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Sample records for oxidized patterned inp-based

  1. Patterning pentacene surfaces by local oxidation nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losilla, N.S.; Martinez, J.; Bystrenova, E.; Greco, P.; Biscarini, F.; Garcia, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sequential and parallel local oxidation nanolithographies have been applied to pattern pentacene samples by creating a variety of nanostructures. The sequential local oxidation process is performed with an atomic force microscope and requires the application of a sequence of voltage pulses of 36 V for 1 ms. The parallel local oxidation process is performed by using a conductive and patterned stamp. Then, a voltage pulse is applied between the stamp and the pentacene surface. Patterns formed by arrays of parallel lines covering 1 mm 2 regions and with a periodicity of less than 1 μm have been generated in a few seconds. We also show that the patterns can be used as templates for the deposition of antibodies.

  2. Laser patterning of superconducting oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Hussey, B.W.; Koren, G.; Cooper, E.I.; Jagannathan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The focused output of an argon ion laser (514.5 nm) has been used for wiring superconducting lines of Y/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/CU/sub 3/O/sub 7-δ/ using films prepared from nitrate and trifluoroacetate solution precursors. A stoichiometric solution of the precursors is sprayed or spun on to the substrate to form a film. The film is patterned by irradiating in selected areas to convert the irradiated layers to an intermediate oxide or fluoride state, the nonirradiated areas being unchanged. The nonirradiated areas are then dissolved away, leaving a pattern of the oxide or fluoride material. This patterned layer is converted to the superconducting 1-2-3 oxide in a subsequent annealing step. Maskless patterning of superconducting films has also been demonstrated by laser-assisted etching of the films in aqueous KOH solution. Although superconductivity is destroyed when the films are placed in solution, it can be restored after a brief anneal in oxygen

  3. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  4. Direct Patterning of Oxides by Pulsed Laser Stencil Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Riele, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a detailed study of the application of stencil technology in the patterning of epitaxial oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Stencil patterning has been applied in thin film sub-micron patterning of metals successfully for decades since it has several advantages

  5. Patterning of high mobility electron gases at complex oxide interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Felix; Prawiroatmodjo, G. E. D. K.; von Soosten, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Oxide interfaces provide an opportunity for electronics. However, patterning of electron gases at complex oxide interfaces is challenging. In particular, patterning of complex oxides while preserving a high electron mobility remains underexplored and inhibits the study of quantum mechanical effects...... of amorphous-LSM (a-LSM) thin films, which acts as a hard mask during subsequent depositions. Strikingly, the patterned modulation-doped interface shows electron mobilities up to ∼8 700 cm2/V s at 2 K, which is among the highest reported values for patterned conducting complex oxide interfaces that usually...... where extended electron mean free paths are paramount. This letter presents an effective patterning strategy of both the amorphous-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/STO) and modulation-doped amorphous-LaAlO3/La7/8Sr1/8MnO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/LSM/STO) oxide interfaces. Our patterning is based on selective wet etching...

  6. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Yu, Mufei; Ober, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have

  7. Oxidation-specific epitopes are danger-associated molecular patterns recognized by pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Yury I; Choi, Soo-Ho; Wiesner, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    are a major target of innate immunity, recognized by a variety of "pattern recognition receptors" (PRRs). By analogy with microbial "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs), we postulate that host-derived, oxidation-specific epitopes can be considered to represent "danger (or damage......)-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs). We also argue that oxidation-specific epitopes present on apoptotic cells and their cellular debris provided the primary evolutionary pressure for the selection of such PRRs. Furthermore, because many PAMPs on microbes share molecular identity and/or mimicry with oxidation...

  8. Oxidative fabrication of patterned, large, non-flaking CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumm, F; Sikorski, P

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple and fast approach to fabricate large, non-flaking arrays of CuO nanowires by oxidizing thin copper substrates in air. Oxidative CuO nanowire growth is commonly accompanied by oxide layer flaking due to stress at the copper-copper oxide interface. Using thin substrates is shown to prevent this flaking by introducing favourable material thickness ratios in the samples after oxidation. Additionally, thin foils allow larger scale topographic patterns to be transferred from an underlying mould to realize non-flat, nanowire-decorated surfaces. Further patterning is possible by electrodeposition of a nickel layer, which restricts nanowire growth to specific areas of the sample.

  9. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses’ Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyoun Jung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP, a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH, and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400 from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses’ Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations (p-trend ≤ 0.04, but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p-trend ≤ 0.05. However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  10. Healthy Dietary Patterns and Oxidative Stress as Measured by Fluorescent Oxidation Products in Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungyoun; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Wu, Tianying; Jensen, Majken; Hankinson, Susan E; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-09-21

    Healthy diets may lower oxidative stress and risk of chronic diseases. However, no previous studies examined associations between diet and fluorescent oxidation products (FlOP), a global marker of oxidative stress. We evaluated associations between healthy eating patterns (Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED)) and FlOP, measured at three excitation/emission wavelengths (FlOP_360, FlOP_320, FlOP_400) from 2021 blood samples collected from 1688 women within the Nurses' Health Study. AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were significantly positively associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320 concentrations ( p -trend ≤ 0.04), but not associated with FlOP_400. Among specific food groups that contribute to these diet scores, significantly positive associations were observed with legumes and vegetables for FlOP_360, vegetables and fruits for FlOP_320, and legumes and alcohol for FlOP_400. Inverse associations were observed with nuts, sweets or desserts, and olive oil for FlOP_360, nuts for FlOP_320 and sweets or desserts for FlOP_400 (all p -trend ≤ 0.05). However, FlOP variation due to diet was small compared to overall FlOP variation. In conclusion, AHEI, DASH, and aMED scores were unexpectedly positively, but weakly, associated with FlOP_360 and FlOP_320. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously as the determinants of FlOP concentrations are not fully understood.

  11. Oxidative stress pattern in hepatitis C patients co-infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress pattern in hepatitis C patients co-infected with schistosomiasis. ... Supporting the view that oxidative damage plays a role in chronic HCV infection, also TNF-α establishes a positive auto regulatory loop that can amplify the inflammatory response and lead to chronic inflammation. More evidence indicates that ...

  12. Sub-50 nm patterning of functional oxides by soft lithographic edge printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    We report a fast, versatile and reproducible method to make arbitrary nanoscale patterns of functional metal oxides by edge transfer printing of aqueous metal-loaded water-soluble polyacrylic acid (PAA) solutions on silicon. Patterns of ZnO, CuO, NiO and Fe2O3 with lateral dimensions below 50 nm

  13. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  14. Sub-30 nm patterning of molecular resists based on crosslinking through tip based oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Matteo; Wagner, Daniel; Neuber, Christian; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2018-06-01

    Oxidation Scanning Probe Lithography (o-SPL) is an established method employed for device patterning at the nanometer scale. It represents a feasible and inexpensive alternative to standard lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography (EBL) and nanoimprint lithography (NIL). In this work we applied non-contact o-SPL to an engineered class of molecular resists in order to obtain crosslinking by electrochemical driven oxidation. By patterning and developing various resist formulas we were able to obtain a reliable negative tone resist behavior based on local oxidation. Under optimal conditions, directly written patterns can routinely reach sub-30 nm lateral resolution, while the final developed features result wider, approaching 50 nm width.

  15. Fabrication of disposable topographic silicon oxide from sawtoothed patterns: control of arrays of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heesook; Yoo, Hana; Park, Soojin

    2010-05-18

    Disposable topographic silicon oxide patterns were fabricated from polymeric replicas of sawtoothed glass surfaces, spin-coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films, and thermal annealing at certain temperature and followed by oxygen plasma treatment of the thin PDMS layer. A simple imprinting process was used to fabricate the replicated PDMS and PS patterns from sawtoothed glass surfaces. Next, thin layers of PDMS films having different thicknesses were spin-coated onto the sawtoothed PS surfaces and annealed at 60 degrees C to be drawn the PDMS into the valley of the sawtoothed PS surfaces, followed by oxygen plasma treatment to fabricate topographic silicon oxide patterns. By control of the thickness of PDMS layers, silicon oxide patterns having various line widths were fabricated. The silicon oxide topographic patterns were used to direct the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films via solvent annealing process. A highly ordered PS-b-P2VP micellar structure was used to let gold precursor complex with P2VP chains, and followed by oxygen plasma treatment. When the PS-b-P2VP thin films containing gold salts were exposed to oxygen plasma environments, gold salts were reduced to pure gold nanoparticles without changing high degree of lateral order, while polymers were completely degraded. As the width of trough and crest in topographic patterns increases, the number of gold arrays and size of gold nanoparticles are tuned. In the final step, the silicon oxide topographic patterns were selectively removed by wet etching process without changing the arrays of gold nanoparticles.

  16. Modelling of elementary kinetics of H2 and CO oxidation on ceria pattern cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, HC; Tabish, AN; Aravind, PV

    2015-01-01

    Elementary kinetic mechanisms of fuel oxidation on ceria have not been dealt with in detail in literature. An elementary kinetic model is developed considering charge transfer and adsorption steps for electrochemical H 2 and CO oxidation on ceria. The reaction chemistry is solved by fitting previously obtained impedance spectra for H 2 and CO oxidation on ceria. The rate determining step is found to be the charge transfer rather than the adsorption for both H 2 and CO. A method is presented to extend the kinetics obtained from pattern anodes to macroscopic simulations in which the activation overvoltage can be calculated on the basis of elementary kinetics.

  17. Assessments of risk following the inhalation of plutonium oxide using observed lung clearance patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.

    1977-10-01

    Dose commitments and risk estimates for the inhalation of plutonium oxide are calculated using the lung clearance patterns observed at AEE Winfrith. These risks are compared with published data on risks arising from a lung clearance based on the ICRP Lung Model. (author)

  18. Thiolated polyethylene oxide as a non-fouling element for nano-patterned bio-devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Patricia; Valsesia, Andrea; Colpo, Pascal; Gilliland, Douglas; Ceccone, Giacomo; Papadopoulou-Bouraoui, Andri; Rauscher, Hubert; Reniero, Fabiano; Guillou, Claude; Rossi, Francois

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of a thiolated polyethylene oxide that self-assembles on gold to create a non-fouling surface. Thiolated polyethylene oxide was synthesised by reacting 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid with polyethylene glycol mono methyl ether. The coverage of the thiolated polyethylene oxide on gold was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the modified surfaces were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Protein resistance was assessed using quartz crystal microbalance. Results showed a non-fouling character produced by the thiolated polyethylene oxide. The synthesised product was used as the passivation layer on nano-patterned surfaces consisting of arrayed nano-spots, fabricated by plasma based colloidal lithography. The specific adsorption of anti-bovine serum albumin in the mercaptohexadecanoic acid spots was verified by atomic force microscopy

  19. Surface patterned dielectrics by direct writing of anodic oxides using scanning droplet cell microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siket, Christian M.; Mardare, Andrei Ionut; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Bauer, Siegfried; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Scanning droplet cell microscopy was applied for local gate oxide writing. • Sharp lines are obtained at the highest writing speed of 1 mm min −1 . • 13.4 kC cm −3 was found as charge per volume for aluminium oxide. • High field constant of 24 nm V −1 and dielectric constant of 12 were determined for Al 2 O 3 by CV and EIS. -- Abstract: Scanning droplet cell microscopy was used for patterning of anodic oxide lines on the surface of Al thin films by direct writing. The structural modifications of the written oxide lines as a function of the writing speed were studied by analyzing the relative error of the line widths. Sharper lines were obtained for writing speeds faster than 1 mm min −1 . An increase in sharpness was observed for higher writing speeds. A theoretical model based on the Faraday law is proposed to explain the constant anodisation current measured during the writing process and yielded a charge per volume of 13.4 kC cm −3 for Al 2 O 3 . From calculated oxide film thicknesses the high field constant was found to be 24 nm V −1 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed an increase of the electrical permittivity up to ε = 12 with the decrease of the writing speed of the oxide line. Writing of anodic oxide lines was proven to be an important step in preparing capacitors and gate dielectrics in plastic electronics

  20. Patterning crystalline indium tin oxide by high repetition rate femtosecond laser-induced crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chung-Wei; Lin, Cen-Ying; Shen, Wei-Chih; Lee, Yi-Ju; Chen, Jenq-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for patterning crystalline indium tin oxide (c-ITO) patterns on amorphous ITO (a-ITO) thin films by femtosecond laser irradiation at 80 MHz repetition rate followed by chemical etching. In the proposed approach, the a-ITO film is transformed into a c-ITO film over a predetermined area via the heat accumulation energy supplied by the high repetition rate laser beam, and the unirradiated a-ITO film is then removed using an acidic etchant solution. The fabricated c-ITO patterns are observed using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The crystalline, optical, electrical properties were measured by X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometer, and four point probe station, respectively. The experimental results show that a high repetition rate reduces thermal shock and yields a corresponding improvement in the surface properties of the c-ITO patterns.

  1. Written-in conductive patterns on robust graphene oxide biopaper by electrochemical microstamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kesong; Tolentino, Lorenzo S; Kulkarni, Dhaval D; Ye, Chunhong; Kumar, Satish; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2013-12-16

    The silk road: By employing silk fibroin as a binder between graphene oxide films and aluminum foil for a facile, highly localized reduction process, conductive paper is reinvented. The flexible, robust biographene papers have high toughness and electrical conductivity. This electrochemical written-in approach is readily applicable for the fabrication of conductive patterned papers with complex circuitries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Picosecond laser registration of interference pattern by oxidation of thin Cr films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiko, Vadim; Yarchuk, Michail [ITMO University, Kronverksky Ave. 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Zakoldaev, Roman, E-mail: zakoldaev@gmail.com [ITMO University, Kronverksky Ave. 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Račiukaitis, Gediminas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, LT-02300, Vilnius (Lithuania); Kuzivanov, Michail; Baranov, Alexander [ITMO University, Kronverksky Ave. 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Periodical patterning of thin films was achieved by combining two technologies. • Selective chemical etching was combined with laser-induced oxidation. • Formation of the protective oxide layer prevented of chromium film from etching. • 1D binary grating with the chromium stripe width of 750 nm was fabricated. - Abstract: The laser oxidation of thin metallic films followed by its selective chemical etching is a promising method for the formation of binary metal structures on the glass substrates. It is important to confirm that even a single ultrashort laser pulse irradiation is able to create the protective oxide layer that makes possible to imprint the thermochemical image. Results of the thermo-chemical treatment of thin chromium films irradiated by picosecond laser pulse utilizing two and four beam interference combined with the chemical etching are presented. The spatial resolution of this method can be high enough due to thermo-chemical sharpening and can be close to the diffraction limit. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was applied for characterization of the chemical composition of the protective oxide layers formed under atmospheric conditions on the surface of thin chromium films.

  3. Study on the oxidation and reduction of tungsten surface for sub-50 nm patterning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kyu; Nam, Seok Woo; Cho, Sung Il; Jhon, Myung S.; Min, Kyung Suk; Kim, Chan Kyu; Jung, Ho Bum; Yeom, Geun Young [Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Memory Division Semiconductor Business, Samsung Electronics, San No. 16 Banwol-Ri, Taean-Eup, Hwasung-City, Gyeonggi-Do 449-711 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering and Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of tungsten line pattern during the carbon-based mask-layer removal process using oxygen plasmas have been investigated for sub-50 nm patterning processes, in addition to the reduction characteristics of the WO{sub x} layer formed on the tungsten line surface using hydrogen plasmas. The surface oxidation of tungsten lines during the mask layer removal process could be minimized by using low-temperature (300 K) plasma processing for the removal of the carbon-based material. Using this technique, the thickness of WO{sub x} on the tungsten line could be decreased to 25% compared to results from high-temperature processing. The WO{sub x} layer could also be completely removed at a low temperature of 300 K using a hydrogen plasma by supplying bias power to the tungsten substrate to provide a activation energy for the reduction. When this oxidation and reduction technique was applied to actual 40-nm-CD device processing, the complete removal of WO{sub x} formed on the sidewall of tungsten line could be observed.

  4. Chemical Vapor Identification by Plasma Treated Thick Film Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Srivastava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals the class recognition potential of a four element plasma treated thick film tin oxide gas sensor array exposed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Methanol, Ethanol and Acetone are selected as target VOCs and exposed on sensor array at different concentration in range from 100-1000 ppm. Sensor array consist of four tin oxide sensors doped with 1-4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for 5-10 minute durations. Sensor signal is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA for visual classification of VOCs. Further output of PCA is used as input for classification of VOCs by four pattern classification techniques as: linear discriminant analysis (LDA, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM. All the four classifier results 100 % correct classification rate of VOCs by response analysis of sensor array treated with plasma for 5 minute.

  5. Controlling the optical performance of transparent conducting oxides using direct laser interference patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Jana; Roch, Teja; Correia, Stelio; Eberhardt, Jens; Lasagni, Andrés Fabián

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a laser based process called Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) was used to fabricate micro-textured boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films to be used as electrodes in thin-film silicon solar cells. First, the ablation thresholds of the ZnO:B film were determined using a nanosecond pulsed laser at wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm (100 mJ/cm"2 and 89 mJ/cm"2, respectively). After that, DLIP experiments were performed at 355 nm wavelength. Line-like periodic surface structures with spatial periods ranging from 0.8 to 5.0 μm were fabricated using two interfering laser beams. It was found that the structuring process of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is mainly based on a photo-thermal mechanism. The surface of the ZnO:B film was molten and evaporated at the interference maxima positions and the depth and width of the generated microfeatures depend on the laser parameters as well as the spatial period of the interference pattern. The optical properties of the structured TCOs were investigated as a function of the utilized laser processing parameters. Both diffuse and total transmission and the intensity of the diffraction orders were determined. These data were used to calculate the increase of the optical path of the transmitted light. - Highlights: • Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) on boron doped zinc oxide (LPCVD-ZnO:B) • No relevant decrease of total transmission • Periods of 1.5 μm provide large diffraction angle and good diffraction intensity. • Significant increase of optical path length could be reached.

  6. Controlling the optical performance of transparent conducting oxides using direct laser interference patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Jana; Roch, Teja [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff-und Strahltechnik IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Manufacturing Technology, George-Baehr-Str.1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Correia, Stelio; Eberhardt, Jens [Bosch Solar Energy AG, August-Broemel-Str. 6, 99310 Arnstadt (Germany); Lasagni, Andrés Fabián, E-mail: andres_fabian.lasagni@tu-dresden.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff-und Strahltechnik IWS, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Manufacturing Technology, George-Baehr-Str.1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a laser based process called Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) was used to fabricate micro-textured boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) thin films to be used as electrodes in thin-film silicon solar cells. First, the ablation thresholds of the ZnO:B film were determined using a nanosecond pulsed laser at wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm (100 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 89 mJ/cm{sup 2}, respectively). After that, DLIP experiments were performed at 355 nm wavelength. Line-like periodic surface structures with spatial periods ranging from 0.8 to 5.0 μm were fabricated using two interfering laser beams. It was found that the structuring process of the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) is mainly based on a photo-thermal mechanism. The surface of the ZnO:B film was molten and evaporated at the interference maxima positions and the depth and width of the generated microfeatures depend on the laser parameters as well as the spatial period of the interference pattern. The optical properties of the structured TCOs were investigated as a function of the utilized laser processing parameters. Both diffuse and total transmission and the intensity of the diffraction orders were determined. These data were used to calculate the increase of the optical path of the transmitted light. - Highlights: • Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) on boron doped zinc oxide (LPCVD-ZnO:B) • No relevant decrease of total transmission • Periods of 1.5 μm provide large diffraction angle and good diffraction intensity. • Significant increase of optical path length could be reached.

  7. Early childhood growth patterns and school-age respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; den Dekker, Herman T; Kruithof, Claudia J; Reiss, Irwin K; Vrijheid, Martine; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-12-01

    Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s.d.s) of peak height and weight velocities (PHV and PWV, respectively), and body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity peak. Respiratory resistance and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured at 6 years of age. Wheezing patterns and asthma were prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires. We also assessed whether any association was explained by childhood weight status. Greater PHV was associated with lower respiratory resistance [Z-score (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) per s.d.s increase] (n = 3382). Greater PWV and BMI at adiposity peak were associated with increased risks of early wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.11 (1.06, 1.16), 1.26 (1.11, 1.43), respectively] and persistent wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.09 (1.03, 1.16), 1.37 (1.17, 1.60), respectively] (n = 3189 and n = 3005, respectively). Childhood weight status partly explained these associations. No other associations were observed. PWV and BMI at adiposity peak are critical for lung developmental and risk of school-age wheezing. Follow-up studies at older ages are needed to elucidate whether these effects persist at later ages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fabrication of smooth patterned structures of refractory metals, semiconductors, and oxides via template stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Hyuk; Nagpal, Prashant; McPeak, Kevin M; Lindquist, Nathan C; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J

    2013-10-09

    The template-stripping method can yield smooth patterned films without surface contamination. However, the process is typically limited to coinage metals such as silver and gold because other materials cannot be readily stripped from silicon templates due to strong adhesion. Herein, we report a more general template-stripping method that is applicable to a larger variety of materials, including refractory metals, semiconductors, and oxides. To address the adhesion issue, we introduce a thin gold layer between the template and the deposited materials. After peeling off the combined film from the template, the gold layer can be selectively removed via wet etching to reveal a smooth patterned structure of the desired material. Further, we demonstrate template-stripped multilayer structures that have potential applications for photovoltaics and solar absorbers. An entire patterned device, which can include a transparent conductor, semiconductor absorber, and back contact, can be fabricated. Since our approach can also produce many copies of the patterned structure with high fidelity by reusing the template, a low-cost and high-throughput process in micro- and nanofabrication is provided that is useful for electronics, plasmonics, and nanophotonics.

  9. Gene expression patterns of oxidative phosphorylation complex I subunits are organized in clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Garbian

    Full Text Available After the radiation of eukaryotes, the NUO operon, controlling the transcription of the NADH dehydrogenase complex of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complex I, was broken down and genes encoding this protein complex were dispersed across the nuclear genome. Seven genes, however, were retained in the genome of the mitochondrion, the ancient symbiote of eukaryotes. This division, in combination with the three-fold increase in subunit number from bacteria (N = approximately 14 to man (N = 45, renders the transcription regulation of OXPHOS complex I a challenge. Recently bioinformatics analysis of the promoter regions of all OXPHOS genes in mammals supported patterns of co-regulation, suggesting that natural selection favored a mechanism facilitating the transcriptional regulatory control of genes encoding subunits of these large protein complexes. Here, using real time PCR of mitochondrial (mtDNA- and nuclear DNA (nDNA-encoded transcripts in a panel of 13 different human tissues, we show that the expression pattern of OXPHOS complex I genes is regulated in several clusters. Firstly, all mtDNA-encoded complex I subunits (N = 7 share a similar expression pattern, distinct from all tested nDNA-encoded subunits (N = 10. Secondly, two sub-clusters of nDNA-encoded transcripts with significantly different expression patterns were observed. Thirdly, the expression patterns of two nDNA-encoded genes, NDUFA4 and NDUFA5, notably diverged from the rest of the nDNA-encoded subunits, suggesting a certain degree of tissue specificity. Finally, the expression pattern of the mtDNA-encoded ND4L gene diverged from the rest of the tested mtDNA-encoded transcripts that are regulated by the same promoter, consistent with post-transcriptional regulation. These findings suggest, for the first time, that the regulation of complex I subunits expression in humans is complex rather than reflecting global co-regulation.

  10. Oxide Nanoparticle EUV (ONE) Photoresists: Current Understanding of the Unusual Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Yu, Mufei; Li, Li; Neisser, Mark; Sung Chun, Jun; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 SPST. In the past few years, industry has made significant progress to deliver a stable high power EUV scanner and a 100 W light source is now being tested on the manufacuring scale. The success of a high power EUV source demands a fast and high resolution EUV resist. However, chemcially amplied resists encounter unprecedented challenges beyond the 22 nm node due to resolution, roughness and sensitivity tradeoffs. Unless novel solutions for EUV resists are proposed and further optimzed, breakthroughs can hardly be achieved. Oxide nanoparticle EUV (ONE) resists stablized by organic ligands were originally proposed by Ober et al. Recently this work attracts more and more attention due to its extraordinanry EUV sensitivity. This new class of photoresist utilizes ligand cleavage with a ligand exchange mechanism to switch its solubilty for dual-tone patterning. Therefore, ligand selection of the nanoparticles is extremely important to its EUV performance.

  11. Nano- and Micro-Scale Oxidative Patterning of Titanium Implant Surfaces for Improved Surface Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-hye; Son, Jun Sik; Choi, Seok Hwa; Kim, Kyo-han; Kwon, Tae-yub

    2016-02-01

    A simple and scalable surface modification treatment is demonstrated, in which nano- and microscale features are introduced into the surface of titanium (Ti) substrates by means of a novel and eco-friendly oxidative aqueous solution composed of hydrogen peroxide (H202) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). By immersing mirror-polished Ti discs in an aqueous mixture of 30 wt% H2O2/5 wt% NaHCO3 at 23 +/- 3 degrees C for 4 h, it was confirmed that this mixture is capable of generating microscale topographies on Ti surfaces. It also simultaneously formed nanochannels that were regularly arranged in a comb-like pattern on the Ti surface, thus forming a hierarchical surface structure. Further, these nano/micro-textured Ti surfaces showed great surface roughness and excellent wettability when compared with control Ti surfaces. This study demonstrates that a H2O2/NaHCO3 mixture can be effectively utilized to create reproducible nano/microscale topographies on Ti implant surfaces, thus providing an economical new oxidative solution that may be used effectively and safely as a Ti surface modification treatment.

  12. Improvement of mechanical reliability by patterned silver/Indium-Tin-Oxide structure for flexible electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Kyunghyun; Jang, Kyungsoo; Lee, Youn-Jung; Ryu, Kyungyul; Choi, Woojin; Kim, Doyoung; Yi, Junsin

    2013-01-01

    We report the effect of silver (Ag)-buffer layer Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) film on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate on the electrical, optical and reliable properties for transparent–flexible displays. The electrical and optical characteristics of an ITO-only film and an Ag-layer-inserted ITO film are measured and compared to assess the applicability of the triple layered structure in flexible displays. The sheet resistance, the resistivity and the light transmittance of the ITO-only film were 400 Ω/sq, 1.33 × 10 −3 Ω-cm and 99.2%, while those of the ITO film inserted with a 10 nm thick Ag layer were 165 Ω/sq, 4.78 × 10 −4 Ω-cm and about 97%, respectively. To evaluate the mechanical reliability of the different ITO films, bending tests were carried out. After the dynamic bending test of 900 cycles, the sheet resistance of the ITO film inserted with the Ag layer changed from 154 Ω/sq to 475 Ω/sq, about a 3-time increase but that of the ITO-only film changed from 400 Ω/sq to 61,986 Ω/sq, about 150-time increase. When the radius is changed from 25 mm to 20 mm in the static bending test, the sheet resistance of the ITO-only film changed from 400 to 678.3 linearly whereas that of the Ag-layer inserted ITO film changed a little from 154.4 to 154.9. These results show that Ag-layer inserted ITO film had better mechanical characteristics than the ITO-only film. - Highlights: ► Transparent flexible electrode fabricated on glass substrate. ► Electrode fabricated using vertically-patterned design on glass substrate. ► Optimization of the vertical patterns ► Application of the vertically-patterned electrode in transparent–flexible electronics

  13. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyuha; Kim, A-Young; Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young; Lee, Joong Kee

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO 4 salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode

  14. Effect of micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide films on electrochromic properties of Prussian blue films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyuha [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, A-Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hun; Jung, Hun-Gi; Choi, Wonchang; Lee, Hwa Young [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Green City Technology Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PB-based ECD employed micro-patterned FTO electrode was fabricated. • Effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined. • Electrochromic properties were enhanced by employing a patterned interface. - Abstract: The effect of interface morphology on electrochromic characteristics was examined for an electrochromic device (ECD). Micro-patterned fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated using a photolithography process. Prussian blue (PB) films were then deposited on the patterned FTO films. The surface areas of both PB films and FTO films were increased by patterning. ECDs were assembled using patterned PB/FTO films as the electrochromic electrode, bare FTO films as the counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} salt. The increased effective surface area of the patterned PB/FTO electrode boosted the mobility of ions at the interphase between the electrolyte and PB electrode, and the electron transfer between PB films and FTO films. As a result, electrochromic properties such as transmittance and response time were significantly improved by employing the patterned FTO films as the transparent conductive oxide layer of the electrochromic electrode.

  15. Real-time monitoring of indium tin oxide laser ablation in liquid crystal display patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, M.H.; Lu, Y.F.; Meng, M.; Low, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Audible acoustic wave detection is applied to investigate KrF excimer laser ablation of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin film layer for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) patterning. It is found that there is no acoustic wave generation if laser fluence is lower than ITO ablation threshold. For laser fluence higher than the threshold, audible acoustic wave will be detected due to shock wave generation during ITO laser ablation. The amplitude of the acoustic wave is closely related to the laser ablation rate. With more laser pulse applied, the amplitude is dropped to zero because the ITO layer is completely removed. However, if laser fluence is increased higher than ablation threshold for glass substrate, the amplitude is also dropped with pulse number but not to zero. It is due to laser ablation of ITO layer and glass substrate at the same time. Since the thickness of ITO layer is in a scale of 100 nm, laser interaction with glass substrate will happen even at the first pulse of higher laser fluence irradiation. Laser ablation induced ITO plasma emission spectrum in visible light region is analyzed by an Optical Multi-channel Analyzer (OMA). Specific spectral lines are In I (325.8, 410.2 and 451.1 nm) and In II 591.1 nm. Spectral intensities of 410.2 and 451.1 nm lines are selected to characterize the evolution of ITO plasma intensity with laser fluence and pulse number. It is found that the spectral intensities are reduced to zero with laser pulse number. It is also found that spectral lines other than ITO plasma will appear for laser fluence higher than ablation threshold for glass substrate. Threshold fluences for glass and ITO ablation are estimated for setting up a parameter window to control LCD patterning in real-time

  16. Water Activated Graphene Oxide Transfer Using Wax Printed Membranes for Fast Patterning of a Touch Sensitive Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista-Pires, Luis; Mayorga-Martínez, Carmen C; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Montón, Helena; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-01-26

    We demonstrate a graphene oxide printing technology using wax printed membranes for the fast patterning and water activation transfer using pressure based mechanisms. The wax printed membranes have 50 μm resolution, longtime stability and infinite shaping capability. The use of these membranes complemented with the vacuum filtration of graphene oxide provides the control over the thickness. Our demonstration provides a solvent free methodology for printing graphene oxide devices in all shapes and all substrates using the roll-to-roll automatized mechanism present in the wax printing machine. Graphene oxide was transferred over a wide variety of substrates as textile or PET in between others. Finally, we developed a touch switch sensing device integrated in a LED electronic circuit.

  17. Quantification of the internalization patterns of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with opposite charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Time-resolved quantitative colocalization analysis is a method based on confocal fluorescence microscopy allowing for a sophisticated characterization of nanomaterials with respect to their intracellular trafficking. This technique was applied to relate the internalization patterns of nanoparticles i.e. superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with distinct physicochemical characteristics with their uptake mechanism, rate and intracellular fate. The physicochemical characterization of the nanoparticles showed particles of approximately the same size and shape as well as similar magnetic properties, only differing in charge due to different surface coatings. Incubation of the cells with both nanoparticles resulted in strong differences in the internalization rate and in the intracellular localization depending on the charge. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of nanoparticles-organelle colocalization experiments revealed that positively charged particles were found to enter the cells faster using different endocytotic pathways than their negative counterparts. Nevertheless, both nanoparticles species were finally enriched inside lysosomal structures and their efficiency in agarose phantom relaxometry experiments was very similar. This quantitative analysis demonstrates that charge is a key factor influencing the nanoparticle-cell interactions, specially their intracellular accumulation. Despite differences in their physicochemical properties and intracellular distribution, the efficiencies of both nanoparticles as MRI agents were not significantly different.

  18. Patterned transparent zinc oxide films produced by sol-gel embossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J.; Koh, L.H.K.; Crean, G.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Department of Microelectronic Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Brien, S. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Winfield, R.J.

    2008-08-15

    A low cost zinc oxide embossing technique is reported as a method of fabricating structures relevant to a variety of applications. A zinc based sol-gel material was prepared from zinc acetate[Zn(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}], monoethanolamine[H{sub 2}NC{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH] and isopropanol. The sol-gel was cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould a track design, placed in contact with the substrate and dried under vacuum at 70 C for 3 hours. The formed track pattern was further densified to provide a stable conductor film that retained the embossed shape. An optimum Zn sol-gel content of 0.6 M was identified. The embossed films had a transparency of greater than 83% in the visible region. The optical bandgap energy was evaluated to be 3.306 eV. The influence of ZnO sol-gel film synthesis and embossing parameters on the microstructure, morphology and optical transparency of fabricated structures is described. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Rijnders

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available FePt nanoparticles (NPs were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(onates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs onto the surface. The Al2O3 substrates were functionalized with aminobutylphosphonic acid (ABP or phosphonoundecanoic acid (PNDA SAMs or with poly(ethyleneimine (PEI as a reference. FePt NPs assembled on all of these monolayers, but much less on unmodified Al2O3, which shows that ligand exchange at the NPs is the most likely mechanism of attachment. Proper modification of the Al2O3 surface and controlling the immersion time of the modified Al2O3 substrates into the FePt NP solution resulted in FePt NPs assembly with controlled NP density. Alumina substrates were patterned by microcontact printing using aminobutylphosphonic acid as the ink, allowing local NP assembly. Thermal annealing under reducing conditions (96%N2/4%H2 led to a phase change of the FePt NPs from the disordered FCC phase to the ordered FCT phase. This resulted in ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Such a process can potentially be applied in the fabrication of spintronic devices.

  20. Zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure triggers different gene expression patterns in maize shoots and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Hongwei; Ma, Xintong; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Bao; Gao, Xiang; Li, Guo; Yu, Jiamiao; Wang, Li; Pang, Jinsong

    2017-10-01

    The potential impacts of environmentally accumulated zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnOs) on plant growth have not been well studied. A transcriptome profile analysis of maize exposed to nZnOs showed that the genes in the shoots and roots responded differently. Although the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the roots was greater than that in the shoots, the number of up- or down-regulated genes in both the shoots and roots was similar. The enrichment of gene ontology (GO) terms was also significantly different in the shoots and roots. The "nitrogen compound metabolism" and "cellular component" terms were specifically and highly up-regulated in the nZnO-exposed roots, whereas the categories "cellular metabolic process", "primary metabolic process" and "secondary metabolic process" were down-regulated in the exposed roots only. Our results revealed the DEG response patterns in maize shoots and roots after nZnO exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetics of Carbon Monoxide Electro-Oxidation in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells from Ni-YSZ Patterned-Anode Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, J.; Lee, W. Y.; Ghoniem, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed around the framework of a reduced mechanism describing electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide on Ni-YSZ patterned anodes. The electro-oxidation mechanism involves three reactions, one describing adsorption/ desorption of COonNi, and two single-electron charge-transfer steps inwhich the surface adsorbate CO(Ni) participates directly. These steps are coupled with surface transport in a reaction-diffusion model for which analytic equilibrium and steady-state solutions are derived. As much as possible, we make use of existing, independent, published information about heterogeneous chemistry, surface transport, and other model parameters. The only unknowns in our model are taken to be the kinetic rate constants of the electrochemical reactions, which we evaluate by fitting the model predictions to previously published patterned-anode experiments [B. Habibzadeh, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (2007)]. The results show that diffusion of CO on the Ni surface to the three-phase boundary is the rate-controlling process for CO electro-oxidation. Moreover, from a reaction standpoint, the charge-transfer process is dominated by a slow step involving CO(Ni). These findings collectively demonstrate the critical dependence of the electro-oxidation process to the direct participation of CO. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetics of Carbon Monoxide Electro-Oxidation in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells from Ni-YSZ Patterned-Anode Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, J.

    2013-04-17

    A mathematical model is developed around the framework of a reduced mechanism describing electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide on Ni-YSZ patterned anodes. The electro-oxidation mechanism involves three reactions, one describing adsorption/ desorption of COonNi, and two single-electron charge-transfer steps inwhich the surface adsorbate CO(Ni) participates directly. These steps are coupled with surface transport in a reaction-diffusion model for which analytic equilibrium and steady-state solutions are derived. As much as possible, we make use of existing, independent, published information about heterogeneous chemistry, surface transport, and other model parameters. The only unknowns in our model are taken to be the kinetic rate constants of the electrochemical reactions, which we evaluate by fitting the model predictions to previously published patterned-anode experiments [B. Habibzadeh, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (2007)]. The results show that diffusion of CO on the Ni surface to the three-phase boundary is the rate-controlling process for CO electro-oxidation. Moreover, from a reaction standpoint, the charge-transfer process is dominated by a slow step involving CO(Ni). These findings collectively demonstrate the critical dependence of the electro-oxidation process to the direct participation of CO. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure triggers different gene expression patterns in maize shoots and roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun, Hongwei; Ma, Xintong; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhongzhou; Liu, Bao; Gao, Xiang; Li, Guo; Yu, Jiamiao; Wang, Li; Pang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of environmentally accumulated zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnOs) on plant growth have not been well studied. A transcriptome profile analysis of maize exposed to nZnOs showed that the genes in the shoots and roots responded differently. Although the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the roots was greater than that in the shoots, the number of up- or down-regulated genes in both the shoots and roots was similar. The enrichment of gene ontology (GO) terms was also significantly different in the shoots and roots. The “nitrogen compound metabolism” and “cellular component” terms were specifically and highly up-regulated in the nZnO-exposed roots, whereas the categories “cellular metabolic process”, “primary metabolic process” and “secondary metabolic process” were down-regulated in the exposed roots only. Our results revealed the DEG response patterns in maize shoots and roots after nZnO exposure. - Highlights: • The gene expression patterns of maize exposed to ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO) varied in the shoots and roots. • A majority of the differentially expressed genes induced by nZnO exposure were exclusive to either the shoots or roots. • A similar number of up- and down-regulated genes was observed in the exposed shoots. • More up-regulated than down-regulated genes were found in the exposed roots. • A greater number of GO processes were observed in the nZnO exposed maize roots than in the exposed shoots. • GO terms in the “nitrogen compound metabolic process” category were exclusively and highly expressed in the exposed roots. • GO terms in the “nutrient reservoir” category were exclusively and highly expressed in the exposed roots. • Term “small molecule metabolic process” was also exclusively up-regulated in the exposed roots. • Processes in “cellular metabolic”, “primary metabolic” and “secondary metabolic” were down-regulated in the exposed roots.

  4. Economy and rate of carbohydrate oxidation during running with rearfoot and forefoot strike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Allison H; Umberger, Brian R; Braun, Barry; Hamill, Joseph

    2013-07-15

    It continues to be argued that a forefoot (FF) strike pattern during running is more economical than a rearfoot (RF) pattern; however, previous studies using one habitual footstrike group have found no difference in running economy between footstrike patterns. We aimed to conduct a more extensive study by including both habitual RF and FF runners. The purposes of this study were to determine whether there were differences in running economy between these groups and whether running economy would change when they ran with the alternative footstrike pattern. Nineteen habitual RF and 18 habitual FF runners performed the RF and FF patterns on a treadmill at 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 m/s. Steady-state rates of oxygen consumption (Vo2, ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and carbohydrate contribution to total energy expenditure (%CHO) were determined by indirect calorimetry for each footstrike pattern and speed condition. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to assess the differences in each variable between groups and footstrike patterns (α = 0.05). No differences in Vo2 or %CHO were detected between groups when running with their habitual footstrike pattern. The RF pattern resulted in lower Vo2 and %CHO compared with the FF pattern at the slow and medium speeds in the RF group (P 0.05). At the fast speed, a significant footstrike pattern main effect indicated that Vo2 was greater with the FF pattern than with the RF pattern (P 0.05). The results suggest that the FF pattern is not more economical than the RF pattern.

  5. Oxidative stress pattern in hepatitis C patients co-infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cwe

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... cytokine that can produce oxidative stress by simulating ... release. Finally, correlation of the measured parameters with the different clinic pathological .... measures were compared by Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of.

  6. Direct-write maskless lithography using patterned oxidation of Si-substrate Induced by femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan; Tan, Bo

    2013-03-01

    In this study we report a new method for direct-write maskless lithography using oxidized silicon layer induced by high repetition (MHz) ultrafast (femtosecond) laser pulses under ambient condition. The induced thin layer of predetermined pattern can act as an etch stop during etching process in alkaline etchants such as KOH. The proposed method can be leading to promising solutions for direct-write maskless lithography technique since the proposed method offers a higher degree of flexibility and reduced time and cost of fabrication which makes it particularly appropriate for rapid prototyping and custom scale manufacturing. A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Micro-Raman, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), optical microscope and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) were used to evaluate the quality of oxidized layer induced by laser pulses.

  7. Effect of the aluminum flow pattern on the bonding of aluminum to oxidized Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Lambert, J.P.

    1965-04-01

    The bonds produced when hot aluminum is allowed to flow smoothly from an extrusion die to the oxidized surface of a heated tube of Zircaloy-2 are consistently inferior to those produced with back-extruded flow. The difference is believed to be due to the reduction in, or elimination of, the oxide layer on the aluminum that comes in contact with the surface of the Zircaloy-2. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 1965. (author)

  8. Oxide nanoparticle EUV resists: toward understanding the mechanism of positive and negative tone patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Souvik; Ouyang, Christine; Krysak, Marie; Trikeriotis, Markos; Cho, Kyoungyoung; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    DUV, EUV and e-beam patterning of hybrid nanoparticle photoresists have been reported previously by Ober and coworkers. The present work explores the underlying mechanism that is responsible for the dual tone patterning capability of these photoresist materials. Spectroscopic results correlated with mass loss and dissolution studies suggest a ligand exchange mechanism responsible for altering the solubility between the exposed and unexposed regions. © 2013 SPIE.

  9. Oxide nanoparticle EUV resists: toward understanding the mechanism of positive and negative tone patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Souvik

    2013-04-01

    DUV, EUV and e-beam patterning of hybrid nanoparticle photoresists have been reported previously by Ober and coworkers. The present work explores the underlying mechanism that is responsible for the dual tone patterning capability of these photoresist materials. Spectroscopic results correlated with mass loss and dissolution studies suggest a ligand exchange mechanism responsible for altering the solubility between the exposed and unexposed regions. © 2013 SPIE.

  10. Generic Top-Functionalization of Patterned Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymers on Indium Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Giesbers, M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surface engineering approach that combines photochemical grafting and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to attach zwitterionic polymer brushes onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The photochemically grafted hydroxyl-terminated organic

  11. Monolayer-directed Assembly and Magnetic Properties of FePt Nanoparticles on Patterned Aluminum Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.; Gang, T.; Kinge, S.S.; Reinhoudt, David; Blank, David H.A.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2010-01-01

    FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were assembled on aluminum oxide substrates, and their ferromagnetic properties were studied before and after thermal annealing. For the first time, phosph(on)ates were used as an adsorbate to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on alumina to direct the assembly of NPs

  12. Subchronic nandrolone administration reduces cardiac oxidative markers during restraint stress by modulating protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Barbara; Carriero, Vitina; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Penna, Claudia; Berchialla, Paola; De Francia, Silvia; Bracco, Enrico; Racca, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Nandrolone decanoate (ND), an anabolic-androgenic steroid prohibited in collegiate and professional sports, is associated with detrimental cardiovascular effects through redox-dependent mechanisms. We previously observed that high-dose short-term ND administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks) did not induce left heart ventricular hypertrophy and, paradoxically, improved postischemic response, whereas chronic ND treatment (5 mg/kg twice a week for 10 weeks) significantly reduced the cardioprotective effect of postconditioning, with an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac performance. We wanted to determine whether short-term ND administration could affect the oxidative redox status in animals exposed to acute restraint stress. Our hypothesis was that, depending on treatment schedule, ND may have a double-edged sword effect. Measurement of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, two oxidative stress markers, in rat plasma and left heart ventricular tissue, revealed that the levels of both markers were increased in animals exposed to restraint stress, whereas no increase in marker levels was noted in animals pretreated with ND, indicating a possible protective action of ND against stress-induced oxidative damage. Furthermore, isolation and identification of proteins extracted from the left heart ventricular tissue samples of rats pretreated or not with ND and exposed to acute stress showed a prevalent expression of enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Among other proteins, peroxiredoxin 6 and alpha B-crystallin, both involved in the oxidative stress response, were predominantly expressed in the left heart ventricular tissues of the ND-pretreated rats. In conclusion, ND seems to reduce oxidative stress by inducing the expression of antioxidant proteins in the hearts of restraint-stressed animals, thus contributing to amelioration of postischemic heart performance.

  13. Spontaneous decoration of Au nanoparticles on micro-patterned reduced graphene oxide shaped by focused laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Y. C.; Tok, E. S.; Teoh, H. F.; Sow, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile, two-step method for the micro-landscaping of Au nanoparticles(NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film en route to micro-patterned Au(NPs)-rGO hybrid functional materials. This method employs a focused laser beam to first locally convert GO to rGO before immersing the micro-patterned GO-rGO film into HAuCl 4 solution. The rGO micro-pattern, shaped by the focused laser beam, serves as nucleation sites for the reduction of Au ions. The reduction mechanism that governs the decoration of Au NPs on rGO films is akin to electroless deposition process. In this instance, surface charges that are formed during laser reduction of GO to rGO provide active nucleation sites for Au 3+ ions to form Au NPs when HAuCl 4 solution is introduced. The number density, the size, and size distribution of the Au NPs can thus be directly tuned and preferentially anchored onto the rGO micro-pattern by varying the incident laser power, the scanning speed of the laser, or the concentration of HAuCl 4 . The resulting hybrid materials can be used as a substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Using Rhodamine 6G as the test subject, we found an improvement of SERS enhancement over bare rGO of up to four times, depending on the size of the Au NPs

  14. Spontaneous decoration of Au nanoparticles on micro-patterned reduced graphene oxide shaped by focused laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. C.; Tok, E. S. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Teoh, H. F. [Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Sow, C. H. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Graduate School of Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2015-02-07

    We report a facile, two-step method for the micro-landscaping of Au nanoparticles(NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film en route to micro-patterned Au(NPs)-rGO hybrid functional materials. This method employs a focused laser beam to first locally convert GO to rGO before immersing the micro-patterned GO-rGO film into HAuCl{sub 4} solution. The rGO micro-pattern, shaped by the focused laser beam, serves as nucleation sites for the reduction of Au ions. The reduction mechanism that governs the decoration of Au NPs on rGO films is akin to electroless deposition process. In this instance, surface charges that are formed during laser reduction of GO to rGO provide active nucleation sites for Au{sup 3+} ions to form Au NPs when HAuCl{sub 4} solution is introduced. The number density, the size, and size distribution of the Au NPs can thus be directly tuned and preferentially anchored onto the rGO micro-pattern by varying the incident laser power, the scanning speed of the laser, or the concentration of HAuCl{sub 4}. The resulting hybrid materials can be used as a substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Using Rhodamine 6G as the test subject, we found an improvement of SERS enhancement over bare rGO of up to four times, depending on the size of the Au NPs.

  15. Clearance patterns for 111In-oxide particles deposited in specific airways of beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, M.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has incorporated long-term retention of radioactive particles in conducting airways into its newly approved respiratory tract dosimetry model. This model is purported to provide a better basis for assessing risk associated with human inhalation exposures to radioactive particles. However, applying the new model requires an understanding of particle retention patterns in conducting airways of the lung. Studies are being conducted at ITRI to quantify long-term retention patterns for particles deposited at specific sites in conducting airways of Beagle dogs. The dog was selected as a model because long-term retention and clearance patterns for particles deposited in the lungs of dogs and humans are similar

  16. Patterning of oxide-hardened gold black by photolithography and metal lift-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Deep; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Nath, Janardan; Maukonen, D. E.; Rezadad, Imen; Smith, Evan M.; Peale, R. E.; Hirschmugl, Carol; Sedlmair, Julia; Wehlitz, Ralf; Unger, Miriam; Boreman, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    A method to pattern infrared-absorbing gold black by conventional photolithography and lift-off is described. A photo-resist pattern is developed on a substrate by standard photolithography. Gold black is deposited over the whole by thermal evaporation in an inert gas at ˜1 Torr. SiO2 is then deposited as a protection layer by electron beam evaporation. Lift-off proceeds by dissolving the photoresist in acetone. The resulting sub-millimeter size gold black patterns that remain on the substrate retain high infrared absorption out to ˜5 μm wavelength and exhibit good mechanical stability. This technique allows selective application of gold black coatings to the pixels of thermal infrared imaging array detectors.

  17. Association of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Cord Blood Nitric Oxide Level with Birth Weight of Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naghavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the birth weight of neonates. Some of the undesirable pregnancy outcomes are linked to lower birth weights. This study aimed to assess the relationship between maternal dietary patterns, weight gain during pregnancy and nitric oxide (NO, as an endothelial relaxing factor, and the possible effects on birth weight.Materials and Methods: At first, a pilot study was done, and finally a number of 233 mothers who referred to 4 public and private hospitals in Isfahan, the Central of Iran, during March 2014 to March 2015 via a convenience sampling method, were elected and participant in this study. Dietary patterns were assessed using a Persian version of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Gestational weight gain was measured, too. Cord blood nitric oxide (NO level, and neonate’s anthropometric characteristics were measured after delivery.Results: The study participants consisted of 233 mother-neonate pairs. Overall, 4.3% of boys and 11.8% of girls, had low birth weight (< 2.500 gr. Mean gestational weight gain was 12.85 ± 4.37 kg, and there was a statistically significant between three birth-weight categories (Low birth weight, normal birth weight and high birth weight (P

  18. Local Symmetry and Domain Patterns: Ordering Phenomena in Transition-Metal Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) show rich phase diagrams with various magnetic and electronic phases that arise from the complex interplay between spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. The most prominent class of materials, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last decades, are probably high-temperature superconductors (HTS), in which the resitivity drops to zero below a critical temperature. Further examples are different kind of complex ordering phenomena, for examp...

  19. Reversible switching of wetting properties and erasable patterning of polymer surfaces using plasma oxidation and thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zeeshan; Atay, Ipek; Soydan, Seren; Yagci, M. Baris; Jonáš, Alexandr; Yilgor, Emel; Kiraz, Alper; Yilgor, Iskender

    2018-05-01

    Polymer surfaces reversibly switchable from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by exposure to oxygen plasma and subsequent thermal treatment are demonstrated. Two inherently different polymers, hydrophobic segmented polydimethylsiloxane-urea copolymer (TPSC) and hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are modified with fumed silica nanoparticles to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces with roughness on nanometer to micrometer scale. Smooth TPSC and PMMA surfaces are also used as control samples. Regardless of their chemical structure and surface topography, all surfaces display completely reversible wetting behavior changing from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and back for many cycles upon plasma oxidation followed by thermal annealing. Influence of plasma power, plasma exposure time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. Surface compositions, textures and topographies are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry (WLI), before and after oxidation and thermal annealing. Wetting properties of the surfaces are determined by measuring their static, advancing and receding water contact angle. We conclude that the chemical structure and surface topography of the polymers play a relatively minor role in reversible wetting behavior, where the essential factors are surface oxidation and migration of polymer molecules to the surface upon thermal annealing. Reconfigurable water channels on polymer surfaces are produced by plasma treatment using a mask and thermal annealing cycles. Such patterned reconfigurable hydrophilic regions can find use in surface microfluidics and optofluidics applications.

  20. Integration of atomic layer deposition CeO2 thin films with functional complex oxides and 3D patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, M.; Palau, A.; Gonzalez-Rosillo, J.C.; Gazquez, J.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a low-temperature, < 300 °C, ex-situ integration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) ultrathin CeO 2 layers (3 to 5 unit cells) with chemical solution deposited La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) functional complex oxides for multilayer growth without jeopardizing the morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the functional oxide layer. We have also extended this procedure to pulsed laser deposited YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) thin films. Scanning force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and macroscopic magnetic measurements were used to evaluate the quality of the perovskite films before and after the ALD process. By means of microcontact printing and ALD we have prepared CeO 2 patterns using an ozone-robust photoresist that will avoid the use of hazardous lithography processes directly on the device components. These bilayers, CeO 2 /LSMO and CeO 2 /YBCO, are foreseen to have special interest for resistive switching phenomena in resistive random-access memory. - Highlights: • Integration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) CeO 2 layers on functional complex oxides • Resistive switching is identified in CeO 2 /La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 and CeO 2 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 bilayers. • Study of the robustness of organic polymers for area-selective ALD • Combination of ALD and micro-contact printing to obtain 3D patterns of CeO 2

  1. Empowering a mesophilic inoculum for thermophilic nitrification: Growth mode and temperature pattern as critical proliferation factors for archaeal ammonia oxidizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Vandekerckhove, Tom; Prat, Delphine; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Vital, Marius; Pieper, Dietmar H; Meerbergen, Ken; Lievens, Bart; Boon, Nico; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-04-01

    Cost-efficient biological treatment of warm nitrogenous wastewaters requires the development of thermophilic nitrogen removal processes. Only one thermophilic nitrifying bioreactor was described so far, achieving 200 mg N L(-1) d(-1) after more than 300 days of enrichment from compost samples. From the practical point of view in which existing plants would be upgraded, however, a more time-efficient development strategy based on mesophilic nitrifying sludge is preferred. This study evaluated the adaptive capacities of mesophilic nitrifying sludge for two linear temperature increase patterns (non-oscillating vs. oscillating), two different slopes (0.25 vs. 0.08 °C d(-1)) and two different reactor types (floc vs. biofilm growth). The oscillating temperature pattern (0.25 °C d(-1)) and the moving bed biofilm reactor (0.08 °C d(-1)) could not reach nitrification at temperatures higher than 46 °C. However, nitrification rates up to 800 mg N L(-1) d(-1) and 150 mg N g(-1) volatile suspended solids d(-1) were achieved at a temperature as high as 49 °C by imposing the slowest linear temperature increase to floccular sludge. Microbial community analysis revealed that this successful transition was related with a shift in ammonium oxidizing archaea dominating ammonia oxidizing bacteria, while for nitrite oxidation Nitrospira spp. was constantly more abundant than Nitrobacter spp.. This observation was accompanied with an increase in observed sludge yield and a shift in maximal optimum temperature, determined with ex-situ temperature sensitivity measurements, predicting an upcoming reactor failure at higher temperature. Overall, this study achieved nitrification at 49 °C within 150 days by gradual adaptation of mesophilic sludge, and showed that ex-situ temperature sensitivity screening can be used to monitor and steer the transition process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity and ecological pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in the surface sediments of the western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiluo; Hong, Yiguo; Li, Meng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2011-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) was surveyed in the surface sediments from the northern part of the South China Sea (SCS). The distribution pattern of AOA in the western Pacific was discussed through comparing the SCS with other areas in the western Pacific including Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea where high input of anthropogenic nitrogen was evident, the tropical West Pacific Continental Margins close to the Philippines, the deep-sea methane seep sediments in the Okhotsk Sea, the cold deep sea of Northeastern Japan Sea, and the hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough. These various environments provide a wide spectrum of physical and chemical conditions for a better understanding of the distribution pattern and diversities of AOA in the western Pacific. Under these different conditions, the distinct community composition between shallow and deep-sea sediments was clearly delineated based on the UniFrac PCoA and Jackknife Environmental Cluster analyses. Phylogenetic analyses showed that a few ammonia-oxidizing archaeal subclades in the marine water column/sediment clade and endemic lineages were indicative phylotypes for some environments. Higher phylogenetic diversity was observed in the Philippines while lower diversity in the hydrothermal vent habitat. Water depth and possibly with other environmental factors could be the main driving forces to shape the phylogenetic diversity of AOA observed, not only in the SCS but also in the whole western Pacific. The multivariate regression tree analysis also supported this observation consistently. Moreover, the functions of current and other climate factors were also discussed in comparison of phylogenetic diversity. The information collectively provides important insights into the ecophysiological requirements of uncultured ammonia-oxidizing archaeal lineages in the western Pacific Ocean.

  3. Transverse mode control in proton-implanted and oxide-confined VCSELs via patterned dielectric anti-phase filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Benjamin; O'Brien, Thomas; Dallesasse, John M.

    2017-02-01

    A novel method for controlling the transverse lasing modes in both proton implanted and oxide-confined vertical- cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a multi-layer, patterned, dielectric anti-phase (DAP) filter is pre- sented. Using a simple photolithographic liftoff process, dielectric layers are deposited and patterned on individual VCSELs to modify (increase or decrease) the mirror reflectivity across the emission aperture via anti-phase reflections, creating spatially-dependent threshold material gain. The shape of the dielectric pattern can be tailored to overlap with specific transverse VCSEL modes or subsets of transverse modes to either facilitate or inhibit lasing by decreasing or increasing, respectively, the threshold modal gain. A silicon dioxide (SiO2) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) anti-phase filter is used to achieve a single-fundamental-mode, continuous-wave output power greater than 4.0 mW in an oxide-confined VCSEL at a lasing wavelength of 850 nm. A filter consisting of SiO2 and TiO2 is used to facilitate injection-current-insensitive fundamental mode and lower order mode lasing in proton implanted VCSELs at a lasing wavelength of 850 nm. Higher refractive index dielectric materials such as amorphous silicon (a-Si) can be used to increase the effectiveness of the anti-phase filter on proton implanted devices by reducing the threshold modal gain of any spatially overlapping modes. This additive, non-destructive method allows for mode selection at any lasing wavelength and for any VCSEL layer structure without the need for semiconductor etching or epitaxial regrowth. It also offers the capability of designing a filter based upon available optical coating materials.

  4. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  5. "Imaging" LEIS of micro-patterned solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, John; Simrick, Neil; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Kilner, John

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the kinetics of oxygen exchange between the gas phase and a ceramic electrode is key to optimising the performance of electrochemical energy conversion devices such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Clearly the surface chemistry of these materials is important, and surface sensitive techniques such as Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) can provide important compositional information key to unravelling electrode kinetics. In this work, we use high lateral resolution LEIS to perform local analyses of a micropatterned electrode structure, of the type often used for studies of the geometrical dependences of electrode performance. We find that the results are comparable to those for bulk materials, but detect evidence of cation interdiffusion from the electrode to the electrolyte. Finally, we note that this preliminary study could open the prospect of in situ measurements of cells near operating conditions.

  6. “Imaging” LEIS of micro-patterned solid oxide fuel cell electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, John, E-mail: john.druce@i2cner.kyushu-u.ac.jp [International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (wpi-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Simrick, Neil [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Ishihara, Tatsumi [International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (wpi-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kilner, John [International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (wpi-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the kinetics of oxygen exchange between the gas phase and a ceramic electrode is key to optimising the performance of electrochemical energy conversion devices such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Clearly the surface chemistry of these materials is important, and surface sensitive techniques such as Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) can provide important compositional information key to unravelling electrode kinetics. In this work, we use high lateral resolution LEIS to perform local analyses of a micropatterned electrode structure, of the type often used for studies of the geometrical dependences of electrode performance. We find that the results are comparable to those for bulk materials, but detect evidence of cation interdiffusion from the electrode to the electrolyte. Finally, we note that this preliminary study could open the prospect of in situ measurements of cells near operating conditions.

  7. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic state dependent transient lateral photovoltaic effect in patterned ferromagnetic metal-oxide-semiconductor films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Martinez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of an external magnetic field on the magnitude and dephasing of the transient lateral photovoltaic effect (T-LPE in lithographically patterned Co lines of widths of a few microns grown over naturally passivated p-type Si(100. The T-LPE peak-to-peak magnitude and dephasing, measured by lock-in or through the characteristic time of laser OFF exponential relaxation, exhibit a notable influence of the magnetization direction of the ferromagnetic overlayer. We show experimentally and by numerical simulations that the T-LPE magnitude is determined by the Co anisotropic magnetoresistance. On the other hand, the magnetic field dependence of the dephasing could be described by the influence of the Lorentz force acting perpendiculary to both the Co magnetization and the photocarrier drift directions. Our findings could stimulate the development of fast position sensitive detectors with magnetically tuned magnitude and phase responses.

  9. Stretchable, Transparent, and Stretch-Unresponsive Capacitive Touch Sensor Array with Selectively Patterned Silver Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Young; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Trung, Tran Quang; Nam, Yun Hyoung; Kim, Do-Nyun; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-05-31

    Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains. Herein, a stretch-unresponsive stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensor array was demonstrated by employing stretchable and transparent electrodes with a simple selective-patterning process and by carefully selecting dielectric and substrate materials with low strain responsivity. A selective-patterning process was used to embed a stretchable and transparent silver nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (AgNWs/rGO) electrode line into a polyurethane (PU) dielectric layer on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment. This method provides the ability to directly fabricate thin film electrode lines on elastomeric substrates and can be used in conventional processes employed in stretchable electronics. We used a dielectric (PU) with a Poisson's ratio smaller than that of the substrate (PDMS), which prevented changes in the capacitance resulting from stretching of the sensor. The stretch-unresponsive touch sensing capability of our transparent and stretchable capacitive touch sensor has great potential in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.

  10. Direct measurement of carbon substrate oxidation and incorporation patterns in RuMP-type methylotrophs: chemostatic cultures of Methylomonas L3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, I.M.; Bussineau, C.M.; Papoutsakis, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    A technique using C-14 isotope tracers to probe the branching of carbon flow in methylotrophic bacteria has been devised and applied to continuous steady-state cultures. Methylomonas L3, a strain which utilizes the KDPG/TA variant of the ribulose monophosphate cycle for carbon fixation, was employed in the experimental studies. The actual in vivo rates of substrate-carbon incorporation into biomass, both direct and via CO 2 , and of the two carbon oxidation schemes were determined in three different steady-state cultures. The results show that the carbon substrate is oxidized predominantly via formate (the linear oxidation scheme), and that the cyclic scheme of oxidation is minimally, if at all, utilized. The carbon incorporation and oxidation patterns appear to vary considerably with the dilution rate and the inoculum history. The experimental accuracy of the new technique is discussed in detail

  11. Cost-effective, transfer-free, flexible resistive random access memory using laser-scribed reduced graphene oxide patterning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ren, Tian-Ling; Li, Cheng; Xue, Qing-Tang; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Wu, Can; Yang, Yi; Wong, H-S Philip

    2014-06-11

    Laser scribing is an attractive reduced graphene oxide (rGO) growth and patterning technology because the process is low-cost, time-efficient, transfer-free, and flexible. Various laser-scribed rGO (LSG) components such as capacitors, gas sensors, and strain sensors have been demonstrated. However, obstacles remain toward practical application of the technology where all the components of a system are fabricated using laser scribing. Memory components, if developed, will substantially broaden the application space of low-cost, flexible electronic systems. For the first time, a low-cost approach to fabricate resistive random access memory (ReRAM) using laser-scribed rGO as the bottom electrode is experimentally demonstrated. The one-step laser scribing technology allows transfer-free rGO synthesis directly on flexible substrates or non-flat substrates. Using this time-efficient laser-scribing technology, the patterning of a memory-array area up to 100 cm(2) can be completed in 25 min. Without requiring the photoresist coating for lithography, the surface of patterned rGO remains as clean as its pristine state. Ag/HfOx/LSG ReRAM using laser-scribing technology is fabricated in this work. Comprehensive electrical characteristics are presented including forming-free behavior, stable switching, reasonable reliability performance and potential for 2-bit storage per memory cell. The results suggest that laser-scribing technology can potentially produce more cost-effective and time-effective rGO-based circuits and systems for practical applications.

  12. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Balance in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Judd, Suzanne; Bostick, Roberd M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and oxidative balance are associated with poor diet quality and risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. A diet-inflammation/oxidative balance association may relate to evolutionary discordance. We investigated associations between 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, and circulating concentrations of 2 related biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an acute inflammatory protein, and F2-isoprostane, a reliable marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation. In a pooled cross-sectional study of 30- to 74-y-old men and women in an elective outpatient colonoscopy population (n = 646), we created diet scores from responses on Willett food-frequency questionnaires and measured plasma hsCRP and F2-isoprostane concentrations by ELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Both diet scores were calculated and categorized into quintiles, and their associations with biomarker concentrations were estimated with the use of general linear models to calculate and compare adjusted geometric means, and via unconditional ordinal logistic regression. There were statistically significant trends for decreasing geometric mean plasma hsCRP and F2-isoprostane concentrations with increasing quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores. The multivariable-adjusted ORs comparing those in the highest with those in the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores were 0.61 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.05; P-trend = 0.06) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.20; P-trend = 0.01), respectively, for a higher hsCRP concentration, and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.95; P-trend 0.01) and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.73; P-trend = 0.01), respectively, for a higher F2-isoprostane concentration. These findings suggest that diets that are more Paleolithic- or Mediterranean-like may be associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in humans. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Simultaneous Patterning of Independent Metal/Metal Oxide Multi-Layer Films Using Two-Tone Photo-Acid Generating Compound Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Honma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 The photo-induced solubility and positive-tone direct photo-patterning of iron, copper and lanthanides chelated with 4-(2-nitrobenzyloxycarbonylcatechol (NBOC or 4-(6-nitroveratryloxycarbonylcatechol (NVOC was investigated. Photo-patterning of iron, copper, cerium, samarium, europium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium and lutetium complexes was accomplished. Continuous films were formed by the pyrolysis of metal complex films at 500 °C. (2 Based on the difference in the photo-reaction excitation wavelength profile of NBOC and NVOC complexes, a short and simple method for simultaneous micro-patterning of two independent films on each side of a transparent glass substrate was developed. Using the developed procedure, indium tin oxide and/or titanium oxide films were formed on each side of a quartz substrate without use of resist or etching.

  14. Data-driven simultaneous fault diagnosis for solid oxide fuel cell system using multi-label pattern identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuanghong; Cao, Hongliang; Yang, Yupu

    2018-02-01

    Fault diagnosis is a key process for the reliability and safety of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems. However, it is difficult to rapidly and accurately identify faults for complicated SOFC systems, especially when simultaneous faults appear. In this research, a data-driven Multi-Label (ML) pattern identification approach is proposed to address the simultaneous fault diagnosis of SOFC systems. The framework of the simultaneous-fault diagnosis primarily includes two components: feature extraction and ML-SVM classifier. The simultaneous-fault diagnosis approach can be trained to diagnose simultaneous SOFC faults, such as fuel leakage, air leakage in different positions in the SOFC system, by just using simple training data sets consisting only single fault and not demanding simultaneous faults data. The experimental result shows the proposed framework can diagnose the simultaneous SOFC system faults with high accuracy requiring small number training data and low computational burden. In addition, Fault Inference Tree Analysis (FITA) is employed to identify the correlations among possible faults and their corresponding symptoms at the system component level.

  15. Oxidative stress status, antioxidant metabolism and polypeptide patterns in Juncus maritimus shoots exhibiting differential mercury burdens in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the oxidative stress status, antioxidant metabolism and polypeptide patterns in salt marsh macrophyte Juncus maritimus shoots exhibiting differential mercury burdens in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon at reference and the sites with highest, moderate and the lowest mercury contamination. In order to achieve these goals, shoot-mercury burden and the responses of representative oxidative stress indices, and the components of both non-glutathione- and glutathione-based H2O2-metabolizing systems were analyzed and cross-talked with shoot-polypeptide patterns. Compared to the reference site, significant elevations in J. maritimus shoot mercury and the oxidative stress indices such as H2O2, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and reactive carbonyls were maximum at the site with highest followed by moderate and the lowest mercury contamination. Significantly elevated activity of non-glutathione-based H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase accompanied the studied damage-endpoint responses, whereas the activity of glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione sulfo-transferase was inhibited. Concomitantly, significantly enhanced glutathione reductase activity and the contents of both reduced and oxidized glutathione were perceptible in high mercury-exhibiting shoots. It is inferred that high mercury-accrued elevations in oxidative stress indices were obvious, where non-glutathione-based H2O2-decomposing enzyme system was dominant over the glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging enzyme system. In particular, the glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging system failed to coordinate with elevated glutathione reductase which in turn resulted into increased pool of oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized glutathione-to-reduced glutathione. The substantiation of the studied oxidative stress indices and antioxidant metabolism with approximately 53-kDa polypeptide warrants further studies.

  16. Oscillations and patterns in a model of simultaneous CO and C2H2 oxidation and NO(x) reduction in a cross-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadač, Otto; Kohout, Martin; Havlica, Jaromír; Schreiber, Igor

    2015-03-07

    A model describing simultaneous catalytic oxidation of CO and C2H2 and reduction of NOx in a cross-flow tubular reactor is explored with the aim of relating spatiotemporal patterns to specific pathways in the mechanism. For that purpose, a detailed mechanism proposed for three-way catalytic converters is split into two subsystems, (i) simultaneous oxidation of CO and C2H2, and (ii) oxidation of CO combined with NOx reduction. The ability of these two subsystems to display mechanism-specific dynamical effects is studied initially by neglecting transport phenomena and applying stoichiometric network and bifurcation analyses. We obtain inlet temperature - inlet oxygen concentration bifurcation diagrams, where each region possessing specific dynamics - oscillatory, bistable and excitable - is associated with a dominant reaction pathway. Next, the spatiotemporal behaviour due to reaction kinetics combined with transport processes is studied. The observed spatiotemporal patterns include phase waves, travelling fronts, pulse waves and spatiotemporal chaos. Although these types of pattern occur generally when the kinetic scheme possesses autocatalysis, we find that some of their properties depend on the underlying dominant reaction pathway. The relation of patterns to specific reaction pathways is discussed.

  17. Chronic wheel running reduces maladaptive patterns of methamphetamine intake: regulation by attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neuronal nitric oxide synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Alexander J.; Aparicio, Mark B.; Kim, Airee; Sobieraj, Jeffery C.; Yuan, Clara J.; Grant, Yanabel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether prior exposure to chronic wheel running (WR) alters maladaptive patterns of excessive and escalating methamphetamine intake under extended access conditions, and intravenous methamphetamine self-administration-induced neurotoxicity. Adult rats were given access to WR or no wheel (sedentary) in their home cage for 6 weeks. A set of WR rats were injected with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to determine WR-induced changes in proliferation (2-h old) and survival (28-day old) of hippocampal progenitors. Another set of WR rats were withdrawn (WRw) or continued (WRc) to have access to running wheels in their home cages during self-administration days. Following self-administration [6 h/day], rats were tested on the progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Following PR, BrdU was injected to determine levels of proliferating progenitors (2-h old). WRc rats self-administered significantly less methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition and escalation sessions, and demonstrated reduced motivation for methamphetamine seeking. Methamphetamine reduced daily running activity of WRc rats compared with that of pre-methamphetamine days. WRw rats self-administered significantly more methamphetamine than sedentary rats during acquisition, an effect that was not observed during escalation and PR sessions. WR-induced beneficial effects on methamphetamine self-administration were not attributable to neuroplasticity effects in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, but were attributable to WR-induced inhibition of methamphetamine-induced increases in the number of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons and apoptosis in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results demonstrate that WR prevents methamphetamine-induced damage to forebrain neurons to provide a beneficial effect on drug-taking behavior. Importantly, WR-induced neuroprotective effects are transient and continued WR activity is necessary to prevent compulsive methamphetamine intake

  18. Secondhand tobacco smoke, arterial stiffness, and altered circadian blood pressure patterns are associated with lung inflammation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Nicole J; Weber, Lynn P

    2012-02-01

    Chronic smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease that are known to adversely alter the structural and mechanical properties of arteries. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on circadian blood pressure patterns, arterial stiffness, and possible sources of oxidative stress in conscious, unsedated radiotelemetry-implanted rats. Pulse wave change in pressure over time (dP/dt) was used an indicator of arterial stiffness and was compared with both structural (wall thickness) and functional (nitric oxide production and bioactivity and endothelin-1 levels) features of the arterial wall. In addition, histology of lung, heart, and liver was examined as well as pulmonary and hepatic detoxifying enzyme activity (cytochrome P450, specifically CYP1A1). Subchronic secondhand tobacco smoke exposure altered the circadian pattern of heart rate and blood pressure, with a loss in the normal dipping pattern of blood pressure during sleep. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure also increased pulse wave dP/dt in the absence of any structural modifications in the arterial wall. Furthermore, although nitric oxide production and endothelin-1 levels were not altered by secondhand tobacco smoke, there was increased inactivation of nitric oxide as indicated by peroxynitrite production. Increased lung neutrophils or pulmonary CYP1A1 may be responsible for the increase in oxidative stress in rats exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. In turn, this may be related to the observed failure of blood pressure to dip during periods of sleep and a possible increase in arterial stiffness.

  19. Beneficial Effects of the RESMENA Dietary Pattern on Oxidative Stress in Patients Suffering from Metabolic Syndrome with Hyperglycemia Are Associated to Dietary TAC and Fruit Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Martinez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS, whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (−30% Energy: the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates, which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day, low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.

  20. Beneficial effects of the RESMENA dietary pattern on oxidative stress in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia are associated to dietary TAC and fruit consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Martinez, J Alfredo; Zulet, M Angeles

    2013-03-27

    Hyperglycemia and oxidative stress are conditions directly related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new weight-loss dietary pattern on improving the oxidative stress status on patients suffering MetS with hyperglycemia. Seventy-nine volunteers were randomly assigned to two low-calorie diets (-30% Energy): the control diet based on the American Health Association criteria and the RESMENA diet based on a different macronutrient distribution (30% proteins, 30% lipids, 40% carbohydrates), which was characterized by an increase of the meal frequency (seven-times/day), low glycemic load, high antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high n-3 fatty acids content. Dietary records, anthropometrical measurements, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed before and after the six-month-long study. The RESMENA (Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra) diet specifically reduced the android fat mass and demonstrated more effectiveness on improving general oxidative stress through a greater decrease of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) values and protection against arylesterase depletion. Interestingly, oxLDL values were associated with dietary TAC and fruit consumption and with changes on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass and triacilglyceride (TG) levels. In conclusion, the antioxidant properties of the RESMENA diet provide further benefits to those attributable to weight loss on patients suffering Mets with hyperglycemia.

  1. Formation of superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns by combination of nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide for biological droplet generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Shimizu, Kazunori; Kaizuma, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    In this letter, we report a technology for fabricating superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns using a combination of a nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide. In our previous study, we used a combination of hydrophobic and superhydrophilic materials. However, it was difficult to split low-surface-tension liquids such as biological liquids into droplets solely using hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns. In this study, the contact angle of the hydrophobic region was enhanced from 109.3° to 155.6° by performing nanostructure imprinting on a damage-reduced perfluoropolymer. The developed superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns allowed the splitting of even those media that contained fetal bovine serum into droplets of a desired shape.

  2. Investigation of patterned and non-patterned poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene) oxide based anion exchange membranes for enhanced desalination and power generation in a microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruno, Francisco Lopez; Rubio, Juan E; Santoro, Carlo; Atanassov, Plamen; Cerrato, José M; Arges, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene oxide) (QAPPO) anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with topographically patterned surfaces were assessed in a microbial desalination cell (MDC) system. The MDC results with these QAPPO AEMs were benchmarked against a commercially available AEM. The MDC with the non-patterned QAPPO AEM (Q1) displayed the best desalination rate (a reduction of salinity by 53 ± 2.7%) and power generation (189 ± 5 mW m - 2 ) when compared against the commercially available AEM and the patterned AEMs. The enhanced performance with the Q1 AEM was attributed to its higher ionic conductivity and smaller thickness leading to a reduced area specific resistance. It is important to note that Real Pacific Ocean seawater and activated sludge were used into the desalination chamber and anode chamber respectively for the MDC - which mimicked realistic conditions. Although the non-patterned QAPPO AEM displayed better performance over the patterned QAPPO AEMs, it was observed that the anodic overpotential was smaller when the MDCs featured QAPPO AEMs with larger lateral feature sizes. The results from this study have important implications for the continuous improvements necessary for developing cheaper and better performing membranes in order to optimize the MDC.

  3. Recent patterns of methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere: The bottom-up approach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately estimating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems is critical for resolving global budgets of these greenhouse gases (GHGs) and continuing to mitigate climate warming. In this study, we use a bottom-up approach to estimate annual budgets of both methane and nitrous oxide in global terrestrial ecosystem during 1981-2010 and analyze the underlying mechanisms responsible for spatial and temporal variations in these GHGs. Both methane and nitrous oxide emissions significantly increased from 1981 to 2010, primarily owing to increased air temperature, nitrogen fertilizer use, and land use change. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions increased the fastest in Asia due to the more prominent environmental changes compared to other continents. The cooling effects by carbon dioxide sink in the terrestrial biosphere might be completely offset by increasing methane and nitrous oxide emissions, resulting in a positive global warming potential. Asia and South America were the largest contributors to increasing global warming potential. This study suggested that current management practices might not be effective enough to reduce future global warming.

  4. Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea Show More Distinct Biogeographic Distribution Patterns than Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria across the Black Soil Zone of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Yu, Zhenhua; Yao, Qin; Sui, Yueyu; Shi, Yu; Chu, Haiyan; Tang, Caixian; Franks, Ashley E; Jin, Jian; Liu, Xiaobing; Wang, Guanghua

    2018-01-01

    Black soils (Mollisols) of northeast China are highly productive and agriculturally important for food production. Ammonia-oxidizing microbes play an important role in N cycling in the black soils. However, the information related to the composition and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microbes in the black soils has not yet been addressed. In this study, we used the amoA gene to quantify the abundance and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) across the black soil zone. The amoA abundance of AOA was remarkably larger than that of AOB, with ratios of AOA/AOB in the range from 3.1 to 91.0 across all soil samples. The abundance of AOA amoA was positively correlated with total soil C content ( p 0.05). In contrast, the abundance of AOB amoA positively correlated with soil pH ( p = 0.009) but not with total soil C. Alpha diversity of AOA did not correlate with any soil parameter, however, alpha diversity of AOB was affected by multiple soil factors, such as soil pH, total P, N, and C, available K content, and soil water content. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the AOA community was mainly affected by the sampling latitude, followed by soil pH, total P and C; while the AOB community was mainly determined by soil pH, as well as total P, C and N, water content, and sampling latitude, which highlighted that the AOA community was more geographically distributed in the black soil zone of northeast China than AOB community. In addition, the pairwise analyses showed that the potential nitrification rate (PNR) was not correlated with alpha diversity but weakly positively with the abundance of the AOA community ( p = 0.048), whereas PNR significantly correlated positively with the richness ( p = 0.003), diversity ( p = 0.001) and abundance ( p < 0.001) of the AOB community, which suggested that AOB community might make a greater contribution to nitrification than AOA community in the black soils when

  5. Self-Assembled Amphiphilic Water Oxidation Catalysts: Control of O-O Bond Formation Pathways by Different Aggregation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Qing; Lei, Tao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-05-17

    The oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is the key step to realize water splitting from both biological and chemical perspective. In an effort to understand how water oxidation occurs on a molecular level, a large number of molecular catalysts have been synthesized to find an easy access to higher oxidation states as well as their capacity to make O-O bond. However, most of them function in a mixture of organic solvent and water and the O-O bond formation pathway is still a subject of intense debate. Herein, we design the first amphiphilic Ru-bda (H2 bda=2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) of formula [Ru(II) (bda)(4-OTEG-pyridine)2 ] (1, OTEG=OCH2 CH2 OCH2 CH2 OCH3 ) and [Ru(II) (bda)(PySO3 Na)2 ] (2, PySO3 (-) =pyridine-3-sulfonate), which possess good solubility in water. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), critical aggregation concentration (CAC) experiments and product analysis demonstrate that they enable to self-assemble in water and form the O-O bond through different routes even though they have the same bda(2-) backbone. This work illustrates for the first time that the O-O bond formation pathway can be regulated by the interaction of ancillary ligands at supramolecular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Substrate availability drives spatial patterns in richness of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in temperate forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Norman; J.E. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    We sought to investigate the drivers of richness of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) in temperate forest soils. We sampled soils across four experimental watersheds in the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina USA. These watersheds are geographically close, but vary in soil chemistry due to differences in land use history. While we...

  7. Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with a long-range order and tunable cell sizes by phosphoric acid anodization on pre-patterned substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawathanawises, Krissada; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) has been explored for various applications due to its regular cell arrangement and relatively easy fabrication processes. However, conventional two-step anodization based on self-organization only allows the fabrication of a few discrete cell sizes and formation of small domains of hexagonally packed pores. Recent efforts to pre-pattern aluminum followed with anodization significantly improve the regularity and available pore geometries in AAO, while systematic study of the anodization condition, especially the impact of acid composition on pore formation guided by nanoindentation is still lacking. In this work, we pre-patterned aluminium thin films using ordered monolayers of silica beads and formed porous AAO in a single-step anodization in phosphoric acid. Controllable cell sizes ranging from 280 nm to 760 nm were obtained, matching the diameters of the silica nanobead molds used. This range of cell size is significantly greater than what has been reported for AAO formed in phosphoric acid in the literature. In addition, the relationships between the acid concentration, cell size, pore size, anodization voltage and film growth rate were studied quantitatively. The results are consistent with the theory of oxide formation through an electrochemical reaction. Not only does this study provide useful operational conditions of nanoindentation induced anodization in phosphoric acid, it also generates significant information for fundamental understanding of AAO formation. PMID:24535886

  8. Elementary kinetic modelling applied to solid oxide fuel cell pattern anodes and a direct flame fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogler, Marcel

    2009-05-27

    In the course of this thesis a model for the prediction of polarisation characteristics of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was developed. The model is based on an elementary kinetic description of electrochemical reactions and the fundamental conservation principles of mass and energy. The model allows to predict the current-voltage relation of an SOFC and offers ideal possibilities for model validation. The aim of this thesis is the identification of rate-limiting processes and the determination of the elementary pathway during charge transfer. The numerical simulation of experiments with model anodes allowed to identify a hydrogen transfer to be the most probable charge-transfer reaction and revealed the influence of diffusive transport. Applying the hydrogen oxidation kinetics to the direct flame fuel cell system (DFFC) showed that electrochemical oxidation of CO is possible based on the same mechanism. Based on the quantification of loss processes in the DFFC system, improvements on cell design, predicting 80% increase of efficiency, were proposed. (orig.)

  9. Progress in InP based photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    Indium Phosphide is a versatile semiconductor material that allows for integration of a broad range of components in a single chip. Basic building blocks include lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, detectors and a variety of passive components, including wavelength demultiplexers, filters and

  10. InP based semioconductor structures for radiation detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Olga; Grym, Jan; Pekárek, Ladislav; Zavadil, Jiří; Žďánský, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, 8/9 (2008), s. 700-775 ISSN 0957-4522. [Semiconducting & Insulating Materials Conference - SIMC /14./. Fayetteville, 15.05.2007-20.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/06/0153 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : semiconductor technology * rare earth compounds * radiation detectors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.054, year: 2008

  11. Foundry based approach for InP based PIC development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Europe is making significant investments in development of generic photonic foundry platform infrastructures for InP-based and Silicon Photonic ICs. Here we present the present status for the InP-based JePPIX platform.

  12. A Year in the Life: Annual Patterns of CO2 and CH4 from a Northern Finland Peatland, Including Anaerobic Methane Oxidation and Summer Ebullition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.; Lipson, D.; Biasi, C.; Dorodnikov, M.; Männistö, M.; Lai, C. T.

    2014-12-01

    The major ecological controls on methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes in northern wetland systems are well known, yet estimates of source/sink magnitudes are often incongruous with measured rates. This mismatch persists because holistic flux datasets are rare, preventing 'whole picture' determinations of flux controls. To combat this, we measured net CO2 and CH4 fluxes from September 2012-2013 within a peatland in northern Lapland, Finland. In addition, we performed in situ manipulations and in vitro soil incubations to quantify anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenic rates as they related to alternative electron acceptor availability. Average annual fluxes varied substantially between different depressions within the wetland, a pattern that persisted through all seasons. Season was a strong predictor of both CO2 and CH4 flux rates, yet CH4 rates were not related to melt-season 10cm or 30cm soil temperatures, and only poorly predicted with air temperatures. We found evidence for both autumnal and spring thaw CH4 bursts, collectively accounting for 26% of annual CH4 flux, although the autumnal burst was more than 5 fold larger than the spring burst. CH4 ebullition measured throughout the growing season augmented the CH4 source load by a factor of 1.5, and was linked with fine-scale spatial heterogeneity within the wetland. Surprisingly, CH4 flux rates were insensitive to Fe(III) and humic acid soil amendments, both of which amplified CO2 fluxes. Using in vitro incubations, we determined anaerobic methane oxidation and methanogenesis rates. Measured anaerobic oxidation rates showed potential consumption of between 6-39% of the methane produced, contributing approximately 1% of total carbon dioxide flux. Treatments of nitrate, sulfate and ferric iron showed that nitrate suppressed methanogenesis, but were not associated with anaerobic oxidation rates.

  13. Medium chain acylcarnitines dominate the metabolite pattern in humans under moderate intensity exercise and support lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise is an extreme physiological challenge for skeletal muscle energy metabolism and has notable health benefits. We aimed to identify and characterize metabolites, which are components of the regulatory network mediating the beneficial metabolic adaptation to exercise. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we investigated plasma from healthy human subjects who completed two independent running studies under moderate, predominantly aerobic conditions. Samples obtained prior to and immediately after running and then 3 and 24 h into the recovery phase were analyzed by a non-targeted (NT- metabolomics approach applying liquid chromatography-qTOF-mass spectrometry. Under these conditions medium and long chain acylcarnitines were found to be the most discriminant plasma biomarkers of moderately intense exercise. Immediately after a 60 min (at 93% V(IAT or a 120 min run (at 70% V(IAT a pronounced, transient increase dominated by octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine was observed. The release of acylcarnitines as intermediates of partial beta-oxidation was verified in skeletal muscle cell culture experiments by probing (13C-palmitate metabolism. Further investigations in primary human myotubes and mouse muscle tissue revealed that octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine were able to support the oxidation of palmitate, proving more effective than L-carnitine. CONCLUSIONS: Medium chain acylcarnitines were identified and characterized by a functional metabolomics approach as the dominating biomarkers during a moderately intense exercise bout possessing the power to support fat oxidation. This physiological production and efflux of acylcarnitines might exert beneficial biological functions in muscle tissue.

  14. High fluxes but different patterns of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from soil in a cattle overwintering area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hynšt, Jaroslav; Šimek, Miloslav; Brůček, Petr; Petersen, S. O.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 120, 2-4 (2007), s. 269-279 ISSN 0167-8809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/04/0325 Grant - others:Evropská unie(XE) EVK2-CT-2000-00096; MŠMT(CZ) 21-1072/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : nitrous oxide * carbon dioxide * denitrification Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2007

  15. Efficiency increase in flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells with a nano-patterned indium zinc oxide anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong Hwan; Seifter, Jason; Heeger, Alan J. [Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5090 (United States); Park, Jong Hyeok [School of Chemical Engineering and SAINT, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dae-Geun [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 171 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Efficient flexible bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells based on PCDTBT/PC{sub 70}BM were successfully fabricated by a simple nano-imprint technique. The flexible nano-patterned IZO anode with ordered periodic dot structures led to improved light absorption and increased interfacial contact area between the anode and polymer as well as between the polymer and cathode. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Hydrogen oxidation mechanisms on Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia anodes: Separation of reaction pathways by geometry variation of pattern electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, M. C.; Fleig, J.; Bram, M.; Opitz, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrodes are affecting the overall performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in general and strongly contribute to the cell resistance in case of novel metal supported SOFCs in particular. The electrochemical fuel conversion mechanisms in these electrodes are, however, still only partly understood. In this study, micro-structured Ni thin film electrodes on YSZ with 15 different geometries are utilized to investigate reaction pathways for the hydrogen electro-oxidation at Ni/YSZ anodes. From electrodes with constant area but varying triple phase boundary (TPB) length a contribution to the electro-catalytic activity is found that does not depend on the TPB length. This additional activity could clearly be attributed to a yet unknown reaction pathway scaling with the electrode area. It is shown that this area related pathway has significantly different electrochemical behavior compared to the TPB pathway regarding its thermal activation, sulfur poisoning behavior, and H2/H2O partial pressure dependence. Moreover, possible reaction mechanisms of this reaction pathway are discussed, identifying either a pathway based on hydrogen diffusion through Ni with water release at the TPB or a path with oxygen diffusion through Ni to be a very likely explanation for the experimental results.

  17. Tailoring the electrode-electrolyte interface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) by laser micro-patterning to improve their electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebollero, J. A.; Lahoz, R.; Laguna-Bercero, M. A.; Larrea, A.

    2017-08-01

    Cathode activation polarisation is one of the main contributions to the losses of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. To reduce this loss we use a pulsed laser to modify the surface of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes to make a corrugated micro-patterning in the mesoscale. The beam of the laser source, 5 ns pulse width and emitting at λ = 532 nm (green region), is computer-controlled to engrave the selected micro-pattern on the electrolyte surface. Several laser scanning procedures and geometries have been tested. Finally, we engrave a square array with 28 μm of lattice parameter and 7 μm in depth on YSZ plates. With these plates we prepare LSM-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-YSZ symmetrical cells (LSM: La1-xSrxMnO3) and determine their activation polarisation by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). To get good electrode-electrolyte contact after sintering it is necessary to use pressure-assisted sintering with low loads (about 5 kPa), which do not modify the electrode microstructure. The decrease in polarisation with respect to an unprocessed cell is about 30%. EIS analysis confirms that the reason for this decrease is an improvement in the activation processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

  18. Association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in British adults: results from the national diet and nutrition survey rolling programme years 1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoghegan, L; Muirhead, C R; Almoosawi, S

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association between an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern and diabetes in the national diet and nutrition survey (NDNS) rolling programme years 1-4. A total of 1531 survey members provided dietary data. Reduced Rank Regression (RRR) was used to derive an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma carotenoids were selected as response variables and markers of inflammation and antioxidant status, respectively. Overall, 52 survey members had diabetes. The derived anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern was inversely related to CRP and positively to carotenoids. It was associated with lower odds of diabetes (multivariate adjusted OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04-0.73; p for linear trend = 0.013). In conclusion, an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant dietary pattern is inversely related to diabetes. Further research is required to understand the overall framework within which foods and nutrients interact to affect metabolic pathways related to diabetes risk.

  19. Alteration of hepatocellular antioxidant gene expression pattern and biomarkers of oxidative damage in diazinon-induced acute toxicity in Wistar rat: A time-course mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Shokoufeh; Maqbool, Faheem; Salek-Maghsoudi, Armin; Rahmani, Soheila; Shadboorestan, Amir; Nili-Ahmadabadi, Amir; Amini, Mohsen; Norouzi, Parviz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In the present survey, the plasma level of diazinon after acute exposure was measured by HPLC method at a time-course manner. In addition, the impact of diazinon on the expression of the key genes responsible for hepatocellular antioxidative defense, including PON1, GPx and CAT were investigated. The increase in oxidative damages in treated rats was determined by measuring LPO, protein carbonyl content and total antioxidant power in plasma. After administration of 85 mg/kg diazinon in ten groups of male Wistar rats at different time points between 0-24 hours, the activity of AChE enzyme was inhibited to about 77.94 %. Significant increases in carbonyl groups and LPO after 0.75 and 1 hours were also observed while the plasma antioxidant power was significantly decreased. Despite the dramatic reduction of GP X and PON1 gene expression, CAT gene was significantly upregulated in mRNA level by 1.1 fold after 4 hours and 1.5-fold after 24 hours due to diazinon exposure, compared to control group. Furthermore, no significant changes in diazinon plasma levels were found after 4 hours in the treated rats. The limits of detection and quantification were 137.42 and 416.52 ng/mL, respectively. The average percentage recoveries from plasma were between 90.62 % and 95.72 %. In conclusion, acute exposure to diazinon increased oxidative stress markers in a time-dependent manner and the changes were consistent with effects on hepatic antioxidant gene expression pattern. The effect of diazinon even as a non-lethal dose was induced on the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The change in antioxidant defense system occurs prior to diazinon plasma peak time. These results provide biochemical and molecular evidence supporting potential acute toxicity of diazinon and is beneficial in the evaluation of acute toxicity of other organophosphorus pesticides as well.

  20. Temporal patterning of the potential induced by localized corrosion of iron passivity in acid media. Growth and breakdown of the oxide film described in terms of a point defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazou, Dimitra; Pavlidou, Maria; Pagitsas, Michael

    2009-10-21

    This work analyses the nature of temporal patterning of the anodic potential induced by chlorides during polarization of iron under current-controlled conditions in acid solutions. It is shown that potential oscillations emerged as a result of the local chloride attack of a thin oxide layer, which covers the iron surface in its passive state. The mechanism by which both the local oxide breakdown and the subsequent localized active dissolution (pitting) occur is explained by considering a point defect model (PDM) developed to describe the oxide growth and breakdown. According to the PDM, chlorides occupy oxygen vacancies resulting in the inhibition of oxide growth and autocatalytic generation of cation vacancies that destabilize the oxide layer. Simultaneous transformation of the outer surface of the inner oxide layer to non-adherent ferrous chloride or oxo-chloride species leads to a further thinning of the oxide layer and its lifting-on from the iron surface. The process repeats again yielding sustained oscillations of the anodic potential. Analysis of the oscillatory response obtained under current-controlled conditions as a function of either the current or the time allows the suggestion of a set of alternate diagnostic criteria, which might be used to characterize localized corrosion of iron in acid solutions.

  1. Oscillations and Patterns in a Model of Simultaneous CO and C2H2 Oxidation and NOx Reduction in a Cross-Flow Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadač, O.; Kohout, M.; Havlica, Jaromír; Schreiber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2015), s. 6458-6469 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon-monoxide oxidation * automobile exhaust-gas * heterogeneous catalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  2. Nanoscale patterning of electronic devices at the amorphous LaAlO3/SrTiO3 oxide interface using an electron sensitive polymer mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorlig, Anders V.; von Soosten, Merlin; Erlandsen, Ricci

    2018-01-01

    A simple approach is presented for designing complex oxide mesoscopic electronic devices based on the conducting interfaces of room temperature grown LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. The technique is based entirely on methods known from conventional semiconductor processing technology, and we demo...

  3. Freeform Fabrication of Magnetophotonic Crystals with Diamond Lattices of Oxide and Metallic Glasses for Terahertz Wave Control by Micro Patterning Stereolithography and Low Temperature Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasa Nakano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Micrometer order magnetophotonic crystals with periodic arranged metallic glass and oxide glass composite materials were fabricated by stereolithographic method to reflect electromagnetic waves in terahertz frequency ranges through Bragg diffraction. In the fabrication process, the photo sensitive acrylic resin paste mixed with micrometer sized metallic glass of Fe72B14.4Si9.6Nb4 and oxide glass of B2O3·Bi2O3 particles was spread on a metal substrate, and cross sectional images of ultra violet ray were exposed. Through the layer by layer stacking, micro lattice structures with a diamond type periodic arrangement were successfully formed. The composite structures could be obtained through the dewaxing and sintering process with the lower temperature under the transition point of metallic glass. Transmission spectra of the terahertz waves through the magnetophotonic crystals were measured by using a terahertz time domain spectroscopy.

  4. Patterning of lithium lanthanum titanium oxide films by soft lithography as electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.; Göbel, Ole; van den Ham, E.J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Notten, P.H.L.; Hintzen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of sol–gel processing and soft-lithographic patterning presents a promising route towards three-dimensional (3D) micro Li-ion electrodes, and may offer a viable approach for the fabrication of all-solid-state 3D Li-ion batteries. The methods are relatively simple and therefore cheap

  5. Patterning of lithium lanthanum titanium oxide films by soft lithography as electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.; Göbel, O.F.; van den Ham, E.J.; ten Elshof, J.E.; Notten, P.H.L.; Hintzen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of sol-gel processing and soft-lithographic patterning presents a promising route towards three-dimensional (3D) micro Li-ion electrodes, and may offer a viable approach for the fabrication of all-solid-state 3D Li-ion batteries. The methods are relatively simple and therefore cheap

  6. Modifying the Dietary Carbohydrate-to-Protein Ratio Alters the Postprandial Macronutrient Oxidation Pattern in Liver of AMPK-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Even, Patrick C; Chaumontet, Catherine; Piedcoq, Julien; Viollet, Benoit; Gaudichon, Claire; Tomé, Daniel; Foretz, Marc; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila

    2017-09-01

    Background: Hepatic AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity is sensitive to the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. However, the role of AMPK in metabolic adaptations to variations in dietary macronutrients remains poorly understood. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the role of hepatic AMPK in the adaptation of energy metabolism in response to modulation of the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. Methods: Male 7-wk-old wild-type (WT) and liver AMPK-deficient (knockout) mice were fed either a normal-protein and normal-carbohydrate diet (NP-NC; 14% protein, 76% carbohydrate on an energy basis), a low-protein and high-carbohydrate diet (LP-HC; 5% protein, 85% carbohydrate), or a high-protein and low-carbohydrate diet (HP-LC; 55% protein, 35% carbohydrate) for 3 wk. During this period, after an overnight fast, metabolic parameters were measured and indirect calorimetry was performed in mice during the first hours after refeeding a 1-g calibrated meal of their own diet in order to investigate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Results: Knockout mice fed an LP-HC or HP-LC meal exhibited 24% and 8% lower amplitudes in meal-induced carbohydrate and lipid oxidation changes. By contrast, knockout mice fed an NP-NC meal displayed normal carbohydrate and lipid oxidation profiles. These mice exhibited a transient increase in hepatic triglycerides and a decrease in hepatic glycogen. These changes were associated with a 650% higher secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) 2 h after refeeding. Conclusions: The consequences of hepatic AMPK deletion depend on the dietary carbohydrate-to-protein ratio. In mice fed the NP-NC diet, deletion of AMPK in the liver led to an adaptation of liver metabolism resulting in increased secretion of FGF21. These changes possibly compensated for the absence of hepatic AMPK, as these mice exhibited normal postprandial changes in carbohydrate and lipid oxidation. By contrast, in mice fed the LP-HC and HP-LC diets, the

  7. One-Step Laser Patterned Highly Uniform Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films for Circuit-Enabled Tattoo and Flexible Humidity Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowoon Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of graphene oxide (GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO is imperative for the electronic device applications of graphene-based materials. Efficient and cost-effective fabrication of highly uniform GO films and the successive reduction into rGO on a large area is still a cumbersome task through conventional protocols. Improved film casting of GO sheets on a polymeric substrate with quick and green reduction processes has a potential that may establish a path to the practical flexible electronics. Herein, we report a facile deposition process of GO on flexible polymer substrates to create highly uniform thin films over a large area by a flow-enabled self-assembly approach. The self-assembly of GO sheets was successfully performed by dragging the trapped solution of GO in confined geometry, which consisted of an upper stationary blade and a lower moving substrate on a motorized translational stage. The prepared GO thin films could be selectively reduced and facilitated from the simple laser direct writing process for programmable circuit printing with the desired configuration and less sample damage due to the non-contact mode operation without the use of photolithography, toxic chemistry, or high-temperature reduction methods. Furthermore, two different modes of the laser operating system for the reduction of GO films turned out to be valuable for the construction of novel graphene-based high-throughput electrical circuit boards compatible with integrating electronic module chips and flexible humidity sensors.

  8. Self-assembled manganese oxide structures through direct oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and phase of self-assembled manganese oxides during different stages of thermal oxidation were studied. Very interesting morphological patterns of Mn oxide films were observed. At the initial oxidation stage, the surface was characterized by the formation of ring-shaped patterns. As the oxidation proceeded to the intermediate stage, concentric plates formed to relax the compressive stress. Our experimental results gave a clear picture of the evolution of the structures. We also examined the properties of the structures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Self-assembled manganese oxide structures through direct oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2012-12-01

    The morphology and phase of self-assembled manganese oxides during different stages of thermal oxidation were studied. Very interesting morphological patterns of Mn oxide films were observed. At the initial oxidation stage, the surface was characterized by the formation of ring-shaped patterns. As the oxidation proceeded to the intermediate stage, concentric plates formed to relax the compressive stress. Our experimental results gave a clear picture of the evolution of the structures. We also examined the properties of the structures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

    2012-10-01

    Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 μg/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants

  11. The use of pattern decomposition to study the combined X-ray diffraction effects of crystallite size and stacking faults in ex-oxalate zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, J.I.; Boultif, A.; Auffredic, J.P.; Louer, D.

    1993-01-01

    The microstructure of ZnO powder, obtained from thermal decomposition of the oxalate and studied previously by electron microscopy and adsorption calorimetry, was investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction pattern decomposition. A Williamson-Hall plot revealed that some lines were broadened solely due to the effects of crystallite size, whereas other breadths included a contribution due to stacking faults. Spherical and cylindrical models are used to describe the form of the crystallites and procedures are presented for separating 'size' effects from 'mistake' broadening. This leads to estimates of the mean dimensions of the crystallites and the stacking-fault probability. The analysis demonstrates that, with good-quality data for a large number of reflections, a considerable amount of detailed information can be obtained about microstructure. On the other hand, it reveals some of the limitations of current procedures for modelling diffraction line profiles. (orig.)

  12. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Vaxman, Amir; Wonka, Peter; Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical

  13. Flux control analysis of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle: pyruvate and palmitoyl-carnitine as substrates give different control patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Anette J; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    was associated with the ADP-generating system, i.e., 0.58 +/- 0.05 with pyruvate, but significantly lower, 0.40 +/- 0.05, with palmitoyl-carnitine as substrate. The flux control coefficients of complex I, III and IV, the ATP synthase, the ATP/ADP carrier and the P(i) carrier were 0.070 +/- 0.03, 0.083 +/- 0.......04, 0.054 +/- 0.01, 0.11 +/- 0.03, 0.090 +/- 0.03 and 0.026 +/- 0.01, respectively, with pyruvate as substrate. With palmitoyl-carnitine all control coefficients were significantly different, except for the P(i) carrier (i.e., 0.024 +/- 0.001, 0.036 +/- 0.01, 0.052 +/- 0.02, 0.020 +/- 0.002, 0.034 +/- 0.......02 and 0.012 +/- 0.002, respectively), probably caused by the shift from NADH to FADH(2) oxidation. The sum of flux control coefficients was not significantly different from unity with pyruvate, while only 0.58 with palmitoyl-carnitine, indicating significant control contributions from the enzymes involved...

  14. Polyhedral patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2015-10-27

    We study the design and optimization of polyhedral patterns, which are patterns of planar polygonal faces on freeform surfaces. Working with polyhedral patterns is desirable in architectural geometry and industrial design. However, the classical tiling patterns on the plane must take on various shapes in order to faithfully and feasibly approximate curved surfaces. We define and analyze the deformations these tiles must undertake to account for curvature, and discover the symmetries that remain invariant under such deformations. We propose a novel method to regularize polyhedral patterns while maintaining these symmetries into a plethora of aesthetic and feasible patterns.

  15. Specialization Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  16. W-band InP based HEMT MMIC low noise amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K. Y.; Tang, Y. L.; Wang, H.; Gaier, T.; Gough, R. G.; Sinclair, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the designs and measurement results of a three-stage and a four-stage W-band monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) including a three-stage and a four-stage low noise amplifiers.

  17. InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reithmaier, J. P.; Somers, A.; Deubert, S.

    2005-01-01

    Long wavelength lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers based on InAs quantum wire/dot-like active regions were developed on InP substrates dedicated to cover the extended telecommunication wavelength range between 1.4 - 1.65 mm. In a brief overview different technological approaches will be ...

  18. Integrated optical serializer designed and fabricated in a generic InP based technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents design and characterization results of an optical pulse serializer, realized as an Application Specific Photonic Integrated Circuit (ASPIC) in a novel, generic InPbased technology and fabricated in a multi-project wafer run. The measurement results show high-speed (32 Gbit/s)

  19. Roadmap for integration of InP based photonics and silicon electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    We identify the synergies and a roadmap for the intimate integration of InP photonic integrated circuits and Silicon electronic ICs using wafer-scale processes. Advantages are foreseen in terms of bandwidth, energy savings and package simplification.

  20. Specialization Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  1. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  2. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  3. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  4. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  5. Catalytic oxidation using nitrous oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide is a very inert gas used generally as oxidant as it offers some advantage compared with other oxidants such as O2 but a considerably higher temperature (> 526 °C is often required. For particular cases such as the oxidation of sugar alcohols, especially for the oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, N2O has the advantage over O2 of a higher reaction selectivity. In the present paper we present the modelling of oxidation reaction of sugar alcohols using an oxidizing agent in low concentrations, which is important to suppress subsequent oxidation reactions due to the very low residual concentrations of the oxidizing agent. For orientation experiments we chose nitrous oxide generated by thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Kinetic modeling of the reaction was performed after determination of the differential equations that describe the system under study.

  6. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  7. Oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshkewitch, E.; Richerson, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The book explores single-phase ceramic oxide systems from the standpoint of physical chemistry and technology. This second edition also focuses on advances in technology since publication of the original edition. These include improvements in raw materials and forming and sintering techniques, and the major role that oxide ceramics have had in development of advanced products and processes. The text is divided into five major sections: general fundamentals of oxide ceramics, advances in aluminum oxide technology, advances in zirconia technology, and advances in beryllium oxide technology

  8. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  9. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  10. Electrodeposited Silver Nanoparticles Patterned Hexagonally for SERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Lee, Sue Yeone; Suh, Jung Sang

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated hexagonally patterned silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by electrodepositing silver on the surface of an aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Even after completely removing the oxide, well-ordered hexagonal patterns, similar to the shape of graphene, remained on the surface of the aluminum plate. The borders of the hexagonal pattern protruded up to form sorts of nano-mountains at both the sides and apexes of the hexagon, with the apexes protruding even more significantly than the sides. The aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide has been used in the preparation of SERS substrates by sputter-coating of gold or silver on it. Instead of sputter-coating, here we have electro-deposited silver on the aluminum plate. When silver was electro-deposited on the plate, silver nanoparticles were made along the hexagonal margins.

  11. Proof patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.

  12. Pattern classification

    CERN Document Server

    Duda, Richard O; Stork, David G

    2001-01-01

    The first edition, published in 1973, has become a classic reference in the field. Now with the second edition, readers will find information on key new topics such as neural networks and statistical pattern recognition, the theory of machine learning, and the theory of invariances. Also included are worked examples, comparisons between different methods, extensive graphics, expanded exercises and computer project topics. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

  13. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  14. Anodic oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sidney D; Rudd, Eric J; Blomquist, Alfred T; Wasserman, Harry H

    2013-01-01

    Anodic Oxidation covers the application of the concept, principles, and methods of electrochemistry to organic reactions. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 12 chapters that consider the mechanism of anodic oxidation. Part I surveys the theory and methods of electrochemistry as applied to organic reactions. These parts also present the mathematical equations to describe the kinetics of electrode reactions using both polarographic and steady-state conditions. Part II examines the anodic oxidation of organic substrates by the functional group initially attacked. This part particular

  15. Magnesium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium is an element your body needs to function normally. Magnesium oxide may be used for different reasons. Some people use it as ... one to four times daily depending on which brand is used and what condition you have. Follow ...

  16. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  17. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  18. Subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Sautter, Ken; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2009-02-03

    Here we present a straightforward patterning technique for silicon: subsurface oxidation for micropatterning silicon (SOMS). In this method, a stencil mask is placed above a silicon surface. Radio-frequency plasma oxidation of the substrate creates a pattern of thicker oxide in the exposed regions. Etching with HF or KOH produces very shallow or much higher aspect ratio features on silicon, respectively, where patterning is confirmed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The oxidation process itself is studied under a variety of reaction conditions, including higher and lower oxygen pressures (2 and 0.5 Torr), a variety of powers (50-400 W), different times and as a function of reagent purity (99.5 or 99.994% oxygen). SOMS can be easily executed in any normal chemistry laboratory with a plasma generator. Because of its simplicity, it may have industrial viability.

  19. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  20. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Furuta, S.

    2014-01-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded

  1. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Takemura, Y.; Furuta, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Nakamoto, M.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  2. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Y., E-mail: kasiwagi@omtri.or.jp; Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M. [Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, 1-6-50 Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-8553 (Japan); Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y. [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K. [Okuno Chemical Industries Co., Ltd., 2-1-25 Hanaten-nishi, Joto-ku, Osaka 536-0011 (Japan); Furuta, S. [Tomoe Works Co., Ltd., 7-13 Tsurumachi, Amagasaki 660-0092 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25 nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850 °C for 10 min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2 mΩ cm. The fabricated LED up to 3 mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  3. RNA oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L. K.; Cejvanovic, V.; Henriken, T.

    2015-01-01

    .9 significant hazard ratio for death compared with the quartile with the lowest 8oxoGuo excretion when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoker status, s-HbA1c, urine protein excretion and s-cholesterol. We conclude that it is now established that RNA oxidation is an independent risk factor for death in type 2...

  4. Radiolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.G.; Ewart, F.T.; Hobley, J.; Smith, A.J.; Walters, W.S.; Williams, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Work under the Radiolytic Oxidation Contract from 1986 until April 1989 is reported. The effects of alpha- and gamma-irradiation on the chemistries of plutonium, neptunium and technetium, under conditions representative of the near fields of intermediate and high level waste repositories, were investigated. Gamma-radiolysis of Np (IV) results in oxidation in solutions below pH 12. Solutions of Tc (VII) are reduced to Tc (IV) by gamma-irradiation in contact with blast furnace slag/ordinary Portland cement under an inert atmosphere but not when in contact with pulverized fuel ash/ordinary Portland cement. Tc (IV) is shown to be susceptible to oxidation by the products of the alpha-radiolysis of water. The results of 'overall effects' experiments, which combined representative components of typical ILW or HLW near fields, supported these observations and also showed enhanced plutonium concentrations in alpha-irradiated, HLW simulations. Mathematical models of the behaviour of plutonium and neptunium during gamma-radiolysis have been developed and indicate that oxidation to Pu (VI) is possible at dose rates typical of those expected for HLW. Simulations at ILW dose rates have indicated some effect upon the speciation of neptunium. Laboratory studies of the gamma-irradiation of Np (IV) in bentonite-equilibrated water have also been modelled. Computer code used: PHREEQE, 8 Figs.; 48 Tabs.; 38 refs

  5. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  6. Transparent electrode designs based on optimal nano-patterning of metallic films

    KAUST Repository

    Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2010-01-01

    , such as indium tin oxide, are commonly used. There is substantial interest in replacing them, however, motivated by practical problems and recent discoveries regarding the optics of nano-patterned metals. When designing nano-patterned metallic films for use

  7. Accelerated evaporation of water on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Shi, Guosheng

    2017-03-29

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water on patterned graphene oxide is faster than that on homogeneous graphene oxide. The evaporation rate of water is insensitive to variation in the oxidation degree of the oxidized regions, so long as the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. The evaporation rate drops when the water film spreads onto the unoxidized regions. Further analysis showed that varying the oxidation degree observably changed the interaction between the outmost water molecules and the solid surface, but the total interaction for the outmost water molecules only changed a very limited amount due to the correspondingly regulated water-water interaction when the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. When the oxidation degree is too low and some unoxidized regions are also covered by the water film, the thickness of the water film decreases, which extends the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds for the outmost water molecules and lowers the evaporation rate of the water. The insensitivity of water evaporation to the oxidation degree indicates that we only need to control the scale of the unoxidized and oxidized regions for graphene oxide to regulate the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water.

  8. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  9. Graphene Oxide from Carbon Rod Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, F.; Prasasti, B. L. W.; Mudjijono, M.

    2018-03-01

    Carbon rods extracted from Zn-C primary battery waste was used as raw material for graphene oxide (GO) synthesis. The synthesis used a modified Hummers method by providing potassium permanganate-sulfuric acid as the oxidizing agent. XRD analysis confirms a significant change between the graphite waste pattern and the produced graphene oxide pattern. A major peak at 2θ 27 ° which present in the graphite waste pattern is disappeared after it converts to the product, as well as a broad peak under 25 ° referring the presence of amorphous carbon. A broad peak at low angle of 12.02 ° dominantly present in the prepared GO pattern as a characteristic peak of GO. Meanwhile, some small peaks at 2θ of 17.76 °, 28.58 °, and 37.28 ° confirming the presence of manganese oxide which was used as oxidizing agent. A sharp peak at 1700 – 1500 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of –C=O group, and at 1600 cm-1 refers to –C=C group. It confirms that this research has produced the targeted GO. Even though, the purity is need to be enhanced by removing the rest of oxidizing agent that still exist in the material.

  10. New group III precursors for the MOVPE of GaAs and InP based material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostaler, M.; Pohl, L.; Brauers, A.; Balk, P.; Frese, V.; Hovel, R.; Regel, G.K.; Hardtdegen, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents proposals for the synthesis of several group III metal organics (In, Ga, Al compounds) and preliminary results on their use in the MOVPE (metal organic vapor phase epitaxy) of III-V semiconductors. The common feature of all these precursors is that they are saturated by inter- or intramolecular coordination. They are even non-pyrophoric and air resistant which is an interesting aspect with respect to safe handling. In addition, the compounds are liquid at room temperature with a low but sufficient vapor pressure for MOVPE without additional heating of the source

  11. Fabrication of PEDOT-OTS-patterned ITO substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzer, N.; Wienk, M.M.; Schmit, P.; Spoelstra, A.B.; Hendriks, C.E.; Oosterhout, S.D.; Höppener, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) pattern is demonstrated. As template, an n-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) monolayer self-assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO) was structured by UV–ozone photolithography, resulting in an ITO–OTS patterned surface. The conducting properties

  12. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  13. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    Semiconducting oxides are amongst the most widely studied and topical materials in contemporary condensed matter science, with interest being driven both by the fundamental challenges posed by their electronic and magnetic structures and properties, and by the wide range of applications, including those in catalysis and electronic devices. This special section aims to highlight recent developments in the physics of these materials, and to show the link between developing fundamental understanding and key application areas of oxide semiconductors. Several aspects of the physics of this wide and expanding range of materials are explored in this special section. Transparent semiconducting oxides have a growing role in several technologies, but challenges remain in understanding their electronic structure and the physics of charge carriers. A related problem concerns the nature of redox processes and the reactions which interconvert defects and charge carriers—a key issue which may limit the extent to which doping strategies may be used to alter electronic properties. The magnetic structures of the materials pose several challenges, while surface structures and properties are vital in controlling catalytic properties, including photochemical processes. The field profits from and exploits a wide range of contemporary physical techniques—both experimental and theoretical. Indeed, the interplay between experiment and computation is a key aspect of contemporary work. A number of articles describe applications of computational methods whose use, especially in modelling properties of defects in these materials, has a long and successful history. Several papers in this special section relate to work presented at a symposium within the European Materials Research Society (EMRS) meeting held in Warsaw in September 2010, and we are grateful to the EMRS for supporting this symposium. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for

  14. Polytypic pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern matching problem can be informally specified as follows: given a pattern and a text, find all occurrences of the pattern in the text. The pattern and the text may both be lists, or they may both be trees, or they may both be multi-dimensional arrays, etc. This paper describes a general

  15. Mogul-Patterned Elastomeric Substrate for Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Byeol; Bae, Chan-Wool; Duy, Le Thai; Sohn, Il-Yung; Kim, Do-Il; Song, You-Joon; Kim, Youn-Jea; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2016-04-01

    A mogul-patterned stretchable substrate with multidirectional stretchability and minimal fracture of layers under high stretching is fabricated by double photolithography and soft lithography. Au layers and a reduced graphene oxide chemiresistor on a mogul-patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate are stable and durable under various stretching conditions. The newly designed mogul-patterned stretchable substrate shows great promise for stretchable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Magnetic composites based on hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Tiago P.; Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Sasaki, Jose M.; Fabris, J.D.; Oliveira, Diana Q.L. de; Valentini, Antoninho

    2010-01-01

    Materials containing hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides were obtained from a chemical precursor prepared by admixing chitosan and iron and aluminum hydroxides. The oxides were first characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the size distribution of the resulting spheres to be highly homogeneous. The occurrence of nano-composites containing aluminum oxides and iron oxides was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction patterns; except for the sample with no aluminum, the superparamagnetic relaxation due to iron oxide particles were observed from Moessbauer spectra obtained at 298 and 110 K; the onset six line-spectrum collected at 20 K indicates a magnetic ordering related to the blocking relaxation effect for significant portion of small spheres in the sample with a molar ratio Al:Fe of 2:1.

  17. Microscale metallization on conducting polyaniline patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, Kyung Chan; Lee, Joosub; Kim, Tae Geun; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong Man

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of metallic nanomaterial patterns is very important in the electronic industry. A variety of techniques for producing these metallic nanoparticle patterns have been developed, such as ink-jet printing, 2 direct writing, 3,4 electroplati ng, 5,6 screen printing, 7 and soft lithography including micro-contact printing (μCP) 8–10 and we developed a simple and facile strategy for the fabrication of silver micropatterns on the surface of PANI patterns which were prepared by employing a photo- lithographic method. The silver was metallized along the PANI pattern through the oxidation-reduction reaction without requiring any reducing agent. The straightforward approach described above could open new avenues for the fabrication of metal micropatterns

  18. Microscale metallization on conducting polyaniline patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uh, Kyung Chan; Lee, Joosub; Kim, Tae Geun; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong Man [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Fabrication of metallic nanomaterial patterns is very important in the electronic industry. A variety of techniques for producing these metallic nanoparticle patterns have been developed, such as ink-jet printing, 2 direct writing, 3,4 electroplati ng, 5,6 screen printing, 7 and soft lithography including micro-contact printing (μCP) 8–10 and we developed a simple and facile strategy for the fabrication of silver micropatterns on the surface of PANI patterns which were prepared by employing a photo- lithographic method. The silver was metallized along the PANI pattern through the oxidation-reduction reaction without requiring any reducing agent. The straightforward approach described above could open new avenues for the fabrication of metal micropatterns.

  19. Constructive nanolithography and nanochemistry : local probe oxidation and chemical modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility to prepare and use submicrometer-sized patterns in successive functionalization reactions with quaternary ammonium salts and (functional) chlorosilanes, as well as cationic gold nanoparticles, is presented. Submicrometer-sized structures were prepared by local probe oxidation of

  20. The oxidation; Okislenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V I

    1961-07-01

    In this chapter of book author determine that alkylene tetra hydro-{gamma}-piron, oxidated by potassium permanganate in all cases of passed oxidation gave oxidation products, confirmatory their structure.

  1. Oxidation of ultra low carbon and silicon bearing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Lucia [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: lucia.suarez@ctm.com.es; Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es; Houbaert, Yvan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: Yvan.Houbaert@UGent.be; Colas, Rafael [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)], E-mail: rcolas@mail.uanl.mx

    2010-06-15

    Oxidation tests were carried out in samples from an ultra low carbon and two silicon bearing steels to determine the distribution and morphology of the oxide species present. The ultra low carbon steel was oxidized for short periods of time within a chamber designed to obtain thin oxide layers by controlling the atmosphere, and for longer times in an electric furnace; the silicon steels were reheated only in the electric furnace. The chamber was constructed to study the behaviour encountered during the short period of time between descaling and rolling in modern continuous mills. It was found that the oxide layers formed on the samples reheated in the electric furnace were made of different oxide species. The specimens treated in the chamber had layers made almost exclusively of wustite. Selected oxide samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy to obtain electron backscattered diffraction patterns, which were used to identify the oxide species in the layer.

  2. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  3. Male pattern baldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  4. Caching Patterns and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Paul ROTARU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitious access to remote resources, usually data, constitutes a bottleneck for many software systems. Caching is a technique that can drastically improve the performance of any database application, by avoiding multiple read operations for the same data. This paper addresses the caching problems from a pattern perspective. Both Caching and caching strategies, like primed and on demand, are presented as patterns and a pattern-based flexible caching implementation is proposed.The Caching pattern provides method of expensive resources reacquisition circumvention. Primed Cache pattern is applied in situations in which the set of required resources, or at least a part of it, can be predicted, while Demand Cache pattern is applied whenever the resources set required cannot be predicted or is unfeasible to be buffered.The advantages and disadvantages of all the caching patterns presented are also discussed, and the lessons learned are applied in the implementation of the pattern-based flexible caching solution proposed.

  5. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photoresists for HgCdTe patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.E.; DeHart, C.; Wang, L.; Dinan, J.H.; Johnson, J.N.

    1997-07-01

    A process to use a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film as a dry photoresist mask for plasma etching of HgCdTe has been demonstrated. The a-Si:H films were deposited using standard plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with pure silane as the source gas. X-ray photoelectron spectra show that virtually no oxide grows on the surface of an a-Si:H film after 3 hours in air, indicating that it is hydrogen passivated. Ultraviolet light frees hydrogen from the surface and enhances the oxide growth rate. A pattern of 60 micron square pixels was transferred from a contact mask to the surface of an a-Si:H film by ultraviolet enhanced oxidation in air. For the conditions used, the oxide thickness was 0.5--1.0 nm. Hydrogen plasmas were used to develop this pattern by removing the unexposed regions of the film. A hydrogen plasma etch selectivity between oxide and a-Si:H of greater than 500:1 allows patterns as thick as 700 nm to be generated with this very thin oxide. These patterns were transferred into HgCdTe by etching in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An etch selectivity between a-Si:H and HgCdTe of greater than 4:1 was observed after etching 2,500 nm into the HgCdTe. All of the steps are compatible with processing in vacuum.

  6. Making Pattern Mining Useful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeken, J.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of patterns plays an important role in data mining. A pattern can be any type of regularity displayed in that data, such as, e.g. which items are typically sold together, which genes are mostly active for patients of a certain disease, etc, etc. Generally speaking, finding a pattern is

  7. Iron oxides as a cause of GPR reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R.L.; Schlager, W.; Dekkers, M.; Huisman, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Iron oxides frequently occur as secondary precipitates in both modern and ancient sediments and may form bands or irregular patterns. We show from time-domain reflectometry (TDR) field studies that goethite iron-oxide precipitates significantly lower the electromagnetic wave velocity of sediments.

  8. Self-assembled monolayers on metal oxides : applications in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes the use of phosph(on)ate-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify and pattern metal oxides. Metal oxides have interesting electronic and magnetic properties such as insulating, semiconducting, metallic, ferromagnetic etc. and SAMs can tailor the surface properties. FePt

  9. Nitric oxide enhances osmoregulation of tobacco ( Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the intracellular signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) on osmoregulation of tobacco cells under osmotic stress caused by phenylethanoid glycosides 6000 (PEG 6000). The results show that the PEG stress induced a specific pattern of endogenous NO production with two ...

  10. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Micrometer-sized Isolated Patterns of Conductive ZnO derived by Micromoulding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole F.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Blank, David A.H.

    2009-01-01

    We succeeded in the fabrication of large-area patterns with micrometer-sized, isolated features of a simple oxide by a technically simple patterning method. By micromoulding a polymeric precursor solution for ZnO with an elastomeric (PDMS) mould, and a subsequent heat treatment, patterned ZnO films

  12. Fluctuation-Induced Pattern Formation in a Surface Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Reichert, Christian; Eiswirth, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous nucleation, pulse formation, and propagation failure have been observed experimentally in CO oxidation on Pt(110) at intermediate pressures ($\\approx 10^{-2}$mbar). This phenomenon can be reproduced with a stochastic model which includes temperature effects. Nucleation occurs randomly...... due to fluctuations in the reaction processes, whereas the subsequent damping out essentially follows the deterministic path. Conditions for the occurence of stochastic effects in the pattern formation during CO oxidation on Pt are discussed....

  13. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  14. Learning Python design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    This book takes a tutorial-based and user-friendly approach to covering Python design patterns. Its concise presentation means that in a short space of time, you will get a good introduction to various design patterns.If you are an intermediate level Python user, this book is for you. Prior knowledge of Python programming is essential. Some knowledge of UML is also required to understand the UML diagrams which are used to describe some design patterns.

  15. Patterns of Peeragogy

    OpenAIRE

    Corneli, Joseph; Danoff, Charles Jeffrey; Pierce, Charlotte; Ricaurte, Paola; MacDonald, Lisa Snow

    2015-01-01

    We describe nine design patterns that we have developed in our work on the Peeragogy project, in which we aim to help design the future of learning, inside and outside of institutions, drawing on the principles of free/libre/open source software and open culture. We use these patterns to build an “emergent roadmap” for the project. Our use of design patterns has some novel features that will be relevant to others working in projects with emergent structure.

  16. Analysis on groundwater evolution and interlayer oxidation zone position at the southern margin of Yilin basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guanghui

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evolution history of groundwater and its reworking to the interlayer oxidation zone, hydrogeochemical zonation of interlayer oxidation zone, mechanism of water-rock interaction and transportation pattern of uranium in the water in Yili Basin. It is suggested that groundwater is one of the important factors to control the development of interlayer oxidation zone and uranium mineralization. (authors)

  17. The Enzymatic Oxidation of Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchey, Gregg P.; Allen, Brett L.; Vedala, Harindra; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E.; Star, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon – the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (~40 µM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, UV-Vis, EPR and FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SDS-PAGE, and GC-MS. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Due to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors. PMID:21344859

  18. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  19. Professional ASPNET Design Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Professional ASP.NET Design Patterns will show you how to implement design patterns in real ASP.NET applications by introducing you to the basic OOP skills needed to understand and interpret design patterns. A sample application used throughout the book is an enterprise level ASP.NET website with multi-tiered, SOA design techniques that can be applied to your future ASP.NET projects. Read about each design pattern in detail, including how to interpret the UML design, how to implement it in ASP.NET, its importance for ASP.NET development, and how it's integrated into the final project.

  20. Patterns - "A crime solver".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasupriya, A; Dhanapal, Raghu; Reena, K; Saraswathi, Tr; Ramachandran, Cr

    2011-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the predominant pattern of lip and finger prints in males and females and to correlate lip print and finger print for gender identity. The study sample comprised of 200 students of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, 100 males and 100 females aged between 18 to 27 years. Brown/pink colored lip stick was applied on the lips and the subject was asked to spread it uniformly over the lips. Lip prints were traced in the normal rest position of the lips with the help of cellophane tape. The imprint of the left thumb was taken on a white chart sheet and visualized using magnifying lens. While three main types of finger prints are identified, the classification of lip prints is simplified into branched, reticular, and vertical types. Association between lip prints and finger prints was statistically tested using Chi-square test. This study showed that lip and finger patterns did not reveal statistically significant results within the gender. The correlation between lip and finger patterns for gender identification, was statistically significant. In males, branched type of lip pattern associated with arch, loop, and whorl type of finger pattern was most significant. In females, vertical lip pattern associated with arch finger pattern and reticular lip pattern associated with whorl finger patterns were most significant. We conclude that a correlative study between the lip print and finger print will be very useful in forensic science for gender identification.

  1. Tin-antimony oxide oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Frank J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-15

    Tin-antimony oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made by precipitation techniques. The dehydration of the amorphous dried precipitate by calcination at increasingly higher temperatures induces the crystallisation of a rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase and the segregation of antimony oxides which volatilise at elevated temperatures. The rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase contains antimony(V) in the bulk and antimony(III) in the surface. Specific catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene is associated with materials with large concentrations of antimony(III) in the surface.

  2. Oxidation films morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paidassi, J.

    1960-01-01

    After studying the oxidation of several pure polyvalent metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, U) and of their oxides at high temperature and atmospheric pressure, the author suggests how to modify the usual representation of the oxide film (a piling of different oxide layers, homogeneous on a micrographic scale with a equi-axial crystallisation, free of mechanical tensions, with flat boundary surfaces) to have it nearer to reality. In this first part, the author exposes the study of the real micrographic structure of the oxidation film and gives examples of precipitation in the oxides during the cooling of the oxidised sample. (author) [fr

  3. Synthesis and characterization of nanohybrid of montmorillonite and zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, Beatriz S.; Mendes, Luis C.; Brito, Alice S.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide-aluminosilicate nanohybrids through a hydrothermal reaction of a colloidal suspension of exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and zinc oxide in acid solution, performed in three different routes, were synthesized. The products were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). In all routes, it was found that the intercalation of zinc oxide into the host montmorillonite gallery was successfully performed so that the crystalline peaks of the montmorillonite and zinc oxide were suppressed from the X-ray patterns. The use of ultrasound decreased the reaction time.(author)

  4. Ultrasmall lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Most books discuss general and broad topics regarding molecular imagings. However, Ultrasmall Lanthanide Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging and Therapy, will mainly focus on lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for molecular imaging and therapeutics. Multi-modal imaging capabilities will discussed, along with up-converting FI by using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis will cover polyol synthesis of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Surface coatings with biocompatible and hydrophilic ligands will be discussed and TEM images and dynamic light scattering (DLS) patterns will be

  5. Patterns in natural systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sewalt, L.

    2016-01-01

    In the thesis, `Patterns in natural systems’ the formation and evolution of patterns as solutions of several partial differential systems are studied. These mathematical systems model three different biological and ecological processes. First, the way that plankton concentrates in the water column,

  6. Discovery: Pile Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Earlier "Discovery" articles (de Mestre, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2011) considered patterns from many mathematical situations. This article presents a group of patterns used in 19th century mathematical textbooks. In the days of earlier warfare, cannon balls were stacked in various arrangements depending on the shape of the pile base…

  7. Patterns in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Aino Vonge

    the university and I entered a project to industry within Center for Object Technology (COT). I focused on promoting the pattern concept to the Danish software industry in order to help them take advantage of the benefits of applying patterns in system development. In the obligatory stay abroad, I chose to visit...

  8. Complex Systems and Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Although the term 'pattern' is often used in science, it is an elusive term and can have different dialectic meanings in various disciplines. Yet, the 'feel' for this term is fairly consistent; it usually requires little explanation to understand what a pattern is, and therefore it usually tends to

  9. Patterns of Academic Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  10. Engaging with Islamic Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Islamic patterns were a regular feature in mathematics classrooms, and probably still feature in many wall displays. However, as part of the learning process, these ancient designs appear to have lost any significant contemporary appeal. Here, the power of software is engaged to bring the construction of Islamic type patterns up to date. Forget…

  11. Is It a Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how in early mathematics learning, young children are often asked to recognize and describe visual patterns in their environment--perhaps on their clothing, a toy, or the carpet; around a picture frame; or in the playground equipment. Exploring patterns in the early years is seen as an important introduction to algebraic…

  12. Patterns of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify knowledge construction patterns in a local learning community. Observation, documents, and semistructured interviews were employed to collect data. Twenty learners were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively using the constant comparative method. Five major patterns--radiation, circulation,…

  13. Internal fuel pin oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel pin has positioned within it material which will decompose to release an oxidizing agent which will react with the cladding of the pin and form a protective oxide film on the internal surface of the cladding

  14. Oxidation-resistant cermet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    Chromium metal alloys and chromium oxide ceramic are combined to produce cermets with oxidation-resistant properties. Application of cermets includes use in hot corrosive environments requiring strong resistive materials.

  15. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  16. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic...

  17. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  18. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  19. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  20. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  1. Parallel Algorithms and Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation on parallel algorithms and patterns. A parallel algorithm is a well-defined, step-by-step computational procedure that emphasizes concurrency to solve a problem. Examples of problems include: Sorting, searching, optimization, matrix operations. A parallel pattern is a computational step in a sequence of independent, potentially concurrent operations that occurs in diverse scenarios with some frequency. Examples are: Reductions, prefix scans, ghost cell updates. We only touch on parallel patterns in this presentation. It really deserves its own detailed discussion which Gabe Rockefeller would like to develop.

  2. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  3. Four integration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygstad, Bendik; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munkvold, Bjørn Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a theory of integration within the field of IS project management. Integration is a key IS project management issue when new systems are developed and implemented into an increasingly integrated information infrastructure in corporate and governmental organizations....... Expanding the perspective of traditional project management research, we draw extensively on central insights from IS research. Building on socio-technical IS research and Software Engineering research we suggest four generic patterns of integration: Big Bang, Stakeholder Integration, Technical Integration...... and Socio-Technical Integration. We analyze and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern. The four patterns are ideal types. To explore the forces and challenges in these patterns three longitudinal case studies were conducted. In particular we investigate the management challenges for each...

  4. Life History Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    of these patterns and highlights the need to consider senescence from a broad taxonomic scope to truly understand the evolution of aging. Keywords: Aging; Demography; Evolution; Fertility; Gompertz; Life span; Mortality; Ontogenescence; Reproduction; Reproductive senescence; Senescence; Survivorship...

  5. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  6. Caregiving and travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the impact of caregiving for older adults on mobility and travel : patterns. Specifically, the focus was on how caregivers managed trips on behalf of : another who receives care. Caregiving is becoming increasingly common as the :...

  7. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen

    2003-03-26

    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  8. Windowed fringe pattern analyis

    CERN Document Server

    Kemao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    This book provides solutions to the challenges involved in fringe pattern analysis, covering techniques for full-field, noncontact, and high-sensitivity measurement. The primary goal of fringe pattern analysis is to extract the hidden phase distributions that generally relate to the physical quantities being measured. Both theoretical analysis and algorithm development are covered to facilitate the work of researchers and engineers. The information presented is also appropriate as a specialized subject for students of optical and computer engineering.

  9. Hyponymy Patterns in Romanian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verginica Barbu Mititelu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyponymy is a lexical-semantic relation that has been studied in Romanian linguistics only occasionally and almost exclusively in connection to other relations. However, for computational engineers it offers a very effective way of organizing the lexical material useful in many applications involving Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present two methods of identifying Romanian hyponymy patterns, their results and evaluation; we also envisage the applicability of these patterns and future work

  10. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Ünal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Female androgenetic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in women. It is characterized by a diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline and a characteristic pattern distribution in genetically predisposed women. Because of the uncertain relationship with the androgens Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL is the most preferred definition of the condition. This review has been focused on the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment alternatives of FPHL.

  11. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fuel pattern recognition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors normal fuel exchange upon fuel exchanging operation carried out in a reactor of a nuclear power plant. Namely, a fuel exchanger is movably disposed to the upper portion of the reactor and exchanges fuels. An exclusive computer receives operation signals of the fuel exchanger during operation as inputs, and outputs reactor core fuel pattern information signals to a fuel arrangement diagnosis device. An underwater television camera outputs image signals of a fuel pattern in the reactor core to an image processing device. If there is any change in the image signals for the fuel pattern as a result of the fuel exchange operation of the fuel exchanger, the image processing device outputs the change as image signals to the fuel pattern diagnosis device. The fuel pattern diagnosis device compares the pattern information signals from the exclusive computer with the image signals from the image processing device, to diagnose the result of the fuel exchange operation performed by the fuel exchanger and inform the diagnosis by means of an image display. (I.S.)

  13. Sputtered indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillery, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for depositing on a substrate multiple layer films comprising at least one primary layer of a metal oxide and at least one primary layer of a metal other than the metal of the oxide layer. The improvement described here comprises improving the adhesion between the metal oxide and metal layers by depositing between the layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers. An article of manufacture is described comprising a nonmetallic substrate, and deposited thereon in any order: a. at least one coating layer of metal; b. at least one coating layer of an oxide of a metal other than the metal of the metal layer; and c. deposited between the metal and metal oxide layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers

  14. High precision patterning of ITO using femtosecond laser annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chung-Wei; Lin, Cen-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have reported a process of fabrication of crystalline indium tin oxide (c-ITO) patterns using femtosecond laser-induced crystallization with a Gaussian beam profile followed by chemical etching. • The experimental results have demonstrated that the ablation and crystallization threshold fluences of a-ITO thin film are well-defined, the line width of the c-ITO patterns is controllable. • Fast fabrication of the two parallel sub-micro (∼0.5 μm) c-ITO line patterns using a single femtosecond laser beam and a single scanning path can be achieved. • A long-length sub-micro c-ITO line pattern is fabricated, and the feasibility of fabricating c-ITO patterns is confirmed, which are expected to be used in micro-electronics devices. - Abstract: High precision patterning of crystalline indium tin oxide (c-ITO) patterns on amorphous ITO (a-ITO) thin films by femtosecond laser-induced crystallization with a Gaussian beam profile followed by chemical etching is demonstrated. In the proposed approach, the a-ITO thin film is selectively transformed into a c-ITO structure via a low heat affect zone and the well-defined thresholds (ablation and crystallization) supplied by the femtosecond laser pulse. The experimental results show that by careful control of the laser fluence above the crystallization threshold, c-ITO patterns with controllable line widths and ridge-free characteristics can be accomplished. By careful control of the laser fluence above the ablation threshold, fast fabrication of the two parallel sub-micro c-ITO line patterns using a single femtosecond laser beam and single scanning path can be achieved. Along-length sub-micro c-ITO line pattern is fabricated, and the feasibility of fabricating c-ITO patterns is confirmed, which are expected to be used in micro-electronics devices

  15. High aspect ratio silicon nanomoulds for UV embossing fabricated by directional thermal oxidation using an oxidation mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L Q; Chan-Park, Mary B; Yan, Y H; Zhang Qing; Li, C M; Zhang Jun

    2007-01-01

    Nanomoulding is simple and economical but moulds with nanoscale features are usually prohibitively expensive to fabricate because nanolithographic techniques are mostly serial and time-consuming for large-area patterning. This paper describes a novel, simple and inexpensive parallel technique for fabricating nanoscale pattern moulds by silicon etching followed by thermal oxidation. The mask pattern can be made by direct photolithography or photolithography followed by metal overetching for submicron- and nanoscale features, respectively. To successfully make nanoscale channels having a post-oxidation cross-sectional shape similar to that of the original channel, an oxidation mask to promote unidirectional (specifically horizontal) oxide growth is found to be essential. A silicon nitride or metal mask layer prevents vertical oxidation of the Si directly beneath it. Without this mask, rectangular channels become smaller but are V-shaped after oxidation. By controlling the silicon etch depth and oxidation time, moulds with high aspect ratio channels having widths ranging from 500 to 50 nm and smaller can be obtained. The nanomould, when passivated with a Teflon-like layer, can be used for first-generation replication using ultraviolet (UV) nanoembossing and second-generation replication in other materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The PDMS stamp, which was subsequently coated with Au, was used for transfer printing of Au electrodes with a 600 nm gap which will find applications in plastics nanoelectronics

  16. Quasiparticle Interference on Cubic Perovskite Oxide Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shiau, Shiue-Yuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Chang, Guoqing; Kobayashi, Masaki; Shimizu, Ryota; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Shiraki, Susumu; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hitosugi, Taro

    2017-08-25

    We report the observation of coherent surface states on cubic perovskite oxide SrVO_{3}(001) thin films through spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. A direct link between the observed quasiparticle interference patterns and the formation of a d_{xy}-derived surface state is supported by first-principles calculations. We show that the apical oxygens on the topmost VO_{2} plane play a critical role in controlling the coherent surface state via modulating orbital state.

  17. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  18. Pattern graph rewrite systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleks Kissinger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. Dixon, Duncan and Kissinger introduced string graphs, which are a combinatoric representations of string diagrams, amenable to automated reasoning about diagrammatic theories via graph rewrite systems. In this extended abstract, we show how the power of such rewrite systems can be greatly extended by introducing pattern graphs, which provide a means of expressing infinite families of rewrite rules where certain marked subgraphs, called !-boxes ("bang boxes", on both sides of a rule can be copied any number of times or removed. After reviewing the string graph formalism, we show how string graphs can be extended to pattern graphs and how pattern graphs and pattern rewrite rules can be instantiated to concrete string graphs and rewrite rules. We then provide examples demonstrating the expressive power of pattern graphs and how they can be applied to study interacting algebraic structures that are central to categorical quantum mechanics.

  19. Stable markers of oxidant damage to proteins and their application in the study of human disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Fu, S; Wang, H

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms of formation and the nature of the altered amino acid side chains formed on proteins subjected to oxidant attack are reviewed. The use of stable products of protein side chain oxidation as potential markers for assessing oxidative damage in vivo in humans is discussed. The methods...... developed in the authors laboratories are outlined, and the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques compared with other methodologies for assessing oxidative damage to proteins and other macromolecules. Evidence is presented to show that protein oxidation products are sensitive markers of oxidative...... damage, that the pattern of products detected may yield information as to the nature of the original oxidative insult, and that the levels of oxidized side-chains can, in certain circumstances, be much higher than those of other markers of oxidation such as lipid hydroperoxides....

  20. Context-Dependent Role of Oxidized Lipids and Lipoproteins in Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Yury I; Shyy, John Y-J

    2017-02-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), which contains hundreds of different oxidized lipid molecules, is a hallmark of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The same oxidized lipids found in OxLDL are also formed in apoptotic cells, and are present in tissues as well as in the circulation under pathological conditions. In many disease contexts, oxidized lipids constitute damage signals, or patterns, that activate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and significantly contribute to inflammation. Here, we review recent discoveries and emerging trends in the field of oxidized lipids and the regulation of inflammation, focusing on oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids esterified into cholesteryl esters (CEs) and phospholipids (PLs). We also highlight context-dependent activation and biased agonism of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and the NLRP3 inflammasome, among other signaling pathways activated by oxidized lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of oceanic nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Löscher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent finding that microbial ammonia oxidation in the ocean is performed by archaea to a greater extent than by bacteria has drastically changed the view on oceanic nitrification. The numerical dominance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOA over their bacterial counterparts (AOB in large parts of the ocean leads to the hypothesis that AOA rather than AOB could be the key organisms for the oceanic production of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O that occurs as a by-product of nitrification. Very recently, enrichment cultures of marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea have been reported to produce N2O.

    Here, we demonstrate that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA were detectable throughout the water column of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA and eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP Oceans. Particularly in the ETNA, comparable patterns of abundance and expression of archaeal amoA genes and N2O co-occurred in the oxygen minimum, whereas the abundances of bacterial amoA genes were negligible. Moreover, selective inhibition of archaea in seawater incubations from the ETNA decreased the N2O production significantly. In studies with the only cultivated marine archaeal ammonia-oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1, we provide the first direct evidence for N2O production in a pure culture of AOA, excluding the involvement of other microorganisms as possibly present in enrichments. N. maritimus showed high N2O production rates under low oxygen concentrations comparable to concentrations existing in the oxycline of the ETNA, whereas the N2O production from two AOB cultures was comparably low under similar conditions. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the production of N2O in tropical ocean areas results mainly from archaeal nitrification and will be affected by the predicted decrease in dissolved

  2. G ∘ F Patterns

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The book of design patterns known as Gang of Four has been a kind of Bible for all the developers of my generation. Its main pro has been giving us a common vocabulary: when a programmer says “here I used a strategy pattern” all colleagues know of what he is speaking about. Nevertheless the biggest issue with this is that almost all patterns listed in that book, especially the behavioural ones, are a only workaround for a missing abstraction: higher order functions. The introduction of lambda expressions in Java 8 finally allows all Java developers to remove this no longer necessary and cumbersome object oriented infrastructure from their code. The purpose of this talk is showing, through a series of live coding examples, how the most common GoF patterns can be rethought and reimplemented in a simpler and more concise functional way leveraging Java 8 lambdas.

  3. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... on economic and demographic studies and a large series of interviews problematize this. In Greenland the historical correlation between settlement pattern and livelihood has been decoupled, so that distributions of jobs and potential earnings to a growing extend is a consequence of political and...

  4. Patterns of data modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Best-selling author and database expert with more than 25 years of experience modeling application and enterprise data, Dr. Michael Blaha provides tried and tested data model patterns, to help readers avoid common modeling mistakes and unnecessary frustration on their way to building effective data models. Unlike the typical methodology book, "Patterns of Data Modeling" provides advanced techniques for those who have mastered the basics. Recognizing that database representation sets the path for software, determines its flexibility, affects its quality, and influences whether it succ

  5. Workflow User Interfaces Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vanderdonckt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una colección de patrones de diseño de interfaces de usuario para sistemas de información para el flujo de trabajo; la colección incluye cuarenta y tres patrones clasificados en siete categorías identificados a partir de la lógica del ciclo de vida de la tarea sobre la base de la oferta y la asignación de tareas a los responsables de realizarlas (i. e. recursos humanos durante el flujo de trabajo. Cada patrón de la interfaz de usuario de flujo de trabajo (WUIP, por sus siglas en inglés se caracteriza por las propiedades expresadas en el lenguaje PLML para expresar patrones y complementado por otros atributos y modelos que se adjuntan a dicho modelo: la interfaz de usuario abstracta y el modelo de tareas correspondiente. Estos modelos se especifican en un lenguaje de descripción de interfaces de usuario. Todos los WUIPs se almacenan en una biblioteca y se pueden recuperar a través de un editor de flujo de trabajo que vincula a cada patrón de asignación de trabajo a su WUIP correspondiente.A collection of user interface design patterns for workflow information systems is presented that contains forty three resource patterns classified in seven categories. These categories and their corresponding patterns have been logically identified from the task life cycle based on offering and allocation operations. Each Workflow User Interface Pattern (WUIP is characterized by properties expressed in the PLML markup language for expressing patterns and augmented by additional attributes and models attached to the pattern: the abstract user interface and the corresponding task model. These models are specified in a User Interface Description Language. All WUIPs are stored in a library and can be retrieved within a workflow editor that links each workflow pattern to its corresponding WUIP, thus giving rise to a user interface for each workflow pattern.

  6. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  7. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  8. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  9. Review of zircaloy oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, F.C. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Lewis, B.J. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the kinetics for Zircaloy clad oxidation behaviour in steam and air during reactor accident conditions. The generation of chemical heat from metal/water reaction is considered. The effect of internal clad oxidation due to Zircaloy/UO{sub 2} interaction is also discussed. Low-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy due to water-side corrosion is further described. (author)

  10. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  11. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  12. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  13. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  14. Isotopes in oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of isotopes in the study of organic oxidation mechanisms is discussed. The help provided by tracer studies to demonstrate the two-equivalent path - hydride transfer, is illustrated by the examples of carbonium oxidants and the Wacker reaction. The role of kinetic isotope effects in the study of the scission of carbon-hydrogen bonds is illustrated by hydride abstraction, hydrogen atom abstraction, proton abstraction and quantum mechanical tunnelling. Isotopic studies on the oxidation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, amines and hydrocarbons are discussed. The role of isotopes in the study of biochemical oxidation is illustrated with a discussion on nicotinamide and flavin coenzymes. (B.R.H.)

  15. Photoconductivity of reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Haifeng; Ren, Wen; Su, Junhong; Cai, Changlong

    2012-01-01

    A photoconductive device was fabricated by patterning magnetron sputtered Pt/Ti electrode and Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO)/Graphene Oxide (GO) composite films with a sensitive area of 10 × 20 mm 2 . The surface morphology of as-deposited GO films was observed by scanning electronic microscopy, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The absorption properties and chemical structure of RGO/GO composite films were obtained using a spectrophotometer and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoconductive properties of the system were characterized under white light irradiation with varied output power and biased voltage. The results show that the resistance decreased from 210 kΩ to 11.5 kΩ as the irradiation power increased from 0.0008 mW to 625 mW. The calculated responsiveness of white light reached 0.53 × 10 −3 A/W. Furthermore, the device presents a high photo-conductivity response and displays a photovoltaic response with an open circuit voltage from 0.017 V to 0.014 V with irradiation power. The sources of charge are attributed to efficient excitation dissociation at the interface of the RGO/GO composite film, coupled with cross-surface charge percolation.

  16. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  17. Storyboards for Meaningful Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubon, Lucille P.; Shafer, Kathryn G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial focus of this kindergarten-level action research project was on identifying which students could create a pattern. The focus then shifted to helping all students successfully achieve this goal. The intervention uses a storyboard where students select colored cubes to represent objects and then snap the cubes together as indicated on…

  18. Patterns in chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Classification of chaotic patterns in classical Hamiltonian systems is given as a series of levels with increasing disorder. Hamiltonian dynamics is presented, including the renormalization chaos, based upon the fairly simple resonant theory. First estimates for the critical structure and related statistical anomalies in arbitrary dimensions are discussed. 49 refs

  19. Motor Patterns in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, F.; Grasso, R.; Zago, M.

    1999-08-01

    Despite the fact that locomotion may differ widely in mammals, common principles of kinematic control are at work. These reflect common mechanical and neural constraints. The former are related to the need to maintain balance and to limit energy expenditure. The latter are related to the organization of the central pattern-generating networks.

  20. Painting Patterns with Pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerg, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art unit for middle school students where they created their own original pattern through the use of "ClarisWorks Paint." Discusses the procedure for the project and the evaluation used at the end of the unit. Emphasizes the importance of learning about computers. (CMK)

  1. Organization patterns responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuerle, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    To guarantee safety and safe operation of a nuclear power station the technical facilities must be supplemented by suitable administrative measures. Thus, the organization pattern of the nuclear power station or of the nuclear power station undertaking will also exert a corresponding influence. (orig./TK) [de

  2. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  3. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  4. Spider Web Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A delicate pattern, like that of a spider web, appears on top of the Mars residual polar cap, after the seasonal carbon-dioxide ice slab has disappeared. Next spring, these will likely mark the sites of vents when the carbon-dioxide ice cap returns. This Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  5. Multivariate pattern dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Anzellotti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available When we perform a cognitive task, multiple brain regions are engaged. Understanding how these regions interact is a fundamental step to uncover the neural bases of behavior. Most research on the interactions between brain regions has focused on the univariate responses in the regions. However, fine grained patterns of response encode important information, as shown by multivariate pattern analysis. In the present article, we introduce and apply multivariate pattern dependence (MVPD: a technique to study the statistical dependence between brain regions in humans in terms of the multivariate relations between their patterns of responses. MVPD characterizes the responses in each brain region as trajectories in region-specific multidimensional spaces, and models the multivariate relationship between these trajectories. We applied MVPD to the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS and to the fusiform face area (FFA, using a searchlight approach to reveal interactions between these seed regions and the rest of the brain. Across two different experiments, MVPD identified significant statistical dependence not detected by standard functional connectivity. Additionally, MVPD outperformed univariate connectivity in its ability to explain independent variance in the responses of individual voxels. In the end, MVPD uncovered different connectivity profiles associated with different representational subspaces of FFA: the first principal component of FFA shows differential connectivity with occipital and parietal regions implicated in the processing of low-level properties of faces, while the second and third components show differential connectivity with anterior temporal regions implicated in the processing of invariant representations of face identity.

  6. Rare earth oxide doping in oxide cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsen, Daniel den; Gaertner, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The effect on life performance and poisoning with O 2 by doping oxide cathodes with rare earth oxides and pseudo rare earth oxides, notably yttria, is qualitatively explained in terms of electrolysis of BaO during emission of electrons. Doped cathodes show less electrolysis and consume therefore less Ba during life: consequently, doped cathodes have a better life performance. However, the lower Ba-production makes doped cathodes more sensitive to oxygen poisoning. The experimentally found relation between conductivity and yttria concentration was the motive to propose a new model for the crystal imperfections in BaO. In this new imperfection model most Y 3+ -ions will combine with barium vacancies, therefore, the increase of the conductivity is modest and also the effect on the position of the Fermi level is modest. By assuming a combination of bulk and surface conductivity, the agreement between experiment and theory can be improved further

  7. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  8. Quantification of patterns of regional cardiac metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Ackermann, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    To quantitatively map and compare patterns of regional cardiac metabolism with greater spatial resolution than is possible with positron emission tomography (PET), the authors developed autoradiographic techniques for use with combinations of radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), glucose (GLU), and acetate (ACE) and applied the techniques to normal rats. Kinetic models were developed to compare GLU-based oxidative glucose metabolism with FDG-based total glucose metabolism (oxidative plus anaerobic) and to compare ACE-based overall oxidative metabolism with FDG-based total glucose metabolism. GLU-based metabolism generally paralleled FDG-based metabolism, but divergence occurred in certain structures such as the papillary muscles, where FDG-based metabolism was much greater. ACE-based metabolism also generally paralleled FDG-based metabolism, but again, the papillary muscles had relatively greater FDG-based metabolism. These discrepancies between FDG-based metabolism and GLU- or ACE-based metabolism suggest the presence of high levels of anaerobic glycolysis. Thus, the study indicates that anaerobic glycolysis, in addition to occurring in ischemic or stunned myocardium (as has been shown in recent PET studies), occurs normally in specific cardiac regions, despite the presence of abundant oxygen

  9. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  10. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  11. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  12. Death from Nitrous Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. RNA modifications by oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik E; Specht, Elisabeth; Broedbaek, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    to encompass various classes of novel regulatory RNAs, including, e.g., microRNAs. It is well known that DNA is constantly oxidized and repaired by complex genome maintenance mechanisms. Analogously, RNA also undergoes significant oxidation, and there are now convincing data suggesting that oxidation......The past decade has provided exciting insights into a novel class of central (small) RNA molecules intimately involved in gene regulation. Only a small percentage of our DNA is translated into proteins by mRNA, yet 80% or more of the DNA is transcribed into RNA, and this RNA has been found......, and the consequent loss of integrity of RNA, is a mechanism for disease development. Oxidized RNA is found in a large variety of diseases, and interest has been especially devoted to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, in which up to 50-70% of specific mRNA molecules are reported oxidized, whereas...

  14. Engineering complex oxide interfaces for oxide electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    A complex interplay of physics and chemistry in transition metal oxides determines their electronic, magnetic, and ferroic properties enabling a wide range of applications of these materials. BiFeO_3, a canonical multiferroic system exhibits the interesting feature of enhanced conductivity on

  15. Enhanced performance of VOx-based bolometer using patterned gold black absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evan M.; Panjwani, Deep; Ginn, James; Warren, Andrew; Long, Christopher; Figuieredo, Pedro; Smith, Christian; Perlstein, Joshua; Walter, Nick; Hirschmugl, Carol; Peale, Robert E.; Shelton, David J.

    2015-06-01

    Patterned highly absorbing gold black film has been selectively deposited on the active surfaces of a vanadium-oxide-based infrared bolometer array. Patterning by metal lift-off relies on protection of the fragile gold black with an evaporated oxide, which preserves gold black's near unity absorption. This patterned gold black also survives the dry-etch removal of the sacrificial polyimide used to fabricate the air-bridge bolometers. Infrared responsivity is substantially improved by the gold black coating without significantly increasing noise. The increase in the time constant caused by the additional mass of gold black is a modest 14%.

  16. Patterns and Intelligent Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, Gail A.

    2003-01-01

    The recognition and analysis of evolving patterns provides a unifying concept for studying and implementing intelligent information processing for open feedback control systems within the nuclear industry. Control is considered as influence of a large system to achieve the goals of the human (who might or might not be part of an open feedback loop) and is not limited to operation of a component within a nuclear power plant. The intelligent control system includes open logic and can automatically react to new data in an unprogrammed way. This application of evolving patterns integrates current research developments in human cognition and scientific semiotics with traditional feedback control. A preliminary implementation of such a system using existing computational techniques is postulated, and tools that are lacking at this time are identified. Proof-of-concept applications for the nuclear industry are referenced

  17. Fundamentals of thinking, patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, O. M.; Gafurov, D. O.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors analyze the fundamentals of thinking and propose to consider a model of the brain based on the presence of magnetic properties of gliacytes (Schwann cells) because of their oxygen saturation (oxygen has paramagnetic properties). The authors also propose to take into account the motion of electrical discharges through synapses causing electric and magnetic fields as well as additional effects such as paramagnetic resonance, which allows combining multisensory object-related information located in different parts of the brain. Therefore, the events of the surrounding world are reflected and remembered in the cortex columns, thus, creating isolated subnets with altered magnetic properties (patterns) and subsequently participate in recognition of objects, form a memory, and so on. The possibilities for the pattern-based thinking are based on the practical experience of applying methods and technologies of artificial neural networks in the form of a neuroemulator and neuromorphic computing devices.

  18. The oxidation kinetics and the structure of the oxide film on Zircaloy before and after the kinetic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, T.; Masuzumi, T.; Furuya, H.; Idemitsu, K.; Inagaki, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 have been measured using a micro-balance technique in CO-CO 2 gas mixtures between 450 deg. C and 600 deg. C. Oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 obeyed a cubic rate law with time at 450-600 deg. C up to 24 h. At 600 deg. C, the kinetic transition occurred after about 36 h. After the transition, oxidation kinetics obeyed a linear rate law. X-ray diffraction patterns for the samples oxidized at 600 deg. C showed that the volume fraction of tetragonal phase of zirconia decreased with time until the kinetic transition occurred and was almost constant after that. In addition, stresses in the oxide films were found to be larger for the pre-transition samples than for the post-transition ones. (authors)

  19. Pattern formation during electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakov, V.V.; Chang, H.; Miller, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, we find that the surface morphology of a dissolving aluminum anode in a commercial electropolishing electrolyte can exhibit both highly regular and randomly packed stripe and hexagonal patterns with amplitudes of about 5 nm and wavelengths of 100 nm. The driving instability of this pattern formation phenomenon is proposed to be the preferential adsorption of polar or polarizable organic molecules on surface ridges where the contorted double layer produces a higher electric potential gradient. The enhanced relative coverage shields the anode and induces a smaller dissolution rate at the ridges. The instability is balanced by surface diffusion of the adsorbate to yield a length scale of 4π(D s /k d ) 1/2 , where D s is the surface diffusivity and k d is the desorption coefficient of the adsorbate, which correlates well with the measured wavelength. A long-wavelength expansion of the double-layer field yields an interface evolution equation that reproduces all of the observed patterns. In particular, bifurcation analysis and numerical simulation yield a single voltage-dependent dimensionless parameter ξ that measures a balance between smoothing of adsorbate concentration by electric-field-dependent surface diffusion and fluctuation due to interfacial curvature and stretching. Randomly oriented stripes are favored at large ξ (low voltage), while random hills dominate at small ξ (high voltage) with perfectly periodic stripes and hexagonal hill patterns within a small window near ξ=1. These predictions are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with our measurements. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  1. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  2. Gardosian Patterns in Tribology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The following paper is a memorial retrospective on selected research of Dr. Michael N. Gardos. Dr. Gardos spent his professional career engaged in tribological research which often extended the scientific boundaries of the field. Several of the concepts he put forth into the tribology community were initially met with grave skepticism but over time his views have been largely embraced but not widely acknowledged. His approach to new research topics was often characterized by these qualities: 1) pioneering points of view, 2) the use of the model experiment, and 3) the presence of multiple research agendas for each single experiment. I have chosen to name his research approach as "Gardosian Patterns" in honor of his contributions to Tribology. Three specific examples of these patterns will be reviewed. One is the concept of atomic level tailoring of materials to control macroscopic properties. A second is the use of a model ball polishing experiment to identify high fracture toughness ceramics for use in rolling element bearings. A third Gardosian Pattern example is his pioneering work with the tribology of diamond and diamond films in which he proposed controlling friction via surface bond tailoring. In these examples, Gardos utilized conventional research tools in unconventional ways and, at times, even developed new tools which have become part of the mainstream. His remarkable career has left a positive and lasting mark on Tribology.

  3. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  4. Principal oscillation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, H. von; Buerger, G.; Storch, J.S. von

    1993-01-01

    The Principal Oscillation Pattern (POP) analysis is a technique which is used to simultaneously infer the characteristic patterns and time scales of a vector time series. The POPs may be seen as the normal modes of a linearized system whose system matrix is estimated from data. The concept of POP analysis is reviewed. Examples are used to illustrate the potential of the POP technique. The best defined POPs of tropospheric day-to-day variability coincide with the most unstable modes derived from linearized theory. POPs can be derived even from a space-time subset of data. POPs are successful in identifying two independent modes with similar time scales in the same data set. The POP method can also produce forecasts which may potentially be used as a reference for other forecast models. The conventional POP analysis technique has been generalized in various ways. In the cyclostationary POP analysis, the estimated system matrix is allowed to vary deterministically with an externally forced cycle. In the complex POP analysis not only the state of the system but also its ''momentum'' is modeled. Associated correlation patterns are a useful tool to describe the appearance of a signal previously identified by a POP analysis in other parameters. (orig.)

  5. Female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-10-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig's type) B) The "Christmas tree pattern" where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

  6. Writing nanopatterns with electrochemical oxidation on redox responsive organometallic multilayers by AFM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Jing; Hempenius, Mark A.; Chung, H.J.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoelectrochemical patterning of redox responsive organometallic poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) multilayers is demonstrated by electrochemical dip pen lithography (EDPN). Local electrochemical oxidation and Joule heating of PFS multilayers from the tip are considered as relevant mechanisms related to

  7. Pattern of occurrence and occupancy of carbonylation sites in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Møller, Ian Max

    2011-01-01

    sites. Comparison of metal-catalyzed oxidation of two closely related proteins indicates that this type of carbonylation might not be very specific in proteins. Interestingly, carbonylated sites show a very strong tendency to cluster together in the protein primary sequence hinting at some sort......Proteins are targets for modification by reactive oxygen species, and carbonylation is an important irreversible modification that increases during oxidative stress. While information on protein carbonylation is accumulating, its pattern is not yet understood. We have made a meta...

  8. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  9. PREPARATION OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM Achatina fulica AS CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Lesbani, Aldes; Tamba, Palita; Mohadi, Risfidian; Fahmariyanti, Fahmariyanti

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell has been carried out systematically by decomposition for 3 h at various temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C. Formation of calcium oxide was characterized using XR diffractometer. The calcium oxide obtained with the optimum temperature decomposition was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy to indicate the functional group in the calcium oxide. The results showed that XRD pattern of materials obtained from decomposition of Achatina...

  10. Oxidation of uraninite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of uraninite and pitchblende annealed at 1200 degrees C in H 2 , and untreated pitchblende were sequentially oxidized in air at 180-190 degrees C, 230 degrees C, and 300 degrees C. Uraninite and untreated pitchblende oxidized to the U 4 O 9 -type oxide, and their x-ray symmetry remained isometric up to 300 degrees C. Reduced pitchblende, after oxidation to UO 2+x and U 4 O 9 -type oxides, transformed into α-U 3 O 8 at 300 degrees C. Two major mechanisms control uraninite and untreated pitchblende stability during oxidation: 1. Th and/or lanthanide elements maintain charge balance and block oxygen interstitials near impurity cations; 2. the uraninite structure saturates with respect to excess and radiation-induced oxygen interstitials. Untreated pitchblende during oxidation behaved similarly to irradiated UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel; whereas, reduced pitchblende resembled non-irradiated UO 2 . An analysis of the data in the literature, as well as our own efforts (XRD, EMPA, SEM, AEM) to identify U 3 O 7 in samples form Cigar Lake, Canada, failed to provide conclusive evidence of the natural occurrence of tetragonal αU 3 O 7 . Most probably, reported occurrences of U 3 O 7 are mixtures of isometric uraninites of slightly different compositions, 45 refs

  11. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik, E-mail: dmetzler@umd.edu [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  12. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, Dominik; Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.; Li, Chen; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance

  13. Recovery of vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, C.P.; Clark, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal. The invention provides a method for recovering vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes passing oxygen and at least one coolant gas or shroud into the molten metal by way of at least one elongate lance. The invention also provides an arrangement for the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes at least one elongate lance extending into the molten metal. The lance is provided with at least one elongate bore extending therethrough. Means are provided to allow at least oxygen and at least one coolant gas to pass through the lance and into the molten metal

  14. Probing the diffusion of vacuum ultraviolet ({lambda} = 172 nm) induced oxidants by nanoparticles immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatri, Om P.; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Murase, Kuniaki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugimura, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hiroyuki.sugimura@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-09-30

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, {lambda} = 172 nm) patterning of alkyl monolayer on silicon surface has been demonstrated with emphasis on the diffusion of VUV induced oxygen-derived active species, which are accountable for the pattern broadening. The VUV photons photo-dissociates the atmospheric oxygen and water molecules into the oxygen-derived active species (oxidants). These oxidants photo-oxidize the hexadecyl (HD) monolayer in VUV irradiated regions (Khatri et al., Langmuir. 24 (2008) 12077), as well as the little concentration of oxidants diffuses towards the masked areas. In this study, we performed VUV patterning at a vacuum pressure of 10 Pa to track the diffusion pathways for the oxidants with help of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs; {phi} = 10 nm) immobilization. At VUV irradiated sites AuNPs are found as uniformly distributed, but adjacent to the pattern boundary we observed quasi-linear arrays of AuNPs, which are determined by diffusion pathways of the oxidants. The diffusion of oxidants plays vital role in pattern broadening. The site selective anchoring of AuNPs demonstrates the utility of VUV photons for the construction of functional materials with microstructural architecture.

  15. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  16. Subsidiary Linkage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Perri, Alessandra; Nell, Phillip C.

    2012-01-01

    channels for spillovers to competitors. We find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of a subsidiary's set of local linkages. Furthermore, the extent to which a subsidiary possesses capabilities moderates this relationship: Very capable subsidiaries...... in strongly competitive environments tend to shy away from high quality linkages. We discuss our findings in light of the literature on spillovers and inter-organizational linkages.......This paper investigates the pattern of subsidiaries' local vertical linkages under varying levels of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Contrary to most previous literature, we explicitly account for the double role of such linkages as conduits of learning prospects as well as potential...

  17. JavaScript Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stoyan

    2010-01-01

    What's the best approach for developing an application with JavaScript? This book helps you answer that question with numerous JavaScript coding patterns and best practices. If you're an experienced developer looking to solve problems related to objects, functions, inheritance, and other language-specific categories, the abstractions and code templates in this guide are ideal -- whether you're writing a client-side, server-side, or desktop application with JavaScript. Written by JavaScript expert Stoyan Stefanov -- Senior Yahoo! Technical and architect of YSlow 2.0, the web page performance

  18. Patterns of Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Kotzab, Herbert; Kinra, Aseem

    2013-01-01

    sales office networks and the overall extent of market presence. For this the fundamental sales networks of the companies were considered as a key indicator, and the port networks of the 20 largest container-shipping companies in the world (by TEU capacity) were analyzed. Findings - The resulting data...... that is based e.g. on the development pattern of single companies and that may also take more the dynamic aspects and comparisons into account. Practical implications - Preceeding work provides insights that are directed towards the port networks and thus toward the more back office oriented resource...

  19. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic ...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  20. Investigation of the Si(111) surface in uhv: oxidation and the effect of surface phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, H.W.K.; Zhu, X.D.; Shen, Y.R.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1984-06-01

    We have studied the initial stages of oxidation, the segregation of phosphorus, and the effect of phosphorus on oxidation of the Si(111) 7 x 7 surface using optical second-harmonic generation. We have also observed a (√3 x √3)R30 0 LEED pattern for P on Si

  1. Obesity and Age-Related Changes in Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Across Four Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Picavet, H. Susan J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were

  2. Obesity and Age-Related Changes in Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Across Four Generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Herber-Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Susan, H; Picavet, J; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Bakker, Stephan J L; Gansevoort, Ron T; Dollé, Martijn E T; Smit, Henriette A; Monique Verschuren, W M

    ObjectiveThe prevalence of obesity increases with age and is higher in each younger generation (unfavorable generation shift). This may influence patterns of oxidative stress and inflammation. Age-related changes and generation shifts in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were

  3. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN MODULATED LUMINANCE PATTERNS AND RANDOM-DOT PATTERNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORNELISSEN, FW; KOOIJMAN, AC

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that density modulated random-dot patterns can be used to study higher order pattern vision [Van Meeteren and Barlow (1981) Vision Research, 21, 765-777]. The high contrast dots of which the pattern is composed, are assumed to be reliably transduced-and transmitted by the lower

  4. HIGHLY MICROBIAL RESISTANT GRAPHEME OXIDE NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaylaxmee Mishra; Richa Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The present work deigned to prepare graphene oxide nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity has been evaluated. Graphene oxide is a singal layer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal pattern the basal planes and the edges of graphene oxide nanoparticles contain functional exogenous groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy group, which not only expand the interlayer distance but also make the atomic thick layer hydrophilic. Most important application in area related to transparent conduct...

  5. Electrically robust silver nanowire patterns transferrable onto various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Shi; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Cao, Wu; Qiu, Jing-Shen; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Yang, Bo-Ru

    2016-03-01

    We report a facile technique for patterning and transferring silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto various substrates. By employing only UV/O3 and vapor treatment of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), we are able to accurately manipulate the surface energy via alternating the terminal groups of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, so as to assist selective formation and exfoliation of AgNW films. A simple UV/O3 treatment on PDMS enables uniform, well-defined, and highly conductive patterns of AgNWs after spin-coating. A vapor treatment of HMDS lowers the surface energy of the oxidized PDMS so that the patterned AgNWs embedded in an epoxy resin (EPR) are cleanly transferred from the PDMS to the target substrate. It is found that the AgNW-EPR composite on polyethylene glycol terephthalate (PET) exhibits remarkable durability under the bending test, tape test, ultrasonic treatment in water, and immersion of chemical solvents. In addition, we demonstrate that the AgNW-EPR composite work well as conductive patterns on the oxidized PDMS, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), paper, and curved glass. The facile technique extends the applicability of AgNWs in the field of electronics, and it is potentially applicable to other nanomaterials.We report a facile technique for patterning and transferring silver nanowires (AgNWs) onto various substrates. By employing only UV/O3 and vapor treatment of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), we are able to accurately manipulate the surface energy via alternating the terminal groups of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, so as to assist selective formation and exfoliation of AgNW films. A simple UV/O3 treatment on PDMS enables uniform, well-defined, and highly conductive patterns of AgNWs after spin-coating. A vapor treatment of HMDS lowers the surface energy of the oxidized PDMS so that the patterned AgNWs embedded in an epoxy resin (EPR) are cleanly transferred from the PDMS to the target substrate. It is found that the AgNW-EPR composite on polyethylene

  6. High Current Oxide Cathodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luhmann, N

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the AASERT supported research is to develop the plasma deposition/implantation process for coating barium, strontium and calcium oxides on nickel substrates and to perform detailed surface...

  7. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed...... of this process depends on the extent of oxidation at C-3 compared with other sites. HO*, generated by gamma radiolysis, gave the highest total carbonyl yield, with protein-bound carbonyls predominating over released. In contrast, metal ion/H2O2 systems, gave more released than bound carbonyls, with this ratio...... modulated by EDTA. This is ascribed to metal ion-protein interactions affecting the sites of initial oxidation. Hypochlorous acid gave low concentrations of released carbonyls, but high yields of protein-bound material. The peroxyl radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride...

  8. Oxidizer in phosphoric reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Benedetto, J. dos

    1985-01-01

    Oxidation during the manufacture of wet-process phosphoric acid affected the distribution of uranium and impurities between phosphoric acid and gypsum, by decreasing the uranium loss to gypsum and the impurities solubilization in phosphoric acid. (Author) [pt

  9. Single sheet iron oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Zhou

    profile with reversible reduction and oxidation, suggesting the formation of FeII-OH/O-FeIII clusters as that in GRs were formed on the ITO electrode (trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloride (CT) and 4-chlorophenol are used to test...

  10. High Current Oxide Cathodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luhmann, N

    2000-01-01

    .... The vacuum are plasma deposition gun developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been used to deposit oxides and nitrides with very precise control over deposition rate and composition.

  11. Nitric oxide and neopterin in bipolar affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Fekkes, D.; Pepplinkhuizen, L.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Tuinier, S.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is an increasing interest in the role of nitric oxide (NO) and pterines in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The results so far show an inconsistent pattern. Methods: In the present study, neopterin and a measure of NO synthesis in plasma of symptomatic and

  12. Structural, optical, morphological and dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabaharan, Devadoss Mangalam Durai Manoharadoss; Sadaiyandi, Karuppasamy; Mahendran, Manickam; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method. The average crystallite size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and found to be 11 nm. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicated the strong presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Raman spectrum confirmed the cubic nature of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the nanoparticles agglomerated forming spherical-shaped particles. The Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analysis confirmed the prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles with the particle size being found to be 16 nm. The optical absorption spectrum showed a blue shift by the cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the quantum confinement effect. The dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles were studied for different frequencies at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the cerium oxide nanoparticles decreased with increase in frequency. The AC electrical conductivity study revealed that the conduction depended on both the frequency and the temperature. (author)

  13. Structural, optical, morphological and dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, Devadoss Mangalam Durai Manoharadoss [Department of Physics, NPR College of Engineering and Technology, Natham, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadaiyandi, Karuppasamy [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahendran, Manickam [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh, E-mail: duraiphysics2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, AMET University (India)

    2016-03-15

    Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method. The average crystallite size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and found to be 11 nm. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicated the strong presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Raman spectrum confirmed the cubic nature of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the nanoparticles agglomerated forming spherical-shaped particles. The Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analysis confirmed the prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles with the particle size being found to be 16 nm. The optical absorption spectrum showed a blue shift by the cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the quantum confinement effect. The dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles were studied for different frequencies at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the cerium oxide nanoparticles decreased with increase in frequency. The AC electrical conductivity study revealed that the conduction depended on both the frequency and the temperature. (author)

  14. Titanium oxide fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, D.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    One measure to improve air quality is to apply photo-catalytic substances that capture NOx onto the road surface or onto baffle boards alongside the roads. The effect of titanium oxide containing clinkers with coating was discussed in the report 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands' that was published in May 2011. This article examines the way in which the effectiveness of this study was determined. Can titanium oxide containing clinkers and coatings indeed capture NOx?. [nl

  15. Metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  16. Chemistry of phospholipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M

    2012-10-01

    The oxidation of lipids has long been a topic of interest in biological and food sciences, and the fundamental principles of non-enzymatic free radical attack on phospholipids are well established, although questions about detail of the mechanisms remain. The number of end products that are formed following the initiation of phospholipid peroxidation is large, and is continually growing as new structures of oxidized phospholipids are elucidated. Common products are phospholipids with esterified isoprostane-like structures and chain-shortened products containing hydroxy, carbonyl or carboxylic acid groups; the carbonyl-containing compounds are reactive and readily form adducts with proteins and other biomolecules. Phospholipids can also be attacked by reactive nitrogen and chlorine species, further expanding the range of products to nitrated and chlorinated phospholipids. Key to understanding the mechanisms of oxidation is the development of advanced and sensitive technologies that enable structural elucidation. Tandem mass spectrometry has proved invaluable in this respect and is generally the method of choice for structural work. A number of studies have investigated whether individual oxidized phospholipid products occur in vivo, and mass spectrometry techniques have been instrumental in detecting a variety of oxidation products in biological samples such as atherosclerotic plaque material, brain tissue, intestinal tissue and plasma, although relatively few have achieved an absolute quantitative analysis. The levels of oxidized phospholipids in vivo is a critical question, as there is now substantial evidence that many of these compounds are bioactive and could contribute to pathology. The challenges for the future will be to adopt lipidomic approaches to map the profile of oxidized phospholipid formation in different biological conditions, and relate this to their effects in vivo. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidized phospholipids

  17. Archetypes as action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  18. Patterns of Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Suresh; Pattinson, Hugh

    Traditionally, face-to-face negotiations in the real world have not been looked at as a complex systems interaction of actors resulting in a dynamic and potentially emergent system. If indeed negotiations are an outcome of a dynamic interaction of simpler behavior just as with a complex system, we should be able to see the patterns contributing to the complexities of a negotiation under study. This paper and the supporting research sets out to show B2B (business-to-business) negotiations as complex systems of interacting actors exhibiting dynamic and emergent behavior. This paper discusses the exploratory research based on negotiation simulations in which a large number of business students participate as buyers and sellers. The student interactions are captured on video and a purpose built research method attempts to look for patterns of interactions between actors using visualization techniques traditionally reserved to observe the algorithmic complexity of complex systems. Students are videoed negotiating with partners. Each video is tagged according to a recognized classification and coding scheme for negotiations. The classification relates to the phases through which any particular negotiation might pass, such as laughter, aggression, compromise, and so forth — through some 30 possible categories. Were negotiations more or less successful if they progressed through the categories in different ways? Furthermore, does the data depict emergent pathway segments considered to be more or less successful? This focus on emergence within the data provides further strong support for face-to-face (F2F) negotiations to be construed as complex systems.

  19. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  20. Hidden patterns of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syi

    2014-03-21

    Reciprocity can help the evolution of cooperation. To model both types of reciprocity, we need the concept of strategy. In the case of direct reciprocity there are four second-order action rules (Simple Tit-for-tat, Contrite Tit-for-tat, Pavlov, and Grim Trigger), which are able to promote cooperation. In the case of indirect reciprocity the key component of cooperation is the assessment rule. There are, again, four elementary second-order assessment rules (Image Scoring, Simple Standing, Stern Judging, and Shunning). The eight concepts can be formalized in an ontologically thin way we need only an action predicate and a value function, two agent concepts, and the constant of goodness. The formalism helps us to discover that the action and assessment rules can be paired, and that they show the same patterns. The logic of these patterns can be interpreted with the concept of punishment that has an inherent paradoxical nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thin zirconium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Polycrystalline Zr and two pure Zr single-crystal samples, one oriented with the normal to the surface parallel to the c-axis of the hcp structure (Z1) and the other with the normal perpendicular to c (Z2), were oxidised at 10 -8 , 10 -7 and 10 -6 Torr and room temperature. Oxidation kinetics, composition and thicknesses of the oxide films formed in each case were analyzed using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as the main technique. The oxidation kinetics followed logarithmic laws in all cases. The deconvolution of XPS Zr3d peaks indicated the formation of two Zr-O compounds before the formation of ZrO 2 . Varying the photoelectrons take-off angle, the compound distribution inside the oxide films could be established. Thus, it was confirmed that the most external oxide, in contact with the gas, was ZrO 2 . The thickness of the films grown at the different pressures was determined. In the polycrystalline samples, thicknesses between 15 and 19 ± 2Angstroem were obtained for pressures between 10 -8 and 10 -6 Torr, in close coincidence with the determined ones for Z2. The thicknesses measured in Z1 were smaller, reaching 13 ± 2Angstroem for the oxidations performed at 10 -6 Torr. (author)

  2. Negative secondary ion emission from oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of negative secondary ions from 23 elements was studied for 10 keV O 2 + and 10 keV In + impact at an angle of incidence of 45 0 . Partial oxidation of the sample surfaces was achieved by oxygen bombardment and/or by working at a high oxygen partial pressure. It was found that the emission of oxide ions shows an element-characteristic pattern. For the majority of the elements investigated these features are largely invariant against changes of the surface concentration of oxygen. For the others admission of oxygen strongly changes the relative intensities of oxide ions: a strong increase of MO 3 - signals (M stands for the respective element) is accompanied by a decrease of MO - and M - intensities. Different primary species frequently induce changes of both the relative and the absolute negative ion intensities. Carbon - in contrast to all other elements - does not show any detectable oxide ion emission but rather intense cluster ions Csub(n) - (detected up to n=12) whose intensities oscillate in dependence on n. (orig./RK)

  3. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  4. Making sense of design patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Breuker, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the way in which design patterns may improve the current practice of ontology engineering. It presents five requirements that go beyond the current state of the art of collecting and curating design patterns. We build on the thesis outlined in [17] that design patterns should be

  5. Soft lithography of ceramic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole; Nedelcu, M.; Steiner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer-based precursor solutions are patterned using a soft-lithographic patterning technique to yield sub-micrometer-sized ceramic patterns. By using a polymer-metal-nitrate solution as a lithographic resist, we demonstrate a micromolding procedure using a simple rubber stamp that yields a

  6. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qi-Wen; Yu Xue-Feng; Cui Jiang-Wei; Guo Qi; Ren Di-Yuan; Cong Zhong-Chao; Zhou Hang

    2014-01-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  7. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi-Wen; Yu, Xue-Feng; Cui, Jiang-Wei; Guo, Qi; Ren, Di-Yuan; Cong, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Hang

    2014-10-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device.

  8. Locally measuring the adhesion of InP directly bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, K; Patriarche, G; Beaudoin, G; Itawi, A; Sagnes, I; Talneau, A; Bourhis, E Le; Troadec, D

    2016-01-01

    A nano-scale analogue to the double cantilever experiment that combines instrumented nano-indentation and atomic force microscopy is used to precisely and locally measure the adhesion of InP bonded on sub-100 nm patterned Si using oxide-free or oxide-mediated bonding. Surface-bonding energies of 0.548 and 0.628 J m"−"2, respectively, are reported. These energies correspond in turn to 51% and 57% of the surface bonding energy measured in unpatterned regions on the same samples, i.e. the proportion of unetched Si surface in the patterned areas. The results show that bonding on patterned surfaces can be as robust as on unpatterned surfaces, provided care is taken with the post-patterning surface preparation process and, therefore, open the path towards innovative designs that include patterns embedded in the Si guiding layer of hybrid III-V/Si photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  9. Exploring Microbial Iron Oxidation in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Muyzer, G.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; den Oudsten, F.; Laanbroek, H. J.

    2009-04-01

    sequences all represented novel culturable iron oxidizers most closely related to Gallionella spp. Based on their nucleotide sequences four groups could be identified, which were comparable to the DGGE banding pattern obtained before with the gradient tubes enrichments. The above mentioned nested PCR-DGGE method was used to study the distribution and community composition of Gallionella-like iron-oxidizing bacteria under the influence of plants species, soil depth, as well as season. Soil samples from Appels, Belgium, an intertidal, freshwater marsh known to hold intensive iron cycling, were taken from 5 different vegetation types in April, July and October 2007. Soil cores were sliced at 1-cm intervals and subjected to chemical and molecular analyses. The DGGE patterns showed that the community of iron-oxidizing bacteria differed with vegetation type, and sediment depth. Samples taken in autumn held lower diversity in Gallionella-related iron oxidizers than those sampled in spring and summer.

  10. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  11. Electrochemistry of hydrous oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.D.; Lyons, M.E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The formation, acid-base properties, structural aspects, and transport processes of hydrous oxide films are discussed. Classical and nonclassical theoretical models of the oxide-solution interface are compared. Monolayer oxidation, behavior, and crystal growth of oxides on platinum, palladium, gold, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, and some non-noble metals, including tungsten, are reviewed and compared

  12. Porous ceramics out of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakunov, V.S.; Balkevich, V.L.; Vlasov, A.S.; Guzman, I.Ya.; Lukin, E.S.; Poluboyarinov, D.N.; Poliskij, R.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of manufacturing procedures and properties of oxide ceramics intended for high-temperature thermal insulation and thermal protection applications. Presented are structural characteristics of porous oxide refractories and their properties. Strength and thermal conductivity was shown to depend upon porosity. Described is a procedure for manufacturing porous ceramic materials from aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide. The thermal resistance of porous ceramics from BeO is considerably greater than that of other high-refractoriness oxides. Listed are areas of application for porous materials based on oxides

  13. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  14. Patterns of inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alex Young; Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Köppe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reconsidering the concept of digital citizenship and the essential component of education the authors propose that the concept of Hybrid Education may serve both as a guideline for the utilization of digital technologies in education and as a methodology for fostering new forms of participation......, inclusion and engagement in society. Following T.H. Marshall’s conception of citizenship the authors suggest that becoming, belonging and the capabilities to do so is essential to digital citizenship in a culturally diverse and digitally mediated world. The paper presents a theory-based, value driven...... for Hybrid Education that are directly applicable in relation to the concept of digital citizenship. The process introduces a value-based and vision-driven design pattern approach to innovation in education by framing and aligning values and visions of the participants. This work resulted in approximately 85...

  15. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  16. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Chiara; Jacobs, Karin; Seemann, Ralf; Blossey, Ralf; Becker, Juergen; Gruen, Guenther

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes

  17. Female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss (FPHL is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

  18. PREPARATION OF CALCIUM OXIDE FROM Achatina fulica AS CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell has been carried out systematically by decomposition for 3 h at various temperatures i.e. 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C. Formation of calcium oxide was characterized using XR diffractometer. The calcium oxide obtained with the optimum temperature decomposition was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy to indicate the functional group in the calcium oxide. The results showed that XRD pattern of materials obtained from decomposition of Achatina fulica shell at 700 °C is similar with XRD pattern of calcium oxide standard from Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS. The IR spectra of calcium oxide appear at wavenumber 362 cm-1 which is characteristic of CaO vibration. Application of calcium oxide from Achatina fulica shell for synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil results in biodiesel with density are in the range of ASTM standard.

  19. The One-Pot Directed Assembly of Cylinder-Forming Block Copolymer on Adjacent Chemical Patterns for Bimodal Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Xiong, Shisheng; Liu, Chi-Chun; Liu, Dong; Nealey, Paul F; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-09-01

    The direct self-assembly of cylinder-forming poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) block copolymer is successfully assembled into two orientations, according to the underlying guiding pattern in different areas. Lying-down and perpendicular cylinders are formed, respectively, depending on the design of chemical pattern: sparse line/space pattern or hexagonal dot array. The first chemical pattern composed of prepatterned cross-linked polystyrene (XPS) line/space structure has a period (L S ) equal to twice the intercylinder period of the block copolymer (L 0 ). The PS-b-PMMA thin film on the prepared chemical template after thermal annealing forms a lying-down cylinder morphology when the width of the PS strips is less than the width of PS block in the PS-b-PMMA block copolymer. The morphology is only applicable at the discrete thickness of the PS-b-PMMA film. In addition to forming the lying-down cylinders directly on the XPS guiding pattern, the cylinder-forming block copolymer can also be assembled in a perpendicular way on the second guiding pattern (the hexagonal dot array). The block copolymer films are registered into two orientations in a single directed self-assembly process. The features of the assembled patterns are successfully transferred down to the silicon oxide substrate. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  1. Oxidative alterations during human platelet storage

    OpenAIRE

    Göker, Bahar; Özsavcı, Derya; Şener, Azize; Aksoy, Halil; Bağışgil, Vedat; Yanıkkaya Demirel, Gülderen; Uras, Fikriye

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: During storage of platelet obtained by apheresis several changes occur. The aimof this study was to investigate the effect of storage on activation, apoptosis, protein pattern,lipid peroxidation, and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and glutathione (GSH) of platelets. In thisstudy, platelets obtained from healty donors (n=7) by apheresis were kept in an agitator fornine days at 20-24°C. The samples were taken on the 1st, 3 rd, 5 th and 9 th days and plateletswere precipitated. Platele...

  2. Molybdenum oxide nanocubes: Synthesis and characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthamizh, S.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Kumar, S. Praveen; Munusamy, S.; Narayanan, V., E-mail: vnnara@yahoo.co.in [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai -600025 (India); Stephen, A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Molybdenum oxide nanoparticles were prepared by Solid state synthesis. The MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by using commercially available ammonium heptamolybdate. The XRD pattern reveals that the synthesized MoO{sub 3} has orthorhombic structure. In addition, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD data. The Raman analysis confirm the presence of Mo-O in MoO{sub 3} nanoparticles. DRS-UV analysis shows that MoO{sub 3} has a band gap of 2.89 eV. FE-SEM analysis confirms the material morphology in cubes with nano scale.

  3. Protein carbonylation and metal-catalyzed protein oxidation in a cellular perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Rao, R S P

    2011-01-01

    Proteins can become oxidatively modified in many different ways, either by direct oxidation of amino acid side chains and protein backbone or indirectly by conjugation with oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates. While reversible oxidative modifications are thought...... to be relevant in physiological processes, irreversible oxidative modifications are known to contribute to cellular damage and disease. The most well-studied irreversible protein oxidation is carbonylation. In this work we first examine how protein carbonylation occurs via metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) in vivo...... and in vitro with an emphasis on cellular metal ion homeostasis and metal binding. We then review proteomic methods currently used for identifying carbonylated proteins and their sites of modification. Finally, we discuss the identified carbonylated proteins and the pattern of carbonylation sites in relation...

  4. Pattern optimizing verification of self-align quadruple patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Masatoshi; Yamada, Kazuki; Oyama, Kenichi; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shouhei; Koike, Kyohei; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2017-03-01

    Lithographic scaling continues to advance by extending the life of 193nm immersion technology, and spacer-type multi-patterning is undeniably the driving force behind this trend. Multi-patterning techniques such as self-aligned double patterning (SADP) and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) have come to be used in memory devices, and they have also been adopted in logic devices to create constituent patterns in the formation of 1D layout designs. Multi-patterning has consequently become an indispensible technology in the fabrication of all advanced devices. In general, items that must be managed when using multi-patterning include critical dimension uniformity (CDU), line edge roughness (LER), and line width roughness (LWR). Recently, moreover, there has been increasing focus on judging and managing pattern resolution performance from a more detailed perspective and on making a right/wrong judgment from the perspective of edge placement error (EPE). To begin with, pattern resolution performance in spacer-type multi-patterning is affected by the process accuracy of the core (mandrel) pattern. Improving the controllability of CD and LER of the mandrel is most important, and to reduce LER, an appropriate smoothing technique should be carefully selected. In addition, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is generally used to meet the need for high accuracy in forming the spacer film. Advances in scaling are accompanied by stricter requirements in the controllability of fine processing. In this paper, we first describe our efforts in improving controllability by selecting the most appropriate materials for the mandrel pattern and spacer film. Then, based on the materials selected, we present experimental results on a technique for improving etching selectivity.

  5. Protein oxidation and peroxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard...... to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners...... and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals...

  6. Bacterium oxidizing carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistner, A

    1953-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the microbiological oxidation of carbon monoxide is based on doubtful observations and imperfect experimental procedures. By making use of shake cultures in contact with gas mixtures containing high concentrations of CO and by employing liquid enrichment media with a low content of organic matter and solid media of the same composition with not more than 1.2% agar, it proved possible to isolate a co-oxidizing bacterium of the genus hydrogenomonas from sewage sludge. For the first time irrefutable proof has been given of the oxidation of carbon monoxide by a pure culture of a bacterium, both in growing cultures and in resting cell suspensions. 12 references.

  7. Zircaloy oxidation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, J.T.; Beauchamp, R.H.; Saenz, N.T.

    1985-06-01

    The oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 in steam have been determined at 1300-2400 0 C. Growth of the ZrO 2 and α-Zr layers display parabolic behavior over the entire temperature range studied. A discontinuity in the oxidation kinetics at 1510 0 C causes rates to increase above those previously established by the Baker-Just relationship. This increase coincides with the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transformation in ZrO/sub 2-x/. No discontinuity in the oxide growth rate is observed upon melting of Zr(0). The effects of temperature gradients have been taken into account and corrected values representative of near-isothermal conditions have been computed

  8. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Charles A.; Parker, John J.; Guttadora, Gregory L.; Ciebiera, Lloyd P.

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system

  9. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  10. Patterns in the mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta Alejandro

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available

     A mediados de la década de los noventa, el lingüista estadounidense Ray Jackendoff, meditando acerca de la situación de los avances en su campo de trabajo, publicó el libro Patterns in the Mind con el objetivo de poner al alcance del público no especializado los avances de la psicología cognitiva a partir de los postulados básicos de la revolución lingüística y cognitiva que
    floreció gracias a los trabajos del también lingüista norteamericano Noam Chomsky, a finales de la década de los cincuenta y principios de la de los sesenta. Su presencia en el desarrollo de esta nueva etapa del estudio del lenguaje y sus intereses en las nuevas teorías psicológicas 10 ubicaron en un marco teórico que comprende postulados acerca de la organización modular de las estructuras y procesos mentales, el innatismo de este tipo de organización y la existencia de una serie de patrones que rigen la construcción de gramáticas mentalesinconscientes para diversos dominios de la naturaleza humana.

  11. Childlessness patterns in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston Dl

    1988-06-01

    Taiwan is a newly developed and industrialized area, and along with Korea, Brazil, Argentina, and a few other countries, belongs in a special class of recently industrialized areas. Taiwan has been undergoing large-scale modernization since the 1950s when the Nationalist government 1st began to implement land reform programs and today is 1 of the showcase of newly developed areas of the world. Demographic transition theory shows that fertility is negatively associated with modernization. During the past 3 decades, fertility in Taiwan has followed this pattern in a dramatic manner. Studies of childlessness conducted in Western countries have shown also that as the modernizing influences continue, fertility declines, and childlessness increases as it becomes more and more voluntary. Subregions with the highest levels of modernization and the lowest fertility rates should therefore be characterized by the highest levels of childlessness, particularly among younger women, and vice versa. Given the levels of socioeconomic and demographic development in Taiwan and its subregions circa 1980, as well as its variability among the hsiens and major cities, the author would expect to find higher levels of childlessness in the more developed localities, and lower levels in the less developed subregions. This hypothesis is tested with data from the 1980 Census of Population and Housing: General Report, Taiwan--Fukien Area (Republic of China, 1982) and the 1980 Taiwan--Fukien Demographic Fact Book (Republic of China, 1980).

  12. Structure of multidimensional patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of describing the structure of multidimensional data is important in exploratory data analysis, statistical pattern recognition, and image processing. A data set is viewed as a collection of points embedded in a high dimensional space. The primary goal of this research is to determine if the data have any clustering structure; such a structure implies the presence of class information (categories) in the data. A statistical hypothesis is used in the decision making. To this end, data with no structure are defined as data following the uniform distribution over some compact convex set in K-dimensional space, called the sampling window. This thesis defines two new tests for uniformity along with various sampling window estimators. The first test is a volume-based test which captures density changes in the data. The second test compares a uniformly distributed sample to the data by using the minimal spanning tree (MST) of the polled samples. Sampling window estimators are provided for simple sampling windows and use the convex hull of the data as a general sampling window estimator. For both of the tests for uniformity, theoretical results are provided on their size, and study their size and power against clustered alternatives is studied. Simulation is also used to study the efficacy of the sampling window estimators

  13. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  14. Layer Dependence of Graphene for Oxidation Resistance of Cu Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qing Song; Xiao-ping Wang

    2017-01-01

    We studied the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu surface and its layer dependence by directly growing monolayer graphene with different multilayer structures coexisted,diminishing the influence induced by residue and transfer technology.It is found that the Cu surface coated with the monolayer graphene demonstrate tremendous difference in oxidation pattern and oxidation rate,compared to that coated with the bilayer graphene,which is considered to be originated from the strain-induced linear oxidation channel in monolayer graphene and the intersection of easily-oxidized directions in each layer of bilayer graphene,respectively.We reveal that the defects on the graphene basal plane but not the boundaries are the main oxidation channel for Cu surface under graphene protection.Our finding indicates that compared to putting forth efforts to improve the quality of monolayer graphene by reducing defects,depositing multilayer graphene directly on metal is a simple and effective way to enhance the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated metals.

  15. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-02-02

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds.

  16. Sintering of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Pointud, R.

    1955-01-01

    This study had for origin to find a process permitting to manufacture bricks of beryllium oxide of pure nuclear grade, with a density as elevated as possible and with standardized shape. The sintering under load was the technique kept for the manufacture of the bricks. Because of the important toxicity of the beryllium oxide, the general features for the preliminary study of the sintering, have been determined while using alumina. The obtained results will be able to act as general indication for ulterior studies with sintering under load. (M.B.) [fr

  17. A Database Integrity Pattern Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Paul ROTARU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Patterns and Pattern Languages are ways to capture experience and make it re-usable for others, and describe best practices and good designs. Patterns are solutions to recurrent problems.This paper addresses the database integrity problems from a pattern perspective. Even if the number of vendors of database management systems is quite high, the number of available solutions to integrity problems is limited. They all learned from the past experience applying the same solutions over and over again.The solutions to avoid integrity threats applied to in database management systems (DBMS can be formalized as a pattern language. Constraints, transactions, locks, etc, are recurrent integrity solutions to integrity threats and therefore they should be treated accordingly, as patterns.

  18. Epitaxial-graphene/graphene-oxide junction: an essential step towards epitaxial graphene electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Li, Xuebin; Ming, Fan; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2008-07-11

    Graphene-oxide (GO) flakes have been deposited to bridge the gap between two epitaxial-graphene electrodes to produce all-graphene devices. Electrical measurements indicate the presence of Schottky barriers at the graphene/graphene-oxide junctions, as a consequence of the band gap in GO. The barrier height is found to be about 0.7 eV, and is reduced after annealing at 180 degrees C, implying that the gap can be tuned by changing the degree of oxidation. A lower limit of the GO mobility was found to be 850 cm2/V s, rivaling silicon. In situ local oxidation of patterned epitaxial graphene has been achieved.

  19. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic Oxidation of Cyanogen Chloride over a Monolithic Oxidation Catalyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of cyanogen chloride was evaluated over a monolithic oxidation catalyst at temperatures between 200 and 300 deg C in air employing feed concentrations between 100 and 10,000 ppm...

  1. Uranium oxidation: characterization of oxides formed by reaction with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Smyrl, N.R.; Condon, J.B.; Eager, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Three different uranium oxide samples have been characterized with respect to the different preparation techniques. Results show that the water reaction with uranium metal occurs cyclically forming laminar layers of oxide which spall off due to the strain at the oxide/metal interface. Single laminae are released if liquid water is present due to the prizing penetration at the reaction zone. The rate of reaction of water with uranium is directly proportional to the amount of adsorbed water on the oxide product. Rapid transport is effected through the open hydrous oxide product. Dehydration of the hydrous oxide irreversibly forms a more inert oxide which cannot be rehydrated to the degree that prevails in the original hydrous product of uranium oxidation with water. 27 figures

  2. Green oxidations: Titanium dioxide induced tandem oxidation coupling reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Jeena, Vineet; Robinson, Ross S

    2009-01-01

    Summary The application of titanium dioxide as an oxidant in tandem oxidation type processes is described. Under microwave irradiation, quinoxalines have been synthesized in good yields from the corresponding ?-hydroxyketones.

  3. Energy demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L; Schipper, L; Meyers, S; Sathaye, J; Hara, Y

    1984-05-01

    This report brings together three papers on energy demand presented at the Energy Research Priorities Seminar held in Ottawa on 8-10 August 1983. The first paper suggests a framework in which energy demand studies may be organized if they are to be useful in policy-making. Disaggregation and the analysis of the chain of energy transformations are possible paths toward more stable and reliable parameters. The second paper points to another factor that leads to instability in sectoral parameters, namely a changeover from one technology to another; insofar as technologies producing a product (or service) vary in their energy intensity, a technological shift will also change the energy intensity of the product. Rapid technological change is characteristic of some sectors in developing countries, and may well account for the high aggregate GDP-elasticities of energy consumption observed. The third paper begins with estimates of these elasticities, which were greater than one for all the member countries of the Asian Development Bank in 1961-78. The high elasticities, together with extreme oil dependence, made them vulnerable to the drastic rise in the oil price after 1973. The author distinguishes three diverging patterns of national experience. The oil-surplus countries naturally gained from the rise in the oil price. Among oil-deficit countries, the newly industrialized countries expanded their exports so rapidly that the oil crisis no longer worried them. For the rest, balance of payments adjustments became a prime concern of policy. Whether they dealt with the oil bill by borrowing, by import substitution, or by demand restraint, the impact of energy on their growth was unmistakable. The paper also shows why energy-demand studies, and energy studies in general, deserve to be taken seriously. 16 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  4. Patterns of ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babar, T.F.; Khan, M.T.; Marwat, M.; Shah, A.; Murad, Y.; Khan, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)

  5. Patterns for Parallel Software Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega-Arjona, Jorge Luis

    2010-01-01

    Essential reading to understand patterns for parallel programming Software patterns have revolutionized the way we think about how software is designed, built, and documented, and the design of parallel software requires you to consider other particular design aspects and special skills. From clusters to supercomputers, success heavily depends on the design skills of software developers. Patterns for Parallel Software Design presents a pattern-oriented software architecture approach to parallel software design. This approach is not a design method in the classic sense, but a new way of managin

  6. Professional Java EE design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Yener, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Master Java EE design pattern implementation to improve your design skills and your application's architecture Professional Java EE Design Patterns is the perfect companion for anyone who wants to work more effectively with Java EE, and the only resource that covers both the theory and application of design patterns in solving real-world problems. The authors guide readers through both the fundamental and advanced features of Java EE 7, presenting patterns throughout, and demonstrating how they are used in day-to-day problem solving. As the most popular programming language in community-dri

  7. Oxidation of methyl heterocyclic compounds on vanadium oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanskaya, M.V.; Lejtis, L.A.; Iovel', I.G.; Gol'dberg, Yu.Sh.; Skolmejstere, R.A.; Golender, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Data on vapor-phase oxidation of methyl derivatives of thiophene, Δ 2 - thiazo line, pyridine, pyrazine and pyramidine on oxide vanadium-molybdenum catalysts to corresponding heterylaldehydes are generalized. The dependence of catalytic properties of oxide vanadium-molybdenum systems in oxidation reactions of methylheterocyclic compounds on V:Mo ratio in the catalyst is revealed. It is shown that heterocyclic compounds are coordinated by a heteroatom on Lewis centres of V-Mo-O-catalyst primarily with partially reduced vanadium ions

  8. Improved Understanding of In Situ Chemical Oxidation Contaminant Oxidation Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    natural oxidant demand •OH hydroxide radical Ox oxidant O3 ozone PCE perchloroethylene HSO5− peroxymonosulfate PNDA p...properties (e.g., soil mineralogy , natural carbon content) affect oxidant mobility and stability in the subsurface, and develop a standardized natural...chlorinated ethenes For contaminant oxidation by activated S2O82−, it is more difficult to develop a general description of kobs vs. T because there are

  9. Iron oxides photochemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesa, M.A.; Litter, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This work was intended to study the light irradiation influence of diverse wave-lengths on iron oxides dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objectives of this work were: the exploration of photochemical processes with the aim of its eventual application in: a) decontamination and chemical cleaning under special conditions; b) materials for solar energy conversion. (Author)

  10. Highly oxidized superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  11. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch-Morell Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  12. Wet oxidation of quinoline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A.B.; Kilen, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure (0.4 and 2 MPa). reaction time (30 and 60 min) and temperature (260 and 280 degrees C) on the wet oxidation of quinoline has been studied. The dominant parameters for the decomposition of quinoline were oxygen pressure and reaction temperature. whereas the reactio...

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  14. Dopamine Oxidation and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease remain unclear. Currently, there is a general agreement that mitochondrial dysfunction, α-synuclein aggregation, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and impaired protein degradation are involved in the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease. Aminochrome has been proposed to play an essential role in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, the formation of neurotoxic α-synuclein protofibrils, and impaired protein degradation. Here, we discuss the relationship between the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin, and the role of dopamine oxidation to aminochrome in autophagy dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons. Aminochrome induces the following: (i the formation of α-synuclein protofibrils that inactivate chaperone-mediated autophagy; (ii the formation of adducts with α- and β-tubulin, which induce the aggregation of the microtubules required for the fusion of autophagy vacuoles and lysosomes.

  15. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  16. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1 H-PEO and 13 C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  17. Nitric oxide: a physiologic messenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, C J; Dinerman, J L; Snyder, S H

    1994-02-01

    To review the physiologic role of nitric oxide, an unusual messenger molecule that mediates blood vessel relaxation, neurotransmission, and pathogen suppression. A MEDLINE search of articles published from 1987 to 1993 that addressed nitric oxide and the enzyme that synthesizes it, nitric oxide synthase. Animal and human studies were selected from 3044 articles to analyze the clinical importance of nitric oxide. Descriptions of the structure and function of nitric oxide synthase were selected to show how nitric oxide acts as a biological messenger molecule. Biochemical and physiologic studies were analyzed if the same results were found by three or more independent observers. Two major classes of nitric oxide synthase enzymes produce nitric oxide. The constitutive isoforms found in endothelial cells and neurons release small amounts of nitric oxide for brief periods to signal adjacent cells, whereas the inducible isoform found in macrophages releases large amounts of nitric oxide continuously to eliminate bacteria and parasites. By diffusing into adjacent cells and binding to enzymes that contain iron, nitric oxide plays many important physiologic roles. It regulates blood pressure, transmits signals between neurons, and suppresses pathogens. Excess amounts, however, can damage host cells, causing neurotoxicity during strokes and causing the hypotension associated with sepsis. Nitric oxide is a simple molecule with many physiologic roles in the cardiovascular, neurologic, and immune systems. Although the general principles of nitric oxide synthesis are known, further research is necessary to determine what role it plays in causing disease.

  18. Fe2+ oxidation rate drastically affect the formation and phase of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral occurred in acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shan; Zhou Lixiang

    2012-01-01

    During the processes of secondary iron hydroxysulfate mineral formation, Fe 2+ ion was oxidized by the following three methods: (1) biooxidation treatment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans); (2) rapid abiotic oxidation of Fe 2+ with H 2 O 2 (rapid oxidation treatment); (3) slow abiotic oxidation of Fe 2+ with H 2 O 2 (slow oxidation treatment). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, element composition, precipitate weight and total Fe removal efficiency were analyzed. The XRD patterns and element composition of precipitates synthesized through the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments well coincide with those of potassium jarosite, while precipitates formed at the initial stage of incubation in the rapid oxidation treatment showed a similar XRD pattern to schwertmannite. With the ongoing incubation, XRD patterns and element composition of the precipitates that occurred in the rapid oxidation treatment were gradually close to those in the biooxidation and the slow oxidation treatments. Due to the inhibition of A. ferrooxidans itself and its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in aggregation of precipitates, the amount of precipitates and soluble Fe removal efficiency were lower in the biooxidation treatment than in the slow oxidation treatment. Therefore, it is concluded that Fe 2+ oxidation rate can greatly affect the mineral phase of precipitates, and slow oxidation of Fe 2+ is helpful in improving jarosite formation. - Highlights: ► Slow oxidation of Fe 2+ is helpful in jarosite formation. ► The already-formed schwertmannite can be gradually transformed to jarosite. ► Precipitates formation can be inhibited probably by EPS from A. ferrooxidans.

  19. It has been suggested that oxidative stress, especially oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nabipour

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. 2Department of Cardiology ... oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), may play a causative role in ... the oxidation of lipids in the cell membrane especially the oxidation of LDL.

  20. Oxidative Stress in BPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, M; Verit, A; Ciftci, H; Yeni, E; Aktan, E; Topal, U; Erel, O

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH and this may assist to contribute to the realistic explanation of the ethiopathogenesis of BPH. Seventy four newly diagnosed men with BPH (mean age: 54+/-11.2), who had not undergone any previous treatment for BPH, and 62 healthy volunteers (mean age: 55+/-14) were enrolled in the present study. To determine the antioxidative status of plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated, and to determine the oxidative status of plasma (TOS) total peroxide levels were measured. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress (OSI). Data are presented as mean SD +/- unless specified. Student t-test and correlation analyses were used to evaluate the statistical significance differences in the median values recorded for all parameters between BPH and control group. Plasma TAC TOS were found in patients and controls (1.70 +/- 0.32, 1.68 +/- 0.19 micromol Trolox Equiv./L), (12.48 +/- 1.98, 12.40 +/- 1.14 micromol / L) respectively. OSI was calculated as 7.57 +/- 1.91, 7.48 +/- 1.33, respectively. Plasma TAC, TOS and OSI levels were not found to be significantly difference between patients and control subjects (p>0.05, p>0.05, p>0.05). The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis.

  1. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  2. Electrochemical analysis of metal oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Pikna, L.

    90-91, - (2003), s. 45-50 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : powder electroanalysis * Fe oxides * Mn oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  3. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  4. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  5. Zinc tin oxide as high-temperature stable recombination layer for mesoscopic perovskite/silicon monolithic tandem solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Jé ré mie; Walter, Arnaud; Rucavado, Esteban; Moon, Soo Jin; Sacchetto, Davide; Rienaecker, Michael; Peibst, Robby; Brendel, Rolf; Niquille, Xavier; De Wolf, Stefaan; Lö per, Philipp; Morales-Masis, Monica; Nicolay, Sylvain; Niesen, Bjoern; Ballif, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    the concept, we fabricate monolithic tandem cells with mesoscopic top cell with up to 16% efficiency. We then investigate the effect of zinc tin oxide layer thickness variation, showing a strong influence on the optical interference pattern within the tandem

  6. Micrometer-sized isolated patterns of conductive ZnO derived by micromoulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Ole F.; Elshof, Johan E. ten; Blank, Dave A.H. [Inorganic Materials Science, Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    We succeeded in the fabrication of large-area patterns with micrometer-sized, isolated features of a simple oxide by a technically simple patterning method. By micromoulding a polymeric precursor solution for ZnO with an elastomeric (PDMS) mould, and a subsequent heat treatment, patterned ZnO films could be obtained. The features of the various patterns, including parallel or crossed lines and arrangements of dots, were several micrometers in diameter, and so were the spaces between them. The features were nearly isolated from each other, as the micromoulding process left behind a thin residual layer of ZnO of only about 15 nm thickness. By applying a tempering step, the transparent films could be rendered conductive. The process was applied successfully also to other oxide materials such as Bi2212 or CoFe2O4.

  7. Review Of Plutonium Oxidation Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 (micro)m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  8. Capillarity Guided Patterning of Microliquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myeongwoo; Park, Woohyun; Na, Sangcheol; Paik, Sang-Min; Lee, Hyunjae; Park, Jae Woo; Kim, Ho-Young; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-06-01

    Soft lithography and other techniques have been developed to investigate biological and chemical phenomena as an alternative to photolithography-based patterning methods that have compatibility problems. Here, a simple approach for nonlithographic patterning of liquids and gels inside microchannels is described. Using a design that incorporates strategically placed microstructures inside the channel, microliquids or gels can be spontaneously trapped and patterned when the channel is drained. The ability to form microscale patterns inside microfluidic channels using simple fluid drain motion offers many advantages. This method is geometrically analyzed based on hydrodynamics and verified with simulation and experiments. Various materials (i.e., water, hydrogels, and other liquids) are successfully patterned with complex shapes that are isolated from each other. Multiple cell types are patterned within the gels. Capillarity guided patterning (CGP) is fast, simple, and robust. It is not limited by pattern shape, size, cell type, and material. In a simple three-step process, a 3D cancer model that mimics cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions is engineered. The simplicity and robustness of the CGP will be attractive for developing novel in vitro models of organ-on-a-chip and other biological experimental platforms amenable to long-term observation of dynamic events using advanced imaging and analytical techniques. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  10. Pattern replication by confined dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Schäffer, E.; Morariu, M.D.; Steiner, U

    2003-01-01

    The dewetting of a polymer film in a confined geometry was employed in a pattern-replication process. The instability of dewetting films is pinned by a structured confining surface, thereby replicating its topographic pattern. Depending on the surface energy of the confining surface, two different

  11. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  12. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  13. Chopper model of pattern recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J.L.; Enter, A.C.D. van

    A simple model is proposed that allows an efficient storage and retrieval of random patterns. Also correlated patterns can be handled. The data are stored in an Ising-spin system with ferromagnetic interactions between all the spins and the main idea is to "chop" the system along the boundaries

  14. Hand aperture patterns in prehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Jeannerod, Marc

    Although variations in the standard prehensile pattern can be found in the literature, these alternative patterns have never been studied systematically. This was the goal of the current paper. Ten participants picked up objects with a pincer grip. Objects (3, 5, or 7 cm in diameter) were placed at

  15. Characterization and Utilization of Calcium Oxide (CaO) Thermally Decomposed from Fish Bones as a Catalyst in the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aldes Lesbani; Sabat Okta Ceria Sitompul; Risfidian Mohadi; Nurlisa Hidayati

    2016-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of fish bones to obtain calcium oxide (CaO) was conducted at various temperatures of 400, 500, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 °C. The calcium oxide was then characterized using X-ray diffractometer, FTIR spectrophotometer, and SEM analysis. The calcium oxide obtained from the decomposition at 1000 °C was then used as a catalyst in the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Diffraction pattern of the calcium oxide produced from decomposition at 1000...

  16. Oxidative Decarboxylation of Levulinic Acid by Cupric Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, cupric oxides was found to effectively oxidize levulinic acid (LA and lead to the decarboxylation of levulinic acid to 2-butanone. The effects of cupric oxide dosage, reaction time and initial pH value were investigated in batch experiments and a plausible mechanism was proposed. The results showed that LA decarboxylation over cupric oxides at around 300 °C under acidic conditions produced the highest yield of butanone (67.5%. In order to elucidate the catalytic activity of cupric oxides, XRD, AFM, XPS and H2-TPR techniques was applied to examine their molecular surfaces and their effects on the reaction process.

  17. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  18. Dynamic Skin Patterns in Cephalopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. How

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are unrivaled in the natural world in their ability to alter their visual appearance. These mollusks have evolved a complex system of dermal units under neural, hormonal, and muscular control to produce an astonishing variety of body patterns. With parallels to the pixels on a television screen, cephalopod chromatophores can be coordinated to produce dramatic, dynamic, and rhythmic displays, defined collectively here as “dynamic patterns.” This study examines the nature, context, and potential functions of dynamic patterns across diverse cephalopod taxa. Examples are presented for 21 species, including 11 previously unreported in the scientific literature. These range from simple flashing or flickering patterns, to highly complex passing wave patterns involving multiple skin fields.

  19. Dynamic Skin Patterns in Cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J.; Norman, Mark D.; Finn, Julian; Chung, Wen-Sung; Marshall, N. Justin

    2017-01-01

    Cephalopods are unrivaled in the natural world in their ability to alter their visual appearance. These mollusks have evolved a complex system of dermal units under neural, hormonal, and muscular control to produce an astonishing variety of body patterns. With parallels to the pixels on a television screen, cephalopod chromatophores can be coordinated to produce dramatic, dynamic, and rhythmic displays, defined collectively here as “dynamic patterns.” This study examines the nature, context, and potential functions of dynamic patterns across diverse cephalopod taxa. Examples are presented for 21 species, including 11 previously unreported in the scientific literature. These range from simple flashing or flickering patterns, to highly complex passing wave patterns involving multiple skin fields. PMID:28674500

  20. Nonlinear waves and pattern dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2018-01-01

    This book addresses the fascinating phenomena associated with nonlinear waves and spatio-temporal patterns. These appear almost everywhere in nature from sand bed forms to brain patterns, and yet their understanding still presents fundamental scientific challenges. The reader will learn here, in particular, about the current state-of-the art and new results in: Nonlinear water waves: resonance, solitons, focusing, Bose-Einstein condensation, as well as and their relevance for the sea environment (sea-wind interaction, sand bed forms, fiber clustering) Pattern formation in non-equilibrium media: soap films, chimera patterns in oscillating media, viscoelastic Couette-Taylor flow, flow in the wake behind a heated cylinder, other pattern formation. The editors and authors dedicate this book to the memory of Alexander Ezersky, Professor of Fluid Mechanics at the University of Caen Normandie (France) from September 2007 to July 2016. Before 2007, he had served as a Senior Scientist at the Institute of Applied Physi...

  1. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Oxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid for Adsorption-Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Saiha Omar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on synthesis of zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO nanocomposites in the presence of diethylenetriamine (DETA via a facile microwave method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the nanocomposites correspond to the ZnO hexagonal phase wurtzite structure. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM images revealed that the ZnO nanorods, with an average length : diameter ratio of 10, were successfully deposited on the rGO sheets. Under the irradiation of sunlight, the nanocomposites showed enhanced adsorption-photocatalysis by more than twofold and photocurrent response by sixfold compared to the ZnO. The excellent photoactivity performance of the nanocomposites is contributed by smaller ZnO nanorod and the presence of rGO that acts as a photosensitizer by transferring electrons to the conduction band of ZnO within the nanocomposite during sunlight illumination.

  2. Mobile Design Pattern Gallery UI Patterns for Mobile Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Neil, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    When you're under pressure to produce a well designed, easy-to-navigate mobile app, there's no time to reinvent the wheel. This concise book provides a handy reference to 70 mobile app design patterns, illustrated by more than 400 screenshots from current iOS, Android, BlackBerry, WebOS, Windows Mobile, and Symbian apps. User experience professional Theresa Neil (Designing Web Interfaces) walks you through design patterns in 10 separate categories, including anti-patterns. Whether you're designing a simple iPhone application or one that's meant to work for every popular mobile OS on the mark

  3. Security patterns in practice designing secure architectures using software patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Buglioni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Learn to combine security theory and code to produce secure systems Security is clearly a crucial issue to consider during the design and implementation of any distributed software architecture. Security patterns are increasingly being used by developers who take security into serious consideration from the creation of their work. Written by the authority on security patterns, this unique book examines the structure and purpose of security patterns, illustrating their use with the help of detailed implementation advice, numerous code samples, and descriptions in UML. Provides

  4. Interactions between iron oxides and copper oxides under hydrothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G B; Owen, D G

    1995-08-01

    Under hydrothermal conditions, magnetite and hematite have been shown to undergo interconversion reactions, the extent of which is controlled in part by the presence of copper oxides. In oxygenated water, the degree to which magnetite was oxidized to hematite was found to be dependent on the presence of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O. When these materials were absent, the oxidation of magnetite was limited by the dissolved oxygen in the aqueous system. Participation of the copper oxides in the oxidation process was confirmed by more complete conversion of magnetite was also influenced by the presence of the copper oxides. In addition to driving the reduction to completion, the presence of the copper oxides also exerted a strong influence over the morphology of the magnetite that formed. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Iron oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-03-01

    The current status of knowledge regarding the surfaces of the iron oxides, magnetite (Fe3O4), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), haematite (α-Fe2O3), and wüstite (Fe1-xO) is reviewed. The paper starts with a summary of applications where iron oxide surfaces play a major role, including corrosion, catalysis, spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), biomedicine, photoelectrochemical water splitting and groundwater remediation. The bulk structure and properties are then briefly presented; each compound is based on a close-packed anion lattice, with a different distribution and oxidation state of the Fe cations in interstitial sites. The bulk defect chemistry is dominated by cation vacancies and interstitials (not oxygen vacancies) and this provides the context to understand iron oxide surfaces, which represent the front line in reduction and oxidation processes. Fe diffuses in and out from the bulk in response to the O2 chemical potential, forming sometimes complex intermediate phases at the surface. For example, α-Fe2O3 adopts Fe3O4-like surfaces in reducing conditions, and Fe3O4 adopts Fe1-xO-like structures in further reducing conditions still. It is argued that known bulk defect structures are an excellent starting point in building models for iron oxide surfaces. The atomic-scale structure of the low-index surfaces of iron oxides is the major focus of this review. Fe3O4 is the most studied iron oxide in surface science, primarily because its stability range corresponds nicely to the ultra-high vacuum environment. It is also an electrical conductor, which makes it straightforward to study with the most commonly used surface science methods such as photoemission spectroscopies (XPS, UPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The impact of the surfaces on the measurement of bulk properties such as magnetism, the Verwey transition and the (predicted) half-metallicity is discussed. The best understood iron oxide surface at present is probably Fe3O4(100); the structure is

  6. Manganese Oxidation by Bacteria: Biogeochemical Aspects

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sujith, P.P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Manganese is an essential trace metal that is not as readily oxidizable like iron. Several bacterial groups posses the ability to oxidize Mn effectively competing with chemical oxidation. The oxides of Mn are the strongest of the oxidants, next...

  7. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  8. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  9. Electrorheology of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Sang Guk

    2012-04-01

    Novel polarizable graphene oxide (GO) particles with oxidized groups on their edge and basal planes were prepared by a modified Hummers method, and their electro-responsive electrorheological (ER) characteristics when dispersed in silicone oil were examined with and without an electric field applied. The fibrillation phenomenon of this GO-based electro-responsive fluid was also observed via an optical microscope under an applied electric field. Both flow curves and dielectric spectra of the ER fluid were measured using a rotational rheometer and a LCR meter, respectively. Its viscoelastic properties of both storage and loss moduli were also examined using a vertical oscillation rheometer equipped with a high voltage generator, finding that the GO-based smart ER system behaves as a viscoelastic material under an applied electric field.

  10. Mechanochemistry of titanium oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanochemistry represents an alternative route in synthesis of nanomaterials. Mechanochemical routes are attractive because of their simplicity, flexibility, and ability to prepare materials by solid state reactions at room temperature. The aim of this work is the mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured titanium oxides of different composition starting from mixtures of Ti and TiO2, TiO and TiO2 or Ti2O3 and TiO2. Emphasis is on the Magneli phases Ti4O7 and Ti5O9 because their mixture is commercially known as EBONEX material. The materials prepared were characterized by XRPD, TG/DTA analysis, SEM and optical microscopy. Titanium monoxide and several Magneli oxides, Ti4O7, Ti5O9 and Ti6O11, are successfully prepared. The results are very interesting because the EBONEX materials were prepared at lower than usual temperature, which would decrease the effective cost of production.

  11. Roentgenoelectronic investigation into oxidation of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, A.G.; Rozenfel'd, I.L.; Kazanskij, L.P.; Machavariani, G.V.

    1978-01-01

    Kinetics of iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloy oxidation (of the Kh13 and Kh18N10T steels) in oxygen was investigated using X-ray electron spectroscopy. It was found that according to X-ray electron spectra chromium oxidation kinetics in the iron-chromium alloy differs significantly from oxidation kinetics of chromium pattern. Layer by layer X-ray electron analysis showed that chromium is subjected to a deeper oxidation as compared to iron, and accordingly, Cr 2 O 3 layer with pure iron impregnations is placed between the layer of mixed oxide (Fe 3 O 4 +Cr 2 O 3 ) and metal. A model of the iron-chromium alloy surface is suggested. The mixed oxide composition on the steel surface is presented as spinel Fesub(2+x)Crsub(1-x)Osub(y)

  12. Preparation of self-organized porous anodic niobium oxide microcones and their surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Y.; Minami, T.; Mayama, H.; Tsujii, K.; Fushimi, K.; Aoki, Y.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Habazaki, H.

    2009-01-01

    Porous anodic niobium oxide with a pore size of ∼10 nm was formed at 10 V in glycerol electrolyte containing 0.6 mol dm -3 K 2 HPO 4 and 0.2 mol dm -3 K 3 PO 4 at 433 K. After prolonged anodizing for 5.4 ks, niobium oxide microcones develop on the surface. X-ray diffraction patterns of the anodized specimens revealed that the initially formed anodic oxide is amorphous, but an amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs during anodizing. As a consequence of the preferential chemical dissolution of the initially formed amorphous oxide, due to different solubility of the amorphous and crystalline oxides, crystalline oxide microcones appear on the film surface after prolonged anodizing. The surface is superhydrophilic. After coating with fluorinated alkylsilane, the surface becomes superhydrophobic with a contact angle of 158 o for water. The surface is also oil repellent, with a contact angle as high as 140 o for salad oil.

  13. Detection of HOCl-mediated protein oxidation products in the extracellular matrix of human atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Linton, Stuart M; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Oxidation is believed to play a role in atherosclerosis. Oxidized lipids, sterols and proteins have been detected in early, intermediate and advanced human lesions at elevated levels. The spectrum of oxidized side-chain products detected on proteins from homogenates of advanced human lesions has...... been interpreted in terms of the occurrence of two oxidative mechanisms, one involving oxygen-derived radicals catalysed by trace transition metal ions, and a second involving chlorinating species (HOCl or Cl2), generated by the haem enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). As MPO is released extracellularly...... for 83-96% of the total oxidized protein side-chain products detected in these plaques. Oxidation of matrix components extracted from healthy artery tissue, and model proteins, with reagent HOCl is shown to give rise to a similar pattern of products to those detected in advanced human lesions...

  14. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  15. Chemical oxidizers treat wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the inherent benefits of these original oxidation systems, a second generation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has emerged. These processes combine key features of the first generation technologies with more sophisticated advances in UV technology, such as the new pulsed plasma xenon flash lamp that emits high-energy, high-intensity UV light. Second generation systems can be equipped with a transmittance controller to prevent lamp fouling or scaling. The coupling of the first generation's technology with the new UV sources provides the rapid destruction of chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons and humic acids from contaminated water. It also is effective in the treatment of organic laden gases from soil vapor extraction systems. AOPs may promote the oxidation (and subsequent removal) of heavy metals in water, though few data are available to verify the claim. The success of AOPs, including ozonation with UV light, hydrogen peroxide with UV light and advanced photolysis, is linked with their creation of hydroxyl-free radicals (OH·) that are effective in eliminating contaminants such as formaldehyde, chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. Hydroxyl free-radicals are consumed in microsecond reactions and exhibit little substrate selectivity with the exception of halogenated alkanes such as chloroform. They can act as chain carriers. Given their power, hydroxyl free-radicals react with virtually all organic solutes more quickly (especially in water) than any other oxidants, except fluorine. There are projects that have found the combination of some AOPs to be the most efficient organic destruction techniques for the job. For example, one project successfully remediated groundwater contaminated with gasoline and Number 2 diesel through successive treatments of ozone and hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet light, followed by granular activated carbon. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Krypton oxides under pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Łata, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300?GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamical...

  17. Radiolytic graphite oxidation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minshall, P.C.; Sadler, I.A.; Wickham, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of radiolytic oxidation in graphite-moderated CO 2 -cooled reactors has long been recognised, especially in the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors where potential rates are higher because of the higher gas pressure and ratings than the earlier Magnox designs. In all such reactors, the rate of oxidation is partly inhibited by the CO produced in the reaction and, in the AGR, further reduced by the deliberate addition of CH 4 . Significant roles are also played by H 2 and H 2 O. This paper reviews briefly the mechanisms of these processes and the data on which they are based. However, operational experience has demonstrated that these basic principles are unsatisfactory in a number of respects. Gilsocarbon graphites produced by different manufacturers have demonstrated a significant difference in oxidation rate despite a similar specification and apparent equivalence in their pore size and distribution, considered to be the dominant influence on oxidation rate for a given coolant-gas composition. Separately, the inhibiting influence of CH 4 , which for many years had been considered to arise from the formation of a sacrificial deposit on the pore walls, cannot adequately be explained by the actual quantities of such deposits found in monitoring samples which frequently contain far less deposited carbon than do samples from Magnox reactors where the only source of such deposits is the CO. The paper also describes the current status of moderator weight-loss predictions for Magnox and AGR Moderators and the validation of the POGO and DIFFUSE6 codes respectively. 2 refs, 5 figs

  18. Oxidative stability of polyaniline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Exnerová, Milena; Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Hromádková, Jiřina; Prokeš, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2012), s. 1026-1033 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * nanotubes * oxidation stability Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.770, year: 2012

  19. Ceruloplasmin Oxidation, a Feature of Parkinson's Disease CSF, Inhibits Ferroxidase Activity and Promotes Cellular Iron Retention

    KAUST Repository

    Olivieri, S.

    2011-12-14

    Parkinson\\'s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by oxidative stress and CNS iron deposition. Ceruloplasmin is an extracellular ferroxidase that regulates cellular iron loading and export, and hence protects tissues from oxidative damage. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we investigated ceruloplasmin patterns in the CSF of human Parkinson\\'s disease patients. Parkinson\\'s disease ceruloplasmin profiles proved more acidic than those found in healthy controls and in other human neurological diseases (peripheral neuropathies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer\\'s disease); degrees of acidity correlated with patients\\' pathological grading. Applying an unsupervised pattern recognition procedure to the two-dimensional electrophoresis images, we identified representative pathological clusters. In vitro oxidation of CSF in two-dimensional electrophoresis generated a ceruloplasmin shift resembling that observed in Parkinson\\'s disease and co-occurred with an increase in protein carbonylation. Likewise, increased protein carbonylation was observed in Parkinson\\'s disease CSF, and the same modification was directly identified in these samples on ceruloplasmin. These results indicate that ceruloplasmin oxidation contributes to pattern modification in Parkinson\\'s disease. From the functional point of view, ceruloplasmin oxidation caused a decrease in ferroxidase activity, which in turn promotes intracellular iron retention in neuronal cell lines as well as in primary neurons, which are more sensitive to iron accumulation. Accordingly, the presence of oxidized ceruloplasmin in Parkinson\\'s disease CSF might be used as a marker for oxidative damage and might provide new insights into the underlying pathological mechanisms.

  20. Pattern Classification in Kampo Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yakubo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification is very unique in traditional medicine. Kampo medical patterns have transformed over time during Japan’s history. In the 17th to 18th centuries, Japanese doctors advocated elimination of the Ming medical theory and followed the basic concepts put forth by Shang Han Lun and Jin Gui Yao Lue in the later Han dynasty (25–220 AD. The physician Todo Yoshimasu (1702–1773 emphasized that an appropriate treatment could be administered if a set of patterns could be identified. This principle is still referred to as “matching of pattern and formula” and is the basic concept underlying Kampo medicine today. In 1868, the Meiji restoration occurred, and the new government changed its policies to follow that of the European countries, adopting only Western medicine. Physicians trained in Western medicine played an important role in the revival of Kampo medicine, modernizing Kampo patterns to avoid confusion with Western biomedical terminology. In order to understand the Japanese version of traditional disorders and patterns, background information on the history of Kampo and its role in the current health care system in Japan is important. In this paper we overviewed the formation of Kampo patterns.

  1. Hand aperture patterns in prehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Raoul M; Zaal, Frank T J M; Jeannerod, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Although variations in the standard prehensile pattern can be found in the literature, these alternative patterns have never been studied systematically. This was the goal of the current paper. Ten participants picked up objects with a pincer grip. Objects (3, 5, or 7cm in diameter) were placed at 30, 60, 90, or 120cm from the hands' starting location. Usually the hand was opened gradually to a maximum immediately followed by hand closing, called the standard hand opening pattern. In the alternative opening patterns the hand opening was bumpy, or the hand aperture stayed at a plateau before closing started. Two participants in particular delayed the start of grasping with respect to start of reaching, with the delay time increasing with object distance. For larger object distances and smaller object sizes, the bumpy and plateau hand opening patterns were used more often. We tentatively concluded that the alternative hand opening patterns extended the hand opening phase, to arrive at the appropriate hand aperture at the appropriate time to close the hand for grasping the object. Variations in hand opening patterns deserve attention because this might lead to new insights into the coordination of reaching and grasping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging patterns in elastofibroma dorsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Vanel, D.; Pollastri, P.; Balladelli, A.; Alberghini, M.; Staals, E.L.; Monti, C.; Galletti, S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare pseudotumor of the soft tissues. Its clinico-radiologic characteristics lead to a correct diagnosis. Material and methods: We followed 43 patients with elastofibroma dorsi with a confirmed histological diagnosis or on the basis of typical imaging pattern (ultrasound, CT, MR) confirmed by evolution. Results: Elastofibroma is prevalent in females, its onset occurs around 60 years of age and is most frequently localized in the deep subscapular region (93%), bilateral in 54% of cases. In 7% it was found in an atypical isolated suprascapular region, in 7% it was synchronous to that in the subscapular region. Four ultrasound patterns were detected: Type I (54%) inhomogeneous fasciculated, Type II (22%) inhomogeneous aspecific, Type III (15%) hyperechogeneous, Type IV (9%) hypoechogeneous. Three patterns were detected at CT and MR: Type A (84%) inhomogeneous fasciculated corresponding to Types I and III and partially to Type II ultrasound pattern, Type B (8%) inhomogeneous aspecific corresponding to Type II ultrasound pattern; Type C (8%) homogeneous isodense or isointense to the muscle corresponding to Type IV ultrasound pattern. Conclusion: A solid, slow-growing lesion, in the deep periscapular region in females aged between 50 and 60 years, with a typical fasciculated pattern is pathognomonic of elastofibroma dorsi and bilateral location convalidates diagnosis. Ultrasound is sufficient to orientate diagnosis. CT and/or MR are reserved only for non-fasciculated ultrasound patterns, when site is atypical or in candidates for surgery. Biopsy is reserved only in cases where integrated imaging shows a non-fasciculated pattern to differentiate it from other malignant lesions.

  3. Imaging patterns in elastofibroma dorsi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M. [Diagnostic Ultrasound, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: milva.battaglia@ior.it; Vanel, D. [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Pollastri, P. [Diagnostic Ultrasound, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Balladelli, A. [Laboratory of Oncologic Research, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M. [Surgical Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Staals, E.L. [5th Orthopaedic Division, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Monti, C. [Radiology Department ' Casa Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo' , Bologna (Italy); Galletti, S. [Diagnostic Ultrasound, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via Pupilli 1, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Introduction: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare pseudotumor of the soft tissues. Its clinico-radiologic characteristics lead to a correct diagnosis. Material and methods: We followed 43 patients with elastofibroma dorsi with a confirmed histological diagnosis or on the basis of typical imaging pattern (ultrasound, CT, MR) confirmed by evolution. Results: Elastofibroma is prevalent in females, its onset occurs around 60 years of age and is most frequently localized in the deep subscapular region (93%), bilateral in 54% of cases. In 7% it was found in an atypical isolated suprascapular region, in 7% it was synchronous to that in the subscapular region. Four ultrasound patterns were detected: Type I (54%) inhomogeneous fasciculated, Type II (22%) inhomogeneous aspecific, Type III (15%) hyperechogeneous, Type IV (9%) hypoechogeneous. Three patterns were detected at CT and MR: Type A (84%) inhomogeneous fasciculated corresponding to Types I and III and partially to Type II ultrasound pattern, Type B (8%) inhomogeneous aspecific corresponding to Type II ultrasound pattern; Type C (8%) homogeneous isodense or isointense to the muscle corresponding to Type IV ultrasound pattern. Conclusion: A solid, slow-growing lesion, in the deep periscapular region in females aged between 50 and 60 years, with a typical fasciculated pattern is pathognomonic of elastofibroma dorsi and bilateral location convalidates diagnosis. Ultrasound is sufficient to orientate diagnosis. CT and/or MR are reserved only for non-fasciculated ultrasound patterns, when site is atypical or in candidates for surgery. Biopsy is reserved only in cases where integrated imaging shows a non-fasciculated pattern to differentiate it from other malignant lesions.

  4. Epitaxial patterning of thin-films: conventional lithographies and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Krishnan, Kannan M

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film based novel magnetic and electronic devices have entered a new era in which the film crystallography, structural coherence, and epitaxy play important roles in determining their functional properties. The capabilities of controlling such structural and functional properties are being continuously developed by various physical deposition technologies. Epitaxial patterning strategies further allow the miniaturization of such novel devices, which incorporates thin-film components into nanoscale architectures while keeping their functional properties unmodified from their ideal single-crystal values. In the past decade, epitaxial patterning methods on the laboratory scale have been reported to meet distinct scientific inquires, in which the techniques and processes used differ from one to the other. In this review we summarize many of these pioneering endeavors in epitaxial patterning of thin-film devices that use both conventional and novel lithography techniques. These methods demonstrate epitaxial patterning for a broad range of materials (metals, oxides, and semiconductors) and cover common device length scales from micrometer to sub-hundred nanometer. Whilst we have been motivated by magnetic materials and devices, we present our outlook on developing systematic-strategies for epitaxial patterning of functional materials which will pave the road for the design, discovery and industrialization of next-generation advanced magnetic and electronic nano-devices. (topical review)

  5. Molecular theory of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheka, Elena F; Popova, Nadezhda A

    2013-08-28

    Applied to graphene oxide, the molecular theory of graphene considers its oxide as a final product in the succession of polyderivatives related to a series of oxidation reactions involving different oxidants. The graphene oxide structure is created in the course of a stepwise computational synthesis of polyoxides of the (5,5) nanographene molecule governed by an algorithm that takes into account the molecule's natural radicalization due to the correlation of its odd electrons, the extremely strong influence of the structure on properties, and a sharp response of the molecule behavior on small actions of external factors. Taking these together, the theory has allowed for a clear, transparent and understandable explanation of the hot points of graphene oxide chemistry and suggesting reliable models of both chemically produced and chemically reduced graphene oxides.

  6. The convection patterns in microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.

    1991-07-01

    The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs

  7. Participation patterns in adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels...... problems that otherwise lead to underinvestment in skills and/or inequity in the distribution of access to education and training and hence skills. Hence, it is argued that institutional contexts and public policy measures condition participation patterns in adult education, and are thus worthwhile...

  8. Tailoring Charge Recombination in Photoelectrodes Using Oxide Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iandolo, Beniamino; Wickman, Björn; Svensson, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing semiconductor devices for solar energy conversion requires an explicit control of the recombination of photogenerated electron−hole pairs. Here we show how the recombination of charge carriers can be controlled in semiconductor thin films by surface patterning with oxide nanodisks....... The control mechanism relies on the formation of dipole-like electric fields at the interface that, depending on the field direction, attract or repel minority carriers from underneath the disks. The charge recombination rate can be controlled through the choice of oxide material and the surface coverage...... of nanodisks. We provide proof-of-principle demonstration of this approach by patterning the surface of Fe2O3, one of the most studied semiconductors for light-driven water splitting, with TiO2 and Cu2O nanodisks. We expect this method to be generally applicable to a range of semiconductor-based solar energy...

  9. Structure of chitosan thermosensitive gels containing graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylman, Michał; Pieklarz, Katarzyna; Owczarz, Piotr; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Modrzejewska, Zofia

    2018-06-01

    The supramolecular hydrogels of chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared at temperature of the human body, by controlling the concentration of GO and ratio of chitosan to GO. During the preparation of gels the sodium β-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) was used as a neutralizing agent. The structure of obtained gels was determined on the basis of FTIR spectra and XRD diffraction patterns. The results of structural studies have been referenced to gels without graphene oxide. It was found that the gels crystalline structure after the addition of GO does not change. The XRD diffraction patterns are characterized by a number of peaks associated with precipitated NaCl during drying and presence of sodium β-glycerophosphate.

  10. High temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajitno, Djoko Hadi; Syarif, Dani Gustaman

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate high temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel SS 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO 2 . The oxidation was performed at high temperatures ranging from 600 to 800°C. The oxidation time was 60 minutes. After oxidation the surface of the samples was analyzed by different methods including, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of stainless steel AISI 304 alloys is dominated by iron oxide, Fe 2 O 3 . Minor element such as Cr 2 O 3 is also appeared in the diffraction pattern. Characterization by optical microscope showed that cross section microstructure of stainless steel changed after oxidized with the oxide scale on the surface stainless steels. SEM and x-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide of ZrO 2 appeared on the surface of stainless steel. Kinetic rate of oxidation of austenite stainless steel AISI 304 showed that increasing oxidation temperature and time will increase oxidation rate

  11. High temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajitno, Djoko Hadi, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id; Syarif, Dani Gustaman, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id [Research Center for Nuclear Materials and Radiometry, Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    The objective of this study is to evaluate high temperature oxidation behavior of austenitic stainless steel SS 304 in steam of nanofluids contain nanoparticle ZrO{sub 2}. The oxidation was performed at high temperatures ranging from 600 to 800°C. The oxidation time was 60 minutes. After oxidation the surface of the samples was analyzed by different methods including, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of stainless steel AISI 304 alloys is dominated by iron oxide, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Minor element such as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} is also appeared in the diffraction pattern. Characterization by optical microscope showed that cross section microstructure of stainless steel changed after oxidized with the oxide scale on the surface stainless steels. SEM and x-ray diffraction examination show that the oxide of ZrO{sub 2} appeared on the surface of stainless steel. Kinetic rate of oxidation of austenite stainless steel AISI 304 showed that increasing oxidation temperature and time will increase oxidation rate.

  12. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  13. A pattern theory of self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eGallagher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available I argue for a pattern theory of self as a useful way to organize an interdisciplinary approach to discussions of what constitutes a self. According to the pattern theory, a self is constituted by a number of characteristic features or aspects that may include minimal embodied, minimal experiential, affective, intersubjective, psychological/cognitive, narrative, extended and situated aspects. A pattern theory of self helps to clarify various interpretations of self as compatible or commensurable instead of thinking them in opposition, and it helps to show how various aspects of self may be related across certain dimensions. I also suggest that a pattern theory of self can help to adjudicate (or at least map the differences between the idea that the self correlates to self-referential processing in the cortical midline structures of the brain and other narrower or wider conceptions of self.

  14. A pattern theory of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a pattern theory of self as a useful way to organize an interdisciplinary approach to discussions of what constitutes a self. According to the pattern theory, a self is constituted by a number of characteristic features or aspects that may include minimal embodied, minimal experiential, affective, intersubjective, psychological/cognitive, narrative, extended, and situated aspects. A pattern theory of self helps to clarify various interpretations of self as compatible or commensurable instead of thinking them in opposition, and it helps to show how various aspects of self may be related across certain dimensions. I also suggest that a pattern theory of self can help to adjudicate (or at least map the differences) between the idea that the self correlates to self-referential processing in the cortical midline structures of the brain and other narrower or wider conceptions of self.

  15. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  16. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  17. County business patterns, 1996 : Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1997 : Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1996 : Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1996 : Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1996 : Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1997 : Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1997 : Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1997 : Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1996 : Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1996 : Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1996 : Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1997 : Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1997 : Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1997 : Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1997 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1997 : Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1997 : Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1996 : Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1996 : Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1997 : Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1996 : Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1996 : Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1997 : Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1996 : Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1996 : Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1997 : Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1996 : Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1996 : Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1996 : Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1996 : Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1997 : Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1997 : Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1997 : Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1997 : Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1997 : Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1997 : Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. County business patterns, 1996 : Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  12. County business patterns, 1996 : Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  13. County business patterns, 1997 : Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  14. County business patterns, 1996 : Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  15. County business patterns, 1997 : Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  16. County business patterns, 1996 : Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  17. County business patterns, 1996 : Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  18. County business patterns, 1996 : Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  19. County business patterns, 1996 : Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  20. County business patterns, 1997 : Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  1. County business patterns, 1997 : Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  2. County business patterns, 1996 : Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  3. County business patterns, 1997 : Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  4. County business patterns, 1997 : Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  5. County business patterns, 1996 : Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  6. County business patterns, 1996 : Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  7. County business patterns, 1996 : California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  8. County business patterns, 1996 : Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that : provides subnational economic data by industry. The series : is useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  9. County business patterns, 1997 : Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  10. County business patterns, 1997 : Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    County Business Patterns is an annual series that provides : subnational economic data by industry. The series is : useful for studying the economic activity of small areas; : analyzing economic changes over time; and as a benchmark : for statistical...

  11. Anastomosing Rivers are Disequilibrium Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavooi, E.; Haas, de T.; Kleinhans, M.G.; Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Anastomosing rivers have multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins. Various theories have been proposed to explain this pattern, including an increased discharge conveyance and sediment transport capacity of multiple channels, or, alternatively, a tendency to avulse due to upstream

  12. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as Ψ → e iθ Ψ. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  13. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 , and SnO 2 on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga 2 O, In 2 O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO 2 , somewhat lower for In 2 O 3 , and the lowest for Ga 2 O 3 . Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides

  14. Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    After more than 15 years of development drawing on research in cognitive psychology, statistical graphics, computer science, and cartography, micromap designs are becoming part of mainstream statistical visualizations. Bringing together the research of two leaders in this field, "Visualizing Data Patterns with Micromaps" presents the many design variations and applications of micromaps, which link statistical information to an organized set of small maps. This full-color book helps readers simultaneously explore the statistical and geographic patterns in their data. After illustratin

  15. Capacitance enhancement via electrode patterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Striolo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of increasing the energy density in electric double layer capacitors to meet current demand is fueling fundamental and applied research alike. We report here molecular dynamics simulation results for aqueous electrolytes near model electrodes. Particular focus is on the effect of electrode patterning on the structure of interfacial electrolytes, and on the potential drop between the solid electrodes and the bulk electrolytes. The latter is estimated by numerically integrating the Poisson equation using the charge densities due to water and ions accumulated near the interface as input. We considered uniform and patterned electrodes, both positively and negatively charged. The uniformly charged electrodes are modeled as graphite. The patterned ones are obtained by removing carbon atoms from the top-most graphene layer, yielding nanoscopic squares and stripes patterns. For simplicity, the patterned electrodes are effectively simulated as insulators (the charge remains localized on the top-most layer of carbon atoms). Our simulations show that the patterns alter the structure of water and the accumulation of ions at the liquid-solid interfaces. Using aqueous NaCl solutions, we found that while the capacitance calculated for three positively charged electrodes did not change much, that calculated for the negatively charged electrodes significantly increased upon patterning. We find that both water structure and orientation, as well as ion accumulation affect the capacitance. As electrode patterning affects differently water structure and ion accumulation, it might be possible to observe ion-specific effects. These results could be useful for advancing our understanding of electric double layer capacitors, capacitive desalination processes, as well as of fundamental interfacial electrolytes properties

  16. Computer aided fringe pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    The paper reviews the basic laws of fringe pattern interpretation. The different techniques that are currently utilized are presented using a common frame of reference stressing the fact that these techniques are different variations of the same basic principle. Digital and analog techniques are discussed. Currently available hardware is presented and the relationships between hardware and the operations of pattern fringe processing are pointed out. Examples are given to illustrate the ideas discussed in the paper.

  17. Quantum computing for pattern classification

    OpenAIRE

    Schuld, Maria; Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that for certain tasks, quantum computing outperforms classical computing. A growing number of contributions try to use this advantage in order to improve or extend classical machine learning algorithms by methods of quantum information theory. This paper gives a brief introduction into quantum machine learning using the example of pattern classification. We introduce a quantum pattern classification algorithm that draws on Trugenberger's proposal for measuring the Hamming di...

  18. Plasma etching of patterned tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franssila, S.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma etching of tungsten is discussed from the viewpoint of thin film structure and integrated circuit process engineering. The emphasis is on patterned tungsten etching for silicon device and X-ray mask fabrication. After introducing tungsten etch chemistries and mechanisms, microstructural aspects of tungsten films (crystal structure, grain size, film density, defects, impurities) in relation to etching are discussed. Approaches to etch process optimization are presented, and the current state-of-the-art of patterned tungsten etching is reviewed. (orig.)

  19. Automation of the micro-arc oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, P. E.; Pecherskaya, E. A.; Karpanin, O. V.; Shepeleva, Y. V.; Zinchenko, T. O.; Artamonov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    At present the significantly increased interest in micro-arc oxidation (MAO) encourages scientists to look for the solution of the problem of this technological process controllability. To solve this problem an automated technological installation MAO was developed, its structure and control principles are presented in this article. This device will allow to provide the controlled synthesis of MAO coatings and to identify MAO process patterns which contributes to commercialization of this technology.

  20. Electrochromism of the electroless deposited cuprous oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovska, R.; Ristova, M.; Velevska, J.; Ristov, M.

    2007-01-01

    Thin cuprous oxide films were prepared by a low cost, chemical deposition (electroless) method onto glass substrates pre-coated with fluorine doped tin oxide. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the Cu 2 O composition of the films. Visible transmittance spectra of the cuprous oxide films were studied for the as-prepared, colored and bleached films. The cyclic voltammetry study showed that those films exhibited cathode coloring electrochromism, i.e. the films showed change of color from yellowish to black upon application of an electric field. The transmittance across the films for laser light of 670 nm was found to change due to the voltage change for about 50%. The coloration memory of those films was also studied during 6 h, ex-situ. The coloration efficiency at 670 nm was calculated to be 37 cm 2 /C