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Sample records for oxide photocatalyst comprising

  1. Semiconductor photocatalysts for water oxidation: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingling; Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-04-21

    Artificial photosynthesis is a highly-promising strategy to convert solar energy into hydrogen energy for the relief of the global energy crisis. Water oxidation is the bottleneck for its kinetic and energetic complexity in the further enhancement of the overall efficiency of the artificial photosystem. Developing efficient and cost-effective photocatalysts for water oxidation is a growing desire, and semiconductor photocatalysts have recently attracted more attention due to their stability and simplicity. This article reviews the recent advancement of semiconductor photocatalysts with a focus on the relationship between material optimization and water oxidation efficiency. A brief introduction to artificial photosynthesis and water oxidation is given first, followed by an explanation of the basic rules and mechanisms of semiconductor particulate photocatalysts for water oxidation as theoretical references for discussions of componential, surface structure, and crystal structure modification. O2-evolving photocatalysts in Z-scheme systems are also introduced to demonstrate practical applications of water oxidation photocatalysts in artificial photosystems. The final part proposes some challenges based on the dynamics and energetics of photoholes which are fundamental to the enhancement of water oxidation efficiency, as well as on the simulation of natural water oxidation that will be a trend in future research.

  2. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X. P.; Yao, B. H.; Pan, Q. H.; Pen, C.; Zhang, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results showed that-BaSb2O5•4H2O, BaSb2O6 two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts were successfully prepared in this experiment and they showed good photocatalytic properties. In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance.

  3. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  4. Structure-Composition-Property Relationships of Complex Bismuth Oxide Based Photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Thomas [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2014-01-08

    Development of a new family of up- and down-conversion materials based on oxtfluorides that can potentially increase photocatalytic activities of photocatalysts such as bismuth oxides and can also be used as phosphors in Al1-xGaxN-based devices and solar devices.

  5. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  6. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  7. Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Oxide and Chalcogenide-Based Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Farjana; Daeneke, Torben; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh; Ou, Jian Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal oxide and chalcogenide (TMO&C)-based photocatalysts have recently attracted significant attention for addressing the current worldwide challenges of energy shortage and environmental pollution. The ultrahigh surface area and unconventional physiochemical, electronic and optical properties of 2D TMO&Cs have been demonstrated to facilitate photocatalytic applications. This review provides a concise overview of properties, synthesis methods and applications of 2D TMO&C-based photocatalysts. Particular attention is paid on the emerging strategies to improve the abilities of light harvesting and photoinduced charge separation for enhancing photocatalytic performances, which include elemental doping, surface functionalization as well as heterojunctions with semiconducting and conductive materials. The future opportunities regarding the research pathways of 2D TMO&C-based photocatalysts are also presented. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Solvent-free, visible-light photocatalytic alcohol oxidations applying an organic photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Obst

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the solvent-free photocatalytic conversion of solid and liquid substrates was developed, using a novel rod mill apparatus. In this setup, thin liquid films are realized which is crucial for an effective photocatalytic conversion due to the low penetration depth of light in heterogeneous systems. Several benzylic alcohols were oxidized with riboflavin tetraacetate as photocatalyst under blue light irradiation of the reaction mixture. The corresponding carbonyl compounds were obtained in moderate to good yields.

  9. Incorporation of N–ZnO/CdS/Graphene oxide composite photocatalyst for enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Pengwei, E-mail: huopw1@163.com [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Jiangsu University Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Institute of Green Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Zhou, Mingjun; Tang, Yanfeng [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Jiangsu University Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Liu, Xinlin [School of Energy & Power Engineering Jiangsu University Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Ma, Changchang; Yu, Longbao [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Jiangsu University Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Yan, Yongsheng, E-mail: yys@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Jiangsu University Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Institute of Green Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

    2016-06-15

    N–ZnO/CdS/Graphene oxide (GO) composite photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The as-prepared composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS), thermogravimetry (TG) and photoluminescence (PL). The as-prepared photocatalysts exhibited strong visible light photocatalytic activity toward to degradation of antibiotics under ambient conditions. Particularly, the N–ZnO/CdS/GO composite photocatalysts showed the higher photocatalytic degradation rate (86%) of ciprofloxacin CIP under visible light irradiation than the pure photocatalysts. Compared with degradation of different antibiotics (tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) and levofloxacin (LEV)), the N–ZnO/CdS/GO composite photocatalysts also exhibited high photocatalytic activities. According to the experiments, the role of GO in the composite photocatalysts acted as an electron conductor, and also enhanced the separation rate of electrons and holes which greatly improved the photocatalytic activity. Lastly, the mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic degradation of CIP was also discussed. - Highlights: • N–ZnO/CdS/GO composite was synthesized by the hydrothermal processes. • N–ZnO/CdS composites prevent pure CdS or ZnO from photocorrosion. • N–ZnO/CdS/GO shows the remarkable photocatalytic activity and stability.

  10. Zinc oxide tetrapods as efficient photocatalysts for organic pollutant degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangzhou; Leung, Yu Hang; Djurisić, Aleksandra B.; Liao, Changzhong; Shih, Kaimin

    2014-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and other organic pollutants from industrial wastewater have drawn increasing concern in the past decades regarding their environmental and biological risks, and hence developing strategies of effective degradation of BPA and other organic pollutants is imperative. Metal oxide nanostructures, in particular titanium oxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO), have been demonstrated to exhibit efficient photodegradation of various common organic dyes. ZnO tetrapods are of special interest due to their low density of native defects which consequently lead to lower recombination losses and higher photocatalytic efficiency. Tetrapods can be obtained by relatively simple and low-cost vapor phase deposition in large quantity; the micron-scale size would also be advantageous for catalyst recovery. In this study, the photodegradation of BPA with ZnO tetrapods and TiO2 nanostructures under UV illumination were compared. The concentration of BPA dissolved in DI water was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at specified time intervals. It was observed that the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods eventually surpassed Degussa P25 in free-standing form, and more than 80% of BPA was degraded after 60 min. Photodegradation of other organic dye pollutants by tetrapods and P25 were also examined. The superior photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO tetrapods for degradation of BPA and other organic dye pollutants and its correlation with the material properties were discussed.

  11. Stannic Oxide-Titanium Dioxide Coupled Semiconductor Photocatalyst Loaded with Polyaniline for Enhanced Photocatalytic Oxidation of 1-Octene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Nur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannic oxide-titanium dioxide (SnO2–TiO2 coupled semiconductor photocatalyst loaded with polyaniline (PANI, a conducting polymer, possesses a high photocatalytic activity in oxidation of 1-octene to 1,2-epoxyoctane with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalyst was prepared by impregnation of SnO2 and followed by attachment of PANI onto a TiO2 powder to give sample PANI-SnO2–TiO2. The electrical conductivity of the system becomes high in the presence of PANI. Enhanced photocatalytic activity was observed in the case of PANI-SnO2–TiO2 compared to PANI-TiO2, SnO2–TiO2, and TiO2. A higher photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of 1-octene on PANI-SnO2–TiO2 than SnO2–TiO2, PANI-TiO2, and TiO2 can be considered as an evidence of enhanced charge separation of PANI-SnO2–TiO2 photocatalyst as confirmed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. It suggests that photoinjected electrons are tunneled from TiO2 to SnO2 and then to PANI in order to allow wider separation of excited carriers.

  12. Electrochemical approach to evaluate the mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting on oxide photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yasumichi; Unal, Ugur; Tanaka, Noriyuki; Kudo, Akihiko; Kato, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical measurements of TiO 2 , NaTaO 3 , and Cr or Sb doped TiO 2 and SrTiO 3 photocatalysts were carried out in H 2 and O 2 saturated electrolytes in order to evaluate the reverse reactions during water photolysis. The poor activity of TiO 2 as a result of reverse photoreactions of O 2 reduction and H 2 oxidation was revealed with the respective high cathodic and anodic photocurrents. The rise in the photocurrents at NaTaO 3 after La doping was in harmony with the doping-induced increase in the photocatalytic activity. NiO loading suppresses the O 2 photoreverse reactions, which declines photocatalytic activity, and/or promotes the photo-oxidation of water, because the O 2 photo-reduction current was scarcely observed near the flatband potential. Photocurrents of O 2 reduction and H 2 oxidation were observed under visible light for the Cr and Sb doped SrTiO 3 and TiO 2 , respectively. These phenomena are in harmony with the previous reports on the photocatalysts examined with sacrificial reagents

  13. Photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange in water phase by immobilized TiO{sub 2}-carbon nanotube nanocomposite photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yinmao [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Sciences/Beijing Key Lab of Plant Resource Research and Development, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048 (China); Tang, Dongyan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Chensha, E-mail: lichnsa@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • An immobilized photocatalyst with heterostructure of nanophase CNT-TiO{sub 2} was developed. • The unique 3-D network structure of the photocatalyst resulted in high and available surface area. • The nano-photocatalyst exhibited a high photocatalysis performance. • The immobilized nano-photocatalyst possess the merits of powder nano-photocatalyst. • The immobilized nano-photocatalyst adapts the requirement for clean and convenient manipulation. - Abstract: We developed an immobilized carbon nanotube (CNT)–titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) heterostructure material for the photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange in aqueous phase. The catalyst material was prepared via sol–gel method using multi-walled CNTs grown on graphite substrate as carriers. The multi-walled CNTs were synthesized from thermal decomposing of hydrocarbon gas directly on thin graphite plate, forming immobilized 3-dimensional network of CNTs. The nanophase TiO{sub 2} was synthesized coating on CNTs to form “coral”-shaped nanocomposite 3-dimensional network on graphite substrate, thus bringing effective porous structure and high specific surface area, and possessing the merit of dispersive powder photocatalysts, which is the fully available surface area, while adapting the requirement for clean and convenient manipulation as an immobilized photocatalyst. Moreover, the CNT–TiO{sub 2} heterostructure reduced the electron–hole pair recombination rate and enhanced the photoabsorption and the adsorption ability, resulting in elevating the photocatalysis efficiency. These synergistic effects due to the hybrid nature of the materials and interphase interaction greatly improved the catalytic activity, and demonstrated superior photocatalytic performances. Our work can be a significant inspiration for developing hybrid nano-phase materials to realize sophisticated functions, and bear tremendous significance for the development and applications of semiconductor nano-materials.

  14. Photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol on photocatalyst prepared by acid leaching of titanium oxide/hydroxyapatite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Y., E-mail: ono-y@kanagawa-iri.go.jp [Mechanical and Material Engineering Division, Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center, Ebina, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Rachi, T.; Yokouchi, M.; Kamimoto, Y. [Mechanical and Material Engineering Division, Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center, Ebina, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Nakajima, A. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, K. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalyst powder was prepared by acid leaching of TiO{sub 2}/apatite composite. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated from in situ FT-IR study using ethanol. ► Apatite in the composite had positive effect for the photo-oxidation of ethanol. ► The enhanced oxidation rate was explained by the difference in deactivation rate. - Abstract: Highly active photocatalysts were synthesized by leaching of heat-treated titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder with hydrochloric acid at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mol/l, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated from in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study of photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol. By changing the acid concentration, the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite had different atomic ratios of Ca/Ti (0.0–2.8) and P/Ti (0.3–2.1). It was found that phosphate group remained on the surface of TiO{sub 2} particle even in the sample treated with concentrated acid (0.75 mol/l). These acid-treated samples showed higher rates for ethanol photo-oxidation than the commercial TiO{sub 2} powder, Degussa P25. The highest rate was obtained in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite treated with the dilute (0.25 mol/l) acid in spite of its low content of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the result that the deactivation with repeated injections of ethanol gas was suppressed in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composites compared with the TiO{sub 2} powders.

  15. Photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol on photocatalyst prepared by acid leaching of titanium oxide/hydroxyapatite composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Y.; Rachi, T.; Yokouchi, M.; Kamimoto, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Okada, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalyst powder was prepared by acid leaching of TiO 2 /apatite composite. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated from in situ FT-IR study using ethanol. ► Apatite in the composite had positive effect for the photo-oxidation of ethanol. ► The enhanced oxidation rate was explained by the difference in deactivation rate. - Abstract: Highly active photocatalysts were synthesized by leaching of heat-treated titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )/hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder with hydrochloric acid at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mol/l, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated from in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study of photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol. By changing the acid concentration, the TiO 2 /HAp composite had different atomic ratios of Ca/Ti (0.0–2.8) and P/Ti (0.3–2.1). It was found that phosphate group remained on the surface of TiO 2 particle even in the sample treated with concentrated acid (0.75 mol/l). These acid-treated samples showed higher rates for ethanol photo-oxidation than the commercial TiO 2 powder, Degussa P25. The highest rate was obtained in the TiO 2 /HAp composite treated with the dilute (0.25 mol/l) acid in spite of its low content of TiO 2 photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the result that the deactivation with repeated injections of ethanol gas was suppressed in the TiO 2 /HAp composites compared with the TiO 2 powders

  16. Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Sun, Shaofang; Song, Yang; Yan, Xu; Guan, Weisheng; Liu, Xinlin; Shi, Weidong

    2013-04-15

    To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO4 composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO4 photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO4 particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO4 photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photocatalytic oxidation of indoor toluene: Process risk analysis and influence of relative humidity, photocatalysts, and VUV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Weirong; Dai, Jiusong; Liu, Feifei; Bao, Jiaze; Wang, Yan; Yang, Yong; Yang, Yanan; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of 13 gaseous intermediates in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of toluene in indoor air were determined in real-time by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and desorption intensities of 7 adsorbed intermediates on the surface of photocatalysts were detected by temperature‐programmed desorption‐mass spectrometry. Effects of relative humidity (RH), photocatalysts, and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on the distribution and category of the intermediates and health risk influence index (η) were investigated. RH enhances the formation rate of hydroxide radicals, leading to more intermediates with higher oxidation states in gas phase. N doping promotes the separation of photo-generated electrons and holes and enhances PCO activity accordingly. VUV irradiation results in higher mineralization rate and more intermediates with higher oxidation states and lower toxicity e.g. carboxylic acids. Health risk analysis indicates that higher RH, N doping of TiO 2 , and VUV lead to “greener” intermediates and smaller η. Finally, a conceptual diagram was proposed to exhibit the scenario of η varied with extent of mineralization for various toxicities of inlet pollutants. Highlights: ► 13 volatile intermediates in PCO of toluene were determined in real-time by PTR-MS. ► 7 adsorbed intermediates on surface of photocatalyst were determined by TPD-MS. ► Higher RH, N doping of TiO 2 , and VUV irradiation lead to “greener” intermediates. ► Health risk index relies on extent of mineralization and toxicities of inlet VOCs.

  18. Tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as an efficient photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G.; Abhinayaa, R.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.

    2018-05-01

    Functioning of ultrasonically prepared tungsten oxide-graphene oxide (WO3-GO) nanocomposite as a photocatalyst, antibacterial and anticancer system was investigated and the obtained results were compared with that of pure WO3 nanoparticles. Structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the prepared WO3 nanoparticles and WO3-GO nanocomposite were studied. Photocatalytic efficiency of the system on organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB, cationic) and indigo carmine (IC, anionic) was investigated. The enhanced efficiency of the WO3-GO nanocomposite system was evaluated under sunlight and compared with that of pure WO3. The degradation efficiency values for MB and IC were found to be 97.03% and 95.43% at 180 and 120 min respectively. Antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite under visible light was tested and improved inhibition results were observed for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis after 6 h of light exposure. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency and antibacterial activity of the WO3-GO nanocomposite are attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate. Investigation on anticancer activity of WO3-GO nanocomposite was tested on human lung cancer (A-549) cell line and the IC50 value was found to be 139.6 ± 4.53 μg/mL. The results obtained in this study may be used as a platform for the development of photocatalysis applications based on WO3-GO nanocomposite.

  19. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal

    2016-09-19

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  20. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  1. Sulfonated graphene oxide-ZnO-Ag photocatalyst for fast photodegradation and disinfection under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Ng, Kokseng; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-11-15

    Synthesis of efficient visible-light-driven photocatalyst is urgent but challenging for environmental remediation. In this work, for the first time, the hierarchical plasmonic sulfonated graphene oxide-ZnO-Ag (SGO-ZnO-Ag) composites were prepared through nanocrystal-seed-directed hydrothermal method combining with polyol-reduction process. The results indicated that SGO-ZnO-Ag exhibited much faster rate in photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli), than ZnO, SGO-ZnO and ZnO-Ag. SGO-ZnO-Ag totally degraded RhB dye and kill 99% of E. coli within 20 min under visible light irradiation. The outstanding performances of SGO-ZnO-Ag were attributed to the synergetic merits of SGO sheets, ZnO nanorod arrays and Ag nanoparticles. Firstly, the light absorption ability of SGO-ZnO-Ag composite in the visible region was enhanced due to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag. In addition, the hierarchical structure of SGO-ZnO-Ag composite improved the incident light scattering and reflection. Furthermore, SGO sheets facilitated charge transfer and reduce electron-hole recombination rate. Finally, the tentative mechanism was proposed and verified by the photoluminescence (PL) measurement as well as the theoretical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. In view of above, this work paves the way for preparation of multi-component plasmonic composites and highlights the potential applications of SGO-ZnO-Ag in photocatalytic wastewater treatment field. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and Development of Mixed-Metal Oxide Photocatalysts: the Band Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltersdorf, Jonathan Andrew

    (I), Pb(II), Sn(II), Bi(III); B = Ta, Nb), Pb3Ta 4O13, PbTa2O6, Bi7Ta 3O18, and Sn2TiO4. The impact of the dimensionality of the structural features on the photocatalytic activities of the metal-oxides will be examined. A comparison of the influence of Ag(I), Pb(II), Sn(II), and Bi(III) cations in combination with Ti(IV), Nb(V), and Ta(V) cations on the optical properties and photocatalytic rates of the mixed-metal oxides will be presented. The results of these investigations have led to new insights into synthetic strategies for the development of new metal-oxide photocatalysts, which have aided in understanding the effects of transition and post-transition metals, structural features, and flux-mediated synthesis methods on the optical and photocatalytic properties of metal oxides for solar fuel production.

  3. Graphene supported silver@silver chloride & ferroferric oxide hybrid, a magnetically separable photocatalyst with high performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Suting; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com; Han, Mei; Liu, Gongzong; Zhang, Na; Lu, Yue

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The composites were synthesized via a facile and effective process. • Plenty of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ag@AgCl nanoparticles are deposited on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic performance and magnetic property. • The catalyst is stable under the visible light irradiation. - Abstract: A stable magnetic separable plasmonic photocatalyst was successfully fabricated by grafting silver@silver chloride (Ag@AgCl) and ferroferric oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The composite exhibited high activity degrading methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation: decomposition 97.4% of MB in 100 min and 97.9% of RB in 120 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to synergistic effect between Ag@AgCl and graphene: the effective charge transfer from Ag@AgCl to graphene thus promotes the separation of electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

  4. Photochemistry Aspects of the Laser Pyrolysis Addressing the Preparation of Oxide Semiconductor Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alexandrescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The laser pyrolysis is a powerful and a versatile tool for the gas-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. In this paper, some fundamental and applicative characteristics of this technique are outlined and recent results obtained in the preparation of gamma iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3 and titania (TiO2 semiconductor nanostructures are illustrated. Nanosized iron oxide particles (4 to 9 nm diameter values have been directly synthesized by the laser-induced pyrolysis of a mixture containing iron pentacarbonyl/air (as oxidizer/ethylene (as sensitizer. Temperature-dependent Mossbauer spectroscopy shows that mainly maghemite is present in the sample obtained at higher laser power. The use of selected Fe2O3 samples for the preparation of water-dispersed magnetic nanofluids is also discussed. TiO2 nanoparticles comprising a mixture of anatase and rutile phases were synthesized via the laser pyrolysis of TiCl4- (vapors based gas-phase mixtures. High precursor concentration of the oxidizer was found to favor the prevalent anatase phase (about 90% in the titania nanopowders.

  5. Re-investigation on reduced graphene oxide/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalyst: An insight into the double-edged sword role of RGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguang; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Haiyan; Qian, Yannan; Guo, Zuchen

    2017-02-01

    Coupling graphene or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with semiconductor photocatalysts has previously been proven to be an effective way for enhancing the photocatalytic activity and stability of the photocatalysts. Herein, the Ag2CO3/reduced graphene oxide composite was successfully prepared by a facile chemical precipitation method. The physical and chemical properties of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse-reflection spectra. The photocatalytic activity and cycling stability of the photocatalysts were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the RGO indeed improves the photocatalytic activity of Ag2CO3/RGO, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and enhanced dye adsorption as well as the light harvesting by RGO. Nevertheless, it played a negative role to the photocatalytic cycling stability due to the strong aggregation of Ag2CO3 particles brought by the RGO sheets. This work may provide a re-examination of the role of RGO in enhancing the photocatalytic performances of the photocatalysts.

  6. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. " Bud" (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  7. Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, Shaofang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Song, Yang; Yan, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Guan, Weisheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Chang’an University, Yanta Road 126, Xi’an, 710054 (China); Liu, Xinlin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Shi, Weidong, E-mail: swd1978@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Microwave-assisted in situ growth of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite was proposed. ► A relatively small particle size with organic-additives free. ► Graphene was formed during the microwave-heating by oxygen capture. ► GB-2 sample exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (3 times over pure BiVO{sub 4}). ► The enhancements of activities result from the effective charge separation. -- Abstract: To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO{sub 4} composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO{sub 4} particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron–hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption.

  8. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganesh Babu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ∼2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O–rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O–rGO–C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Cu2O supported on C3N4: An efficient visible light responsive semiconductor photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Babu, S.; Vinoth, R.; Surya Narayana, P.; Bahnemann, Detlef; Neppolian, B.

    2015-10-01

    Herein, Cu2O spheres were prepared and encapsulated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 composite covered the whole solar spectrum with significant absorption intensity. rGO wrapped Cu2O loading caused a red shift in the absorption with respect to considering the absorption of bare C3N4. The photoluminescence study confirms that rGO exploited as an electron transport layer at the interface of Cu2O and C3N4 heterojunction. Utmost, ˜2 fold synergistic effect was achieved with Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 for the photocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in comparison with Cu2O-rGO and C3N4. The Cu2O-rGO-C3N4 photocatalyst was reused for four times without loss in its activity.

  10. Re-investigation on reduced graphene oxide/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} composite photocatalyst: An insight into the double-edged sword role of RGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenguang [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Liu, Yuan [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhang@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Qian, Yannan; Guo, Zuchen [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide can improve the photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Reduced graphene oxide plays a negative role to the cycling stability of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • The mechanism for the morphology change of pure Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/RGO is proposed. - Abstract: Coupling graphene or reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with semiconductor photocatalysts has previously been proven to be an effective way for enhancing the photocatalytic activity and stability of the photocatalysts. Herein, the Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide composite was successfully prepared by a facile chemical precipitation method. The physical and chemical properties of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse-reflection spectra. The photocatalytic activity and cycling stability of the photocatalysts were evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the RGO indeed improves the photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/RGO, which can be attributed to the reduced charge recombination and enhanced dye adsorption as well as the light harvesting by RGO. Nevertheless, it played a negative role to the photocatalytic cycling stability due to the strong aggregation of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} particles brought by the RGO sheets. This work may provide a re-examination of the role of RGO in enhancing the photocatalytic performances of the photocatalysts.

  11. Fe2.25W0.75O4/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for novel bifunctional photocatalyst: One-pot synthesis, magnetically recyclable and enhanced photocatalytic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxue; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Hou, Wanguo

    2013-01-01

    Fe 2.25 W 0.75 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were prepared for application of novel bifunctional photocatalyst via simple one-pot hydrothermal method, employing graphene oxide (GO), Na 2 WO 4 , FeSO 4 and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as the precursors. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results indicate that the well-dispersed Fe 2.25 W 0.75 O 4 nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of RGO sheets homogeneously. Magnetic characterization reveals that Fe 2.25 W 0.75 O 4 and Fe 2.25 W 0.75 O 4 /RGO show ferromagnetic behaviors. So this novel bifunctional photocatalyst could achieve magnetic separation and collection with the aid of external magnet. The composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic performance on degradation of methyl orange (MO) compared with pure Fe 2.25 W 0.75 O 4 under low-power ultraviolet light irradiation due to the introduction of RGO. Moreover, this hybrid catalyst possesses long-term excellent photocatalytic performance due to its good thermal stability. This bifunctional photocatalyst, which combines magnetic property and excellent photocatalytic activity, would be a perfect candidate in applications of catalytic elimination of environmental pollutants and other areas. - Graphical abstract: Magnetically recyclable Fe 2.25 W 0.75 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic property Display Omitted - Highlights: ●Fe 2.25 W 0.75 O 4 growth, deposition and GO reduction occurred simultaneously. ●Composite possessed ferromagnetic and enhanced photocatalytic properties. ●Composite is utilized as a magnetically separable and high-efficient photocatalyst. ●Photocatalyst showed good photocatalytic and thermal stability during cyclic use

  12. Anchoring a uniform TiO{sub 2} layer on graphene oxide sheets as an efficient visible light photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Ye, E-mail: congye626@126.com [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Long, Mei; Cui, Zhengwei [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Li, Xuanke [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of High Temperature Ceramic and Refractory, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Dong, Zhijun; Yuan, Guanming; Zhang, Jiang [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China)

    2013-10-01

    TiO{sub 2}–graphene oxide (GO) was successfully prepared by a two-step approach including the in situ growth of a uniform TiC layer on graphene oxide sheets and subsequently oxidation conversion of TiC to anatase TiO{sub 2}. The as-prepared composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The results suggest that TiO{sub 2}–GO keep the similar morphology with the pristine GO sheets and the nanosize anatase TiO{sub 2} particles distribute uniformly and densely on the surface of GO sheets. TiO{sub 2} particles contact closely with GO via Ti-O-C bonds. The presence of GO provides a good support substrate and enhances the adsorption capacity and photo-degradation ability of the composite photocatalyst. And by adjusting the molar ratio of GO and titanium powder in the molten salt process, TiO{sub 2}–GO nanocomposites with controllable contents of GO and TiO{sub 2}, good adsorption capacity and excellent photo-degradation ability can be obtained.

  13. Diffused sunlight driven highly synergistic pathway for complete mineralization of organic contaminants using reduced graphene oxide supported photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ramalingam Vinoth [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw, E-mail: neppolian.b@res.srmuniv.ac.in [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Ashokkumar, Muthupandian [The School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Diffused sunlight is firstly used as an effective source for the degradation of organics. • More than 10 fold synergistic effect is achieved by sono-photocatalysis. • rGO enhances the degradation efficiency up to 54% as compared with CuO–TiO{sub 2} alone. • Plausible mechanism and intermediates formed are supported with experimental studies. - Abstract: Diffused sunlight is found to be an effective light source for the efficient degradation and mineralization of organic pollutant (methyl orange as a probe) by sono-photocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported CuO–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized by XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS, PL, photoelectrochemical, SEM-EDS and TEM. A 10 fold synergy is achieved for the first time by combining sonochemical and photocatalytic degradation under diffused sunlight. rGO loading augments the activity of bare CuO–TiO{sub 2} more than two fold. The ability of rGO in storing, transferring, and shuttling electrons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and CuO facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs, as evidenced by the photoluminescence results. The complete mineralization of MO and the by-products within a short span of time is confirmed by TOC analysis. Further, hydroxyl radical mediated degradation under diffused sunlight is confirmed by LC–MS. This system shows similar activity for the degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol indicating the versatility of the catalyst for the degradation of various pollutants. This investigation is likely to open new possibilities for the development of highly efficient diffused sunlight driven TiO{sub 2} based photocatalysts for the complete mineralization of organic contaminants.

  14. Method of making Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide superconductors comprising heating at elevated pressures in a sealed container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtev, W.L.; Osofsky, M.S.; Skelton, E.F.; Toth, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of forming a Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide high T c superconductor. It comprises forming a reaction mixture of the oxides of Sr, Cu, Ca, and Tl in stoichiometric proportions to make a Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide high T c superconducting compound; compressing the reaction mixture into a hard body; placing the hard body into a container for containing thallium vapor; evacuating and sealing the hard body in the container; heating the hard body and the container at a temperature of about 800 degrees C to about 950 degrees C and under pressure of at least about 30,000 psi until the container metal around the hard body and the oxides of Tl, Sr, Ca, and Cu react to form a superconducting compound; and cooling the superconducting compound to room temperature and returning the superconducting compound to atmospheric pressure

  15. Preparation of magnetic composite based on zinc oxide nanoparticles and chitosan as a photocatalyst for removal of reactive blue 198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam Giang; Hue Pho, Quoc

    2015-01-01

    In this study a novel magnetic composite used as a photocatalyst with combination of zinc oxide nanoparticles and chitosan (ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 /CS) was synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method. The role of the prepared magnetic nanocomposite is to improve the removal efficiency of textile dye due to the photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles and reusable capacity of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. Constituents and structure properties of ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 /CS were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Magnetic property of the prepared composite was determined by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results demonstrated that ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 /CS nanocomposite dramatically improved the removal efficiency of reactive blue 198 dye (RB198) with high photocatalytic activity and easy separation by a permanent magnet. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the prepared composite was also performed under different parameters such as contact time, initial pH, the amount of composite and initial concentration of RB198. Interestingly, ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 /CS nanocomposite still showed high removal efficiency after recycling three times and performed in a real textile dyeing wastewater. (paper)

  16. Oxidative degradation of salicylic acid by sprayed WO{sub 3} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohite, S.V.; Rajpure, K.Y., E-mail: rajpure@yahoo.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The photoactivity of sprayed WO{sub 3} thin film. • Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid. • Reaction kinetics and mineralization of pollutants by COD. - Abstract: The WO{sub 3} thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. The prepared WO{sub 3} thin films were characterized using photoelectrochemical (PEC), X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy techniques. PEC measurements of WO{sub 3} films deposited at different deposition temperatures were carried out to study photoresponse. The maximum photocurrent (I{sub ph} = 261 μA/cm{sup 2}) was observed for the film deposited at the 225 °C. The monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} has been confirmed from X-ray diffraction studies. AFM studies were used to calculate particle size and average roughness of the films. Optical absorbance was studied to estimate the bandgap energy of WO{sub 3} thin film which was about 2.65 eV. The photoelectrocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} film was studied by degradation of salicylic acid with reducing concentrations as function of reaction time. The WO{sub 3} photocatalyst degraded salicylic acid to about 67.14% with significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) value.

  17. MoS_2/reduced graphene oxide hybrid with CdS nanoparticles as a visible light-driven photocatalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Wen-chao; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiao-yan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS_2/rGO hybrid is synthesized using a one-step hydrothermal method. • MoS_2/rGO hybrid is used as the support and cocatalyst for CdS nanoparticles. • CdS-MoS_2/rGO composite is effective photocatalyst for 4-NP reduction in visible light. • Ammonium formate is an effective sacrificial agent for 4-NP photocatalytic reduction. - Abstract: Photocatalytic reduction of nitroaromatic compounds to aromatic amines using visible light is an attractive process that utilizes sunlight as the energy source for the chemical conversions. Herewith we synthesized a composite material consisting of CdS nanoparticles grown on the surface of MoS_2/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid as a novel photocatalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The CdS-MoS_2/rGO composite is shown as a high-performance visible light-driven photocatalyst. Even without a noble-metal cocatalyst, the catalyst exhibited a great activity under visible light irradiation for the reduction of 4-NP to much less toxic 4-aminophenol (4-AP) with ammonium formate as the sacrificial agent. Composite CdS-0.03(MoS_2/0.01rGO) was found to be the most effective photocatalyst for 4-NP reduction. The high photocatalytic performance is apparently resulted from the synergetic functions of MoS_2 and graphene in the composite, i.e. the cocatalysts serve as both the active adsorption sites for 4-NP and electron collectors for the separation of electron-hole pairs generated by CdS nanoparticles. The laboratory results show that the CdS-MoS_2/rGO composite is a low-cost and stable photocatalyst for effective reduction and detoxification of nitroaromatic compounds using solar energy.

  18. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, Aslam [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: drkhanmarwat@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Faisal, Mohd. [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Kalsoom [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusable chemical sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 {+-} 10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra ({approx}286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The chemical sensing of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} NPs have been primarily investigated by I-V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 {mu}M-0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  19. Mixed phase titania nanocomposite codoped with metallic silver and vanadium oxide: New efficient photocatalyst for dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xia [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Ma Fengyan; Li Kexin; Guo Yingna; Hu Jianglei; Li Wei [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Huo Mingxin [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Guo Yihang, E-mail: guoyh@nenu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Titania nanocomposite codoped with metallic silver and vanadium oxide was prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method in the presence of a triblock copolymer surfactant (P123). The resulting Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} three-component junction system exhibited an anatase/rutile (weight ratio of 73.8:26.2) mixed phase structure, narrower band gap (2.25 eV), and extremely small particle sizes (ca. 12 nm) with metallic Ag particles well distributed on the surface of the composite. The Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite was used as the visible- and UV-light-driven photocatalyst to degrade dyes rhodamine B (RB) and coomassie brilliant blue G-250 (CBB) in an aqueous solution. At 1.8% Ag and 4.9% V doping, the Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} system exhibited the highest visible- as well as UV-light photocatalytic activity; additionally, the activity of the three-component system exceeded that of Degussa P25, pure TiO{sub 2}, single-doped TiO{sub 2} system (Ag/TiO{sub 2} or V-TiO{sub 2}) as well as P123-free-Ag/V-TiO{sub 2} codoped system. The reasons for this enhanced photocatalytic activity were revealed.

  20. High-performance for hydrogen evolution and pollutant degradation of reduced graphene oxide/two-phase g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengjie; Fan, Mingshan; Shi, Weidong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    We have successfully synthesized the composites of two-phase g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction photocatalysts by one-step method. And the reduced graphene oxide/two-phase g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal reduction method. The characterization results indicated that the two-phase g-C 3 N 4 was integrated closely, and the common phenomenon of agglomeration for g-C 3 N 4 was significantly reduced. Moreover, the oxidized graphene was reduced successfully in the composites and the graphene was overlaid on the surface or the interlayers of g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction composite uniformly. In addition, we have carried out the photocatalytic activity experiments by H 2 evolution and rhodamine B removal, tetracycline removal under the visible light irradiation. The results revealed that the composite has improved the separation efficiency a lot than the pure photocatalyst. The photocurrent test demonstrated that the recombination of electrons and holes were efficiently inhibited as well as enhanced the photocatalytic activity. The 0.4% rGO loaded samples, 0.4% rGOCN2, own the best performance. Its rate of H 2 evolution was 15 times as high as that of the pure g-C 3 N 4 .

  1. Controllable synthesis of mesoporous multi-shelled ZnO microspheres as efficient photocatalysts for NO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolang; Zhang, Huiqiang; Zhang, Dieqing; Miao, Yingchun; Li, Guisheng

    2018-03-01

    The successful application of hierarchically porous structure in environmental treatment has provided new insights for solving environmental problems. Hierarchically structured semiconductor materials were considered as promising photocatalysts for NO oxidation in gas phase. Multi-shelled ZnO microspheres (MMSZ) were controllably shaped with hierarchically porous structures via a facile hydrothermal route using amino acid (N-Acetyl-D-Proline) as template and post-calcination treatment. Symmetric Ostwald ripening was used to explain the morphological evolution of hierarchical nanostructure. MMSZ was proved highly efficient for oxidizing NO (400 ppb) in gas phase under UV light irradiation with a much higher photocatalytic removal rate (77.3%) than that of the as-obtained ZnO crystals with other hierachically porous structures, owing to its higher photocurrent intensity. Such greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity can be assigned to the enhanced crystallinity of ZnO, mesopores and unique multi-shelled structure. Enhanced crystallinity promotes photogenerated charges under light irradiation. Mesoporous porosity can ensure enough light scattering between the shells. Multi-shelled structure endows ZnO with higher specific surface area and high frequency of multiple light reflection, resulting in more exposed active sites, higher light utilization efficiency, and fast separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. The experimental results demonstrated that the photogenerated holes (h+) are the main active species. Hierarchically structured ZnO is not only contributed to directly use solar energy to solving various problems caused by atmospheric pollution, but also has potential applications in energy converse and storage including solar cells, lithium batteries, water-splitting, etc.

  2. Oxidation driven ZnS Core-ZnO shell photocatalysts under controlled oxygen atmosphere for improved photocatalytic solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Daegil; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2018-06-01

    Zinc type photocatalysts attract great attentions in solar hydrogen production due to their easy availability and benign environmental characteristics. Spherical ZnS particles are synthesized with a facile hydrothermal method, and they are further used as core materials to introduce ZnO shell layer surrounding the core part by partial oxidation under controlled oxygen contents. The resulting ZnS core-ZnO shell photocatalysts represent the heterostructural type II band alignment. The existence of oxide layer also influences on proton adsorption power with an aid of strong base cites derived from highly electronegative oxygen atoms in ZnO shell layer. Photocatalytic water splitting reaction is performed to evaluate catalyst efficiency under standard one sun condition, and the highest hydrogen evolution rate (1665 μmolg-1h-1) is achieved from the sample oxidized at 16.2 kPa oxygen pressure. This highest hydrogen production rate is achieved in cooperation with increased light absorption and promoted charge separations. Photoluminescence analysis reveals that the improved visible light response is obtained after thermal oxidation process due to the oxygen vacancy states in the ZnO shell layer. Therefore, overall photocatalytic efficiency in solar hydrogen production is enhanced by improved charge separations, crystallinity, and visible light responses from the ZnS core-ZnO shell structures induced by thermal oxidation.

  3. A Non-Heme Iron Photocatalyst for Light-Driven Aerobic Oxidation of Methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juan; Stepanovic, Stepan; Draksharapu, Apparao; Gruden, Maja; Browne, Wesley R

    2018-01-01

    Non-heme (L)FeIIIand (L)FeIII-O-FeIII(L) complexes (L=1,1-di(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)ethan-1-amine) underwent reduction under irradiation to the FeIIstate with concomitant oxidation of methanol to methanal, without the need for a secondary photosensitizer. Spectroscopic and DFT

  4. An efficient p-n heterojunction photocatalyst constructed from a coordination polymer nanoplate and a partically reduced graphene oxide for visible-light hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxin; Lu, Tingting; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-10-05

    A new p-n heterojunction photocatalyst has been synthesized successfully through chemical-bond-mediated combination of coordination polymer nanoplates (CPNPs) and partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) with a simple colloidal blending process. Photocatalytic H2 production by the p-n heterojunction photocatalyst PRGO/CPNP was investigated under visible-light irradiation, which illustrates that PRGO/CPNP exhibits a much higher photocatalytic H2 production rate than neat the CPNPs. The improvement of this photocatalytic property can be attributed to the inner electrical field formed in the p-n heterojunction, which impedes recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. In PRGO/CPNP, the existence of the p-n heterojunction has been confirmed by electrochemical methods clearly. For PRGO/CPNP, the reductive degree of the PRGO has a great influence on the H2 production rate and an ideal condition to get a PRGO/CPNP photocatalyst with higher performance has been obtained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Reduced graphene oxide and Ag wrapped TiO2 photocatalyst for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Sim, Lan Ching; Jang, Min; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Bahnemann, Detlef; Saravanan, Pichiah

    2015-01-01

    A well-organised reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and silver (Ag) wrapped TiO 2 nano-hybrid was successfully achieved through a facile and easy route. The inherent characteristics of the synthesized RGO-Ag/TiO 2 were revealed through crystalline phase, morphology, chemical composition, Raman scattering, UV-visible absorption, and photoluminescence analyses. The adopted synthesis route significantly controlled the uniform formation of silver nanoparticles and contributed for the absorption of light in the visible spectrum through localized surface plasmon resonance effects. The wrapped RGO nanosheets triggered the electron mobility and promoted visible light shift towards red spectrum. The accomplishment of synergised effect of RGO and Ag well degraded Bisphenol A under visible light irradiation with a removal efficiency of 61.9%

  6. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Photocatalyst Nanoparticles on PVDF Membranes for Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Filpo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical binding of photocatalytic materials, such as TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, onto porous polymer membranes requires a series of chemical reactions and long purification processes, which often result in small amounts of trapped nanoparticles with reduced photocatalytic activity. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique was investigated in order to allow the nucleation and growth of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF porous membranes for application in advanced oxidation processes. The thickness of obtained surface coatings by sputtered nanoparticles was found to depend on process conditions. The photocatalytic efficiency of sputtered membranes was tested against both a model drug and a model organic pollutant in a small continuous flow reactor.

  7. Facile synthesis of cobalt-doped zinc oxide thin films for highly efficient visible light photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem, E-mail: ozlemaltintas@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Arslan, Hanife; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey); Nanotechnology R& D Laboratory, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, Karaman (Turkey)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Photocatalytically active Co-ZnO thin film was obtained by sol-gel method. • Co{sup 2+} doping narrowed the band gap of pure ZnO to an extent of 3.18 eV. • Co-ZnO was effective in MB degradation under visible light. • Optimum dopant content to show high performance was 3 at.%. - Abstract: Cobalt-doped zinc oxide (Co:ZnO) thin films with dopant contents ranging from 0 to 5 at.% were prepared using the sol–gel method, and their structural, morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties were characterized. The effect of the dopant content on the photocatalytic properties of the films was investigated by examining the degradation behavior of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and a detailed investigation of their photocatalytic activities was performed by determining the apparent quantum yields (AQYs). Co{sup 2+} ions were observed to be substitutionally incorporated into Zn{sup 2+} sites in the ZnO crystal, leading to lattice parameter constriction and band gap narrowing due to the photoinduced carriers produced under the visible light irradiation. Thus, the light absorption range of the Co:ZnO films was improved compared with that of the undoped ZnO film, and the Co:ZnO films exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity (∼92% decomposition of MB after 60-min visible light irradiation for the 3 at.% Co:ZnO film). The AQYs of the Co:ZnO films were greatly enhanced under visible light irradiation compared with that of the undoped ZnO thin film, demonstrating the effect of the Co doping level on the photocatalytic activity of the films.

  8. Toward High Performance 2D/2D Hybrid Photocatalyst by Electrostatic Assembly of Rationally Modified Carbon Nitride on Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xu, Xiaochan; Li, Tao; Pandiselvi, Kannusamy; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-11-01

    Efficient metal-free visible photocatalysts with high stability are highly desired for sufficient utilization of solar energy. In this work, the popular carbon nitride (CN) photocatalyst is rationally modified by acid exfoliation of molecular grafted CN, achieving improved visible-light utilization and charge carriers mobility. Moreover, the modification process tuned the surface electrical property of CN, which enabled it to be readily coupled with the oppositely charged graphene oxide during the following photo-assisted electrostatic assembly. Detailed characterizations indicate the formation of well-contacted 2D/2D heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction between the modified CN nanosheets (CNX-NSs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The optimized hybrid (with a RGO ratio of 20%) exhibits the best photocatalytic performance toward MB degradation, which is almost 12.5 and 7.0 times of CN under full spectrum and visible-light irradiation, respectively. In addition, the hybrid exhibits high stability after five successive cycles with no obvious change in efficiency. Unlike pure CNX-NSs, the dye decomposition mostly depends on the H2O2 generation by a two-electron process due to the electron reservoir property of RGO. Thus the enhancement in photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the improved light utilization and increased charge transfer ability across the interface of CNX-NSs/RGO heterostructure.

  9. Advanced nanostructured photocatalysts based on reduced graphene oxide-flower-like Bi_2WO_6 composites for an augmented simulated solar photoactivity activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yukun; Chen, Lin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple route was proposed to prepare flower-like Bi_2WO_6 and RGO/Bi_2WO_6. • Cipro HCl was degraded firstly by RGO/Bi_2WO_6 under the visible-light. • 2% RGO/Bi_2WO_6 exhibited the best removal efficiency. - Abstract: A simple hydrothermal process was proposed to prepare the flower-like Bi_2WO_6 architectures, and the as-synthesized Bi_2WO_6 photocatalysts were further processed with the prepared graphene oxide (GO) to form novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Bi_2WO_6 composites. The nano-materials were characterized with the help of XRD, XPS, SEM, FTIR, UV-DRS, PL techniques to investigate their morphological, physical, optical, and photochemical properties. Photocatalytic performances of the pure flower-like Bi_2WO_6 architectures and RGO/Bi_2WO_6 composites were compared and evaluated through the degradation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cipro HCl) wastewater under the simulated visible light. It was found that the RGO/Bi_2WO_6 composites displayed enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic activities. It might be that the RGO loading not only effectively suppressed the electron–hole recombination, but also increased the light absorption ability. The effects of operating condition involved in the photocatalytic process were further examined, and the cycle-stability experiment demonstrated that as-obtained 2% RGO/Bi_2WO_6 photocatalysts had good photocatalytic repeatability.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 nanocomposite as a promising visible-light-active photocatalyst for the conversion of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lling-Lling; Ong, Wee-Jun; Chai, Siang-Piao; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2013-11-01

    Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into hydrocarbon fuels such as methane is an attractive strategy for simultaneously harvesting solar energy and capturing this major greenhouse gas. Incessant research interest has been devoted to preparing graphene-based semiconductor nanocomposites as photocatalysts for a variety of applications. In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-TiO2 hybrid nanocrystals were fabricated through a novel and simple solvothermal synthetic route. Anatase TiO2 particles with an average diameter of 12 nm were uniformly dispersed on the rGO sheet. Slow hydrolysis reaction was successfully attained through the use of ethylene glycol and acetic acid mixed solvents coupled with an additional cooling step. The prepared rGO-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity (0.135 μmol gcat -1 h-1) in the reduction of CO2 over graphite oxide and pure anatase. The intimate contact between TiO2 and rGO was proposed to accelerate the transfer of photogenerated electrons on TiO2 to rGO, leading to an effective charge anti-recombination and thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, our photocatalysts were found to be active even under the irradiation of low-power energy-saving light bulbs, which renders the entire process economically and practically feasible.

  11. Nitrogen doped nanocrystalline semiconductor metal oxide: An efficient UV active photocatalyst for the oxidation of an organic dye using slurry Photoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Saranya; Sivasamy, A; Kumar, B Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    Water pollution is a cause for serious concern in today's world. A major contributor to water pollution is industrial effluents containing dyes and other organic molecules. Waste water treatment has become a priority area in today's applied scientific research as it seeks to minimize the toxicity of the effluents being discharged and increase the possibility of water recycling. An efficient and eco-friendly way of degrading toxic molecules is to use nano metal-oxide photocatalysts. The present study aims at enhancing the photocatalytic activity of a semiconductor metal oxide by doping it with nitrogen. A sol-gel cum combustion method was employed to synthesize the catalyst. The prepared catalyst was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, UV-DRS, FESEM and AFM techniques. UV-DRS result showed the catalyst to possess band gap energy of 2.97eV, thus making it active in the UV region of the spectrum. Its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of a model pollutant-Orange G dye, under UV light irradiation. Preliminary experiments were carried out to study the effects of pH, catalyst dosage and initial dye concentration on the extent of dye degradation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics. The effect of electrolytes on catalyst efficiency was also studied. The progress of the reaction was monitored by absorption studies and measuring the reduction in COD. The catalyst thus prepared was seen to have a high photocatalytic efficiency. The use of this catalyst is a promising means of waste water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction of fiber-shaped silver oxide/tantalum nitride p-n heterojunctions as highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Kaibing; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yu; Leng, Zhe; Liu, Jianshe

    2017-10-15

    Constructing novel and efficient p-n heterojunction photocatalysts has stimulated great interest. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of fiber-shaped Ag 2 O/Ta 3 N 5 p-n heterojunctions as a kind of efficient photocatalysts. Ta 3 N 5 nanofibers were prepared by an electrospinning-calcination-nitridation method, and then the in-situ anchoring of Ag 2 O on their surfaces was realized by a facile deposition method. The resulting Ag 2 O/Ta 3 N 5 heterojunctions were comprised of porous Ta 3 N 5 nanofibers (diameter: ∼150nm) and Ag 2 O nanoparticles (size: ∼12nm). The photocatalytic activity of these heterojunctions were studied by decomposing rhodamine B (RhB) dye and tetracycline (TC) antibiotic under visible light (λ>400nm). In all the samples, the heterojunction with Ag 2 O/Ta 3 N 5 molar ratio of 0.2/1 displays the best activity. It is found that a synergistic effect contributes to the effective suppression of charges recombination between Ta 3 N 5 and Ag 2 O, leading to an enhanced photocatalytic activity with good stability. The photogenerated holes (h + ) and superoxide radicals (O 2 - ) play dominant roles in the photocatalytic process. These p-n heterojunctions will have great potential for environmental remediation because of the facile preparation process and exceptional photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Graphene Oxide-Modified Bi2WO6 and Its Use as Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bi2WO6 photocatalyst modified with graphene was synthesized in a two-step template-free hydrothermal process. The prepared samples were characterized to explore their properties. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared samples were investigated by degrading dye model, Rhodamine B (RhB, under visible light irradiation. This showed that the modified Bi2WO6 photocatalyst with 1.2 wt% of graphene greatly improved photocatalytic activity during the degradation of dye pollutants, compared to pure Bi2WO6. The enhancement can be interpreted as the integrated effects of ultrahigh charge carriers’ mobility and high adsorption of RhB on graphene. Additionally, effects including catalysts dosage amount, pH of RhB solution, and temperature of reactor on the photocatalytically degrading RhB were also studied and discussed.

  14. A heterojunction photocatalyst composed of zinc rhodium oxide, single crystal-derived bismuth vanadium oxide, and silver for overall pure-water splitting under visible light up to 740 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryoya; Takashima, Toshihiro; Tanigawa, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Shugo; Ohtani, Bunsho; Irie, Hiroshi

    2016-10-12

    We recently reported the synthesis of a solid-state heterojunction photocatalyst consisting of zinc rhodium oxide (ZnRh 2 O 4 ) and bismuth vanadium oxide (Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ), which functioned as hydrogen (H 2 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) evolution photocatalysts, respectively, connected with silver (Ag). Polycrystalline Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) powders were utilized to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , which was able to photocatalyze overall pure-water splitting under red-light irradiation with a wavelength of 700 nm (R. Kobayashi et al., J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 3061). In the present study, we replaced p-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 with a powder obtained by pulverizing single crystals of Bi 4 V 2 O 11 (s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 ) to form ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 , and demonstrated that this heterojunction photocatalyst had enhanced water-splitting activity. In addition, ZnRh 2 O 4 /Ag/s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 was able to utilize nearly the entire range of visible light up to a wavelength of 740 nm. These properties were attributable to the higher O 2 evolution activity of s-Bi 4 V 2 O 11 .

  15. Ag@graphene oxide nanocomposite as an efficient visible-light plasmonic photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants: A facile green synthetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Kim, Byung-Keuk; Jo, Youl-Lae; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report a simple and effective supercritical route to decorate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on graphene oxide (GO) using a commonly available and non-toxic glucose as a reducing agent. Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that Ag NPs of size around 8–20 nm were coated on the GO surface under optimized experimental condition. Ag NPs on the GO surface were predominantly spherical in shape and well dispersed. The experimental results proved that the as-synthesized GO/Ag nanocomposite could be used as a highly efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine 123 dye and acetaldehyde under visible-light irradiation. The degradation results indicated that the photocatalytic performance of nanocomposite was greatly enhanced owing to the improved adsorption performance and separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers. The nanocomposite maintains a high level activity even after four times of recycle. Furthermore, the nanocomposite exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. - Highlights: • Visible-light driven reusable photocatalyst. • Efficient degradation of Rhodamine 123 dye and acetaldehyde. • Excellent antibacterial activity. • Green synthetic approach using supercritical fluid. • New field of sustainable nanotechnology

  16. Advanced nanostructured photocatalysts based on reduced graphene oxide-flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites for an augmented simulated solar photoactivity activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yukun [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, 1st Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098 (China); Chen, Lin [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, 1st Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, 1st Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098 (China); Wang, Yue [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, 1st Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098 (China); Zhu, Liang, E-mail: liangzhu_hh@163.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development of Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, 1st Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, 1st Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A simple route was proposed to prepare flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and RGO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Cipro HCl was degraded firstly by RGO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} under the visible-light. • 2% RGO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} exhibited the best removal efficiency. - Abstract: A simple hydrothermal process was proposed to prepare the flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} architectures, and the as-synthesized Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalysts were further processed with the prepared graphene oxide (GO) to form novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites. The nano-materials were characterized with the help of XRD, XPS, SEM, FTIR, UV-DRS, PL techniques to investigate their morphological, physical, optical, and photochemical properties. Photocatalytic performances of the pure flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} architectures and RGO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites were compared and evaluated through the degradation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cipro HCl) wastewater under the simulated visible light. It was found that the RGO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites displayed enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic activities. It might be that the RGO loading not only effectively suppressed the electron–hole recombination, but also increased the light absorption ability. The effects of operating condition involved in the photocatalytic process were further examined, and the cycle-stability experiment demonstrated that as-obtained 2% RGO/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalysts had good photocatalytic repeatability.

  17. Development of Ta3N5 as an Efficient Visible Light-responsive Photocatalyst for Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-09-01

    Along with many other solar energy conversion processes, research on photocatalytic water splitting to generate hydrogen and oxygen has experienced rapid major development over the past years. Developing an efficient visible-light-responsive photocatalyst has been one of the targets of such research efforts. In this regard, nitride materials, particularly Ta3N5, have been the subject of investigation due to their promising properties. This dissertation focuses on the fundamental parameters involved in the photocatalytic processes targeting overall water splitting using Ta3N5 as a model photocatalyst. The discussion primarily focuses on relevant parameters that are involved in photon absorption, exciton separation, carrier diffusion, carrier transport, and catalytic efficiency. A collection of theoretical and experimental studies of properties associated with Ta3N5 have been utilized to obtain a comprehensive understanding of this material. The fundamental structural and optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5 have been addressed. From the electronic properties, the dielectric constant and effective masses have been calculated. Because of its high dielectric constant and relatively low effective masses, Ta3N5 is promising for photocatalytic reaction applications. Studies of lattice dynamics, optical properties, and band positions have been able to clearly show that the synthesized Ta3N5 is essentially non-stoichiometric and that a truly pure phase of Ta3N5 has never been achieved, even though XRD has shown a pure phase sample. The photophysical properties of Ta3N5, such as the absorption coefficient, carrier mobility, and carrier lifetime, have been experimentally measured by synthesizing Ta3N5 thin films. Very low kinetic properties with very low transport properties and fast carrier recombination explained why overall water splitting has never been achieved with Ta3N5 as a photocatalyst to date. The extent to which the surface states of Ta3N5 photocatalysts affect

  18. A kinetic model for toluene oxidation comprising benzylperoxy benzoate ester as reactive intermediate in the formation of benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P. L.; Versteeg, G. F.

    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  19. A kinetic model for toluene oxidation comprising benzylperoxy benzoate ester as reactive intermediate in the formation of benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P.L.; Versteeg, Geert

    2005-01-01

    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  20. Preparation of MIL-53(Fe)-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites by a Simple Self-Assembly Strategy for Increasing Interfacial Contact: Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ruowen; Shen, Lijuan; Jing, Fenfen; Qin, Na; Wu, Ling

    2015-05-13

    In this work, MIL-53(Fe)-reduced graphene oxide (M53-RGO) nanocomposites have been successfully fabricated by a facile and efficient electrostatic self-assembly strategy for improving the interfacial contact between RGO and the MIL-53(Fe). Compared with D-M53-RGO (direct synthesis of MIL-53(Fe)-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites via one-pot solvothermal approach), M53-RGO nanocomposites exhibit improved photocatalytic activity compared with the D-M53-RGO under identical experimental conditions. After 80 min of visible light illumination (λ ≥ 420 nm), the reduction ratio of Cr(VI) is rapidly increased to 100%, which is also higher than that of reference sample (N-doped TiO2). More significantly, the M53-RGO nanocomposites are proven to perform as bifunctional photocatalysts with considerable activity in the mixed systems (Cr(VI)/dyes) under visible light, which made it a potential candidate for industrial wastewater treatment. Combining with photoelectrochemical analyses, it could be revealed that the introduction of RGO would minimize the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Additionally, the effective interfacial contact between MIL-53(Fe) and RGO surface would further accelerate the transfer of photogenerated electrons, leading to the enhancement of photocatalytic activity of M53-RGO toward photocatalytic reactions. Finally, a possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism is also investigated in detail.

  1. Constructing inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst via bio-template approach to enhance the photosynthetic water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Zhou, Han; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Fan; Fan, Tongxiang, E-mail: txfan@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Di

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst was synthesized by using cross-linked titanium precursor to duplicate bio-template. - Highlights: • Cross-linked titanium precursor can facilitate an accurate duplication of templates. • In situ deposition of Ag{sup 0} from AgBr can maintain the completeness of surface structure. • Perfect inverse V-type Ag{sup 0}/TiO{sub 2} can achieve efficient water oxidation. - Abstract: Bio-template approach was employed to construct inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}-based photocatalyst with well distributed AgBr in TiO{sub 2} matrix by making dead Troides Helena wings with inverse V-type scales as the template. A cross-linked titanium precursor with homogenous hydrolytic rate, good liquidity, and low viscosity was employed to facilitate a perfect duplication of the template and the dispersion of AgBr based on appropriate pretreatment of the template by alkali and acid. The as-synthesized inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/AgBr can be turned into inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} from AgBr photolysis during photocatalysis to achieve in situ deposition of Ag{sup 0} in TiO{sub 2} matrix, by this approach, to avoid the deformation of surface microstructure inherited from the template. The result showed that the cooperation of perfect inverse V-type structure and the well distributed TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} microstructures can efficiently boost the photosynthetic water oxidation compared to non-inverse V-type TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag{sup 0} without using template. The anti-reflection function of inverse V-type structure and the plasmatic effect of Ag{sup 0} might be able to account for the enhanced photon capture and efficient photoelectric conversion.

  2. Modeling Geometric Arrangements of TiO2-Based Catalyst Substrates and Isotropic Light Sources to Enhance the Efficiency of a Photocatalystic Oxidation (PCO) Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeffrey T.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Husk, Geoffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    The closed confined environments of the ISS, as well as in future spacecraft for exploration beyond LEO, provide many challenges to crew health. One such challenge is the availability of a robust, energy efficient, and re-generable air revitalization system that controls trace volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) to levels below a specified spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC). Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), which is capable of mineralizing VOCs at room temperature and of accommodating a high volumetric flow, is being evaluated as an alternative trace contaminant control technology. In an architecture of a combined air and water management system, placing a PCO unit before a condensing heat exchanger for humidity control will greatly reduce the organic load into the humidity condensate loop ofthe water processing assembly (WPA) thereby enhancing the life cycle economics ofthe WPA. This targeted application dictates a single pass efficiency of greater than 90% for polar VOCs. Although this target was met in laboratory bench-scaled reactors, no commercial or SBIR-developed prototype PCO units examined to date have achieved this goal. Furthermore, the formation of partial oxidation products (e.g., acetaldehyde) was not eliminated. It is known that single pass efficiency and partial oxidation are strongly dependent upon the contact time and catalyst illumination, hence the requirement for an efficient reactor design. The objective of this study is to maximize the apparent contact time and illuminated catalyst surface area at a given reactor volume and volumetric flow. In this study, a Ti02-based photocatalyst is assumed to be immobilized on porous substrate panels and illumination derived from linear isotropic light sources. Mathematical modeling using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to investigate the effect of: 1) the geometry and configuration of catalyst-coated substrate panels, 2) porosity of the supporting substrate, and 3

  3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Toluene, Butyl Acetate and Limonene under UV and Visible Light with Titanium Dioxide-Graphene Oxide as Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Mull

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis is a promising technique to reduce volatile organic compounds indoors. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is a frequently-used UV active photocatalyst. Because of the lack of UV light indoors, TiO2 has to be modified to get its working range shifted into the visible light spectrum. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of toluene, butyl acetate and limonene was investigated under UV LED light and blue LED light in emission test chambers with catalysts either made of pure TiO2 or TiO2 modified with graphene oxide (GO. TiO2 coated with different GO amounts (0.75%–14% were investigated to find an optimum ratio for the photocatalytic degradation of VOC in real indoor air concentrations. Most experiments were performed at a relative humidity of 0% in 20 L emission test chambers. Experiments at 40% relative humidity were done in a 1 m³ emission test chamber to determine potential byproducts. Degradation under UV LED light could be achieved for all three compounds with almost all tested catalyst samples up to more than 95%. Limonene had the highest degradation of the three selected volatile organic compounds under blue LED light with all investigated catalyst samples.

  4. Synthesis of Nb doped TiO2 nanotube/reduced graphene oxide heterostructure photocatalyst with high visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaoyou; Yan, Weijing; Zhao, Hongli; Yang, Jingkai

    2018-05-01

    Limited by the narrowed photoresponse range and unsatisfactory recombination of photoinduced electron-hole pairs, the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 is still far below what is expected. Here, we initially doped TiO2 nanotubes (TNTS) by transition metal ion Nb, then it is coupled with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to construct a heterostructure photocatalyst. The defect state presented in TiO2 leading to the formation of localized midgap states (MS) in the bandgap, which regulating the band structure of TiO2 and extending the optical absorption to visible light region. The internal charge transport and transfer behavior analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) reveal that the coupling of rGO with TNTS results in the formation of electron transport channel in the heterostructure, which makes a great contribution to the photoinduced charge separation. As expected, the Nb-TNTS/rGO exhibits a stable and remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity in the visible-light irradiation degradation of methylene blue (MB), up to ∼5 times with respect to TNTS, which is attributed to the effective inhibition of charge recombination, the reduction of bandgap and higher redox potential, as well as the great adsorptivity.

  5. Bare TiO2 and graphene oxide TiO2 photocatalysts on the degradation of selected pesticides and influence of the water matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Marta; Gomez, Cristina; Duran-Valle, Carlos J.; Pastrana-Martínez, Luisa M.; Faria, Joaquim L.; Silva, Adrián M. T.; Faraldos, Marisol; Bahamonde, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photocatalytic activity of a home-made titanium dioxide (TiO2) and its corresponding composite based on graphene oxide (GO), the GO-TiO2 catalyst, has been investigated under UV-vis in the photodegradation of a mixture of four pesticides classified by the European Union as priority pollutants: diuron, alachlor, isoproturon and atrazine. The influence of two water matrices (ultrapure or natural water) was also studied. Natural water led to a decrease on the degradation of the studied pollutants when the bare TiO2 photocatalyst was employed, since this water contains both inorganic and organic species that are dissolved and commonly restrain the photocatalytic process. On the contrary, the photo-efficiency of the GO-TiO2 composite seems to be less affected by water matrix variation, with very good initial pesticide photodegradation rates under both natural and ultrapure water matrices. A comparative study between GO-TiO2 and the commercial Evonik TiO2 P25 catalyst was also carried out to analyze the photocatalytic degradation of these pesticides under visible light illumination conditions. Once again, a higher photocatalytic activity was found for the GO-TiO2 composite.

  6. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} photocatalyst and its visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiade; Wei, Longfu [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); School of Environment Engineering and Biology Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming 525000, Guangdong Province (China); Fang, Wen [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Xie, Yu, E-mail: xieyu_121@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, Jiangxi (China); Zhou, Wanqin; Zhu, Lihua [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} photocatalyst was prepared by liquid deposition process. • GO increase e{sup −}/h{sup +} pairs separation. • The production of ·OH and O{sub 2}·{sup −} radicals was promoted. • High photocatalytic activity and stability were obtained over GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was firstly fabricated from graphite powder by Hummers method. Then a series of GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} composite photocatalysts (0.1% GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 0.5%GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 1%GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 4%GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) were synthesized by a facile liquid deposition process. The produced products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} physical adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), Raman spectra and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The influence of GO concentration on the photocatalytic activity of GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was investigated. The results showed that GO can be easily dispersed into Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, producing well contacted GO/Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} composite. Coupling of trace GO largely enhanced the visible light absorption. Moreover, GO could suppress the growth of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} grain crystals. With optimum GO content (0.5%), the degradation rate of MO is 85.37% after 120 min light irradiation, which Exhibits 1.53 times activity of that of pure Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. More importantly, a large improvement in stability was obtained over the composite. The increase in photocatalytic activity and stability could be mainly attributed to the coupling of GO which increased the surface area and suppressed the recombination rate of e{sup −}/h{sup +} pairs.

  7. Unconventionally prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts for photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troppová, Ivana; Šihor, Marcel; Reli, Martin; Ritz, Michal; Praus, Petr; Kočí, Kamila

    2018-02-01

    The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with the various TiO2:g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:1 to 1:3 were prepared unconventionally by pressurized hot water processing in a flow regime. The parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and thermal annealing, respectively. The nanocomposites as well as parent TiO2 and g-C3N4 were characterized using several complementary characterization methods and investigated in the photocatalytic decomposition of N2O under UVA (λ = 365 nm) irradiation. All the prepared TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed higher photocatalytic activity in comparison with the pure g-C3N4 and chiefly pure TiO2. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites was decreasing in the following sequence: TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) > TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:1). In comparison with the parent TiO2 or g-C3N4, the TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites' photocatalytic capability was significantly enhanced by coupling TiO2 with g-C3N4. The generation of TiO2/g-C3N4 Z-scheme photocatalyst mainly benefited from the effective separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and the extended optical absorption range. The TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:3) nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic behavior in a consequence of the optimal weight ratio of TiO2:g-C3N4 and the lowest band gap energy from all nanocomposites. The N2O conversion in its presence was 70.6% after 20 h of UVA irradiation.

  8. Polyaniline nanotubes coated with TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@graphene oxide as a novel and effective visible light photocatalyst for removal of rhodamine B from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Monireh; Kassaee, Mohammad Zaman; Mohammadi, Reza; Koohi, Maryam; Haerizadeh, Bibi Narjes

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of polyaniline-nanotubes (PANI-NT), in the presence of TiO2 and γ-Fe2O3 functionalized graphene oxide (GO), gives a green and magnetically recyclable photocatalyst, TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@GO/PANI-NT. The later orchestrates 94% photocatalytic efficiency in removal of rhodamine B (RB) from water, under simulated solar light irradiation. This is far higher than the 36% observed in the presence of TiO2&γ-Fe2O3@GO alone, where PANI-NT is excluded from the structure. Morphology, composition, and structural properties of our economically sound photocatalyst are characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma, RAMAN and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  9. Facile synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide photocatalyst with highly efficient and stable natural sunlight photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Limin; Dong, Shuying; Li, Qilu; Feng, Jinglan; Pi, Yunqing; Liu, Menglin [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Sun, Jingyu, E-mail: sunjy-cnc@pku.edu.cn [Center for Nanochemistry (CNC), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn [School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory for Yellow River and Huai River Water Environmental and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • A dual Bi-based ball-shaped material BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were facilely synthesized. • The composition effect of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO hybrid were probed for the first time. • The photocatalytic performances were evaluated upon natural sunlight irradiation. • The composites showed a twofold augmentation in the degradation efficiency. • The hybrid photocatalyst can be easily recycled for three times. - Abstract: A facile and efficient route for the controllable synthesis of BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures by hydrolysis method was reported, where the as-prepared BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was subsequently incorporated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets to form BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites. The obtained BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites were well characterized with the aid of various techniques to probe their crystallographic, morphological, chemical and optical properties. Photocatalytic capacities of the pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have been investigated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB)-contained wastewater under natural sunlight irradiation. A twofold augmentation of degradation efficiency was in turn observed for BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites compared with that of pure BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} under the natural sunlight irradiation. The optimum conditions, the effects of the active species and stabilities in photocatalytic performances of the BiOF/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO composites have also been probed.

  10. Graphene oxide quantum dot-sensitized porous titanium dioxide microsphere: Visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on energy band engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Qi, Fuyuan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Hongfeng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Daliang; Song, Xi-Ming

    2017-07-15

    We report a novel graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD)-sensitized porous TiO 2 microsphere for efficient photoelectric conversion. Electro-chemical analysis along with the Mott-Schottky equation reveals conductivity type and energy band structure of the two semiconductors. Based on their energy band structures, visible light-induced electrons can transfer from the p-type GOQD to the n-type TiO 2 . Enhanced photocurrent and photocatalytic activity in visible light further confirm the enhanced separation of electrons and holes in the nanocomposite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoinduced Glycerol Oxidation over Plasmonic Au and AuM (M = Pt, Pd and Bi) Nanoparticle-Decorated TiO2 Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedsukontorn, Trin; Saito, Nagahiro; Hunsom, Mali

    2018-01-01

    In this study, sol-immobilization was used to prepare gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-decorated titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysts at different Au weight % (wt. %) loading (Aux/TiO2, where x is the Au wt. %) and Au–M NP-decorated TiO2 photocatalysts (Au3M3/TiO2), where M is bismuth (Bi), platinum (Pt) or palladium (Pd) at 3 wt. %. The Aux/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a stronger visible light absorption than the parent TiO2 due to the localized surface plasmon resonance effect. Increasing the Au content from 1 wt. % to 7 wt. % led to increased visible light absorption due to the increasing presence of defective structures that were capable of enhancing the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared catalyst. The addition of Pt and Pd coupled with the Au3/TiO2 to form Au3M3/TiO2 improved the photocatalytic activity of the Au3/TiO2 photocatalyst by maximizing their light-absorption property. The Au3/TiO2, Au3Pt3/TiO2 and Au3Pd3/TiO2 photocatalysts promoted the formation of glyceraldehyde from glycerol as the principle product, while Au3Bi3/TiO2 facilitated glycolaldehyde formation as the major product. Among all the prepared photocatalysts, Au3Pd3/TiO2 exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with a 98.75% glycerol conversion at 24 h of reaction time. PMID:29690645

  12. Reduced graphene oxide and Ag wrapped TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, Kah Hon; Sim, Lan Ching; Jang, Min; Ibrahim, Shaliza [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bahnemann, Detlef [Institut fuer Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Saravanan, Pichiah, E-mail: pichiahsaravanan@gmail.com [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Center (NANOCAT), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-10-01

    A well-organised reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and silver (Ag) wrapped TiO{sub 2} nano-hybrid was successfully achieved through a facile and easy route. The inherent characteristics of the synthesized RGO-Ag/TiO{sub 2} were revealed through crystalline phase, morphology, chemical composition, Raman scattering, UV-visible absorption, and photoluminescence analyses. The adopted synthesis route significantly controlled the uniform formation of silver nanoparticles and contributed for the absorption of light in the visible spectrum through localized surface plasmon resonance effects. The wrapped RGO nanosheets triggered the electron mobility and promoted visible light shift towards red spectrum. The accomplishment of synergised effect of RGO and Ag well degraded Bisphenol A under visible light irradiation with a removal efficiency of 61.9%.

  13. A new bimetallic plasmonic photocatalyst consisting of gold(core)-copper(shell) nanoparticle and titanium(IV) oxide support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Naya, Shin-ichi [Environmental Research Laboratory, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tada, Hiroaki, E-mail: h-tada@apch.kindai.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Environmental Research Laboratory, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Ultrathin Cu layers (∼2 atomic layers) have been selectively formed on the Au surfaces of Au nanoparticle-loaded rutile TiO{sub 2} (Au@Cu/TiO{sub 2}) by a deposition precipitation-photodeposition technique. Cyclic voltammetry and photochronopotentiometry measurements indicate that the reaction proceeds via the underpotential deposition. The ultrathin Cu shell drastically increases the activity of Au/TiO{sub 2} for the selective oxidation of amines to the corresponding aldehydes under visible-light irradiation (λ > 430 nm). Photochronoamperometry measurements strongly suggest that the striking Cu shell effect stems from the enhancement of the charge separation in the localized surface plasmon resonance-excited Au/TiO{sub 2}.

  14. A new bimetallic plasmonic photocatalyst consisting of gold(core-copper(shell nanoparticle and titanium(IV oxide support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Sato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin Cu layers (∼2 atomic layers have been selectively formed on the Au surfaces of Au nanoparticle-loaded rutile TiO2 (Au@Cu/TiO2 by a deposition precipitation-photodeposition technique. Cyclic voltammetry and photochronopotentiometry measurements indicate that the reaction proceeds via the underpotential deposition. The ultrathin Cu shell drastically increases the activity of Au/TiO2 for the selective oxidation of amines to the corresponding aldehydes under visible-light irradiation (λ > 430 nm. Photochronoamperometry measurements strongly suggest that the striking Cu shell effect stems from the enhancement of the charge separation in the localized surface plasmon resonance-excited Au/TiO2.

  15. Titanium dioxide use (TiO2) in cement matrix as a photocatalyst of nitrogen oxides (NOx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, C.A.; Hotza, D.; Repette, W.L.; Jochem, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) in the photodegradation of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) is a technology that can contribute against to environmental pollution. This work shows the feasibility of using TiO 2 in mortars for photocatalysis. The Degussa P25 titania were characterized chemically and physically, revealing that the sample consists of nanoparticles, but has become crowded. Tests Samples (TS) were manufactured with added titania and the NO x tests at 28, 60 and 120 days of age of TSs, showing that it was 3% capable of degrading 100% of the NO x gas flow. Proved that conditions like relative humidity, flow and radiation intensity are relevant when it comes to efficiency in photocatalysis, altering the efficiency by varying these conditions. The photocatalysis with titania in cement matrix was efficient in NO x degradation, presenting itself as a promising technique to control environmental pollution

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  17. Simple Response Surface Methodology: Investigation on Advance Photocatalytic Oxidation of 4-Chlorophenoxyacetic Acid Using UV-Active ZnO Photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kian Mun; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2015-01-19

    The performance of advance photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA) strongly depends on photocatalyst dosage, initial concentration and initial pH. In the present study, a simple response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the interaction between these three independent factors. Thus, the photocatalytic degradation of 4-CPA in aqueous medium assisted by ultraviolet-active ZnO photocatalyst was systematically investigated. This study aims to determine the optimum processing parameters to maximize 4-CPA degradation. Based on the results obtained, it was found that a maximum of 91% of 4-CPA was successfully degraded under optimal conditions (0.02 g ZnO dosage, 20.00 mg/L of 4-CPA and pH 7.71). All the experimental data showed good agreement with the predicted results obtained from statistical analysis.

  18. Non-covalent doping of graphitic carbon nitride with ultrathin graphene oxide and molybdenum disulfide nanosheets: an effective binary heterojunction photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S W; Yang, L W; Tian, Y; Wei, X L; Ding, J W; Zhong, J X; Chu, Paul K

    2014-10-01

    A proof of concept integrating binary p-n heterojunctions into a semiconductor hybrid photocatalyst is demonstrated by non-covalent doping of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with ultrathin GO and MoS2 nanosheets using a facile sonochemical method. In this unique ternary hybrid, the layered MoS2 and GO nanosheets with a large surface area enhance light absorption to generate more photoelectrons. On account of the coupling between MoS2 and GO with g-C3N4, the ternary hybrid possesses binary p-n heterojunctions at the g-C3N4/MoS2 and g-C3N4/GO interfaces. The space charge layers created by the p-n heterojunctions not only enhance photogeneration, but also promote charge separation and transfer of electron-hole pairs. In addition, the ultrathin MoS2 and GO with high mobility act as electron mediators to facilitate separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at each p-n heterojunction. As a result, the ternary hybrid photocatalyst exhibits improved photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation compared to other reference materials. The results provide new insights into the large-scale production of semiconductor photocatalysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Composite photocatalyst containing Eosin Y and multiwalled carbon nanotubes loaded with CuO/NiO: Mixed metal oxide as an active center of H2 evolution from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Shizhao; Chen Lili; Li Xiangqing; Mu Jin

    2012-01-01

    A composite photocatalyst containing Eosin Y as a sensitizer, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a supporter material or electron transfer channel, and CuO/NiO as an active center of H 2 evolution from water was fabricated and characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. Meanwhile, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water over this catalyst was explored using triethanolamine as a sacrificial reagent under visible irradiation. A rate of H 2 evolution of approximately 1.0 mmol g -1 h -1 was achieved under optimal conditions. Furthermore, for practical purposes, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution was studied as a function of content of CuO/NiO, mass ratio of CuO to NiO, pH of solution, concentration of triethanolamine and dosage of Eosin Y, respectively. The results show that mixed metal oxides are a kind of promising active centers of H 2 evolution from water in the photocatalytic system studied.

  20. Composite photocatalyst containing Eosin Y and multiwalled carbon nanotubes loaded with CuO/NiO: Mixed metal oxide as an active center of H2 evolution from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Zhao; Chen, Lili; Li, Xiangqing; Mu, Jin

    2012-06-01

    A composite photocatalyst containing Eosin Y as a sensitizer, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a supporter material or electron transfer channel, and CuO/NiO as an active center of H2 evolution from water was fabricated and characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. Meanwhile, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water over this catalyst was explored using triethanolamine as a sacrificial reagent under visible irradiation. A rate of H2 evolution of approximately 1.0 mmol g-1 h-1 was achieved under optimal conditions. Furthermore, for practical purposes, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution was studied as a function of content of CuO/NiO, mass ratio of CuO to NiO, pH of solution, concentration of triethanolamine and dosage of Eosin Y, respectively. The results show that mixed metal oxides are a kind of promising active centers of H2 evolution from water in the photocatalytic system studied.

  1. Band alignment investigations of heterostructure NiO/TiO2 nanomaterials used as efficient heterojunction earth-abundant metal oxide photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md T; Nicolas, Y; Olivier, C; Jaegermann, W; Rockstroh, N; Junge, H; Toupance, T

    2017-07-26

    Earth-abundant NiO/anatase TiO 2 heteronanostructures were prepared by a straightforward one-pot sol-gel synthetic route followed by a suitable thermal post-treatment. The resulting 0.1-4 wt% NiO-decorated anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy and N 2 sorption analysis, and showed both nanocrystallinity and mesoporosity. The careful determination of the energy band alignment diagram by a suitable combination of XPS/UPS and absorption spectroscopy data revealed significant band bending at the interface of the p-n NiO/anatase TiO 2 heterojunction nanoparticles. Furthermore, these heterojunction photocatalysts exhibited an improved photocatalytic activity in H 2 production by methanol photoreforming compared to pure anatase TiO 2 and commercial P25. Thus, an average H 2 production rate of 2693 μmol h -1 g -1 was obtained for the heterojunction of a 1 wt% NiO/anatase photocatalyst, which is one of the most efficient NiO/anatase TiO 2 systems ever reported. An enhanced dissociation efficiency of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs resulting from an internal electric field developed at the interface of the NiO/anatase TiO 2 p-n heterojunctions is suggested to be the reason of this enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  2. Photocatalyst based on TiO2 nanotube arrays co-decorated with CdS quantum dots and reduced graphene oxide irradiated by γ rays for effective degradation of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Ye, Shengying; Song, Xianliang; Luo, Shucan

    2018-06-01

    We report herein a means of transforming TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) from an amorphous state to an anatase crystal state (denoted as ∗TNAs), and present a single-step synthetic route for preparing CdS quantum dots (CdS QDs) as well as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through gamma-ray irradiation. The as-prepared ∗TNAs, CdS QDs, and rGO, which had all been subjected to gamma-ray irradiation, were then assembled together to produce the desired heterojunction (denoted as CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), ultraviolet/visible diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (UV/Vis DRS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), micro-Raman spectrometry (RS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been applied to characterize the appearance and performance of this photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity of CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs towards ethylene degradation has been measured by placing it in a simulated cold-storage environment, the temperature and humidity of which were set at about 3 ± 1 °C and 75-90%, respectively. The results showed that the rate constant (K) of ethylene degradation could reach up to 1.07 × 10-3 min-1 with CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs, as compared to 2.30 × 10-4 min-1 with ∗TNAs and 6.25 × 10-4 min-1 with CdS QDs-∗TNAs, indicating that the constructed CdS QDs/rGO-∗TNAs constitutes a promising photocatalyst for ethylene removal in a cold storage environment.

  3. Graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts for NOx removal: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2018-02-01

    NOx liberated into atmosphere from automobile exhausts and fossil fuel combustion, comprise the major air pollutants. They are responsible for serious environmental problems such as acid rain, ozone accumulation, haze and photochemical smog. Besides they contribute to the deterioration of human health by causing decrease of the lung function and respiratory problems. The application of photocatalytic methods in order to mitigate the presence of NOx in the atmosphere is preferable as they are environmentally friendly, mild and low cost. Therefore, in this review, the photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 and graphene based composites towards NOx removal was discussed. NOx oxidation to non volatile nitrates on the surface of graphene and g-C3N4 based photocatalysts has attracted much interest during the last years due to their structures with unique features such as large specific surface area, thermal and chemical stability and enhanced visible light utilization. The formation of 2D-2D intimate heterojunctions between graphene or g-C3N4 and other components ensures the enhanced charge transfer, lifetime of electron/hole pairs and thus photocatalytic activity. The increased visible light harvesting also contributes to their usefulness as effective photocatalytic materials. In the present work, the advantages of these novel photocatalysts and the differences/similarities between them were exhaustively highlighted. The role of graphene as catalyst promoter, electron reservoir, support and photosensitizer in its photocatalytic composites was emphasized. The effect of g-C3N4 doping and copolymerization with metals/semiconductors on its photocatalytic activity towards NOx oxidation was thoroughly discussed. Besides, the preparation methods, photocatalytic efficiencies, type of irradiation, utilization of appropriate cocatalysts, and reaction mechanisms during the photocatalytic NOx removal by graphene and g-C3N4 composies, were summarized. It was demonstrated that in the vast

  4. Electrical and optical properties of a kind of ferroelectric oxide films comprising of PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shimin; Ma, Guohong; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Wenchao; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chu, Junhao; Dai, Ning; Shi, Wangzhou; Hu, Gujin

    2017-07-01

    A type of ferroelectric oxide films, consisting of three PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 stacks with different periodic thicknesses, has been designed and fabricated on F-doped transparent conductive tin oxide substrates by using one single precursor solution and spinning-coating process. These films exhibit superior ferroelectric, dielectric, and optical performance. Each PbZr0.4Ti0.6O3 multilayer has a high reflectivity band with ˜110 nm photonic band width and average reflectivity of >80%, a dielectric constant of 530 and dielectric tunability of ˜28% at 1 MHz, a remnant polarization of 36 μC/cm2, and a polarization loss of cycles, rendering their perspective application in photonic band-gap engineering, microwave tunable devices, and integrated optoelectronics.

  5. GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES COMPRISING PERMEABILITY ENHANCING ADDITIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer compositions comprising a (co)polymer comprising (a) an arylene oxide moiety and (b) a dendritic (co)polymer, a hyperbranched (co)polymer or a mixture thereof, and the use of these polymer compositions as membrane materials for the separation of gases. The

  6. PhnY and PhnZ comprise a new oxidative pathway for enzymatic cleavage of a carbon-phosphorus bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McSorley, Fern R.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Martinez, Ascuncion

    2012-01-01

    The sequential activities of PhnY, an α-ketoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenase, and PhnZ, a Fe(II)-dependent enzyme of the histidine-aspartate motif hydrolase family, cleave the carbon-phosphorus bond of the organophosphonate natural product 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid. PhnY adds a hydroxyl...... group to the α-carbon, yielding 2-amino-1-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid, which is oxidatively converted by PhnZ to inorganic phosphate and glycine. The PhnZ reaction represents a new enzyme mechanism for metabolic cleavage of a carbon-phosphorus bond....

  7. An efficient route to selective bio-oxidation catalysts: an iterative approach comprising modeling, diversification, and screening, based on CYP102A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Alexander; Antonovici, Mihaela; Hauer, Bernhard; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2011-06-14

    Perillyl alcohol is the terminal hydroxylation product of the cheap and readily available terpene, limonene. It has high potential as an anti-tumor substance, but is of limited availability. In principle, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, such as the self-sufficient CYP102A1, are promising catalysts for the oxidation of limonene or other inert hydrocarbons. The wild-type enzyme converts (4R)-limonene to four different oxidation products; however, terminal hydroxylation at the allylic C7 is not observed. Here we describe a generic strategy to engineer this widely used enzyme to hydroxylate exclusively the exposed, but chemically less reactive, primary C7 in the presence of other reactive positions. The approach presented here turns CYP102A1 into a highly selective catalyst with a shifted product spectra by successive rounds of modeling, the design of small focused libraries, and screening. In the first round a minimal CYP102A1 mutant library was rationally designed. It contained variants with improved or strongly shifted regio-, stereo- and chemoselectivity, compared to wild-type. From this library the variant with the highest perillyl alcohol ratio was fine-tuned by two additional rounds of molecular modeling, diversification, and screening. In total only 29 variants needed to be screened to identify the triple mutant A264V/A238V/L437F that converts (4R)-limonene to perillyl alcohol with a selectivity of 97 %. Focusing mutagenesis on a small number of relevant positions identified by computational approaches is the key for efficient screening for enzyme selectivity. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Composite photocatalyst containing Eosin Y and multiwalled carbon nanotubes loaded with CuO/NiO: Mixed metal oxide as an active center of H{sub 2} evolution from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang Shizhao [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China); Chen Lili [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li Xiangqing [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China); Mu Jin, E-mail: mujin@sit.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 100 Haiquan Road, Shanghai 201418 (China)

    2012-06-01

    A composite photocatalyst containing Eosin Y as a sensitizer, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a supporter material or electron transfer channel, and CuO/NiO as an active center of H{sub 2} evolution from water was fabricated and characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. Meanwhile, photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water over this catalyst was explored using triethanolamine as a sacrificial reagent under visible irradiation. A rate of H{sub 2} evolution of approximately 1.0 mmol g{sup -1} h{sup -1} was achieved under optimal conditions. Furthermore, for practical purposes, the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution was studied as a function of content of CuO/NiO, mass ratio of CuO to NiO, pH of solution, concentration of triethanolamine and dosage of Eosin Y, respectively. The results show that mixed metal oxides are a kind of promising active centers of H{sub 2} evolution from water in the photocatalytic system studied.

  9. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  10. Metal and metal-free photocatalysts: mechanistic approach and application as photoinitiators of photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lalevée

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the photoredox catalysis is presented as a unique approach in the field of photoinitiators of polymerization. The principal photocatalysts already reported as well as the typical oxidation and reduction agents used in both reductive or oxidative cycles are gathered. The chemical mechanisms associated with various systems are also given. As compared to classical iridium-based photocatalysts which are mainly active upon blue light irradiation, a new photocatalyst Ir(piq2(tmd (also known as bis(1-phenylisoquinolinato-N,C2’iridium(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate is also proposed as an example of green light photocatalyst (toward the long wavelength irradiation. The chemical mechanisms associated with Ir(piq2(tmd are investigated by ESR spin-trapping, laser flash photolysis, steady state photolysis, cyclic voltammetry and luminescence experiments.

  11. Illuminating Electron Microscopy of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research because of their wide range of applications and great potential for state of the art and future usages [1]. By means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) it is possible to give a deep insight in the structure, composi...

  12. Graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Shen, Rongchen; Ma, Song; Chen, Xiaobo; Xie, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, 2D semimetallic or semiconducting graphene has been extensively utilized to construct highly efficient heterojunction photocatalysts for driving a variety of redox reactions under proper light irradiation. In this review, we carefully addressed the fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, fundamental properties and advantages of graphene in photocatalysis, and classification and comparison of graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts. Subsequently, we thoroughly highlighted and discussed various graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts, including Schottky junctions, Type-II heterojunctions, Z-scheme heterojunctions, Van der Waals heterostructures, in plane heterojunctions and multicomponent heterojunctions. Several important photocatalytic applications, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction and bacteria disinfection, are also summarized. Through reviewing the important advances on this topic, it may inspire some new ideas for exploiting highly effective graphene-based heterojunction photocatalysts for a number of applications in photocatlysis and other fields, such as photovoltaic, (photo)electrocatalysis, lithium battery, fuel cell, supercapacitor and adsorption separation.

  13. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  14. Facile Synthesis and Characterization of N-Doped TiO2 Photocatalyst and Its Visible-Light Activity for Photo-Oxidation of Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile wet chemical method was adopted for preparing highly photoactive nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 powders with visible responsive capability, which could be achieved by the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP in the ammonium hydroxide precursor solution in various concentrations and then calcined at different temperatures. The N-TiO2 powders were characterized, and the photocatalytic activity was evaluated for the photocatalytic oxidation of ethylene gas under visible light irradiation to optimize the synthesizing conditions of N-TiO2 catalyst. The N-TiO2 photocatalytic powders were calcined in a range of temperatures from 300 to 600°C and obviously found to have greater photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 P25. The strong absorption in the visible light region could be ascribed to good crystallization and adapted sinter temperature of as prepared sample. XPS test demonstrated that the N was doped into TiO2 lattice and made an interstitial formation (Ti-O-N, and N doping also retarded the phase transformation from anatase to rutile as well. The N-TiO2 catalyst prepared with 150 mL ammonium hydroxide added and calcined at 500°C showed the best photocatalytic activity. The experimental results also proved the enhanced photoactivity of N-TiO2 material depends on the synthesizing conditions.

  15. Novel Z-scheme BiOBr/reduced graphene oxide/protonated g-C3N4 photocatalyst: Synthesis, characterization, visible light photocatalytic activity and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yongchao; Chen, Kezheng

    2018-04-01

    The novel BiOBr/reduced graphene oxide/protonated g-C3N4 (BiOBr/RGO/pg-C3N4) composites were successfully synthesized by using a facile solvothermal synthesis method. The structure, morphology, optical and electronic properties were explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and photoelectrochemical measurement. The photocatalytic activities of as-synthesized samples were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 420nm). Compared with BiOBr, protonated g-C3N4 (pg-C3N4), BiOBr/pg-C3N4 and RGO/pg-C3N4, BiOBr/RGO/pg-C3N4 composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity. The total organic carbon (TOC) removal ratios of Rh B and TC over 10% BiOBr/RGO/pg-C3N4 were 88% and 59%, respectively. The excellent photcatalytic performance was investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), the radical quenching and electron spin resonance experiments. A Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism was proposed, in which RGO acted as an electron transfer mediator. It was worth pointing out that the closely contacted two-dimensional interface among the BiOBr, the RGO and pg-C3N4 promoted the separation and transfer of photo-generated charge carriers, and thus enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency.

  16. Supramolecular photocatalyst of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Supramolecular photocatalyst of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 was achieved, which showed high photocatalytic activity and adsorption capacity. Highlights: •Supramolecular photocatalyst of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 was achieved. •β-CD molecules acted as linkers between RGO and monodisperse TiO 2 nanoparticles. •Reduction of GO and preparation of RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 was simultaneous. •The prepared RGO-cyclodextrin-TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic activity and adsorption capacity. -- Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)/titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) supramolecular photocatalyst was synthesized with a one-pot hydrothermal method. The reducing process was accomplished with the attaching of β-CD and generation of TiO 2 . β-CD acted as a linker between RGO and monodisperse TiO 2 nanoparticles. The structure and composition of the hybrid had been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared RGO-CD-TiO 2 showed significant enhanced performance for phenol and Cr (VI) removal, due to the effective transfer of photo-generated electron from TiO2 to RGO and improved absorbance performance of the hybrid

  17. Photochemical reactions of neptunium in nitric acid solution containing photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukasawa, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Fumio

    1991-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation and reduction behaviors of neptunium were preliminarily investigated in 3 mol/l nitric acid solution. Nitric acid of 3 mol/l simulated the high level waste solution from a spent fuel reprocessing process. Concentrations of Np(V), Np(VI) and nitrous acid were determined with a photospectrometer, and solution potential with an electrode. Without additives, Np(VI) was reduced to Np(V) by nitrous acid which was photolytically generated from nitric acid. With a scavenger for nitrous acid, Np(V) was oxidized to extractable Np(VI) by a photolytically generated oxidizing reagent which were predicted by the solution potential measurement. The reduction rate was higher than the oxidation rate because of the larger quantity and higher reactivity of nitrous acid than an oxidizing reagent. Photocatalyst was proved to be effective for the oxidation of Np(V) to Np(VI). (author)

  18. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  19. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of hypersensitive photocatalyst using oxide semiconductor thin film having nanostructure; 1999 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Nano bisai kozo wo yusuru sankabutsu handotai usumaku ni yoru chokokando hikari shokubai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The thin film structure of photocatalytic titanium oxide, capable of efficiently decomposing hazardous pollutants or the like, is refined to have a nanometric scale structure for a larger specific surface for the development of a photocatalytic thin film or powder film and for the development of decomposition capable air cleaner using a thus developed photocatalytic film. Described in this report are the results of a study conducted to elucidate the fabrication conditions, nanostructures, and photocatalytic features of titanium oxide thin films formed by spray thermolysis, RF (radio frequency) sputtering, reactive sputtering, and sol-gel process, a study of hazardous pollutant decomposing capability and nanostructure, the establishment of fabrication technologies, and the construction of a prototype air cleaner with the results of the said studies applied thereto. Among the various fabrication methods, the technology involving a hypersensitive thin film photocatalyst was established by combining the reactive sputtering method and the sol-gel method. It was found that the formation of prismatic crystals in the sol-gel method was the most important in achieving high performance in the hypersensitive thin film photocatalyst. (NEDO)

  20. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  1. Illuminating Electron Microscopy of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    .1% of the surface of the planet with a device that converts solar energy into a useable form at 10% efficiency would give more than the present worldwide consumption of fossil energy. Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research because they provide a viable route for converting solar...... energy into chemical bonds. By means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) it is possible to gain insight in the fundamentals of their reaction mechanisms, chemical behaviour, structure and morphology before, during and after reaction using in situ investigations. In particular, the environmental TEM...... the microscope that allows electron microscopy under nonconventional TEM conditions and new kinds of in situ spectroscopy....

  2. Sulphonated Phthalocyanines as Effective Oxidation Photocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, P.; Drobek, M.; Strašák, Tomáš; Krýsa, J.; Karásková, M.; Rakušak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 272, 1-2 (2008), s. 213-219 ISSN 1381-1169 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD203/03/H140; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : phthalocyanines * 4-Chlorophenol * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.814, year: 2008

  3. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of immobilized composite photocatalyst (titania nanoparticle/activated carbon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Arami, Mokhtar; Zhang, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Dyes were decolorized and degraded using novel immobilized composite photocatalyst. → Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates where, they were further oxidized slowly to CO 2 . → Nitrate, chloride and sulfate anions were detected as the photocatalytic mineralization products of dyes. → Novel immobilized composite photocatalyst is the most effective novel immobilized composite photocatalyst to degrade of textile dyes. - Abstract: An immobilized composite photocatalyst, titania (TiO 2 ) nanoparticle/activated carbon (AC), was prepared and its photocatalytic activity on the degradation of textile dyes was tested. AC was prepared using Canola hull. Basic Red 18 (BR18) and Basic Red 46 (BR46) were used as model dyes. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed. The effects of reaction parameters such as weight percent (wt.%) of activated carbon, pH, dye concentration and anions (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- ) were investigated on dye degradation. Data showed that dyes were decolorized and degraded using novel immobilized composite photocatalyst. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates where, they were further oxidized slowly to CO 2 . Nitrate, chloride and sulfate anions were detected as the photocatalytic mineralization products of dyes. Results show that novel immobilized composite photocatalyst with 2 wt.% of AC is the most effective novel immobilized composite photocatalyst to degrade of textile dyes.

  4. Photooxidative desulfurization for diesel using Fe / N - TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohd Ibrahim Abdul

    2014-10-01

    A series of N - TiO2 with different mol% N was synthesized via sol-gel method and characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer and raman spectroscopy. 0.2 wt% Fe was incorporated onto the calcined (200°C) N - TiO2 followed by calcination at 200°C, 250°C and 300°C. Photooxidative desulfurization was conducted in the presence of 0.2wt% Fe / N - TiO2 with different mol% N with and without oxidant (H2O2). Oxidative desulfurization was only achieved when H2O2 was used while without H2O2 no major effect on the sulfur removal. 0.2Fe -30N - H2O2 photocatalysts showed best performance at all calcination temperatures as compared to other mol% N - H2O2 photocatalysts. 16.45% sulfur removal was achieved using photocatalysts calcined at 300 °C.

  5. Ionic liquids comprising heteraromatic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William F.; Brennecke, Joan F.; Maginn, Edward J.; Mindrup, Elaine; Gurkan, Burcu; Price, Erica; Goodrich, Brett

    2018-04-24

    Some embodiments described herein relate to ionic liquids comprising an anion of a heteraromatic compound such as optionally substituted pyrrolide, optionally substituted pyrazolide, optionally substituted indolide, optionally substituted phospholide, or optionally substituted imidazolide. Methods and devices for gas separation or gas absorption related to these ionic liquids are also described herein.

  6. Porous-ZnO-Nanobelt Film as Recyclable Photocatalysts with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Min

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film was synthesized by oxidizing the ZnSe-nanobelt film in air. The experiment results show that the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the ZnO-nanobelt film, and can be used as recyclable photocatalysts. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the porous-ZnO-nanobelt film is attributed to the increased surface area. Therefore, turning the 1D-nanostructure film into porous one may be a feasible approach to meet the demand of photocatalyst application.

  7. Electrical properties of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor structure comprising Al2O3 gate oxide and AlN passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal–organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Aoki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS structures comprising a Al2O3 gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD, with an AlN interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of Al2O3 in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed AlN and ALD-formed Al2O3 layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of AlN thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resulting MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin AlN passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance–voltage (C–V characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick AlN passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (Dit near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin AlN passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce Dit to below 2 × 1012 cm−2 eV−1. Using a (111A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ AlN passivation using the current MOCVD system could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.

  8. An Enthusiastic Glance in to the Visible Responsive Photocatalysts for Energy Production and Pollutant Removal, with Special Emphasis on Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padikkaparambil Silija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the rapid growth of industry, major problems are created related to energy and environment. Sunlight being one of the most potential alternative source of energy, the development of efficient solar-energy storage systems is an important subject in the fields of science and technology. Here we have reviewed and summarized some of the recent reports on visible responsive photocatalysts. In this review, the influence of various metal oxide photocatalysts on energy production and pollutant removal are presented with special emphasis on titania based photocatalysts. The photoactivity of titania for various pollutant degradation, modified titania (TiO2 systems, their physical and chemical characteristics, and so forth, are described in detail at this juncture. Different methods used to enhance the visible light absorption of TiO2, like doping with metals and nonmetals, coupling with other metal oxides, and so forth, have been discussed. Various applications of photocatalysts including photocatalytic treatment of waste water, pesticide degradation and water splitting to produce hydrogen are summarized. The development of photocatalysts that function under visible light for the efficient utilization of sunlight is an area of current interest and thus the different methods of preparation for the visible active photocatalysts are also explored.

  9. A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ke Tseng

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition, which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature.

  10. Azo dyes degradation using TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide photocatalysts under UV and natural sunlight irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Marcela-Corina; Coros, Maria; Pogacean, Florina; Magerusan, Lidia; Socaci, Crina; Turza, Alexandru; Pruneanu, Stela

    2017-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes with different structures (amaranth, sunset yellow and tartrazine) using TiO2-Pt nanoparticles (TPt), TiO2-Pt/graphene oxide (TPt-GO) and TiO2-Pt/reduced graphene oxide (TPt-rGO) composites were investigated in the presence of UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The composites were prepared by a combined chemical-thermal method and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The modification of TiO2-Pt with graphene oxide shifted its optical absorption edge towards the visible region and increased its photocatalytic activity under UV and natural sunlight irradiation. The efficiency of catalysts on azo dyes degradation (in similar conditions) reached high values (above 99%) under sunlight conditions, proving the remarkable photocatalytic activities of obtained composites. TPt-GO nanocomposite exhibited higher photoactivity than TPt or TPt-rGO, demonstrating degradation efficiencies of 99.56% for amaranth, 99.15% for sunset yellow and 96.23% for tartrazine. The dye photodegradation process follows a pseudo-first-order kinetic with respect to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction mechanism. A direct dependence between azo dyes degradation rate and chemical structure of dyes has been observed.

  11. Particulate photocatalysts for overall water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-10-01

    The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a promising way of generating renewable energy. Hydrogen production by means of water splitting over semiconductor photocatalysts is a simple, cost-effective approach to large-scale solar hydrogen synthesis. Since the discovery of the Honda-Fujishima effect, considerable progress has been made in this field, and numerous photocatalytic materials and water-splitting systems have been developed. In this Review, we summarize existing water-splitting systems based on particulate photocatalysts, focusing on the main components: light-harvesting semiconductors and co-catalysts. The essential design principles of the materials employed for overall water-splitting systems based on one-step and two-step photoexcitation are also discussed, concentrating on three elementary processes: photoabsorption, charge transfer and surface catalytic reactions. Finally, we outline challenges and potential advances associated with solar water splitting by particulate photocatalysts for future commercial applications.

  12. A review on g-C3N4-based photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun; Chen, Xiaobo; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic fundamentals, versatile properties, design strategies and potential applications of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts were systematically summarized and addressed. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C 3 N 4 were systematically summarized. • The versatile properties of g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts were highlighted. • The different design strategies of g-C 3 N 4 photocatalysts were reviewed. • The important photocatalytic applications of g-C 3 N 4 were also addressed. - Abstract: As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H 2 evolution and overall water splitting), degradation of pollutants, carbon dioxide reduction, selective organic

  13. A review on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jiuqing; Xie, Jun [College of Materials and Energy, Key Laboratory of Energy Plants Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642 (China); Chen, Xiaobo, E-mail: chenxiaobo@umkc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri – Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 64110 (United States); Li, Xin, E-mail: Xinliscau@yahoo.com [College of Materials and Energy, Key Laboratory of Energy Plants Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic fundamentals, versatile properties, design strategies and potential applications of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts were systematically summarized and addressed. - Highlights: • The photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were systematically summarized. • The versatile properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts were highlighted. • The different design strategies of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts were reviewed. • The important photocatalytic applications of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were also addressed. - Abstract: As one of the most appealing and attractive technologies, heterogeneous photocatalysis has been utilized to directly harvest, convert and store renewable solar energy for producing sustainable and green solar fuels and a broad range of environmental applications. Due to their unique physicochemical, optical and electrical properties, a wide variety of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts have been designed to drive various reduction and oxidation reactions under light irradiation with suitable wavelengths. In this review, we have systematically summarized the photocatalytic fundamentals of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts, including fundamental mechanism of heterogeneous photocatalysis, advantages, challenges and the design considerations of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts. The versatile properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based photocatalysts are highlighted, including their crystal structural, surface phisicochemical, stability, optical, adsorption, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and electronic properties. Various design strategies are also thoroughly reviewed, including band-gap engineering, defect control, dimensionality tuning, pore texture tailoring, surface sensitization, heterojunction construction, co-catalyst and nanocarbon loading. Many important applications are also addressed, such as photocatalytic water splitting (H{sub 2} evolution and overall water

  14. Particulate Photocatalyst Sheets Based on Carbon Conductor Layer for Efficient Z-Scheme Pure-Water Splitting at Ambient Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Hisatomi, Takashi; Suzuki, Yohichi; Pan, Zhenhua; Seo, Jeongsuk; Katayama, Masao; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Seki, Kazuhiko; Kudo, Akihiko; Yamada, Taro; Domen, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    Development of sunlight-driven water splitting systems with high efficiency, scalability, and cost-competitiveness is a central issue for mass production of solar hydrogen as a renewable and storable energy carrier. Photocatalyst sheets comprising a particulate hydrogen evolution photocatalyst (HEP) and an oxygen evolution photocatalyst (OEP) embedded in a conductive thin film can realize efficient and scalable solar hydrogen production using Z-scheme water splitting. However, the use of expensive precious metal thin films that also promote reverse reactions is a major obstacle to developing a cost-effective process at ambient pressure. In this study, we present a standalone particulate photocatalyst sheet based on an earth-abundant, relatively inert, and conductive carbon film for efficient Z-scheme water splitting at ambient pressure. A SrTiO 3 :La,Rh/C/BiVO 4 :Mo sheet is shown to achieve unassisted pure-water (pH 6.8) splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency (STH) of 1.2% at 331 K and 10 kPa, while retaining 80% of this efficiency at 91 kPa. The STH value of 1.0% is the highest among Z-scheme pure water splitting operating at ambient pressure. The working mechanism of the photocatalyst sheet is discussed on the basis of band diagram simulation. In addition, the photocatalyst sheet split pure water more efficiently than conventional powder suspension systems and photoelectrochemical parallel cells because H + and OH - concentration overpotentials and an IR drop between the HEP and OEP were effectively suppressed. The proposed carbon-based photocatalyst sheet, which can be used at ambient pressure, is an important alternative to (photo)electrochemical systems for practical solar hydrogen production.

  15. Preparation and characterization of visible light-driven AgCl/PPy photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Shuna; Li Bing; Zhao Chongjun; Xu Yunlong; Qian Xiuzhen; Chen, Guorong

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: AgCl/PPy composite exhibits improved photocatalytic performance and high stability under visible light. Display Omitted Highlights: → AgCl/(PPy) nanocomposites as visible light driven photocatalyst. → Composites exhibited high visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and stability. → Photocatalytic process on MO followed photoreduction mechanisms. → Used photocatalyst can be regenerated in aqueous FeCl 3 solution. - Abstract: Visible light photoactive AgCl/polypyrrole (PPy) composites were prepared via the reaction between excessive Ag + and Cl - ions in the presence of PPy . The AgCl/PPy composites were systematically characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Thermal gravity analysis (TGA). It was found that face-centered cubic AgCl nanocrystallite and 0.2 wt% PPy component existed in the composite and spherical AgCl/PPy nanoparticles were in the range of 200-600 nm. The AgCl/PPy composites showed higher visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and stability than that of AgCl. A photoreduction mechanism was postulated for AgCl/PPy photocatalyst on dye methyl orange (MO). The used AgCl/PPy photocatalyst was facilely regenerated by an oxidation process in aqueous FeCl 3 solution.

  16. Preparation and characterization of visible light-driven AgCl/PPy photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Shuna; Li Bing [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao Chongjun, E-mail: chongjunzhao@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xu Yunlong; Qian Xiuzhen; Chen, Guorong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-05-05

    Graphical abstract: AgCl/PPy composite exhibits improved photocatalytic performance and high stability under visible light. Display Omitted Highlights: > AgCl/(PPy) nanocomposites as visible light driven photocatalyst. > Composites exhibited high visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and stability. > Photocatalytic process on MO followed photoreduction mechanisms. > Used photocatalyst can be regenerated in aqueous FeCl{sub 3} solution. - Abstract: Visible light photoactive AgCl/polypyrrole (PPy) composites were prepared via the reaction between excessive Ag{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions in the presence of PPy{sub .} The AgCl/PPy composites were systematically characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Thermal gravity analysis (TGA). It was found that face-centered cubic AgCl nanocrystallite and 0.2 wt% PPy component existed in the composite and spherical AgCl/PPy nanoparticles were in the range of 200-600 nm. The AgCl/PPy composites showed higher visible light-driven photocatalytic activity and stability than that of AgCl. A photoreduction mechanism was postulated for AgCl/PPy photocatalyst on dye methyl orange (MO). The used AgCl/PPy photocatalyst was facilely regenerated by an oxidation process in aqueous FeCl{sub 3} solution.

  17. Application of photocatalysts for amenities; Kaiteki kukan no tameno hikari shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T. [Akita Univ., Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1996-03-01

    Catalysts with strong decomposing power are necessary in removing the stink of toilets and diapers, the smoke of cigarettes, lampblack in kitchens and mold in bathrooms etc. One of such catalysts attracting attention is titania (Ti02) photocatalyst. Titania has a strong oxidizing force due to its ability to absorb light with a wavelength under 400nm, and meanwhile this substance itself is chemically stable and tender to environment. In this paper, simultaneously with the introduction of the design examples applying the performance and properties of such catalysts, the evaluation on the performance of utility photocatalysts is described. The examples of using tiles with titania coated on ceramic tiles and the photocatalysts obtained by fixing supermicro-particles of titania catalysts with fluorine resin as a binder to decompose the oil vapor near a ventilation fan above a kitchen range and the tobacco tar whose concentration level is as in a living room are introduced as the design examples of utility photocatalysts. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Porphyrin Diacid-Polyelectrolyte Assemblies: Effective Photocatalysts in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Frühbeißer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective and versatile photocatalytic systems is of great potential in solar energy conversion. Here we investigate the formation of supramolecular catalysts by electrostatic self-assembly in aqueous solution: Combining positively charged porphyrins with negatively charged polyelectrolytes leads to nanoscale assemblies where, next to electrostatic interactions, π–π interactions also play an important role. Porphyrin diacid-polyelectrolyte assemblies exhibit a substantially enhanced catalytic activity for the light-driven oxidation of iodide. Aggregates with the hexavalent cationic porphyrin diacids show up to 22 times higher catalytic activity than the corresponding aggregates under neutral conditions. The catalytic activity can be increased by increasing the valency of the porphyrin and by choice of the loading ratio. The structural investigation of the supramolecular catalysts took place via atomic force microscopy and small angle neutron scattering. Hence, a new facile concept for the design of efficient and tunable self-assembled photocatalysts is presented.

  19. Thermally modified titania photocatalysts for phenol removal from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Grzechulska-Damszel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of titanium dioxide were used as starting materials for thermal modification: Tytanpol A11 supplied by Chemical Factory “Police” S.A. (Poland and Degussa P25 supplied by Degussa AG (Germany. The photocatalytic activity of titania materials modified by thermal treatment was tested in the reaction of photocatalytic oxidation of phenol. It was found that the highest activity in the reaction of photocatalytic decomposition of phenol, in case of Tytanpol A11, shows the samples of material modified at temperatures of 700 and 750°C. These catalysts were more active than untreated A11, whereas materials modified at higher temperatures show lower activity. In the case of P25, all thermally treated materials were less active than the unmodified material. The photocatalyst samples were characterized by UV-Vis/DR, FTIR/DRS, and XRD methods.

  20. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  2. Development of Fe/Nb-based solar photocatalysts for water treatment: impact of different synthesis routes on materials properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marília C M; Amorim, Camila C; Moreira, Regina F P M; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Henriques, Andréia B; Leão, Mônica M D

    2018-04-27

    Semiconductors based on Fe/Nb oxides can present both solar sensitivity and high catalytic activity. However, there is still a lack regarding the comparison between different routes to produce Fe/Nb-based solar photocatalysts and the evaluation of the impact of the synthesis operating conditions on the material properties. In this work, Fe/Nb 2 O 5 ratio, type of precipitating agent, presence/absence of washing stage, and temperature of calcination were verified to be the most relevant parameters in the synthesis by the co-precipitation method. These factors led to remarkable differences in the properties and performance of the photocatalysts produced by each distinct synthesis route. Composition, iron species present in the materials, crystallinity characteristics, and pH of the catalysts were affected, leading to different photocatalytic activities under UV-Vis light. Due to their characteristics, the synthesized materials are potential photocatalysts for application in solar processes. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  3. Toward visible light response: Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Extensive energy conversion of solar energy can only be achieved by large-scale collection of solar flux. The technology that satisfies this requirement must be as simple as possible to reduce capital cost. Overall water splitting by powder-form photocatalysts directly produces a mixture of H 2 and O2 (chemical energy) in a single reactor, which does not require any complicated parabolic mirrors and electronic devices. Because of its simplicity and low capital cost, it has tremendous potential to become the major technology of solar energy conversion. Development of highly efficient photocatalysts is desired. This review addresses why visible light responsive photocatalysts are essential to be developed. The state of the art for the photocatalysts for overall water splitting is briefly described. Moreover, various fundamental aspects for developing efficient photocatalysts, such as particle size of photocatalysts, cocatalysts, and reaction kinetics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 De Gruyter.

  4. Optimized nanostructured TiO2 photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Selda; Jodhani, Gagan; Gouma, Pelagia

    2016-07-01

    Titania is the most widely studied photocatalyst. In it’s mixed-phase configuration (anatase-rutile form) -as manifested in the commercially available P25 Degussa material- titania was previously found to exhibit the best photocatalytic properties reported for the pure system. A great deal of published research by various workers in the field have not fully explained the underlying mechanism for the observed behavior of mixed-phase titania photocatalysts. One of the prevalent hypothesis in the literature that is tested in this work involves the presence of small, active clusters of interwoven anatase and rutile crystallites or “catalytic “hot-spots””. Therefore, non-woven nanofibrous mats of titania were produced and upon calcination the mats consisted of nanostructured fibers with different anatase-rutile ratios. By assessing the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of these samples the optimized photocatalyst was determined. This consisted of TiO2 nanostructures annealed at 500˚C with an anatase /rutile content of 90/10. Since the performance of this material exceeded that of P25 complete structural characterization was employed to understand the catalytic mechanism involved. It was determined that the dominant factors controlling the photocatalytic behavior of the titania system are the relative particle size of the different phases of titania and the growth of rutile laths on anatase grains which allow for rapid electron transfer between the two phases. This explains how to optimize the response of the pure system.

  5. High Photocatalytic Performance of Two Types of Graphene Modified TiO2 Composite Photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Sen; Tang, Bo; Wang, Zhengwei; Ji, Guojian; Huang, Weiqiu; Wang, Jinping

    2017-07-01

    High quality and naturally continuous structure of three-dimensional graphene network (3DGN) endow it a promising candidate to modify TiO2. Although the resulting composite photocatalysts display outstanding performances, the lacking of active sites of the 3DGN not only goes against a close contact between the graphene basal plane and TiO2 nanoparticles (weaken electron transport ability) but also limits the efficient adsorption of pollutant molecules. Similar with surface functional groups of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets, surface defects of the 3DGN can act as the adsorption sites. However, the defect density of the 3DGN is difficult to control (a strict cool rate of substrate and a strict flow of precursor gas are necessary) because of its growth approach (chemical vapor deposition method). In this study, to give full play to the functions of graphene, the RGO nanosheets and 3DGN co-modified TiO2 composite photocatalysts are prepared. After optimizing the mass fraction of the RGO nanosheets in the composite photocatalyst, the resulting chemical adsorption ability and yields of strong oxidizing free radicals increase significantly, indicating the synergy of the RGO nanosheets and 3DGN.

  6. ZnIr2O4: An efficient photocatalyst with Rashba splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysts nowadays are of central interest for the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. However, the efficiency of the known materials is small for direct utilization of the solar energy. Using first-principles calculations, we show that ZnIr2O4 can overcome this shortage. Modified Becke-Johnson calculations give an indirect band of 2.25 eV, which can be reduced to the visible energy range by S doping. For 25% S doping we find a direct band gap of 1.25 eV and a Rashba spin splitting of 220 meV Å. The valence band edge potential is 2.89 V against the standard hydrogen electrode, which is sufficient for photocatalytic water oxidation and pollutant degradation. The optical absorption of S-doped ZnIr2O4 is strongly enhanced, making the material an efficient photocatalyst for visible light. © 2013 EPLA.

  7. Dye-sensitized photocatalyst for effective water splitting catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Motonori

    2017-12-01

    Renewable hydrogen production is a sustainable method for the development of next-generation energy technologies. Utilising solar energy and photocatalysts to split water is an ideal method to produce hydrogen. In this review, the fundamental principles and recent progress of hydrogen production by artificial photosynthesis are reviewed, focusing on hydrogen production from photocatalytic water splitting using organic-inorganic composite-based photocatalysts.

  8. Studies on the Preparation of Magnetic Photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.; Scott, J.; Beydoun, D.; Amal, R.

    2005-01-01

    A crystalline titanium dioxide coating was deposited onto silica insulated magnetite particles to prepare a stable magnetic photocatalyst. The direct deposition of crystalline titanium dioxide was conducted by aging dispersions of insulated magnetite particles in a titanium sol-gel precursor mixture at 60-90 deg. C. The coating process was found to be influenced by pH, alkoxide precursor concentration, aging time and reaction temperature. A mechanism for the formation of the titanium dioxide coating has been proposed. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared particles was found to be related to the preparation conditions

  9. H2O2 rejuvenation-mediated synthesis of stable mixed-morphology Ag3PO4 photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Agbe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ag3PO4 photocatalyst has attracted interest of the scientific community in recent times due to its reported high efficiency for water oxidation and dye degradation. However, Ag3PO4 photo-corrodes if electron accepter such as AgNO3 is not used as scavenger. Synthesis of efficient Ag3PO4 followed by a simple protocol for regeneration of the photocatalyst is therefore a prerequisite for practical application. Herein, we present a facile method for the synthesis of a highly efficient Ag3PO4, whose photocatalytic efficiency was demonstrated using 3 different organic dyes: Methylene Blue (MB, Methyl orange (MO and Rhodamine B (RhB organic dyes for degradation tests. Approximately, 19 % of Ag3PO4 is converted to Ag0 after 4.30 hours of continuous UV-Vis irradiation in presence of MB organic dye. We have shown that the Ag/Ag3PO4 composite can be rejuvenated by a simple chemical oxidation step after several cycles of photocatalysis tests. At an optimal pH of 6.5, a mixture of cubic, rhombic dodecahedron, nanosphere and nanocrystals morphologies of the photocatalyst was formed. H2O2 served as the chemical oxidant to re-insert the surface metallic Ag into the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst but also as the agent that can control morphology of the regenerated as-prepared photocatalyst without the need for any other morphology controlling Agent (MCA. Surprisingly, the as- regenerated Ag3PO4 was found to have higher photocatalytic reactivity than the freshly made material and superior at least 17 times in comparison with the conventional Degussa TiO2, and some of TiO2 composites tested in this work. Keywords: Materials chemistry, Materials science, Engineering

  10. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  11. Semiconductor device comprising a pn-heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    An electric device is disclosed comprising a pn-heterojunction ( 4 ) formed by a nanowire ( 3 ) of 111 -V semiconductor material and a semiconductor body ( 1 ) comprising a group IV semiconductor material. The nanowire ( 3 ) is positioned in direct contact with the surface ( 2 ) of the semiconductor

  12. Amorphous Semiconductors: From Photocatalyst to Computer Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Mayur

    Amorphous semiconductors are useful in many applications like solar cells, thin film displays, sensors, electrophotography, etc. The dissertation contains four projects. In the first three projects, semiconductor glasses which are a subset of amorphous semiconductors were studied. The last project is about exploring the strengths and constraints of two analysis programs which calculate the particle size information from experimental Small Angle X-ray Scattering data. By definition, glasses have a random atomic arrangement with no order beyond the nearest neighbor, but strangely there exists an Intermediate Range Order (IRO). The origin of IRO is still not clearly understood, but various models have been proposed. The signature of IRO is the First Sharp Diffraction Peak(FSDP) observed in x-ray and neutron scattering data. The FSDP of TiO 2 SiO2 glass photocatalyst with different Ti:Si ratio from SAXS data was measured to test the theoretical models. The experimental results along with its computer simulation results strongly supported one of two leading models. It was also found that the effect of doping IRO on TiO2 SiO2 is severe in mesoporous form than the bulk form. Glass semiconductors in mesoporous form are very useful photocatalysts due to their large specific surface area. Solar energy conversion of photocatalysts greatly depends on their bandgap, but very few photocatalysts have the optical bandgap covering the whole visible region of solar spectrum leading to poor efficiency. A physical method was developed to manipulate the bandgap of mesoporous photocatalysts, by using the anisotropic thermal expansion and stressed glass network properties of mesoporous glasses. The anisotropic thermal expansion was established by S/WAXS characterization of mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The residual stress in the glass network of mesoporous glasses was already known for an earlier work. The new method was initially applied on mesoporous TiPO4, and the results were

  13. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  14. Nanoscale strontium titanate photocatalysts for overall water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Troy K; Browning, Nigel D; Osterloh, Frank E

    2012-08-28

    SrTiO(3) (STO) is a large band gap (3.2 eV) semiconductor that catalyzes the overall water splitting reaction under UV light irradiation in the presence of a NiO cocatalyst. As we show here, the reactivity persists in nanoscale particles of the material, although the process is less effective at the nanoscale. To reach these conclusions, Bulk STO, 30 ± 5 nm STO, and 6.5 ± 1 nm STO were synthesized by three different methods, their crystal structures verified with XRD and their morphology observed with HRTEM before and after NiO deposition. In connection with NiO, all samples split water into stoichiometric mixtures of H(2) and O(2), but the activity is decreasing from 28 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (bulk STO), to 19.4 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (30 nm STO), and 3.0 μmol H(2) g(-1) h(-1) (6.5 nm STO). The reasons for this decrease are an increase of the water oxidation overpotential for the smaller particles and reduced light absorption due to a quantum size effect. Overall, these findings establish the first nanoscale titanate photocatalyst for overall water splitting.

  15. Au/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals as an efficient anode photocatalyst in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Lin, Yin-Kai; Yang, Ting-Ting; Pu, Ying-Chih; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2013-10-04

    Au/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals with controllable shell thicknesses were synthesized using a cysteine-assisted hydrothermal method. Incorporating Au/ZnS nanocrystals into the traditional Pt-catalyzed half-cell reaction led to a 43.3% increase in methanol oxidation current under light illumination, demonstrating their promising potential for metal/semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals as the anode photocatalyst in direct methanol fuel cells.

  16. Development of Visible Light-Responsive Sensitized Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Pei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of studies about the visible-light-promoted photodegradation of the contaminants and energy conversion with sensitized photocatalysts. Herein we studied mechanism, physical properties, and synergism effect of the sensitized photocatalysts as well as the method for enhancing the photosensitized effect. According to the reported studies in the literature, inorganic sensitizers, organic dyes, and coordination metal complexes were very effective sensitizers that were studied mostly, of which organic dyes photosensitization is the most widely studied modified method. Photosensitization is an important way to extend the excitation wavelength to the visible range, and therefore sensitized photocatalysts play an important role in the development of visible light-responsive photocatalysts for future industrialized applications. This paper mainly describes the types, modification, photocatalytic performance, application, and the developments of photosensitization for environmental application.

  17. Alternative photocatalysts to TiO2 for the photocatalytic reduction of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The increased concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, originating from the burning of fossil fuels in stationary and mobile sources, is referred as the "Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect" and constitutes a major environmental concern. The scientific community is highly concerned about the resulting enhancement of the mean atmospheric temperature, so a vast diversity of methods has been applied. Thermochemical, electrochemical, photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical processes, as well as combination of solar electricity generation and water splitting processes have been performed in order to lower the CO2 atmospheric levels. Photocatalytic methods are environmental friendly and succeed in reducing the atmospheric CO2 concentration and producing fuels or/and useful organic compounds at the same time. The most common photocatalysts for the CO2 reduction are the inorganic, the carbon based semiconductors and the hybrids based on semiconductors, which combine stability, low cost and appropriate structure in order to accomplish redox reactions. In this review, inorganic semiconductors such as single-metal oxide, mixed-metal oxides, metal oxide composites, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), salt composites, carbon based semiconductors such as graphene based composites, CNT composites, g-C3N4 composites and hybrid organic-inorganic materials (ZIFs) were studied. TiO2 and Ti based photocatalysts are extensively studied and therefore in this review they are not mentioned.

  18. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  19. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  20. Hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as light harvesters and biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fuyu; Li, Can

    2013-11-19

    Solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis may be a key to generating abundant and clean energy, thus addressing the high energy needs of the world's expanding population. As the crucial components of photosynthesis, the artificial photosynthetic system should be composed of a light harvester (e.g., semiconductor or molecular dye), a reduction cocatalyst (e.g., hydrogenase mimic, noble metal), and an oxidation cocatalyst (e.g., photosystem II mimic for oxygen evolution from water oxidation). Solar fuel production catalyzed by an artificial photosynthetic system starts from the absorption of sunlight by the light harvester, where charge separation takes place, followed by a charge transfer to the reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, where redox reaction processes occur. One of the most challenging problems is to develop an artificial photosynthetic solar fuel production system that is both highly efficient and stable. The assembly of cocatalysts on the semiconductor (light harvester) not only can facilitate the charge separation, but also can lower the activation energy or overpotential for the reactions. An efficient light harvester loaded with suitable reduction and oxidation cocatalysts is the key for high efficiency of artificial photosynthetic systems. In this Account, we describe our strategy of hybrid photocatalysts using semiconductors as light harvesters with biomimetic complexes as molecular cocatalysts to construct efficient and stable artificial photosynthetic systems. We chose semiconductor nanoparticles as light harvesters because of their broad spectral absorption and relatively robust properties compared with a natural photosynthesis system. Using biomimetic complexes as cocatalysts can significantly facilitate charge separation via fast charge transfer from the semiconductor to the molecular cocatalysts and also catalyze the chemical reactions of solar fuel production. The hybrid photocatalysts supply us with a platform to study the

  1. Modified solvothermal synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) magnetic nanoparticles photocatalysts for degradation of methylene blue with H2O2/visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Abul; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Assiri, Mohammed; Du, Gaohui; Ahmad, Tokeer; Ahmad, Irfan; Pannipara, M.

    2018-03-01

    Different grads of magnetic nano-scaled cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4) photocatalysts were synthesized by modified Solvothermal (MST) process with and without polysaccharide. The indigenously synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm method. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study showed the Fe-O stretching vibration 590-619 cm-1, confirming the formation of metal oxide. The crystallite size of the synthesized photocatalysts was found in the range between 20.0 and 30.0 nm. The surface area of obtained magnetic nanoparticles is found to be reasonably high in the range of 63.0-76.0 m2/g. The results shown that only MST-2 is the most active catalyst for photo-Fenton like scheme for fast photodegradation action of methylene blue dye, this is possible due to optical band gap estimated of 2.65 eV. Captivatingly the percentage of degradation efficiency increases up to 80% after 140 min by using MST-2 photocatalyst. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light irradiation with cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles followed first order kinetic constant and rate constant of MST-2 is almost 2.0 times greater than MST-1 photocatalyst.

  2. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Pixton, David S [Lehi, UT; Johnson, Monte L [Orem, UT; Bartholomew, David B [Springville, UT; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael [Springville, UT

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  3. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  4. Alternative photocatalysts to TiO{sub 2} for the photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikokavoura, Aspasia; Trapalis, Christos, E-mail: c.trapalis@inn.demokritos.gr

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Non TiO{sub 2} containing photocatalysts are intensively studied for CO{sub 2} reduction. • The inorganic and carbon based semiconductors are appropriate for redox reactions. • ZIFs and carbonaceous hybrids exhibited outstanding photocatalytic efficiency. • Highly active photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion to useful materials are needed. - Abstract: The increased concentration of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere, originating from the burning of fossil fuels in stationary and mobile sources, is referred as the “Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect” and constitutes a major environmental concern. The scientific community is highly concerned about the resulting enhancement of the mean atmospheric temperature, so a vast diversity of methods has been applied. Thermochemical, electrochemical, photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical processes, as well as combination of solar electricity generation and water splitting processes have been performed in order to lower the CO{sub 2} atmospheric levels. Photocatalytic methods are environmental friendly and succeed in reducing the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and producing fuels or/and useful organic compounds at the same time. The most common photocatalysts for the CO{sub 2} reduction are the inorganic, the carbon based semiconductors and the hybrids based on semiconductors, which combine stability, low cost and appropriate structure in order to accomplish redox reactions. In this review, inorganic semiconductors such as single-metal oxide, mixed-metal oxides, metal oxide composites, layered double hydroxides (LDHs), salt composites, carbon based semiconductors such as graphene based composites, CNT composites, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites and hybrid organic-inorganic materials (ZIFs) were studied. TiO{sub 2} and Ti based photocatalysts are extensively studied and therefore in this review they are not mentioned.

  5. Phenol degradation by TiO2 photocatalysts combined with different pulsed discharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Jiani; Wang, Xiaoping; Xin, Qing; Cong, Yanqing; Wang, Qi; Li, Chunjuan

    2013-11-01

    Films of TiO2 nanotubes distributed over the inner surface of a discharge reactor cylinder (CTD) or adhered to a stainless steel electrode surface (PTD) in a discharge reactor were compared with a single-discharge (SD) system to investigate their efficiencies in phenol degradation. Morphology studies indicated that the TiO2 film was destroyed in the PTD system, but that there was no change in the CTD system after discharge. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the anatase phase of the original sample was preserved in the CTD system, but that an anatase-to-rutile phase transformation occurred in the PTD system after discharge. The highest efficiencies of phenol degradation and total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization were observed in the CTD system, and there was no decrease in phenol degradation efficiency upon reuse of a TiO2 film, indicating high catalysis activity and stability of the TiO2 photocatalysts in the combined treatment. TiO2 photocatalysts favored the formation of hydrogen peroxide and disfavored the formation of ozone. A greater degree of oxidation of intermediates and higher energy efficiency in phenol oxidation were observed with the TiO2-plasma systems, especially in the CTD system, compared to those with the SD system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huisheng [Shanghai, CN; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore [Cary, NC; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  7. Method of forming a nanocluster comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A method of forming a dielectric layer (330) on a further layer (114, 320) of a semiconductor device (300) is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer (114, 320), the dielectric precursor compound comprising a

  8. CuS/RGO hybrid photocatalyst for full solar spectrum photoreduction from UV/Vis to near-infrared light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Liu, Baibai; Ren, Zhenxing; Ni, Mengying; Li, Can; Gong, Yinyan; Qin, Wei; Huang, Yongli; Sun, Chang Q; Liu, Xinjuan

    2018-05-01

    To make full use of the solar energy, it remains a great challenge for semiconductor photocatalysts to harvest the full solar light spectrum from ultraviolet (UV) to visible even the near infrared (NIR) wavelength. Here we show firstly the CuS/RGO (reduced graphene oxide) hybrid photocatalyst synthesized via a microwave assisted method with full solar light (UV-Vis-NIR) active for efficient Cr(VI) reduction. The CuS/RGO displays high absorption and catalytic activity in the UV, visible and even the NIR light regions. As co-catalyst, RGO can separate and inhibit the recombination of charge carriers, consequently improving the catalytic activity. Only 1wt% RGO emersions can reduce 90% of Cr(VI) under the radiation of light over the full spectrum. Findings may provide a new strategy and substance to expand the utilization range of solar light from UV to visible even the NIR energy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  10. Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of CaZrTi2O7 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shifu; Ji Mingsong; Yuang Yunguang; Liu Wei

    2012-01-01

    CaZrTi 2 O 7 photocatalyst sample was prepared by a polymerizable complex method. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, N 2 adsorption measurements, and terephthalic acid probed fluorescence technique. The photocatalytic activity of the sample was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange and photocatalytic reduction of Cr 2 O 7 2− and nitrobenzene. The results showed that when the reaction solution was illuminated by UV light for 50 min, the photooxidation efficiency of methyl orange and the photoreduction efficiency of Cr 2 O 7 2− were 83.1% and 87.9%, respectively. When methanol was used as the holes scavengers and the illumination time was 10 h in the photocatalytic reduction experiment of nitrobenzene, the production efficiency of aniline was 70.3%. The effect of the heat treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity was also investigated. The optimum preparation condition for CaZrTi 2 O 7 sample is 800 °C for 12 h. The mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the sample were also discussed with the valance band theory. - Highlights: ► CaZrTi 2 O 7 photocatalyst was prepared by a polymerizable complex method. ► The heat treatment has a significant influence on the photocatalytic activity. ► The optimal heat treatment condition is approximately 800 °C for 12 h. ► The CaZrTi 2 O 7 has the band bap of about 2.89 eV with particle size of about 80 nm.

  11. Solvothermal fabrication of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite photocatalysts and application for NO removal under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Chunhu; Wang, Liang; Sun, ShengNan; Yan, Xin

    2015-10-01

    The photocatalysts of activated semi-coke supported TiO2-rGO nanocomposite (TiO2-rGO/ASC) with different contents of reduced graphene oxide were fabricated by one-step solvothermal method for NO removal under visible light irradiation. It was confirmed that 8% content of reduced graphene oxide presented the best NO photooxidation performance under visible light irradiation at 70 °C with 350-400 mg/m3 NO,5% O2 and 5% relative humidity. The reasons for improved activity were discussed, alloyed with the mechanism of producing CO. Detailed structural information of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL), which indicated that the introduction of rGO was responsible for well dispersion, smaller crystalline size, red shift of absorption band and suppressing quick photo-induced charges recombination of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts. Optimization of operational parameters with 70 °C, 8% O2 and 8% relative humidity were also obtained. Deactivation of TiO2-rGO/ASC photocatalysts for NO removal was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Regeneration experiments showed that thermal vapor regeneration would be optimal method owing to excellent regenerative capacity and inexpensive procedure.

  12. Review on the Photocatalyst Coatings of TiO2: Fabrication by Mechanical Coating Technique and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the latest results of studies directed at photocatalyst coatings of titanium dioxide (TiO2 prepared by mechanical coating technique (MCT and its application. Compared with traditional coating techniques, MCT is a simple, low cost and useful coating formation process, which is proposed and developed based on mechanical frictional wear and impacts between substrate materials and metal powder particles in the bowl of planetary ball mill. The formation process of the metal coatings in MCT includes four stages: The nucleation by adhesion, the formation and coalescence of discrete islands, formation and thickening of continuous coatings, exfoliation of continuous coatings. Further, two-step MCT was developed based on the MCT concept for preparing composite coatings on alumina (Al2O3 balls. This review also discusses the influence on the fabrication of photocatalyst coatings after MCT and improvement of its photocatalytic activity: oxidation conditions, coating materials, melt salt treatment. In this review, the oxidation conditions had been studied on the oxidation temperature of 573 K, 673 K, 773 K, 873 K, 973 K, 1173 K and 1273 K, the oxidation time of 0.5 h, 1 h, 3 h, 10 h, 15 h, 20 h, 30 h, 40 h, and 50 h. The photocatalyst coatings showed the highest photocatalytic activity with the oxidation condition of 1073 K for 15 h. The metal powder of Ti, Ni and Cr had been used as the coating materials. The composite metal powder could affect the surface structure and photocatalytic activity. On the other hand, the melt salt treatment with KNO3 is an effective method to form the nano-size structure and enhance photocatalytic activity, especially under visible light.

  13. Development of photocatalysts for selective and efficient organic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Shamsa; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Shah, Afzal

    2015-07-01

    One of the main goals of organic chemists is to find easy, environmentally friendly, and cost effective methods for the synthesis of industrially important compounds. Photocatalysts have brought revolution in this regard as they make use of unlimited source of energy (the solar light) to carry out the synthesis of organic compounds having otherwise complex synthetic procedures. However, selectivity of the products has been a major issue since the beginning of photocatalysis. The present article encompasses state of the art accomplishments in harvesting light energy for selective organic transformations using photocatalysts. Several approaches for the development of photocatalysts for selective organic conversions have been critically discussed with the objective of developing efficient, selective, environmental friendly and high yield photocatalytic methodologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts in environmental purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiade; Fang, Wen [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); Yu, Changlin, E-mail: yuchanglinjx@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); School of Environment Engineering and biology Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, 525000 Guangdong Province (China); Zhou, Wanqin [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350002 (China); Zhu, Lihua [School of Metallurgy and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi Province (China); Xie, Yu, E-mail: xieyu_121@163.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063, Jiangxi (China)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Formation of heterojunction could largely promote the electron/hole pair separation, resulting in highly photocatalytic activity and stability. - Highlights: • Recent research progress in the fabrication and application of Ag-based semiconductor photocatalyts. • The advantages and disadvantages of Ag-based semiconductor as photocatalysts. • Strategies in design Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts with high performance. - Abstract: Over the past decades, with the fast development of global industrial development, various organic pollutants discharged in water have become a major source of environmental pollution in waste fields. Photocatalysis, as green and environmentally friendly technology, has attracted much attention in pollutants degradation due to its efficient degradation rate. However, the practical application of traditional semiconductor photocatalysts, e.g. TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, is limited by their weak visible light adsorption due to their wide band gaps. Nowadays, the study in photocatalysts focuses on new and narrow band gap semiconductors. Among them, Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Most of Ag-based semiconductors could exhibit high initial photocatalytic activity. But they easy suffer from poor stability because of photochemical corrosion. Design heterojunction, increasing specific surface area, enriching pore structure, regulating morphology, controlling crystal facets, and producing plasmonic effects were considered as the effective strategies to improve the photocatalytic performance of Ag-based photocatalyts. Moreover, combining the superior properties of carbon materials (e.g. carbon quantum dots, carbon nano-tube, carbon nanofibers, graphene) with Ag

  15. Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts in environmental purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiade; Fang, Wen; Yu, Changlin; Zhou, Wanqin; Zhu, Lihua; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Formation of heterojunction could largely promote the electron/hole pair separation, resulting in highly photocatalytic activity and stability. - Highlights: • Recent research progress in the fabrication and application of Ag-based semiconductor photocatalyts. • The advantages and disadvantages of Ag-based semiconductor as photocatalysts. • Strategies in design Ag-based semiconductor photocatalysts with high performance. - Abstract: Over the past decades, with the fast development of global industrial development, various organic pollutants discharged in water have become a major source of environmental pollution in waste fields. Photocatalysis, as green and environmentally friendly technology, has attracted much attention in pollutants degradation due to its efficient degradation rate. However, the practical application of traditional semiconductor photocatalysts, e.g. TiO 2 , ZnO, is limited by their weak visible light adsorption due to their wide band gaps. Nowadays, the study in photocatalysts focuses on new and narrow band gap semiconductors. Among them, Ag-based semiconductors as promising visible light-driven photocatalysts have aroused much interesting due to their strong visible light responsibility. Most of Ag-based semiconductors could exhibit high initial photocatalytic activity. But they easy suffer from poor stability because of photochemical corrosion. Design heterojunction, increasing specific surface area, enriching pore structure, regulating morphology, controlling crystal facets, and producing plasmonic effects were considered as the effective strategies to improve the photocatalytic performance of Ag-based photocatalyts. Moreover, combining the superior properties of carbon materials (e.g. carbon quantum dots, carbon nano-tube, carbon nanofibers, graphene) with Ag

  16. Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  17. Novel ZnWO4/RGO nanocomposite as high performance photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the synthesis of nanocomposite material composed of zinc tungstate (ZnWO4 and reduced graphene oxide (RGO as photocatalyst by a simple microwave irradiation technique. The prepared nanocomposites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities of the prepared nanocomposites are evaluated in terms of the efficiencies of photodegradation of methylene blue (MB dye in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The prepared nanocomposites showed excellent photodegradation efficiency compared to the commercial TiO2 under visible light irradiation. The activity of the catalyst towards methyl orange (MO and rhodamine B (RB was also good. Further, in view of the low cost, simple preparation method and high catalytic activity of the material, it is expected that the prepared nanocomposite can serve as an environment friendly photocatalyst for treating the large scale industrial waste waters.

  18. A facile method for synthesis of graphene-coated hexagonal ZnO photocatalyst with enhanced photodegradation activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Yuzhi

    2017-12-01

    A kind of hexagonal ZnO (HZO) was synthesized in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)/H2O mixed solvent for a high exposure of polar ±(0001) facets to get a high-efficiency photocatalyst. The amine-functionalized HZO particles were coated with graphene oxide (GO) by electrostatic force-induced self-assemby and thermal reduction to form HZO@Gr core/shell structure. The as-prepared HZO and HZO@Gr were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis/DRS). The results indicate that the graphene on HZO@Gr remains high quality and the optical properties of the composite change a lot with sunlight absorption improving, bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) intensity decreasing. The obtained HZO photocatalyst shows good photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB) under UV-visible irradiation. Furthermore, the HZO@Gr photocatalyst exhibits the best photodegradation rate of MB reaching up to 98.2% within 50 minutes. The graphene-coated HZO structure could offer new directions which would further extend the scope for synthesis of various ZnO/graphene composites with improved properties useful for various applications.

  19. Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ullah Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases. At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum anti-biotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported. Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported. Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.

  20. Composite nanomaterials of semiconductors and noble metals as plasmonic photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Law, Matt; Zhang, Jingdong

    behavior, and can be more stable under operating conditions. Composite photocatalysts of semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs) and PNPs exploit broadly the solar spectrum, provide new catalytic routes and expand the scope of solar photocatalysis. The newly initiated project aims at developing composite...

  1. Photocatalytic efficiency of titania photocatalysts in saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrbar Asma Juma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic efficiency of the recently synthesized TiO2 powder, named P160, of the degradation of dye Dye C.I. Reactive orange 16 in natural and artificial seawater was investigated in comparison to its efficiency in deionized water and the efficiency of a standard TiO2 powder Degusa P25. It was shown that the photocatalytic efficiency of P160 was slightly higher than that of P25, probably due to slightly higher specific surface area, higher pore volume and larger pores of the powder P160. The efficiency of both photocatalysts in natural and artificial seawater was significantly lower than that in deionized water. The overall rate of dye degradation for both types of photocatalysts is litle higher in artificial seawater than in natural seawater, which shows the influence of organic compounds naturally present in seawater on the photocatalysts activity. A saturation Langmuir-type relationship between the initial degradation rate and the initial dye concentration indicates that the adsorption plays a role in the photocatalytic reaction. The photodegradation rate constant k, which represents the maximum reaction rate, has similar values for P25 and P160 in all types of water due to the similar properties of the photocatalysts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br III 45019

  2. Fabrication and Characteristics of Macroporous TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyun Yi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by a facile nanocasting method using polystyrene (PS spherical particles as the hard template. The synthesized photocatalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and N2-sorption. TEM, SEM, and XRD characterizations confirmed that the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst is composed of anatase phase. The high specific surface area of 87.85 m2/g can be achieved according to the N2-sorption analysis. Rhodamine B (RhB was chosen as probe molecule to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 catalysts. Compared with the TiO2 materials synthesized in the absence of PS spherical template, the macroporous TiO2 photocatalyst sintered at 500°C exhibits much higher activity on the degradation of RhB under the UV irradiation, which can be assigned to the well-structured macroporosity. The macroporous TiO2 material presents great potential in the fields of environmental remediation and energy conversion and storage.

  3. Metal–organic frameworks as heterogeneous photocatalysts : Advantages and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasalevich, M.A.; Van der Veen, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as heterogeneous photocatalysts is critically reviewed. First we revisit the general assumption of MOFs behaving truly as semiconductors, demonstrating that such semiconducting behaviour only occurs in a very limited subset of materials. Further, the main

  4. Mixed ZnO-TiO2 Suspended Solution as an Efficient Photocatalyst for Decolonization of a Textile Dye from Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mooji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Textile industries produce large volume of colored dye effluents which are toxic and removal of dyes from wastewater is a significant environmental issue. Advanced oxidation process (AOPs is alternative method for the complete degradation many organic pollutants. ZnO and TiO2 are important photocatalysts with high catalytic activity that have attracted much research attention. Material and Methods: Mixed ZnO/TiO2 was prepared with mixing of ZnO and TiO2 (20, 40, 60, 80 % (w/w. 20 mL of dye solution (80 mgL-1 for DB71 containing the appropriate quantity of photocatalyst was magnetically stirred under UV irradiation. Photocatalytic study was carried out to evaluate the effect of UV (400 W, ZnO/TiO2 weight percent (20, 40, 60, 80 % (w/w, pH (2.3 – 9.2, irradiation time of (10 – 70 min, initial dye concentration of (10, 40, 80 mg/L and ZnO/TiO2 dosage of (0.2 – 1.6 g/L on removal of dye. Dye concentration was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the dye absorbance at 285 nm. Results: In comparison with TiO2 or ZnO as photocatalyst, mixed photocatalyst (ZnO/TiO2 is more efficient catalyst for degradation of dye under UV irradiation Results show that approximately 90 % of Direct Blue 71 has been eliminated after 70 minutes and optimized condition ((pH = 6.4, ZnO/TiO2 (50% w/w, 1.25 g/L. Experiments showed, the noticeable decolorization of dye solution can be done without any oxidation agent with mixed ZnO/TiO2 photocatalyst.

  5. Visible Light Induced Green Transformation of Primary Amines to Imines Using a Silicate Supported Anatase Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifani Zavahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  6. Visible light induced green transformation of primary amines to imines using a silicate supported anatase photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavahir, Sifani; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2015-01-26

    Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase)-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  7. TiO2 Photocatalyst Nanoparticle Separation: Flocculation in Different Matrices and Use of Powdered Activated Carbon as a Precoat in Low-Cost Fabric Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Liriano-Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of photocatalyst nanoparticles is a problem impeding widespread application of photocatalytic oxidation. As sedimentation of photocatalyst particles is facilitated by their flocculation, the influence of common constituents of biologically pretreated wastewaters (NaCl, NaHCO3, and their combination with humic acid sodium salt on flocculation was tested by the pipet method. Results showed that the impact of these substances on TiO2 nanoparticle flocculation is rather complex and strongly affected by pH. When humic acid was present, TiO2 particles did not show efficient flocculation in the neutral and slightly basic pH range. As an alternative to photocatalyst separation by sedimentation, precoat vacuum filtration with powdered activated carbon (PAC over low-cost spunbond polypropylene fabrics was tested in the presence of two PAC types in aqueous NaCl and NaHCO3 solutions as well as in biologically treated greywater and in secondary municipal effluent. PAC concentrations of ≥2 g/L were required in order to achieve a retention of nearly 95% of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the fabric filter when TiO2 concentration was 1 g/L. Composition of the aqueous matrix and PAC type had a slight impact on precoat filtration. PAC precoat filtration represents a potential pretreatment for photocatalyst removal by micro- or ultrafiltration.

  8. XAFS Study on TiO2 Photocatalyst Loaded on Zeolite Synthesized from Steel Slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Ohmichi, Tetsutaro; Mori, Kosuke; Katayama, Iwao; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    The convenient route for the synthesis of Y-zeolites by utilizing steel slag as a material source was developed. Through hydrothermal treatment, well-crystallized Y-zeolite was obtained. We also synthesized TiO2-loaded Y-zeolites by an impregnation method. The structure of titanium oxide species highly dispersed on the zeolite, which couldn't be detected by XRD patterns, was investigated by XAFS analysis. Photocatalytic activity for decomposition of 2-propanol in liquid phase was found to be enhanced by the hydrophobic surface property of zeolite. It has been demonstrated that the zeolite synthesized from steel slag would be applicable as a promising support of TiO2 photocatalyst

  9. Construction of Z-scheme Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/N-doped graphene photocatalysts with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity by tuning the nitrogen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Shaoqing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330013 (China); Meng, Aiyun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Jiang, Shujuan [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330013 (China); Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Jiang, Chuanjia, E-mail: jiangcj2016@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Z-scheme photocatalyst composed of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and N-doped graphene (NG). • Pyridinic nitrogen species of NG spontaneously promoted plasmonic Ag formation. • Graphitic N of NG facilitated the Z-scheme transfer option and O{sub 2} adsorption. • Z-scheme Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NG showed high photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Semiconductor-based photocatalysis has great potential in various environmental and energy applications, and Z-scheme photocatalysts have many advantages over single-component photocatalysts. The construction of a highly efficient Z-scheme photocatalytic system depends on the geometric structure arrangement, microscopic and crystalline form of the stoichiometric species, and it has not been elucidated whether the Z-scheme photocatalysts can be designed by tuning the electronic structures of cocatalysts alone. Here, using N-doped graphene (NG) as cocatalyst, we successfully constructed Z-scheme Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NG photocatalysts with enhanced activity for the photooxidative degradation of phenol pollutant. It was found that the pyridinic nitrogen species (N{sub p}) of NG could spontaneously reduce Ag{sup +} to produce plasmonic Ag nanoparticles on Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NG, while the efficiency of the photogenerated charge separation, Z-scheme transfer option, and O{sub 2} adsorption were promoted by the graphitic nitrogen species (N{sub g}). Therefore, the as-designed Z-scheme Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NG photocatalysts showed much higher activity than Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and its composites with graphene oxide (GO) or reduced GO as cocatalysts in the photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Hence, our results provide a new strategy for exploring advanced Z-scheme photocatalysts with NG as cocatalyst by rationally tuning the N{sub p} and N{sub g} species.

  10. Compositions comprising free-standing two-dimensional nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury; Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Mashtalir, Olha

    2017-12-05

    The present invention is directed to methods of transferring urea from an aqueous solution comprising urea to a MXene composition, the method comprising contacting the aqueous solution comprising urea with the MXene composition for a time sufficient to form an intercalated MXene composition comprising urea.

  11. Activated carbon-based magnetic TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst codoped with iodine and nitrogen for organic pollution degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn; Song, Jingke; Huang, Jiayu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Ma, RongRong; Wang, Jiayi; Zhao, Jianfu, E-mail: zhaojianfu@tongji.edu.cn

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Iodine-nitrogen codoped magnetic photocatalyst was prepared. • A suitable I/Ti ratio was required for good performance of I{sub x}-N-T/CMAC. • I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC own the best photocatalytic performance and can be separated easily. • Both Cl{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} have negative effect on the photocatalytic degradation of SA. • Suitable concentration of humic acid could enhance the photodegradation of SA. - Abstract: Magnetic photocatalyst − iodine and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} based on chitosan decorated magnetic activated carbon (I-N-T/CMAC) was prepared via simple coprecipitation and sol-gel method. The characteristics of photocatalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It turned out that the prepared material had large surface area, enhanced absorption of visible light, and magnetically separable properties when mole ratio of I/Ti was 0.1. Iodine-nitrogen codoped magnetic photocatalyst was used for the removal of salicylic acid (SA), and the rate of adsorption reaction for SA by I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. Under visible light irradiation, 89.71% SA with initial concentration = 30 mg/L could be removed by I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC, and photodegradation rate of SA on I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC composites was 0.0084 min{sup −1} which is about 4 times higher than that of magnetic photocatalyst with nitrogen doped only. The effects of SA initial concentration, pH, coexisting anions and humic acid to the degradation of SA with the prepared material were also investigated. Main oxidative species in the photodegradation process are ·OH and h{sup +}.

  12. The use of nanoscale visible light-responsive photocatalyst TiO2-Pt for the elimination of soil-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Exposure to the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cenocepacia can lead to severe infections and even mortality. These pathogens exhibit a high resistance to antibiotic treatments. In addition, no licensed vaccine is currently available. A nanoscale platinum-containing titania photocatalyst (TiO(2-Pt has been shown to have a superior visible light-responsive photocatalytic ability to degrade chemical contaminants like nitrogen oxides. The antibacterial activity of the catalyst and its potential use in soil pathogen control were evaluated. Using the plating method, we found that TiO(2-Pt exerts superior antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli compared to other commercially available and laboratory prepared ultraviolet/visible light-responsive titania photocatalysts. TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis also affectively eliminates the soil-borne bacteria B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. An air pouch infection mouse model further revealed that TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis could reduce the pathogenicity of both strains of bacteria. Unexpectedly, water containing up to 10% w/v dissolved soil particles did not reduce the antibacterial potency of TiO(2-Pt, suggesting that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst is suitable for use in soil-contaminated environments. The TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst exerted superior antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. Soil particles (<10% w/v did not significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of TiO(2-Pt in water. These findings suggest that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst may have potential applications in the development of bactericides for soil-borne pathogens.

  13. Modified solvothermal synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles photocatalysts for degradation of methylene blue with H2O2/visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Kalam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Different grads of magnetic nano-scaled cobalt ferrites (CoFe2O4 photocatalysts were synthesized by modified Solvothermal (MST process with and without polysaccharide. The indigenously synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, UV–visible (UV–vis spectroscopy and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherm method. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study showed the Fe-O stretching vibration 590–619 cm−1, confirming the formation of metal oxide. The crystallite size of the synthesized photocatalysts was found in the range between 20.0 and 30.0 nm. The surface area of obtained magnetic nanoparticles is found to be reasonably high in the range of 63.0–76.0 m2/g. The results shown that only MST-2 is the most active catalyst for photo-Fenton like scheme for fast photodegradation action of methylene blue dye, this is possible due to optical band gap estimated of 2.65 eV. Captivatingly the percentage of degradation efficiency increases up to 80% after 140 min by using MST-2 photocatalyst. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB dye under visible light irradiation with cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles followed first order kinetic constant and rate constant of MST-2 is almost 2.0 times greater than MST-1 photocatalyst. Keywords: Cobalt ferrite, Photocatalysis, Kinetics, Optical properties, Surface area studies

  14. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of photocatalysts for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo; Laursen, Anders Bo; Dahl, Søren

    , it is necessary to understand the fundamentals of their reaction mechanisms, chemical behavior, structure and morphology before, during and after reaction using in situ investigations. Here, we focus on the in situ characterization of photocatalysts [1] in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM......) [2]. Such fundamental insight can be used for further material optimization with respect to performance and stability [3]. In this work, we combine conventional TEM analysis of photocatalysts with environmental TEM (ETEM) and photoactivation using light. A novel type of TEM specimen holder...... that enables in situ illumination is developed to study light-induced phenomena in photoactive materials at the nanoscale under working conditions. Our experiments are aimed at exposing a specimen to light and detecting resulting microstructural and chemical changes using in situ TEM techniques...

  15. Black Phosphorus: Critical Review and Potential for Water Splitting Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A century after its first synthesis in 1914, black phosphorus has been attracting significant attention as a promising two-dimensional material in recent years due to its unique properties. Nowadays, with the development of its exfoliation method, there are extensive applications of black phosphorus in transistors, batteries and optoelectronics. Though, because of its hardship in mass production and stability problems, the potential of the black phosphorus in various fields is left unexplored. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of crystal structure, electronic, optical properties and synthesis of black phosphorus. Recent research works about the applications of black phosphorus is summarized. Among them, the possibility of black phosphorous as a solar water splitting photocatalyst is mainly discussed and the feasible novel structure of photocatalysts based on black phosphorous is proposed.

  16. Photobiocatalytic alcohol oxidation using LED light sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, M.C.R.; Schmidt, S.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; oppelt, K.; Kara, S; Hollmann, F.

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of NADH using a flavin photocatalyst and a simple blue LED light source is reported. This in situ NAD+ regeneration system can be used to promote biocatalytic, enantioselective oxidation reactions. Compared to the traditional use of white light bulbs this method enables

  17. Heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysts for hydrogen production from aqueous solutions of electron donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, E. A.; Parmon, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    Current views on heterogeneous photocatalysts for visible- and near-UV-light-driven production of molecular hydrogen from water and aqueous solutions of inorganic and organic electron donors are analyzed and summarized. Main types of such photocatalysts and methods for their preparation are considered. Particular attention is paid to semiconductor photocatalysts based on sulfides that are known to be sensitive to visible light. The known methods for increasing the quantum efficiency of the target process are discussed, including design of the structure, composition and texture of semiconductor photocatalysts and variation of the medium pH and the substrate and photocatalyst concentrations. Some important aspects of the activation and deactivation of sulfide photocatalysts and the evolution of their properties in the course of hydrogen production processes in the presence of various types of electron donors are analyzed. The bibliography includes 276 references.

  18. Strain Engineering for Phosphorene: The Potential Application as a Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sa, Baisheng; Li, Yan-Ling; Qi, Jingshan; Ahuja, Rajeev; Sun, Zhimei

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene has been attracted intense interest due to its unexpected high carrier mobility and distinguished anisotropic optoelectronic and electronic properties. In this work, we unraveled strain engineered phosphorene as a photocatalyst in the application of water splitting hydrogen production based on density functional theory calculations. Lattice dynamic calculations demonstrated the stability for such kind of artificial materials under different strains. The phosphorene lattice is unst...

  19. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Zhongchun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Medforth, Craig J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal

  20. Air environment purification using photocatalyst. Hikari shokubai ni yoru taiki kankyo joka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, K [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-02

    Noticing that metal oxides have photocatalysis for reduction in NOx concentration and examining effects of the TiO2 selected on removal of pollutant, the paper proposes a direct purification method for the air environment. Since TiO2 causes electron excitation meeting near ultraviolet irradiation, it manifests a catalytic function for various oxidation/reduction reactions. Details of the reaction mechanism are unknown, various active oxygen species generated on the surface of TiO2 under light irradiation oxidize NOx and acquire it as nitric acid on the surface. It is found that mixture of activated carbon of low hygroscopicity with TiO2 is effective to prevent a tendency of NO to desorb before NO becomes nitric acid. What 40% of the catalyst with fluorine resin is formed into like a sheet shows a high removal rate even in the amount of ultraviolet irradiation in a winter cloudy day in the wide range of 0.5 - 95.0% of NOx and SO2, and if the photocatalyst is applied to the side wall of city buildings, the NOx concentration is estimated to be reduced by as much as 20%. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Assessment of the abatement of acelsulfame K using cerium doped ZnO as photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calza, P.; Gionco, C.; Giletta, M.; Kalaboka, M.; Sakkas, V.A.; Albanis, T.; Paganini, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Ce doped ZnO. • The abatement of ACE K is assessed in ultrapure water and in river water matrix. • Demonstrated higher degradation activity than P25 under visible light. • The degradation activity is less affected in river water than for P25. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the possibility to abate Acesulfame K, a persistent emerging contaminant, in aqueous media using zinc oxide based materials. For this purpose, bare and Ce-doped zinc oxide was prepared via an easy and cheap hydrothermal process using different cerium salts as precursors. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated in different media, namely ultrapure and river water under both UV–vis and visible light. Commercial TiO_2 P25 was also employed and used as a reference photocatalyst for comparison purposes. The obtained results pointed out that cerium doped zinc oxide composites exhibit higher performance than TiO_2 P25, especially under visible light and in the presence of organic matter, when the activity of the latter is greatly depressed. In particular, ZnO doped with cerium (1%) was the most effective material, and could be a promising alternative to TiO_2 P25, especially in the treatment of natural waters.

  2. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R [IT Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Photocatalysts: ambient temperature destruction of VOCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.

    1994-01-01

    Photocatalysis was a failure as a solar energy driven organic synthesis technique, but as this study indicates, it has undergone a renaissance as a promising treatment method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air streams. Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) relies upon the ability of certain semiconductors to be stimulated by UV radiation. UV light excites valence band electrons in the semiconductor catalyst to jump to a conductance band leaving holes in the valence band. The electrons and holes can react with compounds such as organic contaminants present in an air stream. Hallmarks of the technology include rapid destruction kinetics for many VOCs at ambient temperature and efficient use energy in the form of UV-A photons. Studies clearly indicate that PCO is competitive on capital cost and offers significant operating cost savings on selected applications. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  4. In-situ functionalization of mesoporous hexagonal ZnO synthesized in task specific ionic liquid as a photocatalyst for elimination of SO2, NOx, and CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsari, Elaheh; Abdpour, Soheil

    2017-12-01

    A novel mesoporous structure of zinc oxide was synthesized in hydrothermal autocalve in the presence of a functional ionic liquid (FIL) {[CH2CH2] O2 (mm)2}. This FIL with ether groups was used simultaneously as a designer templating agent and a source of the hydroxyl radical. The presence of this ionic liquid led to producing ethylene glycol in the reaction media, which adsorb on the surface of mesoporous hexagonal ZnO plates. These mesoporous structures can adsorb pollutant gases and increase photocatalytic oxidation of pollutant gases in compare with commercial ZnO nanoparticles and agglomerated nanoparticles synthesized in this work. XPS data confirmed ethylene glycol production by the ionic liquid, which could prove a role for ionic liquids as designers. The estimated BET surface area values of ZnO hexagonal mesoporous plates and agglomerated particles were 84 m2/g and 12 m2/g respectively. Optical properties of the mesoporous structures were analyzed by photoluminescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy. The performance of these structures as efficient photocatalysts was further demonstrated by their removal of NOx, SO2, and CO under UV irradiation. The removal of NOx, SO2, and CO under UV irradiation was 56%, 81%, and 35% respectively, after 40 min of irradiation time. Reusability of the photocatalyst was determined; the results show no significant decrease of activity of photocatalyst. after five cycles.

  5. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  6. Titanium photocatalyst against human pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussovski, V.; Stefchev, P.; Kirilov, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional methods of disinfection are not effective in the longer term. They are time and staff intensive and use aggressive chemicals. Photocatalytic oxidation on surfaces coated with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) might offer a possible alternative. The antimicrobial activity of TiO 2 powder P25 and thin films of TiO 2 on glass slides against representative strains of microorganisms associated with hospital-acquired infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) was investigated in vitro. High efficiency has been found in the case of the studied bacterial strains, particularly for the P. aeruginosa. It was shown that it is possible to disinfect surfaces coated with TiO 2 and stimulated by UV-A light. The reduction efficiencies for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans were 3.19, 2.32 and 1.22. In all cases sublethal UV-A doses provoked an important lethality in the presence of TiO 2 . (authors)

  7. Ag2WO4 nanorods decorated with AgI nanoparticles: Novel and efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts for the degradation of water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To develop efficient and stable visible-light-driven (VLD photocatalysts for pollutant degradation, we synthesized novel heterojunction photocatalysts comprised of AgI nanoparticle-decorated Ag2WO4 nanorods via a facile method. Various characterization techniques, including XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, and UV–vis DRS were used to investigate the morphology and optical properties of the as-prepared AgI/Ag2WO4 catalyst. With AgI acting as the cocatalyst, the resulting AgI/Ag2WO4 heterostructure shows excellent performance in degrading toxic, stable pollutants such as rhodamine B (RhB, methyl orange (MO and para-chlorophenol (4-CP. The high performance is attributed to the enhanced visible-light absorption properties and the promoted separation efficiency of charge carriers through the formation of the heterojunction between AgI and Ag2WO4. Additionally, AgI/Ag2WO4 exhibits durable stability. The active species trapping experiment reveals that active species (O2•− and h+ dominantly contribute to RhB degradation. The AgI/Ag2WO4 heterojunction photocatalyst characterized in this work holds great potential for remedying environmental issues due to its simple preparation method and excellent photocatalytic performance.

  8. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  9. TiO2 Based Photocatalyst: From Synthesis and Characterization to Optimization and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 based photocatalyst has attracted gerat attentions from both fundamental and an applied aspects in water/air purifications and energy production. In this thesis, series of well-defined TiO2 photocatalyst with various parameters (i.e., polymorph composition, shape, impurity concentration, sur...

  10. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya, E-mail: mahardika190@gmail.com; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Universitas Negeri Semarang, Jalan Raya Sekaran Gunungpati 50229 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  11. Graphene Modified TiO2 Composite Photocatalysts: Mechanism, Progress and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo; Chen, Haiqun; Peng, Haoping; Wang, Zhengwei; Huang, Weiqiu

    2018-01-01

    Graphene modified TiO2 composite photocatalysts have drawn increasing attention because of their high performance. Some significant advancements have been achieved with the continuous research, such as the corresponding photocatalytic mechanism that has been revealed. Specific influencing factors have been discovered and potential optimizing methods are proposed. The latest developments in graphene assisted TiO2 composite photocatalysts are abstracted and discussed. Based on the primary reasons behind the observed phenomena of these composite photocatalysts, probable development directions and further optimizing strategies are presented. Moreover, several novel detective technologies—beyond the decomposition test—which can be used to judge the photocatalytic performances of the resulting photocatalysts are listed and analyzed. Although some objectives have been achieved, new challenges still exist and hinder the widespread application of graphene-TiO2 composite photocatalysts, which deserves further study. PMID:29439545

  12. Supported Photocatalyst for Removal of Emerging Contaminants from Wastewater in a Continuous Packed-Bed Photoreactor Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Emma Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution from emerging contaminants (ECs or emerging pollutants is an important environmental problem. Heterogeneous photocatalytic treatment, as advanced oxidation treatment of wastewater effluents, has been proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, a heterogeneous photocatalytic process was studied for emergent contaminants removal using paracetamol as a model contaminant molecule. TiO2 photocatalytic activity was evaluated using two photocatalytic reactor configurations: Photocatalyst solid suspension in wastewater in a stirred photoreactor and TiO2 supported on glass spheres (TGS configuring a packed bed photoreactor. The surface morphology and texture of the TGS were monitored by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The influence of photocatalyst amount and wastewater pH were evaluated in the stirred photoreactor and the influence of wastewater flowrate was tested in the packed bed photoreactor, in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions. Moreover, results obtained were compared with those obtained from photolysis and adsorption studies, using the optimal operation conditions. Good photocatalytic activities have been observed and leads to the conclusion that the heterogeneous photocatalytic system in a packed bed is an effective method for removal of emerging pollutants.

  13. Novel TiO2/C nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization, and application as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elias; Zamora, Patricio P; Zarbin, Aldo J G

    2012-02-15

    Novel TiO(2)/carbon nanocomposites were prepared through the pyrolysis of TiO(2)/poly(furfuryl alcohol) hybrid materials, which were obtained by the sol-gel method, starting from titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and furfuryl alcohol (FA) precursors. Six different TiO(2)/C samples were prepared based on different TiO(2) nanoparticle sizes and TiO(2)/FA ratios. All of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicated effective FA polymerization onto the TiO(2) (anatase) nanoparticles, polymer conversion to disordered carbon following the pyrolysis, and a simultaneous TiO(2) anatase-rutile phase transition. The resulting TiO(2)/carbon composites were used as photocatalysts in the advanced oxidative process (AOP) for the degradation of reactive organic dyes in aqueous solution. The results indicate excellent photocatalytic performance (degradation of 99% of the dye after 60 min) with several advantages over traditional TiO(2)-based photocatalysts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} nanotube based heterojunction photocatalyst via the coupling of graphene and FTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Xiaoyou [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yu, Jianyuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tangshan University, Tangshan 063000 (China); Wang, Likun; Fu, Chen; Wang, Jixia; Wang, Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhao, Hongli, E-mail: zhaohongli@ysu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jingkai, E-mail: yangjk@ysu.edu.cn [National Defense Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The rGO-TONT composites have been deposited onto FTO. • Photocatalytic reaction rate shows 3 times greater than TONT. • Chemical interaction between rGO and TONT was analyzed. • Electron transfer process in rGO-TONT/FTO heterojunction was discussed. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TONT) based heterojunction photocatalyst was developed via the coupling of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SnO{sub 2}:F film (FTO). Based on the characterization of Raman analysis, XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and ESR, the crystal phase, morphology, heterojunction interfacial interaction and the photoinduced electron chemical environment of the samples are studied. In the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under UV irradiation, the rGO-TONT/FTO heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits the improved photocatalytic reaction rate, 3 times greater than that of pure TONT. The enhanced photocatalytic mechanism was discussed by PL. The effectively separate charge in heterojunction structure of rGO-TONT/FTO is responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Wherein, the abundant oxygen vacancies at TiO{sub 2} surface and the chemically bonded interface in rGO-TONT heterojunction also contributes to the interfacial electron transfer. Besides, the introduction of rGO enhanced its optical absorption capacity.

  15. Establishing efficient cobalt based catalytic sites for oxygen evolution on a Ta3N5 photocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Llorens, Isabelle; Hazemann, Jean-louis; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In a photocatalytic suspension system with a powder semiconductor, the interface between the photocatalyst semiconductor and catalyst should be constructed to minimize resistance for charge transfer of excited carriers. This study demonstrates an in-depth understanding of pretreatment effects on the photocatalytic O2 evolution reaction (OER) activity of visible-light-responsive Ta3N5 decorated with CoOx nanoparticles. The CoOx/Ta3N5 sample was synthesized by impregnation followed by sequential heat treat-ments under NH3 flow and air flow at various temperatures. Various characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy (XPS), were used to clarify the state and role of cobalt. No improvement in photocatalytic activity for OER over the bare Ta3N5 was observed for the as-impregnated CoOx/Ta3N5, likely because of insufficient contact between CoOx and Ta3N5. When the sample was treated in NH3 at high temperature, a substantial improvement in the photocatalytic activity was observed. After NH3 treatment at 700 °C, the Co0-CoOx core-shell agglomerated cobalt structure was identified by XAS and STEM. No metallic cobalt species was evident after the photocatalytic OER, indicating that the metallic cobalt itself is not essential for the reaction. Accordingly, mild oxidation (200 °C) of the NH3-treated CoOx/Ta3N5 sample enhanced photocatalytic OER activity. Oxidation at higher temperatures drastically eliminated the photocatalytic activity, most likely because of unfavorable Ta3N5 oxidation. These results suggest that the intimate contact between cobalt species and Ta3N5 facilitated at high temperature is beneficial to enhancing hole transport and that the cobalt oxide provides electrocatalytic sites for OER.

  16. Establishing efficient cobalt based catalytic sites for oxygen evolution on a Ta3N5 photocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-08-05

    In a photocatalytic suspension system with a powder semiconductor, the interface between the photocatalyst semiconductor and catalyst should be constructed to minimize resistance for charge transfer of excited carriers. This study demonstrates an in-depth understanding of pretreatment effects on the photocatalytic O2 evolution reaction (OER) activity of visible-light-responsive Ta3N5 decorated with CoOx nanoparticles. The CoOx/Ta3N5 sample was synthesized by impregnation followed by sequential heat treat-ments under NH3 flow and air flow at various temperatures. Various characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy (XPS), were used to clarify the state and role of cobalt. No improvement in photocatalytic activity for OER over the bare Ta3N5 was observed for the as-impregnated CoOx/Ta3N5, likely because of insufficient contact between CoOx and Ta3N5. When the sample was treated in NH3 at high temperature, a substantial improvement in the photocatalytic activity was observed. After NH3 treatment at 700 °C, the Co0-CoOx core-shell agglomerated cobalt structure was identified by XAS and STEM. No metallic cobalt species was evident after the photocatalytic OER, indicating that the metallic cobalt itself is not essential for the reaction. Accordingly, mild oxidation (200 °C) of the NH3-treated CoOx/Ta3N5 sample enhanced photocatalytic OER activity. Oxidation at higher temperatures drastically eliminated the photocatalytic activity, most likely because of unfavorable Ta3N5 oxidation. These results suggest that the intimate contact between cobalt species and Ta3N5 facilitated at high temperature is beneficial to enhancing hole transport and that the cobalt oxide provides electrocatalytic sites for OER.

  17. Hydrogen evolution from water splitting on nanocomposite photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Shangguan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic production of H2 in one step is potentially one of the most promising ways for the conversion and storage of solar energy. The paper overviews our recent studies on the photocatalysts splitting water into hydrogen under irradiation. The attention was mainly focused on the promotion effects of nanosized modifications in the interlayer and surface of photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution with visible light. The photocatalytic activity depended significantly on modification techniques, such as loading, proton exchange, and intercalation. The formation of a "nest" on the particle surface promoted a uniform distribution and strong combination of the nanosized particles on the surface of catalysts. By the methods of intercalation and pillaring as well as by selecting both host and guest, a large variety of molecular designed host–guest systems were obtained. Cadmium sulfide (CdS-intercalated composites showed higher activity and stability. This activity of K4Ce2M10O30 (M=Ta, Nb evolving H2 under visible light irradiation was enhanced by the incorporation of Pt, RuO2 and NiO as co-catalysts. Especially, the nanosized NiOx (Ni–NiO double-layer structure greatly prompted the photocatalytic H2 evolution significantly.

  18. Biotemplated Morpho Butterfly Wings for Tunable Structurally Colored Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Robin E; Agarwal, Sneha P; An, Shun; Kazyak, Eric; Das, Debashree; Shang, Wen; Skye, Rachael; Deng, Tao; Dasgupta, Neil P

    2018-02-07

    Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly wings contain naturally occurring hierarchical nanostructures that produce structural coloration. The high aspect ratio and surface area of these wings make them attractive nanostructured templates for applications in solar energy and photocatalysis. However, biomimetic approaches to replicate their complex structural features and integrate functional materials into their three-dimensional framework are highly limited in precision and scalability. Herein, a biotemplating approach is presented that precisely replicates Morpho nanostructures by depositing nanocrystalline ZnO coatings onto wings via low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD). This study demonstrates the ability to precisely tune the natural structural coloration while also integrating multifunctionality by imparting photocatalytic activity onto fully intact Morpho wings. Optical spectroscopy and finite-difference time-domain numerical modeling demonstrate that ALD ZnO coatings can rationally tune the structural coloration across the visible spectrum. These structurally colored photocatalysts exhibit an optimal coating thickness to maximize photocatalytic activity, which is attributed to trade-offs between light absorption and catalytic quantum yield with increasing coating thickness. These multifunctional photocatalysts present a new approach to integrating solar energy harvesting into visually attractive surfaces that can be integrated into building facades or other macroscopic structures to impart aesthetic appeal.

  19. Performance of Ag-TiO2 Photocatalysts towards the Photocatalytic Disinfection of Water under Interior-Lighting and Solar-Simulated Light Irradiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo A. Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the characterization and photoactivity of Ag-TiO2 materials using different amounts of silver during the hydrothermal synthesis. Photocatalysts were characterized by means of TEM, XPS, XRD, DRS, and N2 sorption isotherms to determine the textural properties. The photocatalyst's configuration was observed to be as anatase-brookite mixed phase particles with Ag partially oxidized aggregates on the TiO2 surface, which increased visible light absorption of the material. Moreover, photoproduction of singlet oxygen was followed by EPR analysis under visible light irradiations following the formation of TEMPOL. Such photoproduction was totally decreased by using the singlet oxygen scavenger DABCO. Photocatalysts were tested towards the photocatalytic disinfection of water suing a solar light simulator and an interior-light irradiation setup. Results evidenced an increase in the photooxidative effect of TiO2, while dark processes evidenced that part of the inactivation process is due to the Ag-TiO2 surface bactericidal effect and possible lixiviated Ag+.

  20. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  1. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  2. Printhead and inkjet printer comprising such a printhead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a printhead comprising multiple substantially closed ink chambers (13), the ink chambers being mutually separated by at least one wall (12), wherein each of the chambers comprises an electro-mechanical converter (15), where actuation of the converter leads to a volume change

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts for H{sub 2} evolution from aqueous solution with different scavengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanping; Wang, Baowei, E-mail: wangbw@tju.edu.cn; Liu, Sihan; Duan, Xiaofei; Hu, Zongyuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst are prepared by a facile ethanol reduction method. • The heterojunction between p-type Cu{sub 2}O and n-type TiO{sub 2} improves activity of TiO{sub 2}. • An optimal molar fraction of Cu{sub 2}O is reported in Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts. • The effect of different alcohols scavengers on activity of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} is discussed. - Abstract: A series of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts with different molar fraction of Cu{sub 2}O were prepared by a facile modified ethanol-induced approach followed by a calcination process. The chemical state of copper compound was proved to be cuprous oxide by the characterization of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). Furthermore, these composite oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption desorption and UV–vis techniques to study the morphologies, structures, and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of n-type TiO{sub 2} was significantly enhanced by combined with p-type Cu{sub 2}O, due to the efficient p–n heterojunction. The p–n heterojunction between Cu{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} can enhance visible-light adsorption, efficiently suppress charge recombination, improve interfacial charge transfer, and especially provide plentiful reaction active sites on the surface of photocatalyst. As a consequence, the prepared 2.5-Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} evolution rate and reached 2048.25 μmol/(g h), which is 14.48 times larger than that of pure P25. The apparent quantum yield (AQY) of the 2.5-Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} sample at 365 nm was estimated to be 4.32%. In addition, the influence of different scavengers, namely methanol, anhydrous ethanol, ethylene glycol and glycerol, on the photocatalytic activity for H{sub 2} evolution rate was

  4. Solvothermal fabrication of activated semi-coke supported TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite photocatalysts and application for NO removal under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Weiwei; Li, Chunhu, E-mail: lichunhu@ouc.edu.cn; Wang, Liang; Sun, ShengNan; Yan, Xin

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Activated semi-coke supported TiO{sub 2}-rGO photocatalysts were fabricated by one-step solvothermal method. • The photocatalytic performance for NO removal was studied under visible light irradiation. • The introduction of rGO is responsible for superior photocatalytic activity. • Optimum operational parameters at 70 °C, with 8% O{sub 2} and 8% relative humidity were obtained. • Thermal vapor regeneration is the most suitable generation method. - Abstract: The photocatalysts of activated semi-coke supported TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite (TiO{sub 2}-rGO/ASC) with different contents of reduced graphene oxide were fabricated by one-step solvothermal method for NO removal under visible light irradiation. It was confirmed that 8% content of reduced graphene oxide presented the best NO photooxidation performance under visible light irradiation at 70 °C with 350–400 mg/m{sup 3} NO,5% O{sub 2} and 5% relative humidity. The reasons for improved activity were discussed, alloyed with the mechanism of producing CO. Detailed structural information of TiO{sub 2}-rGO/ASC photocatalysts was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–Vis DRS) and photoluminescence (PL), which indicated that the introduction of rGO was responsible for well dispersion, smaller crystalline size, red shift of absorption band and suppressing quick photo-induced charges recombination of TiO{sub 2}-rGO/ASC photocatalysts. Optimization of operational parameters with 70 °C, 8% O{sub 2} and 8% relative humidity were also obtained. Deactivation of TiO{sub 2}-rGO/ASC photocatalysts for NO removal was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Regeneration experiments showed that thermal vapor regeneration would be optimal method owing to excellent regenerative capacity and inexpensive procedure.

  5. Medical preparation container comprising microwave powered sensor assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave ...... oven. The microwave powered sensor assembly is configured for harvesting energy from microwave radiation emitted by the microwave oven and energize the sensor by the harvested microwave energy.......The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave...

  6. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  7. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  8. Dielectric electroactive polymers comprising an ionic supramolecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ionic interpenetrating polymer network comprising at least one elastomer and an ionic supramolecular structure comprising the reaction product of at least two chemical compounds wherein each of said compounds has at least two functional groups and wherein said ...... compounds are able to undergo Lewis acid-base reactions. The interpenetrating polymer network may be used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) having a high dielectric permittivity....

  9. Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crittenden, J. C. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan (United States); Zhang, Y.; Hand, D. W.; Perram, D. L.; Marchand, E. G.

    1996-05-15

    A field test of a solar photocatalytic process for detoxification of water was conducted at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, where benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were found in the fuel-contaminated groundwater. Platinized titanium dioxide supported on silica gel is packed in tubular photoreactors and used for single-pass operations. Catalyst fouling, destruction inhibition, and water pretreatment are investigated in addition to BTEX destruction. Ionic species were found to be primarily responsible for photocatalyst fouling and destruction inhibition. A simple pretreatment unit was developed for removing turbidity, adding oxidant, and ionic species. By using pretreatment, the reactor system operated efficiently, and no loss in catalyst photoactivity was found during the month-long test. On a rainy day, BTEX compounds of a total influent concentration of more than 2 mg/L were destroyed within 6.5 minutes of empty-bed contact time. Test results with various flow rates, reactor diameters, influent concentrations, solar irradiances, and weather conditions confirm the application potential of the process.

  10. Integrating a Photocatalyst into a Hybrid Lithium-Sulfur Battery for Direct Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Yarong; Tang, Daiming; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-03

    Direct capture and storage of abundant but intermittent solar energy in electrical energy-storage devices such as rechargeable lithium batteries is of great importance, and could provide a promising solution to the challenges of energy shortage and environment pollution. Here we report a new prototype of a solar-driven chargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, in which the capture and storage of solar energy was realized by oxidizing S(2-) ions to polysulfide ions in aqueous solution with a Pt-modified CdS photocatalyst. The battery can deliver a specific capacity of 792 mAh g(-1) during 2 h photocharging process with a discharge potential of around 2.53 V versus Li(+)/Li. A specific capacity of 199 mAh g(-1), reaching the level of conventional lithium-ion batteries, can be achieved within 10 min photocharging. Moreover, the charging process of the battery can proceed under natural sunlight irradiation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, J.C.; Zhang, Y.; Hand, D.W.; Perram, D.L.; Marchand, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    A field test of a solar photocatalytic process for detoxification of water was conducted at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, where benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were found in the fuel-contaminated groundwater. Platinized titanium dioxide supported on silica gel is packed in tubular photoreactors and used for single-pass operations. Catalyst fouling, destruction inhibition, and water pretreatment are investigated in addition to BTEX destruction. Ionic species were found to be primarily responsible for photocatalyst fouling and destruction inhibition. A simple pretreatment unit was developed for removing turbidity, adding oxidant, and ionic species. By using pretreatment, the reactor system operated efficiently, and no loss in catalyst photoactivity was found during the month-long test. On a rainy day, BTEX compounds of a total influent concentration of more than 2 mg/L were destroyed within 6.5 minutes of empty-bed contact time. Test results with various flow rates, reactor diameters, influent concentrations, solar irradiances, and weather conditions confirm the application potential of the process

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Li, Tongtong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, 300457 (China)

    2016-10-01

    A new Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} photocatalyst was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} and NaBrO{sub 3}. The catalyst’s structure and performance were investigated with X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} exhibits a band gap of 3.97 eV. The results show that the Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} semiconductor can be excited by ultraviolet–visible light. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B displayed much higher photocatalytic activity than that of N-doped TiO{sub 2} under the same experimental conditions. Moreover, ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} generated in the photocatalysis played a key role of the photodegradation of Rhodamine B. - Highlights: • Ag/AgBrO{sub 3} with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} radicals were the main active species in the oxidation of RhB. • The possible reaction mechanism was discussed in details.

  13. Antibacterial properties of F-doped ZnO visible light photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podporska-Carroll, Joanna, E-mail: joannapcarroll@gmail.com [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Myles, Adam [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Quilty, Brid [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); McCormack, Declan E.; Fagan, Rachel [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Hinder, Steven J. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (DBCEE), 705 Engineering Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Pillai, Suresh C., E-mail: Pillai.Suresh@itsligo.ie [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Environmental Science, PEM Centre, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo (Ireland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • F doped ZnO nano-powders were obtained by a modified sol–gel method. • These materials were found to be effective against S. aureus and E. coli. • Enhanced visible light photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties were obtained. • The toxic effect of ZnO on bacteria can be due to the release of zinc cations. • Production of reactive oxidation species influences bacterial viability. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZnO photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method and modified with fluorine to improve their photocatalytic anti-bacterial activity in visible light. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) were employed to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of synthesized materials. The interaction with biological systems was assessed by analysis of the antibacterial properties of bacteria suspended in 2% (w/w) powder solutions. The F-doping was found to be effective against S. aureus (99.99% antibacterial activity) and E. coli (99.87% antibacterial activity) when irradiated with visible light. Production of reactive oxygen species is one of the major factors that negatively impact bacterial growth. In addition, the nanosize of the ZnO particles can also be toxic to microorganisms. The small size and high surface-to-volume ratio of the ZnO nanoparticles are believed to play a role in enhancing antimicrobial activity.

  14. Guidelines to Develop Efficient Photocatalysts for Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2016-04-03

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting is the only viable solar-to-fuel conversion technology. The research discloses an investigation process wherein by dissecting the photocatalytic water splitting device, electrocatalysts, and semiconductor photocatalysts can be independently studied, developed and optimized. The assumption of perfect catalysts leads to the realization that semiconductors are the limiting factor in photocatalysis. This dissertation presents a guideline for efficient photocatalysis using semiconductor particles developed from idealized theoretical simulations. No perfect catalysts exist; then the discussion focus on the development of efficient non-noble metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution from water reduction. Tungsten carbide (WC) is selective for the catalysis of hydrogen without the introduction of the reverse reaction of water formation, which is critical to achieving photocatalytic overall water splitting as demonstrated in this work. Finally, photoelectrochemistry is used to characterize thoroughly Cu-based p-type semiconductors with potential for large-scale manufacture. Artificial photosynthesis may be achieved by following the recommendations herein presented.

  15. Nanosheet-Assembled ZnO Microflower Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large scale ZnO microflowers assembled by numerous nanosheets are synthesized through a facile and effective hydrothermal route. The structure and morphology of the resultant products are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Photocatalytic properties of the as-synthesized products are also investigated. The results demonstrate that eosin red aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 110 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, methyl orange (MO and Congo red (CR aqueous solution degradation experiments also are conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that nanosheet-assembled ZnO microflowers represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 91% for CR with 90 min of irradiation and 90% for MO with 60 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  16. Graphene–Ag/ZnO nanocomposites as high performance photocatalysts under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, E.; Hong, Z.L.; Khalid, N.R.; Ahmed, W.; Elhissi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of Graphene–Ag/ZnO composite photocatalysts by facile one-step nontoxic approach. •Enhanced visible light absorption and efficient charge separation of ZnO by graphene modification and silver doping. •Effective utilization of photo-induced conduction band electron and valance band hole to photocatalytic degradation process. •Excellent photocatalytic performance of composites over pure ZnO. •The reduction in COD and TOC confirms the destruction of the organic molecules in the effluents along with colour removal. -- Abstract: Visible-light-responsive Graphene–Ag/ZnO nanocomposites were fabricated using a facile, one-pot, nontoxic solvothermal process for the photodegradation of organic dyes. During the solvothermal process reduction of graphene oxide and loading of Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles on two-dimensional graphene sheets were achieved. Electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, BET surface area measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used to confirm that the Ag-doped ZnO nanoparticles as randomly dispersed and effectively decorated on graphene sheets via covalent bonds between Zn and C atoms. Optical properties studied using UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the absorption edge of Ag-doped ZnO shifted to visible-light region with the incorporation of graphene. The as-synthesized Graphene–Ag/ZnO nanocomposites showed unprecedented photodecomposition efficiency compared to the Ag-doped ZnO, pristine ZnO and commercial ZnO under visible-light. The textile mill effluent containing organic substances was also treated using photocatalysis and the reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the treated effluent revealed a complete destruction of the organic molecules along with colour removal. This dramatically enhanced photoactivity of the composite which is attributed to retarded charge recombination rate

  17. Composite materials comprising two jonal functions and methods for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Ali Syed; Garnier, John Edward; Schiroky, Gerhard Hans; Kennedy, Christopher Robin; Sonuparlak, Birol

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to mechanisms for preventing undesirable oxidation (i.e., oxidation protection mechanisms) in composite bodies. The oxidation protection mechanisms include getterer materials which are added to the composite body which gather or scavenge undesirable oxidants which may enter the composite body. The getterer materials may be placed into at least a portion of the composite body such that any undesirable oxidant approaching, for example, a fiber reinforcement, would be scavenged by (e.g., reacted with) the getterer. The getterer materials) may form at least one compound which acts as a passivation layer, and/or is able to move by bulk transport (e.g., by viscous flow as a glassy material) to a crack, and sealing the crack, thereby further enhancing the oxidation protection of the composite body. One or more ceramic filler materials which serve as reinforcements may have a plurality of super-imposed coatings thereon, at least one of which coatings may function as or contain an oxidation protection mechanism. Specifically, a coating comprising boron nitride which has been engineered or modified to contain some silicon exhibits improved corrosion resistance, specifically to oxygen and moisture. The coated materials may be useful as reinforcing materials in high performance composites to provide improved mechanical properties such as fracture toughness. The present invention also relates to improved composites which incorporate these materials, and to their methods of manufacture.

  18. Light-Induced Reduction of Cuprous Oxide in an Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo Carlo; Laursen, Anders Bo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysts for solar fuel production are subject to intensive investigation as they constitute one viable route for solar energy harvesting. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is a working photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution but it photocorrodes upon light illumination in an aqueous environment....... Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) makes it possible to obtain insight into the local structure, composition and reactivity of catalysts in their working environment, which is of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research and is essential for further material optimization. Herein...

  19. Tethering metal ions to photocatalyst particulate surfaces by bifunctional molecular linkers for efficient hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili

    2014-08-19

    A simple and versatile method for the preparation of photocatalyst particulates modified with effective cocatalysts is presented; the method involves the sequential soaking of photocatalyst particulates in solutions containing bifunctional organic linkers and metal ions. The modification of the particulate surfaces is a universal and reproducible method because the molecular linkers utilize strong covalent bonds, which in turn result in modified monolayer with a small but controlled quantity of metals. The photocatalysis results indicated that the CdS with likely photochemically reduced Pd and Ni, which were initially immobilized via ethanedithiol (EDT) as a linker, were highly efficient for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from Na2S-Na2SO3-containing aqueous solutions. The method developed in this study opens a new synthesis route for the preparation of effective photocatalysts with various combinations of bifunctional linkers, metals, and photocatalyst particulate materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tethering metal ions to photocatalyst particulate surfaces by bifunctional molecular linkers for efficient hydrogen evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Weili; Isimjan, Tayirjan T.; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Anjum, Dalaver Hussain; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Cavallo, Luigi; Garcia Esparza, Angel T.; Domen, Kazunari; Xu, Wei; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    A simple and versatile method for the preparation of photocatalyst particulates modified with effective cocatalysts is presented; the method involves the sequential soaking of photocatalyst particulates in solutions containing bifunctional organic linkers and metal ions. The modification of the particulate surfaces is a universal and reproducible method because the molecular linkers utilize strong covalent bonds, which in turn result in modified monolayer with a small but controlled quantity of metals. The photocatalysis results indicated that the CdS with likely photochemically reduced Pd and Ni, which were initially immobilized via ethanedithiol (EDT) as a linker, were highly efficient for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from Na2S-Na2SO3-containing aqueous solutions. The method developed in this study opens a new synthesis route for the preparation of effective photocatalysts with various combinations of bifunctional linkers, metals, and photocatalyst particulate materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  2. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  3. Advances in Magnetically Separable Photocatalysts: Smart, Recyclable Materials for Water Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gcina Mamba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic compounds utilised at different stages of various industrial processes are lost into effluent water and eventually find their way into fresh water sources where they cause devastating effects on the ecosystem due to their stability, toxicity, and non-biodegradable nature. Semiconductor photocatalysis has been highlighted as a promising technology for the treatment of water laden with organic, inorganic, and microbial pollutants. However, these semiconductor photocatalysts are applied in powdered form, which makes separation and recycling after treatment extremely difficult. This not only leads to loss of the photocatalyst but also to secondary pollution by the photocatalyst particles. The introduction of various magnetic nanoparticles such as magnetite, maghemite, ferrites, etc. into the photocatalyst matrix has recently become an area of intense research because it allows for the easy separation of the photocatalyst from the treated water using an external magnetic field. Herein, we discuss the recent developments in terms of synthesis and photocatalytic properties of magnetically separable nanocomposites towards water treatment. The influence of the magnetic nanoparticles in the optical properties, charge transfer mechanism, and overall photocatalytic activity is deliberated based on selected results. We conclude the review by providing summary remarks on the successes of magnetic photocatalysts and present some of the future challenges regarding the exploitation of these materials in water treatment.

  4. Application of Photocatalysts and LED Light Sources in Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Achari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a cross-section of TiO2 compositions for which existing evidence suggests the prospect of improved performance compared to standard Degussa P25. In the context of a program aimed toward a 365 nm LED based photo-reactor, the question is whether a distinctly superior photocatalyst composition for drinking water treatment is now available that would shape design choices. An answer was sought by synthesizing several photocatalysts with reported high reactivity in some context in the literature, and by performing photocatalysts reactivity tests using common pollutants of water system including Natural Organic Matter (NOM and Emerging Contaminants (ECs from the pesticide and pharmaceutical classes. 365 nm Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs were used as the irradiation source. Since LEDs are now available in the UV, we did not examine the TiO2 modifications that bring band gap excitation into the region beyond 400 nm. The results suggest that the choice of the photocatalyst should be best made to fit the reactor design and photocatalyst mounting constraints such as mass transport, reactive surface, and light field. No photocatalyst composition overall, superior for all classes emerged.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Cu2O/TiO2 photocatalysts for H2 evolution from aqueous solution with different scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Wang, Baowei; Liu, Sihan; Duan, Xiaofei; Hu, Zongyuan

    2015-01-01

    A series of Cu2O/TiO2 photocatalysts with different molar fraction of Cu2O were prepared by a facile modified ethanol-induced approach followed by a calcination process. The chemical state of copper compound was proved to be cuprous oxide by the characterization of X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). Furthermore, these composite oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption desorption and UV-vis techniques to study the morphologies, structures, and optical properties of the as-prepared samples. The results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of n-type TiO2 was significantly enhanced by combined with p-type Cu2O, due to the efficient p-n heterojunction. The p-n heterojunction between Cu2O and TiO2 can enhance visible-light adsorption, efficiently suppress charge recombination, improve interfacial charge transfer, and especially provide plentiful reaction active sites on the surface of photocatalyst. As a consequence, the prepared 2.5-Cu2O/TiO2 photocatalyst exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution rate and reached 2048.25 μmol/(g h), which is 14.48 times larger than that of pure P25. The apparent quantum yield (AQY) of the 2.5-Cu2O/TiO2 sample at 365 nm was estimated to be 4.32%. In addition, the influence of different scavengers, namely methanol, anhydrous ethanol, ethylene glycol and glycerol, on the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution rate was discussed.

  6. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  7. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged

  8. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  9. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Ruigrok, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  10. Black tungsten nitride as a metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting operable at up to 765 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu Lei; Li, Yu Hang; Wang, Xue Lu; Chen, Ai Ping; Yang, Hua Gui [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Nie, Ting; Gong, Xue Qing [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Centre for Computational Chemistry and Research Institute of Industrial Catalysis, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zheng, Li Rong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-06-19

    Semiconductor photocatalysts are hardly employed for overall water splitting beyond 700 nm, which is due to both thermodynamic aspects and activation barriers. Metallic materials as photocatalysts are known to overcome this limitation through interband transitions for creating electron-hole pairs; however, the application of metallic photocatalysts for overall water splitting has never been fulfilled. Black tungsten nitride is now employed as a metallic photocatalyst for overall water splitting at wavelengths of up to 765 nm. Experimental and theoretical results together confirm that metallic properties play a substantial role in exhibiting photocatalytic activity under red-light irradiation for tungsten nitride. This work represents the first red-light responsive photocatalyst for overall water splitting, and may open a promising venue in searching of metallic materials as efficient photocatalysts for solar energy utilization. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Chlorobenzene degeradation by non-thermal plasma combined with EG-TiO2/ZnO as a photocatalyst: Effect of photocatalyst on CO2 selectivity and byproducts reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Alimohammadi, Iraj; Yarahmadi, Rassuol; Jaleh, Babak; Gandomi, Mastaneh; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ad-Din Abedi, Kamal

    2017-02-15

    The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO 2 and H 2 O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO 2 and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO 2 and byproducts formation were investigated. The results showed that the combined system enhanced both the removal efficiency and CO 2 selectivity. The output gas of the NTP reactor contained chlorobenzene, phosgene, O 3 , NO, NO 2 , CO, CO 2 , HCL and CL. The bulk of these byproducts was oxidized on the surface of the nanocomposite; as a result, the content of the byproducts in the output gas of the combined system decreased dramatically. The removal efficiency and CO 2 selectivity increased by rising the applied voltage and residence time because the collision between active species and pollutant molecules increases. Based on these results, the combined system is preferred due to a higher performance and lower formation of harmful byproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of new generation of perovskite based noble metal/semiconductor photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peichuan

    In recent decades, semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted a growing attention as a possible alternative to existing methods of hydrogen production, hydrocarbon conversion and organic compound oxidation. Many types of photocatalysts have been developed and tested for photocatalytic applications. However, most of them do not have notable activity in visible light region, which limits their practical applications. Development of photocatalysts, which can be activated by visible light provides a promising way forward to utilize both UV and visible portions of solar spectrum. In this thesis, two main methods to advance visible light driven photocatalysis, such as bandgap modification through doping and co-catalyst development, are investigated. The photocatalysts studied in this thesis included CdS and SrTiO3, which were extensively investigated and characterized. Rhodium doped strontium titanate was synthesized through different preparation methods. The synthesized samples have been investigated by various characterization techniques including XRD, TEM, STEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of preparation conditions, such as doping concentration, calcination temperature and pH have been investigated and optimized. In addition, the photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production of the samples synthesized by different preparation methods were also studied. Among the preparation methods, polymerizable complex (PC) method was found to be the most effective synthesis method for SrTiO3: Rh. The samples prepared by PC method had higher photocatalytic activity as compared to that of samples synthesized by solid state reaction method and hydrothermal method. The reasons might be attributed to more effective doping and higher surface area. The results of this work suggest that PC method can also be applied to develop other perovskite materials for photocatalytic applications. Co-catalyst development for enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen production is also

  13. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  14. Resonant power converter comprising adaptive dead-time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates in a first aspect to a resonant power converter comprising: a first power supply rail for receipt of a positive DC supply voltage and a second power supply rail for receipt of a negative DC supply voltage. The resonant power converter comprises a resonant network with an input...... terminal for receipt of a resonant input voltage from a driver circuit. The driver circuit is configured for alternatingly pulling the resonant input voltage towards the positive and negative DC supply voltages via first and second semiconductor switches, respectively, separated by intervening dead......-time periods in accordance with one or more driver control signals. A dead-time controller is configured to adaptively adjusting the dead-time periods based on the resonant input voltage....

  15. Thermal emitter comprising near-zero permittivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Ting S.; Campione, Salvatore; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2017-10-25

    A novel thermal source comprising a semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial provides control of the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern. These properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. In particular, the thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  16. Structural, optical, and improved photocatalytic properties of CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch.; Ravikumar, R.V.S.S.N.; Srinivas, Ganganagunta; Shim, Jaesool; Cho, Migyung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS, SnO_2, and a CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst were synthesized using a two-step technique. • The dislocation density, strain values are higher for CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst. • The CdS/SnO_2 has a higher surface area and smaller crystallite size compared to pristine CdS. • The CdS/SnO_2 catalyst greatly reduced recombination of electron and hole pairs. - Abstract: CdS, SnO_2 and CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure were synthesized using a two-step (co-precipitation/hydrothermal) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface analysis (BET), photoluminescence spectra (PL), UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photocatalytic activity. The band gap energies calculated from the DRS results are 3.30, 2.15, and 2.99 eV for pristine SnO_2, CdS, and the CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst, respectively. The CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst showed more efficient charge carrier separation and improved photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). The highest degradation rate constant was achieved for the CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst (0.02434 min"−"1) compared to CdS (0.01381 min"−"1) and SnO_2 (0.00878 min"−"1). The present study provides insights for improving the photocatalytic activity and photo-stability of CdS/SnO_2 hybrid photocatalyst.

  17. Constructing Solid-Gas-Interfacial Fenton Reaction over Alkalinized-C3N4 Photocatalyst To Achieve Apparent Quantum Yield of 49% at 420 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunxiang; Ouyang, Shuxin; Xu, Hua; Wang, Xin; Bi, Yingpu; Zhang, Yuanfang; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-10-03

    Efficient generation of active oxygen-related radicals plays an essential role in boosting advanced oxidation process. To promote photocatalytic oxidation for gaseous pollutant over g-C 3 N 4 , a solid-gas interfacial Fenton reaction is coupled into alkalinized g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalyst to effectively convert photocatalytic generation of H 2 O 2 into oxygen-related radicals. This system includes light energy as power, alkalinized g-C 3 N 4 -based photocatalyst as an in situ and robust H 2 O 2 generator, and surface-decorated Fe 3+ as a trigger of H 2 O 2 conversion, which attains highly efficient and universal activity for photodegradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Taking the photooxidation of isopropanol as model reaction, this system achieves a photoactivity of 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than that of pristine g-C 3 N 4 , which corresponds to a high apparent quantum yield of 49% at around 420 nm. In-situ electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and sacrificial-reagent incorporated photocatalytic characterizations indicate that the notable photoactivity promotion could be ascribed to the collaboration between photocarriers (electrons and holes) and Fenton process to produce abundant and reactive oxygen-related radicals. The strategy of coupling solid-gas interfacial Fenton process into semiconductor-based photocatalysis provides a facile and promising solution to the remediation of air pollution via solar energy.

  18. Constructing three-dimensional porous graphene-carbon quantum dots/g-C3N4 nanosheet aerogel metal-free photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huijuan; Huang, Langhuan; Zhong, Zijun; Tan, Shaozao

    2018-05-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely considered to be an effective way for solving the worldwide environmental pollution issues. Herein, a new type of three-dimensional (3D) ternary graphene-carbon quantum dots/g-C3N4 nanosheet (GA-CQDs/CNN) aerogel visible-light-driven photocatalyst was synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal method. In this unique ternary photocatalyst, both carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) could improve the visible light absorption and promote the charge separation. Furthermore, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) could act as a supportor for the 3D framework. Such a ternary system overcame the drawbacks of bulk g-C3N4 (BCN) and achieved the enhanced photocatalytic activity and long-term stability. As a result, the methyl orange (MO) removal ratio of GA-CQDs/CNN-24% was up to 91.1%, which was about 7.6 times higher than that of bulk g-C3N4 (BCN) under the identical conditions. Moreover that GA-CQDs/CNN-24% exhibited inappreciable loss of photocatalytic activity after four-cycle degradation processes. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism of GA-CQDs/CNN-24% was interpreted both theoretically and experimentally.

  19. Photocatalytic decomposition of N2O over TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, K.; Reli, M.; Troppová, I.; Šihor, M.; Kupková, J.; Kustrowski, P.; Praus, P.

    2017-02-01

    TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts with the various TiO2/g-C3N4 weight ratios from 1:2 to 1:6 were fabricated by mechanical mixing in water suspension followed by calcination. Pure TiO2 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and pure g-C3N4 was prepared from commercial melamine by thermal annealing at 620 °C. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO2 and g-C3N4 were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide under UVC (λ = 254 nm), UVA (λ = 365 nm) and Vis (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The TiO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites showed moderate improvement compared to pure g-C3N4 but pure TiO2 proved to be a better photocatalyst under UVC irradiation. However, under UVA irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/g-C3N4 (1:2) nanocomposite exhibited an increase compared to pure TiO2. Nevertheless, further increase of g-C3N4 amount leads/led to a decrease in reactivity. These results are suggesting the nanocomposite with the optimal weight ratio of TiO2 and g-C3N4 have shifted absorption edge energy towards longer wavelengths and decreased the recombination rate of charge carriers compared to pure g-C3N4. This is probably due to the generation of heterojunction on the TiO2/g-C3N4 interface.

  20. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Liu, Hongfeng [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Qu, Fengyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Cai, Xue, E-mail: xuecai@mail.sdu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Wu, Xiang, E-mail: wuxiang@hrbnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  1. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment

  2. Visible-light photoredox catalyzed synthesis of pyrroloisoquinolines via organocatalytic oxidation/[3 + 2] cycloaddition/oxidative aromatization reaction cascade with Rose Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline alkaloids have been prepared via a visible light photoredox catalyzed oxidation/[3 + 2] cycloaddition/oxidative aromatization cascade using Rose Bengal as an organo-photocatalyst. A variety of pyrroloisoquinolines have been obtained in good yields under mild and metal-free reaction conditions.

  3. Opposite effect of photocorrosion on photocatalytic performance among various AgxMyOz/TiO2 (M = C, P) photocatalysts: A novel effective method for preparing Ag/TiO2 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Caixia; Pang, Yuhua; Wang, Yan; Sun, Mingming; Zhang, Chenyan; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Yanmei; Li, Deliang

    2016-07-01

    Three kinds of hybrids, Ag2CO3/TiO2, Ag2C2O4/TiO2 and Ag3PO4/TiO2 comprising of P25-TiO2 and silver-containing photocatalyst, (together coded as AgxMyOz/TiO2 (M = C, P)) were prepared via a facile precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity and stability of the as-prepared AgxMyOz/TiO2 was compared by monitoring the oxidation of propylene under visible light irradiation. Results showed that both Ag2CO3/TiO2 and Ag2C2O4/TiO2 exhibit perfect performance with a high propylene degradation removal rate of 88% and 78%, respectively, during four successive experimental runs. On the contrary, for Ag3PO4/TiO2, the photocatalytic activity gradually declines to 8% from 32% under the same conditions. In order to explore the reason for the above remarkable difference in activity and stability over AgxMyOz/TiO2, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were used to investigate the change of AgxMyOz/TiO2 before and after irradiation. It was found that three silver-containings, Ag2CO3, Ag2C2O4 and Ag3PO4 on the surface of TiO2, all experienced photo-corrosion to various extents during irradiation process. Surprisingly, the effect of photo-corrosion on visible light activity and stability among various AgxMyOz/TiO2 is very different. For both Ag2CO3 and Ag2C2O4, they are easily decomposed into metallic Ag and CO2, and gaseous CO2 escaped from catalyst leaving silver nanoparticles on the surface of TiO2 resulted in the formation of plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/TiO2. The synergetic effect between surface plasma resonance of silver and interfacial electron transfer over the obtained Ag/TiO2 heterojunctions is in favor of the superior photocatalytic performance under visible light. While for Ag3PO4/TiO2, Ag3PO4 on the surface of TiO2 is partially photo-decomposed into Ag and phosphorus oxide and the phosphorus oxide covering on the surface of undecomposed Ag3PO4/TiO2 deactivates its photocatalytic performance

  4. Materials comprising polydienes and hydrophilic polymers and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W [Knoxville, TN; Deng, Suxiang [Knoxville, TN; Mauritz, Kenneth A [Hattiesburg, MS; Hassan, Mohammad K [Hattiesburg, MS; Gido, Samuel P [Hadley, MA

    2011-11-22

    Materials prepared from polydienes, such as poly(cyclohexadiene), and hydrophilic polymers, such as poly(alkylene oxide), are described. Methods of making the materials and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization are also provided. The materials can be crosslinked and sulfonated, and can include copolymers and polymer blends.

  5. Preparation of ZnO/Cu2O compound photocatalyst and application in treating organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chao; Cao Lixin; Su Ge; Liu Wei; Liu Hui; Yu Yaqin; Qu Xiaofei

    2010-01-01

    ZnO/Cu 2 O compound photocatalysts were prepared by 'soak-deoxidize-air oxidation' with different concentrations of Cu 2+ (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol/L). The prepared ZnO/Cu 2 O samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer, and photochemical reaction instrument. The results show that ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure and the crystallinity had no change with the increase of Cu 2+ concentration. Cu 2 O belonged to cubic structure and the crystallinity increased with the increase of Cu 2+ concentration. ZnO were rods and bulks which had diameter of about 300-400 nm, some small round Cu 2 O particles which had a diameter of about 50 nm adhered to these rods and bulks. In the compounds the mole ratio of Cu 2 O to ZnO was 0.017, 0.025, 0.076, 0.137, 0.138, and 0.136, respectively. An absorbance in the visible light region between 400 and 610 nm was seen and the reflection rate became less with the mole ratio of Cu 2 O to ZnO increasing. The photocatalytic activities of ZnO/Cu 2 O compound were evaluated using a basic organic dye, methyl orange (MO). It was found that, compared with pure ZnO, the photocatalytic properties of ZnO/Cu 2 O compound were improved greatly and some compounds were better than pure Cu 2 O.

  6. High photoactive and visible-light responsive graphene/titanate nanotubes photocatalysts: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianqian, Zhai; Tang, Bo; Guoxin, Hu

    2011-12-30

    A series of graphene/titanate nanotubes (TNTs) photocatalysts using graphene and nanoscale TiO(2) or P25 as original materials were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Both low hydrothermal temperature and proper amount of graphene are propitious to better photoactivity. The photocatalytic activities of these nanocomposites far exceed that of P25, pure TNTs and reported TiO(2)-based nanocomposites for the degradation of Rhodamine-B under visible-light irradiation. These prepared photocatalysts were characterized by TEM, XRD, XPS, BET, FTIR and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, and the results indicate that the outstanding photoactivities in visible-light region result from sensitization effect of graphene rather than impurity level in the band gap of TNTs. Furthermore, large BET surface areas of these photocatalysts (almost 10 times larger than that of previously reported graphene/TiO(2) nanoparticles) evidently enhance their absorption abilities and photocatalytic performances (the rate constants of degrading Rhodamine-B are at least 5 times higher than that of previously reported photocatalysts). These photocatalysts show good stability, and their photoactivities do not obviously decrease after four times of repeated uses. A detailed photocatalytic mechanism is suggested, as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  8. A novel Ni{sup 2+}-doped Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity and enhancement mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Limin, E-mail: songlmnk@sohu.com [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Chen, Zewen; Li, Tongtong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Hollow-Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Shujuan, E-mail: zhangshujuan@tust.edu.cn [College of Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin, 300457 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Ni{sup 2+}-doped Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (Ni{sup 2+}-Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) photocatalysts with superhigh activity for photodegradation of organic pollutants were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. The photocatalysts were characterized with X-ray powder diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, measurement of total organic carbon, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. The photocatalysts were evaluated by methyl orange (MO) photodegradation experiments under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). Comparative analysis showed the optimal doping dosage was 0.05 mol/L Ni{sup 2+}. The optimal Ni{sup 2+}-Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} has an MO photodegradation rate constant four times larger than pure Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The photocatalytic ratio of 40 mg/L MO over the optimal Ni{sup 2+}-Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} after 10 min is 89%, which indicates excellent photocatalytic ability in high-concentration MO solutions. The Ni{sup 2+} doping into Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can increase the level of band gap, and accelerate the utilization of photons and the separation of photo-generated charges. Therefore, the Ni{sup 2+} doping into Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic ability. - Highlights: • Ni{sup 2+}-modified with higher photodegradation ability was synthesized. • ·OH radicals were the main active species in the oxidation of MO. • The doping of Ni{sup 2+} in Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is responsible for the enhanced activity.

  9. One-pot, facile fabrication of a Ag3PO4-based ternary Z-scheme photocatalyst with excellent visible-light photoactivity and anti-photocorrosion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingyuan; Zhang, Tailiang

    2018-04-01

    Ag3PO4 can-not be widely used as an efficient photocatalyst in practical applications because of its susceptibility to photocorrosion. In this study, a novel, ternary Z-scheme photocatalytic system containing graphene oxide (GO), Ag3PO4 and SnS2 was fabricated by a one-pot, mild, in-situ precipitation method successfully. Using Rhodamine B (RhB) as the target of elimination, GO/Ag3PO4/SnS2 exhibited outstanding photocatalytic and anti-photocorrosion properties compared with those of Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/SnS2 and GO/Ag3PO4. RhB was thoroughly degraded over the optimized GO/Ag3PO4/SnS2 nanocomposite after only 15 min under visible-light irradiation; this result is approximately 2.14, 3.33 and 5.83 times faster than that of GO/Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/SnS2 and Ag3PO4, respectively. After three reuses, the photocatalytic activity of the ternary composite slightly decreased but remained 2.36, 4.08 and 12.70 times higher than those of the reused GO/Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/SnS2 and Ag3PO4, respectively. In this system, the efficient separation and migration of the photoinduced current carriers in Ag3PO4 was realized through a double Z-scheme electron-transfer mechanism in which the GO nanosheets acted as the photocatalyst and electron mediator, thereby enhancing the photoactivity and stability of Ag3PO4. The present study provides a new perspective for enhancing photocatalytic and anti-photocorrosion performances in perishable photocatalysts for organic sewage and other environmental contamination treatments.

  10. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  11. Titanium dioxide use (TiO{sub 2}) in cement matrix as a photocatalyst of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}); Utilizacao de dioxido de titanio (TiO{sub 2}) em matriz cimenticia como fotocatalisador de oxidos de nitrogenio (NO{sub x})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, C.A.; Hotza, D.; Repette, W.L.; Jochem, L.F., E-mail: cezar.acasa@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the photodegradation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is a technology that can contribute against to environmental pollution. This work shows the feasibility of using TiO{sub 2} in mortars for photocatalysis. The Degussa P25 titania were characterized chemically and physically, revealing that the sample consists of nanoparticles, but has become crowded. Tests Samples (TS) were manufactured with added titania and the NO{sub x} tests at 28, 60 and 120 days of age of TSs, showing that it was 3% capable of degrading 100% of the NO{sub x} gas flow. Proved that conditions like relative humidity, flow and radiation intensity are relevant when it comes to efficiency in photocatalysis, altering the efficiency by varying these conditions. The photocatalysis with titania in cement matrix was efficient in NO{sub x} degradation, presenting itself as a promising technique to control environmental pollution.

  12. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  13. Polythiophenes Comprising Conjugated Pendants for Polymer Solar Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Ju Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polythiophene (PT is one of the widely used donor materials for solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs. Much progress in PT-based PSCs can be attributed to the design of novel PTs exhibiting intense and broad visible absorption with high charge carrier mobility to increase short-circuit current density (Jsc, along with low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO levels to achieve large open circuit voltage (Voc values. A promising strategy to tailor the photophysical properties and energy levels via covalently attaching electron donor and acceptor pendants on PTs backbone has attracted much attention recently. The geometry, electron-donating capacity, and composition of conjugated pendants are supposed to be the crucial factors in adjusting the conformation, energy levels, and photovoltaic performance of PTs. This review will go over the most recent approaches that enable researchers to obtain in-depth information in the development of PTs comprising conjugated pendants for PSCs.

  14. Antimalarial activity of compounds comprising a primary benzene sulfonamide fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Moeker, Janina; Lopez, Marie; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2013-11-15

    Despite the urgent need for effective antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action no new chemical class of antimalarial drug has been approved for use since 1996. To address this, we have used a rational approach to investigate compounds comprising the primary benzene sulfonamide fragment as a potential new antimalarial chemotype. We report the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitive (3D7) and resistant (Dd2) parasites for a panel of fourteen primary benzene sulfonamide compounds. Our findings provide a platform to support the further evaluation of primary benzene sulfonamides as a new antimalarial chemotype, including the identification of the target of these compounds in the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  16. Diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst: Facile deposition synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Baoying; Huang, Hongwei; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst has been prepared by a facile one-step deposition process for the first time. • The diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst exhibits much better photocatalytic performance. • This enhancement should be attributed to that diatomite can play as an excellent carrier platform to increase the reactive sites and promote the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. • This work shed new light on facile fabrication of novel composite photocatalyst based on natural mineral. - Abstract: A novel diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst has been prepared by a facile one-step deposition process for the first time. The structure, morphology and optical property of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared BiOI/diatomite photocatalysts was studied by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) and monitoring photocurrent generation under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results revealed that BiOI/diatomite composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine BiOI sample. This enhancement should be attributed to that diatomite can play as an excellent carrier platform to increase the reactive sites and promote the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. In addition, the corresponding photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species trapping experiments. This work shed new light on facile fabrication of novel composite photocatalyst based on natural mineral.

  17. Diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst: Facile deposition synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baoying; Huang, Hongwei, E-mail: hhw@cugb.edu.cn; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst has been prepared by a facile one-step deposition process for the first time. • The diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst exhibits much better photocatalytic performance. • This enhancement should be attributed to that diatomite can play as an excellent carrier platform to increase the reactive sites and promote the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. • This work shed new light on facile fabrication of novel composite photocatalyst based on natural mineral. - Abstract: A novel diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst has been prepared by a facile one-step deposition process for the first time. The structure, morphology and optical property of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared BiOI/diatomite photocatalysts was studied by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) and monitoring photocurrent generation under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results revealed that BiOI/diatomite composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine BiOI sample. This enhancement should be attributed to that diatomite can play as an excellent carrier platform to increase the reactive sites and promote the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. In addition, the corresponding photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species trapping experiments. This work shed new light on facile fabrication of novel composite photocatalyst based on natural mineral.

  18. Photocatalytic Degradation of DIPA Using Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 Photocatalyst under Visible Light Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Chong, Fai Kait; Man, Zakaria B.; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Shariff, Azmi M.

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI) method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25) as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C) for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (86.82%). According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion. PMID:25105158

  19. Photocatalytic Degradation of DIPA Using Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 Photocatalyst under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25 as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and temperature programmed reduction (TPR. The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD removal (86.82%. According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion.

  20. Approach to photocatalysis at the molecular level. Design of photocatalysts, detection of intermediate species, and reaction mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anpo, Masakazu [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Osaka Prefecture, Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    The characterization of the Cu{sup +}/ZSM-5 catalysts prepared via reduction of ion-exchanged Cu{sup 2+}/ZSM-5 samples and highly dispersed Ti-oxide catalysts anchored on Vycor glass has been undertaken by in-situ photoluminescence, EPR, XAFS (XANES and FT-EXAFS), and FT-IR spectroscopy. UV-irradiation of the Cu{sup +}/ZSM-5 catalyst in the presence of NO leads to the direct photocatalytic decomposition of NO into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} at normal temperatures. UV-irradiation of the highly dispersed anchored Ti-oxide catalyst in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O also leads to the evolution of CH{sub 4}, CO, and CH{sub 3}OH at normal temperatures. The clarification of the coordination structure of the active surface sites and the direct detection of the reaction precursors and intermediate species in these photocatalytic systems contributed significantly in characterizing the molecular scale reaction mechanisms. Based on these results, the design of highly concentrated and efficient photocatalysts has successfully been achieved by application of the sol-gel method

  1. Titanium Dioxide Supported on Different Porous Materials as Photocatalyst for the Degradation of Methyl Green in Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haithem Bel Hadjltaief

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles were immobilized on two porous materials used as catalyst supports, namely, activated carbon (AC and natural clay (NC, through an impregnation process using TiO2 (P25 as precursor. The so-prepared composite materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transition electron microscopy (TEM, and nitrogen physisorption, that is, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area determination. SEM and TEM observation evidenced that TiO2 was deposited on AC and NC surface. XRD results confirmed that TiO2 existed in a mixture of anatase and rutile phases. The specific surface area of photocatalysts decreased drastically in comparison with the original materials. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was assayed in the oxidation of Methyl Green (MG dye in aqueous medium under UV irradiation. TiO2/AC exhibited higher photocatalytic oxidation activity than TiO2 at neutral pH. Total mineralization of MG was confirmed by means of COD analysis, pointing to these materials as an efficient, cost-effective, and environment friendly alternative for water treatment.

  2. Photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen production using combination of CIGS2 solar cell and RuO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Jahagirdar, Anant H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the development of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for water splitting setup using multiple band gap combination of CuIn 1-x Ga x S 2 (CIGS2) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell and ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) photocatalyst. FSEC PV Materials Lab has developed a PEC setup consisting of two illuminated CIGS2 cells, a ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) anode deposited on titanium sheet for oxygen evolution and a platinum foil cathode for hydrogen evolution. With this combination, a PEC efficiency of 4.29% has been achieved. This paper also presents the research aimed at further improvements in the PEC efficiency by employing highly efficient photoanode that can be illuminated by photons not absorbed at the PV cell and by increasing the concentration of electrolyte solution (pH 10). The former will be achieved by employing a p-type transparent and conducting layer at the back of PV cell to transmit the unabsorbed photons, and the latter will reduce the resistance offered by the electrolyte. Concentration of the electrolyte was increased by five times, and the I-V characteristics of both RuO 2 and RuS 2 were measured with and without illumination. The results indicate that PEC efficiencies of over 9% can be achieved using RuS 2 with illumination and five times concentrated pH 10 solution instead of pH 10 with normal concentration

  3. Photoelectrochemical water splitting for hydrogen production using combination of CIGS2 solar cell and RuO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G. [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)]. E-mail: dhere@fsec.ucf.edu; Jahagirdar, Anant H. [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents the development of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell for water splitting setup using multiple band gap combination of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga {sub x}S{sub 2} (CIGS2) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell and ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) photocatalyst. FSEC PV Materials Lab has developed a PEC setup consisting of two illuminated CIGS2 cells, a ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) anode deposited on titanium sheet for oxygen evolution and a platinum foil cathode for hydrogen evolution. With this combination, a PEC efficiency of 4.29% has been achieved. This paper also presents the research aimed at further improvements in the PEC efficiency by employing highly efficient photoanode that can be illuminated by photons not absorbed at the PV cell and by increasing the concentration of electrolyte solution (pH 10). The former will be achieved by employing a p-type transparent and conducting layer at the back of PV cell to transmit the unabsorbed photons, and the latter will reduce the resistance offered by the electrolyte. Concentration of the electrolyte was increased by five times, and the I-V characteristics of both RuO{sub 2} and RuS{sub 2} were measured with and without illumination. The results indicate that PEC efficiencies of over 9% can be achieved using RuS{sub 2} with illumination and five times concentrated pH 10 solution instead of pH 10 with normal concentration.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of SrTiO3 photocatalyst by topotactic preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiafeng; Huang, Xianshan; Liu, Yi; Wu, Jianguang; Ji, Yuexia

    2016-11-01

    Novel SrTiO3 (ST) photocatalysts with different shapes such as plates, rods and cubes were successfully synthesized based on a topotactic approach. The rod-like ST particles formed in situ at the plates show superior photocatalytic activities towards the decomposition of Rhodamine B than the plate-like and the cubic particles under visible-light irradiation, which could be attributed to the crystal orientation exposing highly active sites accompanied by the crystallite growth in molten salt. The results reveal an effective approach for fabrication of novel photocatalysts of perovskite structure with enhanced photocatalytic activities.

  5. Electron microscopy of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst morphology for deep desulfurization of diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yee Cia, E-mail: gabrielle.ciayin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Kait, Chong Fai, E-mail: chongfaikait@petronas.com.my; Fatimah, Hayyiratul, E-mail: hayyiratulfatimah@yahoo.com; Wilfred, Cecilia, E-mail: cecili@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    A series of Mg/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared and characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The average particle sizes of the photocatalysts were ranging from 25.7 to 35.8 nm. Incorporation of Mg on TiO{sub 2} did not lead to any surface lattice distortion to TiO{sub 2}. HRTEM data indicated the presence of MgO and Mg(OH){sub 2} mixture at low Mg loading while at higher Mg loading, the presence of lamellar Mg-oxyhydroxide intermediates and Mg(OH){sub 2}.

  6. Electron microscopy of Mg/TiO2 photocatalyst morphology for deep desulfurization of diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    A series of Mg/TiO 2 photocatalysts were prepared and characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The average particle sizes of the photocatalysts were ranging from 25.7 to 35.8 nm. Incorporation of Mg on TiO 2 did not lead to any surface lattice distortion to TiO 2 . HRTEM data indicated the presence of MgO and Mg(OH) 2 mixture at low Mg loading while at higher Mg loading, the presence of lamellar Mg-oxyhydroxide intermediates and Mg(OH) 2

  7. Research Progress on Visible-light Responding ZnO-based Nanocomposite Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Yan-ru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review, different types and properties, photocatalysis and functional mechanism of ZnO-based nanocomposite were summarized. Besides, the research advances were discussed in applications of visible-light responding ZnO-based nanocomposite in fields of degradation of organic pollutants,photocatalytic hydrogen production and antibacterial agents, and the way of thinking and suggestions for further research on ZnO-based nanocomposite photocatalyst were put forward. With the developing of basic research and application, ZnO-based nanocomposite photocatalyst will be widely used in the fields of high efficiency catalyst, environmental purification, solar energy conversion and so on.

  8. Stability of alginate-titanium dioxide based photocatalyst beads for water treatment application under UV irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    WENG HOONG LAM

    2017-01-01

    Immobilizing TiO2 photocatalyst in alginate beads has been considered to be a green approach for the separation and recycling of the photocatalyst in UV water treatment. However, the feasibility of using alginate beads in industry is largely dependent on their photo-stability during operation. This study aimed to provide a better understanding on the degradation of alginate/TiO2 beads under UV irradiation and to improve beads stability. The beads stability can be improved by increasing the al...

  9. Conjugated polymer zwitterions and solar cells comprising conjugated polymer zwitterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas; Page, Zachariah; Liu, Yao

    2018-06-05

    A conjugated polymer zwitterion includes repeating units having structure (I), (II), or a combination thereof ##STR00001## wherein Ar is independently at each occurrence a divalent substituted or unsubstituted C3-30 arylene or heteroarylene group; L is independently at each occurrence a divalent C1-16 alkylene group, C6-30arylene or heteroarylene group, or alkylene oxide group; and R1 is independently at each occurrence a zwitterion. A polymer solar cell including the conjugated polymer zwitterion is also disclosed.

  10. Selective Photooxidation Reactions using Water-Soluble Anthraquinone Photocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Gacs, Jenő; Arends, I.W.C.E.; Hollmann, F.

    2017-01-01

    The aerobic organocatalytic oxidation of alcohols was achieved by using water-soluble sodium anthraquinone sulfonate. Under visible-light activation, this catalyst mediated the aerobic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones. The photo-oxyfunctionalization of alkanes was also possible

  11. Recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for hydrogen production and solar energy conversion--from semiconducting TiO2 to MOF/PCP photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Toyao, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masato; Matsuoka, Masaya; Anpo, Masakazu

    2013-08-28

    The present perspective describes recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts intended to develop novel and efficient solar energy conversion technologies, including water splitting and photofuel cells. Water splitting is recognized as one of the most promising techniques to convert solar energy as a clean and abundant energy resource into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen. In recent years, increasing concern is directed to not only the development of new photocatalytic materials but also the importance of technologies to produce hydrogen and oxygen separately. Photofuel cells can convert solar energy into electrical energy by decomposing bio-related compounds and livestock waste as fuels. The advances of photocatalysts enabling these solar energy conversion technologies have been going on since the discovery of semiconducting titanium dioxide materials and have extended to organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and porous coordination polymers (MOF/PCP).

  12. Fabrication of Z-scheme plasmonic photocatalyst Ag@AgBr/g-C3N4 with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuxin; Guo, Wan; Guo, Yingna; Zhao, Yahui; Yuan, Xing; Guo, Yihang

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Z-scheme plasmonic photocatalyst of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 is prepared for the first time. • Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 shows enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • Photocatalytic mechanism based on the experimental results is revealed. • Photocatalytic degradation pathway of MO is put forward. - Abstract: A series of Ag@AgBr grafted graphitic carbon nitride (Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 ) plasmonic photocatalysts are fabricated through photoreducing AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 hybrids prepared by deposition–precipitation method. The phase and chemical structures, electronic and optical properties as well as morphologies of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 heterostructures are well-characterized. Subsequently, the photocatalytic activity of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 is evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and rhodamin B (RB) under visible-light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag@AgBr/g-C 3 N 4 compared with g-C 3 N 4 and Ag@AgBr is obtained and explained in terms of the efficient visible-light utilization efficiency as well as the construction of Z-scheme, which keeps photogenerated electrons and holes with high reduction and oxidation capability, evidenced by photoelectrochemical tests and free radical and hole scavenging experiments. Based on the intermediates identified in the reaction system, the photocatalytic degradation pathway of MO is put forward

  13. Supported black phosphorus nanosheets as hydrogen-evolving photocatalyst achieving 5.4% energy conversion efficiency at 353 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Tian, Bining; Smith, Bethany; Scott, M C; Hua, Ruinian; Lei, Qin; Tian, Yue

    2018-04-11

    Solar-driven water splitting using powdered catalysts is considered as the most economical means for hydrogen generation. However, four-electron-driven oxidation half-reaction showing slow kinetics, accompanying with insufficient light absorption and rapid carrier combination in photocatalysts leads to low solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency. Here, we report amorphous cobalt phosphide (Co-P)-supported black phosphorus nanosheets employed as photocatalysts can simultaneously address these issues. The nanosheets exhibit robust hydrogen evolution from pure water (pH = 6.8) without bias and hole scavengers, achieving an apparent quantum efficiency of 42.55% at 430 nm and energy conversion efficiency of over 5.4% at 353 K. This photocatalytic activity is attributed to extremely efficient utilization of solar energy (~75% of solar energy) by black phosphorus nanosheets and high-carrier separation efficiency by amorphous Co-P. The hybrid material design realizes efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion in suspension, demonstrating the potential of black phosphorus-based materials as catalysts for solar hydrogen production.

  14. An Unusual Strong Visible-Light Absorption Band in Red Anatase TiO2 Photocatalyst Induced by Atomic Hydrogen-Occupied Oxygen Vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqiang; Yin, Li-Chang; Gong, Yue; Niu, Ping; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Gu, Lin; Chen, Xingqiu; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    Increasing visible light absorption of classic wide-bandgap photocatalysts like TiO 2 has long been pursued in order to promote solar energy conversion. Modulating the composition and/or stoichiometry of these photocatalysts is essential to narrow their bandgap for a strong visible-light absorption band. However, the bands obtained so far normally suffer from a low absorbance and/or narrow range. Herein, in contrast to the common tail-like absorption band in hydrogen-free oxygen-deficient TiO 2 , an unusual strong absorption band spanning the full spectrum of visible light is achieved in anatase TiO 2 by intentionally introducing atomic hydrogen-mediated oxygen vacancies. Combining experimental characterizations with theoretical calculations reveals the excitation of a new subvalence band associated with atomic hydrogen filled oxygen vacancies as the origin of such band, which subsequently leads to active photo-electrochemical water oxidation under visible light. These findings could provide a powerful way of tailoring wide-bandgap semiconductors to fully capture solar light. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Systematic research on Ag2X (X = O, S, Se, Te) as visible and near-infrared light driven photocatalysts and effects of their electronic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wu, Zhaomei; Zhu, Yingming; Tian, Wen; Liang, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Four silver chalcogen compounds, Ag2O, Ag2S, Ag2Se and Ag2Te, can be utilized as visible-light-driven photocatalysts. In this research, the electronic structures of these compounds were analyzed by simulation and experiments to systematically reveal the relationship between photocatalytic performance and energetic structure. All four chalcogenides exhibited interesting photocatalytic activities under ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light. However, their photocatalytic performances and stability significantly depended on the band gap width, and the valence band and conduct band position, which was determined by their composition. Increasing the X atomic number from O to Te resulted in the upward movement of the valence band top and the conduct band bottom, which resulted in narrower band gaps, a wider absorption spectrum, a weaker photo-oxidization capacity, a higher recombination probability of hole and electron pairs, lower quantum efficiency, and worse stability. Among them, Ag2O has the highest photocatalytic performance and stability due to its widest band gap and lowest position of VB and CB. The combined action of photogenerated holes and different radicals, depending on the different electronic structures, including anion ozone radical, hydroxide radical, and superoxide radical, was observed and understood. The results of experimental observations and simulations of the four silver chalcogen compounds suggested that a proper electronic structure is necessary to obtain a balance between photocatalytic performance and absorbable light region in the development of new photocatalysts.

  16. High efficient photocatalytic activity from nanostructuralized photonic crystal-like p-n coaxial hetero-junction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Fang-Ting; Chang, Yin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Structuring the materials in the form of photonic crystals is a new strategy for photocatalytic applications. Herein, a new concept of photonic crystal-induced p-n coaxial heterojunction film photocatalyst of Cu3SnS4/TiO2 (CTS/PhC-TNAs) was well-designed and successfully fabricated by combining periodic pulse anodic oxidation and in-situ self-assembling methods Such nanostructured CTS/PhC-TNAs exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic degradation activity under simulated sunlight irradiation with methyl orange (MO) as the target pollutants. Within 120 min, 82% of the MO (10 mg/L) was photodegraded and its kinetic constant per specific surface area reached 0.05332 μmol/m2h, which is 1.6 and 12.8 times more quickly than that of PhC-TNAs and CTS, respectively. Its significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity could be mainly attributed to a joint effect of the unique photonic crystal property of PhC-TNAs and the nanostructured hollow p-n coaxial hetero-junction, which result in an increased efficiency of charge separation and transfer and also an improved spectral response capability. This photonic crystal film photocatalyst has the potential for enhancing the photocatalytic activity via further optimizing the photonic stop band of PhC-TNAs. The study presents a new means to design the kind of photonic crystal structural-induced novel photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities in pollution treatment.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  18. Asteroseismology of KIC 7107778: a binary comprising almost identical subgiants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaguang; Bedding, Timothy R.; Li, Tanda; Bi, Shaolan; Murphy, Simon J.; Corsaro, Enrico; Chen, Li; Tian, Zhijia

    2018-05-01

    We analyse an asteroseismic binary system: KIC 7107778, a non-eclipsing, unresolved target, with solar-like oscillations in both components. We used Kepler short cadence time series spanning nearly 2 yr to obtain the power spectrum. Oscillation mode parameters were determined using Bayesian inference and a nested sampling Monte Carlo algorithm with the DIAMONDS package. The power profiles of the two components fully overlap, indicating their close similarity. We modelled the two stars with MESA and calculated oscillation frequencies with GYRE. Stellar fundamental parameters (mass, radius, and age) were estimated by grid modelling with atmospheric parameters and the oscillation frequencies of l = 0, 2 modes as constraints. Most l = 1 mixed modes were identified with models searched using a bisection method. Stellar parameters for the two sub-giant stars are MA = 1.42 ± 0.06 M⊙, MB = 1.39 ± 0.03 M⊙, RA = 2.93 ± 0.05 R⊙, RB = 2.76 ± 0.04 R⊙, tA = 3.32 ± 0.54 Gyr and tB = 3.51 ± 0.33 Gyr. The mass difference of the system is ˜1 per cent. The results confirm their simultaneous birth and evolution, as is expected from binary formation. KIC 7107778 comprises almost identical twins, and is the first asteroseismic sub-giant binary to be detected.

  19. Photocatalysis of Modified Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzill, Matthias [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-02-28

    The goal of this project has been to establish a cause-effect relationship for photocatalytic activity variations of different structures of the same material; and furthermore gain fundamental understanding on modification of photocatalysts by compositional or surface modifications. The reasoning is that gaining atomic scale understanding of how surface and bulk modifications alter the photo reactivity will lead to design principles for next generation photocatalysts. As a prototypical photocatalyst the research focused on TiO2 synthesized in well-defined single crystalline form to enable fundamental characterizations.We have obtained results in the following areas: (a) Preparation of epitaxial anatase TiO2 samples by pulsed laser deposition. (b) Comparison of hydrogen diffusion on different crystallographic surface. (c) Determining the stability of the TiO2(011)-2x1 reconstruction upon interactions with adsorbates. (d) Characterization of adsorption and (thermal and photo) reaction of molecules with nitro-endgroups, (e) Exploring the possibility of modifying planar model photocatalyst surfaces with graphene to enable fundamental studies on reported enhanced photocatalytic activities of graphene modified transition metal oxides, (f) gained fundamental understanding on the role of crystallographic polymorphs of the same material for their photocatalytic activities.

  20. Silver Modified Degussa P25 for the Photocatalytic Removal of Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Bowering

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the photocatalytic behaviour of silver modified titanium dioxide materials for the decomposition and reduction of nitric oxide (NO gas has been carried out. The effects of silver loading, calcination temperature, and reaction conditions have been investigated. Prepared photocatalysts were characterised using XRD, TEM, and XPS. A continuous flow reactor was used to determine the photocatalytic activity and selectivity of NO decomposition in the absence of oxygen as well as NO reduction using CO as the reducing agent, over the prepared photocatalysts. XRD and TEM analysis of the photocatalysts showed that crystalline silver nitrate particles were present on the titanium dioxide surface after calcination at temperatures of up to 200∘C. The silver nitrate particles are thermally decomposed to form metallic silver clusters at higher temperatures. XPS analysis of the photocatalysts showed that for each of the temperatures used, both Ag+ and Ag0 were present and that the Ag0/Ag+ ratio increased with increasing calcination temperature. The presence of metallic silver species on the TiO2 surface dramatically increased the selectivity for N2 formation of both decomposition and reduction reactions. When CO was present in the reaction gas, selectivities of over 90% were observed for all the Ag-TiO2 photocatalysts that had been calcined at temperatures above 200∘C. Unfortunately these high selectivities were at the expense of photocatalytic activity, with lower NO conversion rates than those achieved over unmodified TiO2 photocatalysts.

  1. Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridine and titaniumdioxide - photocatalysts for solar induced water remediation; Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridin und Titandioxid - Photokatalysatoren zum solarinduzierten Abbau von Schadstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossmann, S [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik, Engler-Bunte-Inst., Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of photocatalysts capable of working under solar-light-irradiation are of great interest. An especially promising application is the development of low-cost `Advanced Oxidation Procedures` (AOP). The aim of this endeavor is the detoxification of hazardous chemicals in wastewaters, which cannot be treated by conventional techniques. The mineralization of the most (highly) toxic chemicals to CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and simple inorganic compounds is favored by thermodynamics, however various difficulties such as kinetic barriers and hindered diffusion exist in systems for heterogeneous photocatalysis. In that respect, Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) and TiO{sub 2} - codoped photocatalysts offer several advantages. The photoreactive centers consist of supramolecular units of [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} and TiO{sub 2} - nanocrystals. Pollutants, such as our model compound 2,4-Dimethylaniline, diffuse through the framework of zeolite Y and undergo oxidative degradation at the reactive centers of the photocatalysts in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Under the aspect of application, the size of the zeolite Y-particles (diameter: 1x10{sup -6} m in average) permits their easy handling in filtration and recyling operations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die photophysikalischen und -chemischen Eigenschaften von Katalysatoren, die das Licht der Sonne als kostenguenstige Energiequelle ausnutzen, treten immer staerker in den Vordergrund des Interesses. Dies gilt vor allem fuer ihren Einsatz in `Advanced Oxidation Technologies` (AOT`s) zur Entgiftung toxischer Substanzen im Abwasser. Die Mineralisation der meisten (hoch)giftigen Chemikalien zu CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O und einfachen anorganischen Verbindungen ist zwar thermodynamisch beguenstigt, es treten jedoch sowohl kinetische Hemmschwellen als auch Diffusionshindernisse in der heterogenen Photokatalyse auf. Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridin ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) und TiO{sub 2

  2. Au/BiOCl heterojunction within mesoporous silica shell as stable plasmonic photocatalyst for efficient organic pollutants decomposition under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Xiaohui; Li, Renhong; Chen, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A heterojunction of Au/BiOCl was fabricated within the mesoporous silica shell. • The compact contact between Au and BiOCl enables electrons back flow from Au to BiOCl. • Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 plasmonic photocatalyst shows efficient visible light photoactivity. • Hydroxyl radicals are the main oxidants in formaldehyde and Rhodamine B decomposition. - Abstract: A new mesoporous silica protected plasmonic photocatalyst, Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 , was prepared by a modified AcHE method and a subsequent UV light induced photodeposition process. The surfactant-free heterojunction allows the electrons spontaneously flow from Au to nearby BiOCl surface, leading to the accumulation of positive charges on Au surface, and negative charges on Bi species under visible light. Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 exhibits high visible light photocatalytic efficiency in complete oxidation of aqueous formaldehyde and Rhodamin B. We showed that a positive relationship exists between the LSPR effect and rate enhancements, and leads to a hypothesis that the metallic Au LSPR enhances the photocatalytic rates on nearby semiconductors by transferring energetic electrons to BiOCl and increasing the steady-state concentration of active ·OH species by a multi-electron reduction of molecular oxygen. The ·OH species is the main oxidant in photocatalytic transformations, whose intensity is greatly enhanced in the dye-involving systems due to the synergetic effect between LSPR and dye sensitization processes. In addition, the mesoporous SiO 2 shell not only inhibits the over growth of BiOCl nanocrystals within the silica frameworks, but also protects the dissolution of chloride or Au species into aqueous solution, which ultimately makes the Au/BiOCl@mSiO 2 catalysts rather stable during photocatalysis.

  3. Toward Highlighting the Ultrafast Electron Transfer Dynamics at the Optically Dark Sites of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canton, Sophie E.; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Building a detailed understanding of the structure–function relationship is a crucial step in the optimization of molecular photocatalysts employed in water splitting schemes. The optically dark nature of their active sites usually prevents a complete mapping of the photoinduced dynamics. In this...

  4. Promoting Photocatalytic Overall Water Splitting by Controlled Magnesium Incorporation in SrTiO3 Photocatalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Kai; Lin, Yen Chun; Yang, Chia Min; Jong, Ronald; Mul, Guido; Mei, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    SrTiO3 is a well-known photocatalyst inducing overall water splitting when exposed to UV irradiation of wavelengths <370 nm. However, the apparent quantum efficiency of SrTiO3 is typically low, even when functionalized with nanoparticles of Pt or Ni@NiO. Here, we introduce a simple solid-state

  5. Animal Bone Supported SnO2 as Recyclable Photocatalyst for Degradation of Rhodamine B Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Hui; Cao, Mengdie; Zhang, Yichi; Cao, Feifei; Zheng, Xinsheng; Hu, Jinfei; Dong, Jiangshan; Xiao, Zhidong

    2015-09-01

    SnO2 nanoparticles supported on an animal bone which serves as inexpensive and environment-friendly natural products were developed by a facile hydrothermal approach. As a promising photocatalyst, the novel SnO2/porcine bone material exhibited high photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye under UV-Vis irradiation. About 97.3% of RhB can be effectively decomposed by the catalysis with the SnO2/porcine bone in 90 min, while only 51.5% of RhB can be degraded by pure SnO2 nanoparticles. Moreover, the photocatalytic activity was incremental with the increase of cycle times in previous five cycles. It is mainly because the photocatalyst which has been used for several times possesses a stronger ability of light absorption and utilization compared to the fresh catalyst according to the results of the characterization and relative experiments. It is noteworthy that the animal bone support can improve the activity for the photocatalyst, which would provide further impetus to alternate synthesis strategies for photocatalysts and make the photocatalysis process faster, less expensive, and more environmentally friendly.

  6. A full-sunlight-driven photocatalyst with super long-persistent energy storage ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Zhijian; Zhang, Guozhu; Zou, Tao; Zou, Zhijun; Zhang, Shunping; Zeng, Dawen; Xie, Changsheng

    2013-01-01

    A major drawback of traditional photocatalysts like TiO2 is that they can only work under illumination, and the light has to be UV. As a solution for this limitation, visible-light-driven energy storage photocatalysts have been developed in recent years. However, energy storage photocatalysts that are full-sunlight-driven (UV-visible-NIR) and possess long-lasting energy storage ability are lacking. Here we report, a Pt-loaded and hydrogen-treated WO3 that exhibits a strong absorption at full-sunlight spectrum (300-1,000 nm), and with a super-long energy storage time of more than 300 h to have formaldehyde degraded in dark. In this new material system, the hydrogen treated WO3 functions as the light harvesting material and energy storage material simultaneously, while Pt mainly acts as the cocatalyst to have the energy storage effect displayed. The extraordinary full-spectrum absorption effect and long persistent energy storage ability make the material a potential solar-energy storage and an effective photocatalyst in practice.

  7. Preparation and photocatalytic property of a novel dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jian-Hui; Dong, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yong-Kui

    2009-01-01

    achieved 68.0%, 99.0% and 98.5%, the TOC removal efficiencies achieved 43.2%, 59.4% and 70.6%, respectively. Compared to commercial ZnO, 16-22% higher TOC removal efficiency was obtained by the dumbbell-shaped ZnO. The results indicated that the prepared dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst...

  8. Photodegradation of Malachite Green by Nanostructured Bi2WO6 Visible Light-Induced Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Yijie Chen; Yaqin Zhang; Chen Liu; Aimin Lu; Weihua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Bi2WO6 photocatalyst was first utilized to degrade malachite green. The effects of the concentration of malachite green, the pH value, and the concentration of Bi2WO6 on the photocatalytic efficiency were investigated. This study presents a strategy to eliminate highly toxic and persistent dyes such as malachite green.

  9. Easily recycled Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings prepared via ball milling followed by calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijun; Hu, Xumin; Hao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings derived from Bi coatings were first prepared by a two-step method, namely ball milling followed by the calcination process. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectra, respectively. The results showed that monoclinic Bi2O3 coatings were obtained after sintering Bi coatings at 673 or 773 K, while monoclinic and triclinic mixed phase Bi2O3 coatings were obtained at 873 or 973 K. The topographies of the samples were observably different, which varied from flower-like, irregular, polygonal to nanosized particles with the increase in calcination temperature. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated solar irradiation for 180 min showed that the largest degradation efficiency of 86.2% was achieved over Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings sintered at 873 K. The Bi2O3 photocatalyst coatings, encapsulated with Al2O3 ball with an average diameter around 1 mm, are quite easily recycled, which provides an alternative visible light-driven photocatalyst suitable for practical water treatment application.

  10. Facile synthesis of porous TiO_2 photocatalysts using waste sludge as the template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Huang, Shouqiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Lou, Ziyang; Yuan, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalyst with porous structure, which possesses better photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO_2. - Highlights: • Waste sludge is introduced to synthesize the TiO_2 photocatalyst. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample possesses porous structure. • Waste sludge templated TiO_2 sample exhibits high photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A resource utilization method of waste sludge is present by the synthesis of waste sludge templated TiO_2 photocatalysts. The organic materials in waste sludge are used as the pore-forming agents, and the transition metals included in the remaining waste sludge through calcination (WSC) can serve as the dopants for the WSC-TiO_2 (WSCT) photocatalyst. The visible and UV–visible light driven photocatalytic activities of WSCT are much better compared to those of pure TiO_2 and WSC, and it is originated from the higher light absorption property and the efficient electron–hole pair separation provided by waste sludge.

  11. Chlorobenzene degeradation by non-thermal plasma combined with EG-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO as a photocatalyst: Effect of photocatalyst on CO{sub 2} selectivity and byproducts reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani Shahna, Farshid; Bahrami, Abdulrahman [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health and Research Center for Health Science, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alimohammadi, Iraj; Yarahmadi, Rassuol [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jaleh, Babak; Gandomi, Mastaneh [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Hossein, E-mail: hossein.ebrahimi@yahoo.com [Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ad-Din Abedi, Kamal [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kurdistan University of Medical sciences, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} and ZnO Nano particles were coated on the surface of expanded graphite. • Expanded graphite-TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nano composite under UV light was placed downstream non-thermal plasma reactor. • Chlorobenzene removal and selectivity of CO{sub 2} were enhanced in combined system. • Produced harmful byproducts from plasma reactor were reduced dramatically in combined system. - Abstract: The non-thermal plasma (NTP) technique, which suffers from low selectivity in complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, creates unwanted and harmful byproducts. NTP in concert with photocatalyst can resolve this limitation due to additional oxidation. TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles were coated on the surface of the expanded graphite and placed downstream of the NTP reactor under UV light. In this study, to compare the performance of NTP and the combined system, chlorobenzene removal, selectivity of CO{sub 2} and byproducts formation were investigated. The results showed that the combined system enhanced both the removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity. The output gas of the NTP reactor contained chlorobenzene, phosgene, O{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HCL and CL. The bulk of these byproducts was oxidized on the surface of the nanocomposite; as a result, the content of the byproducts in the output gas of the combined system decreased dramatically. The removal efficiency and CO{sub 2} selectivity increased by rising the applied voltage and residence time because the collision between active species and pollutant molecules increases. Based on these results, the combined system is preferred due to a higher performance and lower formation of harmful byproducts.

  12. Microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO3 photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Wohn Lee, Soo

    2013-01-01

    Simulated solar light responsive Ag/AgCl/WO 3 composite photocatalyst was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal process. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS), and BET surface area analyzer to investigate the crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition, optical properties and surface area of the composite photocatalyst. This photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Dye degradation efficiency of composite photocatalyst was found to be increased significantly as compared to that of the commercial WO 3 nanopowder. Increase in photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was explained on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect caused by the silver nanoparticles present in the composite photocatalyst. Highlights: ► Successful synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO 3 nanocomposite. ► Photocatalytic experiment was performed under simulated solar light. ► Nanocomposite photocatalyst was very active as compared to WO 3 commercial powder. ► SPR effect due to Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity.

  13. Sonochemical synthesis of solar-light-driven Ago-PbMoO4 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyawali, Gobinda; Adhikari, Rajesh; Joshi, Bhupendra; Kim, Tae Ho; Rodríguez-González, Vicente; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar light responsive Ag o -PbMoO 4 photocatalyst synthesized by sonochemical method. • UV–vis DRS reveals the strong absorption band due to SPR effect of Ag nanoparticles. • Ag o -PbMoO 4 possess higher photocatalytic activity over PbMoO 4 . • Enhanced photo-activity is explained on the basis of SPR effect of Ag nanoparticle. -- Abstract: Ag o -PbMoO 4 photocatalysts were synthesized by facile sonochemical method with different mol.% of Ag nanoparticles dispersed on the surface of PbMoO 4 . The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) to investigate the crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties of the photocatalyst. Photocatalytic activities of the Ag o -PbMoO 4 samples were evaluated by the degradation of Indigo Carmine (IC) dye under simulated solar light irradiation. It has been observed that the sample containing 0.3 mol.% of Ag showed the best photocatalytic activity as compared to other samples. The results suggest that the dispersion of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of PbMoO 4 significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity of PbMoO 4 . Increase in photocatalytic activity of Ag o -PbMoO 4 photocatalyst has been explained on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect caused by the silver nanoparticles present in the photocatalyst

  14. Fe(III/TiO2-Montmorillonite Photocatalyst in Photo-Fenton-Like Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A photodegradation process of methylene blue (MB in aqueous solution using Fe(III/TiO2-montmorillonite photocatalyst is presented. The photocatalyst material was prepared using Indonesian natural montmorillonite in TiO2 pillarization process followed by Fe(III ion exchange. Kinetic study on MB degradation was conducted and evaluated by three kinetic models: the pseudo-first- and second-order equations and the Elovich equation. From the results, it is concluded that the degradation under the photo-Fenton-like process utilizing Fe(III/TiO2-montmorillonite photocatalyst conformed to the Elovich kinetic model.

  15. Ag/AgCl Loaded Bi2WO6 Composite: A Plasmonic Z-Scheme Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical flower-like Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized by facile hydrothermal method at low pH. And Ag/AgCl was loaded by photoreduction on its surface. As-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques. Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized at a size of 2-3 μm. Depositing Ag/AgCl did not destroy the crystal structure, and both Ag+ and metallic Ag0 were found. The band gap of the composite was 2.57 eV, which indicates that visible light could be the activating irradiation. In the photocatalytic activity test, the composite with 10 wt% Ag/AgCl boasted the highest removal efficiency (almost 100% in 45 min. The significant enhancement can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and the establishment of heterostructures between Ag/AgCl and Bi2WO6. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of Ag/AgCl-Bi2WO6 was proposed. This work sheds light on the potential applications of plasmonic metals in photocatalysis to enhance their activities.

  16. Ce, Ti modified MCM-48 mesoporous photocatalysts: Effect of the synthesis route on support and metal ion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureseanu, Mihaela; Filip, Mihaela; Somacescu, Simona; Baran, Adriana; Carja, Gabriela; Parvulescu, Viorica

    2018-06-01

    New Ti-MCM-48 and CeTi-MCM-48 photocatalysts were obtained by impregnation of the MCM-48 silica support synthesized by a hydrothermal process with aqueous solution of Ti and Ce precursors. The immobilization of metal cations presented a low effect on the porosity, morphology and structure of MCM-48 mesoporous silica support as was evidenced by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM electron microscopy. EDAX analysis and X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS) indicated that titanium cations were present on the mesoporous silica surface only as Ti4+ species and the effect of ceria on titanium speciation was different, compared to the CeTi-MCM-48 sample, previously obtained by direct synthesis. The photocatalytic properties of mono- and bimetallic catalysts were evaluated in degradation of phenol from water and correlated with the active metallic species concentration, distribution, speciation and their interaction with the support or each other. An advanced oxidation mechanism for phenol degradation by radical species was proposed.

  17. TiO2 based photo-catalysts prepared by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) on micro-fibrous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarantopoulos, Ch.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis deals with micro-fibrous glass substrates functionalized with TiO 2 . The oxide is deposited as a thin film onto the micro fibres by chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), yielding a photo-catalytic material usable for cleaning polluted air. We studied the relation between the structure of the material and its photo-catalytic efficiency. TiO 2 thin films were prepared at low pressure, in a hot-wall CVD reactor, using Ti(O-iPr) 4 as a precursor. They were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, XPS and BET, and by recording the kinetics of decomposition of varied pollutants in solution (orange G, malic acid, imazapyr) and in air (toluene). The conditions favoring the growth of porous films through a columnar growth mode were established by MOCVD-depositing TiO 2 thin films on flat substrates. The subsequent works with micro fibrous thick substrates showed the uniformity of infiltration to be the main factor governing the photo-catalytic efficiency. Operating parameters that optimize infiltration do not yield columnar growth mode. A compromise is necessary. Our photo-catalysts are showing high efficiency comparable, if not higher, to those actually commercialized. These promising results are opening real perspectives for the proposed process. (author)

  18. Perovskite-type La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} mesoporous photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, K.; Kawakami, Y.; Imai, H.; Yokoi, T.; Tatsumi, T. [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, R1-10, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kondo, J.N., E-mail: jnomura@res.titech.ac.jp [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, R1-10, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Crystalline particles of mesoporous La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, a perovskite-type material, were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 210 Degree-Sign C in the presence of structure directing agent. Crystallization and simultaneous sintering occurred in the time course of the hydrothermal treatment, resulting in the improvement in crystallinity with a sacrifice of the decrease in surface area. The photocatalytic property was evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water with methanol sacrificial agent. The increase and the decrease of the material in crystallinity and surface area were responsible for the photocatalytic activity: the activity was improved by crystallization but the concurrent decrease in surface area (increase in size) of crystalline particles was disadvantageous. - Graphical abstract: A homogeneous mixture of La and Ti oxide with amorphous inorganic network was hydrothermally crystallized at low temperatures to a perovskite-type La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The small La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} particles with high crystallinity showed a potential as a photocatalyst for H{sub 2} evolution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline mesopourous La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment encouraged low temperature crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small crystalline domain was advantageous to a photocatalytic reaction.

  19. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-02-23

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2) architecture with self-compliance effect is demonstrated. By using two layers of SnO film, a good memory performance is obtained as compared to the individual oxide films. The memory devices show resistance ratio of 103 between the high resistance and low resistance states, and this difference can be maintained for up to 180 cycles. The devices also show good retention characteristics, where no significant degradation is observed for more than 103 s. Different charge transport mechanisms are found in both resistance states, depending on the applied voltage range and its polarity. The resistive switching is shown to originate from the oxygen ion migration and subsequent formation/rupture of conducting filaments.

  20. Thickness-dependent photocatalytic performance of graphite oxide for degrading organic pollutants under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghoon; Chang, Yun Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-28

    Photocatalysts use sustainable solar light energy to trigger various catalytic reactions. Metal-free nanomaterials have been suggested as cost-effective and environmentally friendly photocatalysts. In this work, we propose thickness-controlled graphite oxide (GO) as a metal-free photocatalyst, which is produced by exfoliating thick GO particles via stirring and sonication. All GO samples exhibit photocatalytic activity for degrading an organic pollutant, rhodamine B under visible light, and the thickest sample shows the best catalytic performance. UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance absorption spectra indicate that thicker GO samples absorb more vis-NIR light than thinner ones. Density-functional theory calculations show that GO has a much smaller band gap than that of single-layer graphene oxide, and thus suggest that the largely-reduced band gap is responsible for this trend of light absorption.

  1. Nanostructure sensitization of transition metal oxides for visible-light photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To better utilize the sunlight for efficient solar energy conversion, the research on visible-light active photocatalysts has recently attracted a lot of interest. The photosensitization of transition metal oxides is a promising approach for achieving effective visible-light photocatalysis. This review article primarily discusses the recent progress in the realm of a variety of nanostructured photosensitizers such as quantum dots, plasmonic metal nanostructures, and carbon nanostructures for coupling with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides to design better visible-light active photocatalysts. The underlying mechanisms of the composite photocatalysts, e.g., the light-induced charge separation and the subsequent visible-light photocatalytic reaction processes in environmental remediation and solar fuel generation fields, are also introduced. A brief outlook on the nanostructure photosensitization is also given.

  2. N-doped TiO2 photo-catalyst for the degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane under fluorescent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsing; Chiu, Tang-Chun; Hsueh, Hsin-Ta; Chu, Hsin

    2011-01-01

    The photo-catalytic degradation of 1,2-dichloroethane (1, 2-DCE) using nitrogen-doped TiO 2 photo-catalysts under fluorescent light irradiation was investigated. Highly pure TiO 2 and nitrogen-doped TiO 2 were prepared by a sol-gel method and characterized by thermo-gravimetric/differential-thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicate that the photo-catalysts were mainly nano-size with an anatase-phase structure. The degradation reaction of 1,2-DCE was operated under visible-light irradiation, and the photo-catalytic oxidation was conducted in a batch photo-reactor with various nitrogen doping ratios (N/Ti = 0-25 mol%). The relative humidity (RH) was controlled at 0-20% and the oxygen concentration was controlled at 0-21%. The photo-degradation with nitrogen-doped TiO 2 showed superior photo-catalytic activity compared to that for pure TiO 2 . TiO 2 doped with 15 mol% nitrogen exhibited the best photo-catalytic efficiency under the tested conditions. The products from the 1,2-DCE photo-catalytic oxidation were CO 2 and water; the by-products included dichloromethane, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen chloride. The reaction pathway of 1,2-DCE indicates that oxygen molecules are the major factor that causes the degradation of 1,2-DCE in the gas phase.

  3. Memristor comprising film with comb-like structure of nanocolumns of metal oxide embedded in a metal oxide matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Judith L; Lee, ShinBuhm; Jia, Quanxi

    2015-05-12

    Films having a comb-like structure of nanocolumns of Sm.sub.2O.sub.3 embedded in a SrTiO.sub.3 formed spontaneously on a substrate surface by pulsed laser deposition. In an embodiment, the nanocolumns had a width of about 20 nm with spaces between nanocolumns of about 10 nm. The films exhibited memristive behavior, and were extremely uniform and tunable. Oxygen deficiencies were located at vertical interfaces between the nanocolumns and the matrix. The substrates may be single-layered or multilayered.

  4. A photocatalyst-enzyme coupled artificial photosynthesis system for solar energy in production of formic acid from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh K; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Oh, Gyu Hwan; Park, No-Joong; Kong, Ki-jeong; Kim, Jinheung; Hwang, Dong Won; Biswas, Soumya K

    2012-07-18

    The photocatalyst-enzyme coupled system for artificial photosynthesis process is one of the most promising methods of solar energy conversion for the synthesis of organic chemicals or fuel. Here we report the synthesis of a novel graphene-based visible light active photocatalyst which covalently bonded the chromophore, such as multianthraquinone substituted porphyrin with the chemically converted graphene as a photocatalyst of the artificial photosynthesis system for an efficient photosynthetic production of formic acid from CO(2). The results not only show a benchmark example of the graphene-based material used as a photocatalyst in general artificial photosynthesis but also the benchmark example of the selective production system of solar chemicals/solar fuel directly from CO(2).

  5. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using visible-light-responsive Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} photocatalyst supported on monodisperse spherical SiO{sub 2} particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhao, Lan [Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Domen, Kazunari [Department of Chemical System Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takanabe, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kazuhiro.takanabe@kaust.edu.sa [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), 4700 KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple and effective sol–gel process followed by nitridation in an NH{sub 3} flow has been developed to deposit Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} semiconductor photocatalyst layers onto monodisperse spherical SiO{sub 2} particles. The obtained Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} particles maintain an original spherical morphology of SiO{sub 2} and a sub-micrometer size with a narrow size distribution and without aggregation. The presence of SiO{sub 2} support shows at least no detrimental effects on photocatalytic activity, but tunes the secondary particle size to control dispersibility of the photocatalyst in the solution. - Highlights: • Fine nanoparticles of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} were immobilized on the surfaces of SiO{sub 2} giving SiO{sub 2}@Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} core–shell spheres successfully produced H{sub 2} from methanol solution under visible light. • The presence of support (SiO{sub 2}) ensures the dispersion of the particulate in solution maintaining high photocatalytic activity of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. • The obtained supported photocatalyst gives uniform size distribution and control the degree of dispersibility in the solution, which may control nature of light absorption and reflection of the photoreactor. - Abstract: Fine nanoparticles of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} (10–20 nm) were synthesized on the surfaces of SiO{sub 2} spheres with a diameter of ∼550 nm. A sol–gel method was used to modify the surface of SiO{sub 2} with Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} from TaCl{sub 5} dissolved in ethanol in the presence of citric acid and polyethylene glycol. The resulting oxide composites were treated in an NH{sub 3} flow at 1123 K to form core–shell structured Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} sub-microspheres. The obtained samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of aqueous ammonia by using TiO{sub 2}−ZnO/LECA hybrid photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Zahra; Sharifnia, Shahram, E-mail: sharif@razi.ac.ir; Shavisi, Yaser

    2016-12-01

    A novel hybrid structure of TiO{sub 2}−ZnO photocatalyst which immobilized on light expanded clay aggregate (LECA) support was applied for efficient removal of ammonia from synthetic wastewater. This photocatalyst was successfully prepared by a simple method and characterized by FESEM, FTIR, UV–vis, and PL techniques. LECA granules were used as support due to their low weight and high porosity surface. Compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} and ZnO, the hybrid photocatalyst had a significant effect on its properties such as photoluminescence and UV visible absorption. The coupled Ti:Zn photocatalyst with molar ratio of 1:2 exhibited the lowest photoluminescence emission intensity and maximum photocatalytic degradation of ammonia in aqueous solution. For evaluating performance of the hybrid photocatalyst, the effect of various parameters such as initial feed concentration, pH of solution, and photocatalyst dosage on the ammonia photodegradation rate were systematically investigated. The optimal pH, catalyst loading, and initial concentration of ammonia were obtained to be ≈ 11, 25 g/L, and 400 mg/L, respectively. Also, in the optimal conditions, 95.2% ammonia removal was achieved during 3 h of UV irradiation. The discussions were based on the mobility and lifetime of the charge carriers generated in the TiO{sub 2}−ZnO composite. - Highlights: • A hybrid structure of TiO{sub 2}−ZnO/LECA was applied for photocatalytic removal of ammonia. • Hybrid photocatalyst had a significant effect on photoluminescence and UV–vis absorption. • Coupled Ti:Zn photocatalyst (molar ratio = 1:2) exhibited max. photocatalytic degradation. • Optimal conditions: pH ≈ 11, catalyst loading = 25 g/L, and initial concentration = 400 mg/L. • In optimal conditions 95.2% ammonia removal was achieved during 3 h of UV irradiation.

  7. An Overview: Recent Development of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes as Photocatalyst for Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, organic dyes are one of the largest groups of pollutants release into environment especially from textile industry. It is highly toxic and hazardous to the living organism; thus, the removal of these dyes prior to discharge into the environment is essential. Varieties of techniques have been employed to degrade organic dyes and heterogeneous photocatalysis involving titanium dioxide (TiO2 appears to be the most promising technology. In recent years, TiO2 nanotubes have attracted much attention due to their high surface area and extraordinary characteristics. This paper presents a critical review of recent achievements in the modification of TiO2 nanotubes for dye degradation. The photocatalytic activity on dye degradation can be further enhanced by doping with cationic or anionic dopant.

  8. Synthesis and characterization photocatalyst of titanium oxide obtained by the Pechini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, P.C.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Lira, H.L.; Sasaki, J.M.; Santos, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The photocatalysis using TiO 2 semiconductor has shown great efficiency in the treatment of toxic pollutants and non-biodegradable materials, commonly present in air and domestic and industrial effluents. Thus, the aim of this work is to study the evaluation of photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 samples synthesized by the Pechini method at a ratio of citric acid / metal cation of 2:1 and 4:1. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, quantification of phases using the Rietveld method of refinement of the structure and after analyzed in photocatalytic bench tests using methyl red dye. The results showed that in a 2:1 ratio, the sample resulted in the formation of 100% of anatase phase, while in the 4:1 ratio sample showed 73.51% of anatase phase and 10.5% of rutile phase. The 4:1 sample showed the best performance discoloring over 70% of the dye for a period close to 24h. (author)

  9. TiO(2)-graphene nanocomposite as high performace photocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Popelková, Daniela; Vláčil, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 51 (2011), s. 25209-25218 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FI-IM3/061; GA MPO FI-IM5/239 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium-dioxide * visible-light * doped TiO2 * degradation * graphene * oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.805, year: 2011

  10. Sputtered indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillery, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for depositing on a substrate multiple layer films comprising at least one primary layer of a metal oxide and at least one primary layer of a metal other than the metal of the oxide layer. The improvement described here comprises improving the adhesion between the metal oxide and metal layers by depositing between the layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers. An article of manufacture is described comprising a nonmetallic substrate, and deposited thereon in any order: a. at least one coating layer of metal; b. at least one coating layer of an oxide of a metal other than the metal of the metal layer; and c. deposited between the metal and metal oxide layers an intermediate metal-containing layer having an affinity for both the metal and metal oxide layers

  11. Testing methods for antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of commercial TiO2 photocatalyst products have been developed and extensively studied for prospective and safe antimicrobial application in daily life, medicine, laboratories, food and pharmaceutical industry, waste water treatments and in development of new self-cleaning and antimicrobial materials, surfaces and paints. This paper reviews the studies published worldwide on killing microorganisms, methods for testing the antimicrobial activity, light sources and intensities, as well as calculation methods usually used when evaluating the antimicrobial properties of the TiO2-based products. Additionally, some strengths and weaknesses of the available methods for testing the antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst products have been pointed out.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  12. Atomistic characterization of the active-site solvation dynamics of a model photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Hartsock, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between the reactive excited state of molecular photocatalysts and surrounding solvent dictate reaction mechanisms and pathways, but are not readily accessible to conventional optical spectroscopic techniques. Here we report an investigation of the structural and solvation dynami...... of the iridium atoms by the acetonitrile solvent and demonstrate the viability of using diffuse X-ray scattering at free-electron laser sources for studying the dynamics of photocatalysis....

  13. Mesoporous films of TiO2 as efficient photocatalysts for the purification of water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rathouský, Jiří; Kalousek, Vít; Kolář, Michal; Jirkovský, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2011), s. 419-424 ISSN 1474-905X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/08/0435; GA ČR GD203/08/H032; GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : TiO2 * mesoporous films * photocatalyst Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.584, year: 2011

  14. The Simplest Way to Iodine-Doped Anatase for Photocatalysts Activated by Visible Light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, - (2011), 685935-1-685935-13 ISSN 1110-662X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium-dioxide * aqueous-solution * orange-II * TiO2 photocatalysts * Raman spectroscopy * optical - properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.769, year: 2011

  15. Mesoporous CeTiSiMCM-48 as novel photocatalyst for degradation of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mureseanu, Mihaela; Parvulescu, Viorica; Radu, Teodora; Filip, Mihaela; Carja, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    This work presents novel photocatalysts containing Ti and/or Ce embedded in the mesoporous silica framework (TiSiMCM-48, CeSiMCM-48 and CeTiSiMCM-48) that were prepared via a facile sol–gel process in the presence of ionic structure directing agents. The structural properties of the obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), EDAX analysis, X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that Ce and Ti were highly dispersed or incorporated into the framework of the cubic SiMCM-48, with an enhanced light-trapping effect both in the UV and Vis regions. When applied to the photocatalytic degradation of phenol, the best results were obtained for the bimetallic hybrid. The best activity of CeTiSiMCM-48 photocatalyst was ascribed to improved electron–hole pair separation efficiency and formation of more reactive oxygen species due to the presence of Ce 4+ /Ce 3+ . The mesoporous support increases the dispersability of the photoactive Ti 4+ or Ce 4+ /Ce 3+ species on the catalyst surface and the accessibility of the substrate to the active sites. Furthermore, the catalysts can be easily recovered and reused for four cycles without significant loss of activity. - Highlights: • Novel photocatalysts containing Ti and/or Ce embedded in the mesoporous MCM-48 silica. • Ce 4+ /Ce 3+ improved electron–hole pair separation and reactivity of oxygen species. • The mesoporous support increases the dispersability of the photoactive species. • The photocatalyst was highly active and stable for phenol degradation under UV irradiation. • TiCeSiMCM-48 can be recycled up to four cycles without significant loss of activity

  16. Adsorption and degradation of model volatile organic compounds by a combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangyao; Li Guiying; He Zhigui; An Taicheng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Adsorptive combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalysts synthesized. → All catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities of multinary VOCs. → All catalysts preferred to adsorb the VOCs with higher polarity. → CTMS80 can effectively photocatalytically remove VOCs of various components. - Abstract: A series of adsorptive photocatalysts, combined titania-montmorillonite-silica were synthesized. The resultant photocatalysts consisted of more and more spherically agglomerated TiO 2 particles with increasing of TiO 2 content, and anatase was the only crystalline phase with nano-scale TiO 2 particles. With increasing of the cation exchange capacity to TiO 2 molar ratio, specific surface area and pore volume increased very slightly. In a fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor by choosing toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanethiol as model pollutants, all catalysts had relatively high adsorption capacities and preferred to adsorb higher polarity pollutants. Langmuir isotherm model better described equilibrium data compared to Freundlich model. Competitive adsorptions were observed for the mixed pollutants on the catalysts, leading to decrease adsorption capacity for each pollutant. The combined titania-montmorillonite-silica photocatalyst exhibited excellent photocatalytic removal ability to model pollutants of various components. Almost 100% of degradation efficiency was achieved within 120 min for each pollutant with about 500 ppb initial concentration, though the efficiencies of multi-component compounds slightly decreased. All photocatalytic reactions followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Degradation rate constants of multi-component systems were lower than those for single systems, following the order of toluene < ethyl acetate < ethanethiol, and increased with the increase of adsorption capacities for different pollutants of various components.

  17. Origin of Activity and Stability Enhancement for Ag3PO4 Photocatalyst after Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pristine Ag3PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, followed by being calcined at different temperatures to obtain a series of calcined Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. This work aims to investigate the origin of activity and stability enhancement for Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination based on the systematical analyses of the structures, morphologies, chemical states of elements, oxygen defects, optical absorption properties, separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and active species. The results indicate that oxygen vacancies (VO˙˙ are created and metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are formed by the reaction of partial Ag+ in Ag3PO4 semiconductor with the thermally excited electrons from Ag3PO4 and then deposited on the surface of Ag3PO4 microspheres during the calcination process. Among the calcined Ag3PO4 samples, the Ag3PO4-200 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and greatly enhanced photocatalytic stability for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB solution under visible light irradiation. Oxygen vacancies play a significantly positive role in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity, while metallic Ag has a very important effect on improving the photocatalytic stability. Overall, the present work provides some powerful evidences and a deep understanding on the origin of activity and stability enhancement for the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination.

  18. Plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins for generating reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Young L.

    2018-03-01

    The recent advances in photocatalysis have opened a variety of new possibilities for energy and biomedical applications. In particular, plasmonic photocatalysis using hybridization of semiconductor materials and metal nanoparticles has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible or solar light. One critical underlying aspect of photocatalysis is that it generates and releases reactive oxygen species (ROS) as intermediate or final products upon light excitation or activation. Although plasmonic photocatalysis overcomes the limitation of UV irradiation, synthesized metal/semiconductor nanomaterial photocatalysts often bring up biohazardous and environmental issues. In this respect, this review article is centered in identifying natural photosensitizing organic materials that can generate similar types of ROS as those of plasmonic photocatalysis. In particular, we propose the idea of plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins for ROS generation under visible light irradiation. We recapitulate fluorescent proteins that have Type I and Type II photosensitization properties in a comparable manner to plasmonic photocatalysis. Plasmonic photocatalysis and protein photosensitization have not yet been compared systemically in terms of ROS photogeneration under visible light, although the phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of some fluorescent proteins are well recognized. A comprehensive understanding of plasmonic photocatalyst-like fluorescent proteins and their potential advantages will lead us to explore new environmental, biomedical, and defense applications.

  19. Diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst: Facile deposition synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoying; Huang, Hongwei; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-10-01

    A novel diatomite-immobilized BiOI hybrid photocatalyst has been prepared by a facile one-step deposition process for the first time. The structure, morphology and optical property of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic performance of the as-prepared BiOI/diatomite photocatalysts was studied by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) and monitoring photocurrent generation under visible light (λ > 420 nm). The results revealed that BiOI/diatomite composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine BiOI sample. This enhancement should be attributed to that diatomite can play as an excellent carrier platform to increase the reactive sites and promote the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In addition, the corresponding photocatalytic mechanism was proposed based on the active species trapping experiments. This work shed new light on facile fabrication of novel composite photocatalyst based on natural mineral.

  20. Enhanced Solar-to-Hydrogen Generation with Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Nanostructured Photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yi

    2017-05-08

    The direct conversion of solar energy into fuels or feedstock is an attractive approach to address increasing demand of renewable energy sources. Photocatalytic systems relying on the direct photoexcitation of metals have been explored to this end, a strategy that exploits the decay of plasmonic resonances into hot carriers. An efficient hot carrier generation and collection requires, ideally, their generation to be enclosed within few tens of nanometers at the metal interface, but it is challenging to achieve this across the broadband solar spectrum. Here the authors demonstrate a new photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution based on metal epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. The authors have designed these to achieve broadband strong light confinement at the metal interface across the entire solar spectrum. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy, the authors prove that hot carriers are generated in a broadband fashion within 10 nm in this system. The resulting photocatalyst achieves a hydrogen production rate of 9.5 µmol h-1  cm-2 that exceeds, by a factor of 3.2, that of the best previously reported plasmonic-based photocatalysts for the dissociation of H2 with 50 h stable operation.

  1. Heterostructured Fe3O4/Bi2O2CO3 photocatalyst: Synthesis, characterization and application in recyclable photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Gangqiang; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Cai, Xu; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Okada, Kiyoshi; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Heterostructured Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 photocatalyst was synthesized by a two-step method. First, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 10 nm were synthesized by chemical method at room temperature and then heterostructured Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 photocatalyst was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h with the addition of 10 wt% Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles into the precursor suspension of Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 . The pH value of synthesis suspension was adjusted to 4 and 6 with the addition of 2 M NaOH aqueous solution. By controlling the pH of synthesis suspension at 4 and 6, sphere- and flower-like Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 photocatalysts were obtained, respectively. Both photocatalysts demonstrate superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra of the photocatalysts confirm that all the heterostructured photocatalysts are responsive to visible light. The photocatalytic activity of the heterostructured photocatalysts was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution over the photocatalysts under visible light irradiation. The heterostructured photocatalysts prepared in this study exhibit highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB and MO, and they can be easily recovered by applying an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Sphere- and flower-like Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 10 nm were synthesized by chemical method. • Photocatalysts demonstrate superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. • Photocatalysts exhibit highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. • Photocatalysts can be easily recovered by applying an external magnetic field

  2. Photocatalytic decomposition of N{sub 2}O over TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kočí, K., E-mail: kamila.koci@vsb.cz [Institute of Environmental technologies, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Reli, M.; Troppová, I.; Šihor, M. [Institute of Environmental technologies, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kupková, J. [Nanotechnology center, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Kustrowski, P. [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, ul. Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Praus, P. [Institute of Environmental technologies, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts with the various TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} weight ratios. • N{sub 2}O photocatalytic decomposition under UVC and UVA irradiation. • Heterojunction on the TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface play an important role. • Optimal ratio of TiO{sub 2}:g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was 1:2 for the highest activity at UVA irradiation. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts with the various TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} weight ratios from 1:2 to 1:6 were fabricated by mechanical mixing in water suspension followed by calcination. Pure TiO{sub 2} was prepared by thermal hydrolysis and pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared from commercial melamine by thermal annealing at 620 °C. All the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements and nitrogen physisorption. The prepared mixtures along with pure TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were tested for the photocatalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide under UVC (λ = 254 nm), UVA (λ = 365 nm) and Vis (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites showed moderate improvement compared to pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} but pure TiO{sub 2} proved to be a better photocatalyst under UVC irradiation. However, under UVA irradiation conditions, the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (1:2) nanocomposite exhibited an increase compared to pure TiO{sub 2}. Nevertheless, further increase of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} amount leads/led to a decrease in reactivity. These results are suggesting the nanocomposite with the optimal weight ratio of TiO{sub 2} and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} have shifted absorption edge energy towards longer wavelengths and decreased the recombination rate of charge carriers compared to pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. This is

  3. Indoor air purification using heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation. Part I: Experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) has shown to be a promising air purifying technology in outdoor conditions using TiO2 as photocatalyst activated with UV light. Also to indoor air quality more and more attention is paid because of the very important role it plays on human health, and it

  4. Plasmon-enhanced Solar Fuel Production with Gold-metal Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Law, Matt; Zhang, Jingdong

    , provide new catalytic routes and expands the scope of solar photocatalysis. We prepare metal oxide SNPs, gold PNPs and their hybrids through mild aqueous syntheses to develop efficient photocatalyst for solar fuel production. Focus is placed on the synergetic interplay between SNPs and PNPs, understanding...

  5. Low temperature synthesis of fluorite-type Ce-based oxides of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M MALATHI

    F-type oxides can be considered as multi-functional materials due to the ... The photoluminescence property of the rare earth ions was also studied, and the color coordinates were calculated using CIE ... active photocatalysts with a view to utilize solar light. Hence ... It consists of a cylindrical quartz double walled tube with.

  6. Indoor air purificaton using heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation, Part 2: Kinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    In part I to this article [1], the application of the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) theory for the indoor air quality improvement was presented. With a modified TiO2 that can be activated by visible light as the photocatalyst coated on a special wall paper, and one typical indoor air

  7. Tuning functionality of photocatalytic materials: an infrared study on hydrocarbon oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the research described in this thesis was on the engineering and design of effective photocatalysts able to catalyze the oxidative conversion of hydrocarbons. The prepared catalysts were synthesized by using different procedures involving sol gel precursors, and impregnation or

  8. Structural, optical, and improved photocatalytic properties of CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Reddy, Ch., E-mail: cvrphy@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ravikumar, R.V.S.S.N. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510 (India); Srinivas, Ganganagunta [Engineering Department, lbra College of Technology, lbra 400 (Oman); Shim, Jaesool, E-mail: jshim@ynu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Migyung, E-mail: mgcho@tu.ac.kr [Department of Game Engineering, Tongmyong University, Busan 608-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • CdS, SnO{sub 2}, and a CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst were synthesized using a two-step technique. • The dislocation density, strain values are higher for CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst. • The CdS/SnO{sub 2} has a higher surface area and smaller crystallite size compared to pristine CdS. • The CdS/SnO{sub 2} catalyst greatly reduced recombination of electron and hole pairs. - Abstract: CdS, SnO{sub 2} and CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst nanostructure were synthesized using a two-step (co-precipitation/hydrothermal) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface analysis (BET), photoluminescence spectra (PL), UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photocatalytic activity. The band gap energies calculated from the DRS results are 3.30, 2.15, and 2.99 eV for pristine SnO{sub 2}, CdS, and the CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst, respectively. The CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst showed more efficient charge carrier separation and improved photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). The highest degradation rate constant was achieved for the CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst (0.02434 min{sup −1}) compared to CdS (0.01381 min{sup −1}) and SnO{sub 2} (0.00878 min{sup −1}). The present study provides insights for improving the photocatalytic activity and photo-stability of CdS/SnO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst.

  9. Ni supported CdIn2S4 spongy-like spheres: a noble metal free high-performance sunlight driven photocatalyst for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Manh-Hiep; Nguyen, Chinh-Chien; Sakar, M; Do, Trong-On

    2017-11-08

    Nickel supported CdIn 2 S 4 (Ni-CIS) spongy-like spheres have been developed using alcoholysis followed by a sulfidation process. The formation of nanocrystalline-single phase CdIn 2 S 4 was confirmed using X-ray diffraction studies. Electron microscopy images showed that the spongy-like spheres are composed of CdIn 2 S 4 nanoparticles with average sizes of around 25 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the presence of elements with their respective stable oxidation states that led to the formation of single phase CdIn 2 S 4 with enhanced structural integrity and chemical composition. The absorption spectra indicated the visible light activity of the material and the band gap energy is deduced to be 2.23 eV. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized Ni-CIS in relation to its ability to produce hydrogen under solar light irradiation is estimated to be 1060 μmol g -1 h -1 , which is around 5.5 and 3.6 fold higher than that of Pt-CIS (180 μmol g -1 h -1 ) and Pd-CIS (290 μmol g -1 h -1 ), respectively, as obtained in this study. Accordingly, the mechanism of the observed efficiency of the Ni-CIS nanoparticles is also proposed. The recyclability test showed consistent hydrogen evolution efficiency over 3 cycles (9 h), which essentially revealed the excellent photo- and chemical-stability of the photocatalyst. The strategy to utilize non-noble metals such as Ni, rather than noble-metals, as a co-catalyst opens up a new possibility to develop low cost and high-performance sunlight-driven photocatalysts as achieved in this study.

  10. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using visible-light-responsive Ta 3N5 photocatalyst supported on monodisperse spherical SiO2 particulates

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Fine nanoparticles of Ta3N5 (10-20 nm) were synthesized on the surfaces of SiO2 spheres with a diameter of ∼550 nm. A sol-gel method was used to modify the surface of SiO2 with Ta2O5 from TaCl5 dissolved in ethanol in the presence of citric acid and polyethylene glycol. The resulting oxide composites were treated in an NH3 flow at 1123 K to form core-shell structured Ta3N5/SiO2 sub-microspheres. The obtained samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photocatalytic activity measurements for H 2 evolution from an aqueous methanol solution. The XRD results demonstrate the expected sequential formation of Ta2O5 layers, followed by Ta3N5 after nitridation on the Ta 2O5/SiO2 composite. SEM and TEM observations indicate that the obtained Ta3N5/SiO2 sub-microspheres have a uniform size distribution with high crystallinity and an obvious core-shell structure. The presence of support maintained the intrinsic photocatalytic activity of Ta3N5 nanoparticles, but it did drastically improve the dispersion of the photocatalysts in the solution. This study proposes the use of an inert support in photocatalytic reactors to improve ease of handling the powder photocatalyst for gas-phase photocatalysis and the suspension of the solution, controlling nature of light harvesting and degree of scattering of the photoreactor. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuning the properties of visible-light-responsive tantalum (oxy)nitride photocatalysts by non-stoichiometric compositions: A first-principles viewpoint

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2014-01-01

    Finding an ideal photocatalyst for achieving efficient overall water splitting still remains a great challenge. By applying accurate first-principles quantum calculations based on DFT with the screened non-local hybrid HSE06 functional, we bring rational insights at the atomic level into the influence of non-stoichiometric compositions on essential properties of tantalum (oxy)nitride compounds as visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for water splitting. Indeed, recent experiments show that such non-stoichiometry is inherent to the nitridation methods of tantalum oxide with unavoidable oxygen impurities. We considered here O-enriched Ta3N5 and N-enriched TaON materials. Although their structural parameters are found to be very similar to those of pure compounds and in good agreement with available experimental studies, their photocatalytic features for visible-light-driven overall water splitting reactions show different behaviors. Further partial nitration of TaON leads to a narrowed band gap, but partially oxidizing Ta3N5 causes only subtle changes in the gap. The main influence, however, is on the band edge positions relative to water redox potentials. The pure Ta3N5 is predicted to be a good candidate only for H+ reduction and H2 evolution, while the pure TaON is predicted to be a good candidate for water oxidation and O2 evolution. Non-stoichiometry has here a positive influence, since partially oxidized tantalum nitride, Ta(3-x)N(5-5x)O5x (for x ≥ 0.16) i.e. with a composition in between TaON and Ta3N5, reveals suitable band edge positions that correctly bracket the water redox potentials for visible-light-driven overall water splitting reactions. Among the various explored Ta(3-x)N(5-5x)O5x structures, a strong stabilization is obtained for the configuration displaying a strong interaction between the O-impurities and the created Ta-vacancies. In the lowest-energy structure, each created Ta-vacancy is surrounded by five O-impurity species substituting

  12. Humic Acid Degradation by ZnO Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekartaji Putri A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Humic acid (HA is universally present in soils and natural water resources in a yellow-brown form. HA can react with chlorine during drinking water treatment and produce disinfection byproducts (DBPs, such as trihalomethanes (THMs and haloacetic acids (HAAs, which are harmful for health. Therefore, HA has to be eliminated from water environment. The photocatalysis is an effective alternative solution for the degradation of HA in a water environment. This research aims to degrade HA from water environment. The rapid degradation of HA, using zinc oxide nanoparticles, irradiated by ultraviolet light (ZnO/UV, is investigated. The optimum conditions of pertinent factors, which include the light wavelength (UV-A and UV-C, and light intensity, HA concentration, ZnO dose, and contact time are investigated at neutral pH conditions, considered for drinking water treatment. HA degradation efficiency reached more than 80% after 60 min for both types of irradiation in optimum conditions of 0.3 g/L ZnO dose in 180 min of contact time. Comparisons for degradation efficiency under UV-A and UV-C irradiation indicate that UV-C has higher efficiency, up to 150 min of contact time. The reusability of catalyst is performed for three reuses and still revealed effective for beneficial commercial applications.

  13. Ferritin as a photocatalyst and scaffold for gold nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Jeremiah D.; Hilton, Robert J. [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Farrer, Jeffrey [Brigham Young University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States); Watt, Richard K., E-mail: rwatt@chem.byu.edu [Brigham Young University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The ferrihydrite mineral core of ferritin is a semi-conductor capable of catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions. This report shows that ferritin can photoreduce AuCl{sub 4}{sup -} to form gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). An important goal was to identify innocent reaction conditions that prevented formation of AuNPs unless the sample was illuminated in the presence of ferritin. TRIS buffer satisfied this requirement and produced AuNPs with spherical morphology with diameters of 5.7 {+-} 1.6 nm and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 530 nm. Size-exclusion chromatography of the AuNP-ferritin reaction mixture produced two fractions containing both ferritin and AuNPs. TEM analysis of the fraction close to where native ferritin normally elutes showed that AuNPs form inside ferritin. The other peak eluted at a volume indicating a particle size much larger than ferritin. TEM analysis revealed AuNPs adjacent to ferritin molecules suggesting that a dimeric ferritin-AuNP species forms. We propose that the ferritin protein shell acts as a nucleation site for AuNP formation leading to the AuNP-ferritin dimeric species. Ferrihydrite nanoparticles ({approx}10 nm diameter) were unable to produce soluble AuNPs under identical conditions unless apo ferritin was present indicating that the ferritin protein shell was essential for stabilizing AuNPs in aqueous solution.

  14. Photodegradation of ethyl paraben using simulated solar radiation and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontistis, Zacharias [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Antonopoulou, Maria [Department of Environmental & Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi St., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Petala, Athanasia [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Venieri, Danae [School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, GR-73100 Chania (Greece); Konstantinou, Ioannis [Department of Environmental & Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, 2 Seferi St., GR-30100 Agrinio (Greece); Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kondarides, Dimitris I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Mantzavinos, Dionissios, E-mail: mantzavinos@chemeng.upatras.gr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1, University Campus, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with a bandgap of 2.4 eV is a photocatalyst highly responsive to visible. • Factorial design was used to assess important factors for ethyl paraben degradation. • Ethyl paraben and Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration, time, water matrix are significant factors. • Dealkylated and decarboxylated transformation by-products have been identified. • All parabens are slightly estrogenic compared to estradiol. - Abstract: In this work, the solar light-induced photocatalytic degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was studied using silver orthophosphate, a relatively new photocatalytic material. The catalyst was synthesized by a precipitation method and had a primary crystallite size of ca 70 nm, specific surface area of 1.4 m{sup 2}/g and a bandgap of 2.4 eV. A factorial design methodology was implemented to evaluate the importance of EP concentration (500–1500 μg/L), catalyst concentration (100–500 mg/L), reaction time (4–30 min), water matrix (pure water or 10 mg/L humic acid) and initial solution pH (3–9) on EP removal. All individual effects but solution pH were statistically significant and so were the second-order interactions of EP concentration with reaction time or catalyst concentration. The water matrix effect was negative (all other effects were positive) signifying the role of humic acid as scavenger of the oxidant species. Liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry revealed the formation of methyl paraben, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid and phenol as primary transformation by-products; these are formed through dealkylation and decarboxylation reactions initiated primarily by the photogenerated holes. Estrogenicity assays showed that methyl paraben was more estrogenic than EP; however, parabens are slightly estrogenic compared to 17β-estradiol.

  15. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  16. Pneumatic stepper motor and device comprising at least one such pneumatic stepper motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to a pneumatic stepper motor, comprising: - a housing, said housing accommodating at least part of: - a rack or geared axle comprising a plurality of gear elements; and - two pistons, each comprising at least two teeth, said pistons being arranged to cooperate with said rack or

  17. Facile fabrication of CuPp–TiO2 mesoporous composite: An excellent and robust heterostructure photocatalyst for 4-nitrophenol degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Mi-Mi; Wang, Chen; Li, Jun; Yuan, Lin; Sun, Wan-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An excellent and robust mesoporous CuPp–TiO 2 photocatalyst was prepared by the self-assemble of TiO 2 with Copper(II) porphyrin following a solvothermal treatment. The HRTEM images of the CuPp–TiO 2 revealed the CuPp combined with TiO 2 are crystalline, which is heterojunction structure. The special structure improves the photocatalytic activity of the catalyst observably. As shown in a heterojunction-type photocatalytic system, the photogenerated electrons in the CB of the CuPp migrate to the CB of the TiO 2 forming reduction sites, while the photogenerated holes in the VB of TiO 2 move to the VB of CuPp through the heterojunction structure forming oxidation sites. As a result, the photogenerated electrons and holes are spatially isolated, which greatly inhibits their undesirable recombination. The photodegradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) illustrated the prepared CuPp–TiO 2 has superior photocatalytic activity and wonderful cycling performance with the photocatalytic efficiency of 86.69% even after six cycles. - Highlights: • A novel mesoporous photocatalyst CuPp–TiO 2 with large surface area was prepared. • The CuPp–TiO 2 was obtained by self-assembly following a solvothermal treatment. • There exists heterojunction structure in CuPp–TiO 2 . • The CuPp–TiO 2 exhibits outstanding photocatalytic activity and stability. - Abstract: An excellent mesoporous CuPp–TiO 2 photocatalyst was prepared by the self-assemble of TiO 2 with metalloporphyrin-copper(II) following a solvothermal treatment. The c-CuPp–TiO 2 was obtained by calcinating CuPp–TiO 2 at 450 °C to investigate the effect of CuPp on photocatalytic activity. The SEM images indicate that CuPp–TiO 2 is microspheres with mean diameter of 29.01 nm. The TEM images reveal that there exists the heterojunction structure in CuPp–TiO 2 , which improved catalytic activity of CuPp–TiO 2 obviously. Additionally, N 2 adsorption–desorption isotherm curves show high

  18. A Dew Point Meter Comprising a Nanoporous Thin Film Alumina Humidity Sensor with a Linearizing Capacitance Measuring Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Ghara

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel trace moisture analyzer is presented comprising a capacitive nanoporous film of metal oxide sensor and electronics. The change in capacity of the sensor is due to absorption of water vapor by the pores. A simple capacitance measuring electronics is developed which can detect any change in capacitance and correlates to ambient humidity. The circuit can minimize the parasitic earth capacitance. The non linear response of the sensor is linearized with a micro-controller linearizing circuit. The experimental result shows a resolution of -4°C DP and accuracy within 2%.

  19. Enhanced magnetic separation and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped titania photocatalyst supported on strontium ferrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Azrina; Yong, Kok Soon; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Pichiah, Saravanan

    2012-01-15

    An enhanced ferromagnetic property, visible light active TiO(2) photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by supporting strontium ferrite (SrFe(12)O(19)) onto TiO(2) doped with nitrogen (N) and compared with N-doped TiO(2). The synthesized catalysts were further characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), BET surface area analysis, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and visible light spectroscopy analysis for their respective properties. The XRD and EDS revealed the structural and inorganic composition of N-TiO(2) supported on SrFe(12)O(19). The supported N-TiO(2) exhibited a strong ferromagnetic property with tremendous stability against magnetic property losses. It also resulted in reduced band gap (2.8 eV) and better visible light absorption between 400 and 800 nm compared to N-doped TiO(2). The photocatalytic activity was investigated with a recalcitrant phenolic compound namely 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a model pollutant under direct bright and diffuse sunlight exposure. A complete degradation of 2,4-DCP was achieved with an initial concentration of 50mg/L for both photocatalysts in 180 min and 270 min respectively under bright sunlight. Similarly the diffuse sunlight study resulted in complete degradation for supported N-TiO(2) and >85% degradation N-TiO(2), respectively. Finally the supported photocatalyst was separated under permanent magnetic field with a mass recovery ≈ 98% for further reuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ZnO doped SnO2 nanoparticles heterojunction photo-catalyst for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, Randeep; Umar, Ahmad; Mehta, S.K.; Kansal, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized by facile and simple hydrothermal technique and used as an effective photocatalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of harmful and toxic organic dye. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized in detail using different techniques for morphological, structural and optical properties. The characterization results revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles possess both crystal phases of tetragonal rutile phase of pure SnO 2 and wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO. In addition, the nanoparticles were synthesized in very high quantity with good crystallinity. The photocatalytic activity of prepared nanoparticles was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye. Detailed photocatalytic experiments based on the effects of irradiation time, catalyst dose and pH were performed and presented in this paper. The detailed photocatalytic experiments revealed that the synthesized ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles heterojunction photocatalyst exhibit best photocatalytic performance when the catalyst dose was 0.25 g/L and pH = 10. ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles heterojunction photocatalyst was also compared with commercially available TiO 2 (PC-50), TiO 2 (PC-500) and SnO 2 and interestingly ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles exhibited superior photocatalytic performance. The presented work demonstrates that the prepared ZnO doped SnO 2 nanoparticles are promising material for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes and toxic chemicals. - Highlights: • Synthesis of well-crystalline ZnO-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles. • Excellent morphological, crystalline and photoluminescent properties. • Efficient environmental remediation using ZnO-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in aqueous solution using a floating TiO2-expanded perlite photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Długosz, Maciej; Żmudzki, Paweł; Kwiecień, Anna; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Krzek, Jan; Nowakowska, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulfamethoxazole was degraded using a floating photocatalyst under UV irradiation. • The photocatalyst was obtained by supporting TiO 2 onto expanded perlite. • The mechanism of sulfamethoxazole photodegradation in water was proposed. • The photodegradation rate of sulfamethoxazole is greater at higher pH. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of an antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), in aqueous solution using a novel floating TiO 2 -expanded perlite photocatalyst (EP-TiO 2 -773) and radiation from the near UV spectral range was studied. The process is important considering that SMX is known to be a widespread and highly persistent pollutant of water resources. SMX degradation was described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic equation according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The products of the SMX photocatalytic degradation were identified. The effect of pH on the kinetics and mechanism of SMX photocatalytic degradation was explained

  2. Hydrogen Production via Water Dissociation Using Pt–TiO2 Photocatalysts: An Oxidation–Reduction Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Guayaquil-Sosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several TiO2 based semiconductors with different Pt loadings are prepared using incipient impregnation, wet impregnation and the sol-gel method. These photocatalysts are evaluated in the Photo-CREC-Water II Photoreactor for hydrogen production via water dissociation, using an organic renewable scavenger (ethanol. Results obtained show the influence of the photocatalyst preparation in the production of hydrogen and in the observed quantum yields. Furthermore, it is established that the reaction networks leading to hydrogen production, using various photocatalysts, share common features. This analysis is developed by both identifying and quantifying different chemical species and their changes with irradiation time. Key species in this oxidation–reduction network are hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, methane, ethane, acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. On this basis, it is shown that under an inert gas atmosphere, ethanol consumption is sub-stoichiometric. This points towards simultaneous ethanol consumption and the formation of the ethanol scavenger.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole in aqueous solution using a floating TiO{sub 2}-expanded perlite photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Długosz, Maciej [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Żmudzki, Paweł; Kwiecień, Anna [Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Kraków (Poland); Szczubiałka, Krzysztof, E-mail: szczubia@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Krzek, Jan [Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Medyczna 9, 30-688 Kraków (Poland); Nowakowska, Maria, E-mail: nowakows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Sulfamethoxazole was degraded using a floating photocatalyst under UV irradiation. • The photocatalyst was obtained by supporting TiO{sub 2} onto expanded perlite. • The mechanism of sulfamethoxazole photodegradation in water was proposed. • The photodegradation rate of sulfamethoxazole is greater at higher pH. - Abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of an antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole (SMX), in aqueous solution using a novel floating TiO{sub 2}-expanded perlite photocatalyst (EP-TiO{sub 2}-773) and radiation from the near UV spectral range was studied. The process is important considering that SMX is known to be a widespread and highly persistent pollutant of water resources. SMX degradation was described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic equation according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The products of the SMX photocatalytic degradation were identified. The effect of pH on the kinetics and mechanism of SMX photocatalytic degradation was explained.

  4. Discussion on 'Solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Joseph B.

    1997-03-15

    In a discussion of the 1997 paper by J. C. Crittenden et al. on the solar detoxification of fuel-contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed photocatalysts, the writer indicates a number of problems with the interpretation of the data and invites the authors to speculate on the reaction mechanism in the photocatalytic destruction of BTEX compounds in groundwater. In reply, Crittenden points out that it is not easy to speculate on the reaction mechanism because there are many compounds other than BTEX compounds contained in the water matrix, as well as many unknown compounds and by-products.

  5. In situ EPR studies of reaction pathways in Titania photocatalyst-promoted alkylation of alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhydderch, Shona; Howe, Russell F

    2015-03-03

    In situ EPR spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures has been used to observe and identify paramagnetic species produced when titania is irradiated in the presence of reactants used in the photocatalytic alkylation of maleimide with t-butyl carboxylic acid or phenoxyacetic acid. It is shown that maleimide acts as an acceptor of conduction band electrons. Valence band holes oxidise t-butyl carboxylic acid to the t-butyl radical and phenoxyacetic acid to the phenoxyacetic acid radical cation. In the presence of maleimide, the phenoxymethyl radical is formed from phenoxyacetic acid. The relevance of these observations to the mechanisms of titania photocatalyst-promoted alkylation of alkenes is discussed.

  6. SISGR - Design and Characterization of Novel Photocatalysts With Core-Shell Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaera, Francisco [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Bardeen, Christopher J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yin, Yadong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-03-15

    The overall goal of this project has been to develop new a new and novel class of well-characterized nanostructured Metal@TiO2 core-shell and yolk-shell photocatalysts to address two fundamental issues presently limiting this field: (1) the fast recombination of electron-hole pairs once generated by light absorption, and (2) the recombination of H2 and O2 on the metal surface once produced. These model samples are also used to study the fundamentals of the photocatalytic processes.

  7. Evaluating photo-degradation of COD and TOC in petroleum refinery wastewater by using TiO2/ZnO photo-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuboury, Dheeaa Al Deen Atallah; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Abdul Aziz, Hamidi Bin; Feroz, Shaik; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of combined solar photo-catalyst of titanium oxide/zinc oxide (TiO 2 /ZnO) with aeration processes to treat petroleum wastewater. Central composite design with response surface methodology was used to evaluate the relationships between operating variables for TiO 2 dosage, ZnO dosage, air flow, pH, and reaction time to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removals prove to be significant with low probabilities (TOC removal rates of 99% and 74%, respectively. The TOC and COD removal rates correspond well with the predicted models. The maximum removal rate for TOC and COD was 99.3% and 76%, respectively at optimum operational conditions of TiO 2 dosage (0.5 g/L), ZnO dosage (0.54 g/L), air flow (4.3 L/min), reaction time (170 min) and pH (6.8). The new treatment process achieved higher degradation efficiencies for TOC and COD and reduced the treatment time comparing with other related processes.

  8. Visible-light induced photocatalysis of AgCl@Ag/titanate nanotubes/nitrogen-doped reduced graphite oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongfei; Zhao, Xiaona; Fu, Zhanming; Tu, Wenmao; Fang, Pengfei; Zhang, Haining

    2018-06-01

    High recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and relatively narrow photoresponsive range of TiO2-based photocatalysts are the remaining challenges for their practical applications. To address such challenges, photocatalysts consisting of AgCl covered Ag nanoparticles (AgCl@Ag), titanate nanotubes (TiNT), and nitrogen-doped reduced graphite oxide (rGON) are fabricated through alkaline hydrothermal process, followed by deposition and in situ surface-oxidation of silver nanoparticles. In the synthesized photocatalysts, the titanate nanotubes have average length of about 100 nm with inner diameters of about 5 nm and the size of the formed silver nanoparticles is in the range of 50-100 nm. The synthesized photocatalyst degrades almost all the model organic pollutant Rhodamine B in 35 min and remains 90% of photocatalytic efficiency after 5 degradation cycles under visible light irradiation. Since the oxidant FeCl3 applied for oxidation of surface Ag to AgCl is difficult to be completely removed due to the high adsorption capacity of TiNT and rGON, the effect of reside Fe atoms on photocatalytic activity is evaluated and the results reveal that the residue Fe atom only affect the initial photodegradation performance. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that the formed composite catalyst is a promising candidate for antibiosis and remediation in aquatic environmental contamination.

  9. The effect of water on the performance of TiO2 in photocatalytic selective alkane oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, J.T.; Carneiro, Joana T.; Yang, Chieh-Chao; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Deactivation of TiO2 is hampering practical implementation of photocatalytic alternatives for energetically intensive selective oxidation processes. In the present study, humidification of the air stream is demonstrated to be a solution to this problem for well-defined photocatalysts, such as

  10. Mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles decorated KTaO3 photocatalysts with improved Vis and UV-Vis light activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowska, Anna; Trykowski, Grzegorz; Winiarski, Michal Jerzy; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Lisowski, Wojciech; Mikolajczyk, Alicja; Pinto, Henry P.; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2018-05-01

    Novel mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles (MNPs and BNPs) decorated surface of perovskite-type KTaO3 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of KTaO3 followed by photodeposition of MNPs/BNPs. The effect of noble metal type (MNPs = Au, Ag, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or BNPs = Au/Pt, Ag/Pd, Rh/Ru), amount of metal precursor (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 wt%) as well as photoreduction method (simultaneous (both) or subsequent (seq) deposition of two metals) on the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of MNPs- and BNPs-KTaO3 have been investigated. All as-prepared photocatalysts were subsequently characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and pore size distribution measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy. The crystal structure was performed using visualization for electronic and structural analysis (VESTA). The photocatalytic activity under Vis light irradiation was estimated in phenol degradation in aqueous phase and toluene removal in gas phase, while under UV-Vis light irradiation was measured amount of H2 generation from formic acid solution. The absorption properties of O2 and H2O molecules on KTaO3(1 0 0) surface supported by Au or Au/Pt NPs was also investigated using density-functional theory (DFT). The experimental results show that, both MNPs-KTaO3 and BNPs-KTaO3 exhibit greatly enhanced pollutant decomposition efficiency under Vis light irradiation and highly improved H2 production under UV-Vis light irradiation compared with pristine KTaO3. MNPs deposition on KTaO3 surface effects by disperse metal particle size ranging from 11 nm (Ru NPs) to 112 nm (Au NPs). Simultaneous addition of Au/Pt precursors results in formation of agglomerated

  11. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A.; Colpini, L.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO 2 -TiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 gave a result similar to that of TiO 2 . On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  12. Photocatalytic discoloration of reactive blue 5g dye in the presence of mixed oxides and with the addition of iron and silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.C.P; Lenzi, G.G.; Jorge, L.M.M.; Santos, O.A.A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Colpini, L.M.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Palotina, PR (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Biocombustiveis

    2011-07-15

    This work reports the use of cerium-titania-alumina-based systems modified with Ag and Fe by the wetness impregnation method for the discoloration of blue 5G dye. The techniques employed to characterize the photocatalysts were: temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, average pore volume, and average pore diameter. The characterization results indicated that the photocatalysts had different crystalline structures and textural properties. Discoloration with the mixed oxide photocatalyst CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gave a result similar to that of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the addition of Ag and Fe to the mixed oxide increased the discoloration and reaction rates of reactive blue 5G dyes. (author)

  13. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  14. Effect of Cu insertion on structural, local electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst properties of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures: XANES-EXAFS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Aditya; Varshney, Mayora [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Joon, E-mail: shj001@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (POSTECH), Pohang, 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-Hyeon [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Keun Hwa, E-mail: khchae@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Sung Ok, E-mail: sowon@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We report detailed investigations on the synthesis, structural, morphology, electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst properties of Cu doped TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures. All of the samples were synthesized by using the chemical precipitation method. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and photocatalyst measurements. XRD studies revealed single phase nature of the samples and omitted the presence of trivial metallic or binary oxide phases. TiO{sub 2} set of samples have shown nanorod kind of morphology, however TEM images of ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} set of samples depicted the spherical morphology of particles. XANES spectra at the Cu K-edge and Cu L-edge, along with the atomic multiplet calculations, revealed the predominance of Cu{sup 2+} ions in all of the samples, within the entire doping range. Ti L-edge and Ti K-edge XANES confirmed the existence of Ti{sup 4+} ions in the pure and Cu doped TiO{sub 2} samples with anatase local structure. Zn L-edge XANES results confirmed the divalent character of Zn ions in the pure and Cu doped ZnO, which is further validated by the Zn K-edge XANES. Ni L-edge and Ni K-edge XANES conveyed the +2 valence state of Ni ions in the pure and Cu doped Ni (OH){sub 2} samples. EXAFS analysis at the Cu K-edge nullifies the formation of Cu metallic clusters and other trivial phases, suggesting random distribution of Cu atoms in the oxide materials. Though, local atomic arrangement of Cu ions is disparate in the different oxide compounds. As an application of the pure and Cu doped TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures, towards the degradation of water pollutant dyes, we demonstrate that all of the samples can serve as effective photocatalyst materials towards the degradation of methyl orange aqueous pollutant dye under the UV-light irradiation

  15. Preparation and characterization of tungsten-loaded titanium dioxide photocatalyst for enhanced dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saepurahman; Abdullah, M.A.; Chong, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 photocatalyst has been successfully prepared and characterized. TEM analysis showed that the photocatalysts were nanosize with the tungsten species forming layers of coverage on the surface of TiO 2 , but not in clustered form. This was confirmed by XRD and FT-Raman analyses where tungsten species were well dispersed at lower loading ( 3 at higher loadings (>12 mol%). In addition, loading with tungsten could stabilize the anatase phase from transforming into inactive rutile phase and did not shift the optical absorption to the visible region as shown by DRUV-vis analysis. PZC value of TiO 2 was found at 6.4, but the presence of tungsten at 6.5 mol% WO 3 , decreased the PZC value to 3. Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 was superior to unmodified TiO 2 with 2-fold increase in degradation rate of methylene blue, and equally effective for the degradation of different class of dyes such as methyl violet and methyl orange at 1 mol% WO 3 loading.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Hydrophobic Composite Materials Containing a Visible-Light-Sensitive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yamauchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional superhydrophobic surface offered by PTFE provides no sterilization performance and is not sufficiently repellent against organic liquids. These limit PTFE's application in the field of disinfection and result a lack of durability. N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst added PTFE composite material was developed to remedy these shortcomings. This paper reports the surface characteristics, and the bactericidal and self-cleaning performance of the newly-developed composite material. The material exhibited a contact angle exceeding 150 degrees consistent with its hydrophobicity despite the inclusion of the hydrophilic N-doped TiO2. The surface free energy obtained for this composite was 5.8 mN/m. Even when exposed to a weak fluorescent light intensity (100 lx for 24 hours, the viable cells of gram-negative E. coli on the 12% N-doped TiO2-PTFE film were reduced 5 logs. The higher bactericidal activity was also confirmed on the gram-positive MRSA. Compared with the N-doped TiO2 coating only, the inactivation rate of the composite material was significantly enhanced. Utilizing the N-doped TiO2 with the PTFE composite coating could successfully remove, by UV illumination, oleic acid adsorbed on its surface. These results demonstrate the potential applicability of the novel N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst hydrophobic composite material for both indoor antibacterial action and outdoor contamination prevention.

  17. Study of gamma irradiation effect on commercial TiO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello Lamo, M.P.; Williams, P.; Reece, P.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Sheppard, L.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the effect of gamma irradiation on commercial TiO 2 photocatalyst for water treatment applications. Previous studies concluded that gamma-irradiation is able to modify the electronic properties of TiO 2 based photocatalysts and consequently their photocatalytic performance. However, there are some discrepancies in the literature where on one hand a significant enhancement of the material properties is reported and on the other hand only a weak effect is observed. In this study a surface effect on TiO 2 is confirmed by using low and medium gamma irradiation doses. - Highlights: • Gamma irradiated TiO 2 is investigated for photocatalytic water treatment. • By low gamma doses, no change in surface properties is observed. • However, a surface defect is found for gamma irradiated TiO 2 at higher doses. • XPS measurements showed an increase of hydroxyl groups. • That may cause a variation of its adsorption capacity

  18. 2nd international workshop on graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-02-01

    Since 2009 graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysts have attracted a lot of attention in scientific and engineering communities because of their applications in photocatalysis. Graphene and C3N4-based photocatalysis was the main theme of the 2nd International Workshop on Graphene and C3N4-based Photocatalysts (IWGCP2) held at the Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, China on March 24-27, 2017. The IWGCP2 workshop was jointly organized by Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University and Kent State University, and was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), Wuhan University of Technology, Jianghan University, Changsha University, Beijing Perfectlight, ThermoFisher, LumaSense Technologies, Anhui Kemi, Zhenjiang Silver Jewelry, Instytut Fotonowy (Poland) and others. More than 240 colleagues from four continents (Asia, America, Australia and Europe) participated in this workshop, and presented 6 plenary lectures, 12 keynote lectures, 14 invited lectures, 5 oral lectures and 113 posters. A tradition of this meeting is the poster competition, which resulted in selecting 10 best posters.

  19. NOx photocatalytic degradation on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,C photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In presented studies the photocatalytic decomposition of NOx on gypsum plates modified by TiO2-N,Cphotocatalysts were presented. The gypsum plates were obtained by addition of 10 or 20 wt.% of different types of titanium dioxide, such as: pure TiO2 and carbon and nitrogen co-modified TiO2 (TiO2-N,C to gypsum. TiO2-N,C photocatalysts were obtained by heating up the starting TiO2 (Grupa Azoty Zakłady Chemiczne Police S.A in the atmosphere of ammonia and carbon at the temperature: 100, 300 i 600ºC. Photocatalyst were characterized by FTIR/DRS, UVVis/DR, BET and XRD methods. Moreover the compressive strength tests of modified gypsum were also done. Photocatalytic activity of gypsum plates was done during NOx decomposition. The highest photocatalytic activity has gypsum with 20 wt.% addition of TiO2-N,C obtained at 300ºC.

  20. Structuring β-Ga2O3 photonic crystal photocatalyst for efficient degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Zhen, Xiuzheng; Meng, Sugang; Xian, Jiangjun; Shao, Yu; Fu, Xianzhi; Li, Danzhen

    2013-09-03

    Coupling photocatalysts with photonic crystals structure is based on the unique property of photonic crystals in confining, controlling, and manipulating the incident photons. This combination enhances the light absorption in photocatalysts and thus greatly improves their photocatalytic performance. In this study, Ga2O3 photonic crystals with well-arranged skeleton structures were prepared via a dip-coating infiltration method. The positions of the electronic band absorption for Ga2O3 photonic crystals could be made to locate on the red edge, on the blue edge, and away from the edge of their photonic band gaps by changing the pore sizes of the samples, respectively. Particularly, the electronic band absorption of the Ga2O3 photonic crystal with a pore size of 135 nm was enhanced more than other samples by making it locate on the red edge of its photonic band gap, which was confirmed by the higher instantaneous photocurrent and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of various organic pollutants under ultraviolet light irradiation. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism over Ga2O3 photonic crystals was discussed. The design of Ga2O3 photonic crystals presents a prospective application of photonic crystals in photocatalysis to address light harvesting and quantum efficiency problems through manipulating photons or constructing photonic crystal structure as groundwork.

  1. A novel CD4-conjugated ultraviolet light-activated photocatalyst inactivates HIV-1 and SIV efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Koushi; Sugiyama, Takahiro; Kato, Shinji; Kondo, Yoichi; Ageyama, Naohide; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Iwata, Misao; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2008-08-01

    In this study, we found that the electric potential derived from the redox reaction of ultraviolet (UV)-illuminated CD4-conjugated titanium dioxide (TiO2) inactivated a wide range of high-titered primary HIV-1 isolates, regardless of virus co-receptor usage or genetic clade. In vitro incubation of HIV-1 isolates with CD4-conjugated TiO2 (CD4-TiO2) followed by UV illumination led to inhibition of viral infectivity in both H9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as to the complete inactivation of plasma virions from HIV-1-infected individuals. Treatment with a newly established extra-corporeal circulation system with the photocatalyst in rhesus macaques completely inactivated plasma virus in the system and effectively reduced the infectious plasma viral load. Furthermore, plasma viremia and infectious viral loads were controlled following a second therapeutic photocatalyst treatment during primary SIV(mac239) infection of macaques. Our findings suggest that this therapeutic immunophysical strategy may help control human immunodeficiency viral infection in vivo.

  2. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  3. Bactericidal performance of visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst with silver nanostructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Show Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Titania dioxide (TiO(2 photocatalyst is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible-light responsive anion-doped TiO(2 photocatalysts contain higher quantum efficiency under sunlight and can be used safely in indoor settings without exposing to biohazardous ultraviolet light. The antibacterial efficiency, however, remains to be further improved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using thermal reduction method, here we synthesized silver-nanostructures coated TiO(2 thin films that contain a high visible-light responsive antibacterial property. Among our tested titania substrates including TiO(2, carbon-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (C] and nitrogen-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (N], TiO(2 (N showed the best performance after silver coating. The synergistic antibacterial effect results approximately 5 log reductions of surviving bacteria of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that crystalline silver formed unique wire-like nanostructures on TiO(2 (N substrates, while formed relatively straight and thicker rod-shaped precipitates on the other two titania materials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggested that proper forms of silver on various titania materials could further influence the bactericidal property.

  4. FY1995 studies on surface structures and mechanism of photocatalytic action of semiconductor oxides; 1995 nendo handotai hikari shokubai no hyomen kozo seigyo to sayo kiko kaimei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of the semiconductor photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide is important for photo-energy conversion and purification of the environment. We make clear that the mechanism of the photocatalysis using a spectroscopic or physico-chemical methods, and we developed the new photocatalyst with the control of the surface area, porosity, infinitesimal content, and surface modification of the catalyst surface. Titanium dioxide thin film photocatalysts were prepared by the dip coating method. Surface structure of the thin film was formed by the aggregated TiO{sub 2} anatase particle, its size was around 5 nm. This thin films effectively oxidazed NO, its photocatalytic activity is higher than that of commercial photocatalyst. Metal oxide anchored TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts (RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by the co-precipitation method. Effective charge separation of the RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} were confirmed by the measurement of ESR. The RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst successfully reduced CO{sub 2} and preserved its activity for much longer period than metal loaded catalyst. Hybrid photofunctionalized material was prepared by anchoring porphyrin moieties on the titanium dioxide surface. The relative quantum yield of electron transfer from porphyrin to the titanium dioxide conduction band has been markedly increased by water treatment of quanternized porphyrin-titanium dioxide covalently linked systems owing to removal of adsorbed porphyrin domains. (NEDO)

  5. Nano-sized quaternary CuGa2In3S8 as an efficient photocatalyst for solar hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of quaternary metal sulfide (QMS) nanocrystals is challenging because of the difficulty to control their stoichiometry and phase structure. Herein, quaternary CuGa2In3S8 photocatalysts with a primary particle size of ≈4nm

  6. Preparation And Characterization of Cu-Fe/ TiO2 Photocatalyst for Visible Light Deep Desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid; Kait, C.F.; Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul Mutalib

    2016-01-01

    A photooxidative system for deep desulfurization of model diesel fuel was explored. Nanoparticles of anatase titania (TiO 2 ) were synthesized via sol-gel hydrothermal method. The TiO 2 was further modified with bimetallic Cu-Fe using wet-impregnation method followed by calcination process in order to extend the activity region of the photocatalyst to visible-light. A series of bimetallic 2.2 wt % Cu-Fe/ TiO 2 photocatalysts with different Cu:Fe mass compositions were characterized for their physical, chemical and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy (DR-UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The performance of the photocatalysts was evaluated for photooxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the sulfur species from model oil in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 under 500 W visible light illumination. The highest sulfur conversion of 82.36 % was observed for photocatalyst with 10:1Cu:Fe mass composition. (author)

  7. Preparation, characterization of a ceria loaded carbon nanotubes nanocomposites photocatalyst and degradation of azo dye Acid Orange 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Tao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A ceria loaded carbon nanotubes (CeO2/CNTs nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by chemical precipitation, and the preparation conditions were optimized using an orthogonal experiment method. HR-TEM, XRD, UV-Vis/DRS, TGA and XPS were used to characterize the photocatalyst. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption was employed to determine the BET specific surface area. The results indicated that the photocatalyst has no obvious impurities. CeO2 was dispersed on the carbon nanotubes with a good loading effect and high loading efficiency without agglomeration. The catalyst exhibits a strong ability to absorb light in the ultraviolet region and some ability to absorb light in the visible light region. The CeO2/CNTs nanocomposites photocatalyst was used to degrade azo dye Acid Orange 7 (40 mg/L. The optical decolorization rate was 66.58% after xenon lamp irradiation for 4 h, which is better than that of commercial CeO2 (43.13%. The results suggested that CeO2 loading on CNTs not only enhanced the optical decolorization rate but also accelerated the separation of CeO2/CNTs and water.

  8. 1D Bi2S3 nanorod/2D e-WS2 nanosheet heterojunction photocatalyst for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattikuti, S. V. Prabhakar; Shim, Jaesool; Byon, Chan

    2018-02-01

    The development of high-activity, long-life, precious-metal-free photocatalysts for redox reactions in photoelectrochemical cells and fuel cells remains challenging. The synthesis of high-activity heterostructured photocatalysts is crucial for efficient energy conversion strategies. Herein, a novel photocatalyst based on 1D Bi2S3 nanorods self-assembled on 2D exfoliated tungsten disulfide (e-WS2) nanosheets has been developed for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye in aqueous solution. We demonstrate a novel and facile hydrothermal method for the synthesis of a Bi2S3 nanorod/e-WS2 nanosheet heterostructure. The photocatalytic properties of the heterostructure under visible light were investigated. Enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the presence of strong surface active sites, as well as the specific morphology of the composite. We also observed the fast transfer of electron-hole pairs at the material interface. This work demonstrates a non-noble semiconductor photocatalyst for the degradation of pollutants and evolution of H2.

  9. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of highly efficient, daylight active and recyclable Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts with synergistic dual photoexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Caihong; Ai, Lunhong; Li, Lili; Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/AgBr photocatalysts were controllably synthesized by solvothermal process. • Ag/AgBr composites showed excellent daylight driven photocatalytic activity. • The remarkable activity is attributed to the synergistic dual photoexcitation. -- Abstract: Efficient light harvesting has been considered to be critical for manipulating the photocatalytic behavior of photocatalysts, because it directly determines the generation of reactive redox charge carriers involved in photoreaction process. In this study, we present a successful example on efficient conversion of solar energy by Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts that hold unique synergistic dual photoexcitation. A series of Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts were controllably synthesized by an easily manipulated mild solvothermal process. The physicochemical properties of the as-prepared Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results showed the solvothermal reaction time played key role for control of crystalline structure, morphology, composition, and visible light absorption ability of the resulting photocatalysts. The as-prepared Ag/AgBr coupled photocatalysts exhibited remarkable photocatalytic performance and good reusability for decomposing organic dyes in aqueous solution under the irradiation of commercial 20 W cool daylight fluorescent lamp, owing to the synergistic dual photoexcitation cooperating between plasmonic Ag nanoparticles and narrow-band-gap AgBr

  10. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  11. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP...

  12. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  13. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  14. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  15. Advanced nanoporous TiO2 photocatalysts by hydrogen plasma for efficient solar-light photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ha-Rim; Park, So Young; Kim, Hyeran; Lee, Che Yoon; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Soon Chang; Seo, Soonjoo; Park, Edmond Changkyun; Oh, You-Kwan; Song, Chan-Geun; Won, Jonghan; Kim, Youn Jung; Lee, Jouhahn; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Young-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We report an effect involving hydrogen (H2)-plasma-treated nanoporous TiO2(H-TiO2) photocatalysts that improve photocatalytic performance under solar-light illumination. H-TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by application of hydrogen plasma of assynthesized TiO2(a-TiO2) without annealing process. Compared with the a-TiO2, the H-TiO2 exhibited high anatase/brookite bicrystallinity and a porous structure. Our study demonstrated that H2 plasma is a simple strategy to fabricate H-TiO2 covering a large surface area that offers many active sites for the extension of the adsorption spectra from ultraviolet (UV) to visible range. Notably, the H-TiO2 showed strong ·OH free-radical generation on the TiO2 surface under both UV- and visible-light irradiation with a large responsive surface area, which enhanced photocatalytic efficiency. Under solar-light irradiation, the optimized H-TiO2 120(H2-plasma treatment time: 120 min) photocatalysts showed unprecedentedly excellent removal capability for phenol (Ph), reactive black 5(RB 5), rhodamine B (Rho B) and methylene blue (MB) — approximately four-times higher than those of the other photocatalysts (a-TiO2 and P25) — resulting in complete purification of the water. Such well-purified water (>90%) can utilize culturing of cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) while showing minimal cytotoxicity. Significantly, H-TiO2 photocatalysts can be mass-produced and easily processed at room temperature. We believe this novel method can find important environmental and biomedical applications. PMID:27406992

  16. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted photocatalysts containing low TiO_2 loading: Evaluation for the degradation of pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho de Escobar, Cícero; Lansarin, Marla Azário; Zimnoch dos Santos, João Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted photocatalyst (MIP) containing low TiO_2 loading were prepared by acid-catalyzed sol–gel process. • Seven pharmaceutical compounds were evaluated as a template. • Comparing to the P25, MIP has shown an increase of adsorption up to 752%. • Comparing to the P25, MIP has shown an increase of degradation up to 427%. • The presence of specific cavities on the silica domain could explain the better results for MIP. - Abstract: A molecularly imprinted (MI) photocatalyst containing a low TiO_2 loading (7.00–16.60 mg L"−"1 of TiO_2) was prepared via an acid-catalyzed sol–gel route using different classes of pharmaceutical compounds (i.e., Atorvastatin, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Tioconazole, Valsartan, Ketoconazole and Gentamicine) as the template. Herein, our main goal was to test the hypothesis that photocatalysts based on molecular imprinting may improve the degradation performance of pharmaceutical compounds compared to that of a commercial sample (Degussa P25) due to presence of specific cavities in the silica domain. To elucidate certain trends between the performance of photocatalysts and their structural and textural properties, as well the effect of the structure of the drugs on molecular imprinting, the data were analyzed in terms of pore diameter, pore volume, surface area, zeta potential and six-membered ring percentage of silica. In comparison to the commercial sample (P25), we have shown that adsorption and degradation were enhanced from 48 to 752% and from 5 to 427%, respectively. A comparison with the control system (non-imprinted) indicates that the increased performance of the MI systems was due to the presence of specific cavities on the silica domain, and the textural and structural aspects also support this conclusion. The MI photocatalyst was reusable for seven cycles of reuse in which approximately 60% of its photocatalytic efficiency was preserved for the system containing Diclofenac as the template.

  17. Wide band gap Ga2O3 as efficient UV-C photocatalyst for gas-phase degradation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejczyk, Marcin; Zbudniewek, Klaudia; Rynkowski, Jacek; Keller, Valérie; Grams, Jacek; Ruppert, Agnieszka M; Keller, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    α, β, γ, and δ polymorphs of 4.6-4.8 eV wide band gap Ga 2 O 3 photocatalysts were prepared via a soft chemistry route. Their photocatalytic activity under 254 nm UV-C light in the degradation of gaseous toluene was strongly depending on the polymorph phase. α- and β-Ga 2 O 3 photocatalysts enabled achieving high and stable conversions of toluene with selectivities to CO 2 within the 50-90% range, by contrast to conventional TiO 2 photocatalysts that fully deactivate very rapidly on stream in similar operating conditions with rather no CO 2 production, no matter whether UV-A or UV-C light was used. The highest performances were achieved on the high specific surface area β-Ga 2 O 3 photocatalyst synthesized by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) as porogen before precipitation, with stable toluene conversion and mineralization rate into CO 2 strongly overcoming those obtained on commercial β-Ga 2 O 3 . They were attributed to favorable physicochemical properties in terms of high specific surface area, small mean crystallite size, good crystallinity, high pore volume with large size mesopore distribution and appropriate surface acidity, and to the possible existence of a double local internal field within Ga 3+ units. In the degradation of hydrogen sulfide, PEG-derived β-Ga 2 O 3 takes advantage from its high specific surface area for storing sulfate, and thus for increasing its resistance to deactivation and the duration at total sulfur removal when compared to other β-Ga 2 O 3 photocatalysts. So, we illustrated the interest of using high surface area β-Ga 2 O 3 in environmental photocatalysis for gas-phase depollution applications.

  18. Dendritic Tip-on Polytriazine-Based Carbon Nitride Photocatalyst with High Hydrogen Evolution Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Bhunia, Manas Kumar

    2015-11-23

    Developing stable, ubiquitous and efficient water-splitting photocatalyst material that has extensive absorption in the visible-light range is desired for a sustainable solar energy-conversion device. We herein report a triazine-based carbon nitride (CN) material with different C/N ratios achieved by varying the monomer composition ratio between melamine (Mel) and 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAP). The CN material with a different C/N ratio was obtained through a two-step synthesis protocol: starting with the solution state dispersion of the monomers via hydrogen-bonding supramolecular aggregate, followed by a salt-melt high temperature polycondensation. This protocol ensures the production of a highly crystalline polytriazine imide (PTI) structure con-sisting of a copolymerized Mel-TAP network. The observed bandgap narrowing with an increasing TAP/Mel ratio is well simulated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, revealing a positive shift in the valence band upon substitution of N with CH in the aromatic rings. Increasing the TAP amount could not maintain the crystalline PTI structure, consistent with DFT calculation showing the repulsion associated with additional C-H introduced in the aromatic rings. Due to the high exciton binding energy calculated by DFT for the obtained CN, the cocatalyst must be close to any portion of the material to assist the separation of excit-ed charge carriers for an improved photocatalytic performance. The photocatalytic activity was improved by providing a dendritic tip-on-like shape grown on a porous fibrous silica KCC-1 spheres, and highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles (<5 nm) were photodepos-ited to introduce heterojunction. As a result, the Pt/CN/KCC-1 photocatalyst exhibited an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) as high as 22.1 ± 3% at 400 nm and the silica was also beneficial for improving photocatalytic stability. The results obtained by time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy measurements were consistent with

  19. Doped titanium oxide photcatalysts: Preparation, structure and interaction with viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    Since the discovery of photoelectrochemical splitting of water on n-titanium oxide (n-TiO2) electrodes by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, there has been much interest in semiconductor-based materials as photocatalysts for both solar energy conversion and environmental applications in the past several decades. Among various semiconductor-based photocatalysts, TiO2 is the only candidate suitable for industrial use because of its high chemical stability, good photoactivity, relatively low cost, and nontoxicity. However, the photocatalytic capability of TiO 2 is limited to only ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength, lambda, strategy to use atomic force microscope (AFM) to conduct in-situ observation of viruses on semiconductor surfaces in aqueous environment was developed, which combines information from both height profile and phase profile and solves the difficulty of observing small nanosized biomolecules on substrates with similar feature sizes.

  20. Gas-Phase Photocatalytic Oxidation of Dimethylamine: The Reaction Pathway and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kachina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO and thermal catalytic oxidation (TCO of dimethylamine (DMA on titanium dioxide was studied in a continuous flow simple tubular reactor. Volatile PCO products of DMA included ammonia, formamide, carbon dioxide, and water. Ammonia was further oxidized in minor amounts to nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide. Effective at 573 K, TCO resulted in the formation of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. The PCO kinetic data fit well to the monomolecular Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, whereas TCO kinetic behaviour matched the first-order process. No deactivation of the photocatalyst during the multiple long-run experiments was observed.

  1. Layered MoSe2/Bi2WO6 composite with P-N heterojunctions as a promising visible-light induced photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Taiping; Liu, Yue; Wang, Haiqiang; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, layered MoSe2/Bi2WO6 composites were fabricated by a simple bath sonication method for photocatalytic applications. Their photocatalytic performances were then investigated via the photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous toluene under visible-light irradiation. As a result, 1.5%-MoSe2/Bi2WO6 catalyst showed the highest activity with a degradation rate of nearly 80% during three-hour visible-light irradiation. The k value determined of 1.5%-MoSe2/Bi2WO6 was approximately 6 times higher than that of pure Bi2WO6 and 7 times higher compared with pure MoSe2. After a series of characterizations, it was concluded that the p-n heterojunctions of MoSe2/Bi2WO6 composites with strong interlayer interactions could effectively prolong the life time of photoinduced electron-hole pairs. And both the contents of surface superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were thereby increased, benefitting the photocatalytic process. Furthermore, the hydroxyl radicals and holes were found to be the major active species. This work provided a way to design photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light driven photoactivity toward indoor air pollutants purification.

  2. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesize and characterize of Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanorods photocatalysts and its photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xuejun [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Dong, Yuying, E-mail: dongy@dlnu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: fatzhxd@126.com [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Cui, Yubo [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared by sol–gel with hydrothermal method. • Toluene removal efficiency was 70% in 4 h using the Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2}. • Benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde were intermediates, and partially mineralized. - Abstract: In this paper, in order to expand the light response range of TiO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanorods photocatalysts were fabricated by a simple sol–gel method with microwave and hydrothermal method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, DRS, XPS and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption. Meanwhile, their photocatalytic properties were investigated by the degradation of toluene under visible light irradiation. The degradation conversation of toluene had gotten to about 70% in 1% Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanorods after reaction 4 h. The predominant photocatalytic activity can be attributed to its strong absorption in visible light region and excellent charge separation characteristics. By using in situ FTIR, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde species could be observed during the reaction and the formed intermediates would be partially oxidized into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Electron spin resonance confirmed that OH· and O{sub 2}·{sup −} were involved in the photocatalytic degradation of toluene.

  4. High-efficiency and conveniently recyclable photo-catalysts for dye degradation based on urchin-like CuO microparticle/polymer hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Cheng, Yuming; Li, Xuefeng; Dong, Jinfeng

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we developed a new type of photo-catalysts composed of the urchin-like cupric oxide (CuO) microparticle and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hybrid composites by the convenient organic-inorganic hybrid strategy, which show high-efficiency and conveniently recyclable for dye degradation including methylene blue (MB), Congo red (CR), and malachite green (MG) by visible light irradiation. The micro-structural characteristics of urchin-like CuO microparticles are crucial and dominant over the photo-degrading efficiency of hybrid catalyst because of their highly exposed {0 0 2} facet and larger specific surface area. Simultaneously, the intrinsic porous framework of PVDF membrane not only remains the excellent photo-catalytic activity of urchin-like CuO microparticles but also facilitates the enrichment of dyes on the membrane, and thereby synergistically contributing to the photo-catalytic efficiency. The microstructures of both urchin-like CuO microparticles and hybrid catalysts are systematically characterized by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, which evidently support the mentioned mechanism.

  5. Characterization and relative photonic efficiencies of a new nanocarbon/TiO2 composite photocatalyst designed for organic dye decomposition and bactericidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won-Chun; Jung, Ah-Reum; Ko, Weon-Bae

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of nanocarbon/TiO 2 composite photocatalysts were synthesized using an MCPBA oxidation method, employing MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nanotubes) and C 60 as nanocarbon sources and TNB (titanium (IV) n-butoxide) as a titanium dioxide source. From the XRD patterns of the composites, structural variations revealed the C 60 /TiO 2 composite having a mixture of anatase and rutile forms, with the MWCNT/TiO 2 composite presenting only the anatase phase. Elemental analysis indicated a predominance of carbon and Ti metal peaks over any other element. From the SEM results, the TiO 2 particles were dispersed regularly on the fullerene surface with large clusters bearing irregular agglomerate dispersions. However, the MWCNT/TiO 2 showed homogenous distributions with only individual MWCNT, covered with TiO 2 and without any jam-like aggregates between the two. According to the photocatalytic results, the relationship of the -ln (c/c 0 ) of the solution products of the organic dye, methylene blue (MB), as a function of time under UV irradiation, showed linearity properties with first-order kinetics and an excellent photodegradation effect. From the measured bactericidal effects, the inhibition zone was defined by the halo method with the curves of E. coli inactivation denoting effectiveness of the nanocarbon/TiO 2 composites in the sunlight.

  6. Oxidation catalysts and process for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Compounds particularly suitable as oxidation catalysis are described, comprising specified amounts of uranium, antimony and tin as oxides. Processes for making and using the catalysts are described. (U.K.)

  7. Layered-Double-Hydroxide Nanosheets as Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysts for Dinitrogen Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufei; Zhao, Yunxuan; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Zheng, Lirong; Cao, Xingzong; Teng, Fei; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; O'Hare, Dermot; Zhang, Tierui

    2017-11-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis attracts widespread interest in water splitting, CO 2 reduction, and N 2 fixation. N 2 reduction to NH 3 is essential to the chemical industry and to the Earth's nitrogen cycle. Industrially, NH 3 is synthesized by the Haber-Bosch process under extreme conditions (400-500 °C, 200-250 bar), stimulating research into the development of sustainable technologies for NH 3 production. Herein, this study demonstrates that ultrathin layered-double-hydroxide (LDH) photocatalysts, in particular CuCr-LDH nanosheets, possess remarkable photocatalytic activity for the photoreduction of N 2 to NH 3 in water at 25 °C under visible-light irradiation. The excellent activity can be attributed to the severely distorted structure and compressive strain in the LDH nanosheets, which significantly enhances N 2 chemisorption and thereby promotes NH 3 formation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Design and fabrication of a TiO2/nano-silicon composite visible light photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.Y.; Fang, Y.K.; Kuo, C.H.; Chen, S.F.; Lin, C.-S.; Chou, T.H.; Lee, Y.-H.; Lin, J.-C.; Hwang, S.-B.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-silicon (nc-Si) was utilized as the charges generator to promote the photocatalytic and super-hydrophilic reactivity of TiO 2 film under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic ability of TiO 2 /nc-Si composite photocatalyst was evaluated by a set of experiments to photodecompose 100 ppm methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. And the super-hydrophilic property was characterized by measuring the water droplet contacts angle, under visible light irradiation in atmospheric air and at room temperature. Under 100 mW/cm 2 visible light irradiation, the droplet contact angles were reduced to 0 deg. within 4 h with nc-Si charge generator. Additionally, the rate constant of MB photo-degradation was promoted 6.6 times

  9. Construction of porous covalent organic polymer as photocatalysts for RhB degradation under visible light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pingxiao Liu; Lingbao Xing; Hongtao Lin; Haining Wang; Ziyan Zhou; Zhongmin Su

    2017-01-01

    In the present work,a novel porous,and chemically stable amine-based covalent organic polymer (POP-1) was designed and synthesized under solvothermal conditions.The porosity,crystallinity,chemical stability,electrochemical properties,and diffuse reflectance of POP-1 were investigated via N2 sorption experiment,power X-ray diffraction,thermogravimetric analysis,cyclic voltammetry,and ultraviolet visible near infrared spectrometry,respectively.POP-1 exhibits good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions,as well as in organic solvents.Undoped POP-1 can be directly used as a photocatalyst for rhodamine B irradiation degradation under light-emitting diode and natural light.The Ea of POP-1 for RhB degradation is 82.37 kJ/mol.Furthermore,POP-1 can be reused as a catalyst in RhB degradation without degraded catalytic activity.

  10. Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution Using Planarized Conjugated Polymer Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Reiner Sebastian; Bonillo, Baltasar; Clowes, Rob; Guiglion, Pierre; Brownbill, Nick J; Slater, Benjamin J; Blanc, Frédéric; Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-01-26

    Linear poly(p-phenylene)s are modestly active UV photocatalysts for hydrogen production in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor. Introduction of planarized fluorene, carbazole, dibenzo[b,d]thiophene or dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone units greatly enhances the H 2 evolution rate. The most active dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co-polymer has a UV photocatalytic activity that rivals TiO 2 , but is much more active under visible light. The dibenzo[b,d]thiophene sulfone co-polymer has an apparent quantum yield of 2.3 % at 420 nm, as compared to 0.1 % for platinized commercial pristine carbon nitride.

  11. Ag-Coated Heterostructures of ZnO-TiO2/Delaminated Montmorillonite as Solar Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Belver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterostructures based on ZnO-TiO2/delaminated montmorillonite coated with Ag have been prepared by sol–gel and photoreduction procedures, varying the Ag and ZnO contents. They have been thoroughly characterized by XRD, WDXRF, UV–Vis, and XPS spectroscopies, and N2 adsorption, SEM, and TEM. In all cases, the montmorillonite was effectively delaminated with the formation of TiO2 anatase particles anchored on the clay layer’s surface, yielding porous materials with high surface areas. The structural and textural properties of the heterostructures synthesized were unaffected by the ZnO incorporated. The photoreduction led to solids with Ag nanoparticles decorating the surface. These materials were tested as photocatalysts for the degradation of several emerging contaminants with different nitrogen-bearing chemical structures under solar light. The catalysts yielded high rates of disappearance of the starting pollutants and showed quite stable performance upon successive applications.

  12. Enhanced photoactivity of CuPp-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Lue [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xian, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Li Jun, E-mail: junli@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xian, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Chen, Wang; Mingyue, Duan; Yun, Luo; Guiping, Yao [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xian, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Junlong, Wang [Wei Nan Teachers University, Wei Nan, Shaanxi, 714000 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Three novel porphyrins, 5,10,15-tri-phenyl-20-[4-(3-phenoxy)-propoxy]phenyl porphyrin, 5,15-di-phenyl-10,20-di-[4-(3-phenoxy)-propoxy]phenyl porphyrin and 5-phenyl-10,15,20-tri- [4-(3-phenoxy)-propoxy]phenyl porphyrin, and their corresponding copper(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The photocatalytic effects of TiO{sub 2} samples impregnated with copper(II) porphyrins was investigated by photodegradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in aqueous solution under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectra and FT-IR spectra. The results indicated that CuPps were successfully loaded and interacted with the surface of TiO{sub 2} microsphere, which is crucial to enhance the activity of the catalytic composite under visible light.

  13. TiO2-V2O5 nanocomposites as alternative energy storage substances for photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaotrakanwiwat, Pailin; Meeyoo, Vissanu

    2012-01-01

    TiO2-V2O5 was prepared and evaluated as an energy storage material for photocatalysts with high capacity and initial charging rate. The compound was successfully obtained by sol-gel technique and effects of compound composition and calcination temperature on the energy storage ability were investigated. The synthesized compounds were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveals that the compound of Ti:V molar ratio equal to 1:0.11 calcined at 550 degrees C exhibited superior energy storage ability than parent substances and 1.7-times higher capacity and 2.3-times higher initial charging rate compared to WO3, indicating that the compound is a remarkable alternative to conventional energy storage substances.

  14. A Self-Reporting Photocatalyst for Online Fluorescence Monitoring of High Throughput RAFT Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Jonathan; Joshi, Sanket; Chapman, Robert; Boyer, Cyrille Andre Jean Marie

    2018-04-25

    Translating controlled/living radical polymerization (CLRP) from batch to the high throughput production of polymer libraries presents several challenges in terms of both polymer synthesis and characterization. Although recently there have been significant advances in the field of low volume, high throughput CLRP, techniques able to simultaneously monitor multiple polymerizations in an "online" manner have not yet been developed. Here, we report our discovery that 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine zinc (ZnTPP) is a self-reporting photocatalyst that can mediate PET-RAFT polymerization as well as report on monomer conversion via changes in its fluorescence properties. This enables the use of a microplate reader to conduct high throughput "online" monitoring of PET-RAFT polymerizations performed directly in 384-well, low volume microtiter plates. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Room temperature synthesis of heptazine-based microporous polymer networks as photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasam, Kamalakannan; Schmidt, Johannes; Bildirir, Hakan; Zhang, Guigang; Blechert, Siegfried; Wang, Xinchen; Thomas, Arne

    2013-06-25

    Two emerging material classes are combined in this work, namely polymeric carbon nitrides and microporous polymer networks. The former, polymeric carbon nitrides, are composed of amine-bridged heptazine moieties and showed interesting performance as a metal-free photocatalyst. These materials have, however, to be prepared at high temperatures, making control of their chemical structure difficult. The latter, microporous polymer networks have received increasing interest due to their high surface area, giving rise to interesting applications in gas storage or catalysis. Here, the central building block of carbon nitrides, a functionalized heptazine as monomer, and tecton are used to create microporous polymer networks. The resulting heptazine-based microporous polymers show high porosity, while their chemical structure resembles the ones of carbon nitrides. The polymers show activity for the photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water, even under visible light illumination. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effective Removal of Oil-mist and Odorous Component By Using Photocatalyst with Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Teruo; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Onishi, Hajime; Tada, Yukio; Takimoto, Akira

    The air cleaning is one of the social problems from the view of the living environment and the health recently. A commercial kitchen and food factory generate the exhaust gas including the odorous components and the oil-mist, but it is difficult to clean this gas without frequent maintenance for disposal of oil. Various ideas have been suggested and used for it, but the decisive solution has not been found yet. This paper is concerning of proposal of the photocatalyst method which used the condensation together to clean the gas including oil-mist and odorous component, and it was clarified experimentally about the influence of operation condition and surface shape of the condensation side for the removal of oil-mist and the odorous components of formaldehyde, amine and ammonia.

  17. Photochemistry at high temperatures - potential of ZnO as a high temperature photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubnell, M; Beaud, P; Kamber, I [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Direct conversion of solar radiation into useful, storeable and transportable chemical products is the primary goal of solar chemistry. In this paper we discuss some fundamental aspects of photochemistry at elevated temperatures. We show that luminescence can serve as an indicator of the potential use of a system as a photoconverter. As an example we present experimental data on the chemical potential and on the lifetime of the excited states of ZnO. The low luminescence quantum yield together with a lifetime of about 200 ps indicate that an efficient photochemical conversion on ZnO is highly improbable. We believe this to be a general feature of chemical systems based on a semiconductor photocatalyst, in particular of photoreactions at a solid/gas interface. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs

  18. Photocatalytic organic transformation by layered double hydroxides: highly efficient and selective oxidation of primary aromatic amines to their imines under ambient aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiu-Jie; Chen, Bin; Li, Xu-Bing; Zheng, Li-Qiang; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho

    2014-06-25

    We report the first application of layered double hydroxide as a photocatalyst in the transformation of primary aromatic amines to their corresponding imines with high efficiency and selectivity by using oxygen in an air atmosphere as a terminal oxidant under light irradiation.

  19. Silicon carbide recovered from photovoltaic industry waste as photocatalysts for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Hu, Yu [College of Material Science and Enginneering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Zeng, Hongmei [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Zhong, Lin, E-mail: zhonglin@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Liu, Kewei; Cao, Hongmei [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Li, Wei [College of Material Science and Enginneering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Yan, Hongjian, E-mail: hjyan@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • SiC was recovered from photovoltaic industry waste. • The recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides. • The recovered SiC shows photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution from water. - Abstract: In recent years, the focus on creating a dependable and efficient means to recycle or recover the valuable parts from the waste material has drawn significantly attention as an environmentally friendly way to deal with the industrial wastes. The silicon carbide (SiC) crystalline is one of reusable material in the slurry wastes generated during wafer slicing. Here we report the use of recovered SiC from the slurry wastes as photocatalysts to produce hydrogen in the presence of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}S as electron donor. The recovered SiC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), UV–vis (UV–vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The morphology of SiC loaded with 1 wt% Pt as cocatalyst by thermal-reduction method was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results reveal that the recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides on the surface of the SiC. The highest hydrogen production rate is 191.8 μmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1}. This study provides a way to recycle crystalline SiC from the discharged waste in the photovoltaic industry and reuse it as photocatalyst to yield hydrogen with the advantage of low energy consumption, low pollution and easy operation.

  20. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ytterbium-doped titania/diatomite composite photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Wenjian; Qiu, Kehui; Zhang, Peicong; Yuan, Xiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Yb-doped TiO_2/diatomite composite photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. • Yb-doped TiO_2/diatomite photocatalysts show much higher photocatalytic activity. • The higher photodegradation rate is due to the effect of diatomite and Yb doping. - Abstract: Ytterbium-doped titanium dioxide (Yb-TiO_2)/diatomite composite materials with different Yb concentrations were prepared by sol–gel method. The phase structure, morphology, and chemical composition of the as-prepared composites were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TiO_2 existed in the form of pure anatase in the composites. The SEM images exhibited the well deposition and dispersion of TiO_2 nanoparticles with little agglomeration on the surfaces of diatoms. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed that the band gap of TiO_2 could be narrowed by the introduction of Yb species, which was further affected by doping concentration of Yb. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized samples was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. Compared to TiO_2 and TiO_2/diatomite, the Yb-TiO_2/diatomite composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity toward degradation of MB using UV light irradiation.

  1. Steering Charge Kinetics of Tin Niobate Photocatalysts: Key Roles of Phase Structure and Electronic Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shushu; Wang, Chunyan; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing; Su, Yiguo

    2018-05-23

    Tin niobate photocatalysts with the phase structures of froodite (SnNb 2 O 6 ) and pyrochlore (Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 ) were obtained by a facile solvothermal method in order to explore the impact of phase structure and electronic structure on the charge kinetics and photocatalytic performance. By employing tin niobate as a model compound, the effects of phase structure over electronic structure, photocatalytic activity toward methyl orange solution and hydrogen evolution were systematically investigated. It is found that the variation of phase structure from SnNb 2 O 6 to Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 accompanied with modulation of particle size and band edge potentials that has great consequences on photocatalytic performance. In combination with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transient photocurrent responses, transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), and the analysis of the charge-carrier dynamics suggested that variation of electronic structure has great impacts on the charge separation and transfer rate of tin niobate photocatalysts and the subsequent photocatalytic performance. Moreover, the results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the existent of Sn 4+ species in Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 could result in a decrease in photocatalytic activity. Photocatalytic test demonstrated that the SnNb 2 O 6 (froodite) catalyst possesses a higher photocatalytic activity toward MO degradation and H 2 evolution compared with the sample of Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 (pyrochlore). On the basis of spin resonance measurement and trapping experiment, it is expected that photogenerated holes, O 2 -• , and OH • active species dominate the photodegradation of methyl orange.

  2. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of ytterbium-doped titania/diatomite composite photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wenjian; Qiu, Kehui; Zhang, Peicong; Yuan, Xiqiang

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Yb-doped TiO{sub 2}/diatomite composite photocatalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. • Yb-doped TiO{sub 2}/diatomite photocatalysts show much higher photocatalytic activity. • The higher photodegradation rate is due to the effect of diatomite and Yb doping. - Abstract: Ytterbium-doped titanium dioxide (Yb-TiO{sub 2})/diatomite composite materials with different Yb concentrations were prepared by sol–gel method. The phase structure, morphology, and chemical composition of the as-prepared composites were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TiO{sub 2} existed in the form of pure anatase in the composites. The SEM images exhibited the well deposition and dispersion of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with little agglomeration on the surfaces of diatoms. The UV–vis diffuse reflection spectra showed that the band gap of TiO{sub 2} could be narrowed by the introduction of Yb species, which was further affected by doping concentration of Yb. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized samples was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation followed a pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. Compared to TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/diatomite, the Yb-TiO{sub 2}/diatomite composites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity toward degradation of MB using UV light irradiation.

  3. Visible-light-driven TiO2/Ag3PO4/GO heterostructure photocatalyst with dual-channel for photo-generated charges separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingqing; Ma, Ni; Wang, Yaping; Qiu, Yiwei; Hu, Haihua; Zhao, Jiahuan; Liang, Dayu; Xu, Sheng; Li, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Zhiyan; Cui, Can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO was synthesized with a facile two-step method. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO has dual-channel for photo-generated charges separation. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO composite reduces the consumption of Ag. - Abstract: A novel triple-component TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /graphene oxide (TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO) photocatalyst with dual channels for photo-generated charges separation has been synthesized to improve the photocatalytic activity and stability of Ag 3 PO 4 under visible light. The synthesis involved in-situ growth of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles on GO sheets to form Ag 3 PO 4 /GO, and then deposited TiO 2 nanocrystals on the surface of Ag 3 PO 4 by hydrolysis of Ti(SO 4 ) 2 at low-temperature hydrothermal condition. The TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity and stability to bare Ag 3 PO 4 , TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /GO in degradation of Rhodamine B and phenol solutions under visible light. It is suggested that the photo-generated electrons in the conduction band of Ag 3 PO 4 can be quickly transferred to GO, while the holes in the valence band of Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to the valence band of TiO 2 . The dual transfer channels at the interfaces of TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO result in effective charges separation, leading to enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. Furthermore, the content of noble metal Ag significantly reduces from 77 wt% in bare Ag 3 PO 4 to 55 wt% in the nanocomposite. The concept of establishing dual channels for charges separation in a triple-component heterostructure provides a promising way to develop photocatalysts with high efficiency

  4. Combination Comprising Parthenolide For Use In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Essack, Magbubah

    2015-01-01

    The present invention generally concerns particular methods and compositions for treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's Disease. In particular embodiments, there is a composition comprising Parthenolide and a second agent

  5. Photodetection, photon event localization and position tomography device comprising a gammagraphy camera equipped wit such devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatteau, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This device of photodetection and photon event (and noticeably scintillations) localization comprises at least a photomultiplier tube with unique photomultiplying structure and in front of this tube, a net of juxtaposed conduction metal wires excited by voltage pulses. This net comprises only 2n metallic wires to assure the localization of 2sup(2n) possible positions, and that is one of its characteristics [fr

  6. Composite TiO{sub 2}/clays materials for photocatalytic NOx oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, N.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Karapati, S.; Petridis, D. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, P.O. Box 60037, 153 10, Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece); Vaimakis, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, P.O. Box 1186, 451 10, Ioannina (Greece); Trapalis, C., E-mail: trapalis@ims.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR “Demokritos”, P.O. Box 60037, 153 10, Ag. Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Clays-supported TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts are prepared by simple, scalable method. • Visible light active TiO{sub 2} is incorporated in hydrotalcite, talk and kunipia clays. • The alkali substrates facilitate the NOx adsorption to the photocatalytic surface. • Low-content TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts demonstrated high NOx oxidation activity. • Titania/hydrotalcite photocatalyst exhibited remarkable NOx removal activity. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst received much attention for air purification applications especially for removal of air pollutants like NOx, VOCs etc. It has been established that the activity of the photocatalyst can be significantly enhanced by its immobilization onto suitable substrates like inorganic minerals, porous silica, hydroxyapatite, adsorbent materials like activated carbon, various co-catalysts such as semiconductors, graphene, reduced graphite oxide, etc. In the present work, photocatalytic composite materials consisted of mineral substrate and TiO{sub 2} in weight ratio 1:1 were manufactured and examined for oxidation and removal of nitric oxides NOx (NO and NO{sub 2}). Commercial titania P25 (Evonik-Degussa) and urea-modified P25 were used as photocatalytically active components. Inorganic minerals, namely kunipia, talk and hydrotalcite were selected as supporting materials due to their layered structure and expected high NOx adsorption capability. Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+} intercalation was applied in order to improve the dispersion of TiO{sub 2} and its loading into the supporting matrix. The X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the binary structure of the composites and homogeneous dispersion of the photocatalyst into the substrates. The photocatalytic behavior of the materials in NOx oxidation and removal was investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The composite materials exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than the bare titania

  7. Continuous-flow photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants: Activity, inhibition, and deactivation of TiO2 photocatalysts in wastewater effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Carbonaro, Sean; Sugihara, Matthew N.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    for the purpose of studying the activity, inhibition, and deactivation of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysts during water treatment applications. As a demonstration, degradation of four pharmaceutical micropollutants (iopromide, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole

  8. New type ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst for efficient visible-light photoreduction of CO2 into CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; (Bill Yang, Y. J.

    2018-02-01

    New type of ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction. The obtained photocatalyst shows efficient visible-light activity for CO2 reduction to CH4. We have investigated the optimal Ce content in the catalyst and analyzed the mechanism by materials characterization. Additionally, a novel alkali etching method was used to construct the porous structure. The effect of the porosity and morphologies on the activity is investigated. It is found that the ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst with porosity showing the best photocatalytic activity among all the samples. Based on the characterization and first principle calculation, the detailed photocatalytic mechanism of the ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst is deduced.

  9. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  10. A Ti-doped γ-Fe2O3/SDS nano-photocatalyst as an efficient adsorbent for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, Naghmeh Sadat; Sabbaghi, Samad

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic dyes are among the most important environmental pollutants in wastewaters. Consequently, elimination of the synthetic dyes from wastewaters using non-toxic materials and eco-friendly technologies has been of considerable interests. In this study, magnetically separable Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 photocatalysts were synthesized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from a dye-contaminated aqueous solution (as a model of dye-polluted wastewaters). Compared to the pristine γ-Fe 2 O 3 , the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 significantly increased the adsorption of MB by 57% in the dark condition as a result of the improved BET surface area in this photocatalyst. Moreover, the contact time required for the photocatalytic degradation of MB by the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 decreased due to the higher concentration of charge carriers in this photocatalyst than that of the pristine γ-Fe 2 O 3 . The effect of different experimental parameters on the adsorption property and photocatalytic activity of the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 photocatalyst showed that the solution pH had a remarkable influence on the removal performance of this photocatalyst. Surface treatment of the 1.78 v% Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resulted in the formation of a negatively charged Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 /SDS photocatalyst, which showed a higher tendency for the adsorption and removal of MB than the untreated photocatalyst. Moreover, the MB removal efficiency of this photocatalyst was among the best performances that have been reported for the γ-Fe 2 O 3 -based photocatalysts. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques, and a plausible mechanism for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions by the Ti-doped γ-Fe 2 O 3 /SDS photocatalyst was purposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  12. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, James N.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2011-10-19

    We have very recently discovered a new hydrogen-producing photocatalyst is BiNbO4. BiNbO4 powders prepared by solid state reaction were tested for photocatalytic activity in methanol solutions under UV irradiation. When the material is tested without the presence of a Pt co-catalyst, photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution is superior to that of TiO2. It was also found that BiNbO4 photodegrades into metallic Bi and reduced Nb oxides after use; materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, and XPS. Adding Pt to the surface of the photocatalyst increases photocatalytic activity and importantly, helps to prevent photodegradation of the oxide material. With 1 wt. % Pt loading, photodegradation is essentially absent. BiNbO4 photodegrades into metallic Bi and reduced Nb oxides after use; materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, and XPS. Adding Pt to the surface of the photocatalyst increases photocatalytic activity and importantly, helps to prevent photodegradation of the oxide material. With 1 wt. % Pt loading, photodegradation is essentially absent.

  13. Fiscal 1999 research result report. Research on improvement of boiling heat transfer characteristics by photocatalyst wall; 1999 nendo hikari shokubai hekimen ni yoru futto netsu dentatsu tokusei kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research was made on improvement of the wettability and boiling heat transfer characteristics of a photocatalyst wall. Measurement experiment of the wettability was made for anatase type titan oxide-coated Al, SUS and Pb plates, rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, raw plate, and oxide-plasma coated titan plate. In the ground experiment, the contact angles of distilled water and oil on specimen surfaces were measured. In the microgravity experiment, falling droplet images were recorded by using the facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). For obtaining the effect of radioactive emission, UV irradiation, {gamma} ray and neutron beam irradiation by nuclear reactor, and {gamma} ray irradiation by Co-60 were carried out. As the experiment result, the rutil type titan oxide-flame coated SUS plate, nonconductor-coated titan plate, and zircaloy plate showed large improvement of the wettability by {gamma} ray irradiation with Co-60. It was also confirmed that in particular, titan shows the large effect of radioactive emission, and the wettability deteriorates rapidly after {gamma} ray irradiation. (NEDO)

  14. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  15. Hydrogen production from water splitting over Eosin Y-sensitized mesoporous-assembled perovskite titanate nanocrystal photocatalysts under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puangpetch, Tarawipa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Sommakettarin, Pichayaon [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Soi Chula 12, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Chavadej, Sumaeth; Sreethawong, Thammanoon [The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Soi Chula 12, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemicals, and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    The photocatalytic water splitting is a promising process for producing H{sub 2} from two abundant renewable sources of water and solar light, with the aid of a suitable photocatalyst. In this work, a combination of sensitizer addition and noble metal loading was employed to modify perovskite photocatalysts in order to achieve the enhancement of photocatalytic H{sub 2} production under visible light irradiation. The dependence of the H{sub 2} production on type of mesoporous-assembled perovskite titanate nanocrystal photocatalysts (MgTiO{sub 3}, CaTiO{sub 3}, and SrTiO{sub 3}), calcination temperature of photocatalyst, Pt loading, type and concentration of electron donor (diethanolamine, DEA; and triethanolamine, TEA), concentration of sensitizer (Eosin Y, E.Y.), photocatalyst dosage, and initial solution pH, was systematically studied. The experimental results showed that the 0.5 wt.% Pt-loaded mesoporous-assembled SrTiO{sub 3} nanocrystal synthesized by a single-step sol-gel method and calcined at 650 C exhibited the highest photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity from a 15 vol% DEA aqueous solution with dissolved 0.5 mM E.Y. Moreover, the optimum photocatalyst dosage and initial solution pH for the maximum photocatalytic H{sub 2} production activity were found to be 6 g/l and 11.6, respectively. (author)

  16. Photocatalytic H 2 production from water splitting under visible light irradiation using Eosin Y-sensitized mesoporous-assembled Pt/TiO 2 nanocrystal photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreethawong, Thammanoon; Junbua, Chompoonuch; Chavadej, Sumaeth

    Sensitized photocatalytic production of hydrogen from water splitting is investigated under visible light irradiation over mesoporous-assembled titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanocrystal photocatalysts, without and with Pt loading. The photocatalysts are synthesized by a sol-gel process with the aid of a structure-directing surfactant and are characterized by N 2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The dependence of hydrogen production on the type of TiO 2 photocatalyst (synthesized mesoporous-assembled and commercial non-mesoporous-assembled TiO 2 without and with Pt loading), the calcination temperature of the synthesized photocatalyst, the sensitizer (Eosin Y) concentration, the electron donor (diethanolamine) concentration, the photocatalyst dosage and the initial solution pH is systematically studied. The results show that in the presence of the Eosin Y sensitizer, the Pt-loaded mesoporous-assembled TiO 2 synthesized by a single-step sol-gel process and calcined at 500 °C exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production from a 30 vol.% diethanolamine aqueous solution with dissolved 2 mM Eosin Y. Moreover, the optimum photocatalyst dosage and initial solution pH for the maximum photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production are 3.33 g dm -3 and 11.5, respectively.

  17. An overview on cellulose-based material in tailoring bio-hybrid nanostructured photocatalysts for water treatment and renewable energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Abd Mutalib, Muhazri; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan; M Zain, M F; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Jeffery Minggu, Lorna; Awang, Nor Asikin; W Salleh, W N

    2017-10-01

    A combination between the nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials promotes a new functionality of cellulose towards the development of new bio-hybrid materials for various applications especially in water treatment and renewable energy. The excellent compatibility and association between nanostructured photocatalyst and cellulose-based materials was induced by bio-combability and high hydrophilicity of the cellulose components. The electron rich hydroxyl group of celluloses helps to promote superior interaction with photocatalyst. The formation of bio-hybrid nanostructured are attaining huge interest nowadays due to the synergistic properties of individual cellulose-based material and photocatalyst nanoparticles. Therefore, in this review we introduce some cellulose-based material and discusses its compatibility with nanostructured photocatalyst in terms of physical and chemical properties. In addition, we gather information and evidence on the fabrication techniques of cellulose-based hybrid nanostructured photocatalyst and its recent application in the field of water treatment and renewable energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Room-temperature in situ fabrication of Bi2O3/g-C3N4 direct Z-scheme photocatalyst with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rongan; Zhou, Jiaqian; Fu, Huiqing; Zhang, Shiying; Jiang, Chuanjia

    2018-02-01

    Constructing direct Z-scheme heterojunction is an effective approach to separating photogenerated charge carriers and improving the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Herein, a composite of bismuth(III) oxide (Bi2O3) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was in situ fabricated at room temperature by photoreductive deposition of Bi3+ and subsequent air-oxidation of the resultant metallic Bi. Quantum-sized ω-Bi2O3 nanoparticles approximately 6 nm in diameter were uniformly distributed on the surface of mesoporous g-C3N4. The as-prepared Bi2O3/g-C3N4 composite exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than pure Bi2O3 and g-C3N4 for photocatalytic degradation of phenol under visible light. Reactive species trapping experiments revealed that superoxide radicals and photogenerated holes played important roles in the photocatalytic degradation of phenol. The enhanced photocatalytic activity, identification of reactive species and higher rate of charge carrier recombination (as indicated by stronger photoluminescence intensity) collectively suggest that the charge migration within the Bi2O3/g-C3N4 composite followed a Z-scheme mechanism. Photogenerated electrons on the conduction band of Bi2O3 migrate to the valence band of g-C3N4 and combine with photogenerated holes therein. At the cost of these less reactive charge carriers, the Z-scheme heterojunction enables efficient charge separation, while preserving the photogenerated electrons and holes with stronger redox abilities, which is beneficial for enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  19. Synthesis of nano-TiO2 photocatalysts with tunable Fe doping concentration from Ti-bearing tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yulei; Liu, Qingxia; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Yufeng

    2018-01-01

    In this work, highly pure nano-TiO2 photocatalysts with varying Fe doping concentration were successfully synthesized from low-cost Ti-bearing tailings by an acidolysis-hydrothermal route. The effects of H2SO4 concentration, leaching temperature, acid/tailings ratio and leaching time on the recovery of TiO2 from the tailings were investigated. Synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, EDS, XPS, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the material prepared is characteristic anatase with the average size of 20 nm and the Fe doping concentration in the synthesized nano-TiO2 is tunable. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized nano-TiO2 photocatalyst was also evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B under visible light and UV light irradiation. Our study demonstrates a low-cost approach to synthesize highly efficient and visible light responsive catalysts.

  20. Band-gap engineering and comparative investigation of Ti2Nb10O29 photocatalysts obtained by Various synthetic routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meiling; Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yan'gai; Wu, Xiaowen

    2018-03-01

    Ti2Nb10O29 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by three different methods. Ti2Nb10O29 fabricated by the solvothermal method (ST-TNO) exhibited unique microspheres compared to the larger irregular particles observed for the samples annealed in air (Air-TNO) and Ar (Ar-TNO). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that a partial reduction process from Ti4+ into Ti3+ occurs in Ar-TNO, because of the introduction of oxygen defects. Ar-TNO exhibited visible-light absorption with a band gap of 2.85 eV, while the absorption edges of Air-TNO and ST-TNO were approximately 400 nm. Under UV light irradiation (λ semiconductors. Moreover, the novel semiconductor photocatalyst can be further applied for constructing the heterojunction and designing the band structure.

  1. Synthesis of CdSe-TiO_2 Photocatalyst and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities under UV and Visible Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Sung; Chen, Ming Liang; Oh, Won Chun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, CdSe-TiO_2 photocatalyst were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The photocatalytic activity was investigated by degrading methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under irradiation of UV light as well as visible light. The absorbance of degraded MB solution was determined by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The results revealed that the CdSe- TiO_2 photocatalyst exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than TiO_2 both under irradiation of UV light as well as visible light

  2. Real-Time Visualization of Active Species in a Single-Site Metal–Organic Framework Photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sizhuo [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Pattengale, Brian [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States; Lee, Sungsik [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60349, United States; Huang, Jier [Department of Chemistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, United States

    2018-02-06

    In this work, we report a new single-site photocatalyst (Co-Ru-UIO- 67(bpy)) based on a metal-organic framework platform with incorporated molecular photosensitizer and catalyst. We show that this catalyst not only demonstrates exceptional activity for light-driven H2 production but also can be recycled without loss of activity. Using the combination of optical transient absorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we not only captured the key CoI intermediate species formed after ultrafast charge transfer from the incorporated photosensitizer but also identified the rate-limiting step in the catalytic cycle, providing insight into the catalysis mechanism of these single-site metal-organic framework photocatalysts.

  3. Postmodification of MOF-5 using secondary complex formation using 8- hydroxyquinoline (HOQ) for the development of visible light active photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Sanjay R.; Ramteke, Shruti M.

    2018-05-01

    A novel HOQ@MOF-5 compound photocatalyst was successfully constructed by interacting 8- Hydroxyquinoline with MOF-5 synthesized through a room temperature method. The secondary complex formation between the Zn cluster with 8-Hydroxyquinoline harnessed visible light and acted as a mediator to transfer photoinduced electrons to MOF-5 for enhancing the photocatalytic reaction rate with visible light. HOQ@MOF-5 was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, such as XRD showing the crystalline nature of compound, UV-Visible spectroscopy showing the 2.54 eV band gap of HOQ@MOF-5 and morphological analysis tools, such as the nanoparticle nature of the compound with 9.561 nm particle size. The photocatalytic effect was estimated using the photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a representative organic pollutant under visible light irradiation. This work provides a new compound acting as source of electrons transfer for the development of efficient photocatalysts for remediation of environmental pollution.

  4. Cross-Linked ZnO Nanowalls Immobilized onto Bamboo Surface and Their Use as Recyclable Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel recyclable photocatalyst was fabricated by hydrothermal method to immobilize the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls on the bamboo surface. The resultant samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR techniques. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the cross-linked wurtzite ZnO nanowalls and bamboo surface were interconnected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Meanwhile, the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls modified bamboo (CZNB presented a superior photocatalytic ability and could be recycled at least 3 times with a photocatalytic efficiency up to 70%. The current research provides a new opportunity for the development of a portable and recycled biomass-based photocatalysts which can be an efficiently degraded pollutant solution and reused several times.

  5. High throughput photo-oxidations in a packed bed reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Caleb J; Fisher, Daniel; Desai, Bimbisar K; Yang, Yuan; Ahmad, Saeed; Belecki, Katherine; Gupton, B Frank

    2017-12-01

    The efficiency gains produced by continuous-flow systems in conducting photochemical transformations have been extensively demonstrated. Recently, these systems have been used in developing safe and efficient methods for photo-oxidations using singlet oxygen generated by photosensitizers. Much of the previous work has focused on the use of homogeneous photocatalysts. The development of a unique, packed-bed photoreactor system using immobilized rose bengal expands these capabilities as this robust photocatalyst allows access to and elaboration from these highly useful building blocks without the need for further purification. With this platform we were able to demonstrate a wide scope of singlet oxygen ene, [4+2] cycloadditions and heteroatom oxidations. Furthermore, we applied this method as a strategic element in the synthesis of the high-volume antimalarial artemisinin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Photocatalyst based on titanium or iron semiconductors for the generation of hydrogen from water upon solar irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present thesis is to prepare and evaluate photocatalyst for hydrogen generation from water methanol mixture using solar light. This general objective has been accomplished by applying different methodology in material preparation as well as exploring the photocatalytic activity of novel semiconductors. In this way after a general introduction to the feed showing the relevance of solar fuels and in particular hydrogen generation, the...

  7. Electric circuit breaker comprising a plurality of vacuum interrupters simultaneously operated by a common operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1980-01-01

    This circuit breaker comprises a plurality of a vacuum-type circuit interrupters, each having a movable contact rod. A common operating device for the interrupters comprises a linearly-movable operating member. The interrupters are mounted at one side of the operating member with their movable contact rods extending in a direction generally toward the operating member. Means is provided for mechanically coupling the operating member to the contact rods, and this means comprises a plurality of insulating operating rods, each connected at one end to the operating member and at its opposite end to one of the movable contact rods. The operating rods are of substantially equal length and have longitudinal axes that converge and intersect at substantially a common point.

  8. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  9. In-situ anatase phase stabilization of titania photocatalyst by sintering in presence of Zr4+ organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strini, Alberto; Sanson, Alessandra; Mercadelli, Elisa; Bendoni, Riccardo; Marelli, Marcello; Dal Santo, Vladimiro; Schiavi, Luca

    2015-08-01

    The direct in-situ stabilization of an anatase-based nanocrystalline photocatalyst (Degussa P25) was obtained by sintering the catalyst powder in presence of Zr4+ organic salts. This approach allows the doping of an already-formed nanocrystalline photocatalyst instead of introducing the dopant in the crystal lattice during the catalyst synthesis. The procedure was demonstrated by the production of thick ceramic layers using the screen printing technique. This new method allows to easily stabilize the anatase phase 200 °C higher than the undoped P25 maintaining the same photocatalytic activity. The process was studied using specifically formulated screen-printing inks added with Zr4+ organic salt at 1% and 2% Zr/Ti molar ratio. The anatase phase stability was investigated in the 500-900 °C temperature range analysing the resulting catalysts with XRD, TEM and (S)TEM-EDS. The catalytic activity of the screen-printed layers was assessed by measuring the degradation of toluene in air at ambient concentration (500 nmol m-3) and low UV-A irradiance (180 μW cm-2). The described in-situ stabilization method could be potentially applied to any deposition process involving already formed anatase photocatalyst, allowing higher sintering temperature and then an improved mechanical stability of the active layers without photocatalytic activity degradation.

  10. Direct Z-scheme TiO2/CdS hierarchical photocatalyst for enhanced photocatalytic H2-production activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Aiyun; Zhu, Bicheng; Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Liuyang; Cheng, Bei

    2017-11-01

    Photocatalytic H2 evolution, which utilizes solar energy via water splitting, is a promising route to deal with concerns about energy and environment. Herein, a direct Z-scheme TiO2/CdS binary hierarchical photocatalyst was fabricated via a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique, and photocatalytic H2 production was measured afterwards. The as-prepared TiO2/CdS hybrid photocatalyst exhibited noticeably promoted photocatalytic H2-production activity of 51.4 μmol h-1. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the hierarchical structure, as well as the efficient charge separation and migration from TiO2 nanosheets to CdS nanoparticles (NPs) at their tight contact interfaces. Moreover, the direct Z-scheme photocatalytic reaction mechanism was demonstrated to elucidate the improved photocatalytic performance of TiO2/CdS composite photocatalyst. The photoluminescence (PL) analysis of hydroxyl radicals were conducted to provide clues for the direct Z-scheme mechanism. This work provides a facile route for the construction of redox mediator-free Z-scheme photocatalytic system for photocatalytic water splitting.

  11. Facile fabrication of Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts with efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaomin; Huang, Guanbo; Gao, Haihuan; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Huan; Yan, Jing; Liu, Yu; Qiu, Haixia; Ma, Ning; Gao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by combining a hydrothermal technique and a facile in situ growth method. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra. Their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by degrading methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. It was found that when the mass percentage of Bi_2S_3 in Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 was 7.95 wt%, the as-prepared Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO. The highly improved performance of the Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 nanocomposite was mainly ascribed to the efficient charge separation. - Highlights: • Facile fabrication of novel Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts. • High-performance photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants. • Good recyclability of catalyst without photo-corrosion. • The photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  12. Kinetics of the decoloration of reactive dyes over visible light-irradiated TiO2 semiconductor photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Debabrata; Patnam, Vidya Rupini; Sikdar, Anindita; Joshi, Priyanka; Misra, Rohit; Rao, Nageswara N.

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic decoloration kinetics of triazine (Reactive Red 11, Reactive Red 2, and Reactive Orange 84) and vinylsulfone type (Reactive Orange 16 and Reactive Black 5) of reactive dyes have been studied spectrophotometrically by following the decrease in dye concentration with time. At ambient conditions, over 90-95% decoloration of above dyes have been observed upon prolonged illumination (15 h) of the reacting system with a 150 W xenon lamp. It was found that the decoloration reaction followed first-order kinetics. The values of observed rate constants were found to be dependent of the structure of dyes at low dye concentration, but independent at higher concentration. It also reports for the first time the decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst. Rate of decoloration of two different dyes together in a binary dye mixture using visible light-irradiated TiO 2 photocatalyst is governed by the adsorptivity of the particular dye onto the surface of the TiO 2 photocatalyst

  13. Modularized and water-cooled photo-catalyst cleaning devices for aquaponics based on ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Henglong; Lung, Louis; Wei, Yu-Chien; Huang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zi-Yu; Chou, Yu-Yang; Lin, Anne-Chin

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of applying ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LED's) as triggering sources of photo-catalyst based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-coating specifically for water-cleaning process in an aquaponics system was designed and proposed. The aquaponics system is a modern farming system to integrate aquaculture and hydroponics into a single system to establish an environmental-friendly and lower-cost method for farming fish and vegetable all together in urban area. Water treatment in an aquaponics system is crucial to avoid mutual contamination. we proposed a modularized watercleaning device composed of all commercially available components and parts to eliminate organic contaminants by using UV-LED's for TiO2 photo-catalyst reaction. This water-cleaning module consisted of two coaxial hollowed cylindrical pipes can be submerged completely in water for water treatment and cooling UV-LED's. The temperature of the UV-LED after proper thermal management can be reduced about 16% to maintain the optimal operation condition. Our preliminary experimental result by using Methylene Blue solution to simulate organic contaminants indicated that TiO2 photo-catalyst triggered by UV-LED's can effectively decompose organic compound and decolor Methylene Blue solution.

  14. Nano-sized quaternary CuGa2In3S8 as an efficient photocatalyst for solar hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek

    2014-09-03

    The synthesis of quaternary metal sulfide (QMS) nanocrystals is challenging because of the difficulty to control their stoichiometry and phase structure. Herein, quaternary CuGa2In3S8 photocatalysts with a primary particle size of ≈4nm are synthesized using a facile hot-injection method by fine-tuning the sulfur source injection temperature and aging time. Characterization of the samples reveals that quaternary CuGa2In3S8 nanocrystals exhibit n-type semiconductor characteristics with a transition band gap of ≈1.8eV. Their flatband potential is located at -0.56V versus the standard hydrogen electrode at pH6.0 and is shifted cathodically by 0.75V in solutions with pH values greater than 12.0. Under optimized conditions, the 1.0wt% Ru-loaded CuGa2In3S8 photocatalyst exhibits a photocatalytic H2 evolution response up to 700nm and an apparent quantum efficiency of (6.9±0.5)% at 560nm. These results indicate clearly that QMS nanocrystals have great potential as nano-photocatalysts for solar H2 production. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1988-01-01

    Novel semiperimeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  16. Preparation, characterization and application of nanosized copper ferrite photocatalysts for dye degradation under UV irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharieva, Katerina, E-mail: zaharieva@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Tsvetkov, Martin, E-mail: mptsvetkov@gmail.com [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara, E-mail: zzhel@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kunev, Boris, E-mail: bkunev@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Trujillano, Raquel, E-mail: rakel@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT, Dpto. Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Mitov, Ivan, E-mail: mitov@ic.bas.bg [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev St., Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Milanova, Maria, E-mail: nhmm@wmail.chem.uni-sofia.bg [Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1 J. Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-06-15

    Nanosized copper ferrite-type materials (Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 3–x}O{sub 4}, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared by combination of co-precipitation and mechanochemical activation and/or thermal treatment. The crystalline structure and morphology of the obtained ferrite nanopowders have been characterized by different instrumental methods, such as Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, specific surface area and porosity measurements, thermal analyses (Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis) and Temperature-Programmed Reduction. The average crystallite size of copper ferrites ranged between 7.8 and 14.7 nm and show a superparamagnetic and collective magnetic excitations nature. The photocatalytic decolorization of Malachite green oxalate under different UV illumination intervals was examined using these copper ferrites as photocatalysts. The results indicate that the prepared nanostructured copper ferrites showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and amount adsorbed Malachite Green dye. The co-precipitated nanosized copper ferrite powder with a low content of copper metal ions in a magnetite host structure (Cu{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2.75}O{sub 4}) showed an apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant 15.4 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1} and an amount adsorbed Malachite Green as model organic dye pollutant per 1 g catalyst of 33.4 ppm/g after the dark period. The results confirm that the copper ferrites can be suitable for photocatalytic treatment of wastewaters containing organic dyes. The new aspect of presented investigations is to study the influence of different degree of incorporation of copper ions into the magnetite host structure and preparation methods on the photocatalytic properties of nanosized copper ferrite materials and obtaining of potential photocatalyst (Cu{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2.75}O{sub 4}) with higher photocatalytic activity (15.4 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}) than that of the standard referent Degussa P25 (12 × 10

  17. Preparation, characterization and application of nanosized copper ferrite photocatalysts for dye degradation under UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharieva, Katerina; Rives, Vicente; Tsvetkov, Martin; Cherkezova-Zheleva, Zara; Kunev, Boris; Trujillano, Raquel; Mitov, Ivan; Milanova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized copper ferrite-type materials (Cu x Fe 3–x O 4 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) have been prepared by combination of co-precipitation and mechanochemical activation and/or thermal treatment. The crystalline structure and morphology of the obtained ferrite nanopowders have been characterized by different instrumental methods, such as Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, specific surface area and porosity measurements, thermal analyses (Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetric Analysis) and Temperature-Programmed Reduction. The average crystallite size of copper ferrites ranged between 7.8 and 14.7 nm and show a superparamagnetic and collective magnetic excitations nature. The photocatalytic decolorization of Malachite green oxalate under different UV illumination intervals was examined using these copper ferrites as photocatalysts. The results indicate that the prepared nanostructured copper ferrites showed enhanced photocatalytic activity and amount adsorbed Malachite Green dye. The co-precipitated nanosized copper ferrite powder with a low content of copper metal ions in a magnetite host structure (Cu 0.25 Fe 2.75 O 4 ) showed an apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant 15.4 × 10 −3 min −1 and an amount adsorbed Malachite Green as model organic dye pollutant per 1 g catalyst of 33.4 ppm/g after the dark period. The results confirm that the copper ferrites can be suitable for photocatalytic treatment of wastewaters containing organic dyes. The new aspect of presented investigations is to study the influence of different degree of incorporation of copper ions into the magnetite host structure and preparation methods on the photocatalytic properties of nanosized copper ferrite materials and obtaining of potential photocatalyst (Cu 0.25 Fe 2.75 O 4 ) with higher photocatalytic activity (15.4 × 10 −3 min −1 ) than that of the standard referent Degussa P25 (12 × 10 −3 min −1 ) for degradation of organic dye

  18. Fabrication and photocatalytic activity enhanced mechanism of direct Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bicheng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Science and Environmental Studies The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Xia, Pengfei; Li, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} acted as a support for the in situ growth of β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets inhibited the phase transformation of β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to α-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} exhibited a superior photocatalytic activity. • A direct Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism could explain activity enhancement. - Abstract: Herein, a direct Z-scheme graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})/silver tungstate (Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) photocatalyst was prepared by a facile in situ precipitation method using g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a support and silver nitrate as a precursor. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental mapping demonstrated that β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets, which acted as a support for the nucleation and growth of β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and inhibited the phase transformation of metastable β-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to stable α-Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}. Photocatalytic experiments indicated that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanocomposite photocatalyst displayed a better photocatalytic activity than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} toward the degradation of methyl orange. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} could be well explained by a direct Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism. This mechanism was related to the efficient space separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and the great oxidation and reduction capabilities of the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} system. This work provided new insights into the design and fabrication of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based direct Z-scheme photocatalysts.

  19. Process for the separation of contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a Ch4-comprising gaseous feed streem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the separation of a contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem, comprising the subsequent steps of: a) passing a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem comprising the contaminant or the mixture of contaminants in to and through a

  20. Instrument comprising a cable or tube provided provided with a propulsion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to an instrument (1) comprising a cable or tube (3), at a distal end of which a propulsion device (4) is provided for moving the cable or tube in a hollow space, the propulsion device being shaped like a donut lying in a plane at right angles to the longitudinal direction of

  1. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  2. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  3. Photomlxer for terahertz electromagnetic wave emission comprising quantum dots in a laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photomixer for generating terahertz electromagnetic radiation in response to illumination by a time-modulated optical signal. The photomixer (300) comprises a carrier substrate (310) with a plurality of quantum dots arranged in an emission region (308) thereof...

  4. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  5. Hydroformylation catalyst comprising a complex with ligands having a structure derived from bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2002-01-01

    Ethylenically unsaturated compounds are hydroformylated in the presence of a hydroformylation catalyst comprising at least one complex of a metal of transition group VIII with at least one phosphorus-containing compound as ligand, where this compound contains two groups which contain P atoms and are

  6. Structural and biophysical characterization of an antimicrobial peptide chimera comprised of lactoferricin and lactoferrampin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haney, E.F.; Nazmi, K.; Bolscher, J.G.M.; Vogel, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Lactoferricin and lactoferrampin are two antimicrobial peptides found in the N-terminal lobe of bovine lactoferrin with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as Candida albicans. A heterodimer comprised of lactoferrampin joined to a

  7. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Liu, Amy D.

    2017-07-04

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  8. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D.

    2012-08-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  9. Compositions and methods comprising cellulase variants with reduced affinity to non-cellulosic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cascao-Pereira, Luis G; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R; Liu, Amy D

    2015-04-07

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having reduced binding to non-cellulosic materials. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase, compositions comprising said cellulase, methods of identifying cellulose variants and methods of using the compositions.

  10. Semiconductor sensor device, diagnostic instrument comprising such a device and method of manufacturing such a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor sensor device (10) for sensing a substance comprising at least one mesa- shaped semiconductor region (11) which is formed on a surface of a semiconductor body (12) and which is connected at a first end to a first electrically conducting connection region (13)

  11. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wang, Qingxiao; Melnikov, Vasily; Mohammed, Omar F.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2

  12. X-ray diffraction device comprising cooling medium connections provided on the x-ray tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction device comprises a water-cooled X-ray tube which exhibits a line focus as well as, after rotation through 90 DEG , a point focus. Contrary to customary X-ray tubes, the cooling water is not supplied via the housing (12) in which the X-ray tube is mounted, but the cooling water

  13. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  14. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, Gyula J.; Duvigneau, Joost; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may

  15. Combination Comprising Parthenolide For Use In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-18

    The present invention generally concerns particular methods and compositions for treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer\\'s Disease. In particular embodiments, there is a composition comprising Parthenolide and a second agent, including an inhibitor of TLR4/MD-2/CD14, nAChR agonist, Resatorvid, Curcumin, Tilorone or a Tilorone analog, or a combination thereof.

  16. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted photocatalysts containing low TiO{sub 2} loading: Evaluation for the degradation of pharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho de Escobar, Cícero; Lansarin, Marla Azário [Departamento de Engenharia Química—Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Eng. Luis Englert s/n, 90040-040 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Zimnoch dos Santos, João Henrique, E-mail: jhzds@iq.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre CEP 91500-000 (Brazil)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted photocatalyst (MIP) containing low TiO{sub 2} loading were prepared by acid-catalyzed sol–gel process. • Seven pharmaceutical compounds were evaluated as a template. • Comparing to the P25, MIP has shown an increase of adsorption up to 752%. • Comparing to the P25, MIP has shown an increase of degradation up to 427%. • The presence of specific cavities on the silica domain could explain the better results for MIP. - Abstract: A molecularly imprinted (MI) photocatalyst containing a low TiO{sub 2} loading (7.00–16.60 mg L{sup −1} of TiO{sub 2}) was prepared via an acid-catalyzed sol–gel route using different classes of pharmaceutical compounds (i.e., Atorvastatin, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Tioconazole, Valsartan, Ketoconazole and Gentamicine) as the template. Herein, our main goal was to test the hypothesis that photocatalysts based on molecular imprinting may improve the degradation performance of pharmaceutical compounds compared to that of a commercial sample (Degussa P25) due to presence of specific cavities in the silica domain. To elucidate certain trends between the performance of photocatalysts and their structural and textural properties, as well the effect of the structure of the drugs on molecular imprinting, the data were analyzed in terms of pore diameter, pore volume, surface area, zeta potential and six-membered ring percentage of silica. In comparison to the commercial sample (P25), we have shown that adsorption and degradation were enhanced from 48 to 752% and from 5 to 427%, respectively. A comparison with the control system (non-imprinted) indicates that the increased performance of the MI systems was due to the presence of specific cavities on the silica domain, and the textural and structural aspects also support this conclusion. The MI photocatalyst was reusable for seven cycles of reuse in which approximately 60% of its photocatalytic efficiency was preserved for the system containing

  17. Current status and prospect on photo-catalyst application in environmental problems; Kankyo mondai ni okeru hikari shokubai oyo no ganjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1995-09-30

    This paper summarizes application of photo-catalysts in environmental problems. The paper lists examples of the application in residential environments. Photo-catalytic decomposition is possible by using ultraviolet rays contained in room illumination if the bacterial presence is sparse. The examples thereof may be cited as follows: if colon bacilli are suspended on a tile with TiO2 photo-catalyst sintered in it and exposed to room illumination, the bacteria are disinfected; using photo-catalysts in a bathroom suppresses deposition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; a photo-catalyst tile (TiO2 loaded with Cu) and light irradiation reduce intensity of tobacco smoke odor; and adsorbents may be used simultaneously if intermediate products are odor generating substances. The examples of applying photo-catalysts to regional environments may be quoted as follows: growth of algae in a Petri dish is suppressed by presence of Cu loaded TiO2 under room illumination; this leads to an expectation on its effect in a relatively clean water environment; glass beads loaded with a TiO2 photo-catalyst placed in a gold fish breeding tank reduces turbidity, the number of colon bacilluses, and COD value; and the mortality in gold fish shows no change. With an objective of application to exterior building materials, photo-catalyst applied tiles were left outdoors for 160 days. Nitric acid ions were detected that are thought to have been generated by decomposition of microorganisms that have deposited on the tiles. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Promoting Photocatalytic Overall Water Splitting by Controlled Magnesium Incorporation in SrTiO3 Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai; Lin, Yen-Chun; Yang, Chia-Min; Jong, Ronald; Mul, Guido; Mei, Bastian

    2017-11-23

    SrTiO 3 is a well-known photocatalyst inducing overall water splitting when exposed to UV irradiation of wavelengths water-splitting efficiency of the Mg:SrTiO x composites is up to 20 times higher compared to SrTiO 3 containing similar catalytic nanoparticles, and an apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 10 % can be obtained in the wavelength range of 300-400 nm. Detailed characterization of the Mg:SrTiO x composites revealed that Mg is likely substituting the tetravalent Ti ion, leading to a favorable surface-space-charge layer. This originates from tuning of the donor density in the cubic SrTiO 3 structure by Mg incorporation and enables high oxygen-evolution rates. Nevertheless, interfacing with an appropriate hydrogen evolution catalyst is mandatory and non-trivial to obtain high-performance in water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Spectralsignatures of nickel and vanadium supported photocatalysts and their photocatalytic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Feng; Zhang, Qian-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Jian, Li

    2011-04-01

    Using SiO2, activated carbon (AC) and Al2O3 as supports, the supported photocatalysts Ni-V-O/SiO2, Ni-V-O/AC and Ni-V-O/Al2O3 were prepared by impregnation method, and their spectralsignatures were investigated. The carbonylation of methanol with CO2 under UV irradiation was used as a probe reaction to compare the photocatalytic performance of the prepared catalysts. Integrated with the testing results of carbonylation, the effects of different supports on selectivity for the carbonylation products of methyl formate (MF) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) were discussed by pyridine-IR and UV-Vis techniques. XRD results showed that the particles of nickel and vanadium supported on SiO2 had the highest degree of dispersion. Results of pyridine-IR indicated that all catalysts retained Lewis acid sites. The acid strength was different from catalyst samples with different supports but with the same active components. The acid strengths could be arranged as follows: Ni-V-O/SiO2 > Ni-V-O/Al2 O3 > Ni-V-O/AC. Different acid strengths exhibited different influence on the selectivity of products MF and DMC of carbonylation. The surface acid strengths of catalysts were the major factor influencing the selectivity of carbonylation products.

  20. Sulphonated cobalt phthalocyanine-MCM-41: An active photocatalyst for degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanjanchi, M.A., E-mail: zanjanchi@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Namjoo St., Rasht 41335 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimian, A.; Arvand, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Namjoo St., Rasht 41335 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The photocatalytic activity of sulphonated cobalt phthalocyanine immobilized onto MCM-41 was investigated for decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solutions. Immobilization of anion sulpho-cobalt phthalocyanine to the walls of MCM-41 was performed by pre-anchorage of 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES) onto MCM-41 via post-synthesis method. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray and FT-IR methods were used to characterize the product. Photocatalytic efficiency of the prepared catalyst for degradation of 2,4-DCP was tested under illumination of UV-A and visible light. The results obtained reveal that the photocatalyst is very active in degradation of 2,4-DCP. The photodegradation process is completed within 3 h using a dose of 0.6 g/L of the catalyst under UV irradiation. The reactions follow a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the observed rate constant values change with 2,4-DCP concentrations. The reproducibility of the catalyst was tested. The reaction intermediates were identified by gas chromatoghraphy-mass spectrometery (GC-MS) technique.

  1. Graphene quantum dots /LaCoO3/attapulgite heterojunction photocatalysts with improved photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Xiazhang

    2017-01-01

    A new nanocomposite of graphene quantum dots/LaCoO 3 /attapulgite (GQDs/LaCoO 3 /ATP) was prepared by a facile impregnation method and was applied to degradation of the organic pollutants as photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. Multiple techniques were used to characterize the structures, morphologies and photocatalytic activities of samples. The photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/LaCoO 3 /ATP nanocomposites was effectively evaluated using Methylene blue (MB), antibiotic agent chlortetracycline (CHL) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The as-synthesized GQDs/LaCoO 3 /ATP nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than LaCoO 3 /ATP, which showed a broad spectrum of photocatalytic degradation activity. The results of ESR and free radicals trapping experiments indicated that circle OH and h + were the main species for the photocatalytic degradation. GQDs played a significant role in the photocatalytic activity improvement of LaCoO 3 /ATP, increasing the visible light absorption, slowing the recombination and improving the charge transfer. (orig.)

  2. Graphene quantum dots /LaCoO3/attapulgite heterojunction photocatalysts with improved photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Xiazhang

    2017-04-01

    A new nanocomposite of graphene quantum dots/LaCoO3/attapulgite (GQDs/LaCoO3/ATP) was prepared by a facile impregnation method and was applied to degradation of the organic pollutants as photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. Multiple techniques were used to characterize the structures, morphologies and photocatalytic activities of samples. The photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/LaCoO3/ATP nanocomposites was effectively evaluated using Methylene blue (MB), antibiotic agent chlortetracycline (CHL) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The as-synthesized GQDs/LaCoO3/ATP nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than LaCoO3/ATP, which showed a broad spectrum of photocatalytic degradation activity. The results of ESR and free radicals trapping experiments indicated that • OH and h+ were the main species for the photocatalytic degradation. GQDs played a significant role in the photocatalytic activity improvement of LaCoO3/ATP, increasing the visible light absorption, slowing the recombination and improving the charge transfer.

  3. Gold nanoparticles decorated on BaTiO3 as photocatalyst: effect of SPR and ferroelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhilei; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Rongchun; Zhou, Fang; Lv, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    BaTiO3(BTO) powders with cubic(C) and tetragonal(T) crystalline structures were prepared by sol-gel method followed by calcination at different temperatures, and they were decorated with gold nanoparticles(AuNPs) to form Au-T-BTO and Au-C-BTO respectively. All the samples (C-BTO, T-BTO, Au-C-BTO and Au-T-BTO) were used as photo-catalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). Au-T-BTO exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity due to thecombined effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the ferroelectricity of the tetragonalphase BTO. The light absorption peaks at 500 to 600 nm verify the presence of SPR effect from Au NPs. Based on density functional theory (DFC) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach, it was demonstrated that the tetragonal phase BaTiO3 shows a spontaneous polarization with the calculated value of 0.34 C m-2, which is absent in thecubic phase. The internal space charge layer in tetragonal phase BTO enhances the separation of photoexcited carriers due to the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization, which also benefits photocatalytic activities.

  4. Enhancement of tributyltin degradation under natural light by N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangkedphol, S.; Keenan, H.E.; Davidson, C.M.; Sakultantimetha, A.; Sirisaksoontorn, W.; Songsasen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Photo-degradation of tributyltin (TBT) has been enhanced by TiO 2 nanoparticles doped with nitrogen (N-doped TiO 2 ). The N-doped catalyst was prepared by a sol-gel reaction of titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide with 25% ammonia solution and calcined at various temperatures from 300 to 600 deg. C. X-ray diffraction results showed that N-doped TiO 2 remained amorphous at 300 deg. C. At 400 deg. C the anatase phase occurred then transformed to the rutile phase at 600 deg. C. The crystallite size calculated from Scherrer's equation was in the range of 16-51 nm which depended on the calcination temperature. N-doped TiO 2 calcined at 400 deg. C which contained 0.054% nitrogen, demonstrated the highest photocatalytic degradation of TBT at 28% in 3 h under natural light when compared with undoped TiO 2 and commercial photocatalyst, P25-TiO 2 which gave 14.8 and 18% conversion, respectively.

  5. Single step fabrication method of fullerene/TiO2 composite photocatalyst for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, Jong Min; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternative energy sources. Fossil fuel, which is the most widely used energy source, has two defects. One is CO 2 emission causing global warming. The other is exhaustion. On the other hand, hydrogen emits no CO 2 and can be produced by splitting water which is renewable and easily obtainable source. However, about 95% of hydrogen is derived from fossil fuel. It limits the merits of hydrogen. Hydrogen from fossil fuel is not a renewable energy anymore. To maximize the merits of hydrogen, renewability and no CO 2 emission, unconventional hydrogen production methods without using fossil fuel are required. Photocatalytic water-splitting is one of the unconventional hydrogen production methods. Photocatalytic water-splitting that uses hole/electron pairs of semiconductor is expectable way to produce clean and renewable hydrogen from solar energy. TiO 2 is the semiconductor material which has been most widely used as photocatalyst. TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic reactivity and stability in water. However, its wide band gap only absorbs UV light which is only 5% of sun light. To enhance the visible light responsibility, composition with fullerene based materials has been investigated. 1-2 Methano-fullerene carboxylic acid (FCA) is one of the fullerene based materials. We tried to fabricate FCA/TiO 2 composite using UV assisted single step method. The method not only simplified the fabrication procedures, but enhanced hydrogen production rate

  6. Efficient photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green using nickel tungstate material as photo-catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaïli, N; Boudjamaa, A; Kebir, M; Bachari, K

    2017-03-01

    The present study focused on the evaluation of photo-catalytic and photo-electrochemical properties of the photo-catalyst based on nickel tungstate material prepared by a nitrate method through the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye's. The effect of catalyst loading and dye concentration was examined. Physico-chemical, optical, electrical, electrochemical, and photo-electrochemical properties of the prepared material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), BET analysis, optical reflectance diffuse (DR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry (CV), current intensity, mott-shottky, and nyquist. XRD revealed the formation of monoclinic structure with a small particle size. BET surface area of the sample was around 10 m 2 /g. The results show that the degradation of MG was more than 80%, achieved after 3 h of irradiation at pH 4.6 and with a catalyst loading of 75 mg. Also, it was found that the dye photo-degradation obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic via Langmuir Hinshelwood model.

  7. Synthesis and photoactivity of the highly efficient Ag species/TiO2 nanoflakes photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Hu Juncheng; Li Jinlin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Highly efficient Ag species-TiO 2 nanoflakes catalyst was prepared. → The variety and relative amount of Ag species in TiO 2 can be well tuned. → The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the Ag species. - Abstract: Ag species/TiO 2 nanoflakes photocatalysts with different relative contents (Ag + , Ag 2+ , Ag 0 ) have been successfully synthesized by a simple template-free synthetic strategy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the dopant ions (Ag + or Ag 2+ ) were partly incorporated into the titanium dioxide nanoflakes. Meanwhile, part of the silver ions migrated to the surface after the subsequent calcination and aggregated into ultra-small metallic Ag nanoclusters (NCs) (1-2 nm), which are well dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 nanoflakes. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag species/TiO 2 materials obtained were evaluated by testing the photodegradation of the azo dye reactive brilliant X-3B (X-3B) under near UV irradiation. Interestingly, it was found that the maximum photocatalytic efficiency was observed when Ag species coexisted in three valence states (Ag + , Ag 2+ , Ag 0 NCs), which was higher than that of Degussa P25. The high photocatalytic activity of the Ag species/TiO 2 can be attributed to the synergy effect of the three Ag species.

  8. Efficient Solar Energy Harvesting and Storage through a Robust Photocatalyst Driving Reversible Redox Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangen; Zhang, Shun; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhang, Changkun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2018-06-14

    Simultaneous solar energy conversion and storage is receiving increasing interest for better utilization of the abundant yet intermittently available sunlight. Photoelectrodes driving nonspontaneous reversible redox reactions in solar-powered redox cells (SPRCs), which can deliver energy via the corresponding reverse reactions, present a cost-effective and promising approach for direct solar energy harvesting and storage. However, the lack of photoelectrodes having both high conversion efficiency and high durability becomes a bottleneck that hampers practical applications of SPRCs. Here, it is shown that a WO 3 -decorated BiVO 4 photoanode, without the need of extra electrocatalysts, can enable a single-photocatalyst-driven SPRC with a solar-to-output energy conversion efficiency as high as 1.25%. This SPRC presents stable performance over 20 solar energy storage/delivery cycles. The high efficiency and stability are attributed to the rapid redox reactions, the well-matched energy level, and the efficient light harvesting and charge separation of the prepared BiVO 4 . This demonstrated device system represents a potential alternative toward the development of low-cost, durable, and easy-to-implement solar energy technologies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Solar efficiency of a new deposited titania photocatalyst. Chlorophenol, pesticide and dye removal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillard, Chantal; Disdier, Jean; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Herrmann, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire D' Application de la Chimie a l' Environnement LACE (UMR 5634), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, Bat Jules Raulin, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Monnet, Christine; Dussaud, Joseph [AHLSTROM Research and Services, ZI de l' Abbaye, 38780 Pont-Eveque (France); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Ctra. Senes Km. 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2003-11-10

    A specially designed titania photocatalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photocatalytic support, with Millennium PC500 anatase. At the same time, a new solar photoreactor (STEP) was designed based on the multi-step cascade falling-film principle to ensure good exposure to sunlight and good oxygenation of the effluent to be treated. Several types of reactants were treated: 4-chlorophenol as a model organic pollutant; formetanate, a widely used pesticide in horticulture; a mixture of pesticides used in vineyards; and indigo carmine (IC) and Congo red (CR), which are complex multifunctional dye molecules. Each reaction was performed simultaneously in a solar CPC slurry photoreactor and in the STEP photoreactor under identical solar exposure to better evaluate and validate the results obtained. The STEP solar reactor was found to be as efficient as the CPC for 4-chlorophenol and formetanate total degradation. In contrast, both dyes required longer treatment in STEP experiments. This new system, in which the final tedious filtration can actually be avoided, constitutes a good alternative to slurries.

  10. Urban wastewater treatment by using Ag/ZnO and Pt/TiO2 photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia Mesa, Julie J; Arias Bolivar, Lizeth G; Sarmiento, Hugo Alfonso Rojas; Martínez, Elsa Giovanna Ávila; Páez, César Jaramillo; Lara, Mayra Anabel; Santos, José Antonio Navío; Del Carmen Hidalgo López, María

    2018-03-02

    In this study, the treatment of wastewater coming from a river highly polluted with domestic and industrial effluents was evaluated. For this purpose, series of photocatalysts obtained by ZnO and TiO 2 modification were evaluated. The effect of metal addition and Ti precursor (in the case of the titania series) over the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of the materials obtained was also analyzed. The evaluation of the photocatalytic activity showed that semiconductor modification and precursor used in the materials synthesis are important factors influencing the physicochemical and therefore the photocatalytic properties of the materials obtained. The water samples analyzed in the present work were taken from a highly polluted river, and it was found that the effectiveness of the photocatalytic treatment increases when the reaction time increases and for both, wastewater samples and isolated Escherichia coli strain follow the next order Pt/TiO 2 < ZnO. It was also observed that biochemical and chemical demand oxygen and turbidity significantly decrease after treatment, thus indicating that photocatalysis is a non-selective technology, which can lead to recover wastewater containing different pollutants.

  11. Synthesis of ZnO-CuO/MCM-48 photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yongzheng; Shen, Yulian

    2017-07-01

    The photocatalytic properties of ZnO-CuO catalysts supported on siliceous MCM-48 (Mobil Composition of Matter No. 48) for the degradation of organic pollutions such as methylene blue and salicylic acid under UV light irradiation were investigated. These catalysts were prepared by impregnation of MCM-48 with a mixed aqueous solution of copper acetate and zinc acetate. X-ray diffraction, N 2 -physisorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence were used to characterize these samples. Results from characterizations showed that the addition of ZnO to CuO/MCM-48 could markedly improve the photocatalytic degradation properties. The enhanced photocatalytic behaviors of ZnO-CuO/MCM-48 may be due to the formation of p-n heterojunctions between ZnO and CuO, resulting in the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the photocatalysts were easily recovered and reused for five cycles without considerable loss of activity.

  12. [Preparation and catalytic activity of surface-modification CNTs/TiO2 composite photocatalysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-Ying; Li, Wen-Jun; Chang, Zhi-Dong; Zhou, Hua-Lei; Guo, Hui-Chao

    2011-09-01

    A novel kind of carbon nanotubes/titanium dioxide (CNTs/TiO2) composite photocatalyst was prepared by a modified sol-gel method in which the nanoscaled TiO2 particles were uniformly deposited on the CNTs modified with poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). The composites were characterized by a range of analytical techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show the successful covering of the CNTs with PVP, forming core-shell structure. The nanoscaled TiO2 particles were uniformly deposited on the surface of CNTs reducing the bare CNTs which avoid losing the absorption and scattering of photons. The combination of CNTs and TiO2 particles imply the enhanced interactions between the CNTs and TiO2 interface which possibly becomes heterojunction. The composites become mesoporous crystalline TiO2 (anatase) clusters after annealing at 500 degrees C, and the surface area increases obviously. The photocatalytic activities of surface modification CNTs/TiO2 (smCNTs/TiO2) composites are extremely enhanced from the results of the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB).

  13. Rational Design and Nanoscale Integration of Multi-Heterostructures as Highly Efficient Photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xiangfeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    The central goal of this project is to design and synthesize complex multi-hetero-nanostructures and fundamental investigation of their potential as efficient and robust photocatalysts. Specifically, the project aims to develop a nanoscale light-harvesting antenna that can efficiently convert solar photon energy into excited electrons and holes, and integrate such antenna with efficient redox nanocatalysts that can harness the photo-generated carriers for productive electrochemical processes. Focusing on this central goal, we have investigated several potential light-harvesting antennas including: silicon nanowires, nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanowires and the emerging perovskite materials. We also devoted considerable effort in developing electrocatalysts including: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts and oxygen reduction reaction catalysts (ORR). In previous annual reports, we have described our effort in the synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of silicon, TiO2, perovskite-based materials and heterostructures. Here, we focus our discussion on the recent effort in investigating charge transport dynamics in organolead halide perovskites, as well as carbon nanostructure and platinum nanostructure-based electrocatalysts for energy conversion and storage.

  14. Graphene quantum dots /LaCoO{sub 3}/attapulgite heterojunction photocatalysts with improved photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Xiazhang [Changzhou University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Science, R and D Center of Xuyi Attapulgite Applied Technology, Xuyi (China)

    2017-04-15

    A new nanocomposite of graphene quantum dots/LaCoO{sub 3}/attapulgite (GQDs/LaCoO{sub 3}/ATP) was prepared by a facile impregnation method and was applied to degradation of the organic pollutants as photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. Multiple techniques were used to characterize the structures, morphologies and photocatalytic activities of samples. The photocatalytic activity of the GQDs/LaCoO{sub 3}/ATP nanocomposites was effectively evaluated using Methylene blue (MB), antibiotic agent chlortetracycline (CHL) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TC). The as-synthesized GQDs/LaCoO{sub 3}/ATP nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than LaCoO{sub 3}/ATP, which showed a broad spectrum of photocatalytic degradation activity. The results of ESR and free radicals trapping experiments indicated that {sup circle} OH and h {sup +} were the main species for the photocatalytic degradation. GQDs played a significant role in the photocatalytic activity improvement of LaCoO{sub 3}/ATP, increasing the visible light absorption, slowing the recombination and improving the charge transfer. (orig.)

  15. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  16. Energy storage systems having an electrode comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2016-08-02

    Improved lithium-sulfur energy storage systems can utilizes Li.sub.xS.sub.y as a component in an electrode of the system. For example, the energy storage system can include a first electrode current collector, a second electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable separator separating the first and second electrode current collectors. A second electrode is arranged between the second electrode current collector and the separator. A first electrode is arranged between the first electrode current collector and the separator and comprises a first condensed-phase fluid comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y. The energy storage system can be arranged such that the first electrode functions as a positive or a negative electrode.

  17. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  18. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones of Viruses Comprising the Towne Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  19. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of viruses comprising the towne cytomegalovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohong; Adler, Stuart P; Davison, Andrew J; Smith, Larry; Habib, El-Sayed E; McVoy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  1. Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmeton, Vincent.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr

  2. Article comprising a garment or other textile structure for use in controlling body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    There is disclosed an article for use in cooling body temperature which comprises a garment having a coat and pant, with each having a body section adapted to receive a portion of the torso of the wearer and extensions from the body section to receive the wearer's limbs. The garment includes a system for circulating temperature controlling fluid from a suitable source through patches removably received in pockets in each of body section and extensions.

  3. Layer structured Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particles as a visible-light-driven photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuting; Chen, Luyang; Huang, Yanlin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Cuili; Kim, Sun Il [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Jin, E-mail: hjseo@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} nanoparticles were developed by Pechini method. • The nanoparticles show high absorption in UV–vis wavelength region. • Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} has high activity in the MB dye degradation under visible light. • Hexagonal layers with heavily distorted NiO{sub 6} were superiority for photocatalysis. - Abstract: A new visible-light-driven photocatalyst of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle was prepared by the modified Pechini method. The crystal structure was measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the structural refinement. The sample was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV–vis absorption spectrum measurements. The average size of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle is about 180 nm. Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle have an efficient optical absorption in the UV–visible light wavelength region with a direct allowed electronic transition of 2.06 eV. The effective photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye was demonstrated, which benefits from the special crystal structure of Na{sub 2}Ni(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} particle. This crystal lattice has two infinite chains formed by (Ni,Na)O{sub 6} and MoO{sub 4} polyhedra standing in lines alone with the inner wall of the hexagonal tunnels. This results in the efficient optical absorption and provides more chances for electron–hole separations, which can further react with dye molecules to oxidize the dye pollutant into non-toxic products.

  4. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm(2), and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  5. Neurosensory and vascular function after 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr; Wahlström, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions on neurosensory and vascular function in the hands and feet. Military conscripts (N=54) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing comprising touch, temperature, and vibration perception thresholds and finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling and a questionnaire on neurosensory and vascular symptoms at both baseline and follow-up. Ambient air temperature was recorded with body worn temperature loggers. The subjects showed reduced sensitivity to perception of touch, warmth, cold and vibrations in both the hands and feet except from vibrotactile perception in digit two of the right hand (right dig 2). Cold sensations, white fingers, and pain/discomfort when exposed to cold as well as pain increased in both prevalence and severity. There were no statistically significant changes in FSBP after local cooling. Fourteen months of winter military training comprising cold winter conditions reduced sensation from touch, warmth, cold, and vibrotactile stimulus in both hands and feet and increased the severity and prevalence of symptoms and pain. The vascular function in the hands, measured by FSBP after local cooling, was not affected.

  6. Graphene oxide based CdSe photocatalysts: Synthesis, characterization and comparative photocatalytic efficiency of rhodamine B and industrial dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Trisha; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Meng, Ze-Da; Ullah, Kefayat; Park, Chong-Yeon; Nikam, Vikram; Oh, Won-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CdSe–graphene is synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► Three molar solutions of CdSe were used making three different composites. ► RhB and Texbrite MST-L were used as sample dye solutions. ► Texbrite MST-L is photo degraded in visible light. ► UV-spectroscopic analysis was done to measure degradation. - Abstract: CdSe–graphene composites were prepared using simple “hydrothermal method” where the graphene surface was modified using different molar solutions of cadmium selenide (CdSe) in aqueous media. The characterization of CdSe–graphene composites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and with transmission electron microscope (TEM). The catalytic activities of CdSe-composites were evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and commercial industrial dye “Texbrite MST-L (TXT-MST)” with fixed concentration. The degradation was observed by the decrease in the absorbance peak studied by UV spectrophotometer. The decrease in the dye concentration indicated catalytic degradation effect by CdSe–graphene composites

  7. Development of Ta3N5 as an Efficient Visible Light-responsive Photocatalyst for Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2015-01-01

    phase sample. The photophysical properties of Ta3N5, such as the absorption coefficient, carrier mobility, and carrier lifetime, have been experimentally measured by synthesizing Ta3N5 thin films. Very low kinetic properties with very low transport

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of mixed gaseous carbonyl compounds at low level on adsorptive TiO2/SiO2 photocatalyst using a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; An, Taicheng; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying; Wang, Xinming; Hu, Xiaohong; Ding, Xuejun

    2006-06-01

    An adsorptive silica-supported titania photocatalyst TiO(2)/SiO(2) was prepared by using nanosized titania (anatase) immobilized on silica gel by the sol-gel technique with the titanium tetra isopropoxide as the main raw material and acetic acid as the acid catalyst. Meanwhile the structure and properties of the TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were studied by means of many modern analysis techniques such as TEM, XRD, and BET. Gas-solid heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of four carbonyl compounds mixture at low concentration levels over ultraviolet irradiated TiO(2)/SiO(2) photocatalyst were carried out with high degradation efficiencies in a coaxial triple-cylinder-type fluidized bed photocatalytic reactor, which provided efficient continuous contact of ultraviolet photons, silica-supported titania photocatalyst, and gaseous reactants. Experimental results showed that the photocatalyst had a high adsorption performance and a good photocatalytic activity for four carbonyl compounds mixture. Some factors influencing the photocatalytic decomposition of the mixed carbonyl compounds, i.e. the gas flowrate, relative humidity, concentration of oxygen, and illumination time, were discussed in detail. It is found that the photocatalytic reaction rate of four carbonyl compounds decreased in this order: propionaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde.

  9. Fabrication of BiOBr nanosheets@TiO{sub 2} nanobelts p–n junction photocatalysts for enhanced visible-light activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Huang, Xiang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Tan, Xin [School of Science, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Yu, Tao, E-mail: yutao@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Xiangli [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Libin [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Shucong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • BiOBr nanosheets@TiO{sub 2} nanobelts p–n junction photocatalysts have been synthesized. • The p–n junction photocatalysts improved water splitting and dye degradation activity. • BiOBr amount in the BiOBr@TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts was investigated. - Abstract: The construction of p–n junction structure is a smart strategy for improving the photocatalytic activity, since p–n junctions can inhibit the recombination of photo-induced charges. Herein, BiOBr nanosheets@TiO{sub 2} nanobelts p–n junction photocatalysts were prepared by assembling BiOBr nanosheets on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanobelts via a hydrothermal route followed by a co-precipitation process. BiOBr@TiO{sub 2} p–n junction photocatalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in photocatalytic H{sub 2} production over water splitting and photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. Mott–Schottky plots confirmed the formation of p–n junctions in the interface of BiOBr and TiO{sub 2}. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be ascribed to the 1D nanostructure and the formation of p–n junctions. This work shows a potential application of low cost BiOBr as a substitute for noble metals in photocatalytic H{sub 2} production under visible light irradiation.

  10. A gas sensor comprising two back-to-back connected Au/TiO2 Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Niloofar; Yousefiazari, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    A miniature, but sturdy, gas sensor capable of operation at temperatures as high as 600 °C is presented. The device comprises two back-to-back connected gold/rutile Schottky diodes, which are fabricated on the opposite bases of a self-standing 100 μm-thick pellet of polycrystalline rutile. The rutile layer is formed by the direct oxidation of titanium metal in air at 900 °C, and the Au/rutile diodes are formed by the diffusion bonding of the gold wire segments to the pellet bases. The current versus voltage diagrams and gas sensing properties of the Au/rutile/Au structured device are recorded at different voltage sweeping frequencies and operating temperatures. The interesting features of these diagrams are explained based on an equivalent circuit of the device, which considers Schottky-type contacts at both bases and memristive conduction for the rutile in between. The device current is controlled by the leakage current of the reverse biased diode, which depends on the concentration of the oxygen vacancy at the Au/rutile interface and, hence, on the composition of the surrounding atmosphere. The device current increases 15 times in response to the presence of 1000 ppm of ethanol vapor in air. Consisting only of bulk gold and bulk rutile, the device is resilient to harsh environments and elevated temperatures; a suitable gas sensor for in-exhaust installation.

  11. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  12. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim; Saja Mohsen Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD) sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content). In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the ...

  13. Eosin Y photoredox catalyzed net redox neutral reaction for regiospecific annulation to 3-sulfonylindoles via anion oxidation of sodium sulfinate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohokale, Rajendra S; Tambe, Shrikant D; Kshirsagar, Umesh A

    2018-01-24

    An eosin Y photoredox catalyzed net redox neutral process for 3-sulfonylindoles via the anionic oxidation of sodium sulfinate salts and its radical cascade cyclization with 2-alkynyl-azidoarenes was developed with visible light as a mediator. The reaction offers metal and oxidant/reductant free, visible light mediated vicinal sulfonamination of alkynes to 2-aryl/alkyl-3-sulfonylindoles and proceeds via the generation of a sulfur-centered radical through direct oxidation of the sulfinate anion by an excited photocatalyst with a reductive quenching cycle. The mild conditions, use of an organic dye as photo-catalyst, bench stability and easily accessible starting materials make the present approach green and attractive.

  14. A simplified theoretical guideline for overall water splitting using photocatalyst particles

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia Esparza, Angel T.

    2015-10-02

    Particulate photocatalytic water splitting is the most disruptive and competitive solution for the direct production of solar fuels. Despite more than four decades of work in the field of photocatalysis using powdered semiconductors decorated with catalyst particles, there is no clear consensus on the factors limiting the solar-to-hydrogen efficiency (STH). To understand the intrinsic limitations of the system, we numerically simulated simplified two-dimensional photocatalytic models using classical semiconductor device equations. This work presents the sensitivity of quantum efficiency (QE) to the various semiconductor properties, such as absorption properties and carrier mobilities, and to the dispersion of catalyst particles, which create heterojunctions, the driving force for charge separation. As a result, a pinch-off effect was prevalent underneath the hydrogen evolution site, suggesting an undesired energetic barrier for electron diffusion to the catalyst. The simulation using the values reported in the literature revealed that the QE was exclusively governed by recombination in the bulk of the photocatalyst particles, hindering the charge separation efficiency before reaching the catalysts on the surface. Using some of the reported parameters, our simulation shows that a typical defective n-type semiconductor particle (∼100 nm) ideally exhibits a QE of <5% in the visible light range per particle, which reaches only approximately 10% in a slurry after 4 consecutive absorbing units (1.4% STH, from simulated solar irradiation). Although the present model contains rigid limitations, we use these trends as an initial guideline to pursue photocatalysis by a design strategy, which may result in possible alternatives to achieve higher efficiencies. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Hydroxyl-dependent Evolution of Oxygen Vacancies Enables the Regeneration of BiOCl photocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Sujuan

    2017-05-02

    Photoinduced oxygen vacancies (OVs) are widely investigated as a vital point defect in wide-band-gap semiconductors. Still, the formation mechanism of OVs remains unclear in various materials. To elucidate the formation mechanism of photoinduced OVs in bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl), we synthesized two surface hydroxyl discrete samples in light of the discovery of the significant variance of hydroxyl groups before and after UV light exposure. It is noted that OVs can be obtained easily after UV light irradiation in the sample with surface hydroxyl groups, while variable changes were observed in samples without surface hydroxyls. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the binding energy of Bi-O is drastically influenced by surficial hydroxyl groups, which is intensely correlated to the formation of photoinduced OVs. Moreover, DFT calculations reveal that the adsorbed water molecules are energetically favored to dissociate into separate hydroxyl groups at the OV sites via proton transfer to a neighboring bridging oxygen atom, forming two bridging hydroxyl groups per initial oxygen vacancy. This result is consistent with the experimental observation that the disappearance of photoinduced OVs and the recovery of hydroxyl groups on the surface of BiOCl after exposed to a H2O(g)-rich atmosphere, and finally enables the regeneration of BiOCl photocatalyst. Here, we introduce new insights that the evolution of photoinduced OVs is dependent on surface hydroxyl groups, which will lead to the regeneration of active sites in semiconductors. This work is useful for controllable designs of defective semiconductors for applications in photocatalysis and photovoltaics.

  16. Single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides as promising photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yujie; Luo, Gaixia; Meng, Lijuan; Zhang, Qinfang; Xu, Ning; Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Kong, Fanjie; Wang, Baolin

    2018-05-30

    Searching for two-dimensional semiconductor materials that are suitable for visible-light photocatalytic water splitting provides a sustainable solution to deal with the future energy crisis and environmental problems. Herein, based on first-principles calculations, single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Si, Ge, Sn) zinc nitrides are proposed as efficient photocatalysts for water splitting. Stability analyses show that the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides exhibit energetic and dynamical stability. The electronic properties reveal that all of the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides are semiconductors. Interestingly, single-layer ZnSnN2 is a direct band gap semiconductor with a desirable band gap (1.74 eV), and the optical adsorption spectrum confirms its optical absorption in the visible light region. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) calculations show that the catalytic activity for single-layer ZnMN2 (M = Ge, Sn) is better than that of single-layer ZnSiN2. Furthermore, the band gaps and band edge positions for the single-layer ZnMN2 zinc nitrides can be effectively tuned by biaxial strain. Especially, single-layer ZnGeN2 can be effectively tuned to match better with the redox potentials of water and enhance the light absorption in the visible light region at a tensile strain of 5%, which is confirmed by the corresponding optical absorption spectrum. Our results provide guidance for experimental synthesis efforts and future searches for single-layer materials suitable for photocatalytic water splitting.

  17. In-situ anatase phase stabilization of titania photocatalyst by sintering in presence of Zr{sup 4+} organic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strini, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.strini@itc.cnr.it [Istituto per le Tecnologie della Costruzione (ITC-CNR), via Lombardia, 49, I-20098 San Giuliano Milanese (MI) (Italy); Sanson, Alessandra; Mercadelli, Elisa [Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici (ISTEC-CNR), via Granarolo, 64, I-48018 Faenza (RA) (Italy); Bendoni, Riccardo [Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali Ceramici (ISTEC-CNR), via Granarolo, 64, I-48018 Faenza (RA) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche e Centro NAST - Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Marelli, Marcello; Dal Santo, Vladimiro [CNR–Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Golgi, 19, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Schiavi, Luca [Istituto per le Tecnologie della Costruzione (ITC-CNR), via Lombardia, 49, I-20098 San Giuliano Milanese (MI) (Italy)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Existing commercial (P25) anatase was stabilized in-situ with Zr(IV) doping. • Highly active catalytic layers were obtained by screen-printing. • Increased thermal stability was demonstrated up to 200 °C without activity loss. • Enhanced activity was obtained because of the Zr(IV) doping. • Zirconium diffusion was assessed by STEM-EDS analysis. - Abstract: The direct in-situ stabilization of an anatase-based nanocrystalline photocatalyst (Degussa P25) was obtained by sintering the catalyst powder in presence of Zr{sup 4+} organic salts. This approach allows the doping of an already-formed nanocrystalline photocatalyst instead of introducing the dopant in the crystal lattice during the catalyst synthesis. The procedure was demonstrated by the production of thick ceramic layers using the screen printing technique. This new method allows to easily stabilize the anatase phase 200 °C higher than the undoped P25 maintaining the same photocatalytic activity. The process was studied using specifically formulated screen-printing inks added with Zr{sup 4+} organic salt at 1% and 2% Zr/Ti molar ratio. The anatase phase stability was investigated in the 500–900 °C temperature range analysing the resulting catalysts with XRD, TEM and (S)TEM-EDS. The catalytic activity of the screen-printed layers was assessed by measuring the degradation of toluene in air at ambient concentration (500 nmol m{sup −3}) and low UV-A irradiance (180 μW cm{sup −2}). The described in-situ stabilization method could be potentially applied to any deposition process involving already formed anatase photocatalyst, allowing higher sintering temperature and then an improved mechanical stability of the active layers without photocatalytic activity degradation.

  18. In-situ anatase phase stabilization of titania photocatalyst by sintering in presence of Zr4+ organic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strini, Alberto; Sanson, Alessandra; Mercadelli, Elisa; Bendoni, Riccardo; Marelli, Marcello; Dal Santo, Vladimiro; Schiavi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Existing commercial (P25) anatase was stabilized in-situ with Zr(IV) doping. • Highly active catalytic layers were obtained by screen-printing. • Increased thermal stability was demonstrated up to 200 °C without activity loss. • Enhanced activity was obtained because of the Zr(IV) doping. • Zirconium diffusion was assessed by STEM-EDS analysis. - Abstract: The direct in-situ stabilization of an anatase-based nanocrystalline photocatalyst (Degussa P25) was obtained by sintering the catalyst powder in presence of Zr 4+ organic salts. This approach allows the doping of an already-formed nanocrystalline photocatalyst instead of introducing the dopant in the crystal lattice during the catalyst synthesis. The procedure was demonstrated by the production of thick ceramic layers using the screen printing technique. This new method allows to easily stabilize the anatase phase 200 °C higher than the undoped P25 maintaining the same photocatalytic activity. The process was studied using specifically formulated screen-printing inks added with Zr 4+ organic salt at 1% and 2% Zr/Ti molar ratio. The anatase phase stability was investigated in the 500–900 °C temperature range analysing the resulting catalysts with XRD, TEM and (S)TEM-EDS. The catalytic activity of the screen-printed layers was assessed by measuring the degradation of toluene in air at ambient concentration (500 nmol m −3 ) and low UV-A irradiance (180 μW cm −2 ). The described in-situ stabilization method could be potentially applied to any deposition process involving already formed anatase photocatalyst, allowing higher sintering temperature and then an improved mechanical stability of the active layers without photocatalytic activity degradation

  19. BiVO4 -TiO2 Composite Photocatalysts for Dye Degradation Formed Using the SILAR Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odling, Gylen; Robertson, Neil

    2016-09-19

    Composite photocatalyst films have been fabricated by depositing BiVO4 upon TiO2 via a sequential ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) method. The photocatalytic materials were investigated by XRD, TEM, UV/Vis diffuse reflectance, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), XPS, photoluminescence and Mott-Schottky analyses. SILAR processing was found to deposit monoclinic-scheelite BiVO4 nanoparticles onto the surface, giving successive improvements in the films' visible light harvesting. Electrochemical and valence band XPS studies revealed that the prepared heterojunctions have a type II band structure, with the BiVO4 conduction band and valence band lying cathodically shifted from those of TiO2 . The photocatalytic activity of the films was measured by the decolourisation of the dye rhodamine 6G using λ>400 nm visible light. It was found that five SILAR cycles was optimal, with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.004 min(-1) . As a reference material, the same SILAR modification has been made to an inactive wide-band-gap ZrO2 film, where the mismatch of conduction and valence band energies disallows charge separation. The photocatalytic activity of the BiVO4 -ZrO2 system was found to be significantly reduced, highlighting the importance of charge separation across the interface. The mechanism of action of the photocatalysts has also been investigated, in particular the effect of self-sensitisation by the model organic dye and the ability of the dye to inject electrons into the photocatalyst's conduction band. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nano cobalt oxides for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Mangrulkar, Priti A.

    2012-07-01

    Nano structured metal oxides including TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 have been synthesized and evaluated for their photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The photocatalytic activity of nano cobalt oxide was then compared with two other nano structured metal oxides namely TiO 2 and Fe 3O 4. The synthesized nano cobalt oxide was characterized thoroughly with respect to EDX and TEM. The yield of hydrogen was observed to be 900, 2000 and 8275 mmol h -1 g -1 of photocatalyst for TiO 2, Co 3O 4 and Fe 3O 4 respectively under visible light. It was observed that the hydrogen yield in case of nano cobalt oxide was more than twice to that of TiO 2 and the hydrogen yield of nano Fe 3O 4 was nearly four times as compared to nano Co 3O 4. The influence of various operating parameters in hydrogen generation by nano cobalt oxide was then studied in detail. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.