal of CO from the catalyst surface by pulsed oxidation can increase the average cell potential and increase overall efficiency. A method for enhancing the performance of a fuel cell stack using a microprocessor-based Fuel Cell Health Manager (FCHM) has been developed. The results of a cost/benefit analysis for the use of a FCHM on a 4 kW residential fuel cell system are presented. (author)

  2. Biocompatible zinc oxide nanocrystals stabilized via hydroxyethyl cellulose for mitigation of diabetic complications.

    Hussein, Jihan; El-Banna, Mona; Razik, Tay Abdel; El-Naggar, Mehrez E

    2018-02-01

    The vascular complications of diabetes are the most serious manifestations of the disease. The hyperglycemia can directly promote an inflammatory state where the increase C-reactive (CRP) and cytokines, such as interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), which contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The current study was aimed to evaluate the role of environmentally-synthesized zinc oxide nanocrystals (ZnO-NPs) in augmentation of hyperglycemia and its complications, as well as the preservation of asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) level as a specific marker for endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. ZnO-NPs was chemically-synthesized using environmental benign biodegradable hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HES) as both a stabilizing and directing agent in the presence of potassium hydroxide. HES is a biomaterial compound used in many biomedical applications due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility in nature. Particle size, morphological structure, purity, and crystallinity of the as-prepared ZnO-NPs were evaluated through different techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (SEM-EDS). Sixty male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups: control, ZnO-NPs, diabetic and treated groups; after the experimental period, CRP and interleukin-1 (IL-1α) were determined by ELISA. ADMA was estimated by RP-HPLC using a fluorescence detector. The results obtained indicate that CRP, IL-1α, and ADMA levels increased significantly concomitant with a reduction in NO level in the diabetic group, whereas ZnO-NPs supplementation significantly attenuated these parameters. Based on these encouraging results, the reported approach of environmental synthesis and application has the potential of leading to a new generation of nanometerials for treatment of diabetic complications with considerably enhanced

  3. Radiogaschromatographic analysis of volatile products of the photolysis of the system bis-(tributyltin)-oxide-(butyl-l-14C)/cellulose

    Kloetzer, D.; Goerner, H.; Heise, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus and method for separation and identification of the products of photochemical decomposition in the system bis(tributyltin)-oxide-(butyl-1- 14 C)/cellulose are described. Ultraviolet radiation causes the formation of n-butane- 14 C and n-octane- 14 C, i.e. 14 C-labelled butyl radicals splitting off from the tin organic compound are stabilized by reactions with H atoms from the photodecomposition of cellulose or by dimerization. (author)

  4. Characterization and some properties of cellulose acetate-co-polyethylene oxide blends prepared by the use of gamma irradiation

    H. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA, polyethylene oxide (PEO copolymer blend was prepared using γ-rays as initiator. PEO as an additive was added with different concentrations (0 – 5% based on cellulose acetate. As the PEO is water soluble, some portions of them were extracted into aqueous solution. To overcome this, the PEO additives were crosslinked with N,N′Methylene bis-acrylamide (MBAAm to be stably entrapped in the CA matrix. The efficiency was calculated to be 100%. Morphological changes using scanning electron microscope (SEM and the bulk properties such as water sorption, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability were investigated. The thermal stability of the developed copolymer blend has also been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Different variations of the copolymerization were studied such as crosslinker concentration and ratio of PEO to cellulose acetate. It was observed that the addition of small amounts of PEO 3 weight % as an additive resulted in a considerable change of the thermal characteristics.

  5. Eco-friendly biorefractory films of gelatin and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose ester for food packaging application.

    Zhuang, Chen; Tao, Furong; Cui, Yuezhi

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, many types of food-packaging films and composites have been prepared using gelatin because of its good film-forming ability, non-toxic nature and cost-effectiveness. However, the relatively weak thermal stability, poor mechanical properties and easily-degradable quality limit the potential application of gelatin as a practical material. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which comprises one of the most abundant biomass resources, has been regarded as a safe and reliable food additive because it has the same ingredients as the cellulose in people's daily intake. Food-packaging films with the excellent properties provided by gelatin and oxidized-cellulose represent a topic of great interest. MCC was modified by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation and chosen as the base of the macromolecule cross-linker (TMN). After modification of gelatin film by TMN, the minimum amount of free -NH 2 in solution was 4.8 × 10 -4  mol g -1 ). The thermal property obviously increased (from 322.31  o C to 352.63  o C) and was crucial for usage in the food industry. The highest water contact value 123.09° (η = 25%) indicated a better surface hydrophobicity. The higher E ab (58.88%) and lower E m (77.16%) demonstrated that a more flexible and shatter-proof material was obtained. Water vapor uptake studies suggested increased moisture absorption and greater swelling ability. The film material obtained in the present study was safe, stable, eco-friendly and biorefractory and could also be decomposed completely by the environment after disposal as a result of the properties of the ingredients gelatin and cellulose. The incorporation of a cellulosic cross-linker to gelatin-based films was an ideal choice with respect to developing a packaging for the food industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Enzymatic cellulose oxidation is linked to lignin by long-range electron transfer

    Westereng, Bjorge; Cannella, David; Wittrup Agger, Jane

    2015-01-01

    in biological systems are only partly understood. We show here that insoluble high molecular weight lignin functions as a reservoir of electrons facilitating LPMO activity. The electrons are donated to the enzyme by long-range electron transfer involving soluble low molecular weight lignins present in plant...... cell walls. Electron transfer was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showing that LPMO activity on cellulose changes the level of unpaired electrons in the lignin. The discovery of a long-range electron transfer mechanism links the biodegradation of cellulose and lignin and sheds...

  7. Electrospun regenerated cellulose nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization method for catalase immobilization.

    Feng, Quan; Hou, Dayin; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Tao; Menkhaus, Todd J; Fong, Hao

    2014-12-10

    In this study, an electrospun regenerated cellulose (RC) nanofibrous membrane with fiber diameters of ∼200-400 nm was prepared first; subsequently, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and acrylic acid (AA) were selected as the monomers for surface grafting of polymer chains/brushes via the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. Thereafter, four nanofibrous membranes (i.e., RC, RC-poly(HEMA), RC-poly(DMAEMA), and RC-poly(AA)) were explored as innovative supports for immobilization of an enzyme of bovine liver catalase (CAT). The amount/capacity, activity, stability, and reusability of immobilized catalase were evaluated, and the kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) for immobilized and free catalase were determined. The results indicated that the respective amounts/capacities of immobilized catalase on RC-poly(HEMA) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) nanofibrous membranes reached 78 ± 3.5 and 67 ± 2.7 mg g(-1), which were considerably higher than the previously reported values. Meanwhile, compared to that of free CAT (i.e., 18 days), the half-life periods of RC-CAT, RC-poly(HEMA)-CAT, RC-poly(DMAEMA)-CAT, and RC-poly(AA)-CAT were 49, 58, 56, and 60 days, respectively, indicating that the storage stability of immobilized catalase was also significantly improved. Furthermore, the immobilized catalase exhibited substantially higher resistance to temperature variation (tested from 5 to 70 °C) and lower degree of sensitivity to pH value (tested from 4.0 and 10.0) than the free catalase. In particular, according to the kinetic parameters of Vmax and Km, the nanofibrous membranes of RC-poly(HEMA) (i.e., 5102 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 44.89 mM) and RC-poly(DMAEMA) (i.e., 4651 μmol mg(-1) min(-1) and 46.98 mM) had the most satisfactory biocompatibility with immobilized catalase. It was therefore concluded that the electrospun RC nanofibrous membranes surface-grafted with 3-dimensional nanolayers of polymer chains/brushes would be

  8. Rheological Behaviour of a Bitumen Modified with Metal Oxides Obtained by Regeneration Processes

    Tullio Giuffrè

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one important challenge is to demonstrate an innovative and integrated approach for the sustainable construction of roads considering the whole life cycle of the infrastructure. Road pavements with multiple asphalt layers generally undergo prolonged environmental exposure and the alternation between solar irradiation and low temperatures. As a result, relaxation or progressive removal of the material with a negative impact on the resistance to plastic deformation occur, also leading to the formation of slits and to dimensional variations, which are commonly defined as thermal cracking. This suggests the use of suitable bitumen modifiers. For these, important parameters are the optimal mixing time and mixing temperature, in order to reduce problems related to the stability of the bitumen. Therefore, the behaviour, upon changing the temperature, of bituminous mixtures containing (as fillers a series of metal oxides coming, as secondary products, from spent acid solutions regeneration processes, was investigated. This is intended in order to recover and reuse those otherwise dangerous wastes coming from several industrial (especially, metallurgical processes. The study was aimed at evaluating the properties of bituminous blends by performing rheological tests under dynamic shear regime. More specifically, five different bitumen matrices were prepared (70/100 bitumen and blends with metal oxides and/or SBS copolymer. Results showed that the addition of iron oxides leads to an increase of the softening point and the complex modulus. The increase is even more emphasized when SBS is added to the blend.

  9. Formation of nitrogen compounds from nitrogen-containing rings during oxidative regeneration of spent hydroprocessing catalysts

    Furimsky, E.; Nielsen, M.; Jurasek, P. [CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories

    1995-05-01

    Commercial CoMo and NiMo catalysts in an oxidic and sulfided form and a {gamma}-alumina were deposited with pyrrole, pyridine, and quinoline. The deposited catalysts and two spent hydroprocessing catalysts were pyrolyzed and oxidized under conditions typical of regeneration of hydroprocessing catalysts. The formation of NH{sub 3} and HCN, as well as selected cases of N{sub 2}O and NO, was monitored during the experiments. NH{sub 3} and HCN were formed during pyrolysis of pyrrole-deposited catalysts whereas only NH{sub 3} was formed during that of pyridine-and quinoline-deposited catalysts. For all deposited catalysts, both NH{sub 3} and HCN were formed during temperature programmed oxidation in 2% O{sub 2}. For spent catalysts, a small amount of N{sub 2}O was formed in 2 and 4% O{sub 2}. For pyrrole-deposited catalysts, large yields of N{sub 2}O were formed in 4% O{sub 2}. Under the same conditions, N{sub 2}O yields for pyridine- and quinoline-deposited catalysts were very small. 13 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Superparamagnetic iron oxide coated on the surface of cellulose nanospheres for the rapid removal of textile dye under mild condition

    Qin, Yunfeng [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Qin, Zongyi, E-mail: phqin@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Liu, Yannan; Cheng, Miao; Qian, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Qian, E-mail: drwangqian23@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 100 Haining Road, Hongkou District, Shanghai 200080 (China); Zhu, Meifang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, and College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Anchoring superparamagnetic iron oxide on the surface of cellulose nanospheres as magnetically recyclable nanocatalys. • Achieving highly efficient Fenton-like reaction on the surface of composite nanospheres for rapid removal of textile dye. • Reaching nearly 98.0% degradation of Navy blue within 5 min under mild condition. - Abstract: Magnetic composite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by anchoring iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) on the surface of carboxyl cellulose nanospheres through a facile chemical co-precipitation method. The as-prepared MNPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurement, thermal gravity analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. These MNPs were of a generally spherical shape with a narrow size distribution, and exhibited superparamagnetic behaviors with high saturation magnetization. High efficient removal of Navy blue in aqueous solution was demonstrated at room temperature in a Fenton-like system containing the MNPs and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which benefited from small particle size, large surface area, high chemical activity, and good dispersibility of the MNPs. The removal efficiency of Navy blue induced by the MNPs prepared at a weight ratio of cellulose to iron of 1:2 were 90.6% at the first minute of the degradation reaction, and 98.0% for 5 min. Furthermore, these MNPs could be efficiently recycled and reused by using an external magnetic field. The approach presented in this paper promotes the use of renewable natural resources as templates for the preparation and stabilization of various inorganic nanomaterials for the purpose of catalysis, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical and other potential applications.

  11. Influence of the type of cellulosic derivatives on the texture, and oxidative and thermal stability of soybean oil oleogel

    Totosaus, A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use oleogels (defined as edible oils entrapped in a three-dimensional network employing a self-assembled structuring agent has recently been proposed to replace saturated fat or trans-fats in foods. In this work the effects of different cellulose derivative mixtures (Avicel, ethyl cellulose and α-cellulose on lipid stability, glass transition temperature and the texture of soybean oil oleogels were determined by employing a mixture design approach. Avicel affected lipid stability, increasing the oxidative rancidity and peroxide values of oleogels. Oleogels with higher proportions of Avicel also presented higher transition temperatures. A higher percent of ethyl cellulose and α-cellulose in the oleogel mixture resulted in a more stable system with lower oil rancidity and lower glass transition temperatures. In addition, Avicel resulted in a softer and less tacky texture, an important characteristic to consider for food applications.Recientemente, ha sido propuesto el uso de oleogeles (definido como aceites comestibles atrapados en una red tridimensional que ocupa un agente estructurante de auto-ensamblado como substituto de grasa saturada o grasas trans en alimentos. En este trabajo el efecto de mezclas de diferentes derivados celulósicos (Avicel, etil celulosa y α-celulosa sobre la estabilidad de lípidos, temperaturas de transición térmica y textura de oleogeles de aceite de soja fueron determinados utilizando un diseño de mezclas. Avicel afectó la estabilidad de lípidos, aumentando la rancidez oxidativa y valores de peróxido en los oleogeles. Oleogeles con mayores proporciones de Avicel también presentaron temperaturas de transición térmica más altas. Porcentajes más altos de etil celulosa y α-celulosa resultaron en un sistema más estable con menor rancidez oxidativa y menores temperaturas de transición térmica. Sin embargo, Avicel resultó en una textura más suave y menos pegajosa, una característica importante a

  12. Mobility of chemisorbed molecules and surface regeneration of active centers during dehydration of isopropanol on aluminium oxide and aluminosilicate

    Makhlis, L.A.; Vasserberg, V.Eh.

    1976-01-01

    By a differential isotope method involving 14 C the authors have investigated the surface mobility of chemisorbed molecules of isopropanol during its dehydration in an adsorption layer on aluminium oxide and aluminosilicate. The chemisorbed alcohol molecules possess marked surface mobility which plays a decisive part in the mechanism of surface regeneration of the active catalyst centers in the process of dehydration. The cessation of the reaction long before the adsorbed alcohol is completely used up is explained by the hypothesis that there is local overpopulation of the active sectors by water formed by the reaction; this hinders further surface regeneration and repetition of the elementary events of dehydration

  13. Effects of complete water fasting and regeneration diet on kidney function, oxidative stress and antioxidants.

    Mojto, V; Gvozdjakova, A; Kucharska, J; Rausova, Z; Vancova, O; Valuch, J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to observe the influence of 11-days complete water fasting (WF) and regeneration diet (RD) on renal function, body weight, blood pressure and oxidative stress. Therapeutic WF is considered a healing method. Ten volunteers drank only water for 11 days, followed by RD for the next 11 days. Data on body weight, blood pressure, kidney functions, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, cholesterols, triacylglycerols and selected biochemical parameters were obtained. WF increased uric acid and creatinine and decreased glomerular filtration rate. After RD, the parameters were comparable to baseline values. Urea was not affected. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) decreased and maintained stable after RD. Fasting decreased α-tocopherol and increased γ-tocopherol, no significant changes were found after RD. Coenzyme Q10 decreased after RD. HDL-cholesterol decreased in WF. Total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased after RD. Other biochemical parameters were within the range of reference values. The effect of the complete fasting on kidney function was manifested by hyperuricemia. Renal function was slightly decreased, however maintained within the reference values. After RD, it returned to baseline values. The positive effect of the complete water fasting was in the reduction of oxidative stress, body weight and blood pressure (Tab. 3, Ref. 25).

  14. Enhanced Adsorption and Removal of Ciprofloxacin on Regenerable Long TiO2 Nano tube/Graphene Oxide Hydrogel Adsorbents

    Zhuang, Y.; Ma, J.; Yu, F.; Yu, F.; Ma, J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the adsorption performance and regeneration ability of adsorbent, a simple method was designed to synthesize long TiO 2 nano tube/reduced graphene oxide (rGO-TON) hydrogel, which has good adsorption and regeneration capacity toward ciprofloxacin. rGO-TON hydrogel could form 3D structure, which makes the separation and regeneration of adsorbent easy. For comparison, commercial P25 particle is used to prepare composite hydrogel with rGO; the results showed that TiO 2 nano tube supports the graphene sheets better than P25 particles, which would reduce the agglomeration of graphene sheets. rGO-TON have larger specific surface area (138.2m 2 /g) than rGO-P25 (79.4m 2 /g). In this paper, ciprofloxacin was chosen as target pollutants, the rGO-TON obtain excellent adsorption capacity, and the maximum adsorption capacities of rGO-TON for ciprofloxacin calculated from Langmuir model are 178.6 mg/g (R 2 =0.9929)181.8 mg/g (R 2 =0.9954) and 108.7 mg/g (R 2 =0.9964 ) for graphene oxide (GO), GO-TON, and GO-P25, respectively. In regeneration, the adsorption capacity of rGO-TON and rGO-P25 has little reduced after 5 cycles, while the adsorption capacity of rGO decreases to below 100 mg/g. Results of this work are of great significance for environmental applications of regenerable long TiO 2 nano tube/graphene oxide hydrogel as a promising adsorbent nano material for antibiotic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  15. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  16. Oxidative production of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Zhang, Hongsen; Han, Xushen; Wei, Chengxiang; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    An oxidative production process of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth was designed, experimentally investigated, and evaluated. Dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was simultaneously saccharified and fermented into 59.80g/L of ethanol (no xylose utilization). 65.39g/L of xylose was obtained in the distillation stillage without any concentrating step after ethanol was distillated. Then the xylose was completely converted into 66.42g/L of xylonic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. The rigorous Aspen Plus modeling shows that the wastewater generation and energy consumption was significantly reduced comparing to the previous xylonic acid production process using xylose in pretreatment liquid. This study provided a practical process option for xylonic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock with significant reduction of wastewater and energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchically porous, ultra-strong reduced graphene oxide-cellulose nanocrystal sponges for exceptional adsorption of water contaminants

    Yousefi, Nariman; Wong, Kerwin K.W.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab

    2018-01-01

    Self-assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into porous 3D sponges is a promising approach to exploit their capacity to adsorb contaminants while facilitating the recovery of the nanosheets from treated water. Yet, forming mechanically robust sponges with suitable adsorption properties presents...... a significant challenge. Ultra-strong and highly porous 3D sponges are formed using GO, vitamin C (VC), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) - natural nanorods isolated from wood pulp. CNCs provide a robust scaffold for the partially reduced GO (rGO) nanosheets resulting in an exceptionally stiff nanohybrid....... The concentration of VC as a reducing agent plays a critical role in tailoring the pore architecture of the sponges. By using excess amounts of VC, a unique hierarchical pore structure is achieved, where VC grains act as soft templates for forming millimeter-sized pores, the walls of which are also porous...

  18. Superhydrophilic graphene oxide@electrospun cellulose nanofiber hybrid membrane for high-efficiency oil/water separation.

    Ao, Chenghong; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Jiangqi; He, Xu; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Qingye; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2017-11-01

    Inspired from fishscales, membranes with special surface wettability have been applied widely for the treatment of oily waste water. Herein, a novel superhydrophilic graphene oxide (GO)@electrospun cellulose nanofiber (CNF) membrane was successfully fabricated. This membrane exhibited a high separation efficiency, excellent antifouling properties, as well as a high flux for the gravity-driven oil/water separation. Moreover, the GO@CNF membrane was capable to effectively separate oil/water mixtures in a broad pH range or with a high concentration of salt, suggesting that this membrane was quite promising for future real-world practice in oil spill cleanup and oily wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellulose acetobutyrate films and beryllium oxide discs for low-level radiation monitoring

    Ventura, S.A.; Kleinschmidt, D.E.; Mbu, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of mylar films on the attenuation of alpha particle energy and the production of etchable tracks in cellulose acetobutyrate was studied. A model developed predicts a 15-μ optimum mylar film thickness, while experimental results indicated a 22.8-μ optimum. The effect of alpha particle and potassium hydroxide solution interaction with CAB was reviewed and process improvements suggested. The TSEE response of BeO discs to tritium at 5.0 mCi/m 3 for up to 15-hr exposure was also investigated. An average TSEE/β ratio of 0.02 was obtained

  20. Hybrid Silk Fibers Dry-Spun from Regenerated Silk Fibroin/Graphene Oxide Aqueous Solutions.

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yaopeng; Shao, Huili; Hu, Xuechao

    2016-02-10

    Regenerated silk fibroin (RSF)/graphene oxide (GO) hybrid silk fibers were dry-spun from a mixed dope of GO suspension and RSF aqueous solution. It was observed that the presence of GO greatly affect the viscosity of RSF solution. The RSF/GO hybrid fibers showed from FTIR result lower β-sheet content compared to that of pure RSF fibers. The result of synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of GO confined the crystallization of silk fibroin (SF) leading to the decrease of crystallinity, smaller crystallite size, and new formation of interphase zones in the artificial silks. Synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering also proved that GO sheets in the hybrid silks and blended solutions were coated with a certain thickness of interphase zones due to the complex interaction between the two components. A low addition of GO, together with the mesophase zones formed between GO and RSF, enhanced the mechanical properties of hybrid fibers. The highest breaking stress of the hybrid fibers reached 435.5 ± 71.6 MPa, 23% improvement in comparison to that of degummed silk and 72% larger than that of pure RSF silk fiber. The hybrid RSF/GO materials with good biocompatibility and enhanced mechanical properties may have potential applications in tissue engineering, bioelectronic devices, or energy storage.

  1. Degradation of cellulose at the wet-dry interface. II. Study of oxidation reactions and effect of antioxidants.

    Jeong, Myung-Joon; Dupont, Anne-Laurence; de la Rie, E René

    2014-01-30

    To better understand the degradation of cellulose upon the formation of a tideline at the wet-dry interface when paper is suspended in water, the production of chemical species involved in oxidation reactions was studied. The quantitation of hydroperoxides and hydroxyl radicals was carried out in reverse phase chromatography using triphenylphosphine and terephthalic acid, respectively, as chemical probes. Both reactive oxygen species were found in the tideline immediately after its formation, in the range of micromoles and nanomoles per gram of paper, respectively. The results indicate that hydroxyl radicals form for the most part in paper before the tideline experiment, whereas hydroperoxides appear to be produced primarily during tideline formation. Iron sulfate impregnation of the paper raised the production of hydroperoxides. After hygrothermal aging in sealed vials the hydroxyl radical content in paper increased significantly. When aged together in the same vial, tideline samples strongly influenced the degradation of samples from other areas of the paper (multi-sample aging). Different types of antioxidants were added to the paper before the tideline experiment to investigate their effect on the oxidation reactions taking place. In samples treated with iron sulfate or artificially aged, the addition of Irgafos 168 (tris(2,4-ditert-butylphenyl) phosphate) and Tinuvin 292 (bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate and methyl 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidyl sebacate) reduced the concentration of hydroperoxides and hydroxyl radicals, respectively. Tinuvin 292 was also found to considerably lower the rate of cellulose chain scission reactions during hygrothermal aging of the paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transparent bionanocomposite films based on chitosan and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties.

    Soni, Bhawna; Hassan, El Barbary; Schilling, M Wes; Mahmoud, Barakat

    2016-10-20

    The development of biobased active films for use in food packaging is increasing due to low cost, environmental appeal, renewability and availability. The objective of this research was to develop an effective and complete green approach for the production of bionanocomposite films with enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. This was accomplished by incorporating TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) into a chitosan matrix. An aqueous suspension of chitosan (100-75wt%), sorbitol (25wt%) and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TEMPO-CNFs, 0-25wt%) were cast in an oven at 40°C for 2-4days. Films were preconditioned at 25°C and 50% RH for characterization. The surface morphology of the films was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties and crystal structure of the films were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Incorporation of TEMPO-CNFs enhanced the mechanical strength of the films due to the high aspect ratio (3-20nm width, and 10-100nm length) of TEMPO-CNFs and strong interactions with the chitosan matrix. Oxygen and water vapor transmission rates for films that are prepared with chitosan and TEMPO-CNFs (15-25wt%) were significantly reduced. Furthermore, these bionanocomposite films had good thermal stability. Use of TEMPO-CNFs in this method makes it possible to produce bionanocomposite films that are flexible, transparent, and thus have potential in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration

    La WG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wan-Geun La,1 Min Jin,1 Saibom Park,1,2 Hee-Hun Yoon,1 Gun-Jae Jeong,1 Suk Ho Bhang,1 Hoyoung Park,1,2 Kookheon Char,1,2 Byung-Soo Kim1,31School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2The National Creative Research Initiative Center for Intelligent Hybrids, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Institute of Bioengineering, Institute of Chemical Processes, Engineering Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of KoreaAbstract: In this study, we demonstrate that graphene oxide (GO can be used for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and substance P (SP, and that this delivery promotes bone formation on titanium (Ti implants that are coated with GO. GO coating on Ti substrate enabled a sustained release of BMP-2. BMP-2 delivery using GO-coated Ti exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity in bone-forming cells in vitro compared with bare Ti. SP, which is known to recruit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, was co-delivered using Ti or GO-coated Ti to further promote bone formation. SP induced the migration of MSCs in vitro. The dual delivery of BMP-2 and SP using GO-coated Ti showed the greatest new bone formation on Ti implanted in the mouse calvaria compared with other groups. This approach may be useful to improve osteointegration of Ti in dental or orthopedic implants.Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, graphene oxides, stem cell recruitment, substance P

  4. Effect of coke and catalyst structure on oxidative regeneration of hydroprocessing catalysts

    Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1991-04-01

    Two industrial hydroprocessing catalysts used for upgrading an atmospheric residue and a gas oil, respectively were regenerated in a fixed bed using air and 2 vol.% O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} balance mixture. The regeneration in air resulted in a significant sintering of the catalyst's material. The surface area of catalysts regenerated in 2 vol.% O{sub 2} mixture was similar to that of fresh catalysts, whereas a significant loss of surface area was observed after regeneration in air. The X-ray diffraction pattern of catalysts regenerated in 2 vol.% O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} balance mixture was also similar to that of fresh catalysts. 22 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Effects of ferric iron reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide and methane emissions in a rice soil.

    Huang, Bin; Yu, Kewei; Gambrell, Robert P

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory soil slurry experiment and an outdoor pot experiment were conducted to study effects of ferric iron (Fe(III)) reduction and regeneration on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane (CH(4)) emissions in a rice (Oryza sativa L.) soil. The anoxic slurry experiment showed that enhancing microbial Fe(III) reduction by ferrihydrite amendment (40 mol Fe g(-1)) transitionally stimulated N(2)O production and lowered CH(4) production by 16% during an initial 33-day incubation. Increased regeneration of Fe(III) through a 4-day aeration period in the Fe-amended slurry compared to the control slurry reduced CH(4) emission by 30% in the subsequent 15-day anaerobic incubation. The pot experiment showed that ferrihydrite amendment (63 micromol Fe g(-1)) stimulated N(2)O fluxes in the days following flooding. The Fe amendment suppression on CH(4) emission was obscured in the early season but became significant upon reflooding in the mid- and late-seasons. As a result, seasonal CH(4) emission in Fe-amended pots was 26% lower than the control with a single 2-day drainage and 69% lower with a double 2-day drainage. The reduction in CH(4) emission upon reflooding from the Fe-amended pots was mainly attributed to the increased Fe(III) regeneration during drainage showing a mechanism of Fe(III) regeneration in mitigating CH(4) emission by short-term drainage in flooded soils.

  6. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-12-16

    To remove Hg(0) in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of the spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst, with an optimal loading of 5.8% cobalt species, attained approximately 95% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 150 °C under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg(0) removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via the Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed an inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg(0) removal efficiency. However, when increasing the NO concentration to 300 ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm of HCl, greater than 95.5% Hg(0) removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented a seriously inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400 °C for 2 h.

  8. N-Doped Carbon Nanofibrous Network Derived from Bacterial Cellulose for the Loading of Pt Nanoparticles for Methanol Oxidation Reaction.

    Yuan, Fanshu; Huang, Yang; Fan, Mengmeng; Chen, Chuntao; Qian, Jieshu; Hao, Qingli; Yang, Jiazhi; Sun, Dongping

    2018-02-06

    The large-scale, low-cost preparation of Pt-based catalysts with high activity and durability for the methanol oxidation reaction is still challenging. The key to achieving this aim is finding suitable supporting materials. In this paper, N-doped carbon nanofibrous networks are prepared by annealing a gel containing two inexpensive and ecofriendly precursors, that is, bacterial cellulose and urea, for the loading of Pt nanoparticles. An undoped analogue is also prepared for comparison. Meanwhile, the effect of the annealing temperature on the performance of the catalysts is evaluated. The results show that the N doping and higher annealing temperature can improve the electron conductivity of the catalyst and provide more active sites for the loading of ultrafine Pt nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. The best catalyst exhibits a remarkably high electrocatalytic activity (627 mA mg -1 ), excellent poison tolerance, and high durability. This work demonstrates an ideal Pt supporting material for the methanol oxidation reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: the influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics.

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A

    2014-06-15

    In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of Nano Iron Oxide/Iron-Coated Activated Carbon, Anthracite, Cellulose Fiber, and Silica, with Arsenic Adsorption Studies

    Mallikarjuna N. Nadagouda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was completed within a few minutes. The method used no additional fuel and nitrate, which is present in the precursor itself, to drive the reaction. The obtained samples were then characterized with X-ray mapping, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS, selected area diffraction pattern (SAED, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. The size of the iron oxide/iron nanoparticle-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were found to be in the nano range (50–400 nm. The iron oxide/iron nanoparticles mostly crystallized into cubic symmetry which was confirmed by SAED. The XRD pattern indicated that iron oxide/iron nano particles existed in four major phases. That is, γ-Fe2O3, α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and Fe. These iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica samples were tested for arsenic adsorption through batch experiments, revealing that few samples had significant arsenic adsorption.

  11. Investigation of OH Radical Regeneration from Isoprene Oxidation Across Different NOx Regimes in the Atmosphere Simulation Chamber SAPHIR

    Novelli, A.; Bohn, B.; Dorn, H. P.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Kaminski, M.; Yu, Z.; Li, X.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Fuchs, H.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.

    2017-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant daytime oxidant in the troposphere. It starts the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) originating from both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Hence, it is a crucial trace species in model simulations as it has a large impact on many reactive trace gases. Many field campaigns performed in isoprene dominated environment in low NOx conditions have shown large discrepancies between the measured and the modelled OH radical concentrations. These results have contributed to the discovery of new regeneration paths for OH radicals from isoprene-OH second generation products with maximum efficiency at low NO. The current chemical models (e.g. MCM 3.3.1) include this novel chemistry allowing for an investigation of the validity of the OH regeneration at different chemical conditions. Over 11 experiments focusing on the OH oxidation of isoprene were performed at the SAPHIR chamber in the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Measurements of VOCs, NOx, O3, HONO were performed together with the measurement of OH radicals (by both LIF-FAGE and DOAS) and OH reactivity. Within the simulation chamber, the NO mixing ratio was varied between 0.05 to 2 ppbv allowing the investigation of both the "new" regeneration path for OH radicals and the well-known NO+HO2 mechanism. A comparison with the MCM 3.3.1 that includes the upgraded LIM1 mechanism showed very good agreement (within 10%) for the OH data at all concentrations of NOx investigated. Comparison with different models, without LIM1 and with updated rates for the OH regeneration, will be presented together with a detailed analysis of the impact of this study on results from previous field campaigns.

  12. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Zheng, Qifeng; Cai, Zhiyong; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-11

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated without any binders, current collectors, or electroactive additives. Because of the porous structure of the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes and the excellent electrolyte absorption properties of the CNFs present in the aerogel electrodes, the resulting flexible supercapacitors exhibited a high specific capacitance (i.e., 252 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1)) and a remarkable cycle stability (i.e., more than 99.5% of the capacitance was retained after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1)). Furthermore, the supercapacitors also showed extremely high areal capacitance, areal power density, and energy density (i.e., 216 mF cm(-2), 9.5 mW cm(-2), and 28.4 μWh cm(-2), respectively). In light of its excellent electrical performance, low cost, ease of large-scale manufacturing, and environmental friendliness, the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes may have a promising application in the development of flexible energy-storage devices.

  13. Synergistic effect of cellulose nanocrystals/graphene oxide nanosheets as functional hybrid nanofiller for enhancing properties of PVA nanocomposites.

    El Miri, Nassima; El Achaby, Mounir; Fihri, Aziz; Larzek, Mohamed; Zahouily, Mohamed; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Barakat, Abdellatif; Solhy, Abderrahim

    2016-02-10

    Novel functional hybrid nanofillers composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and graphene oxide nanosheets (GON), at different weight ratios (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2), were successfully prepared and characterized, and their synergistic effect in enhancing the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites was investigated. Due to the synergistic reinforcement, it was found that the Young's modulus, tensile strength and toughness of the PVA nanocomposite containing 5 wt% hybrid nanofiller (1:2) were significantly improved by 320%, 124% and 159%, respectively; and the elongation at break basically remained compared to the neat PVA matrix. In addition, the glass and melting temperatures as well as the moisture sorption of nanocomposites were also enhanced. This synergistic effect improved the dispersion homogeneity by avoiding the agglomeration phenomenon of nanofillers within the polymer matrix, resulting in nanocomposites with largely enhanced properties compared to those prepared from single nanofiller (CNC or GON). The preparation of these hybrid nanofillers and their incorporation into a polymer provided a novel method for the development of novel multifunctional nanocomposites based on the combination of existing nanomaterials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of Egyptian soft white cheese shelf life using a novel chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose/zinc oxide bionanocomposite film.

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Salama, Heba H; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-20

    A novel bionanocomposites packaging material prepared using chitosan (CH), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), namely CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites, was prepared by casting method. The CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites were investigated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA. The acquired bionanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical and thermal properties compare with the biocomposites (CH/CMC) blend. The soft white cheese were manufactured, packaged within the prepared bionanocomposites films and stored at 7°C for 30days. The influence of packaging material on packaged cheese (rheological properties, colour measurements, moisture, pH and titratable acidity) were assessed. Furthermore, the effect of packaging material on the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform in cheese was evaluated. The prepared bionanocomposites displayed good antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). Moreover, the packaging films assisted in increasing the shelf life of white soft cheese. Therefore, it can be used in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemostatic granules and dressing prepared from formulations of carboxymethyl cellulose, kappa-carrageenan and polyethylene oxide crosslinked by gamma radiation

    Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Relleve, Lorna S.; Cruz, Veriza Rita C.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle; Abad, Lucille V.

    2018-03-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage remains a persistent problem especially in anatomical areas where compression and tourniquet cannot be applied. Hemostatic agents are materials which can achieve control of bleeding in acute, life-threatening traumatic coagulopathy. In this study, we prepared biocompatible hydrogel-based hemostat crosslinked by ionizing radiation. Granules made from carboxymethyl cellulose and dressing from kappa carrageenan and polyethylene oxide were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and gel analysis. Gamma radiation with a dose of 25 kGy was used for sterilization process. Stability studies indicate that the products remain effective with a shelf life of up to 18 months based on accelerated aging. Both hemostatic agents were demonstrated to be effective in vitro blood clotting assays showing a low blood clotting index, high platelet adhesion capacity and accelerated clotting time. Hemostat granules and dressing were also used in a femoral artery rat bleeding model where hemorrhage control was achieved in 90 s without compression and resulted in 100% survival rate after a 7 and 14-day observation.

  16. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: The influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics

    Alejandro, Serguei [Laboratorio de Tecnologías Limpias (F. Ingeniería), Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Alonso de Ribera 2850, Concepción (Chile); Núcleo de Energías Renovables (F. Ingeniería), Universidad Católica de Temuco, Rudecindo Ortega 02950, Temuco (Chile); Valdés, Héctor, E-mail: hvaldes@ucsc.cl [Laboratorio de Tecnologías Limpias (F. Ingeniería), Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Alonso de Ribera 2850, Concepción (Chile); Manéro, Marie-Hélène [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F–31030 Toulouse (France); CNRS (France); Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, F–31030 Toulouse (France); Zaror, Claudio A. [Departamento de Ingeniería Química (F. Ingeniería), Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Correo 3, Casilla 160–C (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Surface acidity of modified natural zeolite is related to its chemical reactivity. • Brønsted acid sites are associated to toluene adsorption. • Lewis acid sites could decompose ozone generating surface active oxygen species. • Infrared spectra evidence active atomic oxygen and oxidation by-product formation. • 2NH4Z1 sample shows the highest reactivity toward adsorbed toluene. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823 K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623 K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity.

  17. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: The influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface acidity of modified natural zeolite is related to its chemical reactivity. • Brønsted acid sites are associated to toluene adsorption. • Lewis acid sites could decompose ozone generating surface active oxygen species. • Infrared spectra evidence active atomic oxygen and oxidation by-product formation. • 2NH4Z1 sample shows the highest reactivity toward adsorbed toluene. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823 K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623 K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity

  18. Synthesis of well-dispersed magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in cellulose aerogels via a facile oxidative co-precipitation method.

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2015-12-10

    With the increasing emphasis on green chemistry, it is becoming more important to develop environmentally friendly matrix materials for the synthesis of nanocomposites. Cellulose aerogels with hierarchical micro/nano-scale three-dimensional network beneficial to control and guide the growth of nanoparticles, are suitable as a class of ideal green nanoparticles hosts to fabricate multifunctional nanocomposites. Herein, a facile oxidative co-precipitation method was carried out to disperse CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the cellulose aerogels matrixes, and the cellulose aerogels were prepared from the native wheat straw based on a green NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution. The mean diameter of the well-dispersed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the hybrid aerogels is 98.5 nm. Besides, the hybrid aerogels exhibit strong magnetic responsiveness, which could be flexibly actuated by a small magnet. And this feature also makes this class of magnetic aerogels possibly useful as recyclable adsorbents and some magnetic devices. Meanwhile, the mild green preparation method could also be extended to fabricate other miscellaneous cellulose-based nanocomposites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetic study of diesel soot oxidation: application to simulation of diesel particulate filter regeneration; Etude cinetique de la combustion des suies diesel: application a la modelisation de la regeneration du filtre a particule

    Huguet, Ch.

    2005-11-15

    Because of their toxicity, soot are considered as the most important pollutant from Diesel engines. The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is widely deployed in Europe to address the significant reductions in particulate emissions required by increasingly stringent emission standards, both for heavy duty vehicles and passenger cars. Such a DPF filtrates above 99% of soot emissions and must be regularly regenerated. The use of additive allows to decrease the soot oxidation temperature to values which can be reached by appropriate engine tuning. The soot addition is a dominant parameter for the development of regeneration strategies. Its influence must be correctly represented by models. This Ph-D was performed at IFP in collaboration with ADEME and was supported by the LCSR at Orleans. The aim of the present research is to develop a kinetic mechanism characteristic of Diesel soot oxidation, which can be integrated into a DPF regeneration model and used for engine control. The oxidation study was based on soot characterisation and reaction kinetics investigations. The samples of Diesel soot were collected, without and with Cerium/Iron additive, by using two engines points representative of two normalized European cycles (ECE and EUDC). Thermal and composition analyses with techniques such as XPS, XRD or TEM were used to determine their physical and chemical properties. Their oxidation kinetics was experimentally studied on a synthetic gas bench (SGB) with a fixed bed reactor. Different tests were performed: temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), Isothermal oxidation (IO), and sequential oxidation. The results allowed to correlate Diesel soot physical and chemical properties with their oxidation rate. A kinetic model was developed, which is based on global carbon consummation law and distinguishes the oxidation of different soot components. The simulation results agree very well with the experimental results of Diesel soot oxidation. (author)

  20. Influence of the type of oxidant on anion exchange properties of fibrous Cladophora cellulose/polypyrrole composites.

    Razaq, Aamir; Mihranyan, Albert; Welch, Ken; Nyholm, Leif; Strømme, Maria

    2009-01-15

    The electrochemically controlled anion absorption properties of a novel large surface area composite paper material composed of polypyrrole (PPy) and cellulose derived from Cladophora sp. algae, synthesized with two oxidizing agents, iron(III) chloride and phosphomolybdic acid (PMo), were analyzed in four different electrolytes containing anions (i.e., chloride, aspartate, glutamate, and p-toluenesulfonate) of varying size.The composites were characterized with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N2 gas adsorption,and conductivity measurements. The potential-controlled ion exchange properties of the materials were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry at varying potentials. The surface area and conductivity of the iron(III) chloride synthesized sample were 58.8 m2/g and 0.65 S/cm, respectively, while the corresponding values for the PMo synthesized sample were 31.3 m2/g and 0.12 S/cm. The number of absorbed ions per sample mass was found to be larger for the iron(III) chloride synthesized sample than for the PMo synthesized one in all four electrolytes. Although the largest extraction yields were obtained in the presence of the smallest anion (i.e., chloride) for both samples, the relative degree of extraction for the largest ions (i.e., glutamate and p-toluenesulfonate) was higher for the PMo sample. This clearly shows that it is possible to increase the extraction yield of large anions by carrying out the PPy polymerization in the presence of large anions. The results likewise show that high ion exchange capacities, as well as extraction and desorption rates, can be obtained for large anions with high surface area composites coated with relatively thin layers of PPy.

  1. Regeneration of iron oxide containing pellets used for hot gas clean up

    Palmer, A.; Heeney, P.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1989-09-01

    Four iron-containing pelletized solids used for H{sub 2}S removal from hot gas were oxidized in a Cahn electrobalance and in a fixed bed reactor. The main reactions included the sequence in which FeS was oxidized to iron sulphate which then decomposed rapidly yielding SO{sub 2} and iron oxides. The oxidation occurred predominantly on the outer surface of the pellets. 12 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Successive Release of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase-1 Through Graphene Oxide-Based Delivery System Can Promote Skin Regeneration

    Zhong, Cheng; Shi, Dike; Zheng, Yixiong; Nelson, Peter J.; Bao, Qi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to testify the hypothesis that graphene oxide (GO) could act as an appropriate vehicle for the release of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein in the context of skin repair. GO characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. After TIMP-1 absorbing GO, the release profiles of various concentrations of TIMP-1 from GO were compared. GO biocompatibility with fibroblast viability was assessed by measuring cell cycle and apoptosis. In vivo wound healing assays were used to determine the effect of TIMP-1-GO on skin regeneration. The greatest intensity of GO was 1140 nm, and the most intensity volume was 10,674.1 nm (nanometer). TIMP-1 was shown to be continuously released for at least 40 days from GO. The proliferation and viability of rat fibroblasts cultured with TIMP-1-GO were not significantly different as compared with the cells grown in GO or TIMP-1 alone ( p > 0.05). Skin defect of rats treated with TIMP-1 and TIMP-1-GO showed significant differences in histological and immunohistochemical scores ( p tissue regeneration in skin defect.

  3. Mussel-inspired graphene oxide nanosheet-enwrapped Ti scaffolds with drug-encapsulated gelatin microspheres for bone regeneration.

    Han, Lu; Sun, Honglong; Tang, Pengfei; Li, Pengfei; Xie, Chaoming; Wang, Menghao; Wang, Kefeng; Weng, Jie; Tan, Hui; Ren, Fuzeng; Lu, Xiong

    2018-02-27

    Graphene oxide (GO) attracts considerable attention for biomedical applications owing to its unique nanostructure and remarkable physicochemical characteristics. However, it is challenging to uniformly deposit GO on chemically inert Ti scaffolds, which have good biocompatibility and wide applications in bone engineering. In this study, a GO-functionalized Ti porous scaffold (GO/Ti scaffold) was prepared by depositing GO onto polydopamine (PDA) modified Ti scaffolds. The mussel-inspired PDA modification facilitated the interaction between GO and Ti surfaces, leading to a uniform coverage of GO on Ti scaffolds. BMP2 and vancomycin (Van) were separately encapsulated into gelatin microspheres (GelMS). Then, drug-containing GelMS were assembled on GO/Ti scaffolds and anchored by the functional groups of GO. The modified scaffold independently delivered multiple biomolecules with different physiochemical properties, without interfering with each other. Thus, the GO/Ti scaffold has the dual functions of inducing bone regeneration and preventing bacterial infection. In summary, this mussel-inspired GO/Ti hybrid scaffold combined the good mechanical properties of Ti scaffolds and the advantages of GO nanosheets. GO nanosheets with their unique nanostructure and functional groups, together with GelMS on Ti scaffolds, are suitable carriers for drug delivery and provide adhesive sites for cell adhesion and create nanostructured environments for bone regeneration.

  4. Chitosan-Graphene Oxide 3D scaffolds as Promising Tools for Bone Regeneration in Critical-Size Mouse Calvarial Defects.

    Hermenean, Anca; Codreanu, Ada; Herman, Hildegard; Balta, Cornel; Rosu, Marcel; Mihali, Ciprian Valentin; Ivan, Alexandra; Dinescu, Sorina; Ionita, Mariana; Costache, Marieta

    2017-11-30

    Limited self-regenerating capacity of human skeleton makes the reconstruction of critical size bone defect a significant challenge for clinical practice. Aimed for regenerating bone tissues, this study was designed to investigate osteogenic differentiation, along with bone repair capacity of 3D chitosan (CHT) scaffolds enriched with graphene oxide (GO) in critical-sized mouse calvarial defect. Histopathological/histomorphometry and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) analysis of the implants revealed larger amount of new bone in the CHT/GO-filled defects compared with CHT alone (p < 0.001). When combined with GO, CHT scaffolds synergistically promoted the increase of alkaline phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This enhanced osteogenesis was corroborated with increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Runx-2 up to week 4 post-implantation, which showed that GO facilitates the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells. Meanwhile, osteogenesis was promoted by GO at the late stage as well, as indicated by the up-regulation of osteopontin and osteocalcin at week 8 and overexpressed at week 18, for both markers. Our data suggest that CHT/GO biomaterial could represent a promising tool for the reconstruction of large bone defects, without using exogenous living cells or growth factors.

  5. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  6. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  7. Electrospun Poly(L-Lactide-co-ε-Caprolactone/Polyethylene Oxide/Hydroxyapaite Nanofibrous Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration

    Gang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone/polyethylene oxide/hydroxyapaite (PLCL/PEO/HA composite fibrous membranes were prepared by elecrospinning technology for guided bone regeneration. The morphology, water permeability and mechanical properties of the membranes were investigated. The HA nanocrystals can be well distributed in the PLCL/PEO matrix. And the diameter of composite nanofiber is larger than that of pure PLCL. The fibers with uniform size and large diameter were obtained when the contents of PEO and HA were 0.4% and 0.03%, respectively. In this condition, the obtained membrane presents the best water permeability. Furthermore, the nanofibrous membrane with largest tensile strength was obtained when the contents of PEO and HA were 0.5% and 0.03%, respectively.

  8. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...... of hemicellulose C5 sugars was found for WEx pretreatment condition O2-A (160°C, 15 min, and 6 bar O2) which means that the highest potential ethanol yield was found at this moderate pretreatment condition with oxygen added. Increasing the pretreatment temperature to 180–190°C with addition of oxygen or dilute...... was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion...

  9. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    Bjerre, A.B.; Bjerring Olesen, A.; Fernqvist, T.

    1996-01-01

    to 10 min) gave about 85% w/w yield of converting cellulose to glucose. The process water, containing dissolved hemicellulose and carboxylic acids, has proven to be a direct nutrient source for the fungus Aspergillus niger producing exo-beta-xylosidase. Furfural and hydroxymethyl-furfural, known...

  10. The putative endoglucanase PcGH61D from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a metal-dependent oxidative enzyme that cleaves cellulose.

    Bjørge Westereng

    Full Text Available Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61, some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a metal-dependent oxidative mechanism that leads to generation of aldonic acids. The activity of this enzyme and its beneficial effect on the efficiency of classical cellulases are stimulated by the presence of electron donors. Experiments with reduced cellulose confirmed the oxidative nature of the reaction catalyzed by PcGH61D and indicated that the enzyme may be capable of penetrating into the substrate. Considering the abundance of GH61-encoding genes in fungi and genes encoding their functional bacterial homologues currently classified as carbohydrate binding modules family 33 (CBM33, this enzyme activity is likely to turn out as a major determinant of microbial biomass-degrading efficiency.

  11. Preliminary study on zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction

    Wen, Yue-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Shang-Qi; Yang, Yu-Sheng

    A zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction is reported in this paper. It possesses functions of both zincate reduction and electrochemical preparation, showing the potential for increasing the electronic energy utilization. Charge/discharge tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal that when a nickel sheet plated with the high-H 2-overpotential metal, cadmium, was used as the negative substrate electrode, the dendritic formation and hydrogen evolution are suppressed effectively, and granular zinc deposits become larger but relatively dense with the increase of charge time. The performance of batteries is favorable even if the charge time is as long as 5 h at the current density of 20 mA cm -2. Better discharge performance is achieved using a 'cavity-opening' configuration for the discharge cell rather than a 'gas-introducing' configuration. The highest energy efficiency is up to 59.2%. That is, the energy consumed by organic electro-synthesis can be recovered by 59.2%. Cyclic voltammograms show that the sintered nickel electrode exhibits a good electro-catalysis activity for the propanol oxidation. The increase of propanol concentration conduces to an enhancement in the organic electro-synthesis efficiency. The organic electro-synthesis current efficiency of 82% can be obtained.

  12. The hypobaric hypoxia affects the oxidant balance in skeletal muscle regeneration of women

    Rosa Mancinelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 14-day trekking expeditions, in high altitude hypoxic environment, triggers redox disturbance at the level of satellite cells (adult stem cells in young women.Methods: We collected muscle biopsies from Vastus Lateralis muscle for both single fiber analysis and satellite cells isolation. The samples collected before (PRE-Hypoxia and after (POST-Hypoxia the trekking in the Himalayas were compared. Satellite cells were investigated for oxidative stress (oxidant production, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid damage, mitochondrial potential variation, gene profile of HIF and myogenic transcription factors (Pax7, MyoD, myogenin and miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: The nuclear domain analysis showed a significant fusion and consequent reduction of the Pax7+ satellite cells in the single mature fibers. The POST-Hypoxia myoblasts obtained by two out of six volunteers showed high superoxide anion production and lipid peroxidation along with impaired dismutase and catalase and mitochondrial potential. The transcription profile and miRNA expression were different for oxidized and non oxidized cells.Conclusions: The present study supports the phenomenon of hypobaric-hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and its role in the impairment of the regenerative capacity of satellite cells derived from the Vastus Lateralis muscle of young adult female subjects.

  13. Cellulose is not just cellulose

    Hidayat, Budi Juliman; Felby, Claus; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2012-01-01

    are not regions where free cellulose ends are more abundant than in the bulk cell wall. In more severe cases cracks between fibrils form at dislocations and it is possible that the increased accessibility that these cracks give is the reason why hydrolysis of cellulose starts at these locations. If acid...... or enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell walls is carried out simultaneously with the application of shear stress, plant cells such as fibers or tracheids break at their dislocations. At present it is not known whether specific carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) and/or cellulases preferentially access cellulose...

  14. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  15. Postirradiation disturbances in peripheral nerve regeneration and role of free radical oxidation products in their occurrence

    Radlinskaya, V.N.; Zhutaev, I.A.; Bobyrev, V.N.; Voskresenskij, O.N.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term keeping of guinea pigs on antioxidant-free diet was shown to increase the rate of free-radical oxidation processes after local exposure to 20 Gy γ-radiation. Alimentary antioxidant deficiency enhanced new formation and growth of young axons, inhibited myelinization both in the exposed ad contralateral nonirradiated nerves being regenarated after ligating thereof

  16. Hybrid Monolith of Graphene/TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofiber as Mechanically Robust, Highly Functional, and Recyclable Adsorbent of Methylene Blue Dye

    Asif Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we demonstrate first report on fabrication, characterization, and adsorptive appraisal of graphene/cellulose nanofibers (GO/CNFs monolith for methylene blue (MB dye. Series of hybrid monolith (GO/CNFs were assembled via urea assisted self-assembly method. Hybrid materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric curve analysis, specific surface area, surface charge density measurement, and compressional mechanical analysis. It was proposed that strong chemical interaction (mainly hydrogen bonding was responsible for the formation of hybrid assembly. GO/CNFs monolith showed mechanically robust architecture with tunable pore structure and surface properties. GO/CNFs adsorbent could completely remove trace to moderate concentrations of MB dye and follow pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Adsorption isotherm behaviors were found in the following order: Langmuir isotherm > Freundlich isotherm > Temkin isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity of 227.27 mg g−1 was achieved which is much higher than reported graphene based monoliths and magnetic adsorbent. Incorporation of nanocellulose follows exponential relationship with dye uptake capacities. High surface charge density and specific surface area were main dye adsorptive mechanism. Regeneration and recycling efficiency was achieved up to four consecutive cycles with cost-effective recollection and zero recontamination of treated water.

  17. Influence of High Shear Dispersion on the Production of Cellulose Nanofibers by Ultrasound-Assisted TEMPO-Oxidation of Kraft Pulp

    Claude Daneault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the high shear dispersion parameters (e.g., consistency, stator-rotor gap, recirculation rate and pH and determine their influences on nanocellulose production using ultrasound-assisted TEMPO-oxidation of Kraft pulp. All nanofiber gels produced in this study exhibited rheological behaviors known as shear thinning. From all the dispersion parameters, the following conditions were identified as optimal: 0.042 mm stator-rotor gap, 200 mL/min recycle rate, dispersion pH of 7 and a feed consistency of 2%. High quality cellulose gel could be produced under these conditions. This finding is surely of great interest for the pulp and paper industry.

  18. Oxidative regeneration of Ni-Mo-gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts used for hydrotreatment of coal-derived oil

    Yoshimura, Yuji; Furimsky, Edward; Sato, Toshio; Shimada, Hiromichi; Matsubayashi, Nobuyuki; Nishijima, Akio

    1986-10-23

    In order to easily find the oxidative reaction characteristics of carbonaceous materials and sulfur deposited on the catalysts used for hydrogenation, oxidative regeneration behavior as studied with a fixed bed reactor, and the surfaces of the spent catalysts were analyzed by XPS to find the changes in form of active metals and sulfur on the catalysts. Ni-Mo-gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts were used for hydrotreatment of primary coal-derived oil from Morwell coal. The spent catalysts were extracted by THF, dried and crushed into 100-200 mesh powder. The relation between catalyst regeneration temperature and CO/sub 2/ or SO/sub 2/, the relation between generated gas compositions and temperature in regeneration, and the activation energy of carbon and sulfur in the catalysts for oxidative reaction were indicated with data. As a result, it was found that a part of the active metals turned to sulfates by hydrotreatment and the residual sulfur existed in form of sulfate. ( 6 figs, 2 tabs, 4 refs )

  19. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  20. Eco-friendly polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels reinforced with graphene oxide and bentonite for enhanced adsorption of methylene blue.

    Dai, Hongjie; Huang, Yue; Huang, Huihua

    2018-04-01

    Eco-friendly polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose (isolated from pineapple peel) hydrogels reinforced with graphene oxide and bentonite were prepared as efficient adsorbents for methylene blue (MB). The structure and morphology of the prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Introducing graphene oxide and bentonite into the hydrogels evidently enhanced the thermal stability, swelling ability and MB adsorption capacity. The effects of initial concentration of MB, pH, contact time and temperature on MB adsorption capacity of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherm fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model well, respectively. After introducing graphene oxide and bentonite into the hydrogels, the maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model reached 172.14 mg/g at 30 °C, obviously higher than the hydrogels prepared without these additions (83.33 mg/g). Furthermore, all the prepared hydrogels also displayed good reusability for the efficient removal of MB. Consequently, the prepared hydrogels could be served as eco-friendly, stable, efficient and reusable adsorbents for anionic dyes in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Degradation product emission from historic and modern books by headspace SPME/GC-MS: evaluation of lipid oxidation and cellulose hydrolysis.

    Clark, Andrew J; Calvillo, Jesse L; Roosa, Mark S; Green, David B; Ganske, Jane A

    2011-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds emitted from a several decade series of bound periodicals (1859-1939) printed on ground wood paper, as well as historical books dating from the 1500s to early 1800s made from cotton/linen rag, were studied using an improved headspace SPME/GC-MS method. The headspace over the naturally aging books, stored upright in glass chambers, was monitored over a 24-h period, enabling the identification of a wide range of organic compounds emanating from the whole of the book. The detection of particular straight chain aldehydes, as well as characteristic alcohols, alkenes and ketones is correlated with oxidative degradation of the C(18) fatty acid constituency of paper. The relative importance of hydrolytic and oxidative chemistry involved in paper aging in books published between 1560 and 1939 was examined by comparing the relative abundances of furfural (FUR) a known cellulose hydrolysis product, and straight chain aldehydes (SCA) produced from the oxidation of fatty acids in paper. The relative abundance of furfural is shown to increase across the 379-year publication time span. A comparison of relative SCA peak areas across the series of books examined reveals that SCA emission is more important in the cotton/linen rag books than in the ground wood books.

  2. Comparisons of kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide adsorption in aqueous solution with graphene oxide, zeolite and activated carbon

    Chang, Shenteng; Lu, Chungsying, E-mail: clu@nchu.edu.tw; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: A comparison of TMAH adsorption capacity with GO, NaY and GAC is conducted and the result reveals that the magnitude of qe follows the order of GO > NaY > GAC. The adsorption capacity of GO is significantly higher than those of zeolite and activated carbon in this and reported studies, showing its encouraging potential. GO also exhibits good reversibility of TMAH adsorption through 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. This reflects that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms of TMAH to GO, NaY and GAC are compared. • Thermodynamics of TMAH adsorption to GO, NaY and GAC is determined. • GO exhibits the highest TMAH adsorption capacity, followed by NaY and GAC. • Recyclabilities of NaY and GO remain above 95% but that of GAC dropped to 70%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), sodium Y-type zeolite (NaY) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are selected as adsorbents to study their kinetics, thermodynamics and regeneration of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) adsorption from water. The adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order rate law while the adsorption thermodynamics shows an exothermic reaction with GO and GAC but displays an endothermic reaction with NaY. The adsorbed TMAH can be readily desorbed from the surface of GO and NaY by 0.05 M NaCl solution. A comparative study on the cyclic TMAH adsorption with GO, NaY and GAC is also conducted and the results reveal that GO exhibits the greatest TMAH adsorption capacity as well as superior reversibility of TMAH adsorption over 10 cycles of adsorption and desorption process. These features indicate that GO is a promising and efficient adsorbent for TMAH removal in wastewater treatment.

  3. Dynamic water vapor sorption on Mg(Ga3+)O mixed oxides: Analysis of the LDH thermal regeneration process

    Bedolla-Valdez, Zaira I.; Ramirez-Solis, Sergio; Prince, Julia; Lima, Enrique; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Valente, Jaime S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ga-LDH regeneration process was analyzed varying the relative humidity. ► Ga-LDH rehydrates faster than aluminum content LDH materials. ► Gallium seems to favor diffusion processeses during LDH regeneration. - Abstract: The rehydration process of the calcined MgGa-layered double hydroxides (Ga-LDH) was analyzed at different temperatures and relative humidities. Results clearly showed that Ga-LDH sample presented an excellent regeneration kinetic, in comparison to the aluminum typical one. Different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis were used to elucidate the presented results

  4. Dynamic water vapor sorption on Mg(Ga{sup 3+})O mixed oxides: Analysis of the LDH thermal regeneration process

    Bedolla-Valdez, Zaira I.; Ramirez-Solis, Sergio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Cd. Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, DF (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central 152, CP 07730, México, DF (Mexico); Lima, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Cd. Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, DF (Mexico); Pfeiffer, Heriberto, E-mail: pfeiffer@iim.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Cd. Universitaria, Del. Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, DF (Mexico); Valente, Jaime S. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central 152, CP 07730, México, DF (Mexico)

    2013-02-10

    Highlights: ► Ga-LDH regeneration process was analyzed varying the relative humidity. ► Ga-LDH rehydrates faster than aluminum content LDH materials. ► Gallium seems to favor diffusion processeses during LDH regeneration. - Abstract: The rehydration process of the calcined MgGa-layered double hydroxides (Ga-LDH) was analyzed at different temperatures and relative humidities. Results clearly showed that Ga-LDH sample presented an excellent regeneration kinetic, in comparison to the aluminum typical one. Different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis were used to elucidate the presented results.

  5. A novel adsorbent TEMPO-mediated oxidized cellulose nanofibrils modified with PEI: Preparation, characterization, and application for Cu(II) removal

    Zhang, Nan; Zang, Guo-Long; Shi, Chen; Yu, Han-Qing; Sheng, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpsheng@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A cellulose nanofibril based adsorbent with abundant carboxyl/amino was prepared. • After modification by PEI, the Cu adsorption capacity of nanofibril increased. • TOCN-PEI has good Cu(II) removal ability and its maximum capacity was 52.32 mg g{sup −1}. • Results show Cu adsorption on TOCN-PEI is an exothermic and enthalpy-driven process. • Sorption-desorption tests reveal that TOCN-PEI has good stability for Cu removal. - Abstract: This study describes the preparation of a novel adsorbent based on cellulose nanofibrils by first TEMPO mediated oxidation and then PEI grafting (TOCN-PEI) for heavy metal removal. FTIR results demonstrated the successful introduction of the adsorption functional groups (carboxyl and amino groups), and the elemental analysis and acid base titration were used to quantify the contents of these introduced groups. The kinetics curve suited the pseudo-second-order model better and the equilibrium data well fitted the Langmuir model, with the maximum Cu(II) uptake of 52.32 mg g{sup −1}. Kinetic study showed that the PEI grafting increased the initial adsorption rate of the TOCN-PEI compared with the adsorbents without PEI. Thermodynamic study was carried out through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurement and the binding reaction was found to be exothermic and driven by enthalpy change. The adsorption process by TOCN-PEI was pH dependent, and decreasing pH would lead to desorption of Cu(II) ions, thus make the reuse of the absorbent more convenient through adsorption-desorption cycles.

  6. High Dehumidification Performance of Amorphous Cellulose Composite Membranes prepared from Trimethylsilyl Cellulose

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2018-04-11

    Cellulose is widely regarded as an environmentally friendly, natural and low cost material which can significantly contribute the sustainable economic growth. In this study, cellulose composite membranes were prepared via regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC), an easily synthesized cellulose derivative. The amorphous hydrophilic feature of the regenerated cellulose enabled fast permeation of water vapour. The pore-free cellulose layer thickness was adjustable by the initial TMSC concentration and acted as an efficient gas barrier. As a result, a 5,000 GPU water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) at the highest ideal selectivity of 1.1 x 106 was achieved by the membranes spin coated from a 7% (w/w) TMSC solution. The membranes maintained a 4,000 GPU WVTR with selectivity of 1.1 x 104 in the mixed-gas experiments, surpassing the performances of the previously reported composite membranes. This study provides a simple way to not only produce high performance membranes but also to advance cellulose as a low-cost and sustainable membrane material for dehumidification applications.

  7. Multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode consisting of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Wan, Caichao; Jiao, Yue; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    An easily-operated and inexpensive strategy (pencil-drawing-electrodeposition-electro-oxidation) is proposed to synthesize a novel class of multilayer core-shell structured composite paper electrode, which consists of copper, cuprous oxide and graphite assembled on cellulose fibers. This interesting electrode structure plays a pivotal role in providing more active sites for electrochemical reactions, facilitating ion and electron transport and shorting their diffusion pathways. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties with a high specific capacitance of 601 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and retains 83% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrahigh current density of 100 A g-1. In addition, a high energy density of 13.4 W h kg-1 at the power density of 0.40 kW kg-1 and a favorable cycling stability (95.3%, 8000 cycles) were achieved for this electrode. When this electrode was assembled into an asymmetric supercapacitor with carbon paper as negative electrode, the device displays remarkable electrochemical performances with a large areal capacitances (122 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2), high areal energy density (10.8 μW h cm-2 at 402.5 μW cm-2) and outstanding cycling stability (91.5%, 5000 cycles). These results unveil the potential of this composite electrode as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors.

  8. Effects of Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on the Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Poly(vinyl alcohol Blend Films

    Mehdi Roohani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of modified iron oxide nanoparticles (MINP and cellulose nanocrystals (NCC on magnetic, thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol based nanocomposites. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation route. Nanocomposite films were developed by solvent casting method and their properties were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of nanoparticles, the glass transition temperature increase slightly to higher temperatures; however, the degree of crystallinity and the values of the melting temperature are found to decrease. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of nanoparticles was even more noticeable. Addition of nanoparticles resulted in increased thermal stability of PVA due to the reduction in mobility of matrix molecules by strong hydrogen bonds between nanocomposite components. Results indicated that, MINP and NCC have synergistic effect on improving of poly(vinyl alcohol properties. The VSM findings showed that the saturation magnetization of iron oxide nanoparticles reduced after modification. This can be attributed to formation of hydroxyapatite on nanoparticles surface. The saturation magnetization (Ms of PVA- MINP films was higher than PVA-MINP- NCC film. This result probably is related to more amount of magnetic nanoparticles in PVA-MINP films.

  9. Cellulose Nanocrystals vs. Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Comparative study on Their Microstructures and Effects as Polymer Reinforcing Agents

    Xuezhu Xu; Fei Liu; Long Jiang; J.Y. Zhu; Darrin Haagenson; Dennis P. Wiesenborn

    2013-01-01

    Both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. This study systematically compared their morphologies, crystalline structure, dispersion properties in polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix, interactions...

  10. Exogenous Catalase and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Improve Survival and Regeneration and Affect Oxidative Stress in Cryopreserved Dendrobium nobile Protocorm-like Bodies.

    Di, W; Jia, M X; Xu, J; Li, B L; Liu, Y

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage is responsible for viability loss in plant tissues following cryopreservation. Antioxidants may improve viability by preventing or repairing the injury. This work aimed at studying the effect of catalase (CAT) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which are involved in ROS metabolism and are differentially expressed during pollen cryopreservation, for cryopreservation of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. 'Hamana Lake Dream' protocorm-like bodies (PLBs). Different concentrations of exogenous CAT or PDH were added at the loading, PVS2 treatment, unloading steps during vitrification-cryopreservation of PLBs. Their survival and regeneration were evaluated and correlated with physiological oxidative indexes. PLB survival increased significantly when CAT and PDH were added separately to the unloading solution at a suitable concentration. CAT at 400 U·ml -1 increased PLB survival and regeneration by 33.5 and 14.6 percent respectively. It had no impact on the production of superoxide anion radical (·O2-) and on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but it reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and enhanced ascorbic acid (AsA) and endogenous CAT levels compared to PLBs cryopreserved using the standard vitrification protocol (CK1). PDH at 0.1 U·ml -1 significantly improved PLB survival (by 2.5 percent), but it had no marked effect on regeneration compared to the CK1 group. It induced the same variations in ·O2-, AsA and endogenous CAT levels that were observed following CAT addition. However, PDH did not affect the H 2 O 2 and MDA content but significantly increased SOD activity. These results indicate that the addition of 400 U·ml -1 CAT and 0.1 U·ml -1 PDH at the unloading step increased survival of cryopreserved PLBs and that this improvement was associated with scavenging of H 2 O 2 and the repair of oxidative damage. Exogenous CAT also significantly improved PLB regeneration after

  11. Cryogenic regenerators

    Kush, P.; Joshi, S.C.; Thirumaleshwar, M.

    1986-01-01

    Importance of regenerators in cryogenic refrigerators is highlighted. Design aspects of regenerator are reviewed and the factors involved in the selection of regenerator material are enumerated. Various methods used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient and regenerator effectiveness are mentioned. Variation of effectiveness with various parameters is calculated by a computer programme using the ideal, Ackermann and Tipler formulae. Results are presented in graphical form. Listing of the computer programme is given in the Appendix. (author)

  12. One-pot, green, rapid synthesis of flowerlike gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide composite with regenerated silk fibroin as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    Xu, Shengjie; Yong, Liu; Wu, Peiyi

    2013-02-01

    Flowerlike gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by a facile, one-pot, environmentally friendly method in the presence of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF). The influences of reaction time, temperature, and HAuCl(4): RGO ratio on the morphology of Au NPs loaded on RGO sheets were discussed and a tentative mechanism for the formation of flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite was proposed. In addition, the flowerlike Au NPs/RGO composite showed superior catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to Au/RGO composites with other morphologies. Our work provides an alternative facile and green approach to synthesize functional metal/RGO composites.

  13. Cellulose Insulation

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  14. Investigation of interaction between silver oxide electrode and separator hydrated cellulose film in silver-cadmium accumulators

    Molotkova, E.N.; Yarochkina, E.N.

    1975-01-01

    Oxidation-reduction interaction of the oxysilver electrode with hydrocellulose film during storing charged silver-cadmium accumulators. It was demonstrated that accumulator electric characteristics durinq storing are linearly depending on the capacity of this hydrocellulose film to interact with silver oxide: the more silver is absorbed by film the quicker is the decreasing of the electromotive force and capacity of the accumulators. Preservation of the silver electrode capacity in the silver-cadmium accumulators is determined first of all by hydrocellulose separation film properties and especially by film layer adjacent to positive electrode. The more inert film layer is, regarding to silver oxide in the electrolite, the slower is dissolution of the electrode and also decompousing speed of AgO, the longer is the accumulator preservation time

  15. Efficient electrochemical regeneration of nicotinamide cofactors using a cyclopentadienyl-rhodium complex on functionalized indium tin oxide electrodes

    Kim, Soojin; Lee, Ga Ye; Lee, Jungha; Rajkumar, Eswaran; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Kim, Jinheung

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized ITO electrodes are used to regenerate NADH using [Cp*Rh(bpy)(H 2 O)] 2+ (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) electrochemically in a buffer solution. Amino- and mercapto-functionalized electrodes featured higher activity and stability for electrocatalytic generation of NADH than a bare ITO electrode. Effect of metal nanoparticles was also studied on modified ITO electrodes and the addition of platinum nanoparticles even resulted in improved activity. The electrochemical regeneration was somewhat affected in the presence of dioxygen, but not significantly. In addition, a conversion of carbon dioxide was carried out utilizing the electrochemically generated NADH and formate dehydrogenase to produce formic acid

  16. The productive cellulase binding capacity of cellulosic substrates.

    Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina

    2017-03-01

    Cellulosic biomass is the most promising feedstock for renewable biofuel production; however, the mechanisms of the heterogeneous cellulose saccharification reaction are still unsolved. As cellulases need to bind isolated molecules of cellulose at the surface of insoluble cellulose fibrils or larger aggregated cellulose structures in order to hydrolyze glycosidic bonds, the "accessibility of cellulose to cellulases" is considered to be a reaction limiting property of cellulose. We have defined the accessibility of cellulose to cellulases as the productive binding capacity of cellulose, that is, the concentration of productive binding sites on cellulose that are accessible for binding and hydrolysis by cellulases. Productive cellulase binding to cellulose results in hydrolysis and can be quantified by measuring hydrolysis rates. In this study, we measured the productive Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TrCel7A) binding capacity of five cellulosic substrates from different sources and processing histories. Swollen filter paper and bacterial cellulose had higher productive binding capacities of ∼6 µmol/g while filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose, and algal cellulose had lower productive binding capacities of ∼3 µmol/g. Swelling and regenerating filter paper using phosphoric acid increased the initial accessibility of the reducing ends to TrCel7A from 4 to 6 µmol/g. Moreover, this increase in initial productive binding capacity accounted in large part for the difference in the overall digestibility between filter paper and swollen filter paper. We further demonstrated that an understanding of how the productive binding capacity declines over the course of the hydrolysis reaction has the potential to predict overall saccharification time courses. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 533-542. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Oxidative cleavage and hydrolytic boosting of cellulose in soybean spent flakes by Trichoderma reesei Cel61A lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase

    Pierce, Brian; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Wichmann, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9) copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) from Trichoderma reesei (EG4; TrCel61A) was investigated for its ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides from soybean. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was assessed against a variety of ...

  18. Enhanced hydrolysis of cellulose hydrogels by morphological modification.

    Alfassi, Gilad; Rein, Dmitry M; Cohen, Yachin

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is one of the most abundant bio-renewable materials on earth, yet the potential of cellulosic bio-fuels is not fully exploited, primarily due to the high costs of conversion. Hydrogel particles of regenerated cellulose constitute a useful substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis, due to their porous and amorphous structure. This article describes the influence of several structural aspects of the cellulose hydrogel on its hydrolysis. The hydrogel density was shown to be directly proportional to the cellulose concentration in the initial solution, thus affecting its hydrolysis rate. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, we show that the hydrogel particles in aqueous suspension exhibit a dense external surface layer and a more porous internal network. Elimination of the external surface layer accelerated the hydrolysis rate by up to sixfold and rendered the process nearly independent of cellulose concentration. These findings may be of practical relevance to saccharification processing costs, by reducing required solvent quantities and enzyme load.

  19. Cellulose Perversions

    Maria H. Godinho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose micro/nano-fibers can be produced by electrospinning from liquid crystalline solutions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as atomic force microscopy (AFM and polarizing optical microscopy (POM measurements showed that cellulose-based electrospun fibers can curl and twist, due to the presence of an off-core line defect disclination, which was present when the fibers were prepared. This permits the mimicking of the shapes found in many systems in the living world, e.g., the tendrils of climbing plants, three to four orders of magnitude larger. In this work, we address the mechanism that is behind the spirals’ and helices’ appearance by recording the trajectories of the fibers toward diverse electrospinning targets. The intrinsic curvature of the system occurs via asymmetric contraction of an internal disclination line, which generates different shrinkages of the material along the fiber. The completely different instabilities observed for isotropic and anisotropic electrospun solutions at the exit of the needle seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the intrinsic curvature of the material is acquired during liquid crystalline sample processing inside the needle. The existence of perversions, which joins left and right helices, is also investigated by using suspended, as well as flat, targets. Possible routes of application inspired from the living world are addressed.

  20. Effect of interfibrillar PVA bridging on water stability and mechanical properties of TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibril films.

    Hakalahti, Minna; Salminen, Arto; Seppälä, Jukka; Tammelin, Tekla; Hänninen, Tuomas

    2015-08-01

    TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibrils (TCNF) were covalently bonded with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to render water stable films. Pure TCNF films and TCNF-PVA films in dry state showed similar humidity dependent behavior in the elastic region. However, in wet films PVA had a significant effect on stability and mechanical characteristics of the films. When soaked in water, pure TCNF films exhibited strong swelling behavior and poor wet strength, whereas covalently bridged TCNF-PVA composite films remained intact and could easily be handled even after 24h of soaking. Wet tensile strength of the films was considerably enhanced with only 10 wt% PVA addition. At 25% PVA concentration wet tensile strengths were decreased and films were more yielding. This behavior is attributed to the ability of PVA to reinforce and plasticize TCNF-based films. The developed approach is a simple and straightforward method to produce TCNF films that are stable in wet conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of polyethelene oxide on the thermal degradation of cellulose biofilm – Low cost material for soft tissue repair in dentistry

    Tyler, Rakim; Schiraldi, David; Roperto, Renato; Faddoul, Fady; Teich, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    Background Bio cellulose is a byproduct of sweet tea fermentation known as kombusha. During the biosynthesis by bacteria cellulose chains are polymerized by enzyme from activated glucose. The single chains are then extruded through the bacterial cell wall. Interestingly, a potential of the Kombucha’s byproduct bio cellulose (BC) as biomaterial had come into focus only in the past few decades. The unique physical and mechanical properties such as high purity, an ultrafine and highly crystalline network structure, a superior mechanical strength, flexibility, pronounced permeability to gases and liquids, and an excellent compatibility with living tissue that reinforced by biodegradability, biocompatibility, large swelling ratios. Material and Methods The bio-cellulose film specimens were provided by the R.P Dressel dental materials laboratory, Department of Comprehensive Care, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, US. The films were harvested, washed with water and dried at room temperature overnight. 1wt% of PEG-2000 and 10wt% of NaOH were added into ultrapure water to prepare PEG/NaOH solution. Then bio-cellulose film was added to the mixture and swell for 3 h at room temperature. All bio-cellulose film specimens were all used in the TA Instruments Q500 Thermogravmetric Analyzer to investigate weight percent lost and degradation. The TGA was under ambient air conditions at a heating rate of 10ºC/min. Results and Conclusions PEG control exhibited one transition with the peak at 380ºC. Cellulose and cellulose/ PEG films showed 3 major transitions. Interestingly, the cellulose/PEG film showed slightly elevated temperatures when compared to the corresponding transitions for cellulose control. The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) degradation curves were analyzed. Cellulose control film exhibited two zero order transitions, that indicate the independence of the rate of degradation from the amount on the initial substance. The

  2. Electrically aligned cellulose film for electro-active paper and its piezoelectricity

    Yun, Sungryul; Jang, Sangdong; Yun, Gyu-Young; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    Electrically aligned regenerated cellulose films were fabricated and the effect of applied electric field was investigated for the piezoelectricity of electro-active paper (EAPap). The EAPap was fabricated by coating gold electrodes on both sides of regenerated cellulose film. The cellulose film was prepared by dissolving cotton pulp in LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution followed by a cellulose chain regeneration process. During the regeneration process an external electric field was applied in the direction of mechanical stretching. Alignment of cellulose fiber chains was investigated as a function of applied electric field. The material characteristics of the cellulose films were analyzed by using an x-ray diffractometer, a field emission scanning electron microscope and a high voltage electron microscope. The application of external electric fields was found to induce formation of nanofibers in the cellulose, resulting in an increase in the crystallinity index (CI) values. It was also found that samples with higher CI values showed higher in-plane piezoelectric constant, d 31 , values. The piezoelectricity of the current EAPap films was measured to be equivalent or better than that of ordinary PVDF films. Therefore, an external electric field applied to a cellulose film along with a mechanical stretching during the regeneration process can enhance the piezoelectricity. (technical note)

  3. Ni/MgAlO regeneration for catalytic wet air oxidation of an azo-dye in trickle-bed reaction

    Vallet, Ana; Ovejero, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Araceli; Peres, José A.; García, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ni supported over hydrotalcite calcined precursors as catalyst. ► Catalytic wet air oxidation in trickle bed reactor for Chromotrope 2R removal. ► Dye removal depends on temperature, initial dye concentration and flow rate. ► The catalyst proved to bare-usable after in situ regeneration. -- Abstract: Active nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg–Al mixed oxides have been recently developed and it has also been demonstrated that they are also highly selective in Catalytic Wet air Oxidation (CWAO) of dyes. CWAO of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been studied using a trickle bed reactor employing temperatures from 100 to 180 °C, liquid flow rates from 0.1 to 0.7 mL min −1 and initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 ppm. Total pressure and air flow were 25 bar and 300 mL min −1 , respectively. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 24 h on stream with an average TOC conversion of 82% at 150 °C and T r = 0.098 g Ni min mL −1 . After the reaction, a 1.1 wt% C of carbonaceous deposit is formed onto the catalyst and a diminution of 30% of the surface area with respect of the fresh catalyst was observed. An increase in the space time gave higher TOC conversions up to T r = 0.098 g Ni min mL −1 , attaining values of 80% at 180 °C. The performance of TOC and dye removal does not decrease after two regeneration cycles. In total, a 57 h effective reaction has been carried out with no loss of catalytic activity

  4. Ni/MgAlO regeneration for catalytic wet air oxidation of an azo-dye in trickle-bed reaction

    Vallet, Ana [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ovejero, Gabriel, E-mail: govejero@quim.ucm.es [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodríguez, Araceli [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Peres, José A. [Centro de Química de Vila Real, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); García, Juan, E-mail: juangcia@quim.ucm.es [Grupo de Catálisis y Procesos de Separación (CyPS), Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Ni supported over hydrotalcite calcined precursors as catalyst. ► Catalytic wet air oxidation in trickle bed reactor for Chromotrope 2R removal. ► Dye removal depends on temperature, initial dye concentration and flow rate. ► The catalyst proved to bare-usable after in situ regeneration. -- Abstract: Active nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg–Al mixed oxides have been recently developed and it has also been demonstrated that they are also highly selective in Catalytic Wet air Oxidation (CWAO) of dyes. CWAO of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been studied using a trickle bed reactor employing temperatures from 100 to 180 °C, liquid flow rates from 0.1 to 0.7 mL min{sup −1} and initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 ppm. Total pressure and air flow were 25 bar and 300 mL min{sup −1}, respectively. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 24 h on stream with an average TOC conversion of 82% at 150 °C and T{sub r} = 0.098 g{sub Ni} min mL{sup −1}. After the reaction, a 1.1 wt% C of carbonaceous deposit is formed onto the catalyst and a diminution of 30% of the surface area with respect of the fresh catalyst was observed. An increase in the space time gave higher TOC conversions up to T{sub r} = 0.098 g{sub Ni} min mL{sup −1}, attaining values of 80% at 180 °C. The performance of TOC and dye removal does not decrease after two regeneration cycles. In total, a 57 h effective reaction has been carried out with no loss of catalytic activity.

  5. Vegetative regeneration

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  6. Liver regeneration

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  7. Cellulose: To depolymerize… or not to?

    Coseri, Sergiu

    Oxidation of the primary OH groups in cellulose is a pivotal reaction both at lab and industrial scale, leading to the value-added products, i.e. oxidized cellulose which have tremendous applications in medicine, pharmacy and hi-tech industry. Moreover, the introduction of carboxyl moieties creates prerequisites for further cellulose functionalization through covalent attachment or electrostatic interactions, being an essential achievement designed to boost the area of cellulose-based nanomaterials fabrication. Various methods for the cellulose oxidation have been developed in the course of time, aiming the selective conversion of the OH groups. These methods use: nitrogen dioxide in chloroform, alkali metal nitrites and nitrates, strong acids alone or in combination with permanganates or sodium nitrite, ozone, and sodium periodate or lead (IV) tetraacetate. In the case of the last two reagents, cellulose dialdehydes derivatives are formed, which are further oxidized by sodium chlorite or hydrogen peroxide to form dicarboxyl groups. A major improvement in the cellulose oxidation was represented by the introduction of the stable nitroxyl radicals, such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO). However, a major impediment for the researchers working in this area is related with the severe depolymerisation occurred during the TEMPO-mediated conversion of CH 2 OH into COOH groups. On the other hand, the cellulose depolymerisation represent the key step, in the general effort of searching for alternative strategies to develop new renewable, carbon-neutral energy sources. In this connection, exploiting the biomass feed stocks to produce biofuel and other low molecular organic compounds, involves a high amount of research to improve the overall reaction conditions, limit the energy consumption, and to use benign reagents. This work is therefore focused on the parallelism between these two apparently antagonist processes involving cellulose, building a necessary

  8. The Synthesis of a Novel Cellulose Physical Gel

    Jiufang Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose possessing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was used as a host molecule and cellulose possessing ferrocene (Fc as a guest polymer. Infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV, and contact angle analysis were used to characterise the material structure and the inclusion behaviour. The results showed that the β-CD-cellulose and the Fc-cellulose can form inclusion complexes. Moreover, ferrocene oxidation, and reduction of state can be adjusted by sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as an oxidant and glutathione (GSH as a reductant. In this study, a physical gel based on β-CD-cellulose/Fc-cellulose was formed under mild conditions in which autonomous healing between cut surfaces occurred after 24 hours. The physical gel can be controlled in the sol-gel transition. The compressive strength of the Fc-cellulose/β-CD-cellulose gel increased with increased cellulose concentration. The host-guest interaction between the side chains of cellulose could strengthen the gel. The cellulose physical gel may eventually be used as a stimulus-responsive, healing material in biomedical applications.

  9. Cellulose utilization: an overview

    Bassham, J A

    1975-01-01

    To summarize, the conversion of cellulose to ethanol via hydrolysis to glucose followed by fermentation appears to be highly efficient in terms of energy conservation, yield, and quality of product, especially when reasonably high quality cellulosic waste is available.

  10. Impact of application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on callus induction, plant regeneration, element content and antioxidant enzyme activity in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill. under salt stress

    Alharby Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nanomaterials and their potential applications have been given considerable attention by researchers in various fields, especially agricultural biotechnology. However, not much has been done to evaluate the role or effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP in regulating physiological and biochemical processes in response to salt-induced stress. For this purpose, some callus growth traits, plant regeneration rate, mineral element (sodium, potassium, phosphorous and nitrogen contents and changes in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX in tissues of five tomato cultivars were investigated in a callus culture exposed to elevated concentrations of salt (3.0 and 6.0 g L-1NaCl, and in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 and 30 mg L-1. The relative callus growth rate was inhibited by 3.0 g L-1 NaCl; this was increased dramatically at 6.0 g L-1. Increasing exposure to NaCl was associated with a significantly higher sodium content and SOD and GPX activities. Zinc oxide nanoparticles mitigated the effects of NaCl, and in this application of lower concentrations (15 mg L-1 was more effective than a higher concentration (30 mg L-1. This finding indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles should be investigated further as a potential anti-stress agent in crop production. Different tomato cultivars showed different degrees of tolerance to salinity in the presence of ZnO-NP. The cultivars Edkawy, followed by Sandpoint, were less affected by salt stress than the cultivar Anna Aasa.

  11. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    Livazovic, Sara

    2015-05-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  12. A comparison of the performance of aromatic polyamide and cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membrane on the regeneration of secondary effluents; Comparacion del funcionamiento de membranas de osmosis inversa de poliamida aromatica y acetato de celulosa en la regeneracion de efluentes secundarios

    Lopez Ramirez, J. A.; Carrasco Vega, M.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2002-07-01

    The application of reverse osmosis in regenerating waste waters has aroused a great deal of interest, although relatively few experiments using this technique have so far been carried out in Spain. In 1994, an experimental pilot plant was built at the La Barrosa waste water treatment plant in Chiclana de la Frontera in the province of Cadiz. This pilot plant with a capacity of 100 m''3/day, was equipped with various advanced treatments, most notably reverse osmosis, for treating urban waste waters for re-use. Since this pilot plant was built, various experiments have been carried out employing cellulose acetate (Hydranautics) and different types of Spanish-made aromatic polyamide membranes (Pridesa). Each type of membrane proposed different operating characteristics and feed-water requirements making each one suitable for a particular purpose. In this study, the secondary effluents was subjected to different kinds of treatment-called intense treatment, moderate treatment and minimum treatment-before reaching the reverse osmosis unit, which influenced the conditions in which the membranes operated. Following each type of treatment, the waters entering and leaving the installation were analysed to evaluate the quality of the final effluent and the effectiveness of the treatment carried out. The quality was extremely good in all the permeate samples analysed, almost irrespective of the type of treatment applied. It was also found that the cellulose acetate membranes tended to become less dirty than the aromatic polyamide membranes,due to their surface morphology. Nevertheless, the polyamide membranes have various advantages allowing them to be used in a wide range of applications at a lower energy cost. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Cellulose Anionic Hydrogels Based on Cellulose Nanofibers As Natural Stimulants for Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Minmin; Luan, Qian; Tang, Hu; Huang, Fenghong; Xiang, Xia; Yang, Chen; Bao, Yuping

    2017-05-17

    Cellulose anionic hydrogels were successfully prepared by dissolving TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers in NaOH/urea aqueous solution and being cross-linked with epichlorohydrin. The hydrogels exhibited microporous structure and high hydrophilicity, which contribute to the excellent water absorption property. The growth indexes, including the germination rate, root length, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry weight of the seedlings, were investigated. The results showed that cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents as plant growth regulators could be beneficial for seed germination and growth. Moreover, they presented preferable antifungal activity during the breeding and growth of the sesame seed breeding. Thus, the cellulose anionic hydrogels with suitable carboxylate contents could be applied as soilless culture mediums for plant growth. This research provided a simple and effective method for the fabrication of cellulose anionic hydrogel and evaluated its application in agriculture.

  14. Ni/MgAlO regeneration for catalytic wet air oxidation of an azo-dye in trickle-bed reaction.

    Vallet, Ana; Ovejero, Gabriel; Rodríguez, Araceli; Peres, José A; García, Juan

    2013-01-15

    Active nickel catalysts (7 wt%) supported over Mg-Al mixed oxides have been recently developed and it has also been demonstrated that they are also highly selective in Catalytic Wet air Oxidation (CWAO) of dyes. CWAO of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) has been studied using a trickle bed reactor employing temperatures from 100 to 180 °C, liquid flow rates from 0.1 to 0.7 mL min(-1) and initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 ppm. Total pressure and air flow were 25 bar and 300 mL min(-1), respectively. The catalyst showed a very stable activity up to 24 h on stream with an average TOC conversion of 82% at 150 °C and T(r)=0.098 g(Ni) min mL(-1). After the reaction, a 1.1 wt% C of carbonaceous deposit is formed onto the catalyst and a diminution of 30% of the surface area with respect of the fresh catalyst was observed. An increase in the space time gave higher TOC conversions up to T(r)=0.098 g(Ni) min mL(-1), attaining values of 80% at 180 °C. The performance of TOC and dye removal does not decrease after two regeneration cycles. In total, a 57 h effective reaction has been carried out with no loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of cellulose nanowhiskers

    Nascimento, Nayra R.; Pinheiro, Ivanei F.; Morales, Ana R.; Ravagnani, Sergio P.; Mei, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer earth. The cellulose nanowhiskers can be extracted from the cellulose. These have attracted attention for its use in nanostructured materials for various applications, such as nanocomposites, because they have peculiar characteristics, among them, high aspect ratio, biodegradability and excellent mechanical properties. This work aims to characterize cellulose nanowhiskers from microcrystalline cellulose. Therefore, these materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to assess the degree of crystallinity, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to the morphology of nanowhiskers and thermal stability was evaluated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). (author)

  16. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  17. Non-invasive monitoring of in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration by multiparametric MR imaging

    Chen, Zelong; Yan, Chenggong; Yan, Shina; Liu, Qin; Hou, Meirong; Xu, Yikai; Guo, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Numerous biodegradable hydrogels for cartilage regeneration have been widely used in the field of tissue engineering. However, to non-invasively monitor hydrogel degradation and efficiently evaluate cartilage restoration in situ is still challenging. Methods: A ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-labeled cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)/silk fibroin (SF)-blended hydrogel system was developed to monitor hydrogel degradation during cartilage regeneration. The physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of the hydrogel were evaluated in vitro. The in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration of different implants were assessed using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and further confirmed by histological analysis in a rabbit cartilage defect model for 3 months. Results: USPIO-labeled hydrogels showed sufficient MR contrast enhancement and retained stability without loss of the relaxation rate. Neither the mechanical properties of the hydrogels nor the proliferation of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were affected by USPIO labeling in vitro. CNC/SF hydrogels with BMSCs degraded more quickly than the acellular hydrogels as reflected by the MR relaxation rate trends in vivo. The morphology of neocartilage was noninvasively visualized by the three-dimensional water-selective cartilage MRI scan sequence, and the cartilage repair was further demonstrated by macroscopic and histological observations. Conclusion: This USPIO-labeled CNC/SF hydrogel system provides a new perspective on image-guided tissue engineering for cartilage regeneration. PMID:29464005

  18. Protoporphyrin-IX conjugated cellulose nanofibers that exhibit high antibacterial photodynamic inactivation efficacy

    Dong, Jiancheng; Ghiladi, Reza A.; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2018-06-01

    Towards the development of anti-infective nanoscale materials employing a photodynamic mechanism of action, we report the synthesis, physical properties (SEM, mechanical strength, water contact angle), spectroscopic characterization (infrared, Raman, DRUV), and evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of porphyrin-conjugated regenerated cellulose nanofibers, termed RC-TETA-PPIX-Zn. Cellulose acetate was electrospun to produce nanofibers, thermally treated to enhance mechanical strength, and finally hydrolyzed to produce regenerated cellulose (RC) nanofibers that possessed a high surface area and nanofibrous structure. Covalent grafting of a protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) photosensitizer using epichlorohydrin/triethylenetetramine (TETA), followed by zinc chelation, afforded RC-TETA-PPIX-Zn. The high surface area afforded by the nanofibers and efficient photosensitizer conjugation led to a very high loading of 412 nmol PPIX/mg material, corresponding to a degree of substitution of 0.1. Antibacterial efficacy was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-6538) and Escherichia coli (ATCC-8099), with our best results achieving detection limit inactivation (99.999+%) of both bacteria after only 20 min illumination (Xe lamp, λ ≥ 420 nm). No statistically significant loss in antibacterial activity was observed when using nanofibers that had been ‘photo-aged’ with 5 h of pre-illumination to simulate the effects of photobleaching. Post aPDI, scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria had undergone cell membrane leakage, consistent with oxidative damage caused by photo-generated reactive oxygen species. Taken together, the conjugation strategy employed here provides a scalable, facile and efficient route to creating nanofibrous materials from natural polymers with a high photosensitizer loading, enabling the use of commercially-available neutral porphyrin photosensitizers, such as PPIX, in the design and synthesis of potent anti-infective nanomaterials.

  19. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  20. Light Weight Biomorphous Cellular Ceramics from Cellulose Templates

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Yee, Bo-Moon; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Bimorphous ceramics are a new class of materials that can be fabricated from the cellulose templates derived from natural biopolymers. These biopolymers are abundantly available in nature and are produced by the photosynthesis process. The wood cellulose derived carbon templates have three- dimensional interconnectivity. A wide variety of non-oxide and oxide based ceramics have been fabricated by template conversion using infiltration and reaction-based processes. The cellular anatomy of the cellulose templates plays a key role in determining the processing parameters (pyrolysis, infiltration conditions, etc.) and resulting ceramic materials. The processing approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the biomorphous cellular ceramics (silicon carbide and oxide based) have been discussed.

  1. Increased Oxidative Stress Response in Granulocytes from Older Patients with a Hip Fracture May Account for Slow Regeneration

    Zhiyong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal femur fracture, a typical fracture of the elderly, is often associated with morbidity, reduced quality of life, impaired physical function and increased mortality. There exists evidence that responses of the hematopoietic microenvironment to fractures change with age. Therefore, we investigated oxidative stress markers and oxidative stress-related MAPK activation in granulocytes from the young and the elderly with and without fractured long bones. Lipid peroxidation levels were increased in the elderly controls and patients. Aged granulocytes were more sensitive towards oxidative stress induced damage than young granulocytes. This might be due to the basally increased expression of SOD-1 in the elderly, which was not further induced by fractures, as observed in young patients. This might be caused by an altered MAPK activation. In aged granulocytes basal p38 and JNK activities were increased and basal ERK1/2 activity was decreased. Following fracture, JNK activity decreased, while ERK1/2 and p38 activities increased in both age groups. Control experiments with HL60 cells revealed that the observed p38 activation depends strongly on age. Summarizing, we observed age-dependent changes in the oxidative stress response system of granulocytes after fractures, for example, altered MAPK activation and SOD-1 expression. This makes aged granulocytes vulnerable to the stress stimuli of the fracture and following surgery.

  2. Endurance of high molecular weight carboxymethyl cellulose in corrosive environments

    Murodov, M. M.; Rahmanberdiev, G. R.; Khalikov, M. M.; Egamberdiev, E. A.; Negmatova, K. C.; Saidov, M. M.; Mahmudova, N.

    2012-07-01

    Lignin obtained from the waste cooking liquor, formed after soda pulping process, is used as an inhibitor of NaCMC thermo oxidative degradation in presence of in extreme conditions during drilling oil wells. In this paper the schematic process of obtaining NaCMC by the principle of "monoapparat" on the basis of cellulose produced by non-wood cellulose materials is presented.

  3. γ radiolysis of cellulose acetate

    Ali, S.M.; Clay, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    The major degradative process in γ-irradiated cellulose acetate is chain scission. For the dry powder the G/sub s/ value (number of scissions per 100 eV of energy absorbed) was found to be 7.1. The water-swollen material was found to degrade at the higher rate of G/sub s/ = 9.45. Additions of ethanol and methanol to the water brought about reductions in G/sub s/, whereas dissolved nitrous oxide produced an increase in G/sub s/. The useful life of cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes exposed to γ radiation was estimated by observations of the water permeation rate during irradiation. Membrane breakdown occurred at 15 Mrad in pure water, but the dose to breakdown was extended to 83 Mrad in the presence of 4% methanol. 3 figures, 1 table

  4. Reduction and shaping of graphene-oxide by laser-printing for controlled bone tissue regeneration and bacterial killing

    Palmieri, Valentina; Barba, Marta; Di Pietro, Lorena; Gentilini, Silvia; Chiara Braidotti, Maria; Ciancico, Carlotta; Bugli, Francesca; Ciasca, Gabriele; Larciprete, Rosanna; Lattanzi, Wanda; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; De Spirito, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Papi, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are capable of inducing stem cells differentiation into bone tissue with variable efficacy depending on reductive state of the material. Thus, modulation of osteogenic process and of bone mineral density distribution is theoretically possible by controlling the GO oxidative state. In this study, we laser-printed GO surfaces in order to obtain both a local photo-thermal GO reduction and the formation of nano-wrinkles along precise geometric pattern. Initially, after cells adhered on the surface, stem cells migrated and accumulated on the reduced and wrinkled surface. When the local density of the stem cells on the reduced stripes was high, cells started to proliferate and occupy the oxidized/flat area. The designed surfaces morphology guided stem cell orientation and the reduction accelerated differentiation. Furthermore the reduced sharp nano-wrinkles were able to enhance the GO antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a common cause of prosthetic joints infections. This strategy can offer a revolution in present and future trends of scaffolds design for regenerative medicine.

  5. My Regeneration:

    Carter, Dale

    2017-01-01

    and cultural referents shows that it offers an index to the album. Using its frontier setting and a variety of sacred and secular myths, symbols and icons, ‘Heroes and Villains,’ like Smile as a whole, offers historically-informed visions of national decline, crisis and regeneration that are at once critical...

  6. High magnetic field quantum transport in Au nanoparticle–cellulose films

    Turyanska, L; Makarovsky, O; Patanè, A; Kozlova, N V; Liu, Z; Li, M; Mann, S

    2012-01-01

    We report the magneto-transport properties of cellulose films comprising interconnected networks of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Cellulose is a biopolymer that can be made electrically conducting by cellulose regeneration in Au NP dispersions. The mechanism of electronic conduction in the Au–cellulose films changes from variable range hopping to metallic-like conduction with decreasing resistivity. Our experiments in high magnetic fields (up to 45 T) reveal negative magnetoresistance in the highly resistive films. This is attributed to the spin polarization of the Au NPs and the magnetic field induced suppression of electron spin flips during spin-polarized tunneling in the NP network. (paper)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose from triacetate of cellulose

    Vega-Baudrit, Jose; Sibaja, Maria; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Rivera A, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    It was carried-out a study for the synthesis and characterization of amorphous cellulose starting from cellulose triacetate. X-rays diffraction was used in order to obtain the cellulose crystallinity degree, also infrared spectroscopy FTIR was used. (author)

  8. CELLULOSIC NANOCOMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their wide abundance, their renewable and environmentally benign nature, and their outstanding mechanical properties, a great deal of attention has been paid recently to cellulosic nanofibrillar structures as components in nanocomposites. A first major challenge has been to find efficient ways to liberate cellulosic fibrils from different source materials, including wood, agricultural residues, or bacterial cellulose. A second major challenge has involved the lack of compatibility of cellulosic surfaces with a variety of plastic materials. The water-swellable nature of cellulose, especially in its non-crystalline regions, also can be a concern in various composite materials. This review of recent work shows that considerable progress has been achieved in addressing these issues and that there is potential to use cellulosic nano-components in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  9. Internally plasticised cellulose polymers

    Burnup, M.; Hayes, G.F.; Fydelor, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Plasticised cellulose polymers comprise base polymer having a chain of β-anhydroglucose units joined by ether linkages, with at least one of said units carrying at least one chemically unreactive side chain derived from an allylic monomer or a vinyl substituted derivative of ferrocene. The side chains are normally formed by radiation grafting. These internally plasticised celluloses are useful in particular as inhibitor coatings for rocket motor propellants and in general wherever cellulose polymers are employed. (author)

  10. Hydrolytic Degradation and Mechanical Stability of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)/Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes as Scaffolds for In Vitro Neural Tissue Regeneration.

    Sánchez-González, Sandra; Diban, Nazely; Urtiaga, Ane

    2018-03-05

    The present work studies the functional behavior of novel poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes functionalized with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplatelets under simulated in vitro culture conditions (phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 37 °C) during 1 year, in order to elucidate their applicability as scaffolds for in vitro neural regeneration. The morphological, chemical, and DSC results demonstrated that high internal porosity of the membranes facilitated water permeation and procured an accelerated hydrolytic degradation throughout the bulk pathway. Therefore, similar molecular weight reduction, from 80 kDa to 33 kDa for the control PCL, and to 27 kDa for PCL/rGO membranes, at the end of the study, was observed. After 1 year of hydrolytic degradation, though monomers coming from the hydrolytic cleavage of PCL diffused towards the PBS medium, the pH was barely affected, and the rGO nanoplatelets mainly remained in the membranes which envisaged low cytotoxic effect. On the other hand, the presence of rGO nanomaterials accelerated the loss of mechanical stability of the membranes. However, it is envisioned that the gradual degradation of the PCL/rGO membranes could facilitate cells infiltration, interconnectivity, and tissue formation.

  11. 2, 3-Dihydrazone cellulose: Prospective material for tissue engineering scaffolds

    Verma, Vipin; Verma, Poonam; Ray, Pratima; Ray, Alok R.

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose was oxidized by sodium metaperiodate to give rise to 2, 3-dialdehyde cellulose with 92% oxidation ratio, which was further reacted with hydrazine to form 2, 3-dihydrazone cellulose for the incorporation of NH 2 groups. Two forms of matrix, i.e. films and sponges were fabricated. The materials were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed its porous architecture with an average pore size of 150 μm. Swelling studies were carried out in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at physiological pH 7.4. The contact angle of the 2, 3-dihydrazone cellulose surface was determined for assessing its hydrophilicity which came out to be 23 deg. ± 2 deg. NIH3T3 mice fibroblast cells were used for determining the cytocompatibility of the surfaces. The morphology of the cells was observed through optical inverted microscopy. The results show that 2, 3-dihydrazone cellulose can be used as scaffold material in tissue engineering

  12. Fenton- and Persulfate-driven Regeneration of Contaminant-spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Fenton- or persulfate-driven chemical oxidation regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two treatment technologies: adsorption of organic chemicals onto GAC and chemical oxidation regeneration of the spent-GAC. Environmental...

  13. Periodontal regeneration.

    Ivanovski, S

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.

  14. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  15. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  16. The Role of Neurotrophic Factors Conjugated to Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: In Vitro Studies

    Ofra Ziv-Polat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local delivery of neurotrophic factors is a pillar of neural repair strategies in the peripheral nervous system. The main disadvantage of the free growth factors is their short half-life of few minutes. In order to prolong their activity, we have conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles three neurotrophic factors: nerve growth factor (βNGF, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2. Comparative stability studies of free versus conjugated factors revealed that the conjugated neurotrophic factors were significantly more stable in tissue cultures and in medium at 37°C. The biological effects of free versus conjugated neurotrophic factors were examined on organotypic dorsal root ganglion (DRG cultures performed in NVR-Gel, composed mainly of hyaluronic acid and laminin. Results revealed that the conjugated neurotrophic factors enhanced early nerve fiber sprouting compared to the corresponding free factors. The most meaningful result was that conjugated-GDNF, accelerated the onset and progression of myelin significantly earlier than the free GDNF and the other free and conjugated factors. This is probably due to the beneficial and long-acting effect that the stabilized conjugated-GDNF had on neurons and Schwann cells. These conclusive results make NVR-Gel enriched with conjugated-GDNF, a desirable scaffold for the reconstruction of severed peripheral nerve.

  17. Electrochemically active biofilm and photoelectrocatalytic regeneration of the titanium dioxide composite electrode for advanced oxidation in water treatment

    Bennani, Yasmina; Peters, Marjolein C.F.M.; Appel, Peter W.; Rietveld, Luuk C.

    2015-01-01

    A novel bio-photoelectrocatalytic system was used to effectively reduce phenol as a model organic pollutant through the utilization of energy derived from bacteria and the use of solar energy for activation of TiO 2 . In such a system, a synergistic effect occurs between the bio-electrochemical and photocatalytic oxidation processes. TiO 2 /Ti composite electrodes were operated with variable biofilm coverage (partially developed biofilm after 6 days and fully developed biofilms after 12, 20 and 40 days at room temperature and pH 7). The study depicted the effectiveness of biofilm formation in enhancing the electron transfer. Kinetic analysis showed that the system exhibited a more rapid phenol degradation at a rate two times higher than rates by individual photo(electro) catalytic and biodegradable methods. Higher current density (8.4 × 10 −2 mAcm −2 ) and phenol removal efficiency of 62% after four hours of irradiation were observed especially with electrochemically active biofilm developed after 20 days. TiO 2 /Ti composite electrode. After the additional application of cleaning process, the TiO 2 /Ti composite electrode could be used several times with nearly the same efficiency, leading to decrease in the final cost of the treatment process.

  18. Engineering a multi-biofunctional composite using poly(ethylenimine) decorated graphene oxide for bone tissue regeneration

    Kumar, Sachin; Raj, Shammy; Sarkar, Kishor; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble osteoinductive factors. Increased adsorption of osteogenic factors due to the amine and oxygen containing functional groups on GO_PEI augment stem cell differentiation. GO_PEI was also highly efficient in imparting bactericidal activity with 85% reduction in counts of E. coli colonies compared to neat PCL at 5% filler content and was more than twice as efficient as GO. This may be attributed to the synergistic effect of the sharp edges of the particles along with the presence of the different chemical moieties. Thus, GO_PEI based polymer composites can be utilized to prepare bioactive resorbable biomaterials as an alternative to using labile biomolecules for fabricating orthopedic devices for fracture fixation and tissue engineering.Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble

  19. Regeneration of porous nickel elements. [an aqueous solution of NH/sub 3/--NH/sub 4/Cl is passed through cell to remove nickel oxides

    Winsel, A; Von Doehren, H H

    1972-01-27

    A method for regenerating a fuel cell with Ag-catalyzed O electrodes containing Ni and H electrodes containing Raney Ni where the voltage had dropped from 750 to 630 mV within 3200 hr at 50 mA/cm/sup 2/ is described. An aqueous NH/sub 3/-NH/sub 4/Cl solution was passed through the cell under 1 atm H at 60/sup 0/, whereby 27 g Ni was dissolved as the hydroxide. The voltage of the regenerated cell was 770 mV and remained constant during 500 hr operation. The Ni ions in the regenerating solutions were removed by electrolysis.

  20. Understanding the Role of Physical Properties of Cellulose on Its Hydrolyzability by Cellulases

    O'Dell, Patrick Jonathan

    Cellulose has long been explored as a potential feedstock for biofuel, however the recalcitrance of cellulose makes its conversion into biofuel much more challenging and economically unfavorable compared to well-established processes for converting starch or sugar feedstocks into biofuel. Enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose into soluble sugars, glucose and cellobiose, have been found to work processively along cellulose microfibrils starting from reducing end groups. For this study, cellulose was produced and purified in-house from Gluconacetobacter xylinum cultures, and characterized by quantifying functional groups (aldehyde, ketone, and carboxyl groups) to determine the extent of oxidation of cellulose due to the processing steps. The main goal of this study was to look at the impacts of ultrasonication on cellulose's structure and the enzymatic hydrolyzability of cellulose. A completely randomized experimental design was used to test the effect of ultrasonication time and amplitude (intensity) on changes in cellulose fibril length, degree of polymerization, and rates and extents of hydrolysis. Results indicated that sonication time does significantly impact both the fibril length and average degree of polymerization of cellulose. The impact of ultrasonication on the hydrolyzability of cellulose by commercial cellulase and beta-glucosidase preparations could not be effectively resolved due to high variability in the experimental results. These studies serve as a basis for future studies understanding the role of cellulose microstructure in the mechanism of cellulase hydrolysis of cellulose.

  1. Regeneration of granular activated carbon saturated with acetone and isopropyl alcohol via a recirculation process under H2O2/UV oxidation.

    Horng, Richard S; Tseng, I-Chin

    2008-06-15

    This study examines a water-based system, coupling an adsorber and a photoreactor, for regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) saturated with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Through water recirculation the regeneration reaction was operated in both intermittent and continuous ultraviolet illumination modes. With a periodic dosage of hydrogen peroxide not only was regeneration efficient but it was also catalyzed by GAC in the adsorber. The concentrations of acetone, solution chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH and organic residues on GAC surfaces were measured during regenerations. Both pH and solution COD were found to correlate with regeneration completion as measured by organic residue on GAC surfaces in four regeneration cycles with acetone. Solution pH decreased to the acidic values and then returned to near its original value when organic residues were 0.085-0.255 mg/g GAC, that is, destruction efficiency of adsorbed acetone on the GAC surface was more than 99%. Likewise, solution COD became low (properties in each of eight cycles: adsorptive capacities were 95+/-7 mg acetone/g GAC and 87+/-3 mg IPA/g GAC, and breakthrough time was 0.86+/-0.05 for acetone and 0.78+/-0.03 h for IPA. An economic assessment of the system showed that the operating cost was about 0.04 USD for treating every gram of acetone in the air.

  2. Environmentally friendly cellulose-based polyelectrolytes in wastewater treatment.

    Grenda, Kinga; Arnold, Julien; Gamelas, José A F; Rasteiro, Maria G

    2017-09-01

    Natural-based polyelectrolytes (PELs), with all the advantages coming from being produced from renewable and biodegradable sources, are a potential solution for the removal of dyes from wastewater. In this work, surplus Eucalyptus bleached cellulose fibres from a paper mill were modified to increase the charge and solubility of cellulose. First, reactive aldehyde groups were introduced in the cellulose backbone by periodate oxidation of cellulose. Further modification with alkylammonium produced positively charged cellulose-based PELs. The final products were characterized by several analytical techniques. The PEL with the highest substitution degree of cationic groups was evaluated for its performance in decolouration processes, bentonite being used as aid. This was found to be effective for colour removal of either anionic or cationic dyes. Bio-PELs can thus be considered as very favourable eco-friendly flocculation agents for decolouration of harsh effluents from several industries, considering their biodegradable nature and thus the ability to produce less sludge.

  3. Crosslinked cellulose thin film composite nanofiltration membranes with zero salt rejection

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2015-05-14

    We report a new synthetic route of fabricating regenerated cellulose nanofiltration membranes. The membranes are composite membranes with a thin selective layer of cellulose, which was prepared by regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (a hydrophobic cellulose derivative) film followed by crosslinking. Filtration experiments using mixtures of sugar and sodium chloride showed that solutes above 300 Da were highly rejected whereas practically no rejection was observed for NaCl. This is a big advantage for a complete desalination as the existing commercial nanofiltration membranes typically exhibit NaCl rejection in the range of 30–60%. Membranes with zero NaCl rejection are required for recovery and purification applications in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Effect of addition of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer and zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate/organoclay biocomposite

    Putra, B. A. P.; Juwono, A. L.; Rochman, N. T.

    2017-07-01

    Plastics as packaging materials and coatings undergo increasing demands globally each year. This pose a serious problem to the environment due to its difficulty to degrade. One solution to addressing the problem of plastic wastes is the use of bioplastics. According to the European Organization Bioplastic, one of the biodegradable plastics is derivative of cellulose. To improve mechanical properties of bioplastic, biocomposites are made with the addition of certain additives and fillers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer (BBP) and ZnO nanoparticles addition on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) / organoclay biocomposite. ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from commercial ZnO precursor by using sol-gel size reduction method. ZnO was dissolved in a solution of citric acid in the ratio 1:1 to 1:5 to form zinc citrate. Zinc citrate then decomposed by calcination at temperature of 600oC. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 44.4 nm is obtained at a ratio of 1: 2. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles and BBP plasticizer was varied to determine the effect on the mechanical properties of biocomposite. The addition of 10 - 15 %wt ZnO nanoparticles and 30 - 40 %wt BBP plasticizer was studied to determine the effect on the tensile strength, elongation, and modulus elasticity of the biocomposites. Biocomposite films were made by using solution casting method with acetone as solvent. The addition of plasticizer BBP and ZnO nanoparticles by 30% and 10% made biocomposite has a tensile strength of 2.223 MPa.

  5. Fulton Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    Sumait, Necy [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Cuzens, John [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States); Klann, Richard [BlueFire Ethanol, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Final report on work performed by BlueFire on the deployment of acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic waste materials into renewable fuels, power and chemicals in a production facility to be located in Fulton, Mississippi.

  6. Cardiomyocyte Regeneration

    Toshio Nakanishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The heart was initially believed to be a terminally differentiated organ; once the cardiomyocytes died, no recovery could be made to replace the dead cells. However, around a decade ago, the concept of cardiac stem cells (CSCs in adult hearts was proposed. CSCs differentiate into cardiomyocytes, keeping the heart functioning. Studies have proved the existence of stem cells in the heart. These somatic stem cells have been studied for use in cardiac regeneration. Moreover, recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were invented, and methodologies have now been developed to induce stable cardiomyocyte differentiation and purification of mature cardiomyocytes. A reprogramming method has also been applied to direct reprogramming using cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes. Here, we address cardiomyocyte differentiation of CSCs and iPSCs. Furthermore, we describe the potential of CSCs in regenerative biology and regenerative medicine.

  7. Heart regeneration.

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

    1983-05-13

    A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  9. Superhydrophobic cellulose-based bionanocomposite films from Pickering emulsions

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip J.; Loth, Eric; Miller, Lance

    2009-04-01

    Inherently superhydrophobic and flexible cellulose-based bionanocomposites were fabricated from solid stabilized (Pickering) emulsions. Emulsions were formed by dispersing cyclosiloxanes in water stabilized by layered silicate particles and were subsequently modified by blending into a zinc oxide nanofluid. The polymer matrix was a blend of cellulose nitrate and fluoroacrylic polymer (Zonyl 8740) precompatibilized in solution. Coatings were spray cast onto aluminum substrates from polymer blends dispersed in modified Pickering emulsions. No postsurface treatment was required to induce superhydrophobicity. Effect of antiseptic additives on bionanocomposite superhydrophobicity is also discussed. Replacing cellulose nitrate with commercial liquid bandage solutions produced identical superhydrophobic coatings.

  10. Effects of Different Manufacturing Processes on TEMPO-Oxidized Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofiber Performance as Binder for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Lu, Huiran; Guccini, Valentina; Kim, Hyeyun; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Lindbergh, Göran; Cornell, Ann

    2017-11-01

    Carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared using the TEMPO-route are good binders of electrode components in flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIB). However, the different parameters employed for the defibrillation of CNF such as charge density and degree of homogenization affect its properties when used as binder. This work presents a systematic study of CNF prepared with different surface charge densities and varying degrees of homogenization and their performance as binder for flexible LiFePO 4 electrodes. The results show that the CNF with high charge density had shorter fiber lengths compared with those of CNF with low charge density, as observed with atomic force microscopy. Also, CNF processed with a large number of passes in the homogenizer showed a better fiber dispersibility, as observed from rheological measurements. The electrodes fabricated with highly charged CNF exhibited the best mechanical and electrochemical properties. The CNF at the highest charge density (1550 μmol g -1 ) and lowest degree of homogenization (3 + 3 passes in the homogenizer) achieved the overall best performance, including a high Young's modulus of approximately 311 MPa and a good rate capability with a stable specific capacity of 116 mAh g -1 even up to 1 C. This work allows a better understanding of the influence of the processing parameters of CNF on their performance as binder for flexible electrodes. The results also contribute to the understanding of the optimal processing parameters of CNF to fabricate other materials, e.g., membranes or separators.

  11. Physicochemical analysis of cellulose from microalgae ...

    USER

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... The extraction method of algae cellulose was a modification of ... triplicate. Characterization of cellulose. Analysis of ... The current analysis of the cellulose extracted .... Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and.

  12. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications.

    Khan, Asif; Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-26

    We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  13. Recent Progress on Cellulose-Based Electro-Active Paper, Its Hybrid Nanocomposites and Applications

    Asif Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent progress and development of research into cellulose-based electro-active paper for bending actuators, bioelectronics devices, and electromechanical transducers. The cellulose electro-active paper is characterized in terms of its biodegradability, chirality, ample chemically modifying capacity, light weight, actuation capability, and ability to form hybrid nanocomposites. The mechanical, electrical, and chemical characterizations of the cellulose-based electro-active paper and its hybrid composites such as blends or coatings with synthetic polymers, biopolymers, carbon nanotubes, chitosan, and metal oxides, are explained. In addition, the integration of cellulose electro-active paper is highlighted to form various functional devices including but not limited to bending actuators, flexible speaker, strain sensors, energy harvesting transducers, biosensors, chemical sensors and transistors for electronic applications. The frontiers in cellulose paper devices are reviewed together with the strategies and perspectives of cellulose electro-active paper and cellulose nanocomposite research and applications.

  14. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  15. Ductile all-cellulose nanocomposite films fabricated from core-shell structured cellulose nanofibrils.

    Larsson, Per A; Berglund, Lars A; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-06-09

    Cellulosic materials have many desirable properties such as high mechanical strength and low oxygen permeability and will be an important component in a sustainable biomaterial-based society, but unfortunately they often lack the ductility and formability offered by petroleum-based materials. This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite films made of core-shell modified cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) surrounded by a shell of ductile dialcohol cellulose, created by heterogeneous periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction of the native cellulose in the external parts of the individual fibrils. The oxidation with periodate selectively produces dialdehyde cellulose, and the process does not increase the charge density of the material. Yet the modified cellulose fibers could easily be homogenized to CNFs. Prior to film fabrication, the CNF was shown by atomic force microscopy to be 0.5-2 μm long and 4-10 nm wide. The films were fabricated by filtration, and besides uniaxial tensile testing at different relative humidities, they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and oxygen permeability. The strength-at-break at 23 °C and 50% RH was 175 MPa, and the films could, before rupture, be strained, mainly by plastic deformation, to about 15% and 37% at 50% RH and 90% RH, respectively. This moisture plasticization was further utilized to form a demonstrator consisting of a double-curved structure with a nominal strain of 24% over the curvature. At a relative humidity of 80%, the films still acted as a good oxygen barrier, having an oxygen permeability of 5.5 mL·μL/(m(2)·24 h·kPa). These properties indicate that this new material has a potential for use as a barrier in complex-shaped structures and hence ultimately reduce the need for petroleum-based plastics.

  16. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    colonizes and degrades insoluble substrates. Major accomplishments of the project include: • Development of media containing dialysis tubing (described by the manufacturer as “regenerated cellulose”) as sole carbon and energy source and a nutritive surface for the growth of cellulolytic bacteria, and development of various microscopic methods to image biofilms on dialysis tubing. • Demonstration that cultures of C. phytofermentans, an obligate anaerobe, C. uda, a facultative aerobe, and T. fusca, a filamentous aerobe, formed microbial communities on the surface of dialysis tubing, which possessed architectural features and functional characteristics typical of biofilms. • Demonstration that biofilm formation on the nutritive surface, cellulose, involves a complex developmental processes, including colonization of dialysis tubing, formation of cell clusters attached to the nutritive surface, cell morphological changes, formation of complex structures embedded in extracellular polymeric matrices, and dispersal of biofilm communities as the nutritive surface is degraded. • Determination of surface specificity and regulatory aspects of biofilm formation by C. phytofermentans, C. uda, and T. fusca. • Demonstration that biofilm formation by T. fusca forms an integral part of the life cycle of this filamentous cellulolytic bacterium, including studies on the role of mycelial pellet formation in the T. fusca life cycle and a comparison of mycelial pellets to surface-attached T. fusca biofilms. • Characterization of T. fusca biofilm EPS, including demonstration of a functional role for EPS constituents. • Correlation of T. fusca developmental life cycle and cellulase gene expression.

  17. Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads

    Correa, Jose R., E-mail: correa@fq.uh.cu [Department of General Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Zapata and G, Havana City 10400 (Cuba); Bordallo, Eduardo [Sugar Cane-Cellulose Research Center, Cuba-9, Quivican (Cuba); Canetti, Dora [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Havana, Zapata and G, Havana City 10400 (Cuba); Leon, Vivian [Sugar Cane-Cellulose Research Center, Cuba-9, Quivican (Cuba); Otero-Diaz, Luis C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry-1, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Electron Microscopy Center, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Negro, Carlos [Chemical Engineering Department, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gomez, Adrian [Electron Microscopy Center, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Saez-Puche, Regino [Department of Inorganic Chemistry-1, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were obtained starting from a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) solutions in a preset total iron concentration from 0.04 to 0.8 mol l{sup -1} with ammonia at 25 and 70 {sup o}C. The regeneration of cellulose from viscose produces micrometrical spherical cellulose beads in which synthetic magnetite were embedded. The characterization of cellulose-magnetite beads by X-ray diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and magnetic measurement is reported. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the higher is the total iron concentration and temperature the higher is the crystal size of the magnetite obtained. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies of cellulose-magnetite beads revealed the distribution of magnetite nanoparticles inside pores of hundred nanometers. Magnetite as well as the cellulose-magnetite composites exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics. Field cooling and zero field cooling magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the superparamagnetic behaviour and the blocking temperature for the magnetite with a mean size of 12.5 nm, which is 200 K.

  18. Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Multilayer Membranes Based on Cellulose

    Livazovic, Sara

    2016-06-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose, has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. In the search for less harsh, greener membrane manufacture, the combination of cellulose and ionic liquid is of high interest. Due to the abundance of OH groups and hydrophilicity, cellulose-based membranes have high permeability and low fouling tendency. Membrane fouling is one of the biggest challenges in membrane industry and technology. Accumulation and deposition of foulants onto the surface reduce membrane efficiency and requires harsh chemical cleaning, therefore increasing the cost of maintenance and replacement. In this work the resistance of cellulose 5 membranes towards model organic foulants such as Suwanee River Humic Acid (SRHA) and crude oil have been investigated. Cellulose membrane was tested in this work for oil-water (o/w) separation and exhibited practically 100 % oil rejection with good flux recovery ratio and membrane resistivity. The influence of anionic, cationic and ionic surfactant as well as pH and crude oil concentration on oil separation was investigated, giving a valuable insight in experimental and operational planning.

  19. The cellulose resource matrix

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  20. Characteristic of Hybrid Cellulose-Amino Functionalized POSS-Silica Nanocomposite and Antimicrobial Activity

    Sivalingam Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cellulose has much attention as an emerging renewable nanomaterial which holds promising properties having unique piezoelectricity, insulating, and biodegradable nature for various applications. Also, the modified properties of cellulose by appropriate chemical modifications in various functional groups with outstanding properties or significantly improved physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties will widen the way for it to be utilized in different usages. Therefore, in this paper, cellulose-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS based materials were considered an important class of high-performance hybrid nanocomposite materials. To functionalize the regenerated cellulose, amino functionalized POSS material was synthesized via sol-gel covalent crosslinking process in presence of amino coupling agent. In this reaction, tetraethoxsilane (TEOS and γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APTES as coupling agent for metal precursors were selected. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized bonding and covalent crosslinking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. From the TEM results, well-dispersed hybrid cellulose-functionalized POSS-silica composites are observed. The resulting cellulose-POSS-silica hybrid nanocomposites materials provided significantly improved the optical transparency, and thermal and morphological properties to compare the cellulose-silica hybrid materials. Further, antimicrobial test against pathogenic bacteria was carried out.

  1. Surface physical chemistry properties in coated bacterial cellulose membranes with calcium phosphate.

    de Olyveira, Gabriel Molina; Basmaji, Pierre; Costa, Ligia Maria Manzine; Dos Santos, Márcio Luiz; Dos Santos Riccardi, Carla; Guastaldi, Fernando Pozzi Semeghini; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; de Oliveira Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko; Pizoni, Elisabeth; Guastaldi, Antônio Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial cellulose has become established as a new biomaterial, and it can be used for medical applications. In addition, it has called attention due to the increasing interest in tissue engineering materials for wound care. In this work, the bacterial cellulose fermentation process was modified by the addition of chondroitin sulfate to the culture medium before the inoculation of the bacteria. The biomimetic process with heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation of biological interest was studied for the guided regeneration purposes on bacterial cellulose. FTIR results showed the incorporation of the chondroitin sulfate in the bacterial cellulose, SEM images confirmed the deposition of the calcium phosphate on the bacterial cellulose surface, XPS analysis showed a selective chemical group influences which change calcium phosphate deposition, besides, the calcium phosphate phase with different Ca/P ratios on bacterial cellulose surface influences wettability. XTT results concluded that these materials did not affect significantly in the cell viability, being non-cytotoxic. Thus, it was produced one biomaterial with the surface charge changes for calcium phosphate deposition, besides different wettability which builds new membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose derivatives obtained from bacterial cellulose

    Oliveira, Rafael L. de; Barud, Hernane; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Messaddeq, Younes

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of cellulose leads to production of derivatives with different properties from those observed for the original cellulose, for example, increased solubility in more traditional solvents. In this work we synthesized four derivatives of cellulose: microcrystalline cellulose, cellulose acetate, methylcellulose and carboxymethylcellulose using bacterial cellulose as a source. These were characterized in terms of chemical and structural changes by examining the degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - NMR 13 C. The molecular weight and degree of polymerization were evaluated by viscometry. The characterization of the morphology of materials and thermal properties were performed with the techniques of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy images, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis. (author)

  3. Glucose production for cellulose

    Suzuki, S; Karube, I

    1977-04-16

    Glucose was produced from cellulose by passing a cellulose solution through a column of an immobilized cellulase which was prepared by coating an inorganic carrier such as macadam or stainless steel beads with collagen containing the cellulase. Thus, 4 mL of 5% cellulase T-AP (60,000 units/g) solution was dissolved in 100 g of 0.9% collagen solution and the solution mixed with 60 g of macadam (diam. = 0.5 to 1.5 mm) and stirred for 10 min. The treated beads were dried in air at 10/sup 0/ to yield an immobilized enzyme retaining 64% of its activity. Through a column (0.8 x 20 cm) packed with 3 g of the immobilized enzyme, 100 mL of 0.33% Avicel SF solution was circulated at 26.4 mL/min at 30/sup 0/ for 60 h. The Avicel SF conversion to glucose was 23%.

  4. Concomitant apoptosis and regeneration of liver cells as a mechanism of liver-tumor promotion by β-naphthoflavone involving TNFα-signaling due to oxidative cellular stress in rats

    Kuwata, Kazunori; Shibutani, Makoto; Hayashi, Hitomi; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Hayashi, Shim-Mo; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2011-01-01

    β-Naphthoflavone (BNF) is a strong inducer of cytochrome P450 1A enzymes, and exerts liver tumor-promoting activity through enhancement of oxidative stress responses in rats. This study investigated the role of the tissue environment surrounding hepatocellular preneoplastic lesions in the early tumor-promotion stage by BNF, using enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) as an anti-oxidative chemopreventive agent. Male F344 rats were fed a diet containing BNF (0.5%) for 6 weeks, with or without EMIQ (0.2%) in the drinking water, 2 weeks after initiation with N-diethylnitrosamine, and were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy 1 week after starting BNF-promotion. BNF-treatment increased concentrations of liver thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, single liver cells expressing glutathione S-transferase placental form or heme oxygenase (HO)-1, and concomitant apoptosis and proliferation of liver cells. Transcript upregulation of anti-oxidative enzymes (Aldh1a1 and Nqo1), cell cycle-related molecules (Cdc20 and Cdkn2b) and inflammation-related molecules including proinflammatory cytokines (Ccl2, Col1a1, Il6, Nos2 and Serpine1) was also evident. Furthermore, BNF increased HO-1-expressing Kupffer cells and liver cells expressing tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the TNFR1-associated death domain. Most of these BNF-induced fluctuations disappeared or were suppressed by EMIQ in conjunction with suppression of tumor-promotion. Tnf transcript levels with BNF were also suppressed by EMIQ. These results suggest that BNF-induced oxidative stress causes single liver cell toxicity, allowing subsequent concomitant apoptosis and regeneration involving inflammatory responses including TNFα-signaling, contributing to tumor promotion. Kupffer cells may act to protect against inflammatory stimuli induced as a result of oxidative cellular stress by BNF, causing proinflammatory cytokine level fluctuations.

  5. The flux of organic matter through a peatland ecosystem: The role of cellulose, lignin, and their control of the ecosystem oxidation state

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine S.; Clay, Gareth D.; Burt, Tim P.; Rose, Rob

    2017-07-01

    This study used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to study the transit of organic C through a peatland ecosystem. The biomass, litter, peat soil profile, particulate organic matter (POM), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes were sampled from the Moor House National Nature Reserve, a peat-covered catchment in northern England where both the dry matter and carbon budget for the catchment were known. The study showed that although TGA traces showed distinct differences between organic matter reservoirs and fluxes, the traces could not readily be associated with particular functionalities or elemental properties. The TGA trace shows that polysaccharides are preferentially removed by humification and degradation with residual peat being dominated by lignin compositions. The DOM is derived from the degradation of lignin while the POM is derived from erosion of the peat profile. The carbon lost as gases (CO2 and CH4) was estimated to be composed of 92 to 95% polysaccharide carbon. The composition of the organic matter lost from the peat ecosystem means that the oxidative ratio (OR) of the ecosystem experienced by the atmosphere was between 0.96 and 0.99: currently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change uses an OR value of 1.1 for all ecosystems.

  6. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part II. the regeneration of copper sulfide to copper oxide - An experimental study

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for a selective and efficient method to convert copper(II) sulfide (CuS) into copper(II) oxide (CuO). The oxidation of copper sulfide has been studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 450 to

  7. A Facile Pathway to Modify Cellulose Composite Film by Reducing Wettability and Improving Barrier towards Moisture

    Xiaorong Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic property of cellulose is a key limiting factor for its wide application. Here, a novel solution impregnation pathway was developed to increase the hydrophobic properties of cellulose. When compared with the regenerated cellulose (RC, the composite films showed a decrease in water uptake ability towards water vapor, and an increase of the water contact angle from 29° to 65° with increasing resin content in the composites, with only a slight change in the transmittance. Furthermore, the Young’s modulus value increased from 3.2 GPa (RC film to 5.1 GPa (RCBEA50 film. The results indicated that the composites had combined the advantages of cellulose and biphenyl A epoxy acrylate prepolymer (BEA resin. The presented method has great potential for the preparation of biocomposites with improved properties. The overall results suggest that composite films can be used as high-performance packaging materials.

  8. In-vitro Degradation Behaviour of Irradiated Bacterial Cellulose Membrane

    Darwis, D.; Khusniya, T.; Hardiningsih, L.; Nurlidar, F.; Winarno, H.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose membrane synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum in coconut water medium has potential application for Guided bone Regeneration. However, this membrane may not meet some application requirements due to its low biodegradation properties. In this paper, incorporation of gamma irradiation into the membrane is a developed strategy to increase its biodegradability properties. The in-vitro degradation study in synthetic body fluid (SBF) of the irradiated membrane has been analyzed during periods of 6 months by means of weight loss, mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy observation compared to that the un-irradiated one. The result showed that weight loss of irradiated membrane with 25 kGy and 50 kGy and immersed in SBF solution for 6 months reached 18% and 25% respectively. While un-irradiated membrane did not give significant weight loss. Tensile strength of membranes decreases with increasing of irradiation dose and further decreases in tensile strength is observed when irradiated membrane was followed by immersion in SBF solution. Microscope electron image of cellulose membranes shows that un-irradiated bacterial cellulose membrane consists of dense ultrafine fibril network structures, while irradiation result in cleavage of fibrils network of cellulose. The fibrils network become loosely after irradiated membrane immersed in SBF solution due to released of small molecular weight carbohydrates formed during by irradiation from the structure (author)

  9. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  10. System and method for regeneration and recirculation of a reducing agent using highly exothermic reactions induced by mixed industrial slags

    Nakano, Jinichiro; Bennett, James P.; Nakano, Anna

    2017-12-12

    Embodiments relate to systems and methods for regenerating and recirculating a CO, H.sub.2 or combinations thereof utilized for metal oxide reduction in a reduction furnace. The reduction furnace receives the reducing agent, reduces the metal oxide, and generates an exhaust of the oxidized product. The oxidized product is transferred to a mixing vessel, where the oxidized product, a calcium oxide, and a vanadium oxide interact to regenerate the reducing agent from the oxidized product. The regenerated reducing agent is transferred back to the reduction furnace for continued metal oxide reductions.

  11. Electrochemical regeneration of chrome etching solution

    Andel, van Y.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    A metal surface is chromatized with a chromic acid solution to obtain a good adherence of polymer coatings. In this process Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). The oxidation strength of the solution decreases during use. The chrome solution needs to be regenerated and purified. A new anode material,

  12. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Huebert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given. (author)

  13. Cellulose synthase complex organization and cellulose microfibril structure.

    Turner, Simon; Kumar, Manoj

    2018-02-13

    Cellulose consists of linear chains of β-1,4-linked glucose units, which are synthesized by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC). In plants, these chains associate in an ordered manner to form the cellulose microfibrils. Both the CSC and the local environment in which the individual chains coalesce to form the cellulose microfibril determine the structure and the unique physical properties of the microfibril. There are several recent reviews that cover many aspects of cellulose biosynthesis, which include trafficking of the complex to the plasma membrane and the relationship between the movement of the CSC and the underlying cortical microtubules (Bringmann et al. 2012 Trends Plant Sci. 17 , 666-674 (doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2012.06.003); Kumar & Turner 2015 Phytochemistry 112 , 91-99 (doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.07.009); Schneider et al. 2016 Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 34 , 9-16 (doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.07.007)). In this review, we will focus on recent advances in cellulose biosynthesis in plants, with an emphasis on our current understanding of the structure of individual catalytic subunits together with the local membrane environment where cellulose synthesis occurs. We will attempt to relate this information to our current knowledge of the structure of the cellulose microfibril and propose a model in which variations in the structure of the CSC have important implications for the structure of the cellulose microfibril produced.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  15. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one

  16. Saccharification of cellulose by acetolysis

    Tanaka, T; Yamanaka, S; Takinami, K

    1978-01-01

    For saccharification of cellulose, an acetolysis method using assimilable acid with a microorganism was applied. Based on this method, a new method which gave totally assimilable products was established. The rigid crystalline structure of cellulose was disrupted by acetolysis with 2-2.5 times as much acetic anhydride as cellulose on a weight basis and 1 N sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Then for cleavage of O-acetyl ester and glycosidic bonds, the resulting amorphous acetolysate of cellulose could easily be hydrolyzed by heating in 1 N sulfuric acid at 120/sup 0/C for 1-1.5 h without over-disruption of glucose. Ninety-eight % of the cellulose used was recovered in the form of hydrolysate having about 30% saccharide concentration. The hydrolysate obtained was composed of 74% glucose, 13% cellobiose and 11% mono-O-acetyl glucose on a weight basis.

  17. Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids

    H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

    2011-12-31

    The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux and rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.

  18. Mechanistic studies of the alkaline degradation of cellulose in cement

    Greenfield, B.F.; Robertson, G.P.; Spindler, M.W.; Harrison, W.N.; Somers, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    The alkaline degradation of cellulose-based materials under conditions simulating those of a deep underground radioactive waste repository has been investigated. A number of key degradation products, of which 2-C-(hydroxymethyl)-3-deoxy-D-pentonic acid (isosaccharinic acid) is the most important, have been synthesised, and the solubilities of their plutonium complexes have been determined. Analysis of leachates of anaerobically degraded cellulose has shown concentrations of organic acids which are broadly consistent with the enhanced plutonium solubilities found in these leachates. Reaction mechanisms have been identified that can lead to isosaccharinic acid production by non-oxidative transformations, which may be catalysed by some divalent cations. (Author)

  19. Oxidoreductive Cellulose Depolymerization by the Enzymes Cellobiose Dehydrogenase and Glycoside Hydrolase 61▿†

    Langston, James A.; Shaghasi, Tarana; Abbate, Eric; Xu, Feng; Vlasenko, Elena; Sweeney, Matt D.

    2011-01-01

    Several members of the glycoside hydrolase 61 (GH61) family of proteins have recently been shown to dramatically increase the breakdown of lignocellulosic biomass by microbial hydrolytic cellulases. However, purified GH61 proteins have neither demonstrable direct hydrolase activity on various polysaccharide or lignacious components of biomass nor an apparent hydrolase active site. Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a secreted flavocytochrome produced by many cellulose-degrading fungi with no well-understood biological function. Here we demonstrate that the binary combination of Thermoascus aurantiacus GH61A (TaGH61A) and Humicola insolens CDH (HiCDH) cleaves cellulose into soluble, oxidized oligosaccharides. TaGH61A-HiCDH activity on cellulose is shown to be nonredundant with the activities of canonical endocellulase and exocellulase enzymes in microcrystalline cellulose cleavage, and while the combination of TaGH61A and HiCDH cleaves highly crystalline bacterial cellulose, it does not cleave soluble cellodextrins. GH61 and CDH proteins are coexpressed and secreted by the thermophilic ascomycete Thielavia terrestris in response to environmental cellulose, and the combined activities of T. terrestris GH61 and T. terrestris CDH are shown to synergize with T. terrestris cellulose hydrolases in the breakdown of cellulose. The action of GH61 and CDH on cellulose may constitute an important, but overlooked, biological oxidoreductive system that functions in microbial lignocellulose degradation and has applications in industrial biomass utilization. PMID:21821740

  20. Approaching zero cellulose loss in cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) production: recovery and characterization of cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and CNC

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R.S. Reiner; S.P. Verrill; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil

    2012-01-01

    This study demonstrated the potential of simultaneously recovering cellulosic solid residues (CSR) and producing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by strong sulfuric acid hydrolysis to minimize cellulose loss to near zero. A set of slightly milder acid hydrolysis conditions than that considered as “optimal” were used to significantly minimize the degradation of cellulose...

  1. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  2. On marginal regeneration

    Stein, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    On applying the marginal regeneration concept to the drainage of free liquid films, problems are encountered: the films do not show a "neck" of minimum thickness at the film/border transition; and the causes of the direction dependence of the marginal regeneration are unclear. Both problems can be

  3. Porous structure evolution of cellulose carbon fibres during heating in the initial activation stage

    Babel, Krzysztof [Institute of Chemical Wood Technology, Agricultural Academy of Poznan, Ul. Wojska Polskiego 38/42, 60-637 Poznan (Poland)

    2004-01-15

    This paper is focused on the description of changes in the porous structure during fast heating to the activation temperature of the viscose fibres, pyrolysed to different final temperatures. Standard regenerated cellulose fibre structures were tested. Fabrics were subjected to pyrolysis, the samples being heated to final temperatures of 400, 600 and 850 C. Carbon fibres were subsequently heated to activation temperature (850 C) at a rate of 100 C/min, and then the samples were cooled down. The characteristics of obtained carbon preparations were examined. We have defined a level of restructuring and internal ordering of fibres which originated during slow pyrolysis as well as the range of temperature differences of pyrolysis and activation where fast increase of carbon fibre temperature before activation is advantageous for the development of porous structure. It allows for partial release of pores and fast rebuilding of structure accompanied by a considerable number of defects in the carbon matrix with higher reactivity to oxidiser which, in turn, promotes the development of pores in active carbon during oxidation. Temperature difference for viscose carbon fibres is approximately 150-300 C at pyrolysis temperature of 550-700 C.

  4. Characterization and modeling of performance of Polymer Composites Reinforced with Highly Non-Linear Cellulosic Fibers

    Rozite, L; Joffe, R; Varna, J; Nyström, B

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of highly non-linear cellulosic fibers and their composite is characterized. Micro-mechanisms occurring in these materials are identified. Mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers and composites are obtained using simple tensile test. Material visco-plastic and visco-elastic properties are analyzed using creep tests. Two bio-based resins are used in this study – Tribest and EpoBioX. The glass and flax fiber composites are used as reference materials to compare with Cordenka fiber laminates.

  5. Characterization and modeling of performance of Polymer Composites Reinforced with Highly Non-Linear Cellulosic Fibers

    Rozite, L.; Joffe, R.; Varna, J.; Nyström, B.

    2012-02-01

    The behaviour of highly non-linear cellulosic fibers and their composite is characterized. Micro-mechanisms occurring in these materials are identified. Mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fibers and composites are obtained using simple tensile test. Material visco-plastic and visco-elastic properties are analyzed using creep tests. Two bio-based resins are used in this study - Tribest and EpoBioX. The glass and flax fiber composites are used as reference materials to compare with Cordenka fiber laminates.

  6. Radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose and other polysaccharides

    Ershov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    The studies concerning the radiation-chemical destruction of cellulose, its ethers and some polysaccharides (xylan, starch, decstrans, chitin, chitosan and geparin) are discussed. Ionising irradiation causes the destruction of these compounds with the decay of pyranose ring, accompanied by the formation of compounds containing carbonyl or carboxyl groups, as well as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon oxide. The efficiency of radiation degradation increases with increasing the temperature and depends on the structure of polysaccharides and the nature of substituents. The mechanism of radiation-chemical transformations of cellulose and others polysaccharides is proposed. Prospects of the application of radiation-chemical methods of treatment of cellulose and other polysaccharides in industry and agriculture considered [ru

  7. Microbial reduction of uranium using cellulosic substrates

    Thombre, M.S.; Thomson, B.M.; Barton, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Previous work at the University of New Mexico and elsewhere has shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria are capable of reducing uranium from the soluble +6 oxidation state to the insoluble +4 oxidation state. This chemistry forms the basis of a proposed ground water remediation strategy in which microbial reduction would be used to immobilize soluble uranium. One such system would consist of a subsurface permeable barrier which would stimulate microbial growth resulting in the reduction of sulfate and nitrate and immobilization of metals while permitting the unhindered flow of ground water through it. This research investigated some of the engineering considerations associated with a microbial reducing barrier such as identifying an appropriate biological substrate, estimating the rate of substrate utilization, and identifying the final fate of the contaminants concentrated in the barrier matrix. The performance of batch reactors and column systems that treated simulated plume water was evaluated using cellulose, wheat straw, alfalfa hay, sawdust, and soluble starch as substrates. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, and U(VI) were monitored over time. Precipitates from each system were collected, and the precipitated U(IV) was determined to be crystalline UO 2(s) by x-ray diffraction. The results of this study support the proposed use of cellulosic substrates as candidate barrier materials

  8. Catalytic modification of cellulose and hemicellulose - Sugarefine

    Repo, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland),Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry], email: timo.repo@helsinki.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of the project is to develop catalytic methods for the modification of lignocellulose-based saccharides in the biorefineries. The products of these reactions could be used for example as biofuel components, raw materials for the chemical industry, solvents and precursors for biopolymers. The catalyst development aims at creating efficient, selective and green catalytic methods for profitable use in biorefineries. The project is divided in three work packages: In WP1 (Catalytic dehydration of cellulose) the aim is at developing non-toxic, efficient methods for the catalytic dehydration of cellulose the target molecule being here 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). 5-HMF is an interesting platform chemical for the production of fuel additives, solvents and polymers. In WP2 (Catalytic reduction), the objective of the catalytic reduction studies is to produce commercially interesting monofunctional chemicals, such as 1-butanol or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). In WP3 (Catalytic oxidation), the research focuses on developing a green and efficient oxidation method for producing acids. Whereas acetic and formic acids are bulk chemicals, diacids such as glucaric and xylaric acids are valuable specialty chemicals for detergent, polymer and food production.

  9. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  10. Evaluation of microcrystalline cellulose modifed from alpha ...

    Alpha cellulose was obtained from Costus afer and part of it was modified to microcrystalline cellulose (CAMCC). The physicochemical properties of the microcrystalline cellulose were determined and compared with those of commercial microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel 101). The swelling capacity, hydration capacity, loss ...

  11. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  12. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Gey, M.; Hubert, S.; Langguth, H.

    1984-01-01

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20% up to about 80%. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given

  13. In Vitro Comparative Study of Oxygen Plasma Treated Poly(Lactic⁻Co⁻Glycolic) (PLGA) Membranes and Supported Nanostructured Oxides for Guided Bone Regeneration Processes.

    Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Serrera-Figallo, Maria-Angeles; López-Santos, Carmen; Barranco, Angel; Rodríguez-González-Elipe, Agustín; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2018-05-08

    (1) Background: The use of physical barriers to prevent the invasion of gingival and connective tissue cells into bone cavities during the healing process is called guided bone regeneration. The objective of this in-vitro study was to compare the growth of human osteoblasts on Poly(Lactic⁻co⁻Glycolic) (PLGA) membranes modified with oxygen plasma and Hydroxyapatite (HA), silicon dioxide (SiO₂), and titanium dioxide (TiO₂) composite nanoparticles, respectively. (2) Methods: All the membranes received a common treatment with oxygen plasma and were subsequently treated with HA nanostructured coatings (n = 10), SiO₂ (n = 10) and TiO₂ (n = 10), respectively and a PLGA control membrane (n = 10). The assays were performed using the human osteoblast line MG-63 acquired from the Center for Scientific Instrumentation (CIC) from the University of Granada. The cell adhesion and the viability of the osteoblasts were analyzed by means of light-field microphotographs of each condition with the inverted microscope Axio Observer A1 (Carl Zeiss). For the determination of the mitochondrial energy balance, the MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit was employed. For the determination of cell growth and the morphology of adherent osteoblasts, two techniques were employed: staining with phalloidin-TRITC and staining with DAPI. (3) Results: The modified membranes that show osteoblasts with a morphology more similar to the control osteoblasts follow the order: PLGA/PO₂/HA > PLGA/PO₂/SiO₂ > PLGA/PO₂/TiO₂ > PLGA ( p membranes was observed as follows: PLGA/PO₂/SiO₂ > PLGA/PO₂/HA > PLGA/PO₂/TiO₂ > PLGA ( p membranes PLGA/PO₂/HA and PLGA/PO₂/SiO₂. (4) Conclusion: The membrane in which osteoblasts show characteristics more similar to the control osteoblasts is the PLGA/PO₂/HA, followed by the PLGA/PO₂/SiO₂.

  14. Acetone-based cellulose solvent.

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; Heinze, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Acetone containing tetraalkylammonium chloride is found to be an efficient solvent for cellulose. The addition of an amount of 10 mol% (based on acetone) of well-soluble salt triethyloctylammonium chloride (Et3 OctN Cl) adjusts the solvent's properties (increases the polarity) to promote cellulose dissolution. Cellulose solutions in acetone/Et3 OctN Cl have the lowest viscosity reported for comparable aprotic solutions making it a promising system for shaping processes and homogeneous chemical modification of the biopolymer. Recovery of the polymer and recycling of the solvent components can be easily achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Influence of the type of cellulosic derivatives on the texture, and oxidative and thermal stability of soybean oil oleogel; Influencia del tipo de derivado celulósico sobre la textura y la estabilidad oxidativa y térmica de oleogeles de aceite de soja

    Totosaus, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, R.; Fragoso, M.

    2016-07-01

    The use oleogels (defined as edible oils entrapped in a three-dimensional network employing a self-assembled structuring agent) has recently been proposed to replace saturated fat or trans-fats in foods. In this work the effects of different cellulose derivative mixtures (Avicel, ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose) on lipid stability, glass transition temperature and the texture of soybean oil oleogels were determined by employing a mixture design approach. Avicel affected lipid stability, increasing the oxidative rancidity and peroxide values of oleogels. Oleogels with higher proportions of Avicel also presented higher transition temperatures. A higher percent of ethyl cellulose and a-cellulose in the oleogel mixture resulted in a more stable system with lower oil rancidity and lower glass transition temperatures. In addition, Avicel resulted in a softer and less tacky texture, an important characteristic to consider for food applications. [Spanish] Recientemente, ha sido propuesto el uso de oleogeles (definido como aceites comestibles atrapados en una red tridimensional que ocupa un agente estructurante de auto-ensamblado) como substituto de grasa saturada o grasas trans en alimentos. En este trabajo el efecto de mezclas de diferentes derivados celulósicos (Avicel, etil celulosa y a-celulosa) sobre la estabilidad de lípidos, temperaturas de transición térmica y textura de oleogeles de aceite de soja fueron determinados utilizando un diseño de mezclas. Avicel afectó la estabilidad de lípidos, aumentando la rancidez oxidativa y valores de peróxido en los oleogeles. Oleogeles con mayores proporciones de Avicel también presentaron temperaturas de transición térmica más altas. porcentajes más altos de etil celulosa y a-celulosa resultaron en un sistema más estable con menor rancidez oxidativa y menores temperaturas de transición térmica. Sin embargo, Avicel resultó en una textura más suave y menos pegajosa, una característica importante a considerar

  16. Cellulose microfibril structure: inspirations from plant diversity

    Roberts, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase catalytic subunits that associate to form cellulose synthesis complexes. Variation in the organization of these complexes underlies the variation in cellulose microfibril structure among diverse organisms. However, little is known about how the catalytic subunits interact to form complexes with different morphologies. We are using an evolutionary approach to investigate the roles of different catalytic subunit isoforms in organisms that have rosette-type cellulose synthesis complexes.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma accelerates tail regeneration in tadpoles Xenopus laevis

    Rivie, A.; Martus, K.; Menon, J.

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma is a partially ionized gas composed of neutral and charged particles, including electrons and ions, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, it is utilized as possible therapy in oncology, sterilization, skin diseases, wound healing and tissue regeneration. In this study we focused on effect of plasma exposure on tail regeneration of tadpoles, Xenopus leavis with special emphasis on role of ROS, antioxidant defenses and morphological features of the regenerate. When amputated region of the tail was exposed to the helium plasma it resulted in a faster rate of growth, elevated ROS and increase in antioxidant enzymes in the regenerate compared to that of untreated control. An increase in nitric oxide (free radical) as well as activity of nitric oxide synthase(s) were observed once the cells of the regeneration blastema - a mass of proliferating cells are ready for differentiation. Microscopically the cells of the regenerate of plasma treated tadpoles show altered morphology and characteristics of cellular hypoxia and oxidative stress. We summarize that plasma exposure accelerates the dynamics of wound healing and tail regeneration through its effects on cell proliferation and differentiation as well as angiogenesis mediated through ROS signaling.

  18. Direct conversion of cellulose to glycolic acid with a phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in a water medium

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2012-08-03

    Direct conversion of cellulose to fine chemicals has rarely been achieved. We describe here an eco-benign route for directly converting various cellulose-based biomasses to glycolic acid in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere in which heteromolybdic acids act as multifunctional catalysts to catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose, the fragmentation of monosaccharides, and the selective oxidation of fragmentation products. With commercial α-cellulose powder as the substrate, the yield of glycolic acid reaches 49.3%. This catalytic system is also effective with raw cellulosic biomass, such as bagasse or hay, as the starting materials, giving rise to remarkable glycolic acid yields of ∼30%. Our heteropoly acid-based catalyst can be recovered in solid form after reaction by distilling out the products and solvent for reuse, and it exhibits consistently high performance in multiple reaction runs. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. In Vitro Comparative Study of Oxygen Plasma Treated Poly(Lactic–Co–Glycolic (PLGA Membranes and Supported Nanostructured Oxides for Guided Bone Regeneration Processes

    Daniel Torres-Lagares

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The use of physical barriers to prevent the invasion of gingival and connective tissue cells into bone cavities during the healing process is called guided bone regeneration. The objective of this in-vitro study was to compare the growth of human osteoblasts on Poly(Lactic–co–Glycolic (PLGA membranes modified with oxygen plasma and Hydroxyapatite (HA, silicon dioxide (SiO2, and titanium dioxide (TiO2 composite nanoparticles, respectively. (2 Methods: All the membranes received a common treatment with oxygen plasma and were subsequently treated with HA nanostructured coatings (n = 10, SiO2 (n = 10 and TiO2 (n = 10, respectively and a PLGA control membrane (n = 10. The assays were performed using the human osteoblast line MG-63 acquired from the Center for Scientific Instrumentation (CIC from the University of Granada. The cell adhesion and the viability of the osteoblasts were analyzed by means of light-field microphotographs of each condition with the inverted microscope Axio Observer A1 (Carl Zeiss. For the determination of the mitochondrial energy balance, the MitoProbe™ JC-1 Assay Kit was employed. For the determination of cell growth and the morphology of adherent osteoblasts, two techniques were employed: staining with phalloidin-TRITC and staining with DAPI. (3 Results: The modified membranes that show osteoblasts with a morphology more similar to the control osteoblasts follow the order: PLGA/PO2/HA > PLGA/PO2/SiO2 > PLGA/PO2/TiO2 > PLGA (p < 0.05. When analysing the cell viability, a higher percentage of viable cells bound to the membranes was observed as follows: PLGA/PO2/SiO2 > PLGA/PO2/HA > PLGA/PO2/TiO2 > PLGA (p < 0.05, with a better energy balance of the cells adhered to the membranes PLGA/PO2/HA and PLGA/PO2/SiO2. (4 Conclusion: The membrane in which osteoblasts show characteristics more similar to the control osteoblasts is the PLGA/PO2/HA, followed by the PLGA/PO2/SiO2.

  20. Recent Strategies in Preparation of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cellulose Nanofibrils Derived from Raw Cellulose Materials

    Hongxiang Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent strategies in preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs were described. CNCs and CNFs are two types of nanocelluloses (NCs, and they possess various superior properties, such as large specific surface area, high tensile strength and stiffness, low density, and low thermal expansion coefficient. Due to various applications in biomedical engineering, food, sensor, packaging, and so on, there are many studies conducted on CNCs and CNFs. In this review, various methods of preparation of CNCs and CNFs are summarized, including mechanical, chemical, and biological methods. The methods of pretreatment of cellulose are described in view of the benefits to fibrillation.

  1. WOOD CELLULOSE ACETATE MEMBRANE 179

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... 1988), cosmetics and food additives or pharmaceutical applications (Wellisch .... displaced by sample. Determination of percent α-, β- and γ–cellulose ..... addition, the smaller pore diameter would lead to a greater exclusion of ...

  2. Understanding changes in cellulose crystalline structure of lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment by XRD.

    Zhang, Jiafu; Wang, Yixun; Zhang, Liye; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Cheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to understand the interactions of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs). The experiment was designed in such a way that the process of swelling and solubilization of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls was followed by XRD. Three different feedstocks, switchgrass, corn stover and rice husk, were pretreated using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][OAc]) at temperatures of 50-130°C for 6h. At a 5 wt.% biomass loading, increasing pretreatment temperature led to a drop in biomass crystallinity index (CrI), which was due to swelling of crystalline cellulose. After most of the crystalline cellulose was swollen with IL molecules, a low-order structure was found in the pretreated samples. Upon further increasing temperature, cellulose II structure started to form in the pretreated biomass samples as a result of solubilization of cellulose in [C4mim][OAc] and subsequent regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable and Low Viscous 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate + PEG Solvent for Cellulose Processing

    Airong Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing sustainable, low viscous and efficient solvents are always advantageous to the processing/fabricating of cellulose materials in practical applications. To this end, in this work novel solvents were developed; ([Amim][CH3COO]/PEG by dissolving polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG-200 in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Amim][CH3COO]. The solubilities of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvents were determined as a function of temperature, and the possible dissolution mechanism of cellulose in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent was investigated. The novel solvent exhibits outstanding advantages for good dissolution capacity of cellulose, such as low viscosity, negligible vapor pressure, and recycling capability. The [CH3COO]− anion and the [Amim]+ cation of [Amim][CH3COO] in [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG-10 are the driving force for cellulose dissolution verified by the 13C NMR spectra. In addition, the regenerated cellulose films from [Amim][CH3COO]/PEG solvent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA to estimate their morphologies and structures.

  4. Preparation of cellulose based microspheres by combining spray coagulating with spray drying.

    Wang, Qiao; Fu, Aiping; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Guo, Peizhi; Zhao, Xiu Song; Xia, Lin Hua

    2014-10-13

    Porous microspheres of regenerated cellulose with size in range of 1-2 μm and composite microspheres of chitosan coated cellulose with size of 1-3 μm were obtained through a two-step spray-assisted approach. The spray coagulating process must combine with a spray drying step to guarantee the formation of stable microspheres of cellulose. This approach exhibits the following two main virtues. First, the preparation was performed using aqueous solution of cellulose as precursor in the absence of organic solvent and surfactant; Second, neither crosslinking agent nor separated crosslinking process was required for formation of stable microspheres. Moreover, the spray drying step also provided us with the chance to encapsulate guests into the resultant cellulose microspheres. The potential application of the cellulose microspheres acting as drug delivery vector has been studied in two PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) solution with pH values at 4.0 and 7.4 to mimic the environments of stomach and intestine, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Caiut, Jose Mauricio A.

    2011-01-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  6. The healing of alkali-injured cornea is stimulated by a novel matrix regenerating agent (RGTA, CACICOL20): a biopolymer mimicking heparan sulfates reducing proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

    Cejkova, Jitka; Olmiere, Celine; Cejka, Cestmir; Trosan, Peter; Holan, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of a chemically modified dextran - heparan sulfate mimicking regenerating agent (RGTA) on the healing of the rabbit cornea injured with alkali was examined. The eyes were injured with 0.15 N NaOH applied on the cornea or with 1.0 N NaOH using a 8 mm diameter filter paper disk. Then RGTA or placebo was applied on the cornea. In the last group of rabbits, corneas injured with the high alkali concentration were left without any treatment for four weeks; subsequently, the corneas were treated with RGTA or placebo. The central corneal thickness was measured using a pachymeter. The corneas were examined morphologically, immunohistochemically and for real time-PCR. Compared to control (unaffected) corneas, following the application of low alkali concentration the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, metalloproteinase 9, nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidase was increased in the injured corneal epithelium of placebo-treated eyes, whereas the expression of antioxidant enzymes was reduced. Nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde stainings appeared in the corneal epithelium. RGTA application suppressed the antioxidant/prooxidant imbalance and reduced the expression of the above-mentioned immunohistochemical markers. The corneal thickness increased after alkali injury, decreased during corneal healing after RGTA treatment faster than after placebo application. Following the injury with the high alkali concentration, corneal inflammation and neovascularization were highly pronounced in placebo-treated corneas, whereas in RGTA-treated corneas they were significantly supressed. When RGTA or placebo application was started later after alkali injury and corneas were ulcerated, subsequent RGTA treatment healed the majority of them. In conclusion, RGTA facilitates the healing of injured corneas via a reduction of proteolytic, oxidative and nitrosative damage.

  7. INFLUENCE OF CELLULOSE POLYMERIZATION DEGREE AND CRYSTALLINITY ON KINETICS OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION

    Edita Jasiukaitytė-Grojzdek,; Matjaž Kunaver,; Ida Poljanšek

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose was treated in ethylene glycol with p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as a catalyst at different temperatures. At the highest treatment temperature (150 °C) liquefaction of wood pulp cellulose was achieved and was dependant on cellulose polymerization degree (DP). Furthermore, the rate of amorphous cellulose weight loss was found to increase with cellulose degree of polymerization, while the rate of crystalline cellulose weight loss was reciprocal to the size of the crystallites. ...

  8. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  9. Helping the Retina Regenerate

    ... the retina News Brief 03/30/17 A new report gives recommendations for regenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), crucial neurons in the back of the eye that carry visual information to the brain. Authored ...

  10. Conformations and Intermolecular Interactions in Cellulose/Silk Fibroin Blend Films: A Solid-State NMR Perspective.

    Tian, Donglin; Li, Tao; Zhang, Rongchun; Wu, Qiang; Chen, Tiehong; Sun, Pingchuan; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2017-06-29

    Fabricating materials with excellent mechanical performance from the natural renewable and degradable biopolymers has drawn significant attention in recent decades due to the environmental concerns and energy crisis. As two of the most promising substitutes of synthetic polymers, silk fibroin (SF), and cellulose, have been widely used in the field of textile, biomedicine, biotechnology, etc. Particularly, the cellulose/SF blend film exhibits better strength and toughness than that of regenerated cellulose film. Herein, this study is aimed to understand the molecular origin of the enhanced mechanical properties for the cellulose/SF blend film, using solid-state NMR as a main tool to investigate the conformational changes, intermolecular interactions between cellulose and SF and the water organization. It is found that the content of the β-sheet structure is increased in the cellulose/SF blend film with respect to the regenerated SF film, accompanied by the reduction of the content of random coil structures. In addition, the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between the SF and cellulose is clearly elucidated by the two-dimensional (2D) 1 H- 13 C heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) NMR experiments, demonstrating that the SF and cellulose are miscible at the molecular level. Moreover, it is also found that the -NH groups of SF prefer to form hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups bonded to carbons C2 and C3 of cellulose, while the hydroxyl groups bonded to carbon C6 and the ether oxygen are less favorable for hydrogen bonding interactions with the -NH groups of SF. Interestingly, bound water is found to be present in the air-dried cellulose/SF blend film, which is predominantly associated with the cellulose backbones as determined by 2D 1 H- 13 C wide-line-separation (WISE) experiments with spin diffusion. This clearly reveals the presence of nanoheterogeneity in the cellulose/SF blend film, although cellulose and SF are miscible at a molecular level. Without doubt

  11. Printed optically transparent graphene cellulose electrodes

    Sinar, Dogan; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas; Andrushchenko, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    Optically transparent electrodes are a key component in variety of products including bioelectronics, touch screens, flexible displays, low emissivity windows, and photovoltaic cells. Although highly conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films are often used in these electrode applications, the raw material is very expensive and the electrodes often fracture when mechanically stressed. An alternative low-cost material for inkjet printing transparent electrodes on glass and flexible polymer substrates is described in this paper. The water based ink is created by using a hydrophilic cellulose derivative, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), to help suspend the naturally hydrophobic graphene (G) sheets in a solvent composed of 70% DI water and 30% 2-butoxyethanol. The CMC chain has hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional sites which allow adsorption on G sheets and, therefore, permit the graphene to be stabilized in water by electrostatic and steric forces. Once deposited on the functionalized substrate the electrical conductivity of the printed films can be "tuned" by decomposing the cellulose stabilizer using thermal reduction. The entire electrode can be thermally reduced in an oven or portions of the electrode thermally modified using a laser annealing process. The thermal process can reduce the sheet resistance of G-CMC films to < 100 Ω/sq. Experimental studies show that the optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the G-CMC conductive electrode is a dependent on the film thickness (ie. superimposed printed layers). The printed electrodes have also been doped with AuCl3 to increase electrical conductivity without significantly increasing film thickness and, thereby, maintain high optical transparency.

  12. Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice

    Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro; Tamura, Shinji; Kiso, Shinichi; Hayashi, Norio

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

  13. Proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs on cellulose-based hydrogels.

    Raucci, Maria Grazia; Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio; Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the proliferation and differentiation of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) onto a cellulose-based hydrogel for bone tissue engineering. Modified-cellulose hydrogel was prepared via double esterification crosslinking using citric acid. The response of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) in terms of cell proliferation and differentiation into osteoblastic phenotype was evaluated by using Alamar blue assay and Alkaline phosphatase activity. The results showed that CMCNa and CMCNa_CA have no negative effect on hMSC, adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the increase of the ALP expression for CMCNa_CA confirms the ability of the hydrogels to support the osteoblastic differentiation. The cellulose-based hydrogels have a potential application as filler in bone tissue regeneration.

  14. Impact of lignins isolated from pretreated lignocelluloses on enzymatic cellulose saccharification

    Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Selig, Michael Joseph; Felby, Claus

    2013-01-01

    and cellulose-lignin systems. Consequently, the presence of the lignins had minimal effect, if any, on enzymatic cellulose conversion. Furthermore, this result, coupled with significant calcium levels in the isolated lignins, supports previous work suggesting lignin-calcium complexes reduce enzyme......Lignins were enzymatically isolated from corn stover and wheat straw samples and subjected to hydrothermal or wet oxidation pretreatments for enzyme adsorption experimentations. Lignin contents of the isolates ranged from 26 to 71 % (w/w); cellulose ranged from 3 to 22 % (w/w); xylan from 0.7 to 6...

  15. Ionic liquid processing of cellulose.

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2012-02-21

    Utilization of natural polymers has attracted increasing attention because of the consumption and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources, such as coal and oil. The development of green processing of cellulose, the most abundant biorenewable material on Earth, is urgent from the viewpoints of both sustainability and environmental protection. The discovery of the dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs, salts which melt below 100 °C) provides new opportunities for the processing of this biopolymer, however, many fundamental and practical questions need to be answered in order to determine if this will ultimately be a green or sustainable strategy. In this critical review, the open fundamental questions regarding the interactions of cellulose with both the IL cations and anions in the dissolution process are discussed. Investigations have shown that the interactions between the anion and cellulose play an important role in the solvation of cellulose, however, opinions on the role of the cation are conflicting. Some researchers have concluded that the cations are hydrogen bonding to this biopolymer, while others suggest they are not. Our review of the available data has led us to urge the use of more chemical units of solubility, such as 'g cellulose per mole of IL' or 'mol IL per mol hydroxyl in cellulose' to provide more consistency in data reporting and more insight into the dissolution mechanism. This review will also assess the greenness and sustainability of IL processing of biomass, where it would seem that the choices of cation and anion are critical not only to the science of the dissolution, but to the ultimate 'greenness' of any process (142 references).

  16. Cellulose-based materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Novotná, Katarína; Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Kolářová, K.; Vosmanská, V.; Lisá, Věra; Švorčík, V.; Bačáková, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2013), s. 2263-2278 ISSN 0969-0239 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1168; GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : polysacharide materials * oxidized cellulose * vascular smooth muscle cells * chitosan Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.033, year: 2013

  17. Untersuchungen am System NMMO/H2O/Cellulose

    Cibik, T.

    2003-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung des Zweistoffsystems N-Methylmorpholin-N-oxid (NMMO)/H2O und des Dreistoffsystems NMMO/H2O/Cellulose sowie mit der Herstellung und Charakterisierung von faserverstärkten Cellulosefolien. Das binäre System wird mittels Dynamischer Differenzkalorimetrie und Röntgenweitwinkel-Diffraktometrie untersucht und dadurch das Schmelzverhalten und die Phasenzusammensetzung dieses Systems im festen Zustand als Funktion des NMMO/H2O-Verhältnisses bes...

  18. The cellulose synthase companion proteins act non-redundantly with CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1/POM2 and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 6

    Endler, Anne; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Lampugnani, Edwin R.; Persson, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is a cell wall constituent that is essential for plant growth and development, and an important raw material for a range of industrial applications. Cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by massive cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes that track along cortical microtubules in elongating cells of Arabidopsis through the activity of the protein CELLULOSE SYNTHASE INTERACTING1 (CSI1). In a recent study we identified another family of proteins that also are associated with the ...

  19. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  20. Novel enzymes for the degradation of cellulose

    Horn Svein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bulk terrestrial biomass resource in a future bio-economy will be lignocellulosic biomass, which is recalcitrant and challenging to process. Enzymatic conversion of polysaccharides in the lignocellulosic biomass will be a key technology in future biorefineries and this technology is currently the subject of intensive research. We describe recent developments in enzyme technology for conversion of cellulose, the most abundant, homogeneous and recalcitrant polysaccharide in lignocellulosic biomass. In particular, we focus on a recently discovered new type of enzymes currently classified as CBM33 and GH61 that catalyze oxidative cleavage of polysaccharides. These enzymes promote the efficiency of classical hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases by acting on the surfaces of the insoluble substrate, where they introduce chain breaks in the polysaccharide chains, without the need of first “extracting” these chains from their crystalline matrix.

  1. Part II: Oxidative Thermal Aging of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 in Automotive Three Way Catalysts: The Effects of Fuel Shutoff and Attempted Fuel Rich Regeneration

    Qinghe Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pd component in the automotive three way catalyst (TWC experiences deactivation during fuel shutoff, a process employed by automobile companies for enhancing fuel economy when the vehicle is coasting downhill. The process exposes the TWC to a severe oxidative aging environment with the flow of hot (800 °C–1050 °C air. Simulated fuel shutoff aging at 1050 °C leads to Pd metal sintering, the main cause of irreversible deactivation of 3% Pd/Al2O3 and 3% Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 (CZO as model catalysts. The effect on the Rh component was presented in our companion paper Part I. Moderate support sintering and Pd-CexOy interactions were also experienced upon aging, but had a minimal effect on the catalyst activity losses. Cooling in air, following aging, was not able to reverse the metallic Pd sintering by re-dispersing to PdO. Unlike the aged Rh-TWCs (Part I, reduction via in situ steam reforming (SR of exhaust HCs was not effective in reversing the deactivation of aged Pd/Al2O3, but did show a slight recovery of the Pd activity when CZO was the carrier. The Pd+/Pd0 and Ce3+/Ce4+ couples in Pd/CZO are reported to promote the catalytic SR by improving the redox efficiency during the regeneration, while no such promoting effect was observed for Pd/Al2O3. A suggestion is made for improving the catalyst performance.

  2. Cellulose nanocrystal properties and their applications

    mahdi jonoobi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to provide an overview of recent research in the area of cellulose nonmaterials production from different sources. Due to their abundance, their renewability, high strength and stiffness, being eco-friendly, and low weight; numerous studies have been reported on the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources and their use in high performance applications. This work covers an introduction into the nano cellulose definition as well as used methods for isolation of nanomaterials (nanocrystals from various sources. The rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC can be isolated from sources like wood, plant fibers, agriculture and industrial bio residues, tunicates, and bacterial cellulose using acid hydrolysis process. Following this, the paper focused on characterization methods, materials properties and structure. The current review is a comprehensive literature regarding the nano cellulose isolation and demonstrates the potential of cellulose nanomaterials to be used in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  3. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    Livazovic, Sara; Li, Z.; Behzad, Ali Reza; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2015-01-01

    and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions

  4. Cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers by spin coating

    Kontturi, E.J.; Johansson, L.S.; Kontturi, K.S.; Ahonen, P.; Thune, P.C.; Laine, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dilute concentrations of cellulose nanocrystal solutions were spin coated onto different substrates to investigate the effect of the substrate on the nanocrystal submonolayers. Three substrates were probed: silica, titania, and amorphous cellulose. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) images,

  5. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  6. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Maleki, Samaneh Sadat; Mohammadi, Kourosh; Ji, Kong-shu

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. PMID:27314060

  7. A Molecular Description of Cellulose Biosynthesis

    McNamara, Joshua T.; Morgan, Jacob L.W.; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge. On the basis of recent advances in structural and molecular biology on bacterial cellulose synthases, we review emerging concepts of how the enzymes polymerize glucose molecules, how the nascent polymer is transported across the plasma membrane, and how bacterial cellulose biosynthesis is regulated during biofilm formation. Additionally, we review evolutionary commonalities and differences between cellulose synthases that modulate the nature of the cellulose product formed. PMID:26034894

  8. Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of cellulose nanomaterials

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are new types of materials derived from celluloses and offer unique challenges and opportunities for Raman spectroscopic investigations. CNs can be classified into the categories of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs, also known as cellulose whisker) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs, also known as nanofibrillated cellulose or NFCs) which when...

  9. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common methods of cellulose pulp modification (activation) applied in the production process of cellulose derivatives is the treatment of the pulp with NaOH solutions leading to the formation of alkalicellulose. The product then undergoes a prolonged process of maturation by its storage under specific conditions. The goal of the process is lowering of the molecular weight of cellulose down to the level resulting from various technological requirements. The process is time-consuming and costly; besides, it requires usage of large-capacity technological vessels and produces considerable amounts of liquid waste. Therefore, many attempts have been made to limit or altogether eliminate the highly disadvantageous stage of cellulose treatment with lye. One of the alternatives proposed so far is the radiation treatment of the cellulose pulp. In the pulp exposed to an electron beam, the bonds between molecules of D-antihydroglucopiranoses loosen and the local crystalline lattice becomes destroyed. This facilitates the access of chemical reagents to the inner structure of the cellulose and, in consequence, eliminates the need for the prolonged maturation of alkalicellulose, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals by the whole process. Research aimed at the application of radiation treatment of cellulose pulp for the production of cellulose derivatives has been conducted by a number of scientific institutions including the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, and Pulp and Paper Research Institute. For the investigations and assessment of the molecular, hypermolecular, morphologic properties and the chemical reactivity, cellulose pulps used for chemical processing, namely Alicell, Borregaard and Ketchikan, as well as paper pulps made from pine and birch wood were selected. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with an energy of 10 MeV generated in a linear electron accelerator

  10. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Pre-tratamento do bagaco de cana utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por feixe de eletrons para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  11. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  12. The Cellulose Nanofibers for Optoelectronic Conversion and Energy Storage

    Yongfeng Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose widely exists in plant tissues. Due to the large pores between the cellulose units, the regular paper is nontransparent that cannot be used in the optoelectronic devices. But some chemical and physical methods such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO oxidation can be used to improve the pores scale between the cellulose units to reach nanometer level. The cellulose nanofibers (CNFs have good mechanical strength, flexibility, thermostability, and low thermal expansion. The paper made of these nanofibers represent a kind of novel nanostructured material with ultrahigh transparency, ultrahigh haze, conductivity, biodegradable, reproducible, low pollution, environment friendly and so on. These advantages make the novel nanostructured paper apply in the optoelectronic device possible, such as electronics energy storage devices. This kind of paper is considered most likely to replace traditional materials like plastics and glass, which is attracting widespread attention, and the related research has also been reported. The purpose of this paper is to review CNFs which are applied in optoelectronic conversion and energy storage.

  13. Properties of microcrystalline cellulose obtained from coconut ...

    The study revealed that the cellulose material compares favourably with Avicel PH 101 as well as official requirement specified in the British Pharmacopoeia 1993 for microcrystalline cellulose. Keywords: Coconut fruit fibre, microcrystalline cellulose, powder properties. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol. 3 (1) 2006: ...

  14. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  15. Bioengineering cellulose-hemicellulose networks in plants

    Obembe, O.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between cellulose and hemicellulose in the cell walls are important in the industrial application of the cellulose (natural) fibres. We strive to modify these interactions (i) by interfering with cellulose biosynthesis and (ii) by direct interference of the

  16. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  17. 21 CFR 172.870 - Hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxypropyl cellulose. 172.870 Section 172.870... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.870 Hydroxypropyl cellulose. The food additive hydroxypropyl cellulose may be safely used in food, except standardized foods that do not provide for such use, in...

  18. Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites

    Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini; John Nairn; John Simonsen; Jeff Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    This critical review provides a processing-structure-property perspective on recent advances in cellulose nanoparticles and composites produced from them. It summarizes cellulose nanoparticles in terms of particle morphology, crystal structure, and properties. Also described are the self-assembly and rheological properties of cellulose nanoparticle suspensions. The...

  19. Structure Study of Cellulose Fibers Wet-Spun from Environmentally Friendly NaOH/Urea Aqueous Solutions

    Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Wan, F.; Zhang, J.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.; Cai, J.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, structure changes of regenerated cellulose fibers wet-spun from a cotton linter pulp (degree of polymerization {approx}620) solution in an NaOH/urea solvent under different conditions were investigated by simultaneous synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). WAXD results indicated that the increase in flow rate during spinning produced a better crystal orientation and a higher degree of crystallinity, whereas a 2-fold increase in draw ratio only affected the crystal orientation. When coagulated in a H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution at 15 {sup o}C, the regenerated fibers exhibited the highest crystallinity and a crystal orientation comparable to that of commercial rayon fibers by the viscose method. SAXS patterns exhibited a pair of meridional maxima in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the existence of a lamellar structure. A fibrillar superstructure was observed only at higher flow rates (>20 m/min). The conformation of cellulose molecules in NaOH/urea aqueous solution was also investigated by static and dynamic light scattering. It was found that cellulose chains formed aggregates with a radius of gyration, R{sub g}, of about 232 nm and an apparent hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, of about 172 nm. The NaOH/urea solvent system is low-cost and environmentally friendly, which may offer an alternative route to replace more hazardous existing methods for the production of regenerated cellulose fibers.

  20. Effect of Acid Hydrolysis and Thermal Hydrolysis on Solubility and Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Cellulose Hydrogel

    Sinyee Gan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose hydrogel was produced from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB that went through acid hydrolysis and thermal hydrolysis. The pretreated EFB was dissolved in LiOH/urea aqueous solution using the rapid dissolution method and was subjected to a crosslinking process with the aid of epichlorohydrin to form hydrogel. The effects of both hydrolyses’ time on average molecular weight (Mŋ, solubility, and properties of EFB hydrogels were evaluated. Both hydrolyses led to lower Mŋ, lower crystallinity index (CrI and hence, resulted in higher cellulose solubility. X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization revealed the CrI and transition of crystalline structure of EFB from cellulose I to II. The effects of hydrolysis time on the transparency, degree of swelling (DS, and morphology of the regenerated cellulose hydrogel were also investigated using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometer and a Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, respectively. These findings provide an efficient method to improve the solubility and properties of regenerated cellulose products.

  1. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  2. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    Mehmet Isik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels.

  3. Low melting point pyridinium ionic liquid pretreatment for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass.

    Uju; Nakamoto, Aya; Shoda, Yasuhiro; Goto, Masahiro; Tokuhara, Wataru; Noritake, Yoshiyuki; Katahira, Satoshi; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Ogino, Chiaki; Kamiya, Noriho

    2013-05-01

    The potential of 1-hexylpyridinium chloride ([Hpy][Cl]), to pretreat cellulosic feedstocks was investigated using microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and Bagasse at 80 °C or 100 °C. Short [Hpy][Cl] pretreatments, conversion of pretreated Avicel to glucose was attained after 24h enzymatic saccharification under optimal conditions, whereas regenerated Bagasse showed 1-3-fold higher conversion than untreated biomass. FT-IR analysis of both Avicel and Bagasse samples pretreated with [Hpy][Cl] or 1-ethyl-3-methyimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]) revealed that these ionic liquids behaved differently during pretreatment. [Hpy][Cl] pretreatment for an extended duration (180 min) released mono- and disaccharides without using cellulase enzymes, suggesting [Hpy][Cl] has capability for direct saccharification of cellulosic feedstocks. On the basis of the results obtained, [Hpy][Cl] pretreatment enhanced initial reaction rates in enzymatic saccharification by either crystalline polymorphic alteration of cellulose or partial degradation of the crystalline cellulosic fraction in biomass. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface-Induced Frustration in Solid State Polymorphic Transition of Native Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Salminen, Reeta; Baccile, Niki; Reza, Mehedi; Kontturi, Eero

    2017-06-12

    The presence of an interface generally influences crystallization of polymers from melt or from solution. Here, by contrast, we explore the effect of surface immobilization in a direct solid state polymorphic transition on individual cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), extracted from a plant-based origin. The conversion from native cellulose I to cellulose III crystal occurred via a host-guest inclusion of ethylene diamine inside the crystal. A 60% reduction in CNC width (height) in atomic force microscopy images suggested that when immobilized on a flat modified silica surface, the stresses caused by the inclusion or the subsequent regeneration resulted in exfoliation, hypothetically, between the van der Waals bonded sheets within the crystal. Virtually no changes in dimensions were visible when the polymorphic transition was performed to nonimmobilized CNCs in bulk dispersion. With reservations and by acknowledging the obvious dissimilarities, the exfoliation of cellulose crystal sheets can be viewed as analogous to exfoliation of 2D structures like graphene from a van der Waals stacked solid. Here, the detachment is triggered by an inclusion of a guest molecule inside a host cellulose crystal and the stresses caused by the firm attachment of the CNC on a solid substrate, leading to detachment of molecular sheets or stacks of sheets.

  5. Supercritical fluid regeneration of adsorbents

    Defilippi, R. P.; Robey, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    The results of a program to perform studies supercritical (fluid) carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of adsorbents, using samples of industrial wastewaters from manufacturing pesticides and synthetic solution, and to estimate the economics of the specific wastewater treatment regenerations, based on test data are given. Processing costs for regenerating granular activated carbon GAC) for treating industrial wastewaters depend on stream properties and regeneration throughput.

  6. Physicotechnical, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric properties of powdered cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose derived from groundnut shells

    Chukwuemeka P. Azubuike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders, derived from agricultural waste products, that have for the pharmaceutical industry, desirable physical (flow properties were investigated. α–Cellulose (GCN was extracted from groundnut shell (an agricultural waste product using a non-dissolving method based on inorganic reagents. Modification of this α -cellulose was carried out by partially hydrolysing it with 2N hydrochloric acid under reflux to obtain microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN. The physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of the derived α-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose powders were compared with Avicel® PH 101, a commercial brand of microcrystalline cellulose (MCCA, using standard methods. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the α-cellulose had lower crystallinity. This suggested that treatment with 2N hydrochloric acid led to an increase in the crystallinity index. Thermogravimetric analysis showed quite similar thermal behavior for all cellulose samples, although the α-cellulose had a somewhat lower stability. A comparison of the physical properties between the microcrystalline celluloses and the α-cellulose suggests that microcrystalline cellulose (MCGN and MCCA might have better flow properties. In almost all cases, MCGN and MCCA had similar characteristics. Since groundnut shells are agricultural waste products, its utilization as a source of microcrystalline cellulose might be a good low-cost alternative to the more expensive commercial brand.

  7. Comparison of Bacterial Cellulose Production among Different Strains and Fermented Media

    Maryam Jalili Tabaii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus (PTCC 1734 and two newly isolated strains (from vinegar under static culture conditions was studied. The production of bacterial cellulose was examined in modified Hestrin-Shramm medium by replacing D-glucose with other carbon sources. The results showed that the yield and characteristics of bacterial cellulose were influenced by the type of carbon source. Glycerol gave the highest yield in all of the studied strains (6%, 9.7% and 3.8% for S, A2 strain and Gluconacetobacter xylinus (PTCC 1734, respectively. The maximum dry bacterial cellulose weight in the glycerol containing medium is due to A2 strain (1.9 g l-1 in comparison to Gluconacetobacter xylinus as reference strain (0.76 g l-1. Although all of the studied strains were in Gluconacetobacter family, each used different sugars for maximum production after glycerol (mannitol and fructose for two newly isolated strains and glucose for Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The maximum moisture content was observed when sucrose and food-grade sucrose were used as carbon source. Contrary to expectations, while the maximum thickness of bacterial cellulose membrane was attained when glycerol was used, bacterial cellulose from glycerol had less moisture content than the others. The oxidized cellulose showed antibacterial activities, which makes it as a good candidate for food-preservatives.

  8. Extraction of palm tree cellulose and its functionalization via graft copolymerization.

    Al-Hoqbani, Abdulmajeed A; Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-09-01

    The work in this paper was planned with the aim of extracting the cellulosic component of palm tree waste and functionalizing this cellulose through graft copolymerization with acrylic acid. The cellulose extraction included hot alkali treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to remove the non-cellulosic binding materials. The alkali treatment was followed by an oxidative bleaching using peracid/hydrogen peroxide mixture with the aim of removing the rest of non-cellulosic materials to improve the fiber hydrophilicity and accessibility towards further grafting reaction. Optimum conditions for cellulose extraction are boiling in 5% (W/V) NaOH in a material to liquor ratio of 1:20 for 1 h then bleaching with 60 ml/l bleaching mixture at initial pH value of 6.5 for 30 min. The pH of the bleaching medium is turned to the alkaline range 11 and bleaching continues for extra 30 min. Graft copolymerization reaction was initiated by potassium bromate/thiourea dioxide redox system. Optimum conditions for grafting are 30 mmol of potassium bromate, 30 mmol of thiourea dioxide and 150 g of acrylic acid (each per 100 g of cellulose). The polymerization reaction was carried out for 120 min at 50°C using a material to liquor ratio of 1:20. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An active magnetic regenerator device

    2015-01-01

    A rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) device comprising two or more regenerator beds, a magnet arrangement and a valve arrangement. The valve arrangement comprises a plurality of valve elements arranged substantially immovably with respect to the regenerator beds along a rotational direction...

  10. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  11. Advancing cellulose-based nanotechnology

    Theodore H. Wegner; Philip E. Jones

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology has applications across most economic sectors and allows the development of new enabling science with broad commercial potential. Cellulose and lignocellulose have great potential as nanomaterials because they are abundant, renewable, have a nanofibrillar structure, can be made multifunctional, and self-assemble into well-defined architectures. To...

  12. Ignition inhibitors for cellulosic materials

    Alvares, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    By exposing samples to various irradiance levels from a calibrated thermal radiation source, the ignition responses of blackened alpha-cellulose and cotton cloth with and without fire-retardant additives were compared. Samples treated with retardant compounds which showed the most promise were then isothermally pyrolyzed in air for comparisons between the pyrolysis rates. Alpha-cellulose samples containing a mixture of boric acid, borax, and ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate could not be ignited by irradiances up to 4.0 cal cm -2 s-1 (16.7 W/cm 2 ). At higher irradiances the specimens ignited, but flaming lasted only until the flammable gases were depleted. Cotton cloth containing a polymeric retardant with the designation THPC + MM was found to be ignition-resistant to all irradiances below 7.0 cal cm -2 s -1 (29.3 W/cm 2 ). Comparison of the pyrolysis rates of the retardant-treated alpha-cellulose and the retardant-treated cotton showed that the retardant mechanism is qualitatively the same. Similar ignition-response measurements were also made with specimens exposed to ionizing radiation. It was observed that gamma radiation results in ignition retardance of cellulose, while irradiation by neutrons does not

  13. Polyvinyl alcohol–cellulose composite

    We have made an attempt to prepare taste sensor material by using functionalized polymer without any lipid. PVA–cellulose composite has been modified to use as the sensor material. The research work covers polymer membrane preparation, morphology study and structural characterization of the membrane and study of ...

  14. Irradiation effects in wood and cellulose

    McLaren, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    For cellulosic materials the predominant effect of high energy radiation is depolymerisation and degradation by chain scission, although there is some evidence that crosslinking or cellulose stabilisation can occur under certain conditions. When the cellulose is in the form of a natural product such as wood, where it is intimately associated with other polysaccharides, lignins, resins and gums, the effects of radiation can be significantly modified. Examination of cellulose produced by chemical pulping treatment of wood which had been previously given small doses of radiation, showed significant differences in the extent of cellulose depolymerisation with different wood species. The relevance of this work to the paper pulp industry will also be discussed. (author)

  15. Cellulose aerogels functionalized with polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles: In-situ synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity.

    Wan, Caichao; Li, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Green porous and lightweight cellulose aerogels have been considered as promising candidates to substitute some petrochemical host materials to support various nanomaterials. In this work, waste wheat straw was collected as feedstock to fabricate cellulose hydrogels, and a green inexpensive NaOH/polyethylene glycol solution was used as cellulose solvent. Prior to freeze-drying treatment, the cellulose hydrogels were integrated with polypyrrole and silver nanoparticles by easily-operated in-situ oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using silver ions as oxidizing agent. The tri-component hybrid aerogels were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the hybrid aerogels against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Listeria monocytogenes (intracellular bacteria) was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by parallel streak method and determination of minimal inhibitory concentration, respectively. This work provides an example of combining cellulose aerogels with nanomaterials, and helps to develop novel forms of cellulose-based functional materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  17. The identification of and relief from Fe3+ inhibition for both cellulose and cellulase in cellulose saccharification catalyzed by cellulases from Penicillium decumbens.

    Wang, Mingyu; Mu, Ziming; Wang, Junli; Hou, Shaoli; Han, Lijuan; Dong, Yanmei; Xiao, Lin; Xia, Ruirui; Fang, Xu

    2013-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an underutilized, renewable resource that can be converted to biofuels. The key step in this conversion is cellulose saccharification catalyzed by cellulase. In this work, the effect of metal ions on cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases from Penicillium decumbens was reported for the first time. Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) were shown to be inhibitory. Further studies on Fe(3+) inhibition showed the inhibition takes place on both enzyme and substrate levels. Fe(3+) treatment damages cellulases' capability to degrade cellulose and inhibits all major cellulase activities. Fe(3+) treatment also reduces the digestibility of cellulose, due to its oxidation. Treatment of Fe(3+)-treated cellulose with DTT and supplementation of EDTA to saccharification systems partially relieved Fe(3+) inhibition. It was concluded that Fe(3+) inhibition in cellulose degradation is a complicated process in which multiple inhibition events occur, and that relief from Fe(3+) inhibition can be achieved by the supplementation of reducing or chelating agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure and engineering of celluloses.

    Pérez, Serge; Samain, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This chapter collates the developments and conclusions of many of the extensive studies that have been conducted on cellulose, with particular emphasis on the structural and morphological features while not ignoring the most recent results derived from the elucidation of unique biosynthetic pathways. The presentation of structural and morphological data gathered together in this chapter follows the historical development of our knowledge of the different structural levels of cellulose and its various organizational levels. These levels concern features such as chain conformation, chain polarity, chain association, crystal polarity, and microfibril structure and organization. This chapter provides some historical landmarks related to the evolution of concepts in the field of biopolymer science, which parallel the developments of novel methods for characterization of complex macromolecular structures. The elucidation of the different structural levels of organization opens the way to relating structure to function and properties. The chemical and biochemical methods that have been developed to dissolve and further modify cellulose chains are briefly covered. Particular emphasis is given to the facets of topochemistry and topoenzymology where the morphological features play a key role in determining unique physicochemical properties. A final chapter addresses what might be considered tomorrow's goal in amplifying the economic importance of cellulose in the context of sustainable development. Selected examples illustrate the types of result that can be obtained when cellulose fibers are no longer viewed as inert substrates, and when the polyhydroxyl nature of their surfaces, as well as their entire structural complexity, are taken into account. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hematopoiesis on cellulose ester membranes (CEM). X. Effects of in vitro irradiation of stromal cells prior to application on CEM

    Knospe, W.H.; Husseini, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Cellulose ester membranes (CEM) were coated with stromal cells from murine bone or bone marrow irradiated in vitro with 1000, 2000, or 4000 rad and then implanted i.p. in CAF1 mice for periods of six and 12 months. CEM coated with stromal cells from bone showed excellent regeneration of bone and hematopoiesis after 1000 rad in vitro irradiation. After 2000 rad, hematopoietic and bone regeneration was reduced by about 50%, and after 4000 rad it was completely absent in CEM coated with stromal cells from bone. CEM coated with stromal cells from bone marrow showed no regeneration of hematopoiesis or bone after 1000, 2000, and 4000 rad in vitro irradiation and residence i.p. for six and 12 months. These results indicate that regeneration of the hematopoietic microenvironment is dependent upon living stromal cells. A difference in radiation sensitivity is demonstrated between stromal cells from bone and from bone marrow

  20. Impact of lignins isolated from pretreated lignocelluloses on enzymatic cellulose saccharification.

    Barsberg, Søren; Selig, Michael Joseph; Felby, Claus

    2013-02-01

    Lignins were enzymatically isolated from corn stover and wheat straw samples and subjected to hydrothermal or wet oxidation pretreatments for enzyme adsorption experimentations. Lignin contents of the isolates ranged from 26 to 71 % (w/w); cellulose ranged from 3 to 22 % (w/w); xylan from 0.7 to 6 % (w/w) and ash was from 5.8 to 30 % (w/w). ATR-IR analyses indicated significant and similar levels of calcium in all lignin isolates. Commercial cellulase adsorption studies showed that the presence of these lignins had no significant impact on the total amount of adsorbed enzyme in cellulose and cellulose-lignin systems. Consequently, the presence of the lignins had minimal effect, if any, on enzymatic cellulose conversion. Furthermore, this result, coupled with significant calcium levels in the isolated lignins, supports previous work suggesting lignin-calcium complexes reduce enzyme-lignin interactions.

  1. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  2. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  3. Polymorphy in native cellulose: recent developments

    Atalla, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In a number of earlier studies, the authors developed a model of cellulose structure based on the existence of two stable, linearly ordered conformations of the cellulose chain that are dominant in celluloses I and II, respectively. The model rests on extensive Raman spectral observations together with conformational considerations and solid-state 13 C-NMR studies. More recently, they have proposed, on the basis of high resolution solid-state 13 C-NMR observations, that native celluloses are composites of two distinct crystalline forms that coexist in different proportions in all native celluloses. In the present work, they examine the Raman spectra of the native celluloses, and reconcile their view of conformational differences with the new level of crystalline polymorphy of native celluloses revealed in the solid-state 13 C-NMR investigations

  4. A biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration by antioxidants.

    Echeverri-Ruiz, Nancy; Haynes, Tracy; Landers, Joseph; Woods, Justin; Gemma, Michael J; Hughes, Michael; Del Rio-Tsonis, Katia

    2018-01-15

    The use of antioxidants in tissue regeneration has been studied, but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Here, we analyze the role of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in retina regeneration. Embryonic chicks are able to regenerate their retina after its complete removal from retinal stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin (CM) of the eye only if a source of exogenous factors, such as FGF2, is present. This study shows that NAC modifies the redox status of the CM, initiates self-renewal of the stem/progenitor cells, and induces regeneration in the absence of FGF2. NAC works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals either independently or through the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), and/or by reducing oxidized proteins through a thiol disulfide exchange activity. We dissected the mechanism used by NAC to induce regeneration through the use of inhibitors of GSH synthesis and the use of other antioxidants with different biochemical structures and modes of action, and found that NAC induces regeneration through its thiol disulfide exchange activity. Thus, our results provide, for the first time, a biochemical basis for induction of retina regeneration. Furthermore, NAC induction was independent of FGF receptor signaling, but dependent on the MAPK (pErk1/2) pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacterial Cellulose (BC) as a Functional Nanocomposite Biomaterial

    Nandgaonkar, Avinav Ghanashyam

    compressive tests. In our second study, we developed a one-pot in-situ biosynthetic method to fabricate structurally controllable bacterial cellulose (BC)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites. The graphene oxide (GO) was highly reduced during a standard autoclave process using a traditional mannitol culture medium as the reducing agent. The electrical conductivity of the RGO was found to be 23.75 S m-1. The final BC/RGO composites were developed in three distinct forms: 1) sealed structures in the water, 2) aerogels characterized by a porous cross section and aligned longitudinal structure, and 3) films embedded within the RGO sheets. Because of the simplicity and non-toxic nature of this work, it can be used in biomedical and bioelectronics applications. The last study was on dye degradation using BC as the substrate. The surface of the BC was chemically oxidized to produce aldehyde groups to successfully covalently crosslink laccase. TiO2 and laccase (Lac) were co-immobilized on the surface of OBC and the dye degradation process was carried out under specific conditions. Compared with free laccase, the optimum pH of the immobilized laccase system shifted to lower pH, while the optimum temperature decreased from 55 °C to 50 °C. The dye degradation experiments showed that the optimum pH for dye degradation was pH 5.0-6.0, while the optimum temperature was ca. 40 ºC. Under UV illumination, the dye degradation efficiency significantly improved characteristic of a synergy in the system. This dissertation contributes to the basic research of bacterial cellulose which will result in novel ideas that can possibly result in future industrial applications. The research provides a fundamental underpinning of specialized structure-property relationships between BC and the materials used to fabricate the BC nanocomposites that have value-added applications that are environmentally safe and eco-friendly.

  6. Production process of a new cellulosic fiber with antimicrobial properties.

    Zikeli, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The Lyocell process (system: cellulose-water-N-methylmorpholine oxide) of Zimmer AG offers special advantages for the production of cellulose fibers. The process excels by dissolving the most diverse cellulose types as these are optimally adjusted to the process by applying different pretreatment methods. Based on this stable process, Zimmer AG's objective is to impart to the Lyocell fiber additional value to improve quality of life and thus to tap new markets for the product. Thanks to the specific incorporation of seaweed, the process allows to produce cellulose Lyocell fibers with additional and new features. They are activated in a further step - by specific charging with metal ions - in order to obtain antibacterial properties. The favorable textile properties of fibers produced by the Lyocell process are not adversely affected by the incorporation of seaweed material or by activation to obtain an antibacterial fiber so that current textile products can be made from the fibers thus produced. The antibacterial effect is achieved by metal ion activation of the Lyocell fibers with incorporated seaweed, which contrasts with the antibacterial fibers known so far. Antibacterial fibers produced by conventional methods are in part only surface finished with antibacterially active chemicals or else they are produced by incorporating organic substances with antibacterial and fungicidal effects. Being made from cellulose, the antibacterial Lyocell fiber Sea Cell Active as the basis for quality textiles exhibits a special wear comfort compared to synthetic fibers with antibacterial properties and effects. This justifies the conclusion that the Zimmer Lyocell process provides genuine value added and that it is a springboard for further applications.

  7. Lignin depletion enhances the digestibility of cellulose in cultured xylem cells.

    Catherine I Lacayo

    Full Text Available Plant lignocellulose constitutes an abundant and sustainable source of polysaccharides that can be converted into biofuels. However, the enzymatic digestion of native plant cell walls is inefficient, presenting a considerable barrier to cost-effective biofuel production. In addition to the insolubility of cellulose and hemicellulose, the tight association of lignin with these polysaccharides intensifies the problem of cell wall recalcitrance. To determine the extent to which lignin influences the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, specifically in secondary walls that contain the majority of cellulose and lignin in plants, we used a model system consisting of cultured xylem cells from Zinniaelegans. Rather than using purified cell wall substrates or plant tissue, we have applied this system to study cell wall degradation because it predominantly consists of homogeneous populations of single cells exhibiting large deposits of lignocellulose. We depleted lignin in these cells by treating with an oxidative chemical or by inhibiting lignin biosynthesis, and then examined the resulting cellulose digestibility and accessibility using a fluorescent cellulose-binding probe. Following cellulase digestion, we measured a significant decrease in relative cellulose content in lignin-depleted cells, whereas cells with intact lignin remained essentially unaltered. We also observed a significant increase in probe binding after lignin depletion, indicating that decreased lignin levels improve cellulose accessibility. These results indicate that lignin depletion considerably enhances the digestibility of cellulose in the cell wall by increasing the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic attack. Although other wall components are likely to contribute, our quantitative study exploits cultured Zinnia xylem cells to demonstrate the dominant influence of lignin on the enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This system is simple enough for quantitative image analysis

  8. Antimicrobial Bacterial Cellulose-Silver Nanoparticles Composite Membranes

    Hernane S. Barud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial bacterial cellulose-silver nanoparticles composite membranes have been obtained by “in situ” preparation of Ag nanoparticles from hydrolytic decomposition of silver nitrate solution using triethanolamine as reducing and complexing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was evidenced by the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and absorption in the UV-Visible (350 nm to 600 nm. Thermal and mechanical properties together with swelling behavior for water were considered. TEA concentration was observed to be important in order to obtain only Ag particles and not a mixture of silver oxides. It was also observed to control particle size and amount of silver contents in bacterial cellulose. The composite membranes exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Copper removal using electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose.

    Sheikhi, Amir; Safari, Salman; Yang, Han; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2015-06-03

    Removal of heavy metal ions such as copper using an efficient and low-cost method with low ecological footprint is a critical process in wastewater treatment, which can be achieved in a liquid phase using nanoadsorbents such as inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, attention has turned toward developing sustainable and environmentally friendly nanoadsorbents to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media. Electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC), which can be prepared from wood fibers through periodate/chlorite oxidation, has been shown to have a high charge content and colloidal stability. Here, we show that ENCC scavenges copper ions by different mechanisms depending on the ion concentration. When the Cu(II) concentration is low (C0≲200 ppm), agglomerates of starlike ENCC particles appear, which are broken into individual starlike entities by shear and Brownian motion, as evidenced by photometric dispersion analysis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, at higher copper concentrations, the aggregate morphology changes from starlike to raftlike, which is probably due to the collapse of protruding dicarboxylic cellulose (DCC) chains and ENCC charge neutralization by copper adsorption. Such raftlike structures result from head-to-head and lateral aggregation of neutralized ENCCs as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. As opposed to starlike aggregates, the raftlike structures grow gradually and are prone to sedimentation at copper concentrations C0≳500 ppm, which eliminates a costly separation step in wastewater treatment processes. Moreover, a copper removal capacity of ∼185 mg g(-1) was achieved thanks to the highly charged DCC polyanions protruding from ENCC. These properties along with the biorenewability make ENCC a promising candidate for wastewater treatment, in which fast, facile, and low-cost removal of heavy metal ions is desired most.

  10. Fenton-Driven Regeneration of MTBE-spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Fenton-driven regeneration of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two treatment technologies: adsorption of organic chemicals onto activated carbon and Fenton-driven oxidation regeneration of the spent-GAC...

  11. Cellulose Triacetate Synthesis from Cellulosic Wastes by Heterogeneous Reactions

    Sherif Shawki Z. Hindi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulosic fibers from cotton fibers (CF, recycled writing papers (RWP, recycled newspapers (RN, and macerated woody fibers of Leucaena leucocephala (MWFL were acetylated by heterogeneous reactions with glacial acetic acid, concentrated H2SO4, and acetic anhydride. The resultant cellulose triacetate (CTA was characterized for yield and solubility as well as by using 1H-NMR spectroscopy and SEM. The acetylated product (AP yields for CF, RWP, RN, and MWFL were 112, 94, 84, and 73%, respectively. After isolation of pure CTA from the AP, the CTA yields were 87, 80, 68, and 54%. The solubility test for the CTA’s showed a clear solubility in chloroform, as well as mixture of chloroform and methanol (9:1v/v and vice versa for acetone. The degree of substitution (DS values for the CTA’s produced were nearly identical and confirmed the presence of CTA. In addition, the pore diameter of the CTA skeleton ranged from 0.072 to 0.239 µm for RWP and RN, and within the dimension scale of the CTA pinholes confirm the synthesis of CTA. Accordingly, pouring of the AP liquor at 25 °C in distilled water at the end of the acetylation and filtration did not hydrolyze the CTA to cellulose diacetate.

  12. Chemical Functionalization and Characterization of Cellulose Extracted from Wheat Straw Using Acid Hydrolysis Methodologies

    Chemar J. Huntley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonuniform distribution of cellulose into many composite materials is attributed to the hydrogen bonding observed by the three hydroxyl groups located on each glucose monomer. As an alternative, chemical functionalization is performed to disrupt the strong hydrogen bonding behavior without significant altering of the chemical structure or lowering of the thermal stability. In this report, we use wheat straw as the biomass source for the extraction of cellulose and, subsequently, chemical modification via the Albright-Goldman and Jones oxidation reactions. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that upon oxidation a slight change in the cellulose polymorphic structure (CI to CII can be observed when compared to its unmodified counterpart. Scanning electron microscopy analyses show that the oxidized cellulose structure exhibits fiber-like crystals with lengths and diameters on the micrometer scale. Thermal analyses (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis show an increase in the thermal stability for the modified cellulose at extremely high temperatures (>300°C.

  13. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  14. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  15. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  16. Opportunity for profitable investments in cellulosic biofuels

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Marette, Stephan; Treguer, David

    2011-01-01

    Research efforts to allow large-scale conversion of cellulose into biofuels are being undertaken in the US and EU. These efforts are designed to increase logistic and conversion efficiencies, enhancing the economic competitiveness of cellulosic biofuels. However, not enough attention has been paid to the future market conditions for cellulosic biofuels, which will determine whether the necessary private investment will be available to allow a cellulosic biofuels industry to emerge. We examine the future market for cellulosic biofuels, differentiating between cellulosic ethanol and 'drop-in' cellulosic biofuels that can be transported with petroleum fuels and have equivalent energy values. We show that emergence of a cellulosic ethanol industry is unlikely without costly government subsidies, in part because of strong competition from conventional ethanol and limits on ethanol blending. If production costs of drop-in cellulosic biofuels fall enough to become competitive, then their expansion will not necessarily cause feedstock prices to rise. As long as local supplies of feedstocks that have no or low-valued alternative uses exist, then expansion will not cause prices to rise significantly. If cellulosic feedstocks come from dedicated biomass crops, then the supply curves will have a steeper slope because of competition for land. (author)

  17. Glycerine Treated Nanofibrillated Cellulose Composites

    Esra Erbas Kiziltas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC suspensions with glycerine. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA copolymer composites with different loadings of GNFC were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. The incorporation of GNFC increased tensile and flexural modulus of elasticity of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that as GNFC loading increased, the thermal stability of the composites decreased marginally. The incorporation of GNFC into the SMA copolymer matrix resulted in higher elastic modulus (G′ and shear viscosities than the neat SMA copolymer, especially at low frequencies. The orientation of rigid GNFC particles in the composites induced a strong shear thinning behavior with an increase in GNFC loading. The decrease in the slope of elastic modulus with increasing GNFC loading suggested that the microstructural changes of the polymer matrix can be attributed to the incorporation of GNFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of fracture surfaces show areas of GNFC agglomerates in the SMA matrix.

  18. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  19. Oxolane-2,5-dione modified electrospun cellulose nanofibers for heavy metals adsorption

    Stephen, Musyoka; Catherine, Ngila; Brenda, Moodley; Andrew, Kindness; Leslie, Petrik; Corrine, Greyling

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrospun and modified cellulose nanofibers have high surface area. → Modified nanofibers showed improved adsorption of Cd and Pb from water. → Regenerated modified nanofibers had high adsorption capacity hence recyclable. - Abstract: Functionalized cellulose nanofibers have been obtained through electrospinning and modification with oxolane-2,5-dione. The application of the nanofibers for adsorption of cadmium and lead ions from model wastewater samples is presented for the first time. Physical and chemical properties of the nanofibers were characterized. Surface chemistry during preparation and functionalization was monitored using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, carbon-13 solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Brunauer Emmett and Teller. Enhanced surface area of 13.68 m 2 g -1 was recorded for the nanofibers as compared to the cellulose fibers with a surface area of 3.22 m 2 g -1 . Freundlich isotherm was found to describe the interactions better than Langmuir: K f = 1.0 and 2.91 mmol g -1 (r 2 = 0.997 and 0.988) for lead and cadmium, respectively. Regenerability of the fiber mats was investigated and the results obtained indicate sustainability in adsorption efficacy of the material.

  20. Charge- and Size-Selective Molecular Separation using Ultrathin Cellulose Membranes

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2016-08-30

    To date, it is still a challenge to prepare high-flux and highselectivity microporous membranes thinner than 20 nm without introducing defects. In this work, we report for the first time the application of cellulose membranes for selective separation of small molecules. A freestanding cellulose membrane as thin as 10 nm has been prepared through regeneration of trimethylsilyl cellulose (TMSC). The freestanding membrane can be transferred to any desired substrate and shows a normalized flux as high as 700 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 when supported by a porous alumina disc. According to filtration experiments, the membrane exhibits precise size-sieving performances with an estimated pore size between 1.5–3.5 nm depending on the regeneration period and initial TMSC concentration. A perfect discrimination of anionic molecules over neutral species is demonstrated. Moreover, the membrane demonstrates high reproducibility, high scale-up potential, and excellent stability over two months.

  1. Process Intensification for Cellulosic Biorefineries.

    Sadula, Sunitha; Athaley, Abhay; Zheng, Weiqing; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Saha, Basudeb

    2017-06-22

    Utilization of renewable carbon source, especially non-food biomass is critical to address the climate change and future energy challenge. Current chemical and enzymatic processes for producing cellulosic sugars are multistep, and energy- and water-intensive. Techno-economic analysis (TEA) suggests that upstream lignocellulose processing is a major hurdle to the economic viability of the cellulosic biorefineries. Process intensification, which integrates processes and uses less water and energy, has the potential to overcome the aforementioned challenges. Here, we demonstrate a one-pot depolymerization and saccharification process of woody biomass, energy crops, and agricultural residues to produce soluble sugars with high yields. Lignin is separated as a solid for selective upgrading. Further integration of our upstream process with a reactive extraction step makes energy-efficient separation of sugars in the form of furans. TEA reveals that the process efficiency and integration enable, for the first time, economic production of feed streams that could profoundly improve process economics for downstream cellulosic bioproducts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Utilization of agricultural cellulose wastes

    Valkanas, G N; Economidis, D G; Koukios, E G; Valkanas, C G

    1977-05-05

    Wastes, example, straw, are prehydrolyzed to convert pentosanes, starches, and hemicelluloses to monosaccharides; the remaining pulp is 50% cellulose. Thus, dry wheat straw 0.8 kg was treated with 10 L of 0.3% aqueous HCl at 5-5.5 atm and 145/sup 0/ and a space velocity of 0.55 L/min, washed with dry steam, followed by water at 120 to 130/sup 0/, and more dry steam, and compressed at 25 kg/cm/sup 2/ to yield a product containing 45 to 50 wt % water. The sugar solution obtained (1394 L) contained 1.34 wt % reducing sugars, a straw hydrolysis of 23 wt %, and comprised xylose 74.3, mannose 5.2, arabinose 11.8, glucose 5.9, galactose 2.9%, and furfural 0.16 g/L. The cellulose residue had a dry weight of 0.545 kg. a yield of 68.2 wt % and contained cellulose 53.1, hemicelluloses 12.6%, lignin 22.1, ash and extractables 12.2%. The degree of polymerization was 805 glucose units.

  3. Biochemistry of cellulose degradation and cellulose utilization for feeds and for protein

    Sadara, J C; Lachke, A H; Shewale, J G

    1979-01-01

    A review discussing production of single-cell protein, fuel, and glucose from cellulose decomposition; surface or solid fermentations of single-cell protein; production of cellulases; and the biochemistry of cellulose degradation was presented.

  4. Cellulose-binding domains: tools for innovation in cellulosic fibre production and modification

    Quentin, M.G.E.; Valk, van der H.C.P.M.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Jong, de E.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose, nature's most abundant macromolecule, and therefore represent a renewable resource of special technical importance. Cellulose degrading enzymes involved in plant cell wall loosening (expansins), or produced by plant pathogenic microorganisms (cellulases),

  5. FENTON-DRIVEN REGENERATION OF GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON: A TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

    A Fenton-driven mechanism for regenerating spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two reliable and well established treatment technologies - adsorption onto activated carbon and Fenton oxidation. During carbon adsorption treatment, enviro...

  6. Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2015-03-18

    Cellulose nanocrystal materials have been labeled with modern Alexa Fluor dyes in a process that first links the dye to a cyanuric chloride molecule. Subsequent reaction with cellulose nanocrystals provides dyed solid microcrystalline cellulose material that can be used for bioimaging and suitable for deposition in films and spatially structured microenvironments. It is demonstrated with single molecular fluorescence microscopy that these films are subject to hydrolysis by cellulose enzymes.

  7. Cellulose powder from Cladophora sp. algae.

    Ek, R; Gustafsson, C; Nutt, A; Iversen, T; Nyström, C

    1998-01-01

    The surface are and crystallinity was measured on a cellulose powder made from Cladophora sp. algae. The algae cellulose powder was found to have a very high surface area (63.4 m2/g, N2 gas adsorption) and build up of cellulose with a high crystallinity (approximately 100%, solid state NMR). The high surface area was confirmed by calculations from atomic force microscope imaging of microfibrils from Cladophora sp. algae.

  8. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1977-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artificial test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiography by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (Auth.)

  9. Alpha autoradiography by cellulose nitrate layer

    Simonovic, J.; Vukovic, J.; Antanasijevic, R.

    1976-01-01

    From domestic cellulose nitrate bulk material thin layers for α-particle autoradiography were prepared. An artifical test specimen of a uniformly alpha labelled grid source was used. The efficiency of autoradiographs by cellulose nitrate was calculated comparing with data from an Ilford K2 nuclear emulsion exposed under the same conditions as the cellulose nitrate film. The resolution was determined as the distance from grid pitch edge at which the track density fell considerably. (orig.) [de

  10. Controlled silver delivery by silver-cellulose nanocomposites prepared by a one-pot green synthesis assisted by microwaves

    Silva, Ana Rosa; Unali, Gianfranco, E-mail: ana.rosa.silva@ua.pt [Structured Materials Expertise Group, Unilever Discover Port Sunlight, Quarry Road East, Bebington CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-05

    Controlled silver release from cellulosic nanocomposites was achieved by synthesizing silver nanoparticles, under microwave heating for 1-15 min, in a one-pot, versatile and sustainable process in which microcrystalline cellulose simultaneously functions as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agent in water; chitin, starch and other cellulose derivatives could also be used as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agents for silver nanoparticles and the method was also found to be extensible to the preparation of noble metal (Au, Pt) and metal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO, Cu, CuO and Cu{sub 2}O) nanocomposites.

  11. Controlled silver delivery by silver-cellulose nanocomposites prepared by a one-pot green synthesis assisted by microwaves

    Silva, Ana Rosa; Unali, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Controlled silver release from cellulosic nanocomposites was achieved by synthesizing silver nanoparticles, under microwave heating for 1-15 min, in a one-pot, versatile and sustainable process in which microcrystalline cellulose simultaneously functions as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agent in water; chitin, starch and other cellulose derivatives could also be used as reducing, stabilizing and supporting agents for silver nanoparticles and the method was also found to be extensible to the preparation of noble metal (Au, Pt) and metal oxide nanoparticle (ZnO, Cu, CuO and Cu 2 O) nanocomposites.

  12. Synthesis, performance and regeneration of carbon membranes for biogas upgrading - a future energy carrier

    Lie, Jon Arvid

    2005-07-01

    The focus of the current work was to find a low-cost precursor for carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes for biogas upgrading (i.e. CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation to meet vehicle fuel criteria), and a simple way of producing them. Wood pulp from spruce and pine containing a majority of cellulose resulted in carbons with CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation performance at the same level as those derived from specialty polymers like polyimides. Pulp has the advantage of being widespread and cheap. Cellulose hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), that is gentle enough to preserve the monosaccharides, provided an anticipative route to carbon membrane formation. Increasing the hydrolysis time, resulted in reduced weight loss during carbonization, and better separation performance for the gas pair CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}. The results indicated that furans are a key intermediate in forming microporosity with high separation performance. For the separation of CO2 from CH{sub 4} the optimum carbon formation temperature seemed to be near 650{sup d}eg C (single gas tests at 30{sup d}eg C and 2 bar feed pressure). In addition, several ways of modifying a carbon material are described. The modification method used in this study was metal doping of carbon. CMS membranes were formed by vacuum carbonization of hydrolyzed cellulose and metal loaded hydrolyzed cellulose. Metal additives include oxides of Ca, Mg, Fe(III) and Si, and nitrates of Ag, Cu and Fe(III). The carbon membrane containing Fe-nitrate has promising separation performance for the gas pairs 02/N2 and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}. The CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity was typically larger than 100, with a CO2 permeability of about 300 Barrer (single gas tests). Carbon containing nitrates of Cu or Ag showed high selectivity, but reduced 02 and CO2 permeability compared to carbon with Fe-nitrate. Element analysis indicated that Cu migrates to the carbon surface, creating an extra layer resistance to gas transport. A silver mirror

  13. Chemo-catalytic valorization of cellulose

    Palkovits, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie

    2012-07-01

    Cellulose can be utilized as carbon source for the production of novel platform molecules as well as fuel motifs. Promising transformation strategies cover the hydrolytic hydrogenation or hydrogenolysis of cellulose to sugar alcohols, the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose followed by dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural or levulinic acid and the further hydrogenation of levulinic acid to {gamma}-valerolactone. Main challenges result from the high degree of functionalization of cellulosic feedstocks. In line, processes are carried out in liquid phase utilizing rather polar solvents and aiming for a tailored defunctionalisation of these oxygen rich compounds. Consequently, such transformations require novel strategies concerning the development of suitable catalysts and appropriate process concepts. (orig.)

  14. Removal of heavy metals from emerging cellulosic low-cost adsorbents: a review

    Malik, D. S.; Jain, C. K.; Yadav, Anuj K.

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major problems in the environment. The impact of toxic metal ions can be minimized by different technologies, viz., chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, oxidation, reverse osmosis, flotation and adsorption. But among them, adsorption was found to be very efficient and common due to the low concentration of metal uptake and economically feasible properties. Cellulosic materials are of low cost and widely used, and very promising for the future. These are available in abundant quantity, are cheap and have low or little economic value. Different forms of cellulosic materials are used as adsorbents such as fibers, leaves, roots, shells, barks, husks, stems and seed as well as other parts also. Natural and modified types of cellulosic materials are used in different metal detoxifications in water and wastewater. In this review paper, the most common and recent materials are reviewed as cellulosic low-cost adsorbents. The elemental properties of cellulosic materials are also discussed along with their cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin contents.

  15. Fermentation of cellulose and fatty acids with enrichments from sewage sludge

    Winter, J.U.; Cooney, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    A mixed culture enriched from sewage sludge and anaerobic digestor effluent was able to degrade cellulose and acetate rapidly and quantitatively to methane and carbon dioxide. The maximum specific rate of gas production was 87ml/gm cell-h, corresponding to a rate of cellulose utilization of 0.1g/g cells-h. Acetate, an intermediate in cellulose degradation, was fermented much more rapidly than butyrate or propionate; its maximum utilization rate was first order with a rate constant of 0.34h -1 . Addition of 2- 14 C-acetate to a digestor fed cellulose showed that 2% of the methyl groups were oxidized to carbon dioxide. When 1- 14 C-acetate was added to a similar digestor, 52% of the carboxyl groups were reduced to methane, suggesting that not all the carbon dioxide during simultaneous cellulose and acetate utilization is treated equally. The pulse addition of large amounts of acetate, propionate and butyrate to a cellulose fed digestor was also examined. (orig.)

  16. Liquid crystalline solutions of cellulose in phosphoric acid for preparing cellulose yarns

    Boerstoel, H.

    2006-01-01

    The presen thesis describes a new process for manufacturing high tenacity and high modulus cellulose yarns. A new direct solvent for cellulose has been discovered, leading to liquid crystalline solutions. This new solvent, superphosphoric acid, rapidly dissolves cellulose. These liquid crystalline

  17. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  18. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  19. Electrochemical in situ regeneration of granular activated carbon using a three-dimensional reactor.

    Sun, Hong; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Ying; Li, Yansheng

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical in situ regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) saturated with phenol was experimentally investigated using a three-dimensional electrode reactor with titanium filter electrode arrays. The feasibility of the electrochemical regeneration has been assessed by monitoring the regeneration efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The influence of the applied current, the effluent flow rate, and the effluent path of the electrochemical cell have been systematically studied. Under the optimum conditions, the regeneration efficiency of GAC could reach 94% in 2 hr, and no significant declination was observed after five-time continuous adsorption-regeneration cycles. The adsorption of organic pollutants was almost completely mineralized due to electrochemical oxidation, indicating that this regeneration process is much more potentially cost-effective for application. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioconversion of cellulose into electrical energy in microbial fuel cells

    Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid

    In microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bacteria generate electricity by mediating the oxidation of organic compounds and transferring the resulting electrons to an anode electrode. The first objective of this study was to test the possibility of generating electricity with rumen microorganisms as biocatalysts and cellulose as the electron donor in two-compartment MFCs. Maximum power density reached 55 mW/m2 (1.5 mA, 313 mV) with cellulose as the electron donor. Cellulose hydrolysis and electrode reduction were shown to support the production of current. The electrical current was sustained for over two months with periodic cellulose addition. Clarified rumen fluid and a soluble carbohydrate mixture, serving as the electron donors, could also sustain power output. The second objective was to analyze the composition of the bacterial communities enriched in the cellulose-fed MFCs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed that the microbial communities differed when different substrates were used in the MFCs. The anode-attached and the suspended consortia were shown to be different within the same MFC. Cloning and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the most predominant bacteria in the anode-attached consortia were related to Clostridium spp., while Comamonas spp. was abundant in the suspended consortia. The external resistance affects the characteristic outputs of MFCs by controlling the flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode. The third objective of this study was to determine the effect of various external resistances on power output and coulombic efficiency of cellulose-fed MFCs. Four external resistances (20, 249, 480, and 1000 ohms) were tested with a systematic approach of operating parallel MFCs independently at constant circuit loads for three months. A maximum power density of 66 mWm-2 was achieved by MFCs with 20 ohms circuit load, while MFCs with 249, 480 and1000 ohms external resistances produced 57

  1. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  2. Microbiological soil regeneration

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  3. Decolorization and chemical regeneration of granular activated carbon used in citric acid refining

    Kang Sun

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Citric acid fermentation (CAF liquor decolorization by granular activated carbon (GAC was studied and an improved chemical regeneration method of the exhausted GAC by the color of CAF liquor was investigated. The effects of the GAC dosage, time and temperature on the decoloring efficiency (DE % were studied. The DE % of the original GAC was 91 %. The regeneration efficiency (RE % using chemical regents was 104 % of the original GAC. Hot water as cheap reagent was found to be much helpful to the regeneration efficiency. Using oxidant and surfactant in addition to just using NaOH solution can recover 10 % more adsorption capacity of renewed GAC. The adding dosage of oxidant is good at 3 % of exhausted GAC weight; that of surfactant is good at 0.1 %. Comparing with steam regeneration method, high regeneration yield (> 95 % of chemical method was an attractive economic factor. The results of this investigation can be as helpful reference for citric acid manufacturer expanding profits.

  4. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    Kumar, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj@mail.nplindia.ernet.in [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C., E-mail: Paul.Dastoor@newcastle.edu.au [Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); Feron, Krishna [Centre for Organic Electronics, Physics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW-2308 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Technology, P. O. Box 330, Newcastle NSW 2300 (Australia)

    2014-05-12

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles.

  5. Enhanced regeneration of degraded polymer solar cells by thermal annealing

    Kumar, Pankaj; Bilen, Chhinder; Zhou, Xiaojing; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Feron, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The degradation and thermal regeneration of poly(3-hexylethiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and P3HT:indene-C 60 bisadduct (ICBA) polymer solar cells, with Ca/Al and Ca/Ag cathodes and indium tin oxide/poly(ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate anode have been investigated. Degradation occurs via a combination of three primary pathways: (1) cathodic oxidation, (2) active layer phase segregation, and (3) anodic diffusion. Fully degraded devices were subjected to thermal annealing under inert atmosphere. Degraded solar cells possessing Ca/Ag electrodes were observed to regenerate their performance, whereas solar cells having Ca/Al electrodes exhibited no significant regeneration of device characteristics after thermal annealing. Moreover, the solar cells with a P3HT:ICBA active layer exhibited enhanced regeneration compared to P3HT:PCBM active layer devices as a result of reduced changes to the active layer morphology. Devices combining a Ca/Ag cathode and P3HT:ICBA active layer demonstrated ∼50% performance restoration over several degradation/regeneration cycles

  6. A comparative study of cellulose nanofibrils disintegrated via multiple processing approaches

    Yan Qing; Ronald Sabo; J.Y. Zhu; Umesh Agarwal; Zhiyong Cai; Yiqiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Various cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) created by refining and microfluidization, in combination withenzymatic or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized pretreatment were compared. Themorphological properties, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity for the obtained nanofibrils, aswell as physical and mechanical properties of the corresponding films...

  7. Vascular smooth muscle cells in cultures on biofunctionalized cellulose-based scaffolds

    Novotná, Katarína; Bačáková, Lucie; Lisá, Věra; Havelka, P.; Sopuch, T.; Klepetář, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, 89-91 (2009), s. 21-24 ISSN 1429-7248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06173; GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : oxidized cellulose * vascular tissue engineering * biofunctionalization Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  8. Multilayer Ceramic Regenerator Materials for 4 K Cooling

    Numazawa, T.; Kamiya, K.; Satoh, T.; Nozawa, H.; Yanagitani, T.

    2006-01-01

    The ceramics oxide magnetic materials have shown excellent properties for use as regenerator materials used in 4 K crycoolers. Currently four kinds of oxide magnetic materials GdVO4, GAP=GdAlO3, GOS=Gd2O2S and Tb2O2S are available for applications for regenerators or thermal anchors from 2 K to 8 K. This paper focused on controlling the heat capacity of the (GdxTb1-x)2O2S system to cover the refrigeration temperatures between 6 K and 8 K. A concept of multilayer regenerator material consisting of multicomponent magnetic materials has been proposed and investigated. Two-layer ceramic material including two kinds of magnetic materials (Gd0.1Tb0.9)2O2S+Tb2O2S was successfully fabricated in the form of regenerator particles with an average diameter of 0.25 mm. Measured heat capacity data showed that it had twin peaks relating to those of (Gd0.1Tb0.9)2O2S and Tb2O2S, and the entire curve became broader and wider. The mechanical properties of strength and hardness of the two-layer ceramic material were the same as other ceramic regenerator materials like GOS. Thus, it is concluded that the multilayer ceramic material is very useful to control the heat capacity of the regenerator particles. The cooling tests using the two-layer ceramic material with HoCu2 and GOS have been done to investigate the 2nd stage regenerator configuration

  9. Application of thin film cellulose composite membrane for dye wastewater reuse

    Puspasari, Tiara

    2016-09-22

    The use of low cost membranes with high salt/dye selectivity and high flux is ideal for an economic and eco-friendly treatment of dye wastewater. Here, regenerated cellulose membranes prepared from trimethylsilyl cellulose are studied for treating artificial dye effluents. In the experiments using a feed containing Congo Red and high NaCl concentration, the membrane featured impressive dye removal with zero salt rejection combined with high flux. More interestingly, the membrane reached as much as 600 LMH flux at 80 °C and 4 bar while maintaining high dye rejection close to 98%. In prolonged experiments up to 75 h the membrane exhibited good antifouling behavior with nearly 100% flux recovery. This study may provide a promising alternative of dye effluent treatment where high amounts of monovalent salts are present. © 2016

  10. Cellulose-Hemicellulose Interactions at Elevated Temperatures Increase Cellulose Recalcitrance to Biological Conversion

    Mittal, Ashutosh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kumar, Rajeev [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; ; Smith, Micholas Dean [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Petridis, Loukas [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Ong, Rebecca G. [Michigan Technological University; Cai, Charles M. [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Balan, Venkatesh [University of Houston; Dale, Bruce E. [Michigan State University; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Smith, Jeremy C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; University of Tennessee; Wyman, Charles E. [University of California, Riverside; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-01-23

    It has been previously shown that cellulose-lignin droplets' strong interactions, resulting from lignin coalescence and redisposition on cellulose surface during thermochemical pretreatments, increase cellulose recalcitrance to biological conversion, especially at commercially viable low enzyme loadings. However, information on the impact of cellulose-hemicellulose interactions on cellulose recalcitrance following relevant pretreatment conditions are scarce. Here, to investigate the effects of plausible hemicellulose precipitation and re-association with cellulose on cellulose conversion, different pretreatments were applied to pure Avicel(R) PH101 cellulose alone and Avicel mixed with model hemicellulose compounds followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of resulting solids at both low and high enzyme loadings. Solids produced by pretreatment of Avicel mixed with hemicelluloses (AMH) were found to contain about 2 to 14.6% of exogenous, precipitated hemicelluloses and showed a remarkably much lower digestibility (up to 60%) than their respective controls. However, the exogenous hemicellulosic residues that associated with Avicel following high temperature pretreatments resulted in greater losses in cellulose conversion than those formed at low temperatures, suggesting that temperature plays a strong role in the strength of cellulose-hemicellulose association. Molecular dynamics simulations of hemicellulosic xylan and cellulose were found to further support this temperature effect as the xylan-cellulose interactions were found to substantially increase at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, exogenous, precipitated hemicelluloses in pretreated AMH solids resulted in a larger drop in cellulose conversion than the delignified lignocellulosic biomass containing comparably much higher natural hemicellulose amounts. Increased cellulase loadings or supplementation of cellulase with xylanases enhanced cellulose conversion for most pretreated AMH solids; however, this approach

  11. Nitrous Oxide flux measurements under various amendments

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions from soils under three different amendments: glucose, cellulose, and manure. Data includes the...

  12. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and

  13. Regeneration of desiccants with solar energy

    Ghate, S.R.; Butts, C.L.; Lown, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Saturated silica gel was regenerated with solar energy. This paper describes the experimental set-up for silica gel regeneration and data collection. The regenerated silica gel can be used to dry high moisture in-shell pecans.

  14. [Audiometry in the cellulose industry].

    Corrao, C R; Milano, L; Pedulla, P; Carlesi, G; Bacaloni, A; Monaco, E

    1993-01-01

    A noise level dosimetry and audiometric testing were conducted in a cellulose factory to determine the hazardous noise level and the prevalence of noise induced hearing loss among the exposed workers. The noise level was recorded up to 90 db (A) in several working areas. 18 workers, potentially exposed to noise injury, evidenced a significant hearing loss. While no evidence of noise injury was recorded in a control group of 100 subjects. This finding suggest a strict relationship between audiometric tests, the noise level recorded in the working place and the working seniority of exposed employers.

  15. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  16. Modified cellulose nanocrystal for vitamin C delivery.

    Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Berry, Richard M; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2015-04-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal grafted with chitosan oligosaccharide (CNC-CSOS) was used to encapsulate vitamin C and prepare CNCS/VC complexes using tripolyphosphte via ionic complexation. The stability of vitamin C and the antioxidant activity of the CNCS/VC complexes were elucidated. The formation of the complex was confirmed using DSC and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and TEM was used to study the morphology of the complexes. The encapsulation efficiency of vitamin C at pH 3 and 5 was 71.6% ± 6.8 and 91.0 ± 1.0, respectively. Strong exothermic peaks observed in isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) studies at pH 5 could be attributed to additional electrostatic interactions between CNC-CSOS and vitamin C at pH 5. The in vitro release of vitamin C from CNCS/VC complexes showed a sustained release of up to 20 days. The vitamin C released from CNCS/VC complex displayed higher stability compared with the control vitamin C solution, and this was also confirmed from the ITC thermograms. CNC-CSOS possessed a higher scavenging activity and faster antioxidant activity compared with its precursors, i.e., oxidized CNC and CSOS and their physical mixtures. Complexing vitamin C into CNC-CSOS particles yielded a dynamic antioxidant agent, where the vitamin C is released over time and displayed sustained antioxidant properties. Therefore, CNCS/VC can potentially be used in cosmeceutical applications as topical formulations.

  17. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  18. Water absorption and maintenance of nanofiber cellulose ...

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... Physiochemical properties of bacterial cellulose producing by Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus TL-2C was ... shape of the mold (Czaja et al., 2006). ... impurity, and then it was freeze-dried and ground to a fine ... Figure 1. Microstructure and chemical structure of bacterial cellulose producing G. rhaeticus TL-2C.

  19. Characterization of cellulose nanofibrillation by micro grinding

    Sandeep S. Nair; J.Y. Zhu; Yulin Deng; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the morphological development of cellulose fibers during fibrillation using micro grinder is very essential to develop effective strategies for process improvement and to reduce energy consumption. We demonstrated some simple measures for characterizing cellulose fibers fibrillated at different fibrillation times through the grinder. The...

  20. Cellulose Triacetate Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate investigated for use as dielectric material in high-energy-density capacitors for pulsed-electrical-power systems. Films of cellulose triacetate metalized on one or both sides for use as substrates for electrodes and/or as dielectrics between electrodes in capacitors. Used without metalization as simple dielectric films. Advantages include high breakdown strength and self-healing capability.

  1. Modelling the elastic properties of cellulose nanopaper

    Mao, Rui; Goutianos, Stergios; Tu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose nanopaper was predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) micromechanical fibrous network model. The elastic modulus predicted by the network model was 12 GPa, which is well within the range of experimental data for cellulose nanopapers. The stress state in the network...

  2. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose obtained ...

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose, coded MCC-PNF, was obtained from palm nut (Elaeis guineensis) fibres. MCC-PNF was examined for its physicochemical and powder properties. The powder properties of MCC-PNF were compared to those of the best commercial microcrystalline cellulose grade, Avicel PH 101.

  3. Some Physical Characteristics of Microcrystalline Cellulose ...

    Purpose: The microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. This study aimed at evaluating the physical characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose (CP-MCC), obtained from the raw cotton of Cochlospermum planchonii. Methods: CP-MCC was obtained from the ...

  4. Regeneration of zeolite catalysts of isobutane alkylation with butenes

    Manza, I.A.; Tsupryk, I.N.; Bartyshevskii, V.A.; Gaponenko, O.I.; Petrilyak, K.I.

    1986-12-10

    The industrial adoption of alkylation of isoalkanes with alkenes is held back by the rapid and irreversible deactivation of the zeolite catalysts appropriate to the process. This paper is aimed specifically at the restoration of the catalytic activity and increase in the service life of zeolite alkylation catalysts. The catalyst chosen for the investigation was HLaCaNaX zeolite both unmodified and modified with various multivalence cations. The thermochemical and oxidative regeneration process as well as the equipment utilized are described. Both the advantages and the drawbacks of the method are given; explanations for the possibly irreversible losses of the catalytic properties in the regenerated zeolites are also put forward.

  5. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  6. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Dela Rosa, A. M.; Dela Mines, A. S.; Banzon, R. B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z. F.

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulosic material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism.

  7. Radiation pretreatment of cellulose for energy production

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Dela Mines, A.S.; Banzon, R.B.; Simbul-Nuguid, Z.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of radiation pretreatment of agricultural cellulosic wastes was investigated through hydrolytic reactions of cellulose. Gamma irradiation significantly increased the acid hydrolysis of rice straw, rice hull and corn husk. The yields of reducing sugar were higher with increasing radiation dose in these materials. The observed radiation effect varied with the cellulose material but it correlated with neither the cellulose content nor the lignin content. Likewise, the radiation pretreatment accelerated the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and rice hull by cellulase. The irradiated rice straw appeared to be a better growth medium for the cellulolytic microorganism, Myrothecium verrucaria, than the non-irradiated material. This was attributed to increased digestibility of the cellulose by the microorganism. (author)

  8. Biofunctional Paper via Covalent Modification of Cellulose

    Yu, Arthur; Shang, Jing; Cheng, Fang; Paik, Bradford A.; Kaplan, Justin M.; Andrade, Rodrigo B.; Ratner, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Paper-based analytical devices are the subject of growing interest for the development of low-cost point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring technologies and research tools for limited-resource settings. However, there are limited chemistries available for the conjugation of biomolecules to cellulose for use in biomedical applications. Herein, divinyl sulfone (DVS) chemistry was demonstrated to covalently immobilize small molecules, proteins and DNA onto the hydroxyl groups of cellulose membranes through nucleophilic addition. Assays on modified cellulose using protein-carbohydrate and protein-glycoprotein interactions as well as oligonucleotide hybridization showed that the membrane’s bioactivity was specific, dose-dependent, and stable over a long period of time. Use of an inkjet printer to form patterns of biomolecules on DVS-activated cellulose illustrates the adaptability of the DVS functionalization technique to pattern sophisticated designs, with potential applications in cellulose-based lateral flow devices. PMID:22708701

  9. Development of composites of polycaprolactone with cellulose

    Aguiar, V.O.; Marques, M.F.V.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, alkaline followed by an acid treatment were performed in plant sources of curaua and jute fibers to remove the amorphous portion and to aid fibrillation. Using the technique of X-ray diffraction it was observed that the chemical treatments led to a better organization of cellulose microfibrils and, consequently, the increase in their crystallinity index. Using the thermogravimetric analysis it was noted a slight decrease in thermal stability of the chemically treated cellulose fibers, however it did not impairs its use as filler in the polymer matrix. Through the SEM micrographs it was observed that the chemical treatment reduced the dimensions of the fibers in natura. Polycaprolactone composite was prepared in a twin-screw extruder at different amounts for several cellulose sources (those obtained from vegetable fibers, curaua and jute, commercial cellulose and amorphous cellulose) at and maintaining the process time and temperature constant. (author)

  10. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  11. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  12. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm"2 and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  13. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi, E-mail: takaomi@nagaoakut.ac.jp

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12 h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43 N/mm{sup 2} and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. - Highlights: • Cellulose hydrogel films with trace lignin were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. • Lignin content was found to be in the range of 1.62 − 0.68% by UV–Vis spectroscopy. • Higher lignin content strengthened mechanical properties of the hydrogel films. • Trace lignin affected the hydrogel morphology such as roughness and porosity. • High cell proliferation was observed in the hydrogel containing 1.68% lignin.

  14. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from industrial hemp in a biorefinery concept

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop integrated biofuel (cellulosic bioethanol) and biochemical (succinic acid) production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in a biorefinery concept. Two types of pretreatments were studied (dilute-acid and alkaline oxidative method). High cellulose recovery...... productivity. With respect to succinic acid production, the highest productivity was obtained after liquid fraction fermentation originated from steam treatment with 1.5% of acid. The mass balance calculations clearly showed that 149 kg of EtOH and 115 kg of succinic acid can be obtained per 1 ton of dry hemp....... Results obtained in this study clearly document the potential of industrial hemp for a biorefinery....

  15. New biphasic monocomponent composite material obtained by the partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose

    Rosa, Joyce Rover; Silva, Ingrid S.V. da; Pasquini, Daniel; Santos, Daniele B. dos; Barud, Hernane S.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to partial oxypropylation of bacterial cellulose (CB), as well as the characterization of pure CB, oxypropylated CB (CBO) and oxypropylated CB after Soxhlet extraction with hexane (CBOE). The oxypropylation reaction was carried out by propylene oxide polymerization, catalyzed by KOH, in the presence of CB The CB samples, before and after modification, were subjected to analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was possible verify that the partial transformation of bacterial cellulose by inserting a layer of thermoplastic polymer on its surface occurred efficiently, obtaining a biphasic monocomponent composite material. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of graphene/cellulose nanocomposite

    Kafy, Abdullahil; Yadav, Mithilesh; Kumar, Kishor; Kumar, Kishore; Mun, Seongcheol; Gao, Xiaoyuan; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    Cellulose is one of attractive natural polysaccharides in nature due to its good chemical stability, mechanical strength, biocompatibility, hydrophilic, and biodegradation properties [1-2]. The main disadvantages of biopolymer films like cellulose are their poor mechanical properties. Modification of polymers with inorganic materials is a new way to improve polymer properties such as mechanical strength [3-4]. Presently, the use of graphene/graphene oxide (GO) in materials research has attracted tremendous attention in the past 40 years in various fields including biomedicine, information technology and nanotechnology[5-7]. Graphene, a single sheet of graphite, has an ideal 2D structure with a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb crystal plane. Using both experimental and theoretical scientific research, researchers including Geim, Rao and Stankovich [8-10] have described the attractiveness of graphene in the materials research field. Due to its sp2 hybrid carbon network as well as extraordinary mechanical, electronic, and thermal properties, graphene has opened new pathways for developing a wide range of novel functional materials. Perfect graphene does not exist naturally, but bulk and solution processable functionalized graphene materials including graphene oxide (GO) can now be prepared [11-13].The large surface area of GO has a number of functional groups, such as -OH, -COOH, -O- , and C=O, which make GO hydrophilic and readily dispersible in water as well as some organic solvents[14] , thereby providing a convenient access to fabrication of graphene-based materials by solution casting. According to several reports [15-17], GO can be dispersed throughout a selected polymer matrix to make GO-based nanocomposites with excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Since GO is prepared from low-cost graphite, it has an outstanding price advantage over CNTs, which has encouraged studies of GO/synthetic polymer composites [18-20]. In some reported papers

  17. Results from neutral kaon regeneration at high energies

    Hladky, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental neutral kaon regeneration results at Serpukhov energies up to 50 GeV are presented, including the coherent regeneration on hydrogen, deuterium and carbon regenerators and elastic regeneration on deuterium and carbon regenerators. (author)

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol-Chitosan Composite Films Reinforced with Cellulose Nanofiber

    Choo, Kaiwen; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Julai, Sabariah; Liou, Nai-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In this study microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation. The treated cellulose slurry was mechanically homogenized to form a transparent dispersion which consisted of individual cellulose nanofibers with uniform widths of 3–4 nm. Bio-nanocomposite films were then prepared from a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-chitosan (CS) polymeric blend with different TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCN) contents (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt %) via the solution casting method. The characterizations of pure PVA/CS and PVA/CS/TOCN films were performed in terms of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), tensile tests, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results from FESEM analysis justified that low loading levels of TOCNs were dispersed uniformly and homogeneously in the PVA-CS blend matrix. The tensile strength and thermal stability of the films were increased with the increased loading levels of TOCNs to a maximum level. The thermal study indicated a slight improvement of the thermal stability upon the reinforcement of TOCNs. As evidenced by the FTIR and XRD, PVA and CS were considered miscible and compatible owing to hydrogen bonding interaction. These analyses also revealed the good dispersion of TOCNs within the PVA/CS polymer matrix. The improved properties due to the reinforcement of TOCNs can be highly beneficial in numerous applications. PMID:28773763

  19. Regenerable Air Purification System for Gas-Phase Contaminant Control

    Constantinescu, Ileana C.; Finn, John E.; LeVan, M. Douglas; Lung, Bernadette (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tests of a pre-prototype regenerable air purification system (RAPS) that uses water vapor to displace adsorbed contaminants from an adsorbent column have been performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A unit based on this design can be used for removing trace gas-phase contaminants from spacecraft cabin air or from polluted process streams including incinerator exhaust. During the normal operation mode, contaminants are removed from the air on the column. Regeneration of the column is performed on-line. During regeneration, contaminants are displaced and destroyed inside the closed oxidation loop. In this presentation we discuss initial experimental results for the performance of RAPS in the removal and treatment of several important spacecraft contaminant species from air.

  20. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...

  1. Cellulose-Based Nanomaterials for Energy Applications.

    Wang, Xudong; Yao, Chunhua; Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant natural polymer on earth, providing a sustainable green resource that is renewable, degradable, biocompatible, and cost effective. Recently, nanocellulose-based mesoporous structures, flexible thin films, fibers, and networks are increasingly developed and used in photovoltaic devices, energy storage systems, mechanical energy harvesters, and catalysts components, showing tremendous materials science value and application potential in many energy-related fields. In this Review, the most recent advancements of processing, integration, and application of cellulose nanomaterials in the areas of solar energy harvesting, energy storage, and mechanical energy harvesting are reviewed. For solar energy harvesting, promising applications of cellulose-based nanostructures for both solar cells and photoelectrochemical electrodes development are reviewed, and their morphology-related merits are discussed. For energy storage, the discussion is primarily focused on the applications of cellulose-based nanomaterials in lithium-ion batteries, including electrodes (e.g., active materials, binders, and structural support), electrolytes, and separators. Applications of cellulose nanomaterials in supercapacitors are also reviewed briefly. For mechanical energy harvesting, the most recent technology evolution in cellulose-based triboelectric nanogenerators is reviewed, from fundamental property tuning to practical implementations. At last, the future research potential and opportunities of cellulose nanomaterials as a new energy material are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  3. Enzymatic Cellulose Palmitate Synthesis Using Immobilized Lipase

    Anna Roosdiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose can be modified by esterification using palmitic acid and Mucor miehei  lipase  as catalyst. The purpose of this research was to determine the optimum conditions of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid . The esterification reaction was carried out at the time variation  of  6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid (1: 11: 2, 1: 3, 1: 4, 1: 5,1:6 at 50 °C. The   cellulose palmitate  was examined  its  physical and chemical properties by using FTIR spectrophotometer, XRD, bubble point test and saponification  apparatus. The results showed that the optimum reaction time of esterification reaction of cellulose and palmitic acid occurred within 24 hours and the mass ratio of cellulose: palmitic acid was 1: 3 resulting in DS of  0.376 with  swelling index of 187 %, crystallinity index of 61.95%,  and Φ porous of 2.40 μm. Identification of functional groups using FTIR spectrophotometer showed that C=O ester group  was observed at 1737.74 cm-1 and strengthened  by  the appearance of C-O ester peak at 1280 cm-1. The conclusion of this study is reaction time and reactant ratio influence significantly the DS of cellulose ester.

  4. Highly Carboxylated Cellulose Nanofibers via Succinic Anhydride Esterification of Wheat Fibers and Facile Mechanical Disintegration.

    Sehaqui, H; Kulasinski, K; Pfenninger, N; Zimmermann, T; Tingaut, P

    2017-01-09

    We report herein the preparation of 4-6 nm wide carboxyl-functionalized cellulose nanofibers (CNF) via the esterification of wheat fibers with cyclic anhydrides (maleic, phtalic, and succinic) followed by an energy-efficient mechanical disintegration process. Remarkable results were achieved via succinic anhydride esterification that enabled CNF isolation by a single pass through the microfluidizer yielding a transparent and thick gel. These CNF carry the highest content of carboxyl groups ever reported for native cellulose nanofibers (3.8 mmol g -1 ). Compared to conventional carboxylated cellulose nanofibers prepared via Tempo-mediated oxidation of wheat fibers, the present esterified CNF display a higher molar-mass and a better thermal stability. Moreover, highly carboxylated CNF from succinic anhydride esterification were effectively integrated into paper filters for the removal of lead from aqueous solution and are potentially of interest as carrier of active molecules or as transparent films for packaging, biomedical or electronic applications.

  5. Ultrafine yttria-stabilized zirconia powders prepared by pyrolysis of a metal-oxalate-cellulose complex

    Solov`eva, L.V.; Bashmakov, I.A.; Kaputskii, F.N. [Research Institute of Physicochemical Problems, Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Preparation of high-purity submicron powders with uniform particles is a key stage in the fabrication of high-quality ceramics. For this purpose, chemical methods are commonly used. Recently, pyrolysis of salt-cellulose compositions has gained acceptance for the preparation of mixed oxide powders. This method ensures control of the morphology and particle size of the resultant powders. In this work, the authors present an environmentally safe method for preparing ZrO{sub 2}-based powders from metal-oxalate-cellulose complexes (MOCC) used as precursors instead of soluble metal salts physisorbed on the cellulose surface. The powders obtained by this method feature higher dispersity than their commercially available analogs.

  6. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilised by cellulose ethers: stability, structure and in vitro digestion.

    Borreani, Jennifer; Espert, María; Salvador, Ana; Sanz, Teresa; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-19

    The effect of cellulose ethers in oil-in-water emulsions on stability during storage and on texture, microstructure and lipid digestibility during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated. All the cellulose ether emulsions showed good physical and oxidative stability during storage. In particular, the methylcellulose with high methoxyl substituents (HMC) made it possible to obtain emulsions with high consistency which remained almost unchanged during gastric digestion, and thus could enhance fullness and satiety perceptions at gastric level. Moreover, the HMC emulsion slowed down lipid digestion to a greater extent than a conventional protein emulsion or the emulsions stabilised by the other cellulose ethers. Therefore, HMC emulsions could be used in weight management to increase satiation capacity and decrease lipid digestion.

  7. Low energy recycling of ionic liquids via freeze crystallization during cellulose spinning

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi

    2018-01-01

    recycling method. EmimAc + 12.5 wt% H2O and EmimDep + 4 wt% H2O were selected for a quantitative mass and energy analysis of the cellulose spinning and IL recycling process (the maximal initial H2O levels in the ILs + H2O mixtures for cellulose dissolution were determined experimentally). The energy......Dep recycling. We also show that compared to a classical Lyocell fiber production method using N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent, use of ILs is energy saving in itself. Hence, significantly less H2O is required in the cellulose spinning process with ILs than with NMMO, and in turn less H2O has...

  8. Overview of Cellulose Nanomaterials, Their Capabilities and Applications

    Robert J. Moon; Gregory T. Schueneman; John Simonsen

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials (CNs) are a new class of cellulose particles with properties and functionalities distinct from molecular cellulose and wood pulp, and as a result, they are being developed for applications that were once thought impossible for cellulosic materials. Momentum is growing in CN research and development, and commercialization in this field is...

  9. Prevalence and trends of cellulosics in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Mastropietro, David J; Omidian, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have shown that cellulose derivatives (cellulosics) can provide various benefits when used in virtually all types of dosage forms. Nevertheless, the popularity of their use in approved drug products is rather unknown. This research reports the current prevalence and trends of use for 15 common cellulosics in prescription drug products. The cellulosics were powdered and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hypromellose (HPMC), HPMC phthalate, HPMC acetate succinate, cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate, sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), croscarmellose sodium (XCMCNa), methyl cellulose, and low substituted HPC. The number of brand drug products utilizing each cellulosics was determined using the online drug index Rxlist. A total of 607 brand products were identified having one or more of the cellulosics as an active or inactive ingredient. An array of various dosage forms was identified and revealed HPMC and MCC to be the most utilized cellulosics in all products followed by XCMCNa and HPC. Many products contained two or more cellulosics in the formulation (42% containing two, 23% containing three, and 4% containing 4-5). The largest combination occurrence was HPMC with MCC. The use of certain cellulosics within different dosage form types was found to contain specific trends. All injectables utilized only CMCNa, and the same with all ophthalmic solutions utilizing HPMC, and otic suspensions utilizing HEC. Popularity and trends regarding cellulosics use may occur based on many factors including functionality, safety, availability, stability, and ease of manufacturing.

  10. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose produced from purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis)

    Sunardi, Febriani, Nina Mutia; Junaidi, Ahmad Budi

    2017-08-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others. The main raw material of modified cellulose is cellulose from wood and cotton. Recently, much attention has been attracted to the use of various agriculture product and by-product, grass, and residual biomass as cellulose and modified cellulose source for addressing an environmental and economic concern. Eleocharis dulcis, commonly known as purun tikus (in Indonesia), is a native aquatic plant of swamp area (wetland) in Kalimantan, which consists of 30-40% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative resources for cellulose. The aims of present study were to isolate cellulose from E. dulcis and then to synthesise Na-CMC from isolated cellulose. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose from E. dulcis was carried out by an alkalization and etherification process of isolated cellulose, using various concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA). The results indicated that the optimum reaction of alkalization was reached at 20% NaOH and etherification at the mass fraction ratio of MCA to cellulose 1.0. The optimum reaction has the highest solubility and degree of substitution. The carboxymethylation process of cellulose was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, changes in crystallinity of cellulose and Na-CMC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  11. Preliminary studies on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafting onto cellulose by pre-irradiation method

    Severich, Patrick; Dutra, Rodrigo da Costa; Kodama, Yasko, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.br, E-mail: patrick.severich@ipen.br, E-mail: rodrigo.dutra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Cellulose is considered a renewable biopolymer most abundant in nature. Better functional surfaces can be Obtained by modifying cellulose. On the other hand, poly vinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, is a synthetic nontoxic, water-soluble polymer frequently used in an extensive variety of applications including several pharmaceutical applications. Grafting 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, NVP, onto polymeric cellulose can be obtained by ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation grafting can be affected by several factors as environment, solvent, monomer concentration, temperature of graft reaction. Grafting by ionizing radiation can be performed by three methods, pre-irradiation, oxidation by peroxide and simultaneous irradiation. In this study, it was used pre-irradiation method of cellulose. Paper filter without ash, NVP without purification was used in this study. Paper samples were exposed to electron beam from Dynamitron Accelerator with radiation absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Influence of NVP concentration, temperature of reaction after irradiation on degree of grafting (DG) was studied. Also, cellulose radicals of grafted paper samples was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance using a Bruker X-band ESR at room temperature just after heating reaction. Small decrease of cellulose radicals was observed with increasing reaction temperature. It was observed DG small increase with increasing concentration of monomer in solution of water ethanol 50-50 v:v and rising temperature of reaction. Further tests using simultaneous method of grafting of NVP in cellulose paper, in water:ethanol 75:25 v:v solution, induced by gamma irradiation were performed. It was observed homopolymerization forming PVP with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  12. Preliminary studies on 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone grafting onto cellulose by pre-irradiation method

    Severich, Patrick; Dutra, Rodrigo da Costa; Kodama, Yasko

    2017-01-01

    Cellulose is considered a renewable biopolymer most abundant in nature. Better functional surfaces can be Obtained by modifying cellulose. On the other hand, poly vinyl pyrrolidone, PVP, is a synthetic nontoxic, water-soluble polymer frequently used in an extensive variety of applications including several pharmaceutical applications. Grafting 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, NVP, onto polymeric cellulose can be obtained by ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation grafting can be affected by several factors as environment, solvent, monomer concentration, temperature of graft reaction. Grafting by ionizing radiation can be performed by three methods, pre-irradiation, oxidation by peroxide and simultaneous irradiation. In this study, it was used pre-irradiation method of cellulose. Paper filter without ash, NVP without purification was used in this study. Paper samples were exposed to electron beam from Dynamitron Accelerator with radiation absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Influence of NVP concentration, temperature of reaction after irradiation on degree of grafting (DG) was studied. Also, cellulose radicals of grafted paper samples was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance using a Bruker X-band ESR at room temperature just after heating reaction. Small decrease of cellulose radicals was observed with increasing reaction temperature. It was observed DG small increase with increasing concentration of monomer in solution of water ethanol 50-50 v:v and rising temperature of reaction. Further tests using simultaneous method of grafting of NVP in cellulose paper, in water:ethanol 75:25 v:v solution, induced by gamma irradiation were performed. It was observed homopolymerization forming PVP with increasing monomer concentration. (author)

  13. [Digestive utilization of purified cellulose in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)].

    Bergot, F

    1981-01-01

    A semi-purified diet containing 22 p. 100 of a wood cellulose extract without lignin but still containing 22 p. 100 of hemicelluloses was distributed for one month to rainbow trout and common carp reared at 17 and 20 degrees C, respectively. The digestibility of the main dietary constituents was determined by an indirect method using chrome oxide as an inert tracer. The feces were recovered by a continuous automatic collector which rapidly removed them from the water, minimizing alteration by leaching. The cellulose content was estimated by the Weende (crude fiber) and the Van Soest (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) methods. The digestibility coefficients obtained for trout as well as for carp indicate that cellulose and hemicelluloses were not digested. In both species, volatile fatty acid concentration in the different segments of the digestive tract was low (less than 10 mM/l). These results lead us to suggest that trout and carp cannot degrade purified cellulose.

  14. Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation

    Lynd, Lee R.; Liang, Xiaoyu; Biddy, Mary J.; Allee, Andrew; Cai, Hao; Foust, Thomas; Himmel, Michael E.; Laser, Mark S.; Wang, Michael; Wyman, Charles E.

    2017-06-01

    Although the purchase price of cellulosic feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the cost of lignocellulose conversion to ethanol using today’s technology is high. Cost reductions can be pursued via either in-paradigm or new-paradigm innovation. As an example of new-paradigm innovation, consolidated bioprocessing using thermophilic bacteria combined with milling during fermentation (cotreatment) is analyzed. Acknowledging the nascent state of this approach, our analysis indicates potential for radically improved cost competitiveness and feasibility at smaller scale compared to current technology, arising from (a) R&D-driven advances (consolidated bioprocessing with cotreatment in lieu of thermochemical pretreatment and added fungal cellulase), and (b) configurational changes (fuel pellet coproduction instead of electricity, gas boiler(s) in lieu of a solid fuel boiler).

  15. Characterization of ethyl cellulose polymer.

    Mahnaj, Tazin; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) polymer was characterized for its property before considering the interactions with the plasicizer. Ethocel Std.10 FP Premium from Dow chemical company USA was tested for its solubility, morphology and thermal properties. Seven percentage of EC solution in ethanol was found to be the right viscosity used to prepare the film. The EC polymer and EC film without any plasticizers showed almost identical thermal behavior, but in X-ray diffraction showed different arrangements of crystallites and amorphous region. Dynamic mechanical analysis of film showed that without a plasticizer, EC film was not flexible and had very low elongation with high applied force. The aim of the work was to avoid using the commercially available EC dispersions Surelease® and Aquacoat®; both already have additives on it. Instead, Ethocel EC polymer (powder) was characterized in our laboratory in order to find out the properties of polymer before considering the interactions of the polymer with various plasticizers.

  16. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Pinho, Maria Noberta de; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da

    2010-01-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  17. Bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B; Mandenius, C F; Mattiasson, B; Nilsson, B; Axelsson, J P; Hagander, P

    1985-06-20

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated sallow gives highest yields of soluble sugars when hemicellulose is degraded already in the pretreatment step. The steam pretreatment equipment is rebuilt so that 75 g (dry matter) material instead of 7 g can be treated each time. The cellulose production has been increased 123% by the utilization of aqueous two-phase systems as compared to regular growth medium. The cellulase activity per gram of cellulose has been increased from 42 FPU in regular growth medium to 156 FPU in aqueous two-phase systems. Crude dextran can be used for enzyme production. Enzyme recovery up to 75% has been achieved by combining aqueous two-phase technique with membrane technique. Using the enzyme glucose isomerase in combination with S. cerevisiae theoretical yields in pentose fermentations have been achieved, with a product concentration of 60 g/L and a productivity of 2 g/L x h. Yeast and enzyme can be recirculated using membrane technique. Computer simulation shows that the rate equation for enzymatic hydrolysis with respect to inhibiting sugar concentrations can be used to interpolate with respect to sugar concentrations. Computer simulations show that hydrolysis experiments should focus on high substrate concentrations (>10%) using fed-batch technique and enzyme concentrations in the range of 2-8% in relation to substrate dry matter. The combined 'flow injection analysis', FIA, and enzyme reactor probe has been adapted to enzymatic saccarifications of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. The gas membrane sensor for ethanol has been utilized in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated sallow. A literature study concerning pervaporation for ethanol up-grading has been made.(Author).

  18. Enzymic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes to glucose

    Spano, L A; Medeiros, J; Mandels, M

    1976-01-01

    An enzymic process for the conversion of cellulose to glucose is based on the use of a specific enzyme derived from mutant strains of the fungus trichoderma viride which is capable of reacting with the crystalline fraction of the cellulose molecule. The production and mode of action of the cellulase complex produced during the growth of trichoderma viride is discussed as well as the application of such enzymes for the conversion of cellulosic wastes to crude glucose syrup for use in production of chemical feedstocks, single-cell proteins, fuels, solvents, etc.

  19. Degradation of cellulosic substances by Thermomonospora curvata

    Stutzenberger, F J

    1979-05-01

    Research is reported on the cellulolytic activity of Thermomonospora curvata, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete prevalent in municipal solid waste compost. Various cellulosic wastes were evaluated for their potential for the induction of cellulase synthesis by Th. curvata and the extent of cellulose degradation under optimal culture conditions. All the substrates tested showed significant degradation of their cellulose content with the exception of sawdust and barley straw. In contrast to Trichoderma viride, cotton fibers were the best substrates for both C/sub 1/ and C/sub x/ cellulase production. Further research is recommended. (JSR)

  20. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  1. Fenton-driven regeneration of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon - Effects of particle size and Iron Amendment Procedures

    Fenton-driven regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) is a technology being developed to regenerate organic contaminant-spent GAC. Here, the effect of GAC particle size (>2 mm to <0.35 mm) on Fenton-driven oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent GAC was ev...

  2. Fenton-driven regeneration of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon - Effects of particle size and Iron Amendment Procedures

    Fenton-driven regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) is a technology being developed to regenerate organic contaminant-spent GAC. Here, the effect of GAC particle size (>2 mm to Fenton-driven oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent GAC was ev...

  3. Strong and Optically Transparent Films Prepared Using Cellulosic Solid Residue Recovered from Cellulose Nanocrystals Production Waste Stream

    Qianqian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; John M. Considine

    2013-01-01

    We used a new cellulosic material, cellulosic solid residue (CSR), to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for potential high value applications. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were produced from CSR recovered from the hydrolysates (waste stream) of acid hydrolysis of a bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEP) to produce nanocrystals (CNC). Acid hydrolysis greatly facilitated...

  4. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  5. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-Like Protein, Functions in Cellulose Assembly through Binding Cellulose Microfibrils

    Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Yan, Meixian; Zhang, Lanjun; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Mu; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1), a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs) function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity. PMID:23990797

  6. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-like protein, functions in cellulose assembly through binding cellulose microfibrils.

    Lifeng Liu

    Full Text Available Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1, a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity.

  7. Brittle Culm1, a COBRA-like protein, functions in cellulose assembly through binding cellulose microfibrils.

    Liu, Lifeng; Shang-Guan, Keke; Zhang, Baocai; Liu, Xiangling; Yan, Meixian; Zhang, Lanjun; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Mu; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose represents the most abundant biopolymer in nature and has great economic importance. Cellulose chains pack laterally into crystalline forms, stacking into a complicated crystallographic structure. However, the mechanism of cellulose crystallization is poorly understood. Here, via functional characterization, we report that Brittle Culm1 (BC1), a COBRA-like protein in rice, modifies cellulose crystallinity. BC1 was demonstrated to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein and can be released into cell walls by removal of the GPI anchor. BC1 possesses a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) at its N-terminus. In vitro binding assays showed that this CBM interacts specifically with crystalline cellulose, and several aromatic residues in this domain are essential for binding. It was further demonstrated that cell wall-localized BC1 via the CBM and GPI anchor is one functional form of BC1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) assays revealed that mutations in BC1 and knockdown of BC1 expression decrease the crystallite width of cellulose; overexpression of BC1 and the CBM-mutated BC1s caused varied crystallinity with results that were consistent with the in vitro binding assay. Moreover, interaction between the CBM and cellulose microfibrils was largely repressed when the cell wall residues were pre-stained with two cellulose dyes. Treating wild-type and bc1 seedlings with the dyes resulted in insensitive root growth responses in bc1 plants. Combined with the evidence that BC1 and three secondary wall cellulose synthases (CESAs) function in different steps of cellulose production as revealed by genetic analysis, we conclude that BC1 modulates cellulose assembly by interacting with cellulose and affecting microfibril crystallinity.

  8. "In-Situ Chemical Oxidation" - Sessions: #6 Technology Development, Process Fundamentals, Mechanisms;#7 Advantages and Disadvantages; #9 Oxidant Selection; #10 Bench- and Pilot-Scale Studies; #11 Monitoring; #12 Field-Scale Implementation; #13 Chemical Oxidation Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon

    A series of seven technical presentations involving chemical oxidation will be given to faculty, graduate students, and environmental professionals at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, China (April 21-22, 2010). Chemical oxidation technologies include in-situ chemical o...

  9. Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review

    Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

    1977-08-01

    A bibliographic review of 195 references is presented outlining the history of the research into the mechanisms of cellulose pyrolysis. Topics discussed are: initial product identification, mechanism of initial formation of levoglucosan, from cellulose and from related compounds, decomposition of cellulose to other compounds, formation of aromatics, pyrolysis of levoglucosan, crosslinking of cellulose, pyrolytic reactions of cellulose derivatives, and the effects of inorganic salts on the pyrolysis mechanism. (JSR)

  10. Kinetics of Cellulose Digestion by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85

    Maglione, G.; Russell, J. B.; Wilson, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    Growing cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 digested cellulose at a rapid rate, but nongrowing cells and cell extracts did not have detectable crystalline cellulase activity. Cells that had been growing exponentially on cellobiose initiated cellulose digestion and succinate production immediately, and cellulose-dependent succinate production could be used as an index of enzyme activity against crystalline cellulose. Cells incubated with cellulose never produced detectable cellobiose, and...

  11. Fabrication of polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/cellulose nanofibrous mats and their biosensing application

    Fu, Jiapeng; Pang, Zengyuan; Yang, Jie; Huang, Fenglin; Cai, Yibing; Wei, Qufu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI nanorods have been grown onto the surface of CMC/cellulose nanofibers for the fabrication of biosensor substrate material. • The proposed laccase biosensor exhibited a low detection limit and high sensitivity in the detection of catechol. • Hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers are the promising material in the design of high-efficient biosensors. - Abstract: We report a facile approach to synthesizing and immobilizing polyaniline nanorods onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified cellulose nanofibers for their biosensing application. Firstly, the hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline on the CMC-modified cellulose nanofiber. Subsequently, the PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibrous mat modified with laccase (Lac) was used as biosensor substrate material for the detection of catechol. PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers with highly conductive and three dimensional nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimum conditions, the Lac/PANI/CMC/cellulose/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a fast response time (within 8 s), a linear response range from 0.497 μM to 2.27 mM with a high sensitivity and low detection limit of 0.374 μM (3σ). The developed biosensor also displayed good repeatability, reproducibility as well as selectivity. The results indicated that the composite mat has potential application in enzyme biosensors

  12. Optimizing Extraction of Cellulose and Synthesizing Pharmaceutical Grade Carboxymethyl Sago Cellulose from Malaysian Sago Pulp

    Anand Kumar Veeramachineni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sago biomass is an agro-industrial waste produced in large quantities, mainly in the Asia-Pacific region and in particular South-East Asia. This work focuses on using sago biomass to obtain cellulose as the raw material, through chemical processing using acid hydrolysis, alkaline extraction, chlorination and bleaching, finally converting the material to pharmaceutical grade carboxymethyl sago cellulose (CMSC by carboxymethylation. The cellulose was evaluated using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy (FESEM. The extracted cellulose was analyzed for cellulose composition, and subsequently modified to CMSC with a degree of substitution (DS 0.6 by typical carboxymethylation reactions. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the crystallinity of the sago cellulose was reduced after carboxymethylation. FTIR and NMR studies indicate that the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers were etherified through carboxymethylation to produce CMSC. Further characterization of the cellulose and CMSC were performed using FESEM and DSC. The purity of CMSC was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International standards. In this case, acid and alkaline treatments coupled with high-pressure defibrillation were found to be effective in depolymerization and defibrillation of the cellulose fibers. The synthesized CMSC also shows no toxicity in the cell line studies and could be exploited as a pharmaceutical excipient.

  13. Fabrication of polyaniline/carboxymethyl cellulose/cellulose nanofibrous mats and their biosensing application

    Fu, Jiapeng, E-mail: firgexiao@sina.cn; Pang, Zengyuan, E-mail: pangzengyuan1212@163.com; Yang, Jie, E-mail: young1993@126.com; Huang, Fenglin, E-mail: flhuang@jiangnan.edu.cn; Cai, Yibing, E-mail: yibingcai@jiangnan.edu.cn; Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PANI nanorods have been grown onto the surface of CMC/cellulose nanofibers for the fabrication of biosensor substrate material. • The proposed laccase biosensor exhibited a low detection limit and high sensitivity in the detection of catechol. • Hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers are the promising material in the design of high-efficient biosensors. - Abstract: We report a facile approach to synthesizing and immobilizing polyaniline nanorods onto carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified cellulose nanofibers for their biosensing application. Firstly, the hierarchical PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers were fabricated by in situ polymerization of aniline on the CMC-modified cellulose nanofiber. Subsequently, the PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibrous mat modified with laccase (Lac) was used as biosensor substrate material for the detection of catechol. PANI/CMC/cellulose nanofibers with highly conductive and three dimensional nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimum conditions, the Lac/PANI/CMC/cellulose/glassy carbon electrode (GCE) exhibited a fast response time (within 8 s), a linear response range from 0.497 μM to 2.27 mM with a high sensitivity and low detection limit of 0.374 μM (3σ). The developed biosensor also displayed good repeatability, reproducibility as well as selectivity. The results indicated that the composite mat has potential application in enzyme biosensors.

  14. Plasma skin regeneration technology.

    Bogle, M A

    2006-09-01

    Plasma skin regeneration (PSR) technology uses energy delivered from plasma rather than light or radiofrequency. Plasma is the fourth state of matter in which electrons are stripped from atoms to form an ionized gas. The plasma is emitted in a millisecond pulse to deliver energy to target tissue upon contact without reliance on skin chromophores. The technology can be used at varying energies for different depths of effect, from superficial epidermal sloughing to deeper dermal heating. With the Portrait PSR device (Rhytec, Inc.) there are three treatment guidelines termed PSR1, PSR2, and PSR3. The PSR1 protocol uses a series of low-energy treatments (1.0,1.2 Joules) spaced 3 weeks apart. The PSR2 protocol uses one high-energy pass (3.0, 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment, and the PSR3 protocol uses two high-energy passes (3.0 4.0 Joules) performed in a single treatment. All protocols improve fine lines, textural irregularities, and dyspigmentation; however, skin tightening is probably more pronounced with the high-energy treatments.

  15. Regeneration mechanisms in Syllidae (Annelida)

    Ribeiro, Rannyele P.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Syllidae is one of the most species‐rich groups within Annelida, with a wide variety of reproductive modes and different regenerative processes. Syllids have striking ability to regenerate their body anteriorly and posteriorly, which in many species is redeployed during sexual (schizogamy) and asexual (fission) reproduction. This review summarizes the available data on regeneration in syllids, covering descriptions of regenerative mechanisms in different species as well as regeneration in relation to reproductive modes. Our survey shows that posterior regeneration is widely distributed in syllids, whereas anterior regeneration is limited in most of the species, excepting those reproducing by fission. The latter reproductive mode is well known for a few species belonging to Autolytinae, Eusyllinae, and Syllinae. Patterns of fission areas have been studied in these animals. Deviations of the regular regeneration pattern or aberrant forms such as bifurcated animals or individuals with multiple heads have been reported for several species. Some of these aberrations show a deviation of the bilateral symmetry and antero‐posterior axis, which, interestingly, can also be observed in the regular branching body pattern of some species of syllids. PMID:29721325

  16. Structural and morphological characterization of cellulose pulp

    Ocwelwang, A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the structure of cellulose is of utmost importance in order to enhance its accessibility and reactivity to chemical processing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ultrasound pretreatment on the structure...

  17. diffusion of metronidazole released through cellulose membrane

    prof kokwaro

    was determined using dialyzing cellulose membrane in a dissolution tester. Glycerin, a permeation ... An attempt has been made in the present ... Materials. Metronidazole USP was donated by Cosmos. Pharmaceutical Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya.

  18. Cellulosic ethanol is ready to go

    Burke, M. [SunOpta BioProcess Group, Brampton, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A corporate overview of the SunOpta organization was presented. The organization includes three divisions, notably organic food, industrial minerals, and a bioprocess group. It is a Canadian organization that has experienced over 60 per cent growth per year since 1999. The presentation provided a history of the bioprocess group from 1973 to 2003. The presentation also illustrated the biomass process from wood, straw or corn stover to cellulosic ethanol and acetone and butanol. Several images were presented. The production of xylitol from oat hulls and birch and from ryegrass straw to linerboard was also illustrated. Last, the presentation illustrated the biomass production of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin extraction as well as the ammonia pretreatment of cellulosics. The presentation also listed several current and future developments such as an expansion plan and implementation of cellulosic ethanol. Economic success was defined as requiring proximity to market; high percentage concentration to distillation; and co-located within existing infrastructure. figs.

  19. Radiation and enzyme degradation of cellulose materials

    Duchacek, V.

    1983-01-01

    The results are summed up of a study of the effect of gamma radiation on pure cellulose and on wheat straw. The irradiation of cellulose yields acid substances - formic acid and polyhydroxy acids, toxic malondialdehyde and the most substantial fraction - the saccharides xylose, arabinose, glucose and certain oligosaccharides. A ten-fold reduction of the level of cellulose polymerization can be caused by relatively small doses - (up to 250 kGy). A qualitative analysis was made of the straw before and after irradiation and it was shown that irradiation had no significant effect on the qualitative composition of the straw. A 48 hour enzyme hydrolysis of the cellulose and straw were made after irradiation and an economic evaluation of the process was made. Radiation pretreatment is technically and economically advantageous; the production of fodder using enzyme hydrolysis of irradiated straw is not economically feasible due to the high cost of the enzyme. (M.D.)

  20. Rapid hydrolysis of celluloses in homogeneous solution

    Garves, K

    1979-01-01

    Dissolution of cellulose (I), cotton, and cotton linters in a mixture of Ac0H, Ac/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and DMF at 120 to 160 degrees resulted in rapid and complete hydrolysis of I with decomposition of the cellulose acetatesulfate formed by gradual addition of aqueous acid. Highly crystalline I is quickly decomposed to glucose with minimum byproduct formation. Carbohydrate products containing sugar units other than glucose are hydrolyzed with destruction of monosaccharides.

  1. Alcohol for cellulosic material using plural ferments

    Hoge, W H

    1977-02-22

    A process is described for producing ethanol (EtOH) from cellulosic materials by first hydrolyzing the material to sugars and then converting the sugars to alcohol by digestion and fermentation. Thus, fibrous cellulosic material obtained from municipal waste slurry was sterilized by autoclaving, followed by inoculation with Trichoderma viride cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 100 g of raw material, 25 mL of 95% EtOH was produced by this method.

  2. Isolation of cellulose microfibrils - An enzymatic approach

    Sain, M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation methods and applications of cellulose microfibrils are expanding rapidly due to environmental benefits and specific strength properties, especially in bio-composite science. In this research, we have success-fully developed and explored a novel bio-pretreatment for wood fibre that can substantially improve the microfibril yield, in comparison to current techniques used to isolate cellulose microfibrils. Microfibrils currently are isolated in the laboratory through a combination of high shear refining and cryocrushing. A high energy requirement of these procedures is hampering momentum in the direction of microfibril isolation on a sufficiently large scale to suit potential applications. Any attempt to loosen up the microfibrils by either complete or partial destruction of the hydrogen bonds before the mechanical process would be a step forward in the quest for economical isolation of cellulose microfibrils. Bleached kraft pulp was treated with OS1, a fungus isolated from Dutch Elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease, under different treatment conditions. The percentage yield of cellulose microfibrils, based on their diameter, showed a significant shift towards a lower diameter range after the high shear refining, compared to the yield of cellulose microfibrils from untreated fibres. The overall yield of cellulose microfibrils from the treated fibres did not show any sizeable decrease.

  3. Biohydrogen, bioelectricity and bioalcohols from cellulosic materials

    Nissila, M.

    2013-03-01

    The demand for renewable energy is increasing due to increasing energy demand and global warming associated with increasing use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy can be derived from biological production of energy carriers from cellulosic biomass. These biochemical processes include biomass fermentation to hydrogen, methane and alcohols, and bioelectricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The objective of this study was to investigate the production of different energy carriers (hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, bioelectricity) through biochemical processes. Hydrogen production potential of a hot spring enrichment culture from different sugars was determined, and hydrogen was produced continuously from xylose. Cellulolytic and hydrogenic cultures were enriched on cellulose, cellulosic pulp materials, and on silage at different process conditions. The enrichment cultures were further characterized. The effect of acid pretreatment on hydrogen production from pulp materials was studied and compared to direct pulp fermentation to hydrogen. Electricity and alcohol(s) were simultaneously produced from xylose in MFCs and the exoelectrogenic and alcohologenic enrichment cultures were characterized. In the end, the energy yields obtained from different biochemical processes were determined and compared. In this study, cultures carrying out simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and hydrogen fermentation were enriched from different sources at different operational conditions. These cultures were successfully utilized for cellulose to hydrogen fermentation in batch systems. Based on these results further research should be conducted on continuous hydrogen production from cellulosic materials.

  4. Current characterization methods for cellulose nanomaterials.

    Foster, E Johan; Moon, Robert J; Agarwal, Umesh P; Bortner, Michael J; Bras, Julien; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Chan, Kathleen J; Clift, Martin J D; Cranston, Emily D; Eichhorn, Stephen J; Fox, Douglas M; Hamad, Wadood Y; Heux, Laurent; Jean, Bruno; Korey, Matthew; Nieh, World; Ong, Kimberly J; Reid, Michael S; Renneckar, Scott; Roberts, Rose; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Simonsen, John; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly; Wanasekara, Nandula; Youngblood, Jeff

    2018-04-23

    A new family of materials comprised of cellulose, cellulose nanomaterials (CNMs), having properties and functionalities distinct from molecular cellulose and wood pulp, is being developed for applications that were once thought impossible for cellulosic materials. Commercialization, paralleled by research in this field, is fueled by the unique combination of characteristics, such as high on-axis stiffness, sustainability, scalability, and mechanical reinforcement of a wide variety of materials, leading to their utility across a broad spectrum of high-performance material applications. However, with this exponential growth in interest/activity, the development of measurement protocols necessary for consistent, reliable and accurate materials characterization has been outpaced. These protocols, developed in the broader research community, are critical for the advancement in understanding, process optimization, and utilization of CNMs in materials development. This review establishes detailed best practices, methods and techniques for characterizing CNM particle morphology, surface chemistry, surface charge, purity, crystallinity, rheological properties, mechanical properties, and toxicity for two distinct forms of CNMs: cellulose nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibrils.

  5. [Evaluation of the influence of sterilization method on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose wound dressing].

    Muselík, Jan; Wojnarová, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Sopuch, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose, especially its sodium salt, is a versatile pharmaceutical excipient. From a therapeutic point of view, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of modern wound dressings to allow moist wound healing. Wound dressings must be sterile and stable throughout their shelf life and have to be able to withstand different temperature conditions. At the present time, a number of sterilization methods are available. In the case of polymeric materials, the selected sterilization process must not induce any changes in the polymer structure, such as polymer chains cleavage, changes in cross-linking, etc. This paper evaluates the influence of different sterilization methods (γ-radiation, β-radiation, ethylene oxide) on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose and the results of long-term and accelerated stability testing. Evaluation of samples was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. The obtained results showed that ethylene oxide sterilization was the least aggressive variant of the sterilization methods tested. When the γ-radiation sterilization was used, the changes in the size of the carboxymethyl cellulose molecule occurred. In the course of accelerated and long term stability studies, no further degradation changes were observed, and thus sterilized samples are suitable for long term storage.

  6. A novel high specific surface area conducting paper material composed of polypyrrole and Cladophora cellulose.

    Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif; Bennett, Alfonso E Garcia; Strømme, Maria

    2008-10-02

    We present a novel conducting polypyrrole-based composite material, obtained by polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of iron(III) chloride on a cellulose substrate derived from the environmentally polluting Cladophora sp. algae. The material, which was doped with chloride ions, was molded into paper sheets and characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption analysis, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and conductivity measurements at varying relative humidities. The specific surface area of the composite was found to be 57 m (2)/g and the fibrous structure of the Cladophora cellulose remained intact even after a 50 nm thick layer of polypyrrole had been coated on the cellulose fibers. The composite could be repeatedly used for electrochemically controlled extraction and desorption of chloride and an ion exchanging capacity of 370 C per g of composite was obtained as a result of the high surface area of the cellulose substrate. The influence of the oxidation and reduction potentials on the chloride ion exchange capacity and the nucleation of delocalized positive charges, forming conductive paths in the polypyrrole film, was also investigated. The creation of conductive paths during oxidation followed an effective medium rather than a percolative behavior, indicating that some conduction paths survive the polymer reduction steps. The present high surface area material should be well-suited for use in, e.g., electrochemically controlled ion exchange or separation devices, as well as sensors based on the fact that the material is compact, light, mechanically stable, and moldable into paper sheets.

  7. Hydrothermal Treatment of Cellulose in Hot-Pressurized Water for the Production of Levulinic Acid

    ASLI YUKSEL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hot-pressurized water, operating above boiling point and below critical point of water (374. 15 °C and 22.1 MPa, was used as a reaction medium for the decomposition of cellulose to high-value chemicals, such levulinic acid. Effects of reaction temperature, pressure, time, external oxidant type and concentration on the cellulose degradation and product distribution were evaluated. In order to compare the cellulose decomposition and yields of levulinic acid, experiments were performed with and without addition of oxidizing agents (H2SO4 and H2O2. Analysis of the liqueur was monitored by HPLC and GC-MS at different temperatures (150 - 280 °C, pressures (5-64 bars and reaction times (30 - 120 mins. Levulinic acid, 5-HMF and formic acid were detected as main products. 73% cellulose conversion was achieved with 38% levulinic acid yield when 125 mM of sulfuric acid was added to the reaction medium at 200 °C for 60 min reaction time.

  8. The effect of endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced by cold treatment in the improvement of tissue regeneration efficiency

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Skrzypek, E.; Dabrowska, G.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose that oxidative stress resulting from an imbalance between generation and scavenging hydrogen peroxide contributes to tissue regeneration efficiency during somatic embryogenesis of hexaploid winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Kamila) and organogenesis of faba bean (Vicia faba ssp. minor

  9. Adsorption of Ammonia on Regenerable Carbon Sorbents

    Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Jesph E.; Serio, Michael A..; Wilburn, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of reversible sorbents for the combined carbon dioxide, moisture, and trace-contaminant (TC) removal for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). The currently available life support systems use separate units for carbon dioxide, trace contaminants, and moisture control, and the long-term objective is to replace the above three modules with a single one. Data on sorption and desorption of ammonia, which is a major TC of concern, are presented in this paper. The current TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal, which is non-regenerable, and the carbon-based sorbent under development in this project can be regenerated by exposure to vacuum at room temperature. In this study, several carbon sorbents were fabricated and tested for ammonia sorption. Ammonia-sorption capacity was related to carbon pore structure characteristics, and the temperature of oxidative carbon-surface treatment was optimized for enhanced ammonia-sorption performance.

  10. Cellulose acetate membranes functionalized with resveratrol by covalent immobilization for improved osseointegration

    Pandele, A. M.; Neacsu, P.; Cimpean, A.; Staras, A. I.; Miculescu, F.; Iordache, A.; Voicu, S. I.; Thakur, V. K.; Toader, O. D.

    2018-04-01

    Covalent immobilization of resveratrol onto cellulose acetate polymeric membranes used as coating on a Mg-1Ca-0.2Mn-0.6Zr alloy is presented for potential application in the improvement of osseointegration processes. For this purpose, cellulose acetate membrane is hydrolysed in the presence of potassium hydroxide, followed by covalent immobilization of aminopropyl triethoxy silane. Resveratrol was immobilized onto membranes using glutaraldehyde as linker. The newly synthesised functional membranes were thoroughly characterized for their structural characteristics determination employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Subsequently, in vitro cellular tests were performed for evaluating the cytotoxicity biocompatibility of synthesized materials and also the osseointegration potential of obtained derivatised membrane material. It was demonstrated that both polymeric membranes support viability and proliferation of the pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, thus providing a good protection against the potential harmful effects of the compounds released from coated alloys. Furthermore, cellulose acetate membrane functionalized with resveratrol exhibits a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization, suggesting its suitability to function as an implant surface coating for guided bone regeneration.

  11. EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT ON THE PROPERTIES OF DYED COTTON CELLULOSE

    ROSU Liliana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile dyes have been reported of causing various stages of contact dermatitis. Reactive dyes are widely applied in dyeing cellulose fiber based textiles (100% cotton, skin fibers (hemp, flax, regenerated cellulose (cellulose acetate, viscose, protein fibers (natural silk, wool. The human body comes in contact daily with such compounds. This aspect is important for elucidating their biological effects on the human body, in correlation with physico-chemical properties. Dyes are chemical compounds containing chromophore and auxochrome groups. Authors herein report results concerning the influence of UV irradiation with λ > 300 nm on the structure and properties of different colored textiles. Subjects to study were textiles painted with four azo-triazine based dyes which were exposed to 100 h UV irradiation time and irradiation dose values up to 3500 J cm-2. The five azo dyes were: reactive orange 13, reactive red 183, reactive yellow 143, reactive blue 204 and reactive red 2. Structural modifications as a result of irradiation were undertaken by UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was observed that during UV exposure there occurred partial dyes detachment from the textiles, accompanied by glucosidic units and dye photodecomposition by C–N bond scission and degradation of aromatic entities and azo based chromophores. Color modifications were also investigated. Color differences significantly increased with the irradiation dose for all the studied samples.

  12. Electrode effects of a cellulose-based electro-active paper energy harvester

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of cellulose-based electro-active paper (EAPap) as a vibrational energy transducer was investigated in this paper. Thin cellulose EAPap film specimens were prepared by the regenerating process. Three different metal electrodes of gold, silver and aluminum were deposited on a 50 × 50 mm 2 cellulose film using a thermal evaporator. An aluminum cantilever beam was used as a vibrational bender and EAPap was attached close to the root of the cantilever beam. The voltage output of the EAPap was measured under harmonic base excitation of the cantilever beam. The EAPap with aluminum electrode provided the largest open circuit voltage output compared to those with gold or silver electrodes. The output voltages of the EAPap increased linearly with increase of the area of the electrodes. The output voltages also increased with increasing input acceleration but became saturated at a certain magnitude. From the experimental results, we conclude that EAPap with metal electrodes can be used as a flexible energy harvesting transducer by external mechanical stress, and the output voltage is related to the electrode material due to its work function. (paper)

  13. Use of polarized spectroscopy as a tool for examining the microstructure of cellulosic textile fibers.

    Garside, Paul; Wyeth, Paul

    2007-05-01

    Textile artifacts form a vital part of our cultural heritage. In order to determine appropriate methods of conservation, storage, and display, it is important to understand the current physical state of an artifact, as effected by the microstructure of the component fibers. The semi-crystalline nature of the constituent polymer aggregates, the degree of crystallinity, and the crystallite orientation have a significant influence on mechanical properties. The value of polarized Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in probing these aspects of cellulosic fibers has been assessed. A variety of representative fibers (both natural plant fibers and regenerated materials) were examined by polarized attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (Pol-ATR) and polarized infrared microspectroscopy (Pol-microIR); the former is a surface sampling technique and the latter is a transmission technique. The introduction of a polarizer into the system allows the alignment as well as the nature of bonds to be determined, and thus the presence and extent of crystallinity or long range ordering can be investigated. Using the data from the Pol-ATR experiments, it was found to be possible to derive the principle alignment of the cellulose polymer with respect to the fiber axis, along with an indication of the total cellulose crystallinity of the material, as measured by a crystallinity parameter, Chi. The Pol-microIR spectra, on the other hand, yielded more limited information, particularly when considering plant fibers with more complex microstructures.

  14. [Study on treatment of methylene blue wastewater by fly ash adsorption-Fenton and thermal regeneration].

    Bai, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Ai-Li; Zhou, Ji-Ti

    2012-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of water-washed fly ash (FA) and acid modified fly ash (M-FA) were investigated. The adsorption of methylene blue by FA and M-FA were studied by batch experiments. Two methods, Fenton-drive oxidation regeneration and thermal regeneration, were used for regeneration of the used FA and M-FA. The result showed that the rate of adsorption process followed the second order kinetics and the adsorption followed Langmuir isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium time was 30 min, and the equilibrium adsorption capacity of FA and M-FA were 4.22 mg x g(-1) and 5.98 mg x g(-1) respectively. The adsorption capability of M-FA was higher than that of FA. In the range of pH 2-12, the adsorption capacity of M-FA increased with the increase of pH, whereas the adsorption capacity of FA decreased slowly until the pH 8 and then increased. Electrostatic adsorption was the major factor on the adsorption capacity. Around 61% and 55% percentage regeneration (PR) were obtained for FA and M-FA respectively when 78.4 mmol x L(-1) H2O2 and 0.72 mmol x L(-1) Fe2+ were used. When the condition of thermal regeneration was 400 degrees C and 2 h, a positive correlation can be found between the PRs of FA and regeneration times, the PRs were 102%, 104% and 107% in three cycles of adsorption-thermal regeneration process. However a negative correlation can be found between the PRs of M-FA and regeneration times, the PRs were 82%, 75% and 74% in three cycles of adsorption-thermal regeneration process. The PR of FA was higher than that of M-FA, and thermal regeneration was superior to Fenton-drive regeneration.

  15. Properties of cellulose derivatives produced from radiation-Modified cellulose pulps

    Iller, Edward; Stupinska, Halina; Starostka, Pawel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of project was elaboration of radiation methods for properties modification of cellulose pulps using for derivatives production. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with energy 10 MeV in a linear accelerator. After irradiation pulps underwent the structural and physico-chemical investigations. The laboratory test for manufacturing carboxymethylocellulose (CMC), cellulose carbamate (CC) and cellulose acetate (CA) with cellulose pulps irradiated dose 10 and 15 kGy have been performed. Irradiation of the pulp influenced its depolimerisation degree and resulted in the drop of viscosity of CMC. However, the expected level of cellulose activation expressed as a rise of the substitution degree or increase of the active substance content in the CMC sodium salt was not observed. In the case of cellulose esters (CC, CA) formation, the action of ionising radiation on cellulose pulps with the dose 10 and 15 kGy enables obtaiment of the average values of polimerisation degree as required for CC soluble in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The properties of derivatives prepared by means of radiation and classic methods were compared

  16. Effects of Crystal Orientation on Cellulose Nanocrystals−Cellulose Acetate Nanocomposite Fibers Prepared by Dry Spinning

    Si Chen; Greg Schueneman; R. Byron Pipes; Jeffrey Youngblood; Robert J. Moon

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the development of dry spun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as reinforcements. Increasing amounts of CNCs were dispersed into CA fibers in efforts to improve the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the fiber. A systematic characterization of dispersion of CNCs in the polymer fiber and their effect on the...

  17. Preparation of cellulose II and IIII films by allomorphic conversion of bacterial cellulose I pellicles

    Faria-Tischer, Paula C.S.; Tischer, Cesar A.; Heux, Laurent; Le Denmat, Simon; Picart, Catherine; Sierakowski, Maria-R.

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes resulting from the conversion of native cellulose I (Cel I) into allomorphs II (Cel II) and III I (Cel III I ) have usually been studied using powder samples from plant or algal cellulose. In this work, the conversion of Cel I into Cel II and Cel III I was performed on bacterial cellulose films without any mechanical disruption. The surface texture of the films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the morphology of the constituting cellulose ribbons, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural changes were characterized using solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray and electron diffraction. The allomorphic change into Cel II and Cel III I resulted in films with different crystallinity, roughness and hydrophobic/hydrophilicity surface and the films remained intact during all process of allomorphic conversion. - Highlights: • Description of a method to modify the allomorphic structure of bacterial cellulose films • Preparation of films with specific morphologies and hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface characters • First report on cellulose III films from bacterial cellulose under swelling conditions • Detailed characterization of cellulose II and III films with complementary techniques • Development of films with specific properties as potential support for cells, enzymes, and drugs

  18. Degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of a cellulose bacterium

    Namsaraev, B.B.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Termkhitarova, N.G.

    1987-01-01

    Possibility of degradation of γ-irradiated cellulose by the accumulating culture of an anaerobic cellulose bacterium has been investigated. Cellulose irradiation by γ-quanta (Co 60 ) has been carried out using the RKh-30 device with 35.9 Gy/min dose rate. Radiation monitoring has been carried out by the standard ferrosulfate method. Samples have been irradiated in dry state or when water presenting with MGy. It is detected that the accumulating culture with the growth on the irradiated cellulose has a lag-phase, which duration reduces when the cellulose cleaning by flushing with distillation water. The culture has higher growth and substrate consumption rate when growing by cellulose irradiated in comparison with non-irradiated one. The economical coefficient is the same in using both the irradiated and non-irradiated cellulose. The quantity of forming reducing saccharides, organic acids, methane and carbon dioxide is the same both when cultivating by irradiated cellulose and by non-irradiated. pH of the culture liquid is shifted to the acid nature in the process of growth

  19. [Guided bone regeneration: general survey].

    Cosyn, Jan; De Bruyn, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    The principle of 'guided bone regeneration' was first described in 1988 on the basis of animal-experimental data. Six weeks after transmandibular defects had been created and protected by non-resorbable teflonmembranes, complete bone regeneration was found. The technique was based on the selective repopulation of the wound: every infiltration of cells outside the neighbouring bone tissue was prevented by the application of the membrane. Additional animal experiments showed that guided bone regeneration was a viable treatment option for local bone defects surrounding dental implants. Clinical practice, however, showed that premature membrane exposure was a common complication, which was responsible for a tremendous reduction in regenerated bone volume. In addition, a second surgical intervention was always necessary to remove the membrane. As a result, resorbable alternatives were developed. Since these are less rigid, bone fillers are usually used simultaneously. These comprise autogenous bone chips and bone substitutes from allogenic or xenogenic origine. Also alloplastic materials could be used for this purpose. Based on their characteristics this article provides an overview of the biomaterials that could be considered for guided bone regeneration. Specific attention goes to their application in clinical practice.

  20. Numerical and experimental study of the influence of the operational parameters on the formation mechanisms of oxides of nitrogen during the combustion of mixtures of cellulosic and plastic materials; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des parametres operatoires sur les mecanismes de formation des oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion de melanges de materiaux cellulosiques et plastiques

    Andzi Barhe, T.

    2004-10-15

    The current thesis was performed within a collaboration between the Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique (LCD of the University of Poitiers) and the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie d'Environnement (LPCE) of the University of Ouagadougou. It was financed by Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME). The principle object of this study is the optimisation of the combustion process during the incineration of waste. This optimisation is aimed at the reduction of the polluting emissions, principally CO and NO, during the incineration of cellulosic and plastic materials. It involves the analysis of the influence of the operational parameters on the polluting emissions and the control of reaction mechanisms of formation and reduction of these pollutants during the combustion process. Consequently, the study was performed in two parts: an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental part was realised using a fixed bed counterflow reactor. This setup simulates the combustion within an industrial waste incinerator. The reactor allows the combustion of a vertical layer of waste mixture (wood, cardboard, PET, polyamide) to be followed. Three model mixtures representative of the makeup of household waste were studied in order to determine the influence of the composition of the waste on the emission of pollutants (CO and NO). The obtained results show that this parameter has a practically negligible influence within the tested parameter range. Consequently the formation of pollutants depends on the operating parameters - the equivalence ratio and the temperature. A numerical study of the influence of these parameters in order to show their impact on the mechanisms of pollutant formation and to determine the chemical mechanisms involved in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. The numerical study was performed with software developed at the LCD. This programme based on a detailed chemical model coupled to a simple physical model. It uses the