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Sample records for oxide nanoparticles induces

  1. Oxidative stress induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles in cultured BEAS-2B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jinhee; Park, Young-Kwon; Park, Kwangsik

    2008-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles of different sizes (15, 25, 30, 45 nm) were prepared by the supercritical synthesis method, and cytotoxicity was evaluated using cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Exposure of the cultured cells to nanoparticles (5, 10, 20, 40 μg/ml) led to cell death, ROS increase, GSH decrease, and the inductions of oxidative stress-related genes such as heme oxygenase-1, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase. The increased ROS by cerium oxide nanoparticles triggered the activation of cytosolic caspase-3 and chromatin condensation, which means that cerium oxide nanoparticles exert cytotoxicity by an apoptotic process. Uptake of the nanoparticles to the cultured cells was also tested. It was observed that cerium oxide nanoparticles penetrated into the cytoplasm and located in the peri-region of the nucleus as aggregated particles, which may induce the direct interaction between nanoparticles and cellular molecules to cause adverse cellular responses

  2. Radiation-induced synthesis of gold, iron-oxide composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takao; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kinoshita, Takuya; Kojima, Takao; Taniguchi, Ryoichi; Okuda, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles consisting of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles were synthesized using gamma-rays or electron beam. Ionizing irradiation induces the generation of reducing species inside the aqueous solution, and gold ions are reduced to form metallic Au nanoparticles. The size of Au nanoparticles depended on the dose rate and the concentration of support iron oxide. The gold nanoparticles on iron oxide nanoparticles selectively adsorb biomolecules via Au-S bonding. By using magnetic property of the support iron oxide nanoparticles, the composite nanoparticles are expected as a new type of magnetic nanocarrier for biomedical applications. (author)

  3. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Zi, Xiao-Yuan; Su, Juan; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Li, Jian-Xiu; Yin, Meng; Yang, Feng; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy. PMID:22679374

  4. Resveratrol-loaded Nanoparticles Induce Antioxidant Activity against Oxidative Stress

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    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol acts as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant in the inhibition of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS. The function of resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles in protecting human lung cancer cells (A549 against hydrogen peroxide was investigated in this study. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Resveratrol had substantially high antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value compared to trolox and vitamin E since the concentration of resveratrol was more than 50 μM. Nanoparticles prepared from β-lactoglobulin (β-lg were successfully developed. The β-lg nanoparticle showed 60 to 146 nm diameter in size with negatively charged surface. Non-cytotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with β-lg nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocynate-conjugated β-lg nanoparticles were identified into the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells, indicating that nanoparticles can be used as a delivery system. Hydrogen peroxide caused accumulation of ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles restored H2O2-induced ROS levels by induction of cellular uptake of resveratrol in A549 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1 signaling in A549 cells, thereby accumulation of Nrf2 abundance, as demonstrated by western blotting approach. Overall, these results may have implications for improvement of oxidative stress in treatment with nanoparticles as a biodegradable and non-toxic delivery carrier of bioactive compounds.

  5. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells

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    Wang Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ye Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Yuan Zi,1,* Juan Su,1 Hong-Xia Zhang,1 Xin-Rong Zhang,3 Hai-Ying Zhu,1 Jian-Xiu Li,1 Meng Yin,3 Feng Yang,3 Yi-Ping Hu,11Department of Cell Biology, 2School of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Pharmaceuticals, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China*Authors contributed equally.Abstract: In the rapid development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, many researchers have discovered that metal oxide nanoparticles have very useful pharmacological effects. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles (CONPs can selectively induce apoptosis and suppress the proliferation of tumor cells, showing great potential as a clinical cancer therapy. Treatment with CONPs caused a G1/G0 cell cycle arrest in tumor cells. Furthermore, CONPs enclosed in vesicles entered, or were taken up by mitochondria, which damaged their membranes, thereby inducing apoptosis. CONPs can also produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and initiate lipid peroxidation of the liposomal membrane, thereby regulating many signaling pathways and influencing the vital movements of cells. Our results demonstrate that CONPs have selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells, and indicate that CONPs might be a potential nanomedicine for cancer therapy.Keywords: nanomedicine, selective cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrion-targeted nanomaterials

  6. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

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    Layasadat Khorsandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold, ALT (2.7-fold and ALP (1.97-fold activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01. NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01. Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%, increased SOD (156% and GPx (26% activities, and attenuated ALT (47%, AST (41% and ALP (30% activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  7. Laser-Induced, Local Oxidation of Copper Nanoparticle Films During Raman Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight Walker, Angela R.; Cheng, Guangjun; Calizo, Irene

    2011-03-01

    The optical properties of gold and silver nanoparticles and their films have been thoroughly investigated as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates and chemical reaction promoters. Similar to gold and silver nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles exhibit distinct plasmon absorptions in the visible region. The work on copper nanoparticles and their films is limited due to their oxidization in air. However, their high reactivity actually provides an opportunity to exploit the laser-induced thermal effect and chemical reactions of these nanoparticles. Here, we present our investigation of the local oxidation of a copper nanoparticle film induced by a visible laser source during Raman spectroscopic measurements. The copper nanoparticle film is prepared by drop-casting chemically synthesized copper colloid onto silicon oxide/silicon substrate. The local oxidation induced by visible lasers in Raman spectroscopy is monitored with the distinct scattering peaks for copper oxides. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the laser-induced morphological changes in the film. The results of this oxidation process with different excitation wavelengths and different laser powers will be presented.

  8. Microsomal Glutathione Transferase 1 Protects Against Toxicity Induced by Silica Nanoparticles but Not by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal glutathione transferase 1 (MGST1) is an antioxidant enzyme located predominantly in the mitochondrial outer membrane and endoplasmic reticulum and has been shown to protect cells from lipid peroxidation induced by a variety of cytostatic drugs and pro-oxidant stimuli. We hypothesized that MGST1 may also protect against nanomaterial-induced cytotoxicity through a specific effect on lipid peroxidation. We evaluated the induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by TiO2, CeO2, SiO2, and ZnO in the human MCF-7 cell line with or without overexpression of MGST1. SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles caused dose- and time-dependent toxicity, whereas no obvious cytotoxic effects were induced by nanoparticles of TiO2 and CeO2. We also noted pronounced cytotoxicity for three out of four additional SiO2 nanoparticles tested. Overexpression of MGST1 reversed the cytotoxicity of the main SiO2 nanoparticles tested and for one of the supplementary SiO2 nanoparticles but did not protect cells against ZnO-induced cytotoxic effects. The data point toward a role of lipid peroxidation in SiO2 nanoparticle-induced cell death. For ZnO nanoparticles, rapid dissolution was observed, and the subsequent interaction of Zn2+ with cellular targets is likely to contribute to the cytotoxic effects. A direct inhibition of MGST1 by Zn2+ could provide a possible explanation for the lack of protection against ZnO nanoparticles in this model. Our data also showed that SiO2 nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity is mitigated in the presence of serum, potentially through masking of reactive surface groups by serum proteins, whereas ZnO nanoparticles were cytotoxic both in the presence and in the absence of serum. PMID:22303956

  9. Roughening of Pt nanoparticles induced by surface-oxide formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, T.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Santen, van R.A.; Tian, N.; Sun, S.-G.; Kaghazchi, P.; Jacob, T.

    2013-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT) and thermodynamic considerations we studied the equilibrium shape of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) under electrochemical conditions. We found that at very high oxygen coverage, obtained at high electrode potentials, the experimentally-observed tetrahexahedral (THH) NPs

  10. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by different metallic nanoparticles on human kidney cells

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    Ohayon-Courtès Céline

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some manufactured nanoparticles are metal-based and have a wide variety of applications in electronic, engineering and medicine. Until now, many studies have described the potential toxicity of NPs on pulmonary target, while little attention has been paid to kidney which is considered to be a secondary target organ. The objective of this study, on human renal culture cells, was to assess the toxicity profile of metallic nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO and CdS usable in industrial production. Comparative studies were conducted, to identify whether particle properties impact cytotoxicity by altering the intracellular oxidative status. Results Nanoparticles were first characterized by size, surface charge, dispersion and solubility. Cytotoxicity of NPs was then evaluated in IP15 (glomerular mesangial and HK-2 (epithelial proximal cell lines. ZnO and CdS NPs significantly increased the cell mortality, in a dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effects were correlated with the physicochemical properties of NPs tested and the cell type used. Analysis of reactive oxygen species and intracellular levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione revealed that particles induced stress according to their composition, size and solubility. Protein involved in oxidative stress such as NF-κb was activated with ZnO and CdS nanoparticles. Such effects were not observed with TiO2 nanoparticles. Conclusion On glomerular and tubular human renal cells, ZnO and CdS nanoparticles exerted cytotoxic effects that were correlated with metal composition, particle scale and metal solubility. ROS production and oxidative stress induction clearly indicated their nephrotoxic potential.

  11. Exposure to titanium dioxide and other metallic oxide nanoparticles induces cytotoxicity on human neural cells and fibroblasts

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    James C K Lai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available James C K Lai1, Maria B Lai1, Sirisha Jandhyam1, Vikas V Dukhande1, Alok Bhushan1, Christopher K Daniels1, Solomon W Leung21Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, and Biomedical Research Institute; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering and Biomedical Research Institute, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, USAAbstract: The use of titanium dioxide (TiO2 in various industrial applications (eg, production of paper, plastics, cosmetics, and paints has been expanding thereby increasing the occupational and other environmental exposure of these nanoparticles to humans and other species. However, the health effects of exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles have not been systematically assessed even though recent studies suggest that such exposure induces inflammatory responses in lung tissue and cells. Because the effects of such nanoparticles on human neural cells are unknown, we have determined the putative cytotoxic effects of these nanoparticles on human astrocytes-like astrocytoma U87 cells and compared their effects on normal human fibroblasts. We found that TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles induced cell death on both human cell types in a concentration-related manner. We further noted that zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were the most effective, TiO2 nanoparticles the second most effective, and magnesium oxide (MgO nanoparticles the least effective in inducing cell death in U87 cells. The cell death mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO2 micro- and nanoparticles on U87 cells include apoptosis, necrosis, and possibly apoptosis-like and necrosis-like cell death types. Thus, our findings may have toxicological and other pathophysiological implications on exposure of humans and other mammalian species to metallic oxide nanoparticles.Keywords: cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide micro- and nanoparticles, cytotoxicity of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide nanoparticles, human neural cells

  12. Probing the diffusion of vacuum ultraviolet ({lambda} = 172 nm) induced oxidants by nanoparticles immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatri, Om P.; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Murase, Kuniaki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugimura, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hiroyuki.sugimura@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-09-30

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, {lambda} = 172 nm) patterning of alkyl monolayer on silicon surface has been demonstrated with emphasis on the diffusion of VUV induced oxygen-derived active species, which are accountable for the pattern broadening. The VUV photons photo-dissociates the atmospheric oxygen and water molecules into the oxygen-derived active species (oxidants). These oxidants photo-oxidize the hexadecyl (HD) monolayer in VUV irradiated regions (Khatri et al., Langmuir. 24 (2008) 12077), as well as the little concentration of oxidants diffuses towards the masked areas. In this study, we performed VUV patterning at a vacuum pressure of 10 Pa to track the diffusion pathways for the oxidants with help of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs; {phi} = 10 nm) immobilization. At VUV irradiated sites AuNPs are found as uniformly distributed, but adjacent to the pattern boundary we observed quasi-linear arrays of AuNPs, which are determined by diffusion pathways of the oxidants. The diffusion of oxidants plays vital role in pattern broadening. The site selective anchoring of AuNPs demonstrates the utility of VUV photons for the construction of functional materials with microstructural architecture.

  13. How Pt nanoparticles affect TiO2-induced gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters, B.D.; Amrollahi Buky, Rezvaneh; Mul, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Pt nanoparticles on the gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation activity of TiO2 is shown to be largely dependent on the molecular functionality of the substrate. We demonstrate that Pt nanoparticles decrease rates in photocatalytic oxidation of propane, whereas a strong beneficial effect

  14. Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect rodent lungs from hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation

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    Arya A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aditya Arya,1 Niroj Kumar Sethy,1 Sushil Kumar Singh,2 Mainak Das,3 Kalpana Bhargava1 1Peptide and Proteomics Division, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization, Delhi, 2Functional Materials Division, Solid State Physics Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization, Delhi, 3Biological Science and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria are effective at quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS in cell culture and animal models. Although nanoceria reportedly deposit in lungs, their efficacy in conferring lung protection during oxidative stress remains unexplored. Thus, the study evaluated the protective efficacy of nanoceria in rat lung tissue during hypobaric hypoxia. Methods: A total of 48 animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (control [C], nanoceria treated [T], hypoxia [H], and nanoceria treated plus hypoxia [T+H]. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with either a dose of 0.5 µg/kg body weight/week of nanoceria (T and T+H groups or vehicle (C and H groups for 5 weeks. After the final dose, H and T+H animals were challenged with hypobaric hypoxia, while C and T animals were maintained at normoxia. Lungs were isolated and homogenate was obtained for analysis of ROS, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, protein carbonylation, and 4-hydroxynonenal-adduct formation. Plasma was used for estimating major inflammatory cytokines using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intact lung tissues were fixed and both transmission electron microscopy and histopathological examinations were carried out separately for detecting internalization of nanoparticles as well as altered lung morphology. Results: Spherical nanoceria of 7–10 nm diameter were synthesized using a microemulsion method, and the lung protective efficacy of the nanoceria evaluated during hypobaric hypoxia. With repeated

  15. Redox-active cerium oxide nanoparticles protect human dermal fibroblasts from PQ-induced damage

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    Claudia von Montfort

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been published that cerium (Ce oxide nanoparticles (CNP; nanoceria are able to downregulate tumor invasion in cancer cell lines. Redox-active CNP exhibit both selective pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties, the first being responsible for impairment of tumor growth and invasion. A non-toxic and even protective effect of CNP in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF has already been observed. However, the effect on important parameters such as cell death, proliferation and redox state of the cells needs further clarification. Here, we present that nanoceria prevent HDF from reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced cell death and stimulate proliferation due to the antioxidative property of these particles.

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce human microvascular endothelial cell permeability through reactive oxygen species production and microtubule remodeling

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    Shi Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered iron nanoparticles are being explored for the development of biomedical applications and many other industry purposes. However, to date little is known concerning the precise mechanisms of translocation of iron nanoparticles into targeted tissues and organs from blood circulation, as well as the underlying implications of potential harmful health effects in human. Results The confocal microscopy imaging analysis demonstrates that exposure to engineered iron nanoparticles induces an increase in cell permeability in human microvascular endothelial cells. Our studies further reveal iron nanoparticles enhance the permeability through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stabilization of microtubules. We also showed Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways are involved in iron nanoparticle-induced cell permeability. The inhibition of ROS demonstrate ROS play a major role in regulating Akt/GSK-3β – mediated cell permeability upon iron nanoparticle exposure. These results provide new insights into the bioreactivity of engineered iron nanoparticles which can inform potential applications in medical imaging or drug delivery. Conclusion Our results indicate that exposure to iron nanoparticles induces an increase in endothelial cell permeability through ROS oxidative stress-modulated microtubule remodeling. The findings from this study provide new understandings on the effects of nanoparticles on vascular transport of macromolecules and drugs.

  17. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

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    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  18. Exposure to nickel oxide nanoparticles induces pulmonary inflammation through NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats.

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    Cao, Zhengwang; Fang, Yiliang; Lu, Yonghui; Qian, Fenghua; Ma, Qinglong; He, Mingdi; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    With recent advances in the manufacture and application of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs), concerns about their adverse effects on the respiratory system are increasing. However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of NiONP-induced pulmonary toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the impacts of NiONPs on pulmonary inflammation and investigated whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in NiONP-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury. NiONP suspensions were administered by single intratracheal instillation to rats, and inflammatory responses were evaluated at 3 days, 7 days, or 28 days after treatment. NiONP exposure resulted in sustained pulmonary inflammation accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar proteinosis, and cytokine secretion. Expression of Nlrp3 was markedly upregulated by the NiONPs, which was accompanied by overexpression of the active form of caspase-1 (p20) and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion in vivo. NiONP-induced IL-1β secretion was partially prevented by co-treatment with a caspase-1 inhibitor in macrophages. Moreover, siRNA-mediated Nlrp3 knockdown completely attenuated NiONP-induced cytokine release and caspase-1 activity in macrophages in vitro. In addition, NiONP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation requires particle uptake and reactive oxygen species production. Collectively, our findings suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome participates in NiONP-induced pulmonary inflammation and offer new strategies to combat the pulmonary toxicity induced by NiONPs.

  19. Silver nanoparticles induced heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Ahamed, Maqusood; Posgai, Ryan; Gorey, Timothy J; Nielsen, Mark; Hussain, Saber M; Rowe, John J

    2010-02-01

    Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), risk assessment of this nanoparticle is of great importance. Our previous in vitro study demonstrated that Ag NPs caused DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. However, toxicity of Ag NPs in vivo is largely lacking. This study was undertaken to examine the toxic effects of well-characterized polysaccharide coated 10 nm Ag NPs on heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster were fed a diet of standard cornmeal media mixed with Ag NPs at the concentrations of 50 and 100 microg/ml for 24 and 48 h. Ag NPs up-regulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 and induced oxidative stress in D. melanogaster. Malondialdehyde level, an end product of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher while antioxidant glutathione content was significantly lower in Ag NPs exposed organisms. Activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and catalase were also significantly higher in the organisms exposed to Ag NPs. Furthermore, Ag NPs up-regulated the cell cycle checkpoint p53 and cell signaling protein p38 that are involved in the DNA damage repair pathway. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, markers of apoptosis were significantly higher in Ag NPs exposed organisms. The results indicate that Ag NPs in D. melanogaster induce heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. This study suggests that the organism is stressed and thus warrants more careful assessment of Ag NPs using in vivo models to determine if chronic exposure presents developmental and reproductive toxicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Silver nanoparticles induced heat shock protein 70, oxidative stress and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Posgai, Ryan; Gorey, Timothy J.; Nielsen, Mark; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the intensive commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), risk assessment of this nanoparticle is of great importance. Our previous in vitro study demonstrated that Ag NPs caused DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. However, toxicity of Ag NPs in vivo is largely lacking. This study was undertaken to examine the toxic effects of well-characterized polysaccharide coated 10 nm Ag NPs on heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster were fed a diet of standard cornmeal media mixed with Ag NPs at the concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/ml for 24 and 48 h. Ag NPs up-regulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 and induced oxidative stress in D. melanogaster. Malondialdehyde level, an end product of lipid peroxidation was significantly higher while antioxidant glutathione content was significantly lower in Ag NPs exposed organisms. Activities of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and catalase were also significantly higher in the organisms exposed to Ag NPs. Furthermore, Ag NPs up-regulated the cell cycle checkpoint p53 and cell signaling protein p38 that are involved in the DNA damage repair pathway. Moreover, activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9, markers of apoptosis were significantly higher in Ag NPs exposed organisms. The results indicate that Ag NPs in D. melanogaster induce heat shock stress, oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. This study suggests that the organism is stressed and thus warrants more careful assessment of Ag NPs using in vivo models to determine if chronic exposure presents developmental and reproductive toxicity.

  1. The role of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation.

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    Seifan, Mostafa; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Ghasemi, Younes; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2018-04-01

    Recently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) have been used to control and modify the characteristics of concrete and mortar. Concrete is one of the most used materials in the world; however, it is susceptible to cracking. Over recent years, a sustainable biotechnological approach has emerged as an alternative approach to conventional techniques to heal the concrete cracks by the incorporation of bacterial cells and nutrients into the concrete matrix. Once cracking occurs, CaCO 3 is induced and the crack is healed. Considering the positive effects of IONs on the concrete properties, the effect of these nanoparticles on bacterial growth and CaCO 3 biosynthesis needs to be evaluated for their possible application in bio self-healing concrete. In the present work, IONs were successfully synthesized and characterized using various techniques. The presence of IONs showed a significant effect on both bacterial growth and CaCO 3 precipitation. The highest bacterial growth was observed in the presence of 150 μg/mL IONs. The highest concentration of induced CaCO 3 (34.54 g/L) was achieved when the bacterial cells were immobilized with 300 μg/mL of IONs. This study provides new data and supports the possibility of using IONs as a new tool in designing the next generation of bio self-healing concrete.

  2. Laser-Induced Reductive Sintering of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles under Ambient Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Paeng, Dongwoo; Lee, Daeho; Yeo, Junyeob; Yoo, Jae-Hyuck; Allen, Frances I.; Kim, Eunpa; So, Hongyun; Park, Hee K.; Minor, Andrew M.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. This work is concerned with the kinetics of laser-induced reductive sintering of nonstoichiometric crystalline nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles (NPs) under ambient conditions. The mechanism of photophysical reductive sintering upon irradiation using a 514.5 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser on NiO NP thin films has been studied through modulating the laser power density and illumination time. Protons produced due to high-temperature decomposition of the solvent present in the NiO NP ink, oxygen vacancies in the NiO NPs, and electronic excitation in the NiO NPs by laser irradiation all affect the early stage of the reductive sintering process. Once NiO NPs are reduced by laser irradiation to Ni, they begin to coalesce, forming a conducting material. In situ optical and electrical measurements during the reductive sintering process take advantage of the distinct differences between the oxide and the metallic phases to monitor the transient evolution of the process. We observe four regimes: oxidation, reduction, sintering, and reoxidation. A characteristic time scale is assigned to each regime.

  3. Laser-Induced Reductive Sintering of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles under Ambient Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Paeng, Dongwoo

    2015-03-19

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. This work is concerned with the kinetics of laser-induced reductive sintering of nonstoichiometric crystalline nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles (NPs) under ambient conditions. The mechanism of photophysical reductive sintering upon irradiation using a 514.5 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser on NiO NP thin films has been studied through modulating the laser power density and illumination time. Protons produced due to high-temperature decomposition of the solvent present in the NiO NP ink, oxygen vacancies in the NiO NPs, and electronic excitation in the NiO NPs by laser irradiation all affect the early stage of the reductive sintering process. Once NiO NPs are reduced by laser irradiation to Ni, they begin to coalesce, forming a conducting material. In situ optical and electrical measurements during the reductive sintering process take advantage of the distinct differences between the oxide and the metallic phases to monitor the transient evolution of the process. We observe four regimes: oxidation, reduction, sintering, and reoxidation. A characteristic time scale is assigned to each regime.

  4. Iron nanoparticles increase 7-ketocholesterol-induced cell death, inflammation, and oxidation on murine cardiac HL1-NB cells

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    Edmond Kahn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Edmond Kahn1, Mauhamad Baarine2, Sophie Pelloux3, Jean-Marc Riedinger4, Frédérique Frouin1, Yves Tourneur3, Gérard Lizard21INSE RM U678/UMR – S UPMC, IFR 14, CH U Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France; 2Centre de Recherche INSE RM U866, Equipe Biochimie Métabolique et Nutritionnelle – Université de Bourgogne, Faculté des Sciences Gabriel, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France; 3Centre Commun de Quantimétrie, Université Lyon 1; Université de Lyon, Lyon, France; 4Département de Biologie et de Pathologie des Tumeurs, Centre Georges François-Leclerc, 21000 Dijon, FranceObjective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of iron nanoparticles on cardiac cells and to determine whether they can modulate the biological activity of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Nanoparticles of iron labeled with Texas Red are introduced in cultures of nonbeating mouse cardiac cells (HL1-NB with or without 7-ketocholesterol 7KC, and their ability to induce cell death, pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects are analyzed simultaneously.Study design: Flow cytometry (FCM, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, and subsequent factor analysis image processing (FAMIS are used to characterize the action of iron nanoparticles and to define their cytotoxicity which is evaluated by enhanced permeability to SYTOX Green, and release of lactate deshydrogenase (LDH. Pro-inflammatory effects are estimated by ELISA in order to quantify IL-8 and MCP-1 secretions. Pro-oxidative effects are measured with hydroethydine (HE.Results: Iron Texas Red nanoparticles accumulate at the cytoplasmic membrane level. They induce a slight LDH release, and have no inflammatory or oxidative effects. However, they enhance the cytotoxic, pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects of 7KC. The accumulation dynamics of SYTOX Green in cells is measured by CLSM to characterize the toxicity of nanoparticles. The emission spectra of SYTOX Green and

  5. Silica Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and Autophagy but Not Apoptosis in the MRC-5 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Nicoleta Petrache Voicu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro effects of 62.5 µg/mL silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs on MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells for 24, 48 and 72 h. The nanoparticles’ morphology, composition, and structure were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction. Our study showed a decreased cell viability and the induction of cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, carbonyl groups, and advanced oxidation protein products after 24, 48, and 72 h, as well as a decreased concentration of glutathione (GSH and protein sulfhydryl groups. The protein expression of Hsp27, Hsp60, and Hsp90 decreased at all time intervals, while the level of protein Hsp70 remained unchanged during the exposure. Similarly, the expression of p53, MDM2 and Bcl-2 was significantly decreased for all time intervals, while the expression of Bax, a marker for apoptosis, was insignificantly downregulated. These results correlated with the increase of pro-caspase 3 expression. The role of autophagy in cellular response to SiO2 NPs was demonstrated by a fluorescence-labeled method and by an increased level of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Taken together, our data suggested that SiO2 NPs induced ROS-mediated autophagy in MRC-5 cells as a possible mechanism of cell survival.

  6. Magnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles induce vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammation by disturbing autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu, E-mail: chaperones@163.com [College of Bioengineering, Henan University of Technology, Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, XueQin; Miao, YiMing; Chen, ZhiQiang; Qiang, PengFei; Cui, LiuQing; Jing, Hongjuan [College of Bioengineering, Henan University of Technology, Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Guo, YuQi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs did not induce cell apoptosis or necrosis in HUVECs within 24 h. • B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs induced HUVEC dysfunction and inflammation. • B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs induced enhanced autophagic activity and blockade of autophagy flux. • Suppression of autophagy dysfunction attenuated B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-induced HUVEC dysfunction. - Abstract: Despite the considerable use of magnetic ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs) worldwide, their safety is still an important topic of debate. In the present study, we detected the toxicity and biological behavior of bare-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs (B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs) on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results showed that B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs did not induce cell death within 24 h even at concentrations up to 400 μg/ml. The level of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) were decreased after exposure to B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs, whereas the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were elevated. Importantly, B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs increased the accumulation of autophagosomes and LC3-II in HUVECs through both autophagy induction and the blockade of autophagy flux. The levels of Beclin 1 and VPS34, but not phosphorylated mTOR, were increased in the B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-treated HUVECs. Suppression of autophagy induction or stimulation of autophagy flux, at least partially, attenuated the B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-induced HUVEC dysfunction. Additionally, enhanced autophagic activity might be linked to the B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results demonstrated that B-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NPs disturb the process of autophagy in HUVECs, and eventually lead to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.

  7. Nickel oxide nanoparticles exert cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and induce apoptotic response in human liver cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Ali, Daoud; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Akhtar, Mohd Javed

    2013-11-01

    Increasing use of nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO NPs) necessitates an improved understanding of their potential impact on human health. Previously, toxic effects of NiO NPs have been investigated, mainly on airway cells. However, information on effect of NiO NPs on human liver cells is largely lacking. In this study, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cytotoxicity and induction of apoptotic response in human liver cells (HepG2) due to NiO NPs exposure. Prepared NiO NPs were crystalline and spherical shaped with an average diameter of 44 nm. NiO NPs induced cytotoxicity (cell death) and ROS generation in HepG2 cells in dose-dependent manner. Further, ROS scavenger vitamin C reduced cell death drastically caused by NiO NPs exposure indicating that oxidative stress plays an important role in NiO NPs toxicity. Micronuclei induction, chromatin condensation and DNA damage in HepG2 cells treated with NiO NPs suggest that NiO NPs induced cell death via apoptotic pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that following the exposure of HepG2 cells to NiO NPs, the expression level of mRNA of apoptotic genes (bax and caspase-3) were up-regulated whereas the expression level of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated. Moreover, activity of caspase-3 enzyme was also higher in NiO NPs treated cells. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating that NiO NPs caused cytotoxicity via ROS and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, which is likely to be mediated through bax/bcl-2 pathway. This work warrants careful assessment of Ni NPs before their commercial and industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex-Dependent Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Respiratory Administration of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine aluminum oxide, which are abundant in ambient and involved occupational environments, are associated with neurobehavioral alterations. However, few studies have focused on the effect of sex differences following exposure to environmental Al2O3 ultrafine particles. In the present study, male and female mice were exposed to Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs through a respiratory route. Only the female mice showed depression-like behavior. Although no obvious pathological changes were observed in mice brain tissues, the neurotransmitter and voltage-gated ion channel related gene expression, as well as the small molecule metabolites in the cerebral cortex, were differentially modulated between male and female mice. Both mental disorder-involved gene expression levels and metabolomics analysis results strongly suggested that glutamate pathways were implicated in sex differentiation induced by Al2O3 NPs. Results demonstrated the potential mechanism of environmental ultrafine particle-induced depression-like behavior and the importance of sex dimorphism in the toxic research of environmental chemicals.

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi [Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Ichihara, Sahoko, E-mail: saho@gene.mie-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO{sub 2} particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. - Highlights: • Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induced migration and adhesion of monocytes. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake. • Expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL was also increased. • These effects were not observed after exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce apoptosis and autophagy in human ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai D

    2017-09-01

    . Finally, the Western blot analysis revealed upregulation of Bax, caspase-9, Rad51, γ-H2AX, p53, and LC3 and downregulation of Bcl-2. Conclusion: The study findings demonstrated that the ZnO NPs are able to induce significant cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and autophagy in human ovarian cells through reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress. Therefore, this study suggests that ZnO NPs are suitable and inherent anticancer agents due to their several favorable characteristic features including favorable band gap, electrostatic charge, surface chemistry, and potentiation of redox cycling cascades. Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticles, human ovarian cancer cells SKOV3, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, autophagy

  11. Aneuploidogenic effects and DNA oxidation induced in vitro by differently sized gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Bucchianico S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sebastiano Di Bucchianico,1 Maria Rita Fabbrizi,1 Silvia Cirillo,1 Chiara Uboldi,1 Douglas Gilliland,2 Eugenia Valsami-Jones,3,4 Lucia Migliore11Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Medical Genetics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, NanoBioSciences Unit, Ispra, Italy; 3School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK; 4Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, UKAbstract: Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are used in many fields, including biomedical applications; however, no conclusive information on their potential cytotoxicity and genotoxicity mechanisms is available. For this reason, experiments in human primary lymphocytes and murine macrophages (Raw264.7 were performed exposing cells to spherical citrate-capped Au NPs with two different nominal diameters (5 nm and 15 nm. The proliferative activity, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic markers, as well as chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with human and murine pancentromeric probes was applied to distinguish between clastogenic and aneuploidogenic effects. Our results indicate that 5 nm and 15 nm Au NPs are able to inhibit cell proliferation by apoptosis and to induce chromosomal damage, in particular chromosome mis-segregation. DNA strand breaks were detected by comet assay, and the modified protocol using endonuclease-III and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase restriction enzymes showed that pyrimidines and purines were oxidatively damaged by Au NPs. Moreover, we show a size-independent correlation between the cytotoxicity of Au NPs and their tested mass concentration or absolute number, and genotoxic effects which were more severe for Au NP 15 nm compared to Au NP 5 nm. Results indicate that

  12. Interactive effects of cerium oxide and diesel exhaust nanoparticles on inducing pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jane Y.C., E-mail: jym1@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Young, Shih-Houng; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Ma, Joseph K. [School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Castranova, Vincent [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Cerium compounds have been used as a fuel-borne catalyst to lower the generation of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), but are emitted as cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO{sub 2}) along with DEP in the diesel exhaust. The present study investigates the effects of the combined exposure to DEP and CeO{sub 2} on the pulmonary system in a rat model. Specific pathogen-free male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} and/or DEP via a single intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed at various time points post-exposure. This investigation demonstrated that CeO{sub 2} induces a sustained inflammatory response, whereas DEP elicits a switch of the pulmonary immune response from Th1 to Th2. Both CeO{sub 2} and DEP activated AM and lymphocyte secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ, respectively. However, only DEP enhanced the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in response to ex vivo LPS or Concanavalin A challenge that was not affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2}, suggesting that DEP suppresses host defense capability by inducing the Th2 immunity. The micrographs of lymph nodes show that the particle clumps in DEP + CeO{sub 2} were significantly larger than CeO{sub 2} or DEP, exhibiting dense clumps continuous throughout the lymph nodes. Morphometric analysis demonstrates that the localization of collagen in the lung tissue after DEP + CeO{sub 2} reflects the combination of DEP-exposure plus CeO{sub 2}-exposure. At 4 weeks post-exposure, the histological features demonstrated that CeO{sub 2} induced lung phospholipidosis and fibrosis. DEP induced lung granulomas that were not significantly affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2} in the combined exposure. Using CeO{sub 2} as diesel fuel catalyst may cause health concerns. - Highlights: • DEP induced acute lung inflammation and switched immune response from Th1 to Th2. • DEP induced lung granulomas were not affected by the presence of CeO{sub 2}. • CeO{sub 2} induced sustained lung

  13. Effects of amorphous silica coating on cerium oxide nanoparticles induced pulmonary responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jane; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cohen, Joel M.; Demokritou, Philip; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Recently cerium compounds have been used in a variety of consumer products, including diesel fuel additives, to increase fuel combustion efficiency and decrease diesel soot emissions. However, cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles have been detected in the exhaust, which raises a health concern. Previous studies have shown that exposure of rats to nanoscale CeO 2 by intratracheal instillation (IT) induces sustained pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to CeO 2 or CeO 2 coated with a nano layer of amorphous SiO 2 (aSiO 2 /CeO 2 ) by a single IT and sacrificed at various times post-exposure to assess potential protective effects of the aSiO 2 coating. The first acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and BAL cells were collected and analyzed from all exposed animals. At the low dose (0.15 mg/kg), CeO 2 but not aSiO 2 /CeO 2 exposure induced inflammation. However, at the higher doses, both particles induced a dose-related inflammation, cytotoxicity, inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP at 1 day post-exposure. Morphological analysis of lung showed an increased inflammation, surfactant and collagen fibers after CeO 2 (high dose at 3.5 mg/kg) treatment at 28 days post-exposure. aSiO 2 coating significantly reduced CeO 2 -induced inflammatory responses in the airspace and appeared to attenuate phospholipidosis and fibrosis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed Ce and phosphorous (P) in all particle-exposed lungs, whereas Si was only detected in aSiO 2 /CeO 2 -exposed lungs up to 3 days after exposure, suggesting that aSiO 2 dissolved off the CeO 2 core, and some of the CeO 2 was transformed to CePO 4 with time. These results demonstrate that aSiO 2 coating reduce CeO 2 -induced inflammation, phospholipidosis and fibrosis. - Highlights: • Both CeO 2 and aSiO 2 /CeO 2 particles were detected in the respective particle-exposed lungs. • The

  14. Increased mobility of metal oxide nanoparticles due to photo and thermal induced disagglomeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhou

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made on our understanding of the fate and transport of engineered nanomaterials. One unexplored aspect of nanoparticle aggregation is how environmental stimuli such as light exposure and temperature variations affect the mobility of engineered nanoparticles. In this study, TiO(2, ZnO, and CeO(2 were chosen as model materials for investigating the mobility of nanoparticles under three external stimuli: heat, light and sonication. Sunlight and high power sonication were able to partially disagglomerate metal oxide clusters, but primary particles bonded by solid state necks were left intact. A cycle of temperature increase from 25°C to 65°C and then decrease back was found to disagglomerate the compact clusters in the heating phase and reagglomerate them as more open fractal structures during the cooling phase. A fractal model summing the pair-wise DLVO interactions between primary particles within two fractal agglomerates predicts weak attractions on the order of a few kT. Our study shows that common environmental stimuli such as light exposure or temperature variation can disagglomerate nanoparticle clusters and enhance their mobility in open waters. This phenomenon warrants attention since it is likely that metal oxide nanoparticles will experience these natural stimuli during their transport in the environment.

  15. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  16. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fanny; de Nicola, Milena; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Giovanetti, Anna; Bejarano, Ignacio; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2015-09-01

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields.

  17. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Caputo, Fanny

    2015-08-20

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which mediates toxic effects on cells. Therefore, improvements in cosmetic solar shield technology are a strong priority. CeO2 nanoparticles are not only UV refractors but also potent biological antioxidants due to the surface 3+/4+ valency switch, which confers anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing and therapeutic properties. Herein, UV irradiation protocols were set up, allowing selective study of the extra-shielding effects of CeO2vs. TiO2 nanoparticles on reporter cells. TiO2 irradiated with UV (especially UVA) exerted strong photocatalytic effects, superimposing their pro-oxidant, cell-damaging and mutagenic action when induced by UV, thereby worsening the UV toxicity. On the contrary, irradiated CeO2 nanoparticles, via their Ce3+/Ce4+ redox couple, exerted impressive protection on UV-treated cells, by buffering oxidation, preserving viability and proliferation, reducing DNA damage and accelerating repair; strikingly, they almost eliminated mutagenesis, thus acting as an important tool to prevent skin cancer. Interestingly, CeO2 nanoparticles also protect cells from the damage induced by irradiated TiO2, suggesting that these two particles may also complement their effects in solar lotions. CeO2 nanoparticles, which intrinsically couple UV shielding with biological and genetic protection, appear to be ideal candidates for next-generation sun shields. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  18. Comparative Study of Different Methods to Determine the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar A. Najim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS followed by an increase in oxidative stress is associated with cellular responses to nanoparticle induced cell damages. Finding the best method for assessing intracellular ROS production is the key step in the detection of oxidative stress induced injury. This study evaluates and compares four different methods for the measurement of intracellular ROS generation using fluorogenic probe, 2´,7´-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 was utilised as a positive control to assess the reactivity of the probe. Spherically shaped zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles with an average particle size of 85.7 nm were used to determine the diverse roles of ROS in nanotoxicity in Hs888Lu and U937 cell lines. The results showed that different methods exhibit different patterns of ROS measurement. In conclusion this study found that the time point at which the DCFH-DA is added to the reaction, the incubation time and the oxidative species that is responsible for the oxidation of DCFH, have impact on the intracellular ROS measurement.

  19. Effects of amorphous silica coating on cerium oxide nanoparticles induced pulmonary responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jane, E-mail: jym1@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Cohen, Joel M.; Demokritou, Philip [Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA (United States); Castranova, Vincent [School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Recently cerium compounds have been used in a variety of consumer products, including diesel fuel additives, to increase fuel combustion efficiency and decrease diesel soot emissions. However, cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been detected in the exhaust, which raises a health concern. Previous studies have shown that exposure of rats to nanoscale CeO{sub 2} by intratracheal instillation (IT) induces sustained pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} or CeO{sub 2} coated with a nano layer of amorphous SiO{sub 2} (aSiO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}) by a single IT and sacrificed at various times post-exposure to assess potential protective effects of the aSiO{sub 2} coating. The first acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and BAL cells were collected and analyzed from all exposed animals. At the low dose (0.15 mg/kg), CeO{sub 2} but not aSiO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2} exposure induced inflammation. However, at the higher doses, both particles induced a dose-related inflammation, cytotoxicity, inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP at 1 day post-exposure. Morphological analysis of lung showed an increased inflammation, surfactant and collagen fibers after CeO{sub 2} (high dose at 3.5 mg/kg) treatment at 28 days post-exposure. aSiO{sub 2} coating significantly reduced CeO{sub 2}-induced inflammatory responses in the airspace and appeared to attenuate phospholipidosis and fibrosis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed Ce and phosphorous (P) in all particle-exposed lungs, whereas Si was only detected in aSiO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}-exposed lungs up to 3 days after exposure, suggesting that aSiO{sub 2} dissolved off the CeO{sub 2} core, and some of the CeO{sub 2} was transformed to CePO{sub 4} with time. These results demonstrate that aSiO{sub 2} coating reduce CeO{sub 2}-induced inflammation, phospholipidosis and fibrosis. - Highlights: • Both

  20. Intratracheal instillation of cerium oxide nanoparticles induces hepatic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalabotu SK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Siva K Nalabotu1,2, Madhukar B Kolli1,2, William E Triest3,4, Jane Y Ma5, Nandini DPK Manne2,6, Anjaiah Katta1,2, Hari S Addagarla2, Kevin M Rice2,6–8, Eric R Blough1,2,6,7,91Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Marshall University, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine; 2Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, Marshall University; 3Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center; 4Section of Pathology, Department of Anatomy and Pathology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington; 5Health Effects Laboratory Division, NIOSH, Morgantown; 6Department of Biological Sciences; 7School of Kinesiology, College of Health Professions, Marshall University; 8Biotechnology Department, West Virginia State University; 9Department of Cardiology, Joan C Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University Huntington, WV, USABackground: Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05. Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05 and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal dilatation, and accumulation of granular material. No histopathological alterations were observed in the kidney, spleen, and heart. Analysis of serum biomarkers suggested an elevation of acute phase reactants and markers of hepatocyte injury in the rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles.Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that

  1. Copper oxide nanoparticles induce the transcriptional modulation of oxidative stress-related genes in Arbacia lixula embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Oliva, Sabrina; Parrino, Vincenzo; De Marco, Giuseppe; Fasulo, Salvatore; Mauceri, Angela; Maisano, Maria

    2018-06-14

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in various industrial applications, i.e. semiconductor devices, batteries, solar energy converter, gas sensor, microelectronics, heat transfer fluids, and have been recently recognized as emerging pollutants of increasing concern for human and marine environmental health. Therefore, the toxicity of CuO NPs needs to be thoroughly understood. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of oxidative stress in CuO NP toxicity by exploring the molecular response of Arbacia lixula embryos to three CuO NP concentrations (0.7, 10, 20 ppb) by investigating the transcriptional patterns of oxidative stress-related genes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) and metallothionein, here cloned and characterized for the first time. Time- and concentration-dependent changes in gene expression were detected in A. lixula embryos exposed to CuO NPs, up to pluteus stage (72 h post-fertilization, hpf), indicating that oxidative stress is one of the toxicity mechanisms for CuO NPs. These findings provide new insights into the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying copper nanoparticle toxicity in A. lixula sea urchin and give new tools for monitoring of aquatic areas, thus corroborating the suitability of this embryotoxicity assay for future evaluation of impacted sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study of Antidiabetic Activity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Sulfate in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarizadeh, Ali; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak

    2016-08-01

    In the current study, antidiabetic activity and toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were investigated in diabetic rats compared to zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) with particular emphasis on oxidative stress parameters. One hundred and twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two healthy and diabetic groups, randomly. Each major group was further subdivided into five subgroups and then orally supplemented with various doses of ZnO (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) and ZnSO4 (30 mg/kg) for 56 consecutive days. ZnO showed greater antidiabetic activity compared to ZnSO4 evidenced by improved glucose disposal, insulin levels, and zinc status. The altered activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes as well as raised levels of lipid peroxidation and a marked reduction of total antioxidant capacity were observed in rats receiving ZnO. ZnO nanoparticles acted as a potent antidiabetic agent, however, severely elicited oxidative stress particularly at higher doses.

  3. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Induces Microglial Death by NADPH-Oxidase-Independent Reactive Oxygen Species as well as Energy Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj Kumar; Singh, Vikas; Gera, Ruchi; Purohit, Mahaveer Prasad; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2017-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) is one of the most widely used engineered nanoparticles. Upon exposure, nanoparticle can eventually reach the brain through various routes, interact with different brain cells, and alter their activity. Microglia is the fastest glial cell to respond to any toxic insult. Nanoparticle exposure can activate microglia and induce neuroinflammation. Simultaneous to activation, microglial death can exacerbate the scenario. Therefore, we focused on studying the effect of ZnO-NP on microglia and finding out the pathway involved in the microglial death. The present study showed that the 24 h inhibitory concentration 50 (IC 50 ) of ZnO-NP for microglia is 6.6 μg/ml. Early events following ZnO-NP exposure involved increase in intracellular calcium level as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neither of NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin, (APO) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPIC) were able to reduce the ROS level and rescue microglia from ZnO-NP toxicity. In contrary, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) showed opposite effect. Exogenous supplementation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced ROS significantly even beyond control level but partially rescued microglial viability. Interestingly, pyruvate supplementation rescued microglia near to control level. Following 10 h of ZnO-NP exposure, intracellular ATP level was measured to be almost 50 % to the control. ZnO-NP-induced ROS as well as ATP depletion both disturbed mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently triggered the apoptotic pathway. The level of apoptosis-inducing proteins was measured by western blot analysis and found to be upregulated. Taken together, we have deciphered that ZnO-NP induced microglial apoptosis by NADPH oxidase-independent ROS as well as ATP depletion.

  4. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and DNA-adduct formation but not DNA-breakage in human lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schins Roel PF

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Titanium dioxide (TiO2, also known as titanium (IV oxide or anatase, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium. It is also one of the most commercially used form. To date, no parameter has been set for the average ambient air concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles (NP by any regulatory agency. Previously conducted studies had established these nanoparticles to be mainly non-cyto- and -genotoxic, although they had been found to generate free radicals both acellularly (specially through photocatalytic activity and intracellularly. The present study determines the role of TiO2-NP (anatase, ∅ in vitro. For comparison, iron containing nanoparticles (hematite, Fe2O3, ∅ 2-NP did not induce DNA-breakage measured by the Comet-assay in both cell types. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was measured acellularly (without any photocatalytic activity as well as intracellularly for both types of particles, however, the iron-containing NP needed special reducing conditions before pronounced radical generation. A high level of DNA adduct formation (8-OHdG was observed in IMR-90 cells exposed to TiO2-NP, but not in cells exposed to hematite NP. Our study demonstrates different modes of action for TiO2- and Fe2O3-NP. Whereas TiO2-NP were able to generate elevated amounts of free radicals, which induced indirect genotoxicity mainly by DNA-adduct formation, Fe2O3-NP were clastogenic (induction of DNA-breakage and required reducing conditions for radical formation.

  5. Topical application of zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces bacterial skin infection in mice and exhibits antibacterial activity by inducing oxidative stress response and cell membrane disintegration in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Rashmirekha; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Mohanty, Soumitra; Padhi, Avinash; Sengupta, Mitali; Vaseeharan, Baskarlingam; Goswami, Chandan; Sonawane, Avinash

    2014-08-01

    Here we studied immunological and antibacterial mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) against human pathogens. ZnO-NPs showed more activity against Staphylococcus aureus and least against Mycobacterium bovis-BCG. However, BCG killing was significantly increased in synergy with antituberculous-drug rifampicin. Antibacterial mechanistic studies showed that ZnO-NPs disrupt bacterial cell membrane integrity, reduce cell surface hydrophobicity and down-regulate the transcription of oxidative stress-resistance genes in bacteria. ZnO-NP treatment also augmented the intracellular bacterial killing by inducing reactive oxygen species production and co-localization with Mycobacterium smegmatis-GFP in macrophages. Moreover, ZnO-NPs disrupted biofilm formation and inhibited hemolysis by hemolysin toxin producing S. aureus. Intradermal administration of ZnO-NPs significantly reduced the skin infection, bacterial load and inflammation in mice, and also improved infected skin architecture. We envision that this study offers novel insights into antimicrobial actions of ZnO-NPs and also demonstrates ZnO-NPs as a novel class of topical anti-infective agent for the treatment of skin infections. This in-depth study demonstrates properties of ZnO nanoparticles in infection prevention and treatment in several skin infection models, dissecting the potential mechanisms of action of these nanoparticles and paving the way to human applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K. Panda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2 through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH, cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; and (iii to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone.

  7. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed ( Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn 2+ from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L -1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂ •- , H₂O₂ and • OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn 2+ alone.

  8. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. In this context, this review aims to inspire new research in the design of green approaches to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles for biomedical and technological applications and to highlight the critical need to fully investigate the nanotoxicity of these particles.

  9. Eupafolin nanoparticles protect HaCaT keratinocytes from particulate matter-induced inflammation and oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zih-Chan; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Ko, Horng-Huey; Fang, Jia-You; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Liang, Chan-Jung; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yen, Feng-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major form of air pollution, can induce oxidative stress and inflammation and may lead to many diseases in various organ systems including the skin. Eupafolin, a flavonoid compound derived from Phyla nodiflora, has been previously shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Unfortunately, eupafolin is characterized by poor water solubility and skin penetration, which limits its clinical applications. To address these issues, we successfully synthesized a eupafolin nanoparticle delivery system (ENDS). Our findings showed that ENDS could overcome the physicochemical drawbacks of raw eupafolin with respect to water solubility and skin penetration, through reduction of particle size and formation of an amorphous state with hydrogen bonding. Moreover, ENDS was superior to raw eupafolin in attenuating PM-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes, by mediating the antioxidant pathway (decreased reactive oxygen species production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity) and anti-inflammation pathway (decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling). In summary, ENDS shows better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities than raw eupafolin through improvement of water solubility and skin penetration. Therefore, ENDS may potentially be used as a medicinal drug and/or cosmeceutical product to prevent PM-induced skin inflammation. PMID:27570454

  10. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...

  11. Luminescence induced by electrons outside zinc oxide nanoparticles driven by intense terahertz pulse trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masaya; Aono, Shingo; Ashida, Masaaki; Kawase, Keigo; Irizawa, Akinori; Isoyama, Goro

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the behaviours of electrons from ZnO nanoparticles via a strong terahertz field. Luminescence from ZnO nanoparticles and surrounding nitrogen molecules was observed when the nanoparticles were irradiated with a terahertz free-electron laser (FEL). These excitations arose from the collision of electrons released via field electron emission with the ZnO nanoparticles and neighbouring nitrogen molecules. The strong excitation frequency dependence of the luminescence reflected the kinetic energy and trajectory of electrons outside the nanoparticles. We also observed spectral changes in the luminescence during macropulses of the FEL, even though the carrier lifetime of the nanoparticles was shorter than the interval between the micropulses. These changes were caused by the nanoparticles becoming charged due to electron emission, resulting in the electrons being re-emitted outside the nanoparticles. The electrons outside the nanoparticles were accelerated more efficiently by the terahertz field than the electrons inside the nanoparticles, and thus the motion of these exterior electrons provided a new excitation path. (paper)

  12. Characterization of coal fly ash nanoparticles and induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Ali, Al-Yousef Sulaiman; Musarrat, Javed

    2012-01-01

    The nano-sized particles present in coal fly ash (CFA) were characterized through the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The XRD data revealed the average crystallite size of the CFA nanoparticles (CFA-NPs) as 14 nm. TEM and SEM imaging demonstrated predominantly spherical and some polymorphic structures in the size range of 11 to 25 nm. The amount of heavy metal associated with CFA particles (μg/g) were determined as Fe (34160.0 ± 1.38), Ni (150.8 ± 0.78), Cu (99.3 ± 0.56) and Cr (64.0 ± 0.86). However, the bioavailability of heavy metals in terms of percent release was in the order as Cr > Ni > Cu > Fe in CFA-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract. The comet and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assays revealed substantial genomic DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMN) cells treated with CFA-NPs in Aq and DMSO extracts. About 1.8 and 3.6 strand breaks per unit of DNA were estimated through alkaline unwinding assay at 1:100 DNA nucleotide/CFA ppm ratios with the Aq and DMSO extracts, respectively. The DNA and mitochondrial damage was invariably greater with CFA-DMSO extract vis-à-vis -Aq extract. Generation of superoxide anions (O 2 • − ) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) through metal redox-cycling, alteration in mitochondrial potential and 8-oxodG production elucidated CFA-NPs induced oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for CFA-induced genotoxicity. -- Highlights: ► CFA consists of spherical crystalline nanoparticles in size range of 11–25 nm. ► Alkaline unwinding assay revealed single-strandedness in CFA treated ctDNA. ► CFA nanoparticles exhibited the ability to induce ROS and oxidative DNA damage. ► Comet and CBMN assays revealed DNA and chromosomal breakage in PBMN cells. ► CFA-NPs resulted in mitochondrial membrane damage in PBMN cells.

  13. Characterization of coal fly ash nanoparticles and induced oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ali, Al-Yousef Sulaiman [Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Science, University of Dammam, P.O. Box 1683, Hafr Al Batin-31991 (Saudi Arabia); Musarrat, Javed, E-mail: musarratj1@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, AMU, Aligarh202002 (India)

    2012-10-15

    The nano-sized particles present in coal fly ash (CFA) were characterized through the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The XRD data revealed the average crystallite size of the CFA nanoparticles (CFA-NPs) as 14 nm. TEM and SEM imaging demonstrated predominantly spherical and some polymorphic structures in the size range of 11 to 25 nm. The amount of heavy metal associated with CFA particles ({mu}g/g) were determined as Fe (34160.0 {+-} 1.38), Ni (150.8 {+-} 0.78), Cu (99.3 {+-} 0.56) and Cr (64.0 {+-} 0.86). However, the bioavailability of heavy metals in terms of percent release was in the order as Cr > Ni > Cu > Fe in CFA-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract. The comet and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assays revealed substantial genomic DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMN) cells treated with CFA-NPs in Aq and DMSO extracts. About 1.8 and 3.6 strand breaks per unit of DNA were estimated through alkaline unwinding assay at 1:100 DNA nucleotide/CFA ppm ratios with the Aq and DMSO extracts, respectively. The DNA and mitochondrial damage was invariably greater with CFA-DMSO extract vis-a-vis -Aq extract. Generation of superoxide anions (O{sub 2} Bullet {sup -}) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) through metal redox-cycling, alteration in mitochondrial potential and 8-oxodG production elucidated CFA-NPs induced oxidative stress as a plausible mechanism for CFA-induced genotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFA consists of spherical crystalline nanoparticles in size range of 11-25 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alkaline unwinding assay revealed single-strandedness in CFA treated ctDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFA nanoparticles exhibited the ability to induce ROS and oxidative DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comet and CBMN assays revealed DNA and chromosomal

  14. Tiron ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation in titanium dioxide nanoparticles induced nephrotoxicity of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashraf; Galal, Mona K; Ogaly, Hanan A; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Noshy, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Although the widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs), few studies were conducted on its hazard influence on human health. Tiron a synthetic vitamin E analog was proven to be a mitochondrial targeting antioxidant. The current investigation was performed to assess the efficacy of tiron against TiO 2 NPs induced nephrotoxicity. Eighty adult male rats divided into four different groups were used: group I was the control, group II received TiO2 NPs (100mg\\Kg BW), group III received TiO2 NPs plus tiron (470mg\\kg BW), and group IV received tiron alone. Urea, creatinine and total protein concentrations were measured in serum to assess the renal function. Antioxidant status was estimated by determining the activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and glutathione concentration in renal tissue. As well as Renal fibrosis was evaluated though measuring of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression levels and histopathological examination. TiO 2 NPs treated rats showed marked elevation of renal indices, depletion of renal antioxidant enzymes with marked increase in MDA concentration as well as significant up-regulation in fibrotic biomarkers TGFβ1 and MMP9. Oral administration of tiron to TiO 2 NPs treated rats significantly attenuate the renal dysfunction through decreasing of renal indices, increasing of antioxidant enzymes activities, down-regulate the expression of fibrotic genes and improving the histopathological picture for renal tissue. In conclusion, tiron was proved to attenuate the nephrotoxicity induced by TiO 2 NPs through its radical scavenging and metal chelating potency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The prospective protective effect of selenium nanoparticles against chromium-induced oxidative and cellular damage in rat thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanin KMA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kamel MA Hassanin,1 Samraa H Abd El-Kawi,2 Khalid S Hashem1 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt Background: Nanotechnology has enabled researchers to synthesize nanosize particles that possess increased surface areas. Compared to conventional microparticles, it has resulted in increased interactions with biological targets. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the protective ability of selenium nanoparticles against hexavalent chromium-induced thyrotoxicity. Design: Twenty male rats were used in the study, and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given phosphate-buffered saline. Group 2 was the chromium-treated group and was given K2Cr2O7 60 µg/kg body weight intraperitoneally as a single dose on the third day of administration. Group 3 was the nano-selenium-treated group and was given selenium nanoparticles (size 3–20 nm 0.5 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally daily for 5 consecutive days. Group 4 was the nano-selenium chromium-treated group, which received selenium nanoparticles for 5 days and a single dose of K2Cr2O7 on the third day of administration. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from rats for measuring thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [T4] and oxidative and antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde [MDA], reduced glutathione [GSH], catalase, and superoxide dismutase [SOD]. Upon dissection, thyroid glands were taken for histopathological examination by using paraffin preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Masson’s trichrome. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for detecting cellular proliferation using Ki67 antibodies. Results: The present study shows that K2Cr2O7 has a toxic effect on the thyroid gland as a result of inducing a marked oxidative damage and release of reactive oxygen species

  16. In vitro studies on oxidative stress-independent, Ag nanoparticles-induced cell toxicity of Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan VS

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Venkatraman Srinivasan Radhakrishnan,1 Surya Prakash Dwivedi,2 Mohammed Haris Siddiqui,3 Tulika Prasad1 1Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 2School of Biotechnology, IFTM University, Moradabad, 3Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNps have attracted maximal attention among all metal nanoparticles, and the study of their biological properties has gained impetus for further medical adoption. This study evaluated the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the action of AgNps against an opportunistic pathogen, Candida albicans. Spherical, stable AgNp (average size 21.6 nm prepared by a chemical reduction method showed minimum inhibitory concentration (required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms at 40 µg/mL. AgNps have been reported to induce oxidative stress-mediated programmed cell death through the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, this study demonstrated that intracellular levels of AgNp-induced ROS could be reversed by using antioxidant ascorbic acid, but the sensitivity of AgNp-treated Candida cells could not be completely reversed. Moreover, in addition to the generation of ROS, the AgNps were found to affect other cellular targets resulting in altered membrane fluidity, membrane microenvironment, ergosterol content, cellular morphology, and ultrastructure. Thus, the generation of ROS does not seem to be the sole major cause of AgNp-mediated cell toxicity in Candida. Rather, the multitargeted action of AgNps, generation of ROS, alterations in ergosterol content, and membrane fluidity together seem to have potentiated anti-Candida action. Thus, this “nano-based drug therapy” is likely to favor broad-spectrum activity, multiple cellular targets, and minimum host toxicity. AgNps, therefore, appear to have the potential to address the challenges in multidrug

  17. Immobilized WO3 nanoparticles on graphene oxide as a photo-induced antibacterial agent against UV-resistant Bacillus pumilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Farshad; Rasuli, Reza; Jafarian, Vahab

    2018-04-01

    We present the antibacterial and photo-catalytic activity of immobilized WO3 nanoparticles on graphene oxide sheets. WO3 nanoparticles were immobilized on graphene oxide using the arc discharge method in arc currents of 5, 20, 40 and 60 A. Tauc plots of the UV-visible spectra show that the band gap of the prepared samples decreases (to ~2.7 eV) with respect to the WO3 nanoparticles. Photo-catalytic activity was examined by the degradation of rhodamine B under ultra-violet irradiation and the results show that the photo-catalytic activity of WO3 nanoparticles is increased by immobilizing them on graphene oxide sheets. In addition, the photo-degradation yield of the samples prepared by the 5 A arc current is 84% in 120 min, which is more than that of the other samples. The antibacterial activity of the prepared samples was studied against Bacillus pumilus (B. pumilus) bacteria, showing high resistance to ultra-violet exposure. Our results show that the bare and immobilized WO3 nanoparticles become more active under UV irradiation and their antibacterial properties are comparable with Ag nanoparticles. Besides this, the results show that although the photo-catalytic activity of the post-annealed samples at 500 °C is less than the as-prepared samples, it is, however, more active against B. pumilus bacteria under UV irradiation.

  18. Radiation dose rate affects the radiosensitization of MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines to X-rays induced by dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgard, Karim; Kiani, Parvaneh; Haghparast, Abbas; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of radiotherapy is to deliver lethal damage to cancerous tissue while preserving adjacent normal tissues. Radiation absorbed dose of the tumoral cells can increase when high atomic nanoparticles are present in them during irradiation. Also, the dose rate is an important aspect in radiation effects that determines the biological results of a given dose. This in vitro study investigated the dose-rate effect on the induced radiosensitivity by dextran-coated iron oxide in cancer cells. HeLa and MCF-7 cells were cultured in vitro and incubated with different concentrations of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. They were then irradiated with 6 MV photons at dose rates of 43, 185 and 370 cGy/min. The MTT test was used to obtain the cells' survival after 48 h of irradiations. Incubating the cells with the nanoparticles at concentrations of 10, 40 and 80 μg/ml showed no significant cytotoxicity effect. Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed more radiosensitivity effect by increasing the dose rate and nanoparticles concentration. Radiosensitization enhancement factors of MCF-7 and HeLa cells at a dose-rate of 370 cGy/min and nanoparticles' concentration of 80 μg/ml were 1.21 ± 0.06 and 1.19 ± 0.04, respectively. Increasing the dose rate of 6 MV photons irradiation in MCF-7 and HeLa cells increases the radiosensitization induced by the dextran-coated iron nanoparticles in these cells.

  19. Role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast function in cerium oxide nanoparticles-induced lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jane; Bishoff, Bridget; Mercer, R.R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Castranova, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO 2 ) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO 2 induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO 2 -induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO 2 (0.15 to 7 mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure. The results show that at 28 days after CeO 2 (3.5 mg/kg) exposure, lung fibrosis was evidenced by increased soluble collagen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, elevated hydroxyproline content in lung tissues, and enhanced sirius red staining for collagen in the lung tissue. Lung fibroblasts and alveolar type II (ATII) cells isolated from CeO 2 -exposed rats at 28 days post-exposure demonstrated decreasing proliferation rate when compare to the controls. CeO 2 exposure was cytotoxic and altered cell function as demonstrated by fibroblast apoptosis and aggregation, and ATII cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increased surfactant. The presence of stress fibers, expressed as α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in CeO 2 -exposed fibroblasts and ATII cells was significantly increased compared to the control. Immunohistofluorescence analysis demonstrated co-localization of TGF-β or α-SMA with prosurfactant protein C (SPC)-stained ATII cells. These results demonstrate that CeO 2 exposure affects fibroblast function and induces EMT in ATII cells that play a role in lung fibrosis. These findings suggest potential adverse health effects in response to CeO 2 nanoparticle exposure. - Highlights: • CeO 2 exposure induced lung fibrosis. • CeO 2 were detected in lung tissue, alveolar type II (ATII) cells and fibroblasts. • CeO 2 caused ATII cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia and altered fibroblast function

  20. Role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast function in cerium oxide nanoparticles-induced lung fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jane [Health Effects Laboratory Division, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States); Bishoff, Bridget [Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Morganntown, WV (United States); Mercer, R.R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane [Health Effects Laboratory Division, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States); Castranova, Vincent, E-mail: vcastran@hsc.wvu.edu [School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO{sub 2}) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO{sub 2} induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO{sub 2}-induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} (0.15 to 7 mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure. The results show that at 28 days after CeO{sub 2} (3.5 mg/kg) exposure, lung fibrosis was evidenced by increased soluble collagen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, elevated hydroxyproline content in lung tissues, and enhanced sirius red staining for collagen in the lung tissue. Lung fibroblasts and alveolar type II (ATII) cells isolated from CeO{sub 2}-exposed rats at 28 days post-exposure demonstrated decreasing proliferation rate when compare to the controls. CeO{sub 2} exposure was cytotoxic and altered cell function as demonstrated by fibroblast apoptosis and aggregation, and ATII cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increased surfactant. The presence of stress fibers, expressed as α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in CeO{sub 2}-exposed fibroblasts and ATII cells was significantly increased compared to the control. Immunohistofluorescence analysis demonstrated co-localization of TGF-β or α-SMA with prosurfactant protein C (SPC)-stained ATII cells. These results demonstrate that CeO{sub 2} exposure affects fibroblast function and induces EMT in ATII cells that play a role in lung fibrosis. These findings suggest potential adverse health effects in response to CeO{sub 2} nanoparticle exposure. - Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} exposure induced lung fibrosis. • CeO{sub 2} were detected in lung tissue, alveolar type II (ATII) cells and fibroblasts. • CeO{sub 2} caused ATII

  1. In vitro cardiotoxicity screening of silver and metal oxide nanoparticles using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure risk to silver and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) continues to increase due to their widespread use in products and applications. In vivo studies have shown Ag, TiO2 and CeO2 NPs translocate to the heart following various routes of exposure. Thus, it is critical to asse...

  2. Silver nanoparticle induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awasthi, Kumud Kant [University of Rajasthan, Department of Zoology (India); Awasthi, Anjali; Kumar, Narender; Roy, Partha [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Department of Biotechnology (India); Awasthi, Kamlendra, E-mail: kamlendra.awasthi@gmail.com [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (India); John, P. J., E-mail: placheriljohn@yahoo.com [University of Rajasthan, Department of Zoology (India)

    2013-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are being used increasingly in wound dressings, catheters, and in various household products due to their antimicrobial activity. The present study reports the toxicity evaluation of synthesized and well characterized Ag NPs using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The UV-Vis spectroscopy reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles by exhibiting the typical surface plasmon absorption maxima at 408-410 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the average diameter of silver nanoparticles is about 5.0 {+-} 1.0 nm and that they have spherical shape. Cell visibility and cell viability percentage show dose-dependent cellular toxicity of Ag NPs. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) for CHO cells is 68.0 {+-} 2.65 {mu}g/ml after 24 h Ag NPs exposure. Toxicity evaluations, including cellular morphology, mitochondrial function (MTT assay), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and DNA fragmentation assay (Ladder pattern) were assessed in unexposed CHO cells (control) and the cells exposed to Ag NPs concentrations of 15, 30, and 60 {mu}g/ml for 24 h. The findings may assist in the designing of Ag NPs for various applications and provide insights into their toxicity.

  3. Hyaluronic Acid-Modified Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MR Imaging of Surgically Induced Endometriosis Model in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Guofu; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine, which may affect nearly 60% of women in reproductive age. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) defined as an endometriotic lesion penetrating into the retroperitoneal space or the wall of the pelvic organs to a depth of at least 5 mm represents the most diagnostic challenge. Herein, we reported the use of hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-Fe3O4 NPs) for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of endometriotic lesions in the rodent model. Sixteen endometriotic lesions were surgically induced in eight rats by autologous transplantation. Four weeks after lesion induction, three rats were scanned via MR imaging after tail vein injection of the HA-Fe3O4 NPs. Accordingly, the remaining five mice were sacrificed in the corresponding time points. The ectopic uterine tissues (EUTs) were confirmed by histological analysis. Quantification of Fe in the EUT was also performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Our results showed that by using the HA-Fe3O4 NPs, the EUTs were able to be visualized via T2-weighted MR imaging at 2 hours post injection, corroborating the Prussian blue staining results. The developed HA-Fe3O4 NPs could be used as negative contrast agents for sensitively detecting endometriosis in a mouse model and may be applied for future hyperthermia treatment of endometriosis. PMID:24722347

  4. Hyaluronic acid-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging of surgically induced endometriosis model in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine, which may affect nearly 60% of women in reproductive age. Deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE defined as an endometriotic lesion penetrating into the retroperitoneal space or the wall of the pelvic organs to a depth of at least 5 mm represents the most diagnostic challenge. Herein, we reported the use of hyaluronic acid (HA-modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-Fe3O4 NPs for magnetic resonance (MR imaging of endometriotic lesions in the rodent model. Sixteen endometriotic lesions were surgically induced in eight rats by autologous transplantation. Four weeks after lesion induction, three rats were scanned via MR imaging after tail vein injection of the HA-Fe3O4 NPs. Accordingly, the remaining five mice were sacrificed in the corresponding time points. The ectopic uterine tissues (EUTs were confirmed by histological analysis. Quantification of Fe in the EUT was also performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. Our results showed that by using the HA-Fe3O4 NPs, the EUTs were able to be visualized via T2-weighted MR imaging at 2 hours post injection, corroborating the Prussian blue staining results. The developed HA-Fe3O4 NPs could be used as negative contrast agents for sensitively detecting endometriosis in a mouse model and may be applied for future hyperthermia treatment of endometriosis.

  5. Eupafolin nanoparticles protect HaCaT keratinocytes from particulate matter-induced inflammation and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin ZC

    2016-08-01

    applications. To address these issues, we successfully synthesized a eupafolin nanoparticle delivery system (ENDS. Our findings showed that ENDS could overcome the physicochemical drawbacks of raw eupafolin with respect to water solubility and skin penetration, through reduction of particle size and formation of an amorphous state with hydrogen bonding. Moreover, ENDS was superior to raw eupafolin in attenuating PM-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in HaCaT keratinocytes, by mediating the antioxidant pathway (decreased reactive oxygen species production and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity and anti-inflammation pathway (decreased cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through downregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling. In summary, ENDS shows better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities than raw eupafolin through improvement of water solubility and skin penetration. Therefore, ENDS may potentially be used as a medicinal drug and/or cosmeceutical product to prevent PM-induced skin inflammation. Keywords: eupafolin, nanoparticles, particulate matter, oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2, keratinocytes

  6. Copper(ii) oxide nanoparticles penetrate into HepG2 cells, exert cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and induce pro-inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jean-Pascal; Jacques, Diane; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Mejia, Jorge; Boilan, Emmanuelle; Noël, Florence; Fransolet, Maude; Demazy, Catherine; Lucas, Stéphane; Saout, Christelle; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-κB and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major role in the activation of AP-1. In addition, cytotoxicity, inflammatory and antioxidative responses and activation of intracellular transduction pathways induced by rod-shaped CuO NPs were more important than spherical CuO NPs. Measurement of Cu2+ released in cell culture medium suggested that Cu2+ cations released from CuO NPs were involved only to a small extent in the toxicity induced by these NPs on HepG2 cells.The potential toxic effects of two types of copper(ii) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with different specific surface areas, different shapes (rod or spheric), different sizes as raw materials and similar hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were studied on human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Both CuO NPs were shown to be able to enter into HepG2 cells and induce cellular toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species. CuO NPs increased the abundance of several transcripts coding for pro-inflammatory interleukins and chemokines. Transcriptomic data, siRNA knockdown and DNA binding activities suggested that Nrf2, NF-κB and AP-1 were implicated in the response of HepG2 cells to CuO NPs. CuO NP incubation also induced activation of MAPK pathways, ERKs and JNK/SAPK, playing a major

  7. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  8. Development of HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene assays in human cells for assessing the oxidative damage induced by silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Zhang, Leshuai W.; Che, Bizhong; Dong, Guangzhu; Fan, Guoqiang; Cheng, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    The exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products requires novel tools for rapid and cost-effective toxicology screening. In order to assess the oxidative damage induced by nanoparticles, toxicity test systems based on a human HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter in HepG2, LO2, A549, and HBE cells were established. After treated with heat shock and a group of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different primary particle sizes, the cell viability, oxidative damage, and luciferase activity were determined. The time-dependent Ag + ions release from AgNPs in cell medium was also evaluated. Our results showed that heat shock produced a strong time-dependent induction of relative luciferase activity in the four luciferase reporter cells. Surprisingly, at 4 h of recovery, the relative luciferase activity was > 98 × the control level in HepG2-luciferase cells. Exposure to different sizes of AgNPs resulted in activation of the HSPA1A promoter in a dose-dependent manner, even at low cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic doses. The smaller (5 nm) AgNPs were more potent in luciferase induction than the larger (50 and 75 nm) AgNPs. These results were generally in accordance with the oxidative damage indicated by malondialdehyde concentration, reactive oxygen species induction and glutathione depletion, and Ag + ions release in cell medium. Compared with the other three luciferase reporter cells, the luciferase signal in HepG2-luciferase cells is obviously more sensitive and stable. We conclude that the luciferase reporter cells, especially the HepG2-luciferase cells, could provide a valuable tool for rapid screening of the oxidative damage induced by AgNPs. - Highlights: • We established the stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter cells. • Silver nanoparticles induced dose-dependent increases in luciferase activity. • HSPA1A promoter activity is a sensitive and responsive indicator of oxidative stress. • HepG2-luciferase

  9. Development of HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene assays in human cells for assessing the oxidative damage induced by silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Lili, E-mail: llxin@suda.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Diseases, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Jianshu [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 72 Sanxiang Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Leshuai W. [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection & School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, 215123 (China); Che, Bizhong; Dong, Guangzhu [School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu (China); Fan, Guoqiang; Cheng, Kaiming [Suzhou Industrial Park Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 58 Suqian Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-08-01

    The exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanoparticles in consumer products requires novel tools for rapid and cost-effective toxicology screening. In order to assess the oxidative damage induced by nanoparticles, toxicity test systems based on a human HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter in HepG2, LO2, A549, and HBE cells were established. After treated with heat shock and a group of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with different primary particle sizes, the cell viability, oxidative damage, and luciferase activity were determined. The time-dependent Ag{sup +} ions release from AgNPs in cell medium was also evaluated. Our results showed that heat shock produced a strong time-dependent induction of relative luciferase activity in the four luciferase reporter cells. Surprisingly, at 4 h of recovery, the relative luciferase activity was > 98 × the control level in HepG2-luciferase cells. Exposure to different sizes of AgNPs resulted in activation of the HSPA1A promoter in a dose-dependent manner, even at low cytotoxic or non-cytotoxic doses. The smaller (5 nm) AgNPs were more potent in luciferase induction than the larger (50 and 75 nm) AgNPs. These results were generally in accordance with the oxidative damage indicated by malondialdehyde concentration, reactive oxygen species induction and glutathione depletion, and Ag{sup +} ions release in cell medium. Compared with the other three luciferase reporter cells, the luciferase signal in HepG2-luciferase cells is obviously more sensitive and stable. We conclude that the luciferase reporter cells, especially the HepG2-luciferase cells, could provide a valuable tool for rapid screening of the oxidative damage induced by AgNPs. - Highlights: • We established the stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter cells. • Silver nanoparticles induced dose-dependent increases in luciferase activity. • HSPA1A promoter activity is a sensitive and responsive indicator of oxidative stress. • HepG2

  10. Determination of Conjugation Efficiency of Antibodies and Proteins to the Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.-H.; Yoshitake, Takashi [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience (Sweden); Kim, Do-Kyung; Muhammed, Mamoun [Royal Institute of Technology, Materials Chemistry Division (Sweden); Bjelke, Boerje [MRI-Center, Experimental Unit, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Kehr, Jan [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience (Sweden)], E-mail: Jan.Kehr@neuro.ki.se

    2003-04-15

    The method based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE/LIF) was developed for determination of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameters of 100 nm) functionalized with molecules containing primary amino groups. The magnetic nanoparticles with carboxylic or aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane groups at their surface were conjugated to the model proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA; streptavidin or goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G, IgG) using carbodiimide as a zero-length cross-linker.The nanoparticle-protein conjugates (hydrodynamic diameter 163-194 nm) were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde reagent and separated by CE/LIF with a helium-cadmium laser (excitation at 442 nm, emission at 488 nm). The separations were carried out by using a fused-silica capillary (effective length 48 cm, inner diameter 75 um) and 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.2), the potential was 30 kV. The detection limit for BSA-conjugate was 1.3 pg/10 nl, i.e. about 20 amol. The present method provides an efficient and fast tool for sensitive determination of the efficacy of biomolecular functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. The CE/LIF technique requires only negligible sample volumes for analysis, which is especially suitable for controlling the process of preparation of functionalized nanoparticles with unique properties aimed to be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  11. Synergistic effect of bolus exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on bleomycin-induced secretion of pro-fibrotic cytokines without lasting fibrotic changes in murine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenting; Ichihara, Gaku; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Suzuki, Yuka; Chang, Jie; Kato, Masashi; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2014-12-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used in various products, and the safety evaluation of this manufactured material is important. The present study investigated the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles in a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by constant subcutaneous infusion of bleomycin (BLM). Female C57BL/6Jcl mice were divided into BLM-treated and non-treated groups. In each treatment group, 0, 10, 20 or 30 µg of ZnO nanoparticles were delivered into the lungs through pharyngeal aspiration. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lungs were sampled at Day 10 or 14 after administration. Pulmonary exposure by a single bolus of ZnO nanoparticles resulted in severe, but transient inflammatory infiltration and thickening of the alveolar septa in the lungs, along with the increase of total and differential cell counts in BLAF. The BALF level of interleukin (IL)-1β and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was increased at Day 10 and 14, respectively. At Day 10, the synergistic effect of BLM and ZnO exposure was detected on IL-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in BALF. The present study demonstrated the synergistic effect of pulmonary exposure to ZnO nanoparticles and subcutaneous infusion of BLM on the secretion of pro-fibrotic cytokines in the lungs.

  12. Plasma-induced synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on TiO2 nanotubes for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nan; Hu, Xiulan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Cheng, Jiexu; Yu, Jinchen; Ge, Chao

    2017-03-01

    A Pt/C/TiO2 nanotube composite catalyst was successfully prepared for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation. Pt nanoparticles with a particle size of 2 nm were synthesized by plasma sputtering in water, and anatase TiO2 nanotubes with an inner diameter of approximately 100 nm were prepared by a simple two-step anodization method and annealing process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the different morphologies of TiO2 synthesized on the surface of Ti foils were dependent on the different anodization parameters. The electrochemical performance of Pt/C/TiO2 catalysts for methanol oxidation showed that TiO2 nanotubes were more suitable for use as Pt nanoparticle support materials than irregular TiO2 short nanorods due to their tubular morphology and better electronic conductivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization showed that the binding energies of the Pt 4f of the Pt/C/TiO2 nanotubes exhibited a slightly positive shift caused by the relatively strong interaction between Pt and the TiO2 nanotubes, which could mitigate the poisoning of the Pt catalyst by COads, and further enhance the electrocatalytic performance. Thus, the as-obtained Pt/C/TiO2 nanotubes composites may become a promising catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation.

  13. Iron oxide nanoparticles induced alterations in haematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of an Indian major carp Labeo rohita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, M.; Suganya, R.; Ramesh, M., E-mail: mathanramesh@yahoo.com; Poopal, R. K. [Bharathiar University, Unit of Toxicology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences (India); Gopalan, N. [Bharathiar University, DRDO-BU (India); Ponpandian, N. [Bharathiar University, Department of Nanoscience and Technology (India)

    2015-06-15

    The wide use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs) in various applications has raised great concerns worldwide. In this work, we measured the potential harmful effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP (<50 nm) at concentrations of 1 and 25 mg/L on haematological, biochemical, and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for a short-term period of 96 h. The results revealed significant (P < 0.05) decreases in haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin, protein, sodium (Na{sup +}), potassium (K{sup +}), chloride (Cl{sup −}) and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase levels in both the concentrations. White blood cell, mean cellular haemoglobin concentration and glucose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in response to both concentrations during the study period. However, no significant changes in red blood cell count and gill Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase (25 mg/L) activity were noticed compared to those of the respective control groups. Based on this study, it was found that the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs do have prominent effects on freshwater fish L. rohita. Our data suggest that the alterations of these parameters can be used as nonspecific biomarkers to monitor the environmental risks arising from nanoparticles in aquatic ecosystem and also regulate the use, production and release of nanoparticles.

  14. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  15. Evaluation of the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pulmonary and the hepatic toxicity induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalabotu, Siva Krishna

    levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio and decreased serum triglyceride levels. Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight and dose dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal dilatation and the accumulation of granular material in the hepatocytes. In a follow-up study, we next examined if CeO2 deposition in the liver is characterized by increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. Our data demonstrate that increased cerium in the liver is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis as assessed from hydroethidium staining, the analysis of lipid peroxidation, and TUNEL staining. In addition, increased cerium concentration in the liver was associated with an increased Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, elevated caspase-9 and elevated caspase-3 protein levels. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to CeO 2 nanoparticles is associated with increased oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in the lungs. It is also evident that CeO2 nanoparticles can translocate to liver and induce hepatic damage. The hepatic damage induced by CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the liver.

  16. Cerium and yttrium oxide nanoparticles are neuroprotective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, David; Dargusch, Richard; Raitano, Joan; Chan, S.-W.

    2006-01-01

    The responses of cells exposed to nanoparticles have been studied with regard to toxicity, but very little attention has been paid to the possibility that some types of particles can protect cells from various forms of lethal stress. It is shown here that nanoparticles composed of cerium oxide or yttrium oxide protect nerve cells from oxidative stress and that the neuroprotection is independent of particle size. The ceria and yttria nanoparticles act as direct antioxidants to limit the amount of reactive oxygen species required to kill the cells. It follows that this group of nanoparticles could be used to modulate oxidative stress in biological systems

  17. Gentamicin coated iron oxide nanoparticles as novel antibacterial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Proma; Neogi, Sudarsan

    2017-09-01

    Applications of different types of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical purposes started a long time back. The concept of surface functionalization of the iron oxide nanoparticles with antibiotics is a novel technique which paves the path for further application of these nanoparticles by virtue of their property of superparamagnetism. In this paper, we have synthesized novel iron oxide nanoparticles surface functionalized with Gentamicin. The average size of the particles, concluded from the HR-TEM images, came to be around 14 nm and 10 nm for unmodified and modified nanoparticles, respectively. The magnetization curve M(H) obtained for these nanoparticles are typical of superparamagnetic nature and having almost zero values of coercivity and remanance. The release properties of the drug coated nanoparticles were studied; obtaining an S shaped profile, indicating the initial burst effect followed by gradual sustained release. In vitro investigations against various gram positive and gram negative strains viz Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis indicated significant antibacterial efficiency of the drug-nanoparticle conjugate. The MIC values indicated that a small amount like 0.2 mg ml-1 of drug capped particles induce about 98% bacterial death. The novelty of the work lies in the drug capping of the nanoparticles, which retains the superparamagnetic nature of the iron oxide nanoparticles and the medical properties of the drug simultaneously, which is found to extremely blood compatible.

  18. Nitric oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, David O.; Martinez, Luis R.; Blecher, Karin; Chouake, Jason S.; Nacharaju, Parimala; Gialanella, Philip; Friedman, Joel M.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of host defense against invading pathogens; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to a lack of practical delivery systems. Recently, a NO-releasing nanoparticulate platform (NO-np) was shown to have in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo pre-clinical efficacy in a dermal abscess model. To extend these findings, both topical (TP) and intralesional (IL) NO-np administration was evaluated in a MRSA intramuscular murine abscess model and compared with vancomycin. All treatment arms accelerated abscess clearance clinically, histologically, and by microbiological assays on both days 4 and 7 following infection. However, abscesses treated with NO-np via either route demonstrated a more substantial, statistically significant decrease in bacterial survival based on colony forming unit assays and histologically revealed less inflammatory cell infiltration and preserved muscular architecture. These data suggest that the NO-np may be an effective addition to our armament for deep soft tissue infections. PMID:22286699

  19. Therapeutic Efficacy of Orally Delivered Doxorubicin Nanoparticles in Rat Tongue Cancer Induced by 4-Nitroquinoline 1-Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oral cancer is one of the most significant cancers in the world, and squamous cell carcinoma makes up about 94% of oral malignancies. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of doxorubicin plus methotrexate - loaded nanoparticles on tongue squamous cell carcinoma induced by 4NQO and compare it with the commercial doxorubicin and methotrexate delivered orally on seventy SD male rats. Methods: 70 rats were divided into five groups. During the study, the animals were weighed by a digital scale once a week. Number of mortalities was recorded in the data collection forms. At the end of the treatment, biopsy samples were taken from rat tongues in order to evaluate the severity of dysplasia and the extent of cell proliferation. The results were analyzed using ANOVA, descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the mean weight of five groups (p>0.05. No significant relationship was found between groups and mortality rate (P = 0. 39. In addition, there was a significant relationship between groups and the degree of dysplasia (P <0.001. The statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between groups and the rate of cell proliferation (p <0.001. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the use of doxorubicin plus methotrexate - loaded nanoparticles orally had more therapeutic effects than commercial doxorubicin plus methotrexate.

  20. Iron oxide and gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotman, Irena, E-mail: gotman@technion.ac.il; Gutmanas, Elazar Y., E-mail: gutmanas@technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 Israel (Israel); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Psakhie, Sergey G. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Continuous research activities in the field of nanomedicine in the past decade have, to a great extent, been focused on nanoparticle technologies for cancer therapy. Gold and iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) are two of the most studied inorganic nanomaterials due to their unique optical and magnetic properties. Both types of NPs are emerging as promising systems for anti-tumor drug delivery and for nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy of cancer. In thermal therapy, localized heating inside tumors or in proximity of tumor cells can be induced, for example, with Au NPs by radiofrequency ablation heating or conversion of photon energy (photothermal therapy) and in iron oxide magnetic NPs by heat generation through relaxation in an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia). Furthermore, the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles have led to their use as potent MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Surface modification/coating can produce NPs with tailored and desired properties, such as enhanced blood circulation time, stability, biocompatibility and water solubility. To target nanoparticles to specific tumor cells, NPs should be conjugated with targeting moieties on the surface which bind to receptors or other molecular structures on the cell surface. The article presents several approaches to enhancing the specificity of Au and iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor tissue by appropriate surface modification/functionalization, as well as the effect of these treatments on the saturation magnetization value of iron oxide NPs. The use of other nanoparticles and nanostructures in cancer treatment is also briefly reviewed.

  1. In vitro toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles is due to their solubility. ZnO nanoparticles dissolve in the extracellular region, which in turn increases the intracellular [Zn 2+ ] level. The mechanism for increased intracellular [Zn 2+ ] level and ZnO nanoparticles dissolution in the medium is still unclear. Cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress, increased intracellular [Ca 2+ ] level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and interleukin-8 productions occur in the BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and A549 alveolar adenocarcinoma cells following the exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. Confluent C2C12 cells are more resistant to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the sparse monolayer. Loss of 3T3-L1 cell viability, membrane leakage, and morphological changes occurs due to exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticle induces cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in RKO colon carcinoma cells. The occurrence of apoptosis, increased ROS level, reduced mitochondrial activity and formation of tubular intracellular structures are reported following exposure of ZnO nanoparticles in skin cells. Macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are affected by ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, genotoxicity is also induced. The present review summarizes the literature on in vitro toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (10–100 nm) on various cell lines

  2. In vitro toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan, E-mail: frenzram1980@gmail.com [Konkuk University, Department of Bioresources and Food Sciences (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The toxic effect of ZnO nanoparticles is due to their solubility. ZnO nanoparticles dissolve in the extracellular region, which in turn increases the intracellular [Zn{sup 2+}] level. The mechanism for increased intracellular [Zn{sup 2+}] level and ZnO nanoparticles dissolution in the medium is still unclear. Cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress, increased intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}] level, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and interleukin-8 productions occur in the BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells and A549 alveolar adenocarcinoma cells following the exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. Confluent C2C12 cells are more resistant to ZnO nanoparticles compared to the sparse monolayer. Loss of 3T3-L1 cell viability, membrane leakage, and morphological changes occurs due to exposure of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticle induces cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction in RKO colon carcinoma cells. The occurrence of apoptosis, increased ROS level, reduced mitochondrial activity and formation of tubular intracellular structures are reported following exposure of ZnO nanoparticles in skin cells. Macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are affected by ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, genotoxicity is also induced. The present review summarizes the literature on in vitro toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (10–100 nm) on various cell lines.

  3. Sodium selenite/selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) protect cardiomyoblasts and zebrafish embryos against ethanol induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Jeyabharathi, Subhaschandrabose; Sundar, Krishnan; Muthukumaran, Azhaguchamy

    2015-10-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is the damage caused to the heart muscles due to high level of alcohol consumption resulting in enlargement and inflammation of the heart. Selenium is an important trace element that is beneficial to human health. Selenium protects the cells by preventing the formation of free radicals in the body. In the present study, protein mediated synthesis of SeNPs was investigated. Two different sizes of SeNPs were synthesized using BSA and keratin. The synthesized SeNPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elemental composition analysis Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). This study demonstrates the in vitro and in vivo antioxidative effects of sodium selenite and SeNPs. Further selenium and SeNPs were evaluated for their ability to protect against 1% ethanol induced oxidative stress in H9C2 cell line. The selenium and SeNPs were found to reduce the 1% ethanol-induced oxidative damage through scavenging intracellular reactive oxygen species. The selenium and SeNPs could also prevent pericardial edema induced ethanol treatment and reduced apoptosis and cell death in zebrafish embryos. The results indicate that selenium and SeNPs could potentially be used as an additive in alcoholic beverage industry to control the cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of the molecular responses of mouse macrophages to titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles unravels some toxic mechanisms for copper oxide nanoparticles in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Triboulet

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles are more and more widely used because of their catalytic properties, of their light absorbing properties (titanium dioxide or of their biocidal properties (copper oxide, increasing the risk of adverse health effects. In this frame, the responses of mouse macrophages were studied. Both proteomic and targeted analyses were performed to investigate several parameters, such as phagocytic capacity, cytokine release, copper release, and response at sub toxic doses. Besides titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles, copper ions were used as controls. We also showed that the overall copper release in the cell does not explain per se the toxicity observed with copper oxide nanoparticles. In addition, both copper ion and copper oxide nanoparticles, but not titanium oxide, induced DNA strands breaks in macrophages. As to functional responses, the phagocytic capacity was not hampered by any of the treatments at non-toxic doses, while copper ion decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and nitric oxide productions. The proteomic analyses highlighted very few changes induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles, but an induction of heme oxygenase, an increase of glutathione synthesis and a decrease of tetrahydrobiopterin in response to copper oxide nanoparticles. Subsequent targeted analyses demonstrated that the increase in glutathione biosynthesis and the induction of heme oxygenase (e.g. by lovastatin/monacolin K are critical for macrophages to survive a copper challenge, and that the intermediates of the catecholamine pathway induce a strong cross toxicity with copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of the molecular responses of mouse macrophages to titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles unravels some toxic mechanisms for copper oxide nanoparticles in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triboulet, Sarah; Aude-Garcia, Catherine; Armand, Lucie; Collin-Faure, Véronique; Chevallet, Mireille; Diemer, Hélène; Gerdil, Adèle; Proamer, Fabienne; Strub, Jean-Marc; Habert, Aurélie; Herlin, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Carrière, Marie; Rabilloud, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles are more and more widely used because of their catalytic properties, of their light absorbing properties (titanium dioxide) or of their biocidal properties (copper oxide), increasing the risk of adverse health effects. In this frame, the responses of mouse macrophages were studied. Both proteomic and targeted analyses were performed to investigate several parameters, such as phagocytic capacity, cytokine release, copper release, and response at sub toxic doses. Besides titanium dioxide and copper oxide nanoparticles, copper ions were used as controls. We also showed that the overall copper release in the cell does not explain per se the toxicity observed with copper oxide nanoparticles. In addition, both copper ion and copper oxide nanoparticles, but not titanium oxide, induced DNA strands breaks in macrophages. As to functional responses, the phagocytic capacity was not hampered by any of the treatments at non-toxic doses, while copper ion decreased the lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and nitric oxide productions. The proteomic analyses highlighted very few changes induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles, but an induction of heme oxygenase, an increase of glutathione synthesis and a decrease of tetrahydrobiopterin in response to copper oxide nanoparticles. Subsequent targeted analyses demonstrated that the increase in glutathione biosynthesis and the induction of heme oxygenase (e.g. by lovastatin/monacolin K) are critical for macrophages to survive a copper challenge, and that the intermediates of the catecholamine pathway induce a strong cross toxicity with copper oxide nanoparticles and copper ions.

  6. NAD+-Carrying Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Can Prevent Oxidative Stress-Induced Energy Failures of Both Rodent Astrocytes and PC12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heyu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Jixi; Ma, Yingxin; Wang, Caixia; Zhou, Ying; Gu, Hongchen; Ying, Weihai

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that NAD+-carrying mesoporous silica nanoparticles (M-MSNs@NAD+) can effectively deliver NAD+ into cells to produce cytoprotective effects. Methods & Materials NAD+ was incorporated into M-MSNs. Primary rat astrocyte cultures and PC12 cells were treated with H2O2, followed by post-treatment with M-MSNs@NAD+. After various durations of the post-treatment, intracellular NAD+ levels, intracellular ATP levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were determined. Results & Discussion M-MSNs can be effectively loaded with NAD+. The M-MSNs@NAD+ can significantly attenuate H2O2-induced NAD+ and ATP decreases in both astrocyte cultures and PC12 cells. M-MSNs@NAD+ can also partially prevent the H2O2-induced LDH release from both astrocyte cultures and PC12 cells. In contrast, the NAD+ that is spontaneously released from the M-MSNs@NAD+ is insufficient to prevent the H2O2-induced damage. Conclusions Our study has suggested the first approach that can effectively deliver NAD+ into cells, which provides an important basis both for elucidating the roles of intracellular NAD+ in biological functions and for therapeutic applications of NAD+. Our study has also provided the first direct evidence demonstrating a key role of NAD+ depletion in oxidative stress-induced ATP decreases. PMID:24040179

  7. Size-induced effect upon the Neel temperature of the antiferro/paramagnetic transition in gadolinium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutelet, B.; Martini, M.; Perriat, P. [Universite de Lyon, MATEIS, UMR 5510 CNRS, Villeurbanne (France); Keller, N. [Universite de Versailles-St-Quentin, GEMAC, UMR 8635 CNRS, Versailles (France); Roux, S. [Universite de Franche-Comte, UTINAM, UMR 6213 CNRS, Besanon (France); Flores-Gonzales, M.A.; Lux, F.; Tillement, O.; Billotey, C.; Janier, M. [Universite de Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard, LPCML, Villeurbanne (France); Villiers, C. [Institut Albert Bonniot, INSERM U823, La Tronche (France); Novitchi, Ghenadie; Luneau, Dominique [Universite de Lyon, Universite Claude Bernard, Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, Villeurbanne (France)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate that cubic gadolinium oxide is paramagnetic and follows the Curie-Weiss law from 20 K to room temperature for particles size comprised between 3.5 and 60 nm. The largest particles (60 nm) possess the macroscopic behaviour of Gd oxide with a Neel temperature, T{sub N}, close to 18 K (Gd oxide is antiferromagnetic below T{sub N}, paramagnetic above). Then size-induced effects can be encountered only for particles smaller than 60 nm. We find that the finite-size scaling model used for describing the size evolution of the antiferro/paramagnetic transition is valid for sizes comprised between 3.5 and 35 nm with parameters in excellent agreement with those usually found for antiferromagnetic materials. The correlation length (3.6 nm) is of the order of magnitude of a few lattice parameters and the critical exponent {lambda} is found equal to 1.3, a value very close to that predicted by the three dimensional Heisenberg model ({lambda}=1.4). (orig.)

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CdS nanoparticles prepared in reverse micellar system was incorporated into ... The molar ratio of various constituents of the hydrothermal gel was ... other synthesis techniques for the preparation of iron oxide nanocomposites using.

  9. Is sub-chronic exercise in Combination with medicinal nanoparticles a protective strategy against Doxorubicin-induced Hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis in aging model rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Kamal Sadat-Hoseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Oxidative stress and apoptosis are the major side effects of doxorubicin (DOX and the advantages accruing fromexercise and some medicinal herbs in mitigation of these toxic side effects is well documented. But so far, the effects of exercise in combination with medicinal nanoparticles on oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling simultaneously, in liver tissue are unknown. Hence, we investigated whether Treadmill Runningin combination with Nanocurcumin protects the liver tissue against these toxic side effects (oxidative stress and apoptosis simultaneously of DOX treatment in aging rats induced by D-galactose. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six Wistar male rats received a daily injection of D-galactose (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. then randomly assigned to 7 sub-groups. The training protocol included treadmill running progressively between 25 to 54 min/day and 15 to 20m/min, 5 days/week for six weeks. DOX (1 mg⋅mL−1⋅kg−1⋅day−1 was administrated intraperitoneally for 15 days and Nanocurcumin was administrated orally for 2 weeks (100 mg/kg/day. Results: Nanocurcumin Consumptionled to insignificant increase in SOD, MDA and insignificant decrease in AIF levels. Treadmill runningled to insignificant increase in SOD and insignificant decrease in AIF and MDA levels. The combination of Treadmill runningand Nanocurcumin led to significant decrease in MDA and insignificant increase in SOD and insignificant decrease in AIF levels. Conclusion: In conclusion, Treadmill runningexerciseand Nanocurcumin partly mitigates the toxic side effects of DOX treatment. But this amount of treatment does not play a required role against DOX-induced hepatic damage.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 are induced differently by metal nanoparticles in human monocytes: The role of oxidative stress and protein tyrosine kinase activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rong; Mo Yiqun; Zhang Xing; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2008-01-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that nanoparticles can translocate from the lungs to the circulatory system. As a particulate foreign body, nanoparticles could induce host responses such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release which play a major role in tissue destruction and remodeling. However, the direct effects of nanoparticles on leukocytes, especially monocytes, are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of Nano-Co and Nano-TiO 2 to cause alteration of transcription and activity of MMPs and to explore possible mechanisms. We hypothesized that non-toxic doses of some transition metal nanoparticles stimulate an imbalance of MMP/TIMP that cause MMP production that may contribute to their health effects. To test this hypothesis, U937 cells were treated with Nano-Co and Nano-TiO 2 and cytotoxic effects and ROS generation were measured. The alteration of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 after exposure to these metal nanoparticles were subsequently determined. To investigate the potential signaling pathways involved in the Nano-Co-induced MMP activation, the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, AP-1 inhibitor, and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors were also used to pre-treat U937 cells. Our results demonstrated that exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO 2 , at a dose that does not cause cytotoxicity, resulted in ROS generation and up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression .. Our results also showed dose- and time-related increases in pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 gelatinolytic activities in conditioned media after exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO 2 . Nano-Co-induced pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 activity increases were inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS scavengers or inhibitors. We also demonstrated dose- and time-related decreases in tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) in U937 cells

  11. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and regulate the apoptotic genes through ROS in human liver cells (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Khan, M A Majeed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt iron oxide (CoFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles (CIO NPs) have been one of the most widely explored magnetic NPs because of their excellent chemical stability, mechanical hardness and heat generating potential. However, there is limited information concerning the interaction of CIO NPs with biological systems. In this study, we investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cytotoxicity and apoptotic response of CIO NPs in human liver cells (HepG2). Diameter of crystalline CIO NPs was found to be 23nm with a band gap of 1.97eV. CIO NPs induced cell viability reduction and membrane damage, and degree of induction was dose- and time-dependent. CIO NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress revealed by induction of ROS, depletion of glutathione and lower activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. Real-time PCR data has shown that mRNA level of tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic genes (bax, CASP3 and CASP9) were higher, while the expression level of anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was lower in cells following exposure to CIO NPs. Activity of caspase-3 and caspase-9 enzymes was also higher in CIO NPs exposed cells. Furthermore, co-exposure of N-acetyl-cysteine (ROS scavenger) efficiently abrogated the modulation of apoptotic genes along with the prevention of cytotoxicity caused by CIO NPs. Overall, we observed that CIO NPs induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS via p53 pathway. This study suggests that toxicity mechanisms of CIO NPs should be further investigated in animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermosensitive liposomes entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles for controllable drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, L-A; Wang, Y-C; Wang, Y-J; Yang, C-S; Tsai, P-J; Lo, L-W

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles can serve as a heating source upon alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure. Iron oxide nanoparticles can be mixed with thermosensitive nanovehicles for hyperthermia-induced drug release, yet such a design and mechanism may not be suitable for controllable drug release applications in which the tissues are susceptible to environmental temperature change such as brain tissue. In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles were entrapped inside of thermosensitive liposomes for AMF-induced drug release while the environmental temperature was maintained at a constant level. Carboxyfluorescein was co-entrapped with the iron oxide nanoparticles in the liposomes as a model compound for monitoring drug release and environmental temperature was maintained with a water circulator jacket. These experiments have been successfully performed in solution, in phantom and in anesthetized animals. Furthermore, the thermosensitive liposomes were administered into rat forearm skeletal muscle, and the release of carboxylfluorescein triggered by the external alternative magnetic field was monitored by an implanted microdialysis perfusion probe with an on-line laser-induced fluorescence detector. In the future such a device could be applied to simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and non-invasive drug release in temperature-sensitive applications.

  13. Nanotoxicity: oxidative stress mediated toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Sil, Parames Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are often used as industrial catalysts or to improve product's functional properties. Recent advanced nanotechnology have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from sensors, environmental remediation to biomedicine, medical biology and imaging, etc. However, the growing use of nanoparticles has led to their release into environment and increased levels of these particles at nearby sites or the surroundings of their manufacturing factories become obvious. The toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on humans, animals, and certainly to the environment has become a major concern to our community. However, controversies still remain with respect to the toxic effects and the mechanisms of these nanoparticles. The scientific community now feels that an understanding of the toxic effects is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. A new discipline, named nanotoxicology, has therefore been developed that basically refers to the study of the interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems and also measures the toxicity level related to human health. Nanoparticles usually generate reactive oxygen species to a greater extent than micro-sized particles resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and how these nanoparticles affect us or broadly the cells of our organs. We would also like to discuss the responsible mechanism(s) of the nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species mediated organ pathophysiology. A brief introduction of the characterization and application of these nanoparticles has also been included in the article.

  14. Single-cell nanotoxicity assays of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F

    2012-01-01

    Properly evaluating the nanotoxicity of nanoparticles involves much more than bulk-cell assays of cell death by necrosis. Cells exposed to nanoparticles may undergo repairable oxidative stress and DNA damage or be induced into apoptosis. Exposure to nanoparticles may cause the cells to alter their proliferation or differentiation or their cell-cell signaling with neighboring cells in a tissue. Nanoparticles are usually more toxic to some cell subpopulations than others, and toxicity often varies with cell cycle. All of these facts dictate that any nanotoxicity assay must be at the single-cell level and must try whenever feasible and reasonable to include many of these other factors. Focusing on one type of quantitative measure of nanotoxicity, we describe flow and scanning image cytometry approaches to measuring nanotoxicity at the single-cell level by using a commonly used assay for distinguishing between necrotic and apoptotic causes of cell death by one type of nanoparticle. Flow cytometry is fast and quantitative, provided that the cells can be prepared into a single-cell suspension for analysis. But when cells cannot be put into suspension without altering nanotoxicity results, or if morphology, attachment, and stain location are important, a scanning image cytometry approach must be used. Both methods are described with application to a particular type of nanoparticle, a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION), as an example of how these assays may be applied to the more general problem of determining the effects of nanomaterial exposure to living cells.

  15. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam; Laskar, Aparna; Jana, Madhurya; Pramanik, Panchanan; Karmakar, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain

  16. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mallick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Laskar, Aparna [CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata 700032 (India); Jana, Madhurya [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mallick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pramanik, Panchanan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Karmakar, Parimal, E-mail: pkarmakar_28@yahoo.co.in [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mallick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain.

  17. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuexia Xie,1,2,* Dejun Liu,3,* Chenlei Cai,1,* Xiaojing Chen,1 Yan Zhou,1 Liangliang Wu,1 Yongwei Sun,3 Huili Dai,1,2 Xianming Kong,1,2 Peifeng Liu1,2 1Central Laboratory, 2State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, 3Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mecha­nisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm. Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application. Keywords: hepatoma cells, nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, mechanism, oxidative stress

  18. Thermoacoustic Imaging and Therapy Guidance based on Ultra-short Pulsed Microwave Pumped Thermoelastic Effect Induced with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liewei; Yang, Sihua; Zhong, Junping; Zhou, Quan; Xing, Da

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticle-mediated imaging and therapeutic techniques are promising modalities for accurate localization and targeted treatment of cancer in clinical settings. Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging is highly sensitive to detect the distribution of water, ions or specific nanoprobes and provides excellent resolution, good contrast and superior tissue penetrability. TA therapy is a potential non-invasive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (HSA-SPIO) is used as a multifunctional nanoprobe with clinical application potential for MRI, TA imaging and treatment of tumor. In addition to be a MRI contrast agent for tumor localization, HSA-SPIO can absorb pulsed microwave energy and transform it into shockwave via the thermoelastic effect. Thereby, the reconstructed TA image by detecting TA signal is expected to be a sensitive and accurate representation of the HSA-SPIO accumulation in tumor. More importantly, owing to the selective retention of HSA-SPIO in tumor tissues and strong TA shockwave at the cellular level, HSA-SPIO induced TA effect under microwave-pulse radiation can be used to highly-efficiently kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, ultra-short pulsed microwave with high excitation efficiency and deep penetrability in biological tissues makes TA therapy a highly-efficient anti-tumor modality on the versatile platform. Overall, HSA-SPIO mediated MRI and TA imaging would offer more comprehensive diagnostic information and enable dynamic visualization of nanoagents in the tumorous tissue thereby tumor-targeted therapy.

  19. Exposure to silver nanoparticles induces size- and dose-dependent oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miethling-Graff, Rona; Rumpker, Rita; Richter, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have made these particles one of the most frequently utilized nanomaterials in consumer products; therefore, a comprehensive understanding of their toxicity is necessary. In particular, information about the cellular uptake and size...

  20. Surface modification of promising cerium oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-14

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) or nanoceria have emerged as a potential nanomedicine for the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. CNPs have a natural tendency to aggregate or agglomerate in their bare state, which leads to sedimentation in a biological environment. Since the natural biological environment is essentially aqueous, nanoparticle surface modification using suitable biocompatible hydrophilic chemical moieties is highly desirable to create effective aqueous dispersions. In this report, (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl)triethoxysilane was used as a functional, biocompatible organosilane to modify the surface of CNPs to produce promising nanoparticles which open substantial therapeutic avenues. The surface modified nanoparticles were produced in situ via an ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using complimentary characterization techniques. The interaction between the functional moiety and the nanoparticle was studied using powerful cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The surface-modified nanoparticles were extremely small and demonstrated a significant improvement in aqueous dispersibility. Moreover, the existence of a strong ionic coordination between the functional moiety and the surface of the nanoparticle was realised, indicating that the surface modified nanoceria are stable and that the nanoparticles should demonstrate an enhanced circulation time in a biological environment. The surface modification approach should be promising for the production of CNPs for nanomedicine applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Fundamental aspects of regenerative cerium oxide nanoparticles and their applications in nanobiotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swanand D.

    nanoparticles reduced the cellular damages to the normal breast epithelial cell line (CRL 8798) induced by X-rays and to the Keratinocyte cell line induced by UV irradiation. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were also found to be neuroprotective to adult rat spinal cord and retinal neurons. We propose that cerium oxide nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger (via redox reactions on its surface) to decrease the ROS induced cellular damages. Additionally, UV-visible spectroscopic studies indicated that cerium oxide nanoparticles possess auto-regenerative property by switching its oxidation state between Ce3+ and Ce4+. The auto-regenerative antioxidant property of these nanoparticles appears to be a key component in all the biological applications discussed in the present study.

  2. Role of cerium oxide nanoparticle-induced autophagy as a safeguard to exogenous H2O2-mediated DNA damage in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Abhishek; Ghosh, Ilika; Moriyasu, Yuji; Mukherjee, Anita; Bandyopadhyay, Maumita

    2018-04-13

    The effect of cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeNP) in plants has elicited substantial controversy. While some investigators have reported that CeNP possesses antioxidant properties, others observed CeNP to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In spite of considerable research carried out on the effects of CeNP in metazoans, fundamental studies that can unveil its intracellular consequences linking ROS production, autophagy and DNA damage are lacking in plants. To elucidate the impact of CeNP within plant cells, tobacco BY-2 cells were treated with 10, 50 and 250 µg ml-1 CeNP (Ce10, Ce50 and Ce250), for 24 h. Results demonstrated concentration-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ and ROS at all CeNP treatment sets. However, significant DNA damage and alteration in antioxidant defence systems were noted prominently at Ce50 and Ce250. Moreover, Ce50 and Ce250 induced DNA damage, analysed by comet assay and DNA diffusion experiments, complied with the concomitant increase in ROS. Furthermore, to evaluate the antioxidant property of CeNP, treated cells were washed after 24 h (to minimise CeNP interference) and challenged with H2O2 for 3 h. Ce10 did not induce genotoxicity and H2O2 exposure to Ce10-treated cells showed lesser DNA breakage than cells treated with H2O2 only. Interestingly, Ce10 provided better protection over N-acetyl-L-cysteine against exogenous H2O2 in BY-2 cells. CeNP exposure to transgenic BY-2 cells expressing GFP-Atg8 fusion protein exhibited formation of autophagosomes at Ce10. Application of vacuolar protease inhibitor E-64c and fluorescent basic dye acridine orange, further demonstrated accumulation of particulate matters in the vacuole and occurrence of acidic compartments, the autophagolysosomes, respectively. BY-2 cells co-treated with CeNP and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine exhibited increased DNA damage in Ce10 and cell death at all assessed treatment sets. Thus, current results substantiate an alternative autophagy-mediated, antioxidant and

  3. Selenium nanoparticles prevents lead acetate-induced hypothyroidism and oxidative damage of thyroid tissues in male rats through modulation of selenoenzymes and suppression of miR-224.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini; Arafa, Manar Hamed; Prabahar, Kousalya

    2018-03-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) are customizable drug delivery vehicles that show good bioavailability, higher efficacy and lower toxicity than ordinary Se. Pre-treatment of male rats with these NPs has been recently shown to exert a protective effect against chromium-induced thyroid dysfunction. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate and characterize the potential protective mechanism of Se-NPs against lead (Pb) acetate-induced thyrotoxicity. We found that prophylactic and concurrent treatment of Pb acetate-exposed rats with Nano-Se (0.5 mg/kg, i.p) for 15 wk significantly alleviated the decrease in free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels as well as fT3/fT4 ratio% and the increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels to approach control values. This was accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of Pb in serum and thyroid tissues as well as maintenance of thyroidal pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance and iodothyronine deiodinase type 1 (ID1), an essential enzyme for metabolizing of T4 into active T3, gene expression. Surprisingly, miR-224, a direct complementary target of ID1 mRNA, expression in the thyroid tissues was significantly down-regulated in Nano-Se-pre- and co-treated Pb acetate intoxicated animals. Such changes in miR-224 expression were negatively correlated with the changes in ID1 gene expression and serum fT3 level. These results suggest that Se-NPs can rescue from Pb-induced impairment of thyroid function through the maintenance of selenoproteins and down-regulation of miR-224. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. CD163-Macrophages Are Involved in Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Kidney Injury and May Be Detected by MRI with Targeted Gold-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Carril, Mónica; Padro, Daniel; Guerrero-Hue, Melanie; Tarín, Carlos; Samaniego, Rafael; Cannata, Pablo; Cano, Ainhoa; Villalobos, Juan Manuel Amaro; Sevillano, Ángel Manuel; Yuste, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Praga, Manuel; Egido, Jesús; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in rhabdomyolysis-acute kidney injury (AKI), although the molecular mechanisms involved in macrophage differentiation are poorly understood. We analyzed the expression and regulation of CD163, a membrane receptor mainly expressed by anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, in rhabdomyolysis-AKI and developed targeted probes for its specific detection in vivo by MRI. Intramuscular injection of glycerol in mice promoted an early inflammatory response, with elevated proportion of M1 macrophages, and partial differentiation towards a M2 phenotype in later stages, where increased CD163 expression was observed. Immunohistological studies confirmed the presence of CD163-macrophages in human rhabdomyolysis-AKI. In cultured macrophages, myoglobin upregulated CD163 expression via HO-1/IL-10 axis. Moreover, we developed gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles vectorized with an anti-CD163 antibody that specifically targeted CD163 in kidneys from glycerol-injected mice, as determined by MRI studies, and confirmed by electron microscopy and immunological analysis. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that CD163 is present in both human and experimental rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI, suggesting an important role of this molecule in this pathological condition. Therefore, the use of probes targeting CD163-macrophages by MRI may provide important information about the cellular composition of renal lesion in rhabdomyolysis.

  5. Assessment of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) and copper (II) oxide (CuO) induced hemato- and hepatotoxicity in Cyprinus carpio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureen, Aasma; Jabeen, Farhat; Tabish, Tanveer A.; Yaqub, Sajid; Ali, Muhammad; Shakoor Chaudhry, Abdul

    2018-04-01

    Recently, Cu-based nanoparticles have drawn considerable attention for their various fascinating roles in multiple biological systems. It is recognized that their frequent use can create compatibility challenges for the recipient systems. Nevertheless, it is unclear how various biological interactions affect the compatibility of Cu oxide II (CuO) and Cu oxide nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) for different organisms. Consequently, it has been difficult to perform structured risk assessments for their use in biological systems. Therefore, this study compared the effects of different doses of waterborne Cu-NPs and CuO on the blood and liver of selected groups of Cyprinus (C) carpio. These fish while housed in suitable water tanks were exposed to one of the following treatments for 14 d: control (no added Cu) or 0.5 or 1 or 1.5 mg Cu as Cu-NPs or CuO l-1 of water. We found significant changes in all assessed blood parameters of fish in response to increasing doses from 0 to 1.5 mg of Cu-NPs or CuO. Similarly, increased levels of lipid peroxide and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also observed in the livers of C. carpio in Cu-NPs or CuO treated groups. Enhanced levels of lipid peroxidation and GSH were also recorded in the Cu-NP treated groups compared with the CuO treated groups in a dose dependent manner. The lowest catalase activity was observed in the liver of C. carpio treated with the higer dose of Cu-NPs. Cu-NP or CuO exposure induced significant histological alterations in the liver of C. carpio including focal necrosis, cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, degenerative hepatocytes, vacuolization, pyknotic nuclei, damaged central vein, nuclear hypertrophy, dilated sinusoid, vacuolated degeneration, congestion, and complete degeneration in a dose dependent manner. Substantial alterations in blood and liver specimens were observed in the Cu-NP treated fish when compared with the CuO treated fish. It appeared that the Cu-NPs were more toxic than the CuO as shown by the hemato- and

  6. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiri M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mahdi Shiri,1,2,* Mona Navaei-Nigjeh,1,3,* Maryam Baeeri,1 Mahban Rahimifard,1 Hossein Mahboudi,4 Ahmad Reza Shahverdi,5 Abbas Kebriaeezadeh,1 Mohammad Abdollahi1,6,7 1Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, Artesh University of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology Research Center, 6Toxicology Interest Group, USERN, 7Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Diazinon (DZ is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double

  7. Manganese oxide nanoparticles, methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruna, Hector D.; Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.

    2017-08-29

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles having a chemical composition that includes Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, a sponge like morphology and a particle size from about 65 to about 95 nanometers may be formed by calcining a manganese hydroxide material at a temperature from about 200 to about 400 degrees centigrade for a time period from about 1 to about 20 hours in an oxygen containing environment. The particular manganese oxide nanoparticles with the foregoing physical features may be used within a battery component, and in particular an anode within a lithium battery to provide enhanced performance.

  8. In vivo epigenetic effects induced by engineered nanomaterials: A case study of copper oxide and laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Miousse, Isabelle R; Pirela, Sandra V; Moore, Jodene K; Melnyk, Stepan; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Evidence continues to grow on potential environmental health hazards associated with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). While the geno- and cytotoxic effects of ENMs have been investigated, their potential to target the epigenome remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is two-fold: 1) determining whether or not industry relevant ENMs can affect the epigenome in vivo and 2) validating a recently developed in vitro epigenetic screening platform for inhaled ENMs. Laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles (PEPs) released from nano-enabled toners during consumer use and copper oxide (CuO) were chosen since these particles induced significant epigenetic changes in a recent in vitro companion study. In this study, the epigenetic alterations in lung tissue, alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood from intratracheally instilled mice were evaluated. The methylation of global DNA and transposable elements (TEs), the expression of the DNA methylation machinery and TEs, in addition to general toxicological effects in the lung were assessed. CuO exhibited higher cell-damaging potential to the lung, while PEPs showed a greater ability to target the epigenome. Alterations in the methylation status of global DNA and TEs, and expression of TEs and DNA machinery in mouse lung were observed after exposure to CuO and PEPs. Additionally, epigenetic changes were detected in the peripheral blood after PEPs exposure. Altogether, CuO and PEPs can induce epigenetic alterations in a mouse experimental model, which in turn confirms that the recently developed in vitro epigenetic platform using macrophage and epithelial cell lines can be successfully utilized in the epigenetic screening of ENMs.

  9. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  10. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Sifeng; Jia Jingfu; Guo Xiaokui; Zhao Yaping; Liu Boyu; Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 μg/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 25.9 % in 500 μg/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 μg/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 μg/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 μg/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  11. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles against osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Sifeng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China); Jia Jingfu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Guo Xiaokui [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Zhao Yaping [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (China); Liu Boyu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences (China); Chen Desheng; Guo Yongyuan; Zhang Xianlong, E-mail: zhangxianlong20101@163.com [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital (China)

    2012-09-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassays and drug delivery. They are very promising in orthopaedic applications and several magnetic nanoparticles have been exploited for the treatment of orthopaedic disease. Here, we conducted an in vitro study to examine the interaction of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with human osteoblasts to evaluate the dose-related toxicity of the nanoparticles on osteoblasts. A transmission electron microscope was used to visualise the internalised magnetic nanoparticles in osteoblasts. The CCK-8 results revealed increased cell viability (107.5 % vitality compared with the control group) when co-cultured at a low concentration (20 {mu}g/mL) and decreased cell viability (59.5 % vitality in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 25.9 % in 500 {mu}g/mL) when co-cultured in high concentrations. The flow cytometric detection revealed similar results with 5.48 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 20 {mu}g/mL, 23.40 % of apoptosis in a concentration of 300 {mu}g/mL and 28.49 % in a concentration of 500 {mu}g/mL. The disrupted cytoskeleton of osteoblasts was also revealed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. We concluded that use of a low concentration of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important to avoid damage to osteoblasts.

  12. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, combining antioxidant and UV shielding properties, prevent UV-induced cell damage and mutagenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Caputo, Fanny; De Nicola, Milena; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Giovanetti, Anna; Bejarano, Ignacio; Licoccia, Silvia; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Efficient inorganic UV shields, mostly based on refracting TiO2 particles, have dramatically changed the sun exposure habits. Unfortunately, health concerns have emerged from the pro-oxidant photocatalytic effect of UV-irradiated TiO2, which

  13. Genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Julia; Felder, Eva; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Kaltbeitzel, Anke; Heinrich, Ulf Ruediger; Brochhausen, Christoph; Mailänder, Volker; Tremel, Wolfgang; Brieger, Juergen

    2015-05-01

    The potential toxicity of nanoparticles has currently provoked public and scientific discussions, and attempts to develop generally accepted handling procedures for nanoparticles are under way. The investigation of the impact of nanoparticles on human health is overdue and reliable test systems accounting for the special properties of nanomaterials must be developed. Nanoparticular zinc oxide (ZnO) may be internalised through ambient air or the topical application of cosmetics, only to name a few, with unpredictable health effects. Therefore, we analysed the determinants of ZnO nanoparticle (NP) genotoxicity. ZnO NPs (15-18 nm in diameter) were investigated at concentrations of 0.1, 10 and 100 μg mL-1 using the cell line A549. Internalised NPs were only infrequently detectable by TEM, but strongly increased Zn2+ levels in the cytoplasm and even more in the nuclear fraction, as measured by atom absorption spectroscopy, indicative of an internalised zinc and nuclear accumulation. We observed a time and dosage dependent reduction of cellular viability after ZnO NP exposure. ZnCl2 exposure to cells induced similar impairments of cellular viability. Complexation of Zn2+ with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) resulted in the loss of toxicity of NPs, indicating the relevant role of Zn2+ for ZnO NP toxicity. Foci analyses showed the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) by ZnO NPs and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Treatment of the cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) resulted in strongly decreased intracellular ROS levels and reduced DNA damage. However, a slow increase of ROS after ZnO NP exposure and reduced but not quashed DSBs after NAC-treatment suggest that Zn2+ may exert genotoxic activities without the necessity of preceding ROS-induction. Our data indicate that ZnO NP toxicity is a result of cellular Zn2+ intake. Subsequently increased ROS-levels cause DNA damage. However, we found evidence for

  14. Interaction effects in magnetic oxide nanoparticle systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The interaction effects in magnetic nanoparticle system were studied through a Monte Carlo simulation. The results of simulations were compared with two different magnetic systems, namely, iron oxide polymer nanocomposites prepared by polymerization over core and nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite thin films prepared by ...

  15. Dextran-modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, Jiří; Pisarev, A. G.; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 5, 1-2 (2007), s. 162-168 ISSN 1672-2515 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : iron oxide * nanoparticles * dextran Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Polyethylene glycol-functionalized poly (Lactic Acid-co-Glycolic Acid and graphene oxide nanoparticles induce pro-inflammatory and apoptotic responses in Candida albicans-infected vaginal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Doug Wagner

    Full Text Available Mucous-penetrating nanoparticles consisting of poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-polyethylene glycol (PEG could improve targeting of microbicidal drugs for sexually transmitted diseases by intravaginal inoculation. Nanoparticles can induce inflammatory responses, which may exacerbate the inflammation that occurs in the vaginal tracts of women with yeast infections. This study evaluated the effects of these drug-delivery nanoparticles on VK2(E6/E7 vaginal epithelial cell proinflammatory responses to Candida albicans yeast infections. Vaginal epithelial cell monolayers were infected with C. albicans and exposed to 100 μg/ml 49.5 nm PLGA-PEG nanospheres or 20 μg/ml 1.1 x 500 nm PEG-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PEG sheets. The cells were assessed for changes in mRNA and protein expression of inflammation-related genes by RT-qPCR and physiological markers of cell stress using high content analysis and flow cytometry. C. albicans exposure suppressed apoptotic gene expression, but induced oxidative stress in the cells. The nanomaterials induced cytotoxicity and programmed cell death responses alone and with C. albicans. PLGA-PEG nanoparticles induced mRNA expression of apoptosis-related genes and induced poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, increased BAX/BCL2 ratios, and chromatin condensation indicative of apoptosis. They also induced autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and DNA damage. They caused the cells to excrete inflammatory recruitment molecules chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, interleukin-1α (IL1A, interleukin-1β (IL1B, calprotectin (S100A8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF. GO-PEG nanoparticles induced expression of necrosis-related genes and cytotoxicity. They reduced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic gene expression responses. The results show that stealth nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles may cause intracellular damage to vaginal epithelial cells by several mechanisms and that

  17. Redox Reactivity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces the Formation of Disulfide Bridges in Thiol-Containing Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin-Genetet, Françoise; Seidel, Caroline; Artells, Ester; Auffan, Mélanie; Thiéry, Alain; Vidaud, Claude

    2015-12-21

    The redox state of disulfide bonds is implicated in many redox control systems, such as the cysteine-cystine couple. Among proteins, ubiquitous cysteine-rich metallothioneins possess thiolate metal binding groups susceptible to metal exchange in detoxification processes. CeO2 NPs are commonly used in various industrial applications due to their redox properties. These redox properties that enable dual oxidation states (Ce(IV)/Ce(III)) to exist at their surface may act as oxidants for biomolecules. The interaction among metallothioneins, cysteine, and CeO2 NPs was investigated through various biophysical approaches to shed light on the potential effects of the Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) redox system on the thiol groups of these biomolecules. The possible reaction mechanisms include the formation of a disulfide bridge/Ce(III) complex resulting from the interaction between Ce(IV) and the thiol groups, leading to metal unloading from the MTs, depending on their metal content and cluster type. The formation of stable Ce(3+) disulfide complexes has been demonstrated via their fluorescence properties. This work provides the first evidence of thiol concentration-dependent catalytic oxidation mechanisms between pristine CeO2 NPs and thiol-containing biomolecules.

  18. Plasmon-induced selective carbon dioxide conversion on earth-abundant aluminum-cuprous oxide antenna-reactor nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatjazi, Hossein; Zhao, Hangqi; Swearer, Dayne F; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Zhou, Linan; Alabastri, Alessandro; McClain, Michael J; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2017-06-21

    The rational combination of plasmonic nanoantennas with active transition metal-based catalysts, known as 'antenna-reactor' nanostructures, holds promise to expand the scope of chemical reactions possible with plasmonic photocatalysis. Here, we report earth-abundant embedded aluminum in cuprous oxide antenna-reactor heterostructures that operate more effectively and selectively for the reverse water-gas shift reaction under milder illumination than in conventional thermal conditions. Through rigorous comparison of the spatial temperature profile, optical absorption, and integrated electric field enhancement of the catalyst, we have been able to distinguish between competing photothermal and hot-carrier driven mechanistic pathways. The antenna-reactor geometry efficiently harnesses the plasmon resonance of aluminum to supply energetic hot-carriers and increases optical absorption in cuprous oxide for selective carbon dioxide conversion to carbon monoxide with visible light. The transition from noble metals to aluminum based antenna-reactor heterostructures in plasmonic photocatalysis provides a sustainable route to high-value chemicals and reaffirms the practical potential of plasmon-mediated chemical transformations.Plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis holds promise for the control of chemical reactions. Here the authors report an Al@Cu 2 O heterostructure based on earth abundant materials to transform CO 2 into CO at significantly milder conditions.

  19. Evaluation of Antiproliferative Potential of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on HeLa Human Cervical Tumor Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriţa Diaconeasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 nanoparticles as nanomaterials have promising biomedical applications. In this paper, the cytotoxicity induced by CONPs human cervical tumor cells was investigated. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using the precipitation method. The nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferation of HeLa human cervical tumor cells in a dose dependent manner but did not showed to be cytotoxic as analyzed by MTT assay. The administrated treatment decreased the HeLa cell viability cells from 100% to 65% at the dose of 100 μg/mL.

  20. EPR Technology as Sensitive Method for Oxidative Stress Detection in Primary and Secondary Keratinocytes Induced by Two Selected Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, S B; Ahlberg, S; Mensch, A; Höppe, D; Giulbudagian, M; Calderón, M; Grether-Beck, S; Krutmann, J; Lademann, J; Meinke, M C

    2017-12-01

    Exogenous factors can cause an imbalance in the redox state of biological systems, promoting the development of oxidative stress, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). To monitor the intensity of ROS production in secondary keratinocytes (HaCaT) by diesel exhaust particles and thermoresponsive nanogels (tNG), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy after 1 and 24 h of incubation, respectively, was applied. Their cytotoxicity was analyzed by a cell viability assay (XTT). For tNG an increase in the cell viability and ROS production of 10% was visible after 24 h, whereas 1 h showed no effect. A ten times lower concentration of diesel exhaust particles exhibited no significant toxic effects on HaCaT cells for both incubation times, thus normal adult human keratinocytes (NHK) were additionally analyzed by XTT and EPR spectroscopy. Here, after 24 h a slight increase of 18% in metabolic activity was observed. However, this effect could not be explained by the ROS formation. A slight increase in the ROS production was only visible after 1 h of incubation time for HaCaT (9%) and NHK (14%).

  1. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  2. Altering the structure and properties of iron oxide nanoparticles and graphene oxide/iron oxide composites by urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, Samira [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 446-701 Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jaleh, Babak [Physics department, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, Colloge of Natural Science, Inha University, 402-751 Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were directly grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a facile microwave assistant method. • The effect of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was examined. • Increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. • The increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. • The increase in urea concentration led to decreased thermal stability of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. - Abstract: Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were grown on graphene oxide (GO) using a simple microwave-assisted method. The effects of urea concentration on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite were examined. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were uniformly developed on GO sheets. The results showed that urea affects both Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphology and particle size. In the absence of urea, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures exhibited a rod-like morphology. However, increasing urea concentration altered the morphology and decreased the particle size. The Raman results of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed that the intensity ratio of D band to G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) was decreased by addition of urea, indicating that urea can preserve the GO sheets during synthesis of the composite from exposing more defects. The surface area and thermal stability of GO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were compared using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results showed that the increased concentration of urea induced a larger surface area with more active sites in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. However, the increase in urea

  3. Magnetic behavior of iron oxide nanoparticle-biomolecule assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taegyun; Reis, Lynn; Rajan, Krishna; Shima, Mutsuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles of 8-20 nm in size were investigated as an assembly with biomolecules synthesized in an aqueous solution. The magnetic behavior of the biomolecule-nanoparticles assembly depends sensitively on the morphology and hence the distribution of the nanoparticles, where the dipole coupling between the nanoparticles governs the overall magnetic behavior. In assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles with trypsin, we observe a formation of unusual self-alignment of nanoparticles within trypsin molecules. In such an assembly structure, the magnetic particles tend to exhibit a lower spin-glass transition temperature than as-synthesized bare iron oxide nanoparticles probably due to reduced interparticle couplings within the molecular matrix. The observed self-alignment of nanoparticles in biomolecules may be a useful approach for directed nanoparticles assembly

  4. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    induced by nanoparticles studied using the lactate dehydrogenase assay, showed both concentration- and time-dependent damage. Thus, this study concluded that use of a low optimum concentration of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is important for avoidance of oxidative stress-induced cell injury and death.Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, MTT assay, J774 cell line

  5. Plasma-induced synthesis of Pt nanoparticles supported on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Nan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); The Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Hu, Xiulan, E-mail: whoxiulan@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); The Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials (SICAM), Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Cheng, Jiexu; Yu, Jinchen; Ge, Chao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Xin-Mo-Fan Road No. 5, 210009, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by plasma sputtering in water. • Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes shows better mass activity and CO-poisoning tolerance than Pt/C. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are more suitable for support materials than TiO{sub 2} small particles. • The metal-support interactions between Pt and TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are detected by XPS. - Abstract: A Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotube composite catalyst was successfully prepared for enhanced methanol electro-oxidation. Pt nanoparticles with a particle size of 2 nm were synthesized by plasma sputtering in water, and anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with an inner diameter of approximately 100 nm were prepared by a simple two-step anodization method and annealing process. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images indicated that the different morphologies of TiO{sub 2} synthesized on the surface of Ti foils were dependent on the different anodization parameters. The electrochemical performance of Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} catalysts for methanol oxidation showed that TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were more suitable for use as Pt nanoparticle support materials than irregular TiO{sub 2} short nanorods due to their tubular morphology and better electronic conductivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization showed that the binding energies of the Pt 4f of the Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes exhibited a slightly positive shift caused by the relatively strong interaction between Pt and the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, which could mitigate the poisoning of the Pt catalyst by CO{sub ads}, and further enhance the electrocatalytic performance. Thus, the as-obtained Pt/C/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes composites may become a promising catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation.

  6. Hydroxyl radicals ({center_dot}OH) are associated with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in fish cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, James F.; Davies, Simon J.; Dodd, Nicholas J.F. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.jha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2008-04-02

    TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (<100 nm diameter) have been reported to cause oxidative stress related effects, including inflammation, cytotoxicity and genomic instability, either alone or in the presence of UVA irradiation in mammalian studies. Despite the fact that the aquatic environment is often the ultimate recipient of all contaminants there is a paucity of data pertaining to the potential detrimental effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. Therefore, these investigations aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on goldfish skin cells (GFSk-S1), either alone or in combination with UVA. Whilst neutral red retention (NRR) assay (a measure of lysosomal membrane integrity) was used to evaluate cell viability, a modified Comet assay using bacterial lesion-specific repair endonucleases (Endo-III, Fpg) was employed to specifically target oxidative DNA damage. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies with different spin traps were carried out for qualitative analysis of free radical generation. For cell viability, TiO{sub 2} alone (0.1-1000 {mu}g ml{sup -1}) had little effect whereas co-exposure with UVA (0.5-2.0 kJ m{sup -2}) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease which was dependent on both the concentration of TiO{sub 2} and the dose of UVA administered. For the Comet assay, doses of 1, 10 and 100 {mu}g ml{sup -1} in the absence of UVA caused elevated levels of Fpg-sensitive sites, indicating the oxidation of purine DNA bases (i.e. guanine) by TiO{sub 2}. UVA irradiation of TiO{sub 2}-treated cells caused further increases in DNA damage. ESR studies revealed that the observed toxic effects of nanoparticulate TiO{sub 2} were most likely due to hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) formation.

  7. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuo; He, Dawei; Zhang, Xiqing; Duan, Jiahua; Wu, Hongpeng; Xu, Haiteng; Wang, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Single sheets of functionalized graphene oxide are derived through chemical exfoliation of natural flake graphite. We present an effective synthetic method of graphene-gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposites. AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) was used to measure the thickness of the individual GO nanosheet. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy was used to verify the attachment of oxygen functionalities on the surface of graphene oxide. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) data revealed the average diameters of the gold colloids and characterized the composite particles situation. Absorption spectroscopy showed that before and after synthesis the gold particle size did not change. Our studies indicate that the hybrid is potential substrates for catalysts and biosensors.

  8. Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanostructures (CNS) are often grown using oxide nanoparticles as catalyst in chemical vapour deposition and these oxides are not expected to survive as such during growth. In the present study, the catalysts of cobalt- and nickel oxide-based nanoparticles of sizes varying over a range have been reduced at 575 ...

  9. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: rayssasouza.net@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  11. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are associated with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage in fish cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, James F.; Davies, Simon J.; Dodd, Nicholas J.F.; Jha, Awadhesh N.

    2008-01-01

    TiO 2 nanoparticles ( 2 nanoparticles on goldfish skin cells (GFSk-S1), either alone or in combination with UVA. Whilst neutral red retention (NRR) assay (a measure of lysosomal membrane integrity) was used to evaluate cell viability, a modified Comet assay using bacterial lesion-specific repair endonucleases (Endo-III, Fpg) was employed to specifically target oxidative DNA damage. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) studies with different spin traps were carried out for qualitative analysis of free radical generation. For cell viability, TiO 2 alone (0.1-1000 μg ml -1 ) had little effect whereas co-exposure with UVA (0.5-2.0 kJ m -2 ) caused a significant dose-dependent decrease which was dependent on both the concentration of TiO 2 and the dose of UVA administered. For the Comet assay, doses of 1, 10 and 100 μg ml -1 in the absence of UVA caused elevated levels of Fpg-sensitive sites, indicating the oxidation of purine DNA bases (i.e. guanine) by TiO 2 . UVA irradiation of TiO 2 -treated cells caused further increases in DNA damage. ESR studies revealed that the observed toxic effects of nanoparticulate TiO 2 were most likely due to hydroxyl radical (·OH) formation

  12. Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles protect cells from oxidant-mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Andrea; Zhu Aiping; Sun Kai; Petty, Howard R.

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic nanoparticles represent a potential clinical approach to replace or correct aberrant enzymatic activities in patients. Several diseases, including many blinding eye diseases, are promoted by excessive oxidant stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles represent two potentially therapeutic nanoparticles that de-toxify ROS. In the present study, we directly compare these two classes of catalytic nanoparticles. Cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles were found to be 16 ± 2.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 nm in diameter, respectively. Using surface plasmon-enhanced microscopy, we find that these nanoparticles associate with cells. Furthermore, cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles demonstrated superoxide dismutase catalytic activity, but did not promote hemolytic or cytolytic pathways in living cells. Importantly, both cerium oxide and platinum nanoparticles reduce oxidant-mediated apoptosis in target cells as judged by the activation of caspase 3. The ability to diminish apoptosis may contribute to maintaining healthy tissues.

  13. Ultrasmall lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for biomedical imaging and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Most books discuss general and broad topics regarding molecular imagings. However, Ultrasmall Lanthanide Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging and Therapy, will mainly focus on lanthanide oxide nanoparticles for molecular imaging and therapeutics. Multi-modal imaging capabilities will discussed, along with up-converting FI by using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis will cover polyol synthesis of lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Surface coatings with biocompatible and hydrophilic ligands will be discussed and TEM images and dynamic light scattering (DLS) patterns will be

  14. Silver Nanoparticles-graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for Antibacterial Purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chook, S.W.; Chia, C.H.; Sarani Zakaria; Mohd Khan Ayob; Chee, K.L.; Neoh, H.M.; Huang, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets, a single layer of carbon atoms which can be served as substrates for fabricating metallic nanoparticles-GO nano composites, have been used in this study The nanocomposite of silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide were produced via in-situ synthesis and with the aid of chitosan to investigate the formation of silver nanoparticles on the graphene oxide sheets. XRD and UV-Vis studies confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles on GO sheets, while TEM and FESEM images presented the loading of silver nanoparticles on the GO sheets. The degree of loading and distribution of the silver nanoparticles on the graphene oxide were depended on the procedure during the formation of silver nanoparticles. The nano composites can be potentially used in food packaging and biomedical applications. (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predescu, Andra Mihaela; Matei, Ecaterina; Berbecaru, Andrei Constantin; Pantilimon, Cristian; Drăgan, Claudia; Vidu, Ruxandra; Predescu, Cristian; Kuncser, Victor

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a large molar weight dextran for environmental applications are reported. The first experiments involved the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles which were coated with dextran at different concentrations. The synthesis was performed by a co-precipitation technique, while the coating of iron oxide nanoparticles was carried out in solution. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results demonstrated a successful coating of iron oxide nanoparticles with large molar weight dextran, of which agglomeration tendency depended on the amount of dextran in the coating solution. SEM and TEM observations have shown that the iron oxide nanoparticles are of about 7 nm in size.

  16. Pure and multi metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankic, Slavica; Suman, Sneha; Haque, Francia; Vidic, Jasmina

    2016-10-24

    Th antibacterial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles has received marked global attention as they can be specifically synthesized to exhibit significant toxicity to bacteria. The importance of their application as antibacterial agents is evident keeping in mind the limited range and effectiveness of antibiotics, on one hand, and the plethora of metal oxides, on the other, along with the propensity of nanoparticles to induce resistance being much lower than that of antibiotics. Effective inhibition against a wide range of bacteria is well known for several nano oxides consisting of one metal (Fe 3 O 4 , TiO 2 , CuO, ZnO), whereas, research in the field of multi-metal oxides still demands extensive exploration. This is understandable given that the relationship between physicochemical properties and biological activity seems to be complex and difficult to generalize even for metal oxide nanoparticles consisting of only one metal component. Also, despite the broad scope that metal oxide nanoparticles have as antibacterial agents, there arise problems in practical applications taking into account the cytotoxic effects. In this respect, the consideration of polymetallic oxides for biological applications becomes even greater since these can provide synergetic effects and unify the best physicochemical properties of their components. For instance, strong antibacterial efficiency specific of one metal oxide can be complemented by non-cytotoxicity of another. This review presents the main methods and technological advances in fabrication of nanostructured metal oxides with a particular emphasis to multi-metal oxide nanoparticles, their antibacterial effects and cytotoxicity.

  17. Structural, optical, morphological and dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabaharan, Devadoss Mangalam Durai Manoharadoss; Sadaiyandi, Karuppasamy; Mahendran, Manickam; Sagadevan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method. The average crystallite size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and found to be 11 nm. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicated the strong presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Raman spectrum confirmed the cubic nature of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the nanoparticles agglomerated forming spherical-shaped particles. The Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analysis confirmed the prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles with the particle size being found to be 16 nm. The optical absorption spectrum showed a blue shift by the cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the quantum confinement effect. The dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles were studied for different frequencies at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the cerium oxide nanoparticles decreased with increase in frequency. The AC electrical conductivity study revealed that the conduction depended on both the frequency and the temperature. (author)

  18. Structural, optical, morphological and dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, Devadoss Mangalam Durai Manoharadoss [Department of Physics, NPR College of Engineering and Technology, Natham, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadaiyandi, Karuppasamy [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahendran, Manickam [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh, E-mail: duraiphysics2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, AMET University (India)

    2016-03-15

    Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation method. The average crystallite size of cerium oxide nanoparticles was calculated from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and found to be 11 nm. The FT-IR spectrum clearly indicated the strong presence of cerium oxide nanoparticles. Raman spectrum confirmed the cubic nature of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the nanoparticles agglomerated forming spherical-shaped particles. The Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) analysis confirmed the prepared cerium oxide nanoparticles with the particle size being found to be 16 nm. The optical absorption spectrum showed a blue shift by the cerium oxide nanoparticles due to the quantum confinement effect. The dielectric properties of cerium oxide nanoparticles were studied for different frequencies at different temperatures. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss of the cerium oxide nanoparticles decreased with increase in frequency. The AC electrical conductivity study revealed that the conduction depended on both the frequency and the temperature. (author)

  19. Washing effect on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Karina Mireles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research on nanoparticles has occurred in the biomedical area, particularly in the area of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs; one such area of research is in their use as magnetically directed prodrugs. It has been reported that nanoscale materials exhibit properties different from those of materials in bulk or on a macro scale [1]. Further, an understanding of the batch-to-batch reproducibility and uniformity of the SPION surface is essential to ensure safe biological applications, as noted in the accompanying article [2], because the surface is the first layer that affects the biological response of the human body. Here, we consider a comparison of the surface chemistries of a batch of SPIONs, before and after the supposedly gentle process of dialysis in water.

  20. Toxicokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H E; Yu, J; Baek, M; Lee, J A; Choi, S J; Kim, M S; Kim, S H; Maeng, E H; Lee, J K; Jeong, J

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle have been extensively applied to diverse industrial fields because they possess UV light absorption, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic characteristics as well as antimicrobial property. However, up to date, toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles in animal models have not been completely determined. Moreover, little information is available about kinetic behaviors of ZnO nanoparticles in vivo, which will be crucial to predict their potential chronic toxicity after long-term exposure. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles after single-dose and repeated dose 90-day oral administration in male and female rats, respectively. The blood samples were collected following administration of three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and ZnO concentration was assessed by measuring zinc level with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The result showed that the plasma ZnO concentration significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner, but decreased within 24 h after single-dose oral administration up to 500 mg/kg, without any significant difference between gender. However, when repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study was performed, the elevated plasma concentrations did not return to normal control levels in all the cases, indicating their toxicity potential. These findings suggest that repeated oral exposure to ZnO nanoparticles up to the dose of 125 mg/kg could accumulate in the systemic circulation, thereby implying that the NOAEL values could be less than 125 mg/kg via oral intake.

  1. Weak ferromagnetism and exchange biasing in cobalt oxide nanoparticle systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomou, A; Gournis, D; Panagiotopoulos, [No Value; Huang, Y; Hadjipanayis, GC; Kooi, BJ; Panagiotopoulos, I.

    2006-01-01

    Cobalt oxide nanoparticle systems have been prepared by wet chemical processing involving the encapsulation of the nanoparticles by an organic ligand shell (oleic acid and oleylamine). CoO nanoparticles were easily prepared by this method, while the synthesis of the CoPt/CoO nanocomposites was

  2. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow size distribution on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. We report here the preparation of nanoparticles of iron oxide in the presence of polysaccharide templates. ... using different chemical methods viz. sonochemical, sol- .... 3.2 Characterization of iron oxide prepared by template assisted ...

  3. First-Row-Transition Ion Metals(II-EDTA Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Solvent-Free Microwave-Induced Oxidation of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno M. R. Martins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of first-row transition-metals combined with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, as metal-based N,O-chelating ligands, at the surface of ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Those EDTA functionalized MNPs with general formula Fe3O4@EDTA-M2+ [M = Mn2+ (1, Fe2+ (2, Co2+ (3, Ni2+ (4, Cu2+ (5 or Zn2+ (6] were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, powder XRD (X-ray Diffraction, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope, EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer and TGA (Thermal Gravity Analysis. The application of the magnetic NPs towards the microwave-assisted oxidation of several alcohol substrates in a solvent-free medium was evaluated. The influence of reaction parameters such as temperature, time, type of oxidant, and presence of organic radicals was investigated. This study demonstrates that these MNPs can act as efficient catalysts for the conversion of alcohols to the corresponding ketones or aldehydes with high selectivity and yields up to 99% after 2 h of reaction at 110 °C using t-BuOOH as oxidant. Moreover, they have the advantage of being magnetically recoverable catalysts that can be easily recycled in following runs.

  4. Reduction of oxidative damages induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles correlates with induction of the Nrf2 pathway by GSPE supplementation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Linpeng; Shao, Mengjiao; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Jinfeng; Li, Ruofan; Xie, Heran; Zhou, Lixiao; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Rong; Niu, Yujie

    2017-09-25

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used to additives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paints and foods. Recent studies have demonstrated that TiO 2 NPs increased the risk of cancer and the mechanism might relate with oxidative stress. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) is a natural compound which has been demonstrated to possess a wide array of pharmacological and biochemical actions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and antioxidant properties. Our data show that GSPE prevents the changes of histopathology and biomarkers in heart, liver and kidney that occur in mice exposed to TiO 2 NPs. After pretreatment with GSPE, the DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in mice exposed to TiO 2 NPs had statistically significant decreases in dose dependent manners. GSPE increased the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase[quinine] 1(NQO1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). We conclude that grape seed procyanidin extract prevents the majority of tissue and molecular damage resulting from nanoparticle treatment. The protective effect of GSPE may be due to its strong antioxidative activities which related with the activated Nrf2 and its down-regulated genes including NQO1, HO-1 and GCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HRTEM Study of Oxide Nanoparticles in K3-ODS Ferritic Steel Developed for Radiation Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Tumey, S; Kuntz, J; El-Dasher, B; Wall, M; Choi, W; Kimura, A; Willaime, F; Serruys, Y

    2009-11-02

    Crystal and interfacial structures of oxide nanoparticles and radiation damage in 16Cr-4.5Al-0.3Ti-2W-0.37 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS ferritic steel have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Oxide nanoparticles with a complex-oxide core and an amorphous shell were frequently observed. The crystal structure of complex-oxide core is identified to be mainly monoclinic Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) oxide compound. Orientation relationships between the oxide and the matrix are found to be dependent on the particle size. Large particles (> 20 nm) tend to be incoherent and have a spherical shape, whereas small particles (< 10 nm) tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have a faceted interface. The observations of partially amorphous nanoparticles and multiple crystalline domains formed within a nanoparticle lead us to propose a three-stage mechanism to rationalize the formation of oxide nanoparticles containing core/shell structures in as-fabricated ODS steels. Effects of nanoparticle size and density on cavity formation induced by (Fe{sup 8+} + He{sup +}) dual-beam irradiation are briefly addressed.

  6. Synthesis and magnetic characterizations of uniform iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, FuYi; Li, XiaoYi; Zhu, Yuan; Tang, ZiKang

    2014-01-01

    Uniform iron oxide nanoparticles with a cubic shape were prepared by the decomposition of homemade iron oleate in 1-octadecene with the presence of oleic acid. The particle shape and size uniformity are sensitive to the quantity of oleic acid. XRD, HRTEM and SAED results indicated that the main phase content of as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles is Fe 3 O 4 with an inverse spinel structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the as-prepared iron oxide nanoparticles display a ferromagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 295 K. At low temperatures the magnetic anisotropy of the aligned nanoparticles caused the appearance of a hysteresis loop.

  7. Antibacterial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the antibacterial mechanisms, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe morphological changes of E. coli K88 treated with 0.8 μg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles. The results reveal that zinc oxide nanoparticles could damage cell membranes, lead to leakage of ...

  8. Investigation of carrier oil stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The polyunsaturated carrier oil (flaxseed oil) is used as a stabilizing agent for iron oxide nanoparticles. Kirby Bauer method was used to investigate the antibiotic sensitivity of carrier oil stabilized and uncoated SPIONs at 10 and 20 μg/L on Gram-positive ...

  9. Shifts in oxidation states of cerium oxide nanoparticles detected inside intact hydrated cells and organelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, Craig J.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Mihai, Cosmin; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Gilles, Marry K.; Tyliszczak, T.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Orr, Galya

    2015-09-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have been shown to induce diverse biological effects, ranging from toxic to beneficial. The beneficial effects have been attributed to the potential antioxidant activity of CNPs via certain redox reactions, depending on their oxidation state or Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio. However, this ratio is strongly dependent on the environment and age of the nanoparticles and it is unclear whether and how the complex intracellular environment impacts this ratio and the possible redox reactions of CNPs. To identify any changes in the oxidation state of CNPs in the intracellular environment and better understand their intracellular reactions, we directly quantified the oxidation states of CNPs outside and inside intact hydrated cells and organelles using correlated scanning transmission x-ray and super resolution fluorescence microscopies. By analyzing hundreds of small CNP aggregates, we detected a shift to a higher Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio in CNPs inside versus outside the cells, indicating a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment. We further found a similar ratio in the cytoplasm and in the lysosomes, indicating that the net reduction occurs earlier in the internalization pathway. Together with oxidative stress and toxicity measurements, our observations identify a net reduction of CNPs in the intracellular environment, which is consistent with their involvement in potentially beneficial oxidation reactions, but also point to interactions that can negatively impact the health of cells.

  10. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Li, Bingyu; Chen, Ningning; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  11. Magnetic induced heating of nanoparticle solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murph, S. Hunyadi [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Brown, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Coopersmith, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fulmer, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Sessions, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Ali, M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-12-02

    Magnetic induced heating of nanoparticles (NP) provides a useful advantage for many energy transfer applications. This study aims to gain an understanding of the key parameters responsible for maximizing the energy transfer leading to nanoparticle heating through the use of simulations and experimental results. It was found that magnetic field strength, NP concentration, NP composition, and coil size can be controlled to generate accurate temperature profiles in NP aqueous solutions.

  12. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications: improving the colloidal and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rocio; Bello, Valentina; Robic, Caroline; Port, Marc; Marco, Jose F; Puerto Morales, M; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2012-01-10

    A considerable increase in the saturation magnetization, M(s) (40%), and initial susceptibility of ultrasmall (<5 nm) iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis was obtained through an optimized acid treatment. Moreover, a significant enhancement in the colloidal properties, such as smaller aggregate sizes in aqueous media and increased surface charge densities, was found after this chemical protocol. The results are consistent with a reduction in nanoparticle surface disorder induced by a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism.

  14. Fluorophore-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticle labeling and analysis of engrafting human hematopoietic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Dustin J; Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A

    2008-01-01

    culture conditions to maintain viability without inducing terminal differentiation. In the current study, fluorescent molecules were covalently linked to dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Feridex) to characterize human HSC labeling to monitor the engraftment process. Conjugating fluorophores...... to the dextran coat for fluorescence-activated cell sorting purification eliminated spurious signals from nonsequestered nanoparticle contaminants. A short-term defined incubation strategy was developed that allowed efficient labeling of both quiescent and cycling HSC, with no discernable toxicity in vitro...

  15. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  16. Anticancer activity of Ficus religiosa engineered copper oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar, Renu; Maheswari, Ramasamy; Karthik, Selvaraju [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India); Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian, E-mail: shivashangari@gmail.com [Regional Forensic Science Laboratory, Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu (India); Ravikumar, Vilwanathan, E-mail: ravikumarbdu@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-11-01

    The design, synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become a vital branch of nanotechnology. There is a budding need to develop a method for environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis, that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on an eco-friendly process for rapid synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract as reducing and protecting agent. The synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by UV–vis spectrophotometer, absorbance peaks at 285 nm. The copper oxide nanoparticles were analyzed with field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum. The FE-SEM and DLS analyses exposed that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average particle size of 577 nm. FT-IR spectral analysis elucidates the occurrence of biomolecules required for the reduction of copper oxide ions. Zeta potential studies showed that the surface charge of the formed nanoparticles was highly negative. The XRD pattern revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline in nature. Further, biological activities of the synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed based on its stable anti-cancer effects. The apoptotic effect of copper oxide nanoparticles is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involving the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in A549 cells. The observed characteristics and results obtained in our in vitro assays suggest that the copper nanoparticles might be a potential anticancer agent. - Highlights: • Biogenic synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles by leaf extract of Ficus religiosa • Characterized via UV–vis, FT-IR, DLS, FE-SEM with EDAX and XRD • Protein may act as an encapsulating, reducing and stabilizing

  17. Synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles using electrochemical oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Ya. Levitin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles are promising for use in the biomedical industry for targeted drug delivery, cell separation and biochemical products, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, immunological studies, etc. Classic method for the synthesis of magnetite is the chemical condensation Elmore’s, it is simple and cheap, but it is complicated by the formation of side compounds which impair the magnetic properties of the final product. Biological and medical purposes require high purity magnetite nanoparticles. Electrochemical methods of producing nanoparticles of magnetite acquire significant spread. The kinetics of electrochemical processes are a function of a larger number of parameters than the kinetics of conventional chemical reaction, thus electrochemical reactions can be thinner and more completely adjusted to give a predetermined size nanoparticles. In the kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation and reduction the important role is played by the nature of the electrode. In many industrial processes, it is advisable to use lead dioxide anodes with titanium current lead. Purpose of the work To determine the optimum conditions of electrochemical oxidation of Fe2+ Fe3+to produce magnetite with high purity and improved magnetic characteristics. Materials and methods Electrochemical studies were carried out in a glass cell ЯСЭ-2 using a potentiostat ПИ-50-1.1 and a recording device ПДА1. Reference electrode - silver chloride ЭВЛ1М 3.1, potentials listed on the hydrogen scale. The test solution contained 80 g/ l FeSO4×7H2O and H2SO4(to pH 1. The pH of the solution was measured with a pH–meter « рН–150». Concentration ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+in the solution was measured by permanganometric method. Magnetite particle sizes were measured by an electron microscope computer ЭВМ-100Л, an increasing is 2×105. Saturation magnetization was evaluated by the magnetization curve, for the measured sample in the field with strength

  18. Shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonay, O.; Kondovych, S.; Loktev, V.

    2014-01-01

    High fraction of the surface atoms considerably enhances the influence of size and shape on the magnetic and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Shape effects in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are well understood and allow us to set and control the parameters of a sample that affect its magnetic anisotropy during production. In the present paper we study the shape effects in the other widely used magnetic materials – antiferromagnets, – which possess vanishingly small or zero macroscopic magnetization. We take into account the difference between the surface and bulk magnetic anisotropy of a nanoparticle and show that the effective magnetic anisotropy depends on the particle shape and crystallographic orientation of its faces. The corresponding shape-induced contribution to the magnetic anisotropy energy is proportional to the particle volume, depends on magnetostriction, and can cause formation of equilibrium domain structure. Crystallographic orientation of the nanoparticle surface determines the type of domain structure. The proposed model allows us to predict the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles depending on their shape and treatment. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that the shape effects in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles stem from the difference of surface and bulk magnetic properties combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. • We predict shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic particles with large aspect ratio. • We predict different types of domain structures depending on the orientation of the particle faces

  19. X-ray diffraction on nanoparticles chromium and nickel oxides obtained by gelatin using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Alan Silva de; Medeiros, Angela Maria de Lemos; Miranda, Marcus Aurelio Ribeiro; Almeida, Juliana Marcela Abraao; Remedios, Claudio Marcio Rocha; Silva, Lindomar R.D. da; Gouveia, S.T.; Sasaki, Jose Marcos; Jardim, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles has many applications like green pigments, wear resistance, and coating materials for thermal protection. Several methods to produce chromium oxide nanoparticles have already been studied, gas condensation, laser induced pyrolysis, microwave plasma, sol-gel and gamma radiation methods. Many applications for this kind of material can be provide concerning the particle size. For instance, particle size approximately of 200 nm are preferable as pigment due to its opacity and below 50 nm can be used as transparent pigment. In this work we have demonstrated that chromium and nickel oxide nanoparticles can be prepared by gelatin method. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) show that mean particle size for chromium oxide of 15-150 nm and nickel oxide of 90 nm were obtained for several temperature of sintering. The X-Ray powder diffraction pattern were performed using Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray source at XRD1 beamline in National Laboratory of Light Synchrotron (LNLS). (author)

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Azlan, Abdul Aziz [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Lab, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Nano-Biotechnology Research (Malaysia); Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles.

  1. Titanium oxide nanoparticles as additives in engine oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Laad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research study investigates the tribological behaviour of titanium oxide (TiO2 nanoparticles as additives in mineral based multi-grade engine oil. All tests were performed under variable load and varying concentrations of nanoparticles in lubricating oil. The friction and wear experiments were performed using pin-on-disc tribotester. This study shows that mixing of TiO2 nanoparticles in engine oil significantly reduces the friction and wear rate and hence improves the lubricating properties of engine oil. The dispersion analysis of TiO2 nanoparticles in lubricating oil using UV spectrometer confirms that TiO2 nanoparticles possess good stability and solubility in the lubricant and improve the lubricating properties of the engine oil. Keywords: Titanium oxide, Nanoparticles, UV spectrometer, Tribotester, Engine oil

  2. Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide for CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabineiro, Sónia Ac; Bogdanchikova, Nina; Pestryakov, Alexey; Tavares, Pedro B.; Fernandes, Lisete Sg; Figueiredo, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Au was loaded (1 wt%) on a commercial MgO support by three different methods: double impregnation, liquid-phase reductive deposition and ultrasonication. Samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -96°C, temperature-programmed reduction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Upon loading with Au, MgO changed into Mg(OH)2 (the hydroxide was most likely formed by reaction with water, in which the gold precursor was dissolved). The size range for gold nanoparticles was 2-12 nm for the DIM method and 3-15 nm for LPRD and US. The average size of gold particles was 5.4 nm for DIM and larger than 6.5 for the other methods. CO oxidation was used as a test reaction to compare the catalytic activity. The best results were obtained with the DIM method, followed by LPRD and US. This can be explained in terms of the nanoparticle size, well known to determine the catalytic activity of gold catalysts.

  3. Gold nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide for CO oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanchikova Nina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Au was loaded (1 wt% on a commercial MgO support by three different methods: double impregnation, liquid-phase reductive deposition and ultrasonication. Samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -96°C, temperature-programmed reduction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Upon loading with Au, MgO changed into Mg(OH2 (the hydroxide was most likely formed by reaction with water, in which the gold precursor was dissolved. The size range for gold nanoparticles was 2-12 nm for the DIM method and 3-15 nm for LPRD and US. The average size of gold particles was 5.4 nm for DIM and larger than 6.5 for the other methods. CO oxidation was used as a test reaction to compare the catalytic activity. The best results were obtained with the DIM method, followed by LPRD and US. This can be explained in terms of the nanoparticle size, well known to determine the catalytic activity of gold catalysts.

  4. Trends in the Catalytic CO Oxidation Activity of Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Falsig, Hanne; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk

    2008-01-01

    Going for gold: Density functional calculations show how gold nanoparticles are more active catalysts for CO oxidation than other metal nanoparticles. The high catalytic activity of nanosized gold clusters at low temperature is found to be related to the ability of low-coordinate metal atoms...

  5. Comparative effects of macro-sized aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on erythrocyte hemolysis: influence of cell source, temperature, and size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinardell, M. P., E-mail: mpvinardellmh@ub.edu; Sordé, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain); Díaz, J. [Universitat de Barcelona CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers (Spain); Baccarin, T.; Mitjans, M. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most abundantly produced nanomaterial and has been used in diverse fields, including the medical, military, and industrial sectors. As there are concerns about the health effects of nanoparticles, it is important to understand how they interact with cells, and specifically with red blood cells. The hemolysis induced by three commercial nano-sized aluminum oxide particles (nanopowder 13 nm, nanopowder <50 nm, and nanowire 2–6 × 200–400 nm) was compared to aluminum oxide and has been studied on erythrocytes from humans, rats, and rabbits, in order to elucidate the mechanism of action and the influence of size and shape on hemolytic behavior. The concentrations inducing 50 % hemolysis (HC{sub 50}) were calculated for each compound studied. The most hemolytic aluminum oxide particles were of nanopowder 13, followed by nanowire and nanopowder 50. The addition of albumin to PBS induced a protective effect on hemolysis in all the nano-forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, but not on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The drop in HC{sub 50} correlated to a decrease in nanomaterial size, which was induced by a reduction of aggregation. Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are less hemolytic than other oxide nanoparticles and behave differently depending on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The hemolytic behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles differs from that of aluminum oxide.

  6. Effect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles on Water Glass Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to determine the effect of an addition of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles of magnesium oxide on the structure of water glass, which is a binder for moulding and core sands. Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide MgO in propanol and ethanol were introduced in the same mass content (5wt.% and structural changes were determined by measurement of the FT-IR absorption spectra.

  7. Preparation and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles decorated carbon nanoparticles using laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashan, K. S.; Jabir, M. S.; Abdulameer, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    Carbon nanoparticles CNPs ecorated by copper oxide nano-sized particles would be successfully equipped using technique named pulsed laser ablation in liquid. The XRD pattern proved the presence of phases assigned to carbon and different phases of copper oxide. The chemical structure of the as-prepared nanoparticles samples was decided by Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDS) measurement. EDS analysis results show the contents of Carbon, Oxygen and Copper in the final product. These nanoparticles were spherical shaped with a size distribution 10 to 80 nm or carbon nanoparticles and 5 to 50 nm for carbon decorated copper oxide nanoparticles, according to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and particle-size distribution histogram. It was found that after doping with copper oxide, nanoparticles become smaller and more regular in shape. Optical absorption spectra of prepared nanoparticles were measured using UV–VIS spectroscopy. The absorption spectrum of carbon nanoparticles without doping indicates absorption peak at about 228 nm. After doping with copper oxide, absorption shows appearance of new absorption peak at about (254-264) nm, which is referred to the movement of the charge between 2p and 4s band of Cu2+ ions.

  8. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bull E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bull,1 Seyed Yazdan Madani,1 Roosey Sheth,1 Amelia Seifalian,1 Mark Green,2 Alexander M Seifalian1,31UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, 2Department of Physics, King’s College London, Strand Campus, London, UK; 3Royal Free London National Health Service Foundation Trust Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.Keywords: stem cells, nanoparticle, magnetic

  9. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Larrude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs synthesized by spray pyrolysis were decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles using a simple synthesis route. This wet chemistry method yielded nanoparticles randomly anchored to the surface of the nanotubes by decomposition of cobalt nitrate hexahydrate diluted in acetone. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that dispersed particles were formed on the MWCNTs walls. The average size increased with the increasing concentration of cobalt nitrate in acetone in the precursor mixture. TEM images indicated that nanoparticles were strongly attached to the tube walls. The Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the MWCNT structure was slightly damaged after the nanoparticle growth.

  10. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haracz, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hilgendorff, M. [Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rybka, J.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Giersig, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. • Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. • Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties. - Abstract: For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  11. Pure and multi metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Stankic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Th antibacterial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles has received marked global attention as they can be specifically synthesized to exhibit significant toxicity to bacteria. The importance of their application as antibacterial agents is evident keeping in mind the limited range and effectiveness of antibiotics, on one hand, and the plethora of metal oxides, on the other, along with the propensity of nanoparticles to induce resistance being much lower than that of antibiotics. Effective inhibition against a wide range of bacteria is well known for several nano oxides consisting of one metal (Fe3O4, TiO2, CuO, ZnO, whereas, research in the field of multi-metal oxides still demands extensive exploration. This is understandable given that the relationship between physicochemical properties and biological activity seems to be complex and difficult to generalize even for metal oxide nanoparticles consisting of only one metal component. Also, despite the broad scope that metal oxide nanoparticles have as antibacterial agents, there arise problems in practical applications taking into account the cytotoxic effects. In this respect, the consideration of polymetallic oxides for biological applications becomes even greater since these can provide synergetic effects and unify the best physicochemical properties of their components. For instance, strong antibacterial efficiency specific of one metal oxide can be complemented by non-cytotoxicity of another. This review presents the main methods and technological advances in fabrication of nanostructured metal oxides with a particular emphasis to multi-metal oxide nanoparticles, their antibacterial effects and cytotoxicity.

  12. Safety assessment of chronic oral exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, Susana; Vaquero, María Pilar; Brenes, Agustín; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Salas, Gorka; Luengo, Yurena; Verdoy, Dolores; José Teran, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles with engineered physical and biochemical properties are finding a rapidly increasing number of biomedical applications. However, a wide variety of safety concerns, especially those related to oral exposure, still need to be addressed for iron oxide nanoparticles in order to reach clinical practice. Here, we report on the effects of chronic oral exposure to low doses of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles in growing chickens. Animal observation, weight, and diet intake reveal no adverse signs, symptoms, or mortality. No nanoparticle accumulation was observed in liver, spleen, and duodenum, with feces as the main excretion route. Liver iron level and duodenal villi morphology reflect the bioavailability of the iron released from the partial transformation of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles in the acid gastric environment. Duodenal gene expression studies related to the absorption of iron from γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles indicate the enhancement of a ferric over ferrous pathway supporting the role of mucins. Our findings reveal that oral administration of iron oxide nanoparticles is a safe route for drug delivery at low nanoparticle doses. (paper)

  13. Promising iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Vo, Toi Van; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2012-12-01

    For the past few decades biomedical engineering has imprinted its significant impact on the map of science through its wide applications on many other fields. An important example obviously proving this fact is the versatile application of magnetic nanoparticles in theranostics. Due to preferable properties such as biocompatibility, non-toxicity compared to other metal derivations, iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles was chosen to be addressed in this review. Aim of this review is to give the readers a whole working window of these magnetic nanoparticles in the current context of science. Thus, preparation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the so-far techniques, methods of characterizing the nanoparticles as well as their most recent biomedical applications will be stated.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanagesan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the response of human breast cancer cells' exposure to nanoparticle, iron oxide (α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple low temperature combustion method using Fe(NO33·9H2O as raw material. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the resultant powders are pure α-Fe2O3. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed the spherical shape of the primary particles, and the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is in the range of 19 nm. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrated that the sample exposed ferromagnetic behaviors with a relatively low coercivity. The cytotoxicity of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was also evaluated on human breast cancer cells to address the current deficient knowledge of cellular response to nanoparticle exposure.

  15. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  16. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang, E-mail: tangyang@nicenergy.com; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  17. Is Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles the Cascades of Oxidative Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhang, YanLi; Liu, Jia; Feng, XiaoLi; Zhou, Ting; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, metallic (metal or metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in many fields such as cosmetics, the food and building industries, and bio-medical instruments. Widespread applications of metallic NP-based products increase the health risk associated with human exposures. Studies revealed that the brain, a critical organ that consumes substantial amounts of oxygen, is a primary target of metallic NPs once they are absorbed into the body. Oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, and the inflammatory response are believed to be the main mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs. Other studies have disclosed that antioxidant pretreatment or co-treatment can reverse the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species, up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the proportion of apoptotic cells, and suppressing the inflammatory response. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs might involve a cascade of events following NP-induced OS. However, additional research is needed to determine whether NP-induced OS plays a central role in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlations among neurotoxic mechanisms and to improve the bio-safety of metallic NP-based products.

  18. Transfection Agent Induced Nanoparticle Cell Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Montet-Abou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Loading cells with magnetic nanoparticles, and tracking their fate in vivo by high resolution MRI, is an attractive approach for enhancing the efficacy of cell-based therapies including those utilizing hematopoietic stem cells, neuroprogenitor cells, and T cells. The transfection agent (internalization agent assisted loading with the Feridex IV® nanoparticle is an attractive method of loading because of the low cost of materials, and possible low regulatory barriers for eventual clinical use. We therefore explored the interaction between Feridex IV® and three internalization agents protamine (PRO, polylysine (PLL, and lipofectamine (LFA. Feridex reacted with internalization agents to form aggregates, except when either the internalization agent or Feridex was present in large excess. When Jurkat T cells were incubated with Feridex/LFA or Feridex/PRO mixtures, and washed by centrifugation, nanoparticle aggregates co-purified with cells. With C17.2 cells large iron oxide particles adhered to the cell surface. At 30 μg/mL Feridex and 3 μg/mL LFA, internalization was largely mediated by LFA and was largely cytoplasmic. However, we found that the conditions used to label cells with Feridex and transfection agents need to be carefully selected to avoid the problems of surface adsorption and nanoparticle precipitation.

  19. Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Costa, Solange; Fraga, Sonia; Bessa, Maria Joao; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, including superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have a number of interesting applications, especially in the biomedical field, that make them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials. They are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Together with these valuable uses, concerns regarding the onset of unexpected adverse health effects following exposure have been also raised. Nevertheless, despite the numerous ION purposes being explored, currently available information on their potential toxicity is still scarce and controversial data have been reported. Although ION have traditionally been considered as biocompatible - mainly on the basis of viability tests results - influence of nanoparticle surface coating, size, or dose, and of other experimental factors such as treatment time or cell type, has been demonstrated to be important for ION in vitro toxicity manifestation. In vivo studies have shown distribution of ION to different tissues and organs, including brain after passing the blood-brain barrier; nevertheless results from acute toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity investigations in different animal models do not provide a clear overview on ION safety yet, and epidemiological studies are almost inexistent. Much work has still to be done to fully understand how these nanomaterials interact with cellular systems and what, if any, potential adverse health consequences can derive from ION exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Dextran and Polymer Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Coating Reduce Both 5 and 30 nm Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity in 2D and 3D Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Morss Clyne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used in biomedical applications, yet questions remain regarding the effect of nanoparticle size and coating on nanoparticle cytotoxicity. In this study, porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to 5 and 30 nm diameter iron oxide nanoparticles coated with either the polysaccharide, dextran, or the polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG. Nanoparticle uptake, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, and cell morphology changes were measured. Endothelial cells took up nanoparticles of all sizes and coatings in a dose dependent manner, and intracellular nanoparticles remained clustered in cytoplasmic vacuoles. Bare nanoparticles in both sizes induced a more than 6 fold increase in cell death at the highest concentration (0.5 mg/mL and led to significant cell elongation, whereas cell viability and morphology remained constant with coated nanoparticles. While bare 30 nm nanoparticles induced significant ROS formation, neither 5 nm nanoparticles (bare or coated nor 30 nm coated nanoparticles changed ROS levels. Furthermore, nanoparticles were more toxic at lower concentrations when cells were cultured within 3D gels. These results indicate that both dextran and PEG coatings reduce nanoparticle cytotoxicity, however different mechanisms may be important for different size nanoparticles.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2012-01-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene

  2. Morphological changes of the red blood cells treated with metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelskaya, A I; Panin, A V; Khlusov, I A; Mokrushnikov, P V; Zaitsev, B N; Kuzmenko, D I; Vasyukov, G Yu

    2016-12-01

    The toxic effect of Al 2 O 3 , SiО 2 and ZrО 2 nanoparticles on red blood cells of Wistar rats was studied in vitro using the atomic force microscopy and the fluorescence analysis. Transformation of discocytes into echinocytes and spherocytes caused by the metal oxide nanoparticles was revealed. It was shown that only extremely high concentration of the nanoparticles (2mg/ml) allows correct estimating of their effect on the cell morphology. Besides, it was found out that the microviscosity changes of red blood cell membranes treated with nanoparticles began long before morphological modifications of the cells. On the contrary, the negatively charged ZrO 2 and SiO 2 nanoparticles did not affect ghost microviscosity up to concentrations of 1μg/ml and 0.1mg/ml, correspondingly. In its turn, the positively charged Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles induced structural changes in the lipid bilayer of the red blood cells already at a concentration of 0.05μg/ml. A decrease in microviscosity of the erythrocyte ghosts treated with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 nanoparticles was shown. It was detected that the interaction of ZrO 2 nanoparticles with the cells led to an increase in the membrane microviscosity and cracking of swollen erythrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interfacial bonding stabilizes rhodium and rhodium oxide nanoparticles on layered Nb oxide and Ta oxide supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Megan E; Binz, Jason M; Tanase, Mihaela; Shahri, Seyed Mehdi Kamali; Sharma, Renu; Rioux, Robert M; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2014-04-16

    Metal nanoparticles are commonly supported on metal oxides, but their utility as catalysts is limited by coarsening at high temperatures. Rhodium oxide and rhodium metal nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports are anomalously stable. To understand this, the nanoparticle-support interaction was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), and synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering techniques. Nanosheets derived from the layered oxides KCa2Nb3O10, K4Nb6O17, and RbTaO3 were compared as supports to nanosheets of Na-TSM, a synthetic fluoromica (Na0.66Mg2.68(Si3.98Al0.02)O10.02F1.96), and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O. High surface area SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports were also used for comparison in the ITC experiments. A Born-Haber cycle analysis of ITC data revealed an exothermic interaction between Rh(OH)3 nanoparticles and the layered niobate and tantalate supports, with ΔH values in the range -32 kJ·mol(-1) Rh to -37 kJ·mol(-1) Rh. In contrast, the interaction enthalpy was positive with SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports. The strong interfacial bonding in the former case led to "reverse" ripening of micrometer-size Rh(OH)3, which dispersed as 0.5 to 2 nm particles on the niobate and tantalate supports. In contrast, particles grown on Na-TSM and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O nanosheets were larger and had a broad size distribution. ETEM, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analyses were used to study the growth of supported nanoparticles under oxidizing and reducing conditions, as well as the transformation from Rh(OH)3 to Rh nanoparticles. Interfacial covalent bonding, possibly strengthened by d-electron acid/base interactions, appear to stabilize Rh(OH)3, Rh2O3, and Rh nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports.

  4. Hafnium oxide nanoparticles: toward an in vitro predictive biological effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marill, Julie; Anesary, Naeemunnisa Mohamed; Zhang, Ping; Vivet, Sonia; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent; Pottier, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Hafnium oxide, NBTXR3 nanoparticles were designed for high dose energy deposition within cancer cells when exposed to ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of predicting in vitro the biological effect of NBTXR3 nanoparticles when exposed to ionizing radiation. Cellular uptake of NBTXR3 nanoparticles was assessed in a panel of human cancer cell lines (radioresistant and radiosensitive) by transmission electron microscopy. The radioenhancement of NBTXR3 nanoparticles was measured by the clonogenic survival assay. NBTXR3 nanoparticles were taken up by cells in a concentration dependent manner, forming clusters in the cytoplasm. Differential nanoparticle uptake was observed between epithelial and mesenchymal or glioblastoma cell lines. The dose enhancement factor increased with increase NBTXR3 nanoparticle concentration and radiation dose. Beyond a minimum number of clusters per cell, the radioenhancement of NBTXR3 nanoparticles could be estimated from the radiation dose delivered and the radiosensitivity of the cancer cell lines. Our preliminary results suggest a predictable in vitro biological effect of NBTXR3 nanoparticles exposed to ionizing radiation

  5. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Yan; Tong, Xi-Li; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Han, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ying-Yong; Jin, Guo-Qiang; Qin, Yong; Guo, Xiang-Yun

    2012-02-11

    Cuprous oxide (Cu(2)O) nanoparticles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were prepared by reducing copper acetate supported on graphite oxide using diethylene glycol as both solvent and reducing agent. The Cu(2)O/RGO composite exhibits excellent catalytic activity and remarkable tolerance to methanol and CO in the oxygen reduction reaction. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  7. Synthesis of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanoparticles without Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized with two kinds of precipitants through a precipitation method. As-prepared nanoparticles in the size around 10 nm with regular spherical-like shape were achieved by adjusting pH values. NaOH and NH3·H2O were used as two precipitants for comparison. The average size of nanoparticles with NH3·H2O precipitant got smaller and represented better dispersibility, while nanoparticles with NaOH precipitant represented better magnetic property. This work provided a simple method without using any organic solvents, organic metal salts, or surfactants which could easily obtain monodisperse nanoparticles with tunable morphology.

  8. Orthogonal Clickable Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Platform for Targeting, Imaging, and On-Demand Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldris, Noelia; Gallo, Juan; García-Hevia, Lorena; Rivas, José; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Salonen, Laura M

    2018-04-12

    A versatile iron oxide nanoparticle platform is reported that can be orthogonally functionalized to obtain highly derivatized nanomaterials required for a wide variety of applications, such as drug delivery, targeted therapy, or imaging. Facile functionalization of the nanoparticles with two ligands containing isocyanate moieties allows for high coverage of the surface with maleimide and alkyne groups. As a proof-of-principle, the nanoparticles were subsequently functionalized with a fluorophore as a drug model and with biotin as a targeting ligand towards tumor cells through Diels-Alder and azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions, respectively. The thermoreversibility of the Diels-Alder product was exploited to induce the on-demand release of the loaded molecules by magnetic hyperthermia. Additionally, the nanoparticles were shown to target cancer cells through in vitro experiments, as analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhou J; Mortimer, Gysell; Minchin, Rodney F; Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO 2 , the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO 2 and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  10. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50% conversion of ethanol with 98...

  11. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite‐1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2–3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98...

  12. Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant C. Nelson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously, catalytic cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, nanoceria, CeO2-x NPs have been widely utilized for chemical mechanical planarization in the semiconductor industry and for reducing harmful emissions and improving fuel combustion efficiency in the automobile industry. Researchers are now harnessing the catalytic repertoire of CNPs to develop potential new treatment modalities for both oxidative- and nitrosative-stress induced disorders and diseases. In order to reach the point where our experimental understanding of the antioxidant activity of CNPs can be translated into useful therapeutics in the clinic, it is necessary to evaluate the most current evidence that supports CNP antioxidant activity in biological systems. Accordingly, the aims of this review are three-fold: (1 To describe the putative reaction mechanisms and physicochemical surface properties that enable CNPs to both scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS and to act as antioxidant enzyme-like mimetics in solution; (2 To provide an overview, with commentary, regarding the most robust design and synthesis pathways for preparing CNPs with catalytic antioxidant activity; (3 To provide the reader with the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supporting the ROS-scavenging potential of CNPs in biology and medicine.

  13. Magnetic irone oxide nanoparticles in photosynthetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilov, R.I.; Nasibova, A.N.; Khomutov, G.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : It was found and studied the effect of biogenic formation of magnetic inclusions in photosynthetic systems - in various higher plants under the influence of some external stress factors (radiation impact, moisture deficit) and in a model system - a suspension of chloroplasts. For registration and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles in the samples used EPR spectrometer because superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic nanoparticles have a chcracteristic signals of electron magnetic resonance. For direct visualization of magnetic nanoparticles it was used the method of transmission electron microscopy

  14. Surface interactions affect the toxicity of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles toward Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kungang; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Pu, Zhichao; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Yongsheng

    2012-08-20

    To better understand the potential impacts of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the ecosystem, we investigated the acute toxicity of seven different types of engineered metal oxide NPs against Paramecium multimicronucleatum, a ciliated protozoan, using the 48 h LC(50) (lethal concentration, 50%) test. Our results showed that the 48 h LC(50) values of these NPs to Paramecium ranged from 0.81 (Fe(2)O(3) NPs) to 9269 mg/L (Al(2)O(3) NPs); their toxicity to Paramecium increased as follows: Al(2)O(3) Paramecium; this implies that metal oxide NPs with strong association with the cell surface might induce more severe cytotoxicity in unicellular organisms.

  15. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath of workers exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles are elevated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Vlčková, Š.; Syslová, K.; Kuzma, Marek; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Pušman, Jan; Zíková, Naděžda; Zakharov, S.; Machajová, M.; Kačer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 69-70 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : oxidative stress * exhaled breath * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. Enzymatic oxidative biodegradation of nanoparticles: Mechanisms, significance and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, Irina I. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Research Institute for Physico-Chemical Medicine, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow 119453 (Russian Federation); Kapralov, Alexandr A. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Michael, Zachary P.; Burkert, Seth C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Shurin, Michael R. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Star, Alexander [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division (HELD), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Kagan, Valerian E., E-mail: kagan@pitt.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Center for Free Radical and Antioxidant Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Departments of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology and Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Biopersistence of carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide (GO) and several other types of carbonaceous nanomaterials is an essential determinant of their health effects. Successful biodegradation is one of the major factors defining the life span and biological responses to nanoparticles. Here, we review the role and contribution of different oxidative enzymes of inflammatory cells – myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, lactoperoxidase, hemoglobin, and xanthine oxidase – to the reactions of nanoparticle biodegradation. We further focus on interactions of nanomaterials with hemoproteins dependent on the specific features of their physico-chemical and structural characteristics. Mechanistically, we highlight the significance of immobilized peroxidase reactive intermediates vs diffusible small molecule oxidants (hypochlorous and hypobromous acids) for the overall oxidative biodegradation process in neutrophils and eosinophils. We also accentuate the importance of peroxynitrite-driven pathways realized in macrophages via the engagement of NADPH oxidase- and NO synthase-triggered oxidative mechanisms. We consider possible involvement of oxidative machinery of other professional phagocytes such as microglial cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, in the context of biodegradation relevant to targeted drug delivery. We evaluate the importance of genetic factors and their manipulations for the enzymatic biodegradation in vivo. Finally, we emphasize a novel type of biodegradation realized via the activation of the “dormant” peroxidase activity of hemoproteins by the nano-surface. This is exemplified by the binding of GO to cyt c causing the unfolding and ‘unmasking’ of the peroxidase activity of the latter. We conclude with the strategies leading to safe by design carbonaceous nanoparticles with optimized characteristics for mechanism-based targeted delivery and regulatable life-span of drugs in circulation. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles can be degraded by

  17. Electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid on platinum nanoparticles with different oxidation levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te; Hsiao, Han-Tsung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Yu, Po-Yuan; Chen, Po-Yen; Jang, Bi-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Herein reported is an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of platinum (Pt) from (methylcyclopentadienyl) trimethylplatinum (MeCpPtMe 3 ) and oxygen (O 2 ) for synthesizing the Pt electrocatalysts toward methanol and formic acid oxidation. The as-synthesized Pt catalysts are thermally reduced in 5 vol% H 2 within temperature window of 150–450 °C. The reduction treatment induces a decrease in amount of Pt oxide (Pt–O) species, e.g., PtO and PtO 2 . The presence of Pt–O species not only enhances catalytic activity but also improves anti-poisoning ability toward the oxidation of methanol and formic acid. The improved activity originates from the fact that the Pt–O species, formed by the ALD route, creates a large number of active sites (e.g., Pt–O ads and Pt–(OH) ads ) to strip the CO-adsorbed sites, leading to a high-level of CO tolerance. This work also proposes a stepwise reaction steps to shed some lights on how the Pt–O species promote the catalytic activity. - Highlights: • This study adopts atomic layer deposition (ALD) to grow metallic Pt nanoparticles. • The Pt catalysts show catalytic activity toward methanol and formic acid oxidation. • The reduction treatment induces a decrease in amount of Pt oxide (Pt–O) species. • The Pt–O species creates a number of active sites to strip the CO-adsorbed sites. • A stepwise reaction step concerning the promoted catalytic activity is proposed

  18. Electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid on platinum nanoparticles with different oxidation levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chien-Te, E-mail: cthsieh@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Han-Tsung; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Yu, Po-Yuan [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Chen, Po-Yen; Jang, Bi-Sheng [Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Herein reported is an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of platinum (Pt) from (methylcyclopentadienyl) trimethylplatinum (MeCpPtMe{sub 3}) and oxygen (O{sub 2}) for synthesizing the Pt electrocatalysts toward methanol and formic acid oxidation. The as-synthesized Pt catalysts are thermally reduced in 5 vol% H{sub 2} within temperature window of 150–450 °C. The reduction treatment induces a decrease in amount of Pt oxide (Pt–O) species, e.g., PtO and PtO{sub 2}. The presence of Pt–O species not only enhances catalytic activity but also improves anti-poisoning ability toward the oxidation of methanol and formic acid. The improved activity originates from the fact that the Pt–O species, formed by the ALD route, creates a large number of active sites (e.g., Pt–O{sub ads} and Pt–(OH){sub ads}) to strip the CO-adsorbed sites, leading to a high-level of CO tolerance. This work also proposes a stepwise reaction steps to shed some lights on how the Pt–O species promote the catalytic activity. - Highlights: • This study adopts atomic layer deposition (ALD) to grow metallic Pt nanoparticles. • The Pt catalysts show catalytic activity toward methanol and formic acid oxidation. • The reduction treatment induces a decrease in amount of Pt oxide (Pt–O) species. • The Pt–O species creates a number of active sites to strip the CO-adsorbed sites. • A stepwise reaction step concerning the promoted catalytic activity is proposed.

  19. Toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Research strategies and implications for nanomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Jiang Ling-Ling; Zeng Yun; Liu Gang

    2013-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are one of the most versatile and safe nanoparticles in a wide variety of biomedical applications. In the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the potential adverse biological effects and safety issues associated with SPIONs, which is essential for the development of next-generation SPIONs and for continued progress in translational research. In this mini review, we summarize recent developments in toxicity studies on SPIONs, focusing on the relationship between the physicochemical properties of SPIONs and their induced toxic biological responses for a better toxicological understanding of SPIONs. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  20. Protein capped nanosilver free radical oxidation: role of biomolecule capping on nanoparticle colloidal stability and protein oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Manuel; Bohne, Cornelia; Oake, Jessy; Alarcon, Emilio I

    2018-05-03

    We studied the effect of human serum albumin protein capped spherical nanosilver on the nanoparticle stability upon peroxyl radical oxidation. The nanoparticle-protein composite is less prone to oxidation compared to the individual components. However, higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide were formed in the nanoparticle-protein system.

  1. Ion-induced effects on metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimmer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the ion-irradiation of metallic nanoparticles in combination with various substrates. Particle diameters were systematically varied within the range of 2.5-14 nm, inter-particle distances range from 30-120 nm. Irradiations were performed with various inert gas ions with energies of 200 keV, resulting in an average ion range larger than the particle dimensions and therefore the effects of irradiation are mainly due to creation of structural defects within the particles and the underlying substrate as well. The main part of this work deals with ion-induced burrowing of metallic nanoparticles into the underlying substrate. The use of micellar nanoparticles with sharp size distribution combined with AFM and TEM analysis allows a much more detailed look at this effect than other works on that topic so far. With respect to the particle properties also a detailed look on the effect of irradiation on the particle structure would be interesting, which might lead to a deliberate influence on magnetic properties, for example. Within the context of this work, first successful experiments were performed on FePt particles, showing a significant reduction of the ordering temperature leading to the magnetically interesting, ordered L1 0 phase. (orig.)

  2. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhobale, Sandip; Thite, Trupti; Laware, S. L.; Rode, C. V.; Koppikar, Soumya J.; Ghanekar, Ruchika-Kaul; Kale, S. N.

    2008-11-01

    Amylase inhibitors, also known as starch blockers, contain substances that prevent dietary starches from being absorbed by the body via inhibiting breakdown of complex sugars to simpler ones. In this sense, these materials are projected as having potential applications in diabetes control. In this context, we report on zinc oxide nanoparticles as possible alpha-amylase inhibitors. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using soft-chemistry approach and 1-thioglycerol was used as a surfactant to yield polycrystalline nanoparticles of size ˜18 nm, stabilized in wurtzite structure. Conjugation study and structural characterization have been done using x-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity studies on human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) and skin carcinoma (A-431) cell lines as well as mouse primary fibroblast cells demonstrate that up to a dose of 20 μg/ml, ZnO nanoparticles are nontoxic to the cells. We report for the first time the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of ZnO nanoparticles wherein an optimum dose of 20 μg/ml was sufficient to exhibit 49% glucose inhibition at neutral pH and 35 °C temperature. This inhibitory activity was similar to that obtained with acarbose (a standard alpha-amylase inhibitor), thereby projecting ZnO nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors.

  3. Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Activity Against Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; ur Rahman, Aziz; Tajuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide is an essential ingredient of many enzymes, sun screens, and ointments for pain and itch relief. Its microcrystals are very efficient light absorbers in the UVA and UVB region of spectra due to wide bandgap. Impact of zinc oxide on biological functions depends on its morphology, particle size, exposure time, concentration, pH, and biocompatibility. They are more effective against microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas vulgaris, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Mechanism of action has been ascribed to the activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. It has been confirmed from SEM and TEM images of the bacterial cells that zinc oxide nanoparticles disintegrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm where they interact with biomolecules causing cell apoptosis leading to cell death.

  4. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reger, Nina A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Meng, Wilson S. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  5. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles to deliver nitric oxide to inhibit Escherichia coli growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin film functionalized PLGA nanoparticles were modified to release nitric oxide from an s-nitrosothiol donor. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles were bacteriostatic against Escherichia coli. • The nitric oxide modified nanoparticles increased the effectiveness of tetracycline against Escherichia coli. • The modified nitric oxide nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxic effects against fibroblasts. - Abstract: Polymer nanoparticles consisting of poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) were surface functionalized to deliver nitric oxide. These biodegradable and biocompatible nanoparticles were modified with an S-nitrosothiol molecule, S-nitrosocysteamine, as the nitric oxide delivery molecule. S-nitrosocysteamine was covalently immobilized on the nanoparticle surface using small organic molecule linkers and carbodiimide coupling. Nanoparticle size, zeta potential, and morphology were determined using dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Subsequent attachment of the S-nitrosothiol resulted in a nitric oxide release of 37.1 ± 1.1 nmol per milligram of nanoparticles under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli culture growth by 31.8%, indicating that the nitric oxide donor was effective at releasing nitric oxide even after attachment to the nanoparticle surface. Combining the nitric oxide modified nanoparticles with tetracycline, a commonly prescribed antibiotic for E. coli infections, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 87.8%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used in order to achieve the same effect. The functionalized nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts.

  6. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  7. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 , on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  8. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  9. Linear-chain assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhak, Prasanta; Kim, Min-Kwan; Lee, Jae Hyeok; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Sang-Koog, E-mail: sangkoog@snu.ac.kr

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis of pure phase 200 nm Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Studies of linear-chain assemblies of iron oxide nanosphere by FESEM. • Micromagnetic simulations showed the presence of 3D vortex states. • The B.E. for different numbers of particles in linear chain assemblies were calculated. - Abstract: We synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles using a simple hydrothermal approach and found several types of segments of their linear-chain self-assemblies as observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirm a well-defined single-phase FCC structure. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior. Micromagnetic numerical simulations show magnetic vortex states in the nanosphere model. Also, calculations of binding energies for different numbers of particles in the linear-chain assemblies explain a possible mechanism responsible for the self-assemblies of segments of the linear chains of nanoparticles. This work offers a step towards linear-chain self-assemblies of iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of magnetic vortex states in individual nanoparticles on their binding energy.

  10. Oxidative stress and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Sara; Doyle, Hugh; Blasco, Julian; Redmond, Gareth; Sheehan, David

    2010-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have potential applications in drug delivery, cancer diagnosis and therapy, food industry and environment remediation. However, little is known about their potential toxicity or fate in the environment. Mytilus edulis was exposed in tanks to750 ppb AuNP (average diameter 5.3 ± 1 nm) for 24 h to study in vivo biological effects of nanoparticles. Traditional biomarkers and an affinity procedure selective for thiol-containing proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) separations were used to study toxicity and oxidative stress responses. Results were compared to those obtained for treatment with cadmium chloride, a well known pro-oxidant. M. edulis mainly accumulated AuNP in digestive gland which also showed higher lipid peroxidation. One-dimensional SDS/PAGE (1DE) and 2DE analysis of digestive gland samples revealed decreased thiol-containing proteins for AuNP. Lysosomal membrane stability measured in haemolymph gave lower values for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in both treatments but was greater in AuNP. Oxidative stress occurred within 24 h of AuNP exposure in M. edulis. Previously we showed that larger diameter AuNP caused modest effects, indicating that nanoparticle size is a key factor in biological responses to nanoparticles. This study suggests that M. edulis is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles.

  11. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  12. Silymarin nanoparticle prevents paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Suvadra Das, Partha Roy, Runa Ghosh Auddy, Arup MukherjeeDepartment of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, IndiaAbstract: Silymarin (Sm is a polyphenolic component extracted from Silybum marianum. It is an antioxidant, traditionally used as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotectant, and dietary supplement. Relatively recently, Sm has proved to be a valuable chemopreventive and a useful antineoplastic agent. Medical success for Sm is, however, constrained by very low aqueous solubility and associated biopharmaceutical limitations. Sm flavonolignans are also susceptible to ion-catalyzed degradation in the gut. Proven antihepatotoxic activity of Sm cannot therefore be fully exploited in acute chemical poisoning conditions like that in paracetamol overdose. Moreover, a synchronous delivery that is required for hepatic regeneration is difficult to achieve by itself. This work is meant to circumvent the inherent limitations of Sm through the use of nanotechnology. Sm nanoparticles (Smnps were prepared by nanoprecipitation in polyvinyl alcohol stabilized Eudragit RS100® polymer (Rohm Pharma GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany. Process parameter optimization provided 67.39% entrapment efficiency and a Gaussian particle distribution of average size 120.37 nm. Sm release from the nanoparticles was considerably sustained for all formulations. Smnps were strongly protective against hepatic damage when tested in a paracetamol overdose hepatotoxicity model. Nanoparticles recorded no animal death even when administered after an established paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Preventing progress of paracetamol hepatic damage was traced for an efficient glutathione regeneration to a level of 11.3 µmol/g in hepatic tissue due to Smnps.Keywords: silymarin, paracetamol, nanoparticle, glutathione, mouse hepatotoxicity

  13. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pöttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5 were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA, or with dextran (SEONDEX. Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system.

  14. The development of latent fingerprints by zinc oxide and tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by precipitation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Deepali; Kumar, Sacheen

    2018-05-01

    Fingerprints are the very important evidence at the crime scene which must be developed clearly with shortest duration of time to solve the case. Metal oxide nanoparticles could be the mean to develop the latent fingerprints. Zinc oxide and Tin Oxide Nanoparticles were prepared by using chemical precipitation technique which were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The size of zinc oxide crystallite was found to be 14.75 nm with minimum reflectance at 360 nm whereas tin oxide have the size of 90 nm and reflectance at minimum level 321 nm. By using these powdered samples on glass, plastic and glossy cardboard, latent fingerprints were developed. Zinc oxide was found to be better candidate than tin oxide for the fingerprint development on all the three types of substrates.

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by oxidative polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkuviene, Aida [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Kaseta, Vytautas [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Voronovic, Jaroslav [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanauskaite, Giedre; Biziuleviciene, Gene [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanaviciene, Almira [NanoTechnas–Center of Nanotechnology and Material Science at Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, 03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanavicius, Arunas, E-mail: Arunas.Ramanavicius@chf.vu.lt [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Laboratory of BioNanoTechnology, Department of Materials Science and Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, State Scientific Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by environmentally friendly polymerization at high concentrations are cytotoxic. ► Primary mouse embryonic fibroblast, mouse hepatoma and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell lines were treated by Ppy nanoparticles. ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles at high concentrations inhibit cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Polypyrrole (Ppy) is known as biocompatible material, which is used in some diverse biomedical applications and seeming to be a very promising for advanced biotechnological applications. In order to increase our understanding about biocompatibility of Ppy, in this study pure Ppy nanoparticles (Ppy-NPs) of fixed size and morphology were prepared by one-step oxidative polymerization and their cyto-compatibility was evaluated. The impact of different concentration of Ppy nanoparticles on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), mouse hepatoma cell line (MH-22A), and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line was investigated. Cell morphology, viability/proliferation after the treatment by Ppy nanoparticles was evaluated. Obtained results showed that Ppy nanoparticles at low concentrations are biocompatible, while at high concentrations they became cytotoxic for Jurkat, MEF and MH-22A cells, and it was found that cytotoxic effect is dose-dependent.

  16. Effect of metal oxide nanoparticles on Godavari river water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goud, Ravi Kumar; Ajay Kumar, V.; Reddy, T. Rakesh; Vinod, B.; Shravani, S.

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for the development of water treatment technologies. In the area of water purification, nanotechnology offers the possibility of an efficient removal of pollutants and germs. Nanomaterials reveal good results than other techniques used in water treatment because of its high surface area to volume ratio. In the present work, iron oxide and copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to purify Godavari river water. The effect of nanoparticles at 70°C temperature, 12 centimeter of sand bed height and pH of 8 shows good results as compared to simple sand bed filter. The attained values of BOD5, COD and Turbidity were in permissible limit of world health organization.

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  18. Nanoparticles of complex metal oxides synthesized using the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASHOK K GANGULI∗, TOKEER AHMAD, PADAM R ARYA and PIKA JHA ... nanoparticles of several dielectric oxides like BaTiO3, Ba2TiO4, SrTiO3, PbTiO3 .... reasonable stability till 150◦C. All the lead-doped phases (sintered at 900◦C) show.

  19. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  20. Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment prevailing during growth of carbon nanostructures by CCVD. M. Jana*, A. Sil and S. Ray. †. Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Roorkee 247 667, India. Present address: *School of Materials ...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by adopting aqueous precipitation method using copper sulphate 5-hydrate as a precursor and NaOH as a stabilizing agent. This gives a large scale production of CuO-NPs which are utilized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye. The CuO ...

  2. Identification of Spinel Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by 57Fe NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangGap Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized and studied monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles of smaller than 10 nm to identify between the two spinel phases, magnetite and maghemite. It is shown that 57Fe NMR spectroscopy is a promising tool for distinguishing between the two phases.

  3. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Hui-Chen, E-mail: d93548008@ntu.edu.tw; Chen, Chung-Ming, E-mail: chung@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Hsieh, Wen-Yuan, E-mail: hsiehw@itri.org.tw [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Biomedical Technology and Device Research Labs (China); Chen, Ching-Yun, E-mail: chingyun523@gmail.com; Liu, Chia-Ching, E-mail: d95548005@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China)

    2015-02-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future.

  4. Single step radiolytic synthesis of iridium nanoparticles onto graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, J.V.; Molina Higgins, M.C.; Toro Gonzalez, M.; Castano, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ir nanoparticles were synthesized through a single step gamma irradiation process. • Homogeneously distributed Ir nanoparticles on graphene oxide are ∼2.3 nm in size. • Ir−O bonds evidenced the interaction of the nanoparticles with the support. - Abstract: In this work a new approach to synthesize iridium nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide is presented. The nanoparticles were directly deposited and grown on the surface of the carbon-based support using a single step reduction method through gamma irradiation. In this process, an aqueous isopropanol solution containing the iridium precursor, graphene oxide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate was initially prepared and sonicated thoroughly to obtain a homogeneous dispersion. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays with energies of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV emitted from the spontaneous decay of the 60 Co irradiator. The interaction of gamma rays with water in the presence of isopropanol generates highly reducing species homogeneously distributed in the solution that can reduce the Ir precursor down to a zero valence state. An absorbed dose of 60 kGy was used, which according to the yield of reducing species is sufficient to reduce the total amount of precursor present in the solution. This novel approach leads to the formation of 2.3 ± 0.5 nm Ir nanoparticles distributed along the surface of the support. The oxygenated functionalities of graphene oxide served as nucleation sites for the formation of Ir nuclei and their subsequent growth. XPS results revealed that the interaction of Ir with the support occurs through Ir−O bonds.

  5. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogiannis, Stavros [Alexander Technological Educational Institution of Thessaloniki, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Thessaloniki (Greece); Feidantsis, Konstantinos [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gallios, George P. [Laboratory of General & Inorganic Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kastrinaki, Georgia [Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 60361, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G. [Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI, P.O. Box 60361, 57001 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, PO. Box 1517, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 45, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Kaloyianni, Martha, E-mail: kaloyian@bio.auth.gr [Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • The impact of two types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the physiological status of mussels was studied. • Oxidative parameters significantly changed after 1, 3, 7 days of exposure. • The nanoparticles induced oxidative stress to the animals. • All the parameters measured could be applied in biomonitoring studies. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels’ hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity.

  6. Toxicity assessment and comparison between two types of iron oxide nanoparticles in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taze, Chrysa; Panetas, Ioannis; Kalogiannis, Stavros; Feidantsis, Konstantinos; Gallios, George P.; Kastrinaki, Georgia; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G.; Václavíková, Miroslava; Ivanicova, Lucia; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of two types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the physiological status of mussels was studied. • Oxidative parameters significantly changed after 1, 3, 7 days of exposure. • The nanoparticles induced oxidative stress to the animals. • All the parameters measured could be applied in biomonitoring studies. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their increased application and production, are being released into the environment with unpredictable impact on the physiology of marine organisms, as well as on entire ecosystems and upcoming effects on human health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the oxidative responses of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis after exposure to iron oxide NPs and to iron oxide NPs incorporated into zeolite for 1, 3 and 7 days. Our results showed that both effectors induced changes on animal physiology by causing oxidative stress in hemocytes of exposed mussels compared to control animals. This was shown by the significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein carbonylation, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and DNA damage. In addition an increase in prooxidant levels as measured by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay was observed in exposed mussels’ hemolymph. The results show that ROS, DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, ubiquitin conjugates and PAB could constitute, after further investigation, reliable biomarkers for the evaluation of pollution or other environmental stressors. In addition, more studies are needed in order to ensure the safety of these NPs on various biomedical applications, since it is critical to design NPs that they meet the demands of application without causing cellular toxicity.

  7. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Yu, Mufei; Ober, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have

  8. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pongrac, I. M.; Pavičić, I.; Milić, M.; Brkić Ahmed, L.; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, I.; Gajović, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, 26 April (2016), s. 1701-1715 ISSN 1176-9114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-01128J EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316120 - GLOWBRAIN Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles * biocompatibility * oxidative stress Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  9. Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saliani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs (zinc oxide nanoparticles has generated significant scientific interest as a novel antibacterial and anticancer agent. Since oxidative stress is a critical determinant of ZnO NPs-induced damage, it is necessary to characterize their underlying mode of action. Different structural and physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs such as particle surface, size, shape, crystal structure, chemical position, and presence of metals can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS (reactive oxygen species production. However, there are some inconsistencies in the literature on the relation between the physicochemical features of ZnO NPs and their plausible oxidative stress mechanism. Herein, the possible oxidative stress mechanism of ZnO NPs was reviewed. This is worthy of further detailed evaluations in order to improve our understanding of vital NPs characteristics governing their toxicity. Therefore, this study focuses on the different reported oxidative stress paradigms induced by ZnO NPs including ROS generated by NPs, oxidative stress due to the NPs-cell interaction, and role of the particle dissolution in the oxidative damage. Also, this study tries to characterize and understand the multiple pathways involved in oxidative stress induced by ZnO NPs. Knowledge about different cellular signaling cascades stimulated by ZnO NPs lead to the better interpretation of the toxic influences induced by the cellular and acellular parameters. Regarding the potential benefits of toxic effects of ZnO NPs, in-depth evaluation of their toxicity mechanism and various effects of these nanoparticles would facilitate their implementation for biomedical applications.

  10. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-03

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  11. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  12. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu Sekhar Nanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl triethoxysilane (MEEETES were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  13. Room-temperature solution synthesis of Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowires and their catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjun; Huang, Huandi; Zhu, Yanjun; Li, Xiaoyun; Wang, Xuebin; Li, Chaorong; Chen, Benyong; Wang, Ge; Shi, Zhan

    2012-10-26

    A simple chemical solution route for the synthesis of large-scale high-quality Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowire at room temperature has been developed. In the synthesis, the protonated amine was intercalated into the molybdenum bronze layers to reduce the electrostatic force of the lamellar structures, and then the Ag nanoparticle functionalized long nanowires could be easily induced by a redox reaction between a molybdenum oxide-amine intermediate and Ag(+) at room temperature. The intercalation lamellar structures improved the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles, with the result that uniform Ag nanoparticles occurred on the surface of the MoO(3) nanowire. In this way Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of around 6 nm, and high-purity nanowires with mean diameter of around 50 nm and with typical lengths of several tens to hundreds of micrometers were produced. The heteronanostructured nanowires were intricately and inseparably connected to each other with hydrogen bonds and/or bridge oxygen atoms and packed together, forming a paper-like porous network film. The Ag-MoO(3) nanowire film performs a promoted catalytic property for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene, and the heteronanostructured nanowire film sensor shows excellent sensing performance to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature.

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro [University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan); Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru [Hiroshima University (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  15. Iron oxides nanoparticles for heavy metals removing from industrial waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SORA, Sergiu; Mariana, Ion Rodica [Valahia University, Targoviste (Russian Federation); Raluca, Van-Staden; Jacobus-Frederick, Van-Staden [Laboratory of Electrochemistry and PATLAB Bucharest, National Institute of Research for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    In the environment, the iron oxides may be useful for depollution process by means of a wide range of redox reactions. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a toxic form of chromium, whereas the trivalent form is not. Reduction of CrVI to CrIII is, thus, a detoxifying process and takes place in soils and sediments under anoxic conditions. Hexavalent Cr reacts with magnetite to form CrIII. The reaction yields to a surficial transformation of magnetite into maghemite. Substitution of a large range of cations can be easily induced in magnetite and maghemite because tetrahedral as well as octahedral positions are available. Dissolution curves indicated that Co, Ni and Zn were randomly distributed within the structure and replaced octahedral Fe. In contrast, Cu, Mn and Cd appear to be concentrated near the surface of the crystals. Trace amounts of chromate ions adsorbed on magnetite are reduced to Cr (III) at the surface of Fe ions. A solid state reaction in which the surface layers of magnetite are converted into maghemite appears to be involved: as more chromate is adsorbed, further reduction is halted. Key words: magnetite nanoparticles.

  16. Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles: Effective Agricultural Antibacterial Agent Against Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is an essential mineral element for plants and is nontoxic to organisms. In this study, we took advantage of nanotechnologies to systematically investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs against the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum in vitro and in vivo for the first time. R. solanacearum has contributed to catastrophic bacterial wilt, which has resulted in the world-wide reduction of tobacco production. The results demonstrated that MgONPs possessed statistically significant concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were measured as 200 and 250 μg/mL, respectively. Additional studies, aimed at understanding the toxicity mechanism of MgONPs, indicated that physical injury occurred to the cell membranes, along with decreased motility and biofilm formation ability of R. solanacearum, due to the direct attachment of MgONPs to the surfaces of the bacterial cells, which was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation could also be an important reason for the antibacterial action, inducing DNA damage. The toxicity assessment assay under greenhouse conditions demonstrated that the MgONPs had exerted a large effect on tobacco bacterial wilt, reducing the bacterial wilt index. Altogether, the results suggest that the development of MgONPs as alternative antibacterial agents will become a new research subject.

  17. CHEMISTRY OF SO2 AND DESOX PROCESSES ON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    On bulk stoichiometric oxides, SO{sub 2} mainly reacts with the O centers to form SO{sub 3} or SO{sub 4} species that decompose at elevated temperatures. Adsorption on the metal cations occurs below 300 K and does not lead to cleavage of the S-O bonds. In bulk oxides, the occupied cation bands are too stable for effective bonding interactions with the LUMO of SO{sub 2}. The effects of quantum confinement on the electronic properties of oxide nanoparticles and the structural defects that usually accompany these systems in general favor the bonding and dissociation of SO{sub 2}. Thus, nanoparticles of MgO, CaO, SrO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} are all more efficient for sequestering SO{sub 2} than the corresponding bulk oxides. Structural imperfections in pure or metal-doped ceria nanoparticles accelerate the reduction of SO{sub 2} by CO by facilitating the formation and migration of O vacancies in the oxide surface.

  18. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, T., E-mail: Teodora.Radu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Iacovita, C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Physics-Biophysics, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400349, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Benea, D. [Faculty of Physics, Babes Bolyai University, 400271, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Turcu, R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293, Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Characterization of three types of iron oxides magnetic nanoparticles. • A correlation between valence band XPS and the degree of iron oxidation is proposed. • Theoretical contributions of Fe in tetragonal and octahedral environment are shown. - Abstract: We report X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) synthesized using solvothermal reduction in the presence of polyethylene glycol. The magnetite obtained was employed as precursor for the synthesis of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (by oxygen dissociation) which in turn was transformed into α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We confirmed the magnetite, maghemite and hematite structure by Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis of the XPS core level and valence band (VB) photoemission spectra for all investigated samples is discussed in terms of the degree of iron oxidation. This is of fundamental importance to better understand the electronic structure of the obtained iron oxide nanoparticles in order to control and improve their quality for specific biomedical applications. Moreover, theoretical band structure calculations are performed for magnetite and the separate contributions of Fe in tetragonal and octahedral environment are shown.

  19. Progress in electrochemical synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bagheri, Samira; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd

    2014-01-01

    Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles have been emerged as significant nanomaterials due to its extensive range of application in various fields. In this regard, synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles with desirable properties and high potential applications are greatly demanded. Therefore, investigation on different iron oxide phases and their magnetic properties along with various commonly used synthetic techniques are remarked and thoroughly described in this review. Electrochemical synthesis as a newfound method with unique advantages is elaborated, followed by design approaches and key parameters to control the properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. Additionally, since the dispersion of iron oxide nanoparticles is as important as its preparation, surface modification issue has been a serious challenge which is comprehensively discussed using different surfactants. Despite the advantages of the electrochemical synthesis method, this technique has been poorly studied and requires deep investigations on effectual parameters such as current density, pH, electrolyte concentration etc. - Highlights: • IONPs are applied in chemical industries, medicine, magnetic storage etc. • Electrochemical synthesis (EC) is convenient, eco-friendly, selective and low-cost. • EC key factors are current density, pH, electrolyte concentration, electrode type. • Organic, inorganic and biological materials can be used to modify IONPs’ surface. • The physicochemical properties of IONPs can be controlled by adding surfactants

  20. Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrikossova, Natalia; Skoglund, Caroline; Ahrén, Maria; Uvdal, Kajsa; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd 2 O 3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes. (paper)

  1. Oxide nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened steel: crystallographic structure and interface with ferrite matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Oxide nanoparticles are quintessential for ensuring the extraordinary properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. In this study, the crystallographic structure of oxide nanoparticles, and their interface with the ferritic steel matrix in an Al-alloyed ODS steel, i.e. PM2000, were...

  2. Effect of ionization on the oxidation kinetics of aluminum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao-Ting; He, Min; Cheng, Guang-xu; Zhang, Zaoxiao; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Wang, Zhengdong

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) of the observed stepwise oxidation of core-shell structured Al/Al2O3 nanoparticles is presented. Different from the metal ion hopping process in the Cabrera-Mott model, which is assumed to occur only at a certain distance from the oxide layer, the MD simulation shows that Al atoms jump over various interfacial gaps directly under the thermal driving force. The energy barrier for Al ionization is found to be increased along with the enlargement of interfacial gap. A mechanism of competition between thermal driving force and ionization potential barrier is proposed in the interpretation of stepwise oxidation behavior.

  3. Generation and oxidation of aerosol deposited PdAg nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, S.; Gustafson, J.; Martin, N. M.; Messing, M. E.; Deppert, K.; Liu, Z.; Chang, R.; Fernandes, V. R.; Borg, A.; Grönbeck, H.; Lundgren, E.

    2013-10-01

    PdAg nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm have been generated by an aerosol particle method, and supported on a silica substrate. By using a combination of X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy it is shown that the size distribution of the particles is narrow and that the two metals form an alloy with a mixture of 75% Pd and 25% Ag. Under oxidizing conditions, Pd is found to segregate to the surface and a thin PdO like oxide is formed similar to the surface oxide previously reported on extended PdAg and pure Pd surfaces.

  4. Targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Peng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Xiang-Hong Peng1,4, Ximei Qian2,4, Hui Mao3,4, Andrew Y Wang5, Zhuo (Georgia Chen1,4, Shuming Nie2,4, Dong M Shin1,4*1Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering; 3Department of Radiology; 4Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Ocean Nanotech, LLC, Fayetteville, AR, USAAbstract: Magnetic iron oxide (IO nanoparticles with a long blood retention time, biodegradability and low toxicity have emerged as one of the primary nanomaterials for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. IO nanoparticles have a large surface area and can be engineered to provide a large number of functional groups for cross-linking to tumor-targeting ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, peptides, or small molecules for diagnostic imaging or delivery of therapeutic agents. IO nanoparticles possess unique paramagnetic properties, which generate significant susceptibility effects resulting in strong T2 and T*2 contrast, as well as T1 effects at very low concentrations for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which is widely used for clinical oncology imaging. We review recent advances in the development of targeted IO nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy.Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, tumor imaging, MRI, therapy

  5. Mercury removal in wastewater by iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vélez, E; Campillo, G E; Morales, G; Hincapié, C; Osorio, J; Arnache, O; Uribe, J I; Jaramillo, F

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is one of the persistent pollutants in wastewater; it is becoming a severe environmental and public health problem, this is why nowadays its removal is an obligation. Iron oxide nanoparticles are receiving much attention due to their properties, such as: great biocompatibility, ease of separation, high relation of surface-area to volume, surface modifiability, reusability, excellent magnetic properties and relative low cost. In this experiment, Fe 3 O 4 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents, and Aloe Vera as stabilizing agent; then these nanoparticles were characterized by three different measurements: first, using a Zetasizer Nano ZS for their size estimation, secondly UV-visible spectroscopy which showed the existence of resonance of plasmon at λ max ∼360 nm, and lastly by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine nanoparticles form. The results of this characterization showed that the obtained Iron oxides nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution (∼100nm). Mercury removal of 70% approximately was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements. (paper)

  6. Morphology-dependent activity of Pt nanocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in acidic media: Nanowires versus nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Weiping; Li Meng; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Ma Chao; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We demonstrate the morphology effect of Pt catalysts in electrooxidation of ethanol and CO in an acidic solution. → Pt nanowires and nanoparticles were used as catalysts. → Pt nanowires display a higher catalytic activity by a factor of at least two relative to those nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation. → The rate for CO monolayer oxidation exhibits similar morphology-dependent behavior with a markedly enhanced rate on the Pt nanowires. - Abstract: The morphology of nanostructured Pt catalysts is known to affect significantly the kinetics of various reactions. Herein, we report on a pronounced morphology effect in the electrooxidation of ethanol and carbon monoxide (CO) on Pt nanowires and nanoparticles in an acidic solution. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the inherent morphology difference between these two nanostructured catalysts. Voltammetric and chronoamperometric studies of the ethanol electrooxidation revealed that these nanowires had a higher catalytic activity by a factor of two relative to these nanoparticles. The rate for CO monolayer oxidation exhibits similar morphology-dependent behavior with a markedly enhanced rate on the Pt nanowires. In situ infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed a different trend for chemisorbed CO formation and CO 2 -to-acetic acid reaction product ratios on these two nanostructures. The morphology-induced change in catalytic activity and selectivity in ethanol electrocatalysis is discussed in detail.

  7. Morphology-dependent activity of Pt nanocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in acidic media: Nanowires versus nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Weiping, E-mail: wpzhou@bnl.gov [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Li Meng [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Koenigsmann, Christopher [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Ma Chao [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Building 480, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wong, Stanislaus S. [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Building 480, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Adzic, Radoslav R. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > We demonstrate the morphology effect of Pt catalysts in electrooxidation of ethanol and CO in an acidic solution. > Pt nanowires and nanoparticles were used as catalysts. > Pt nanowires display a higher catalytic activity by a factor of at least two relative to those nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation. > The rate for CO monolayer oxidation exhibits similar morphology-dependent behavior with a markedly enhanced rate on the Pt nanowires. - Abstract: The morphology of nanostructured Pt catalysts is known to affect significantly the kinetics of various reactions. Herein, we report on a pronounced morphology effect in the electrooxidation of ethanol and carbon monoxide (CO) on Pt nanowires and nanoparticles in an acidic solution. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the inherent morphology difference between these two nanostructured catalysts. Voltammetric and chronoamperometric studies of the ethanol electrooxidation revealed that these nanowires had a higher catalytic activity by a factor of two relative to these nanoparticles. The rate for CO monolayer oxidation exhibits similar morphology-dependent behavior with a markedly enhanced rate on the Pt nanowires. In situ infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy measurements revealed a different trend for chemisorbed CO formation and CO{sub 2}-to-acetic acid reaction product ratios on these two nanostructures. The morphology-induced change in catalytic activity and selectivity in ethanol electrocatalysis is discussed in detail.

  8. Toxicity, toxicokinetics and biodistribution of dextran stabilized Iron oxide Nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, N S; Syama, S; Sabareeswaran, A; Mohanan, P V

    2016-09-10

    Advancement in the field of nanoscience and technology has alarmingly raised the call for comprehending the potential health effects caused by deliberate or unintentional exposure to nanoparticles. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have an increasing number of biomedical applications and hence a complete toxicological profile of the nanomaterial is therefore a mandatory requirement prior to its intended usage to ensure safety and to minimize potential health hazards upon its exposure. The present study elucidates the toxicity of in house synthesized Dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DINP) in a regulatory perspective through various routes of exposure, its associated molecular, immune, genotoxic, carcinogenic effects and bio distribution profile. Synthesized ferrite nanomaterials were successfully coated with dextran (dextran helps in improvising particle stability in biological environments. The nanoparticles do not seem to induce oxidative stress mediated toxicological effects, nor altered physiological process or behavior changes or visible pathological lesions. Furthermore no anticipated health hazards are likely to be associated with the use of DINP and could be concluded that the synthesized DINP is nontoxic/safe to be used for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Employed as Seeds for the Induction of Microcrystalline Diamond Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resto Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. X-ray diffraction, visible, and ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy , electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were employed to study the carbon bonding nature of the films and to analyze the carbon clustering around the seed nanoparticles leading to diamond synthesis. The results indicate that iron oxide nanoparticles lose the O atoms, becoming thus active C traps that induce the formation of a dense region of trigonally and tetrahedrally bonded carbon around them with the ensuing precipitation of diamond-type bonds that develop into microcrystalline diamond films under chemical vapor deposition conditions. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  10. Oxidation effect on templating of metal oxide nanoparticles within block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcora, Pinar; Briber, Robert M.; Kofinas, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic norbornene-b-(norbornene dicarboxylic acid) diblock copolymers with different block ratios were prepared as templates for the incorporation of iron ions using an ion exchange protocol. The disordered arrangement of iron oxide particles within these copolymers was attributed to the oxidation of the iron ions and the strong interactions between iron oxide nanoparticles, particularly at high iron ion concentrations, which was found to affect the self-assembly of the block copolymer morphologies.

  11. Effects of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doskocz Nina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production and wide application of nanomaterials have led to nanotechnology development but their release to environment and the induction of toxic reactions, affects the natural microbial communities. Therefore, studies on the impact of nanoparticles on microorganisms and environment are required and needed. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of aluminium oxide nanoparticles on the growth of Pseudomonas putida. To compare the harmfulness of different forms of aluminium oxide, the ecotoxicity of its macro-forms was also evaluated in the study. Research showed that the exposure to nanoparticles can negatively influence microorganisms. The EC50-16h determined in this study was 0.5 mg/l, and NOEC equaled 0.19 mg/l. Nano-Al2O3 proved to be more toxic to P. putida than aluminium oxide. This indicates that the nano-form of a given substance demonstrates different properties and may constitute a far greater danger for the environment than the same substance in the large form. According to EU and US EPA criteria, nano-Al2O3 proved to be very toxic and highly toxic, respectively. Changes in bacterial communities caused by nanoparticles may affect the normal biological, chemical and nutrient cycle in the ecosystem and the effect triggered by nanomaterials in relation to other organisms is unpredictable.

  12. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles protect cells against oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexander B.; Zholobak, Nadezhda M.; Baranchikov, Alexander E.; Ryabova, Anastasia V.; Ivanov, Vladimir K.

    2015-01-01

    A novel facile method of non-doped and fluorescent terbium-doped cerium fluoride stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. Intense green luminescence of CeF 3 :Tb nanoparticles can be used to visualize these nanoparticles' accumulation in cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles are shown for the first time to protect both organic molecules and living cells from the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide. Both non-doped and terbium-doped CeF 3 nanoparticles are shown to provide noteworthy protection to cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus. - Highlights: • Facile method of CeF 3 and CeF 3 :Tb stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. • Naked CeF 3 nanoparticles are shown to be non-toxic and to protect cells from the action of H 2 O 2 . • CeF 3 and CeF 3 :Tb nanoparticles are shown to protect living cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus

  13. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles protect cells against oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, Alexander B.; Zholobak, Nadezhda M. [Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv D0368 (Ukraine); Baranchikov, Alexander E. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Ryabova, Anastasia V. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Vladimir K., E-mail: van@igic.ras.ru [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-01

    A novel facile method of non-doped and fluorescent terbium-doped cerium fluoride stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. Intense green luminescence of CeF{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles can be used to visualize these nanoparticles' accumulation in cells using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cerium fluoride nanoparticles are shown for the first time to protect both organic molecules and living cells from the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide. Both non-doped and terbium-doped CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles are shown to provide noteworthy protection to cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus. - Highlights: • Facile method of CeF{sub 3} and CeF{sub 3}:Tb stable aqueous sols synthesis is proposed. • Naked CeF{sub 3} nanoparticles are shown to be non-toxic and to protect cells from the action of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • CeF{sub 3} and CeF{sub 3}:Tb nanoparticles are shown to protect living cells against the vesicular stomatitis virus.

  14. A sol-gel method to synthesize indium tin oxide nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuhua Li; Xiujuan xu; Xin Yin; Chunzhong Li; Jianrong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a novel sol-gel method.Granulated indium and tin were dissolved in HNO3 and partially complexed with citric acid.A sol-gel process was induced when tertiary butyl alcohol was added dropwise to the above solution.ITO nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 18.5 nm and surface area of 32.6 m2/g were obtained after the gel was heat-treated at 700 C.The ITO nanoparticles showed good sinterability,the starting sintering temperature decreased sharply to 900 C,and the 1400 C sintered pellet had a density of 98.1 % of theoretical density (TD).

  15. Engineered Nickel Oxide Nanoparticle Causes Substantial Physicochemical Perturbation in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Manna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of engineered nickel oxide nanoparticle (NiO-NP in nature is on the rise, owing to large scale industrial uses, which have accreted the scope of its exposure to plants, the primary producers of the ecosystem. Though an essential micronutrient for the animal system, supported by numerous studies confirming its toxicity at higher dosages, nickel oxide is graded as a human carcinogen by WHO. A few studies do depict toxicity and bioaccumulation of nickel in plants; however, interaction of NiO-NP with plants is not well-elucidated. It is known that exposure to NiO-NP can incite stress response, leading to cytotoxicity and growth retardation in some plants, but a defined work on the intricate physicochemical cellular responses and genotoxic challenges is wanting. The present study was planned to explore cytotoxicity of NiO-NP in the model plant, Allium cepa L., its internalization in the tissue and concomitant furore created in the antioxidant enzyme system of the plant. The prospect of the NiO-NP causing genotoxicity was also investigated. Detailed assessments biochemical profiles and genotoxicity potential of NiO-NP on A. cepa L. was performed and extended to four of its closest economically important relatives, Allium sativum L., Allium schoenoprasum L., Allium porrum L., and Allium fistulosum L. Growing root tips were treated with seven different concentrations of NiO-NP suspension (10–500 mg L−1, with deionised distilled water as negative control and 0.4 mM EMS solution as positive control. Study of genotoxic endpoints, like, mitotic indices (MI, chromosomal aberrations (CAs, and chromosome breaks confirmed NiO-NP induced genotoxicity in plants, even at a very low dose (10 mg L−1. That NiO-NP also perturbs biochemical homeostasis, disrupting normal physiology of the cell, was confirmed through changes in state of lipid peroxidation malonaldehyde (MDA, as well as, in oxidation marker enzymes, like catalase (CAT, super oxide

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelita Asuncion S. Dimapilis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world faces a growing challenge for adequate clean water due to threats coming from increasing demand and decreasing supply. Although there are existing technologies for water disinfection, their limitations, particularly the formation of disinfection-by-products, have led to researches on alternative methods. Zinc oxide, an essential chemical in the rubber and pharmaceutical industries, has attracted interest as antimicrobial agent. In nanoscale, zinc oxide has shown antimicrobial properties which make its potential great for various applications. This review discusses the synthesis of zinc oxide with focus on precipitation method, its antimicrobial property and the factors affecting it, disinfection mechanisms, and the potential application to water disinfection.

  17. Copper Nanoparticle Induced Cytotoxicity to Nitrifying Bacteria ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the inclusion of engineered nanomaterials in industrial processes and consumer products, wastewater treatments plants (WWTPs) will serve as a major sink for these emerging contaminants. Previous research has demonstrated that nanomaterials are potentially toxic to microbial communities utilized in biological wastewater treatment (BWT). Copper-based nanoparticles (CuNPs) are of particular interest based on their increasing use in wood treatment, paints, household products, coatings, and byproducts of semiconductor manufacturing. A critical step in BWT is nutrient removal via denitrification. This study examined the potential toxicity of bare and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated CuO, and Cu2O nanoparticles, as well as Cu ions to microbial communities responsible for nitrogen removal in BWT. Inhibition was inferred from changes to the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR) in the absence and presence of Cu ions and CuNPs. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, with Linear Combination Fitting (LCF), was utilized to track changes to Cu speciation throughout exposure. Results indicate that the dissolution of Cu ions from CuNPs drive microbial inhibition. The presence of a PVP coating on CuNPs has little effect on inhibition. LCF fitting of the biomass combined with metal partitioning analysis supports the current hypothesis that Cu-induced cytotoxicity is primarily caused by reactive oxygen species formed from ionic Cu in solution via catalytic reaction inter

  18. Ex vivo assessment of polyol coated-iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI diagnosis applications: toxicological and MRI contrast enhancement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomati-Miguel, Oscar; Miguel-Sancho, Nuria; Abasolo, Ibane; Candiota, Ana Paula; Roca, Alejandro G.; Acosta, Milena; Schwartz, Simó; Arus, Carles; Marquina, Clara; Martinez, Gema; Santamaria, Jesus

    2014-03-01

    Polyol synthesis is a promising method to obtain directly pharmaceutical grade colloidal dispersion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here, we study the biocompatibility and performance as T2-MRI contrast agents (CAs) of high quality magnetic colloidal dispersions (average hydrodynamic aggregate diameter of 16-27 nm) consisting of polyol-synthesized SPIONs (5 nm in mean particle size) coated with triethylene glycol (TEG) chains (TEG-SPIONs), which were subsequently functionalized to carboxyl-terminated meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated-iron oxide nanoparticles (DMSA-SPIONs). Standard MTT assays on HeLa, U87MG, and HepG2 cells revealed that colloidal dispersions of TEG-coated iron oxide nanoparticles did not induce any loss of cell viability after 3 days incubation with dose concentrations below 50 μg Fe/ml. However, after these nanoparticles were functionalized with DMSA molecules, an increase on their cytotoxicity was observed, so that particles bearing free terminal carboxyl groups on their surface were not cytotoxic only at low concentrations (MRI studies in mice indicated that both types of coated-iron oxide nanoparticles produced higher negative T2-MRI contrast enhancement than that measured for a similar commercial T2-MRI CAs consisting in dextran-coated ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (Ferumoxtran-10). In conclusion, the above attributes make both types of as synthesized coated-iron oxide nanoparticles, but especially DMSA-SPIONs, promising candidates as T2-MRI CAs for nanoparticle-enhanced MRI diagnosis applications.

  19. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  20. Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

  1. Poly(organo phosphazene) nanoparticles surface modified with poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, J; Schacht, E; Stolnik, S; Garnett, M C; Davies, M C; Illum, L; Davis, S S

    1996-10-05

    The use of biodegradable derivatives of poly(organo phosphazenes) for the preparation of nanoparticles and their surface modification with the novel poly(ethylene oxide) derivative of poly(organo phosphazene) has been assessed using a range of in vitro characterization methods. The nanoparticles were produced by the precipitation solvent evaporation method from the derivative co-substituted with phenylalanine and glycine ethyl ester side groups. A reduction in particle size to less than 200 nm was achieved by an increase in pH of the preparation medium. The formation (and colloidal stability) of these nanoparticles seems to be controlled by two opposite effects: attractive hydrophobic interactions between phenylalanine ester groups and electrostatic repulsions arising from the carboxyl groups formed due to (partial) hydrolysis of the ester bond(s) at the high pH of the preparation medium. The poly[(glycine ethyl ester)phosphazene] derivative containing 5000-Da poly(ethylene oxide) as 5% of the side groups was used for the surface modification of nanoparticles. Adsorbed onto the particles, the polymer produced a thick coating layer of approximately 35 nm. The coated nanoparticles exhibited reduced surface negative potential and improved colloidal stability toward electrolyte-induced flocculation, relative to the uncoated system. However, the steric stabilization provided was less effective than that of a Poloxamine 908 coating. This difference in effectiveness of the steric stabilization might indicate that, although both the stabilizing polymers possess a 5000-Da poly(ethylene oxide) moiety, there is a difference in the arrangements of these poly(ethylene oxide) chains at the particle surface. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by seeded-growth route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, A.; Muñoz-Noval, A.; García-Hernández, M.; Serrano, A.; Jiménez de la Morena, J.; Figuerola, A.; Quarta, A.; Pellegrino, T.; Wilhelm, C.; García, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by two-step synthesis (seeded-growth route) with sizes that range from 6 to 18 nm. The initial seeds result monocrystalline and exhibit ferromagnetic behavior with low saturation field. The subsequent growth of a shell enhances the anisotropy inducing magnetic frustration, and, consequently, reducing its magnetization. This increase in anisotropy occurs suddenly at a certain size (∼10 nm). Electronic and structural analysis with X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates a step reduction in the oxidation state as the particle reaches 10 nm size while keeping its overall structure in spite of the magnetic polydispersity. The formation of antiphase magnetic boundaries due to island percolation in the growing shells is hypothesized to be the mechanism responsible of the magnetic behavior, as a direct consequence of the two-step synthesis route of the nanoparticles.

  3. Characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via oxidation from metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzi, R.C.; Dedavid, B.A.; Pires, M.J.R.; Streicher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The tin oxide (SnO_2) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. This oxide nanostructures show higher activation efficiency due to its larger effective surface. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the tin oxide in different conditions, via oxidation of pure tin with nitric acid. Results obtained from the characterization of SnO_2 powder by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Particle size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the conditions were suitable for the synthesis to obtain manometric tin oxide granules with crystalline structure of rutile. (author)

  4. Investigations of white light emitting europium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtaputre, S S; Nojima, A; Marathe, S K; Matsumura, D; Ohta, T; Tiwari, R; Dey, G K; Kulkarni, S K

    2008-01-01

    Europium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical route. The amount of doped europium was varied which shows the changes in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity. The post synthesis annealing effect on the properties of ZnO nanoparticles has also been investigated. In general, PL is broad and a white light is emitted which originates from ZnO and the intra-4f transitions of Eu 3+ ions. The x-ray diffraction patterns do not show any Eu-related peaks for as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles as well as for annealed samples. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that europium ions are present on the surface of the core of ZnO and inside the shell of zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH 2 )] after annealing

  5. Ca alginate as scaffold for iron oxide nanoparticles synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Finotelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanotechnology has developed to a stage that makes it possible to process magnetic nanoparticles for the site-specific delivery of drugs. To this end, it has been proposed as biomaterial for drug delivery system in which the drug release rates would be activated by a magnetic external stimuli. Alginate has been used extensively in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical industries for their gel forming properties in the presence of multivalent cations. In this study, we produced iron oxide nanoparticles by coprecipitation of Fe(III and Fe(II. The nanoparticles were entrapped in Ca alginate beads before and after alginate gelation. XRD analysis showed that particles should be associated to magnetite or maghemite with crystal size of 9.5 and 4.3 nm, respectively. Studies using Mössbauer spectroscopy corroborate the superparamagnetic behavior. The combination of magnetic properties and the biocompatibility of alginate suggest that this biomaterial may be used as biomimetic system.

  6. Improvement of the oxidation stability of cobalt nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celin Dobbrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the resistance of cobalt nanoparticles to oxidation in air, the impact of different stabilization strategies on the isothermal oxidation of particle dispersions and powders was kinetically investigated and compared to as-prepared particle preparations. A post-synthesis treatment with different alcohols was employed, and we also investigate the influence of two different polymer shells on the oxidation process. We found a parabolic decrease of the magnetization for all particle charges, indicating that the process is dominated by a diffusion of oxygen to the cobalt core and a radial growth of the oxide layer from the particle surface to the core. A significant deceleration of the oxidation process was observed for all alcohol-passivated particle preparations, and this resulted finally in a stagnation effect. The stabilizing effect increases in the sequence Co@OA/MeOH < Co@OA/EtOH < Co@OA/iPrOH. For polymer-coated particle preparations Co@PCL and Co@PS, the deceleration was even more pronounced. The results demonstrate that cobalt nanoparticles can effectively be protected against oxidation in order to improve their mid- to longterm stability.

  7. The effect of coating on heat generation properties of Iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention for their potential application as heating agents in cancer hyperthermia. The effectiveness of cancer hyperthermia can be increased by using particles that have a higher heat generation rate, quantified by specific absorption rate (SAR), at a smaller applied field. In order to optimize the functionality of nanoparticles as heating agents, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of factors that may influence SAR including coating and aggregation. In all biomedical applications, the magnetic particles are coated with surfactants and polymers to enhance biocompatibility, prevent agglomeration and add functionality. Coatings may profoundly influence particles' clustering behavior and magnetic properties. Yet its effect on the heat generation rate of the nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this context, a systematic investigation was carried out in this dissertation in order to understand the impact of the surface coating of magnetic nanoparticles on their heat generation rate. The study also includes investigation of normal nerve cell viability in presence of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles with and without exposure to magnetic heating. Commercially available suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 10 nm and different coatings relevant to biomedical applications such as aminosilane, carboxymethyl-dextran, protein A, biotin were extensively characterized. First of all, magnetic phase reduction of magnetite nanoparticles was examined by studying the discrepancy between the volume fraction of magnetic phase calculated from magnetization curve and the magnetic core concentration obtained from Tiron chelation test. The findings indicated that coatings might interact with the surface atoms of the magnetic core and form a magnetically disordered layer reducing the total amount of the magnetic phase. Secondly, the impact of coating and aggregation

  8. Synergistic Effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Fatty Acids on Toxicity to Caco-2 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Kermanizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The ZnO NPs exposure concentration dependently induced cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells showing as reduced proliferation and activity measured by 3 different assays. PA exposure induced cytotoxicity, and coexposure to ZnO NPs and PA showed the largest cytotoxic effects. The presence......Fatty acids exposure may increase sensitivity of intestinal epithelial cells to cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs). This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ZnO NPs and palmitic acid (PA) or free fatty acids (FFAs) mixture (oleic/PA 2:1) on toxicity to human colon...

  9. Effects of silver nanoparticles to soil invertebrates: Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Susana I.L.; Hansen, Ditte; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.; Amorim, Mónica J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most produced NPs worldwide having several applications in consumer products. Ag-NPs are known to cause oxidative stress in several organisms and cell lines, however comparatively less information is available regarding their effects on soil living invertebrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Ag-NPs cause oxidative stress on soil invertebrates. The model soil species Eisenia fetida was used. Our results showed that total glutathione (TG) is the first mechanism triggered by Ag-NPs, followed by glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), however oxidative damage was observed for higher doses and exposure time (increased lipid peroxidation, LPO). AgNO 3 exposure caused impairment in GPx and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), probably as result of the higher bioavailability of Ag in the salt-form. The current results indicate that effects are partly caused by Ag ions released from Ag-NPs, but specific particle effects cannot be excluded. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress of Ag-NPs and AgNO 3 was assessed in Eisenia fetida. • Both Ag forms induced oxidative damage (LPO) via different mechanisms. • Ag-NPs activated total glutathione, followed by GPx and GR. • AgNO 3 impaired GPx and GST. • Overall results indicated effects from Ag ionization and NPs specific effects. - Oxidative stress to Ag in Eisenia fetida occurs via different mechanisms for Ag nanoparticles and AgNO 3

  10. Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrolysis Reaction of Ethylene Glycol Solution of Alkoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uekawa, N.; Endo, N.; Ishii, K.; Kojima, T.; Kakegawa, K.

    2012-01-01

    Transparent and stable sols of titanium oxide nanoparticles were obtained by heating a mixture of ethylene glycol solution of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TIP) and a NH 3 aqueous solution at 368 K for 24 h. The concentration of NH 3 aqueous solution affected the structure of the obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles. For NH 3 aqueous solution concentrations higher than 0.2 mol/L, a mixture of anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles and layered titanic acid nanoparticles was obtained. The obtained sol was very stable without formation of aggregated precipitates and gels. Coordination of ethylene glycol to Ti4+ ions inhibited the rapid hydrolysis reaction and aggregation of the obtained nanoparticles. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles had a large specific surface area: larger than 350 m2/g. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles showed an enhanced adsorption towards the cationic dye molecules. The selective adsorption corresponded to presence of layered titanic acid on the obtained anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  11. Tuning the reactivity of Ru nanoparticles by defect engineering of the reduced graphene oxide support

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin; Sui, Yanhui; Meng, Changgong; Han, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We systematically investigated the electronic structure of Ru nanoparticles supported on various local structures on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by first-principles-based calculations. We showed that Ru nanoparticles prefer to nucleate

  12. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of protein–SPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  13. Transcriptome Changes in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Induced by Exposure to Diesel Emissions Generated with CeO2 Nanoparticle Fuel Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    When cerium oxide nanoparticles are added to diesel fuel, fuel burning efficiency increases, producing emissions (DECe) with characteristics that differ from conventional diesel exhaust (DE). It has previously been shown that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects in rats on...

  14. Photoluminescent polysaccharide-coated germanium(IV) oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobaz, Volodymyr; Rabyk, Mariia; Pánek, Jiří; Doris, E.; Nallet, F.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 7 (2016), s. 1225-1235 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14FR027; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08336S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : germanium oxide nanoparticles * polysaccharide coating * photoluminescent label Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  15. Synthesis and Oxidation of Silver Nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solution (20%wt propyl alcohol, 5%wt hydrochloric acid and 5%wt stannous chloride in water). Scheme 1b and c illustrate the sensitization and silver... Synthesis and Oxidation of Silver Nano-particles Hua Qi*, D. A. Alexson, O.J. Glembocki and S. M. Prokes* Electronics Science and Technology...energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) techniques. The results Quantum Dots and Nanostructures: Synthesis , Characterization, and Modeling VIII, edited by Kurt

  16. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized inside highly ordered ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanosized iron oxide, a moderately large band-gap semiconductor and an essential component of optoelectrical and magnetic devices, has been prepared successfully inside the restricted internal pores of mesoporous silica material through in-situ reduction during impregnation. The samples were characterized by ...

  17. Ciprofloxacin conjugated zinc oxide nanoparticle: A camouflage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZNP were small in size with particle size distribution 18–20 nm as obtained ... of zinc oxide and ciprofloxacin is effective against bacterial system. However, no reports are still available on antibacte- ... 20% aqueous TRIS solution was added drop wise to 25 ml .... Phillips CM 200 (Netherlands) at an operational voltage of.

  18. Identification of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food products: induce intracellular oxidative stress mediated by TNF and CYP1A genes in human lung fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Al-Hadi, Ahmed M; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    Food grade TiO2 (E171) is a synthetic additive, and widely used as a coloring agent in many foods, pharmaceutical and personal care products. A few reports have highlighted that insoluble particulates (less than 200nm) of food grade TiO2 are found in many foods and confectionary products. However, information regarding the physico-chemical properties (i.e., size and shape)-based food grade TiO2 nanotoxicity related human health issues are limited. The main goal of this study is to examine the presence of nano-sized particulates and its structural characteristics of food grade- TiO2 materials and to assess the acute cellular uptake and metabolic stress induced by these particulates in human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells. The results of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies indicated that about food grade TiO2 sample contains spherical shaped particulate forms in the nano-scale range, S>G0/G1) and changes in the TNF and CYP1A gene expression pattern are linked to cellular stress. Thus, food grade TiO2 as nano-scaled contaminants could not only be potential human health risk factors, suggesting that safety considerations with special respect to a few crucial factors such as size, and shape should be considered and regulated by food regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  20. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  1. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  2. Contrast agents for MRI based on iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M.P. E-mail: puerto@icmm.csic.es; Bomati-Miguel, O.; Perez de Alejo, R.; Ruiz-Cabello, J.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; O' Grady, K

    2003-10-01

    Colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles with application as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging have been prepared by coating iron oxide nanoparticles with dextran. The particles were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl vapors. By adjusting the experimental conditions, the particle and crystal size of the iron oxide nanoparticles were varied in the range 2-7 nm with a very narrow size distribution. The suspensions consisted of dextran-coated nanoparticle aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of around 50 nm and unimodal size distributions. It was observed that an important enhancement of the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the suspensions (saturation magnetization and susceptibility values) takes place as the particle and the crystallite size increases. Consequently, the {sup 1}H NMR relaxation times of the suspensions, characterized by the longitudinal (R{sub 1}) and transversal (R{sub 2}) relaxation rates, also increase with the crystal order. This effect was more pronounced for the values of R{sub 2}. The mechanism of MRI enhancement appears to be related to water protons diffusing within the inhomogeneous magnetic field created by the magnetic clusters. The global structure of the cluster, the anisotropy and the magnetic field around it are important factors affecting the value of R{sub 2}.

  3. Contrast agents for MRI based on iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, M.P.; Bomati-Miguel, O.; Perez de Alejo, R.; Ruiz-Cabello, J.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S.; O'Grady, K.

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles with application as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging have been prepared by coating iron oxide nanoparticles with dextran. The particles were prepared by laser-induced pyrolysis of iron pentacarbonyl vapors. By adjusting the experimental conditions, the particle and crystal size of the iron oxide nanoparticles were varied in the range 2-7 nm with a very narrow size distribution. The suspensions consisted of dextran-coated nanoparticle aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of around 50 nm and unimodal size distributions. It was observed that an important enhancement of the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles and the suspensions (saturation magnetization and susceptibility values) takes place as the particle and the crystallite size increases. Consequently, the 1 H NMR relaxation times of the suspensions, characterized by the longitudinal (R 1 ) and transversal (R 2 ) relaxation rates, also increase with the crystal order. This effect was more pronounced for the values of R 2 . The mechanism of MRI enhancement appears to be related to water protons diffusing within the inhomogeneous magnetic field created by the magnetic clusters. The global structure of the cluster, the anisotropy and the magnetic field around it are important factors affecting the value of R 2

  4. Viscous properties of aluminum oxide nanotubes and aluminium oxide nanoparticles - silicone oil suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ram; French, Steven; Delgado, Adrian; Ramos, Carlos; Gutierrez, Jose; Chipara, Mircea; Lozano, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids consisting of γ-aluminum oxide nanotubes and γ-aluminum oxide nanoparticles dispersed within silicone oil were prepared. The relationship between shear stress and shear rate was measured and theoretically simulated by using an extended Bingham model for both the rheological and electrorheological features of these systems. Shear stress and viscosity showed a sharp increase for the aluminum oxide nanotubes suspensions subjected to applied electric fields whereas aluminum oxide nanoparticles suspensions showed a moderate change. It was found that the transition from liquid to solid state (mediated by the applied electric field) can be described by a power law and that for low applied voltages the relationship is almost linear.

  5. Room-temperature solution synthesis of Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowires and their catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Wenjun; Huang Huandi; Zhu Yanjun; Li Xiaoyun; Wang Xuebin; Li Chaorong; Chen Benyong; Wang Ge; Shi Zhan

    2012-01-01

    A simple chemical solution route for the synthesis of large-scale high-quality Ag nanoparticle functionalized molybdenum oxide nanowire at room temperature has been developed. In the synthesis, the protonated amine was intercalated into the molybdenum bronze layers to reduce the electrostatic force of the lamellar structures, and then the Ag nanoparticle functionalized long nanowires could be easily induced by a redox reaction between a molybdenum oxide–amine intermediate and Ag + at room temperature. The intercalation lamellar structures improved the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles, with the result that uniform Ag nanoparticles occurred on the surface of the MoO 3 nanowire. In this way Ag nanoparticles with average sizes of around 6 nm, and high-purity nanowires with mean diameter of around 50 nm and with typical lengths of several tens to hundreds of micrometers were produced. The heteronanostructured nanowires were intricately and inseparably connected to each other with hydrogen bonds and/or bridge oxygen atoms and packed together, forming a paper-like porous network film. The Ag–MoO 3 nanowire film performs a promoted catalytic property for the epoxidation of cis-cyclooctene, and the heteronanostructured nanowire film sensor shows excellent sensing performance to hydrogen and oxygen at room temperature. (paper)

  6. Magnetic properties of Fe-oxide and (Fe, Co) oxide nanoparticles synthesized in polystyrene resin matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, D.; Kroll, E.; Tsoi, G. M.; Vaishnava, P. P.; Naik, R.; Wenger, L. E.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Naik, V. M.; Boolchand, P.

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have potential applications ranging from drug delivery and imaging in the medical field to sensing and memory storage in technology. The preparation, structure, and physical properties of iron oxide-based nanoparticles synthesized by ion exchange in a polystyrene resin matrix have been investigated. Employing a synthesis method developed originally by Ziolo, et. al^1, nanoparticles were prepared in a sulfonated divinyl benzene polystyrene resin matrix using various aqueous solutions of (1) FeCl_2, (2) FeCl_3, (3) FeCl2 : 2FeCl3 , (4) 9FeCl2 : CoCl_2, and (5) 4FeCl2 : CoCl_2. Powder x-ray diffraction measurements were used to identify the phases present while transmission electron microscopy was used for particle size distribution determinations. SQUID magnetization measurements (field-cooled and zero-field-cooled) and Fe^57 Mössbauer effect measurements indicate the presence of ferromagnetic iron oxide phases and a superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperatures (T_B) varying from 50 K to room temperature. Nanoparticles synthesized using a stoichiometric mixture of FeCl2 and FeCl3 exhibit the lowest TB and smallest particle size distribution. The Mössbauer effect measurements have also been used to identify the iron oxides phases present and their relative amounts in the nanoparticles ^1R.F. Ziolo, et al., Science 207, 219 (1992). *Permanent address: Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504

  7. Environment friendly route of iron oxide nanoparticles from Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew

    2016-11-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.

  8. Ultrastructural Analysis of Human Breast Cancer Cells during Their Overtime Interaction with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    AlAbbadi, Shatha H.

    2016-12-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles have been proposed as an anticancer agent, thanks to their ability of tuning the redox activity in accordance to different conditions, which lead to selective roles on healthy and cancer cells. Recent evidence suggested the ability of these nanoparticles to be toxic against cancer cells, while confer protection from oxidative stress, toward healthy cells. The main focus of this study was to determine the ultrastructural effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles over multiple incubation time of 1, 3, and 7 days on breast healthy and cancer cells. Cellular characterizations were carried out using electron microscopes, both transmission and scanning electron microscopes, while the viability assessments were performed by propidium iodide and trypan blue viability assays. The obtained results of the viability assays and electron microscopy suggested higher toxic effects on the cancer cell line viability by using a nanoceria dose of 300 μg/mL after 1 day of treatment. Such effects were shown to be preserved at 3 days, and in a longer time point of 7 days. On the contrary, the healthy cells underwent less effects on their viability at time point of 1 and 7 days. The 3 days treatment demonstrated a reduction on the number of cells that did not correlate with an increase of the dead cells, which suggested a possible initial decrease of the cell growth rate, which could be due to the high intracellular loading of nanoparticles. To conclude, the overall result of this experiment suggested that 300 μg/mL of CeO2 nanoparticles is the most suitable dose, within the range and the time point tested, which induces long-lasting cytotoxic effects in breast cancer cells, without harming the normal cells, as highlighted by the viability assays and ultrastructural characterization of electron microscopy analysis.

  9. Nanostructured Metal Oxides And Mixed Metal Oxides, Methods Of Making These Nanoparticles, And Methods Of Their Use

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2013-04-11

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for nanoparticles, methods of making nanoparticles, methods of using the nanoparticles, and the like. Nanoparticles of the present disclosure can have a variety of morphologies, which may lead to their use in a variety of technologies and processes. Nanoparticles of the present may be used in sensors, optics, mechanics, circuits, and the like. In addition, nanoparticles of the present disclosure may be used in catalytic reactions, for CO oxidation, as super-capacitors, in hydrogen storage, and the like.

  10. Nanostructured Metal Oxides And Mixed Metal Oxides, Methods Of Making These Nanoparticles, And Methods Of Their Use

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Fihri, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for nanoparticles, methods of making nanoparticles, methods of using the nanoparticles, and the like. Nanoparticles of the present disclosure can have a variety of morphologies, which may lead to their use in a variety of technologies and processes. Nanoparticles of the present may be used in sensors, optics, mechanics, circuits, and the like. In addition, nanoparticles of the present disclosure may be used in catalytic reactions, for CO oxidation, as super-capacitors, in hydrogen storage, and the like.

  11. The Green Synthesis and Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebear-Eigzabher, Bellsabel

    Nanoparticle (NP) research has received exceptional attention as the field of study that contributes to transforming the world of materials science. When implementing NPs in consumer and industrial products, their unique properties improve technologies to the extent of significant game-changing breakthroughs. Conversely, the increased production of NPs, their use, their disposal or inadvertent release in the environment drove the need for processes and policies that ensures consumer and environmental safety. Mitigation of any harmful effects that NPs could potentially have combines methods of safe preparation, safe handling and safe disposal as well as containment of any inadvertent release. Our focus is in safe preparation of nanomaterials and we report green and energy efficient synthesis methods for metal NPs and metal oxide NPs of two popular materials: silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO). The thesis explained: 1) The impact of NPs in nowadays' world; 2) Synthesis methods that were designed to include environmentally-friendly staring materials and energy-saving fabrication processes, with emphasis on maintaining NPs final size and morphology when compared with existing methods; and 3) Nanoparticles characterization and data collection which allowed us to determine and/or validate their properties. Nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-voltage (5 keV) transmission electron microscopy (LV EM 5), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. We developed an aqueous-based preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using microwave-assisted chemistry to render a well-controlled particle size distribution within each set of reaction conditions in the range of 15 nm to 75 nm. We developed a scalable silver nanoparticles synthesis by chemical reduction methods. The NPs could be used in consumer products. The measurement tools for consumer products

  12. Mucin secretion induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Y T Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NP exposure has been closely associated with the exacerbation and pathophysiology of many respiratory diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and asthma. Mucus hypersecretion and accumulation in the airway are major clinical manifestations commonly found in these diseases. Among a broad spectrum of NPs, titanium dioxide (TiO(2, one of the PM10 components, is widely utilized in the nanoindustry for manufacturing and processing of various commercial products. Although TiO(2 NPs have been shown to induce cellular nanotoxicity and emphysema-like symptoms, whether TiO(2 NPs can directly induce mucus secretion from airway cells is currently unknown. Herein, we showed that TiO(2 NPs (<75 nm can directly stimulate mucin secretion from human bronchial ChaGo-K1 epithelial cells via a Ca(2+ signaling mediated pathway. The amount of mucin secreted was quantified with enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA. The corresponding changes in cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration were monitored with Rhod-2, a fluorescent Ca(2+ dye. We found that TiO(2 NP-evoked mucin secretion was a function of increasing intracellular Ca(2+ concentration resulting from an extracellular Ca(2+ influx via membrane Ca(2+ channels and cytosolic ER Ca(2+ release. The calcium-induced calcium release (CICR mechanism played a major role in further amplifying the intracellular Ca(2+ signal and in sustaining a cytosolic Ca(2+ increase. This study provides a potential mechanistic link between airborne NPs and the pathoetiology of pulmonary diseases involving mucus hypersecretion.

  13. Mechanism of solid-state plasma-induced dewetting for formation of copper and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Ho; Choe, Han Joo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook; Lee, Jung-Joong

    2013-09-01

    Cu and Au nanoparticles were fabricated by plasma treatment on Cu and Au films at 653 K. The nanoparticles were formed by dewetting the metallic films using plasma. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations showed that the plasma-induced dewetting of the Cu and Au films proceeded through heterogeneous hole nucleation and growth along the grain boundaries to lower the surface energy. The amount of energy transferred to surface atoms by one Ar ion was calculated to be 16.1 eV, which was sufficient for displacing Cu and Au atoms. Compared to thermally activated dewetting, more uniform particles could be obtained by plasma-induced dewetting because a much larger number of holes with smaller sizes was generated. The plasma dewetting process is less sensitive to the oxidation of metallic films compared to the annealing process. As a result, Cu nanoparticles could be fabricated at 653 K, whereas the thermally activated dewetting was not possible.

  14. Spatial Manipulation and Assembly of Nanoparticles by Atomic Force Microscopy Tip-Induced Dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peilin; Yu, Haibo; Yang, Wenguang; Wen, Yangdong; Wang, Zhidong; Li, Wen Jung; Liu, Lianqing

    2017-05-17

    In this article, we present a novel method of spatial manipulation and assembly of nanoparticles via atomic force microscopy tip-induced dielectrophoresis (AFM-DEP). This method combines the high-accuracy positioning of AFM with the parallel manipulation of DEP. A spatially nonuniform electric field is induced by applying an alternating current (AC) voltage between the conductive AFM probe and an indium tin oxide glass substrate. The AFM probe acted as a movable DEP tweezer for nanomanipulation and assembly of nanoparticles. The mechanism of AFM-DEP was analyzed by numerical simulation. The effects of solution depth, gap distance, AC voltage, solution concentration, and duration time were experimentally studied and optimized. Arrays of 200 nm polystyrene nanoparticles were assembled into various nanostructures, including lines, ellipsoids, and arrays of dots. The sizes and shapes of the assembled structures were controllable. It was thus demonstrated that AFM-DEP is a flexible and powerful tool for nanomanipulation.

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and monocytes: Impact of size, charge and solubility on activation status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prach, Morag; Stone, Vicki; Proudfoot, Lorna

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particle induced cytotoxicity was dependent on size, charge and solubility, factors which at sublethal concentrations may influence the activation of the human monocytic cell line THP1. ZnO nanoparticles (NP; average diameter 70 nm) were more toxic than the bulk form ( 2+ ion with protein. This association with protein may influence interaction of the ZnO particles and NP with THP1 cells. After 24 h exposure to the ZnO particles and NP at sublethal concentrations there was little effect on immunological markers of inflammation such as HLA DR and CD14, although they may induce a modest increase in the adhesion molecule CD11b. The cytokine TNFα is normally associated with proinflammatory immune responses but was not induced by the ZnO particles and NP. There was also no effect on LPS stimulated TNFα production. These results suggest that ZnO particles and NP do not have a classical proinflammatory effect on THP1 cells. -- Highlights: ► ZnO is cytotoxic to THP-1 monocytes. ► ZnO nanoparticles are more toxic than the bulk form. ► Positive charge enhances ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity. ► Sublethal doses of ZnO particles do not induce classical proinflammatory markers.

  16. Gold nanoparticle catalyzed oxidation of alcohols - From biomass to commodity chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus H.

    2007-01-01

    and glycerol are rich in alcohol functionalities. Thus, a key step in utilizing these resources lies in the conversion of this functional group. Benign oxidations involving oxygen as the stoichiometric oxidant are important from both an environmental and economical perspective. Recently, it has become clear...... that supported gold nanoparticles are highly active catalysts for oxidizing alcohols and aldehydes using oxygen as the oxidant. This perspective will focus on the use of gold nanoparticles in the oxidation of renewables....

  17. Protective effect of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of NO on alleviating arsenic-induced oxidative damage in tall fescue leaves were investigated. Arsenic (25 M) treatment induced significantly accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and led to serious lipid peroxidation in tall fescue leaves and the application of 100 M SNP before arsenic stress resulted ...

  18. From iron coordination compounds to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various types, shapes and sizes of iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, preparation method and reaction conditions. The mixed valence trinuclear iron acetate, [Fe2IIIFeIIO(CH3COO6(H2O3]·2H2O (FeAc1, μ3-oxo trinuclear iron(III acetate, [Fe3O(CH3COO6(H2O3]NO3∙4H2O (FeAc2, iron furoate, [Fe3O(C4H3OCOO6(CH3OH3]NO3∙2CH3OH (FeF, iron chromium furoate, FeCr2O(C4H3OCOO6(CH3OH3]NO3∙2CH3OH (FeCrF, and an iron complex with an original macromolecular ligand (FePAZ were used as precursors for the corresponding oxide nanoparticles. Five series of nanoparticle samples were prepared employing either a classical thermal pathway (i.e., thermal decomposition in solution, solvothermal method, dry thermal decomposition/calcination or using a nonconventional energy source (i.e., microwave or ultrasonic treatment to convert precursors into iron oxides. The resulting materials were structurally characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared, Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The parameters were varied within each route to fine tune the size and shape of the formed nanoparticles.

  19. From iron coordination compounds to metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Mihail; Racles, Carmen; Tugui, Codrin; Stiubianu, George; Bele, Adrian; Sacarescu, Liviu; Timpu, Daniel; Cazacu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Various types, shapes and sizes of iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, preparation method and reaction conditions. The mixed valence trinuclear iron acetate, [Fe 2 III Fe II O(CH 3 COO) 6 (H 2 O) 3 ]·2H 2 O (FeAc1), μ 3 -oxo trinuclear iron(III) acetate, [Fe 3 O(CH 3 COO) 6 (H 2 O) 3 ]NO 3 ∙4H 2 O (FeAc2), iron furoate, [Fe 3 O(C 4 H 3 OCOO) 6 (CH 3 OH) 3 ]NO 3 ∙2CH 3 OH (FeF), iron chromium furoate, FeCr 2 O(C 4 H 3 OCOO) 6 (CH 3 OH) 3 ]NO 3 ∙2CH 3 OH (FeCrF), and an iron complex with an original macromolecular ligand (FePAZ) were used as precursors for the corresponding oxide nanoparticles. Five series of nanoparticle samples were prepared employing either a classical thermal pathway (i.e., thermal decomposition in solution, solvothermal method, dry thermal decomposition/calcination) or using a nonconventional energy source (i.e., microwave or ultrasonic treatment) to convert precursors into iron oxides. The resulting materials were structurally characterized by wide-angle X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared, Raman, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The parameters were varied within each route to fine tune the size and shape of the formed nanoparticles.

  20. Investigations of suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, S.; Vasanthakumari, R. [B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Polymer Nanotechnology Centre (India); Tsuzuki, Takuya [Australian National University, Research School of Engineering, College of Engineering and Computer Science (Australia); Rangarajan, Murali, E-mail: r-murali@cb.amrita.edu [Amrita University, Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Green Technologies, Amrita School of Engineering Coimbatore (India)

    2016-09-15

    This study examines the suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, magnetic susceptibility, and saturation magnetization over long time scales in dilute systems using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy. The effects of citric acid as a chelating agent and applied external magnetic field are also studied. UV–visible spectra are obtained at different times for citric-acid-stabilized nanoparticles dispersed in water, and the peak absorbance is tracked with time, in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields. It is seen that the nanoparticles sediment slowly even in the absence of chain formation, with the phenomenon occurring in two-to-three regimes for the systems studied. Sedimentation exhibits either exponential or power-law behavior of maximum absorbance with time. In the dilute dispersions studied, thermal dispersion is about two orders of magnitude stronger than van der Waals interactions, and chain formation is not easy. Yet, it is likely that local anisotropic structures of the nanoparticles form, through which the attractive interactions result in sedimentation. Citric acid gradually stabilizes the aggregating particles; after an initial faster sedimentation, electrostatic repulsion causes the particles to segregate, as observed by a linear increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles at long times. In the presence of magnetic field, stabilization effects are significantly reduced. It is seen that though the attractive force between the nanoparticles and the external field is smaller than Brownian forces, together with van der Waals interactions, these attractive forces likely act as directing agents facilitating sedimentation. This study demonstrates that aggregation-induced sedimentation of magnetic nanoparticles is likely to play a significant role in magnetic drug targeting even when the particles are stabilized with chelating agents.Graphical abstract.

  1. Investigations of suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, S.; Vasanthakumari, R.; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Rangarajan, Murali

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the suspension stability of iron oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, magnetic susceptibility, and saturation magnetization over long time scales in dilute systems using time-resolved UV–visible spectroscopy. The effects of citric acid as a chelating agent and applied external magnetic field are also studied. UV–visible spectra are obtained at different times for citric-acid-stabilized nanoparticles dispersed in water, and the peak absorbance is tracked with time, in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields. It is seen that the nanoparticles sediment slowly even in the absence of chain formation, with the phenomenon occurring in two-to-three regimes for the systems studied. Sedimentation exhibits either exponential or power-law behavior of maximum absorbance with time. In the dilute dispersions studied, thermal dispersion is about two orders of magnitude stronger than van der Waals interactions, and chain formation is not easy. Yet, it is likely that local anisotropic structures of the nanoparticles form, through which the attractive interactions result in sedimentation. Citric acid gradually stabilizes the aggregating particles; after an initial faster sedimentation, electrostatic repulsion causes the particles to segregate, as observed by a linear increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles at long times. In the presence of magnetic field, stabilization effects are significantly reduced. It is seen that though the attractive force between the nanoparticles and the external field is smaller than Brownian forces, together with van der Waals interactions, these attractive forces likely act as directing agents facilitating sedimentation. This study demonstrates that aggregation-induced sedimentation of magnetic nanoparticles is likely to play a significant role in magnetic drug targeting even when the particles are stabilized with chelating agents.Graphical abstract

  2. Radiation induced lipid oxidation in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snauwaert, F.; Tobback, P.; Maes, E.; Thyssen, J.

    1977-01-01

    Oxidative rancidity in herring and redfish was studied as a function of the applied irradiation dose, the storage time and storage temperature and the packaging conditions. - Measurements of the TBA (thiobarbituric acid) value and the peroxide value were used to evaluate the degree of oxidation of lipids, and were related with sensory scores. - Especially for the fatty fish species (herring) irradiation accelerated lipid oxidation and induced oxidative rancidity. Irradiation of vacuum-packed herring fillets and subsequent storage at +2 C seems to be an interesting process. For the experiments conducted on a semi-fatty fish (redfish), oxidative rancidity was never the limiting factor for organoleptic acceptability. (orig.) [de

  3. Synthesis of tungsten oxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles by radio frequency plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Usui, Tomoya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •RF plasma in water was used for nanoparticle synthesis. •Nanoparticles were produced from erosion of metallic electrode. •Rectangular and spherical tungsten oxide nanoparticles were produced. •No oxidations of the silver and gold spherical nanoparticles were produced. -- Abstract: A process for synthesis of nanoparticles using plasma in water generated by a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz is proposed. Tungsten oxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles were produced at 20 kPa through erosion of a metallic electrode exposed to plasma. Characterization of the produced nanoparticles was carried out by XRD, absorption spectrum, and TEM. The nanoparticle sizes were compared with those produced by a similar technique using plasma in liquid

  4. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom SooHyun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  5. Effect of charged deep states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the behavior of iron oxides nanoparticles deposited on its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmucova, Katarina; Weis, Martin; Nadazdy, Vojtech; Capek, Ignac; Satka, Alexander; Chitu, Livia; Cirak, Julius; Majkova, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett technique has been used for the deposition of ordered two-dimensional arrays of iron oxides (Fe 3 O 4 /Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles onto the photovoltaic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film. Electric field at the a-Si:H/iron oxides nanoparticles interface was directly in the electrochemical cell modified by light soaking and bias voltage (negative or positive) pretreatment resulting in the change of the dominant type of charged deep states in the a-Si:H layer. Induced reversible changes in the nanoparticle redox behavior have been observed. We suggest two possible explanations of the data obtained, both of them are needed to describe measured electrochemical signals. The first one consists in the electrocatalytical effect caused by the defect states (negatively or positively charged) in the a-Si:H layer. The second one consists in the possibility to manipulate the nanoparticle cores in the prepared structure immersed in aqueous solution via the laser irradiation under specific bias voltage. In this case, the nanoparticle cores are assumed to be covered with surface clusters of heterovalent complexes created onto the surface regions with prevailing ferrous or ferric valency. Immersed in the high viscosity surrounding composed of the wet organic nanoparticle envelope these cores are able to perform a field-assisted pivotal motion. The local electric field induced by the deep states in the a-Si:H layer stabilizes their 'orientation ordering' in an energetically favourable position

  6. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles: feasibility of MR imaging monitoring in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Faraj, Achraf; Gazeau, Florence; Wilhelm, Claire; Devue, Cécile; Guérin, Coralie L; Péchoux, Christine; Paradis, Valérie; Clément, Olivier; Boulanger, Chantal M; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    To assess the feasibility of loading iron oxide nanoparticles in endothelial microparticles (EMPs), thereby enabling their noninvasive monitoring with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in mice. Experiments were approved by the French Ministry of Agriculture. Endothelial cells, first labeled with anionic superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were stimulated to generate EMPs, carrying the nanoparticles in their inner compartment. C57BL/6 mice received an intravenous injection of nanoparticle-loaded EMPs, free nanoparticles, or the supernatant of nanoparticle-loaded EMPs. A 1-week follow-up was performed with a 4.7-T MR imaging device by using a gradient-echo sequence for imaging spleen, liver, and kidney and a radial very-short-echo time sequence for lung imaging. Comparisons were performed by using the Student t test. The signal intensity loss induced by nanoparticle-loaded EMPs or free nanoparticles was readily detected within 5 minutes after injection in the liver and spleen, with a more pronounced effect in the spleen for the magnetic EMPs. The kinetics of signal intensity attenuation differed for nanoparticle-loaded EMPs and free nanoparticles. No signal intensity changes were observed in mice injected with the supernatant of nanoparticle-loaded EMPs, confirming that cells had not released free nanoparticles, but only in association with EMPs. The results were confirmed by using Perls staining and immunofluorescence analysis. The strategy to generate EMPs with magnetic properties allowed noninvasive MR imaging assessment and follow-up of EMPs and opens perspectives for imaging the implications of these cellular vectors in diseases. © RSNA, 2012.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles: effects of chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phong A.; Nguyen, Hiep T.; Fox, Kate; Tran, Nhiem

    2018-03-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have significant potential in biomedical applications such as in diagnosis, imaging and therapeutic agent delivery. The choice of stabilizers and surface functionalization is important as it is known to strongly influence the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of surface charges on the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles. We used a co-precipitation method to synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles which were then stabilized with either chitosan (CS) or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which have net positive charge and zero charge at physiological pH, respectively. The nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, charges and chemical oxidation state. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was assessed using mouse fibroblast cells and was correlated with surface charges of the nanoparticles and their aggregation.

  8. Thermal processing and native oxidation of silicon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, Brandon J.; Holm, Jason; Roberts, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to investigate in-air oxidation of silicon nanoparticles ca. 11 nm in diameter. Particle samples were prepared first by extracting them from an RF plasma synthesis reactor, and then heating them in an inert carrier gas stream. The resulting particles had varying surface hydrogen coverages and relative amounts of SiH x (x = 1, 2, and 3), depending on the temperature to which they had been heated. The particles were allowed to oxidize in-air for several weeks. FTIR, XPS, and EELS analyses that were performed during this period clearly establish that adsorbed hydrogen retards oxidation, although in complex ways. In particular, particles that have been heated to intermediate hydrogen coverages oxidize more slowly in air than do freshly generated particles that have a much higher hydrogen content. In addition, the loss of surface hydride species at high processing temperatures results in fast initial oxidation and the formation of a self-limiting oxide layer. Analogous measurements made on deuterium-covered particles show broadly similar behavior; i.e., that oxidation is the slowest at some intermediate coverage of adsorbed deuterium.

  9. Comparison of the Pulmonary Oxidative Stress Caused by Intratracheal Instillation and Inhalation of NiO Nanoparticles when Equivalent Amounts of NiO Are Retained in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Horie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NiO nanoparticles were administered to rat lungs via intratracheal instillation or inhalation. During pulmonary toxicity caused by NiO nanoparticles, the induction of oxidative stress is a major factor. Both intratracheal instillation and inhalation of NiO nanoparticles induced pulmonary oxidative stress. The oxidative stress response protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, was induced by the administration of NiO nanoparticles at both the protein and gene expression level. Additionally, certain oxidative-stress markers in the lung, such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, thioredoxin, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloperoxidase (MPO in the lung was also increased by the administration of NiO nanoparticles. When the amount of NiO in the lung is similar, the responses against pulmonary oxidative stress of intratracheal instillation and inhalation are also similar. However, the state of pulmonary oxidative stress in the early phase was different between intratracheal instillation and inhalation, even if the amount of NiO in the lung was similar. Inhalation causes milder oxidative stress than that caused by intratracheal instillation. On evaluation of the nanoparticle-induced pulmonary oxidative stress in the early phase, we should understand the different states of oxidative stress induced by intratracheal instillation and inhalation.

  10. Synthesis Approaches of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: The Dilemma of Ecotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Naveed Ul Haq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human’s quest for innovation, finding solutions of problems, and upgrading the industrial yield with energy efficient and cost-effective materials has opened the avenues of nanotechnology. Among a variety of nanoparticles, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO have advantages because of the extraordinary physical and chemical properties. It is one of the cheap materials in cosmetic industry, nanofertilizers, and electrical devices and also a suitable agent for bioimaging and targeted drug and gene delivery and an excellent sensor for detecting ecological pollutants and environmental remediation. Despite inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, synthetic routes are making use of large amount of chemical and stringent reactions conditions that are contributing as environmental contaminants in the form of high energy consumption, heat generation, water consumption, and chemical waste. Further, it is also adding to the innate toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs that is either entirely ignored or poorly investigated. The current review illustrates a comparison between pollutants and hazards spawned from chemical, physical, and biological methods used for the synthesis of ZnO. Further, the emphasis is on devising eco-friendly techniques for the synthesis of ZnO especially biological methods which are comparatively less hazardous and need to be optimized by controlling the reaction conditions in order to get desired yield and characteristics.

  11. Effect of the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers on the magnetic properties of nanocomposite LbL assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Ilker; Tozkoparan, Onur; German, Sergey V.; Markin, Alexey V.; Yildirim, Oguz; Khomutov, Gennady B.; Gorin, Dmitry A.; Venig, Sergey B.; Elerman, Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous colloidal suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles has been synthesized. Z-potential of iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by citric acid was −35±3 mV. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been characterized by the light scattering method and transmission electron microscopy. The polyelectrolyte/iron oxide nanoparticle thin films with different numbers of iron oxide nanoparticle layers have been prepared on the surface of silicon substrates via the layer-by-layer assembly technique. The physical properties and chemical composition of nanocomposite thin films have been studied by atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, magnetization measurements, Raman spectroscopy. Using the analysis of experimental data it was established, that the magnetic properties of nanocomposite films depended on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers, the size of iron oxide nanoparticle aggregates, the distance between aggregates, and the chemical composition of iron oxide nanoparticles embedded into the nanocomposite films. The magnetic permeability of nanocomposite coatings has been calculated. The magnetic permeability values depend on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers in nanocomposite film. - Highlights: ► The magnetic properties of nanocomposite films depended on the number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers. ► The iron oxide nanoparticle phase in nanocomposite coatings is a mixture of magnetite and maghemite phases. ► The magnetite and maghemite phases depend on a number of iron oxide nanoparticle layers because the iron oxide nanoparticles are oxidized from magnetite to maghemite.

  12. Impacts of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Tony J.; Tyler, Charles R.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in products means many will inevitably find their way into marine systems. Their likely fate here is sedimentation following hetero-aggregation with natural organic matter and/or free anions, putting benthic, sediment-dwelling and filter feeding organisms most at risk. In marine systems, Me(O)NPs can absorb to micro-organisms with potential for trophic transfer following consumption. Filter feeders, especially bivalves, accumulate Me(O)NPs through trapping them in mucus prior to ingestion. Benthic in-fauna may directly ingest sedimented Me(O)NPs. In fish, uptake is principally via the gut following drinking, whilst Me(O)NPs caught in gill mucus may affect respiratory processes and ion transport. Currently, environmentally-realistic Me(O)NP concentrations are unlikely to cause significant adverse acute health problems, however sub-lethal effects e.g. oxidative stresses have been noted in many organisms, often deriving from dissolution of Ag, Cu or Zn ions, and this could result in chronic health impacts. -- Highlights: • Nanoparticle (NP) use increasing, and NPs ultimately discharged to marine systems. • Metal ion dissolution from NPs causes oxidative stress at relevant concentrations. • Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of NPs likely at all levels of marine food webs. • Biofilms and filter feeders are major NP accumulators, but many Classes lack study. • Current release levels unlikely to cause chronic damage, but may be a future issue. -- Exposure to metal (oxide) nanoparticles causes sub-lethal effects in marine organisms, the extent of which is related principally to the organisms' feeding regime, habitat and lifestyle

  13. Magnetic composites based on hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Tiago P.; Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Sasaki, Jose M.; Fabris, J.D.; Oliveira, Diana Q.L. de; Valentini, Antoninho

    2010-01-01

    Materials containing hybrid spheres of aluminum oxide and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of iron oxides were obtained from a chemical precursor prepared by admixing chitosan and iron and aluminum hydroxides. The oxides were first characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the size distribution of the resulting spheres to be highly homogeneous. The occurrence of nano-composites containing aluminum oxides and iron oxides was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction patterns; except for the sample with no aluminum, the superparamagnetic relaxation due to iron oxide particles were observed from Moessbauer spectra obtained at 298 and 110 K; the onset six line-spectrum collected at 20 K indicates a magnetic ordering related to the blocking relaxation effect for significant portion of small spheres in the sample with a molar ratio Al:Fe of 2:1.

  14. Limonia acidissima L. leaf mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles: A potent tool against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranath, Tarikere C; Patil, Bheemanagouda N

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles using Limonia acidissima L. and to test their efficacy against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed with UV-visible spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the presence of bio-molecules involved in the stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The shape and size was confirmed with atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscope. These nanoparticles were tested for their effect on the growth of M. tuberculosis through the microplate alamar blue assay technique. The UV-visible data reveal that an absorbance peak at 374nm confirms formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and they are spherical in shape with sizes between 12nm and 53nm. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis at 12.5μg/mL. Phytosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles is a green, eco-friendly technology because it is inexpensive and pollution free. In the present investigation, based on our results we conclude that the aqueous extract of leaves of L. acidissima can be used for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles control the growth of M. tuberculosis and this was confirmed with the microplate alamar blue method. The potential of biogenic zinc oxide nanoparticles may be harnessed as a novel medicine ingredient to combat tuberculosis disease. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure of Oxide Nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr MA/ODS Ferritic Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiung, L; Fluss, M; Kimura, A

    2010-04-06

    Oxide nanoparticles in Fe-16Cr ODS ferritic steel fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) method have been examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. A partial crystallization of oxide nanoparticles was frequently observed in as-fabricated ODS steel. The crystal structure of crystalline oxide particles is identified to be mainly Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) with a monoclinic structure. Large nanoparticles with a diameter larger than 20 nm tend to be incoherent and have a nearly spherical shape, whereas small nanoparticles with a diameter smaller than 10 nm tend to be coherent or semi-coherent and have faceted boundaries. The oxide nanoparticles become fully crystallized after prolonged annealing at 900 C. These results lead us to propose a three-stage formation mechanism of oxide nanoparticles in MA/ODS steels.

  16. Improving the oxidation resistance and stability of Ag nanoparticles by coating with multilayered reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahui; Zhang, Huayu; Wu, Bowen; Guo, Zhuo

    2017-12-01

    A kind of coating nanostructure, Ag nanoparticles coated with multilayered reduced graphene oxide (RGO), is fabricated by employing a three-step reduction method in an orderly manner, which is significantly different from the conventional structures that are simply depositing or doping with Ag nanoparticles on RGO via chemical reduction. The as-prepared nanostructure is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electronic diffraction (SEAD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that the obtained Ag/RGO nanostructure is observed to be a perfect coating structure with well dispersed Ag particles, which is responsible for the remarkable oxidation resistance. The results of XPS spectra indicate the content of metallic Ag is far greater than that of Ag oxides despite of prolonged exposure to the air, which fully demonstrate the excellent stability of thus coating nanostructure.

  17. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Capelle, Martinus [Crucell, P.O. Box 2048, NL-2301 Leiden (Netherlands); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.

  18. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL and Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes

  19. Laser induced synthesis of nanoparticles in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, P.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Simakin, A.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shafeev, G.A. [Wave Research Center, General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov street, 117942 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: shafeev@kapella.gpi.ru

    2006-04-30

    The review of results on nanoparticles formation is presented under laser ablation of Ag, Au, and Cu-containing solid targets in liquid environments (H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}, etc.). X-ray diffractometry (XRD), UV-vis optical transmission spectrometry, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterize the nanoparticles. The morphology of nanoparticles is studied as the function of both laser fluence and nature of the liquid. The possibility to control the shape of nanoparticles by ablation of an Au target by an interference pattern of two laser beams is demonstrated. Formation of alloyed Au-Ag and Ag-Cu nanoparticles is reported under laser exposure of a mixture of individual nanoparticles. The effect of internal segregation of brass nanoparticles is discussed due to their small lateral dimensions. The factors are discussed that determine the distribution function of particles size under laser ablation. The influence of laser parameters as well as the nature on the liquid on the properties of nanoparticles is elucidated.

  20. AC plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium with zirconia nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabal, R.; Matykina, E.; Viejo, F.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Merino, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of monoclinic zirconia nanoparticles and their subsequent transformation is examined for coatings formed on magnesium by plasma electrolytic oxidation under AC conditions in silicate electrolyte. The coatings are shown to comprise two main layers, with nanoparticles entering the coating at the coating surface and through short-circuit paths to the region of the interface between the inner and outer coating layers. Under local heating of microdischarges, the zirconia reacts with magnesium species to form Mg 2 Zr 5 O 12 in the outer coating layer. Relatively little zirconium is present in the inner coating layer. In contrast, silicon species are present in both coating layers, with reduced amounts in the inner layer

  1. Green approach for fabrication and applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in everyday applications. This study aims to fabricate ZnO-NPs using grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extract with particle size ranging from 12 to 72 nm. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, TEM, DLS, and FTIR analysis. They show the significant photocatalytic degradation efficiency (>56%, 10 mg/L, 6 h) against methylene blue and antioxidant efficacy (≥80% for 1.2 mM) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. From the results obtained it is suggested that green ZnO-NPs could be used effectively in environmental safety applications and also can address future medical concerns.

  2. Safety assessment of silica and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An SSA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Soo A An,1 Meyoung-Kon Kim2 1Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, KoreaThe current volume is a special issue focusing on a safety assessment of nanoparticles, from their physicochemical properties to government regulations. It features twenty-five papers, discussing general issues with the possible harmfulness of two different types of nanoparticles (NPs; silica (SiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO. Six papers describe detailed analyses from 90-day repeated administrations of NPs, and finally there is a series of technical reports, formatted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP, dealing with safety issues regarding international cooperation with the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN.

  3. Iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia and chemotherapy cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, A. A.; Giustini, A. J.; Ryan, P.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    The benefit of combining hyperthermia and chemotherapy to treat cancer is well established. However, combined therapy has not yet achieved standard of care status. The reasons are numerous and varied, however the lack of significantly greater tumor cell sensitivity to heat (as compared to normal cells) and the inability to deliver heat to the tumor in a precise manner have been major factors. Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) hyperthermia, alone and combined with other modalities, offers a new direction in hyperthermia cancer therapy via improved tumor targeting and an improved therapeutic ratio. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated tumor cell cytotoxicity (in vitro and in vivo) with IONP heat and cisplatinum (CDDP) doses lower than those necessary when using conventional heating techniques or cisplatinum alone. Ongoing studies suggest such treatment could be further improved through the use of targeted nanoparticles.

  4. Vacancy-Mediated Magnetism in Pure Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetism (RTF) is observed in pure copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles which were prepared by precipitation method with the post-annealing in air without any ferromagnetic dopant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) result indicates that the mixture valence states of Cu1+ and Cu2+ ions exist at the surface of the particles. Vacuum annealing enhances the ferromagnetism (FM) of CuO nanoparticles, while oxygen atmosphere annealing reduces it. The origin of FM is suggested to the oxygen vacancies at the surface/or interface of the particles. Such a ferromagnet without the presence of any transition metal could be a very good option for a class of spintronics. PMID:20671775

  5. Oxide nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened steel: crystallographic structure and interface with ferrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    Oxide nanoparticles are quintessential for ensuring the extraordinary properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. In this study, the crystallographic structure of oxide nanoparticles, and their interface with the ferritic steel matrix in an Al-alloyed ODS steel, i.e. PM2000, were systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The majority of oxide nanoparticles were identified to be orthorhombic YAlO3. During hot consolidation and extrusion, they develop a coherent interface and a near cuboid-on-cube orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix in the material. After annealing at 1200 °C for 1 h, however, the orientation relationship between the oxide nanoparticles and the matrix becomes arbitrary, and their interface mostly incoherent. Annealing at 1300 °C leads to considerable coarsening of oxide nanoparticles, and a new orientation relationship of pseudo-cube-on-cube between oxide nanoparticles and ferrite matrix develops. The reason for the developing interfaces and orientation relationships between oxide nanoparticles and ferrite matrix under different conditions is discussed.

  6. Mechanisms of carbon nanotube-induced toxicity: Focus on oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Pietroiusti, Antonio [Department of Biopathology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Fadeel, Bengt [Division of Molecular Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kagan, Valerian E. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Nanotechnologies are emerging as highly promising technologies in many sectors in the society. However, the increasing use of engineered nanomaterials also raises concerns about inadvertent exposure to these materials and the potential for adverse effects on human health and the environment. Despite several years of intensive investigations, a common paradigm for the understanding of nanoparticle-induced toxicity remains to be firmly established. Here, the so-called oxidative stress paradigm is scrutinized. Does oxidative stress represent a secondary event resulting inevitably from disruption of biochemical processes and the demise of the cell, or a specific, non-random event that plays a role in the induction of cellular damage e.g. apoptosis? The answer to this question will have important ramifications for the development of strategies for mitigation of adverse effects of nanoparticles. Recent examples of global lipidomics studies of nanoparticle-induced tissue damage are discussed along with proteomics and transcriptomics approaches to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the complex and interrelated molecular changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles. We also discuss instances of non-oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage resulting from direct physical interference of nanomaterials with cellular structures. -- Highlights: ► CNT induced non-random oxidative stress associated with apoptosis. ► Non-oxidative mechanisms for cellular toxicity of carbon nanotubes. ► Biodegradation of CNT by cells of innate immune system. ► “Omics”-based biomarkers of CNT exposures.

  7. Mechanisms of carbon nanotube-induced toxicity: Focus on oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvedova, Anna A.; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Fadeel, Bengt; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies are emerging as highly promising technologies in many sectors in the society. However, the increasing use of engineered nanomaterials also raises concerns about inadvertent exposure to these materials and the potential for adverse effects on human health and the environment. Despite several years of intensive investigations, a common paradigm for the understanding of nanoparticle-induced toxicity remains to be firmly established. Here, the so-called oxidative stress paradigm is scrutinized. Does oxidative stress represent a secondary event resulting inevitably from disruption of biochemical processes and the demise of the cell, or a specific, non-random event that plays a role in the induction of cellular damage e.g. apoptosis? The answer to this question will have important ramifications for the development of strategies for mitigation of adverse effects of nanoparticles. Recent examples of global lipidomics studies of nanoparticle-induced tissue damage are discussed along with proteomics and transcriptomics approaches to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the complex and interrelated molecular changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles. We also discuss instances of non-oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage resulting from direct physical interference of nanomaterials with cellular structures. -- Highlights: ► CNT induced non-random oxidative stress associated with apoptosis. ► Non-oxidative mechanisms for cellular toxicity of carbon nanotubes. ► Biodegradation of CNT by cells of innate immune system. ► “Omics”-based biomarkers of CNT exposures.

  8. Toxic Effects of Nickel Oxide Bulk and Nanoparticles on the Aquatic Plant Lemna gibba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Oukarroum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. was used to investigate and compare the toxicity induced by 30 nm nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs and nickel(II oxide as bulk (NiO-Bulk. Plants were exposed during 24 h to 0–1000 mg/L of NiO-NPs or NiO-Bulk. Analysis of physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles in solution indicated agglomerations of NiO-NPs in culture medium and a wide size distribution was observed. Both NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk caused a strong increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, especially at high concentration (1000 mg/L. These results showed a strong evidence of a cellular oxidative stress induction caused by the exposure to NiO. Under this condition, NiO-NPs and NiO-Bulk induced a strong inhibitory effect on the PSII quantum yield, indicating an alteration of the photosynthetic electron transport performance. Under the experimental conditions used, it is clear that the observed toxicity impact was mainly due to NiO particles effect. Therefore, results of this study permitted determining the use of ROS production as an early biomarker of NiO exposure on the aquatic plant model L. gibba used in toxicity testing.

  9. Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Sorghum Plant Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, L.; Chen, Y.; Darnault, C. J. G.; Rauh, B.; Kresovich, S.; Korte, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are considered as the development of the modern science. However, besides with that wide application, nanoparticles arouse to the side effects on the environment and human health. As the catalyst of ceramics and fuel industry, Cerium (IV) oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) can be found in the environment following their use and life-cycle. Therefore, it is critical to assess the potential effects that CeO2 NPs found in soils may have on plants. In this study, CeO2 NPs were analyzed for the potential influence on the sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (Reg. no. 126) (PI 154844) growth and traits. The objectives of this research were to determine whether CeO2 NPs impact the sorghum germination and growth characteristics. The sorghum was grown in the greenhouse located at Biosystems Research Complex, Clemson University under different CeO2 NPs treatments (0mg; 100mg; 500mg; 1000mg CeO2 NPs/Kg soil) and harvested around each month. At the end of the each growing period, above ground vegetative tissue was air-dried, ground to 2mm particle size and compositional traits estimated using near-infrared spectroscopy. Also, the NPK value of the sorghum tissue was tested by Clemson Agriculture Center. After the first harvest, the result showed that the height of above ground biomass under the nanoparticles stress was higher than that of control group. This difference between the control and the nanoparticles treatments was significant (F>F0.05; LSD). Our results also indicated that some of the compositional traits were impacted by the different treatments, including the presence and/or concentrations of the nanoparticles.

  10. Surface modification and functionalization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neouze, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Metal or metal oxide nanoparticles possess unique features compared to equivalent larger-scale materials. For applications, it is often necessary to stabilize or functionalize such nanoparticles. Thus, modification of the surface of nanoparticles is an important chemical challenge. In this survey,

  11. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Jinhao; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang; Xu, Bing

    2010-01-01

    nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X

  12. Synchrotron X-ray induced solution precipitation of nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H J; Hwu, Y; Tsai, W L

    2003-01-01

    By irradiating a solution in electroless Ni deposition using synchrotron X-rays, Ni composite was found to nucleate homogeneously and eventually precipitate in the form of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles precipitated is rather uniform (100-300 nm depending on the applied temperature). By the addition of an organic acid, well-dispersed nanoparticles could be effectively deposited on glass substrate. The hydrated electrons (e sub a sub q sup -), products of radiolysis of water molecules by synchrotron X-rays, may be responsible for the effective reduction of the metal ions, resulting in homogeneous nucleation and nanoparticle formation. Our results suggest that synchrotron X-ray can be used to induce solution precipitation of nanoparticles and therefore lead to a new method of producing nanostructured particles and coating.

  13. Thin porous indium tin oxide nanoparticle films: effects of annealing in vacuum and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederth, J.; Hultaaker, A.; Niklasson, G.A.; Granqvist, C.G.; Heszler, P.; Doorn, A.R. van; Jongerius, M.J.; Burgard, D.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties were investigated in porous thin films consisting of In 2 O 3 :Sn (indium tin oxide; ITO) nanoparticles. The temperature-dependent resistivity was successfully described by a fluctuation-induced tunneling model, indicating a sample morphology dominated by clusters of ITO nanoparticles separated by insulating barriers. An effective-medium model, including the effect of ionized impurity scattering, was successfully fitted to measured reflectance and transmittance. Post-deposition treatments were carried out at 773 K for 2 h in both air and vacuum. It is shown that vacuum annealing increases either the barrier width or the area between two conducting clusters in the samples and, furthermore, an extra optical absorption occurs close to the band gap. A subsequent air annealing then reduces the effect of the barriers on the electrical properties and diminishes the absorption close to the band gap. (orig.)

  14. Facile solid-state synthesis of oxidation-resistant metal nanoparticles at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Hyung; Jung, Hyuk Joon; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyungtae; Lee, Byeongno; Nam, Dohyun; Kim, Chung Man; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Hur, Nam Hwi

    2018-05-01

    A simple and scalable method for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in the solid-state was developed, which can produce nanoparticles in the absence of solvents. Nanoparticles of coinage metals were synthesized by grinding solid hydrazine and the metal precursors in their acetates and oxides at 25 °C. The silver and gold acetates converted completely within 6 min into Ag and Au nanoparticles, respectively, while complete conversion of the copper acetate to the Cu sub-micrometer particles took about 2 h. Metal oxide precursors were also converted into metal nanoparticles by grinding alone. The resulting particles exhibit distinctive crystalline lattice fringes, indicating the formation of highly crystalline phases. The Cu sub-micrometer particles are better resistant to oxidation and exhibit higher conductivity compared to conventional Cu nanoparticles. This solid-state method was also applied for the synthesis of platinum group metals and intermetallic Cu3Au, which can be further extended to synthesize other metal nanoparticles.

  15. Cetuximab-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tseng SH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Heng Tseng,1,2 Min-Yuan Chou,2 I-Ming Chu1 1Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 2Biomedical Technology and Device Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan Abstract: We have developed a theranostic nanoparticle, ie, cet-PEG-dexSPIONs, by conjugation of the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, to dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs via periodate oxidation. Approximately 31 antibody molecules were conjugated to each nanoparticle. Cet-PEG-dexSPIONs specifically bind to EGFR-expressing tumor cells and enhance image contrast on magnetic resonance imaging. Cet-PEG-dexSPION-treated A431 cells showed significant inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced EGFR phosphorylation and enhancement of EGFR internalization and degradation. In addition, a significant increase in apoptosis was detected in EGFR-overexpressing cell lines, A431 and 32D/EGFR, after 24 hours of incubation at 37°C with cet-PEG-dexSPIONs compared with cetuximab alone. The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of cetuximab was observed in cet-PEG-dexSPIONs. The results demonstrated that cet-PEG-dexSPIONs retained the therapeutic effect of cetuximab in addition to having the ability to target and image EGFR-expressing tumors. Cet-PEG-dexSPIONs represent a promising targeted magnetic probe for early detection and treatment of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, cetuximab, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle, magnetic resonance imaging, sodium periodate, polyethylene glycol

  16. Synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticle film by cathodic electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Lee, Hochun; Park, Chang Min; Jung, Yongju

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional SnO2 nanoparticle films were deposited onto a copper substrate by cathodic electrodeposition in a nitric acid solution. A new formation mechanism for SnO2 films is proposed based on the oxidation of Sn2+ ion to Sn4+ ion by NO+ ion and the hydrolysis of Sn4+. The particle size of SnO2 was controlled by deposition potential. The SnO2 showed excellent charge capacity (729 mAh/g) at a 0.2 C rate and high rate capability (460 mAh/g) at a 5 C rate.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Holmium-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Bloemen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth atoms exhibit several interesting properties, for example, large magnetic moments and luminescence. Introducing these atoms into a different matrix can lead to a material that shows multiple interesting effects. Holmium atoms were incorporated into an iron oxide nanoparticle and the concentration of the dopant atom was changed in order to determine its influence on the host crystal. Its magnetic and magneto-optical properties were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry and Faraday rotation measurements. The luminescent characteristics of the material, in solution and incorporated in a polymer thin film, were probed by fluorescence experiments.

  18. Synthesis and heating effect of iron/iron oxide composite and iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q; Baker, I; Loudis, J A; Liao, Y F; Hoopes, P J

    2007-02-09

    Fe/Fe oxide nanoparticles, in which the core consists of metallic Fe and the shell is composed of Fe oxides, were obtained by reduction of an aqueous solution of FeCl 3 within a NaBH 4 solution, or, using a water-in-oil micro-emulsion with CTAB as the surfactant. The reduction was performed either in an inert atmosphere or in air, and passivation with air was performed to produce the Fe/Fe 3 O 4 core/shell composite. Phase identification and particle size were determined by X-ray diffraction and TEM. Thermal analysis was performed using a differential scanning calorimeter. The quasistatic magnetic properties were measured using a VSM, and the specific absorption rates (SARs) of both Fe oxide and Fe/Fe 3 O 4 composite nanoparticles either dispersed in methanol or in an epoxy resin were measured by Luxtron fiber temperature sensors in an alternating magnetic field of 150 Oe at 250 kHz. It was found that the preparation conditions, including the concentrations of solutions, the mixing procedure and the heat treatment, influence the particle size, the crystal structure and consequently the magnetic properties of the particles. Compared with Fe oxides, the saturation magnetization ( M S ) of Fe/Fe 3 O 4 particles (100-190 emu/g) can be twice as high, and the coercivity ( H C ) can be tunable from several Oe to several hundred Oe. Hence, the SAR of Fe/Fe 3 O 4 composite nanoparticles can be much higher than that of Fe oxides, with a maximum SAR of 345 W/g. The heating behavior is related to the magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles.

  19. Highly Sensitive DNA Sensor Based on Upconversion Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Cristobal, P; Vilela, P; El-Sagheer, A; Lopez-Cabarcos, E; Brown, T; Muskens, O L; Rubio-Retama, J; Kanaras, A G

    2015-06-17

    In this work we demonstrate a DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO). Monodisperse NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 29.1 ± 2.2 nm were synthesized and coated with a SiO2 shell of 11 nm, which allowed the attachment of single strands of DNA. When these DNA-functionalized NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles were in the proximity of the GO surface, the π-π stacking interaction between the nucleobases of the DNA and the sp(2) carbons of the GO induced a FRET fluorescence quenching due to the overlap of the fluorescence emission of the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 and the absorption spectrum of GO. By contrast, in the presence of the complementary DNA strands, the hybridization leads to double-stranded DNA that does not interact with the GO surface, and thus the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles remain unquenched and fluorescent. The high sensitivity and specificity of this sensor introduces a new method for the detection of DNA with a detection limit of 5 pM.

  20. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: vkaswal@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  1. Chromium Elimination from Water by use of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Absorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shokraei

    2014-09-01

    Results: results showed that best absorbent is soil absorbent and iron oxide nanoparticles, with maximum removal percent equal to 96.2%. Also best turnover was obtained from 8837 ppm of primary concentration of heavy metal. In other hand, in other experiments that used from iron oxide nanoparticles, adding of nanoparticles caused to increase in chrome absorption and conversion of Cr6+ to Cr3+. Conclusion: with use of the results of this study can be said that Combining of iron oxide nanoparticles with chrome removal filters can be convert Cr6+ to Cr3+, and process turnover will increased.

  2. ICAM-1 targeted catalase encapsulated PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles against vascular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ece; Tunc-Sarisozen, Yeliz; Mutlu, Hulya; Shahbazi, Reza; Ucar, Gulberk; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2015-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics is the favourable idea, whereas it is possible to distribute the therapeutically active drug molecule only to the site of action. For this purpose, in this study, catalase encapsulated poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) nanoparticles were developed and an endothelial target molecule (anti-ICAM-1) was conjugated to this carrier system in order to decrease the oxidative stress level in the target site. According to the enzymatic activity results, initial catalase activity of nanoparticles was increased from 27.39 U/mg to up to 45.66 U/mg by adding 5 mg/mL bovine serum albumin (BSA). After 4 h, initial catalase activity was preserved up to 46.98% while free catalase retained less than 4% of its activity in proteolytic environment. Furthermore, FITC labelled anti-ICAM-1 targeted catalase encapsulated nanoparticles (anti-ICAM-1/CatNPs) were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells and concomitantly endothelial cells were resistant to H2O2 induced oxidative impairment.

  3. Electronic structure of nanoparticles of substoichometric hexagonal tungsten oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhun, O Y; Solonin, Y M

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods were used to study the electronic structure of hexagonal h-WO 3 and h-WO 2.8 nanoparticles. For comparison, nanopowder substoichiometric monoclinic tungsten oxides with close content of oxygen atoms, namely m-WO 3 and m-WO 2.77 compounds, were also investigated. For the mentioned oxides, XPS valence-band and corelevel spectra, XES O Kα bands and XAS W L III and O 1s edges were derived. The XPS valence-band spectra and O Kα emission bands in the mentioned hexagonal and monoclinic tungsten oxides were compared on a common energy scale. Both the O Kα bands and XPS valence-band spectra broaden somewhat in the sequences h-WO 3 → h-WO 2.8 and m-WO 3 → m-WO 2.77 , with the half-widths of the spectra being somewhat higher for the hexagonal oxides as compared with those for the monoclinic compounds. The effective positive charge state of tungsten atoms in h-WO 2.8 is very close to that in m-WO 2.77 , but the negative charge states of oxygen atoms are close to each other for all the tungsten oxides under consideration

  4. Examining mechanism of toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashock, Michael J.

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are an up and coming technology increasingly being used in industrial and consumer applications and thus may pose risk to humans and the environment. In the present study, the toxic effects of CuO NPs were studied with two model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. The role of released Cu ions during dissolution of CuO NPs in growth media were studied with freshly suspended, aged NPs, and the released Cu 2+ fraction. Exposures to the different Cu treatments showed significant inhibition of S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. Inhibition from the NPs was inversely proportional to size and was not fully explained by the released Cu ions. S. cerevisiae cultures grown under respiring conditions demonstrated greater metabolic sensitivity when exposed to CuO NPs compared to cultures undergoing fermentation. The cellular response to both CuO NPs and released Cu ions on gene expression was analyzed via microarray analysis after an acute exposure. It was observed that both copper exposures resulted in an increase in carbohydrate storage, a decrease in protein production, protein misfolding, increased membrane permeability, and cell cycle arrest. Cells exposed to NPs up-regulated genes related to oxidative phosphorylation but also may be inducing cell cycle arrest by a different mechanism than that observed with released Cu ions. The effect of CuO NPs on C. elegans was examined by using several toxicological endpoints. The CuO NPs displayed a more inhibitory effect, compared to copper sulfate, on nematode reproduction, feeding, and development. We investigated the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on neuronal health, a known tissue vulnerable to heavy metal toxicity. In transgenic C. eleganswith neurons expressing a green fluorescent protein reporter, neuronal degeneration was observed in up to 10% of the population after copper oxide nanoparticle exposure. Additionally, nematode

  5. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won; Lim, JitKang

    2014-01-01

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO 2 nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO 2 ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO 2 concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO 2 (5 g/L TiO 2 ) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO 2 (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO 2 /UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO 2 and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO 2 /UV-A

  6. Enhancing lipid productivity of Chlorella vulgaris using oxidative stress by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Lee, Bongsoo; Choi, Gang-Guk; Moon, Myounghoon; Park, Min S.; Yang, Ji-Won [Daejeon, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, JitKang [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Ability to increase the lipid production in microalgae is one of the heavily sought-after ideas to improve the economic feasibility of microalgae-derived transportation fuels for commercial applications. We used the oxidative stress by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, a well-known photocatalyst, to induce lipid production in microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 265 was cultivated under various concentrations of TiO{sub 2} ranging from 0.1 to 5 g/L under UV-A illumination. Maximum specific growth rate was affected in responding to TiO{sub 2} concentrations. In the presence of UV-A, chlorophyll concentration was decreased at the highest concentration of TiO{sub 2} (5 g/L TiO{sub 2}) by oxidative stress. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition analysis suggested that oxidative stress causes the accumulation and decomposition of lipids. The highest FAME productivity was 18.2 g/L/d under low concentrations of TiO{sub 2} (0.1 g/L) and a short induction time (two days). The controlled condition of TiO{sub 2}/UV-A inducing oxidative stress (0.1 g/L TiO{sub 2} and two days induction) could be used to increase the lipid productivity of C. vulgaris UTEX 265. Our results show the possibility of modulating the lipid induction process through oxidative stress with TiO{sub 2}/UV-A.

  7. Iron oxide nanoparticles in modern microbiology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinali, Ranmadugala; Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Ghasemi, Younes; Berenjian, Aydin

    2017-08-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are one of the most developed and used nanomaterials in biotechnology and microbiology. These particles have unique physicochemical properties, which make them unique among nanomaterials. Therefore, many experiments have been conducted to develop facile synthesis methods for these particles and to make them biocompatible. Various effects of IONs on microorganisms have been reported. Depending on the microbial strain and nanoparticle (NP) concentration, IONs can stimulate or inhibit microbial growth. Due to the superparamagnetic properties of IONs, these NPs have used as nano sources of heat for hyperthermia in infected tissues. Antibiotic-loaded IONs are used for targeted delivery of chemical therapy direct to the infected organ and IONs have been used as a dirigible carrier for more potent antimicrobial nanomaterials such as silver nanoparticles. Magnetic NPs have been used for specific separation of pathogen and non-pathogen bacterial strains. Very recently, IONs were used as a novel tool for magnetic immobilization of microbial cells and process intensification in a biotechnological process. This review provides an overview of application of IONs in different microbial processes. Recommendations are also given for areas of future research.

  8. Effect of particle size on iron nanoparticle oxidation state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Lysaght, Andrew C.; Goberman, Daniel G.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selecting catalyst particles is a very important part of carbon nanotube growth, although the properties of these nanoscale particles are unclear. In this article iron nanoparticles are analyzed through the use of atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to understand how the size affects the chemical composition of nanoparticles and thus their physical structure. Initially, atomic force microscopy was used to confirm the presence of iron particles, and to determine the average size of the particles. Next an analytical model was developed to estimate particle size as a function of deposition time using inputs from atomic force microscopy measurement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was then performed with a focus on the spectra relating to the 2p Fe electrons to study the chemical state of the particles as a function of time. It was shown that as the size of nanoparticles decreased, the oxidation state of the particles changed due to a high proportion of atoms on the surface.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of tantalum oxide coatings decorated with Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huiliang, E-mail: hlc@mail.sic.ac.cn; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong, E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Silver plasma immersion ion implantation was used to decorate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on tantalum oxide (TO) coatings. The coatings acted against bacterial cells (Staphylococcus epidermidis) in the dark by disrupting their integrity. The action was independent of silver release and likely driven by the electron storage capability of the Schottky barriers established at the interfaces between Ag NPs and the TO support. Moreover, no apparent side effect on the adhesion and differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells was detected when using Ag NPs-modified TO coatings. These results demonstrate that decoration of tantalum oxide using Ag NPs could be a promising procedure for improving the antibacterial properties for orthopedic and dental implants.

  10. Stabilization and functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstad, Esther; Textor, Marcus; Reimhult, Erik

    2011-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface presentation of functionalities. This review is focused on different aspects of the stability of superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs, from its practical definition to its implementation by molecular design of the dispersant shell around the iron oxide core and further on to its influence on the magnetic properties of the superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. Special attention is given to the selection of molecular anchors for the dispersant shell, because of their importance to ensure colloidal and functional stability of sterically stabilized superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs. We further detail how dispersants have been optimized to gain close control over iron oxide NP stability, size and functionalities by independently considering the influences of anchors and the attached sterically repulsive polymer brushes. A critical evaluation of different strategies to stabilize and functionalize core-shell superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs as well as a brief introduction to characterization methods to compare those strategies is given.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are used in a rapidly expanding number of research and practical applications in the biomedical field, including magnetic cell labeling separation and tracking, for therapeutic purposes in hyperthermia and drug delivery, and for diagnostic purposes, e.g., as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. These applications require good NP stability at physiological conditions, close control over NP size and controlled surface

  11. CuO reduction induced formation of CuO/Cu2O hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Yin, Qiyue; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Reduction of CuO nanowires results in the formation of a unique hierarchical hybrid nanostructure, in which the parent oxide phase (CuO) works as the skeleton while the lower oxide (Cu2O) resulting from the reduction reaction forms as partially embedded nanoparticles that decorate the skeleton of the parent oxide. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of the reduction process of CuO nanowires, we demonstrate that the formation of such a hierarchical hybrid oxide structure is induced by topotactic nucleation and growth of Cu2O islands on the parent CuO nanowires.

  12. Influence of Camellia sinensis extract on Zinc Oxide nanoparticle green synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Luque, P. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Mota-González, M. L.; Olivas, A.

    2017-04-01

    This work addresses low cost, non-toxic green synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles prepared using different amounts of Camellia sinensis extract. The Synthesized material was studied and characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Zinc Oxide nanoparticles presented the desired Znsbnd O bond at 618 cm-1, demonstrated growth in a purely hexagonal Wurtzite crystal structure, and, depending on the amount of extract used, they presented different size and shape homogeneity. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained Zinc Oxide nanoparticles was studied. The photocatalytic degradation studies were done at a 1:1 M ratio of methylene blue to Zinc Oxide nanoparticles under UV light. The obtained results presented a better degradation rate than commercially available Zinc Oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Precipitation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana E. Romo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained directly, avoiding the calcination step, by precipitation at 70°C in bicontinuous microemulsions stabilized with a mixture of surfactants sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate/sodium dodecyl sulfate (2/1, wt./wt. containing 0.7 M zinc nitrate aqueous solution. Two concentrations of aqueous solution of precipitating agent sodium hydroxide were used under different dosing times on microemulsion. Characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed us to identify particles with an acicular rod-like morphology and a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure as small as 8.5 and 30 nm in average diameter and length, respectively. Productivities much higher than those typical in the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via reverse microemulsions were obtained. Particle size was the same at the two studied sodium hydroxide concentrations, while it increases as dosing time of the precipitant agent increases. It is believed that the surfactant film on the microemulsion channels restricts the particle diameter growth.

  14. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2009-01-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  15. Stable graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle platforms for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sánchez, Dania; Villabona-Leal, Giovanny; Saucedo-Orozco, Izcoatl; Bracamonte, Victoria; Pérez, Elías; Bittencourt, Carla; Quintana, Mildred

    2018-01-17

    Graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (AuNPs@GO) hybrids were fabricated in water dispersions of graphene oxide (GO) and Au precursor completely free of stabilizing agents by UV-light irradiation. Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) nucleation, growth, and stabilization mechanisms at the surface of GO are discussed on the basis of UV-Vis, Raman, IR, and X-Ray photo-spectroscopy studies. The analyses of AuNPs@GO hybrids by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric (TGA) and electrochemical tests show that they exhibit outstanding chemical, thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Thus, AuNPs@GO biosensing platforms were fabricated for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of crystal violet (CV), a SERS standard molecule, and in a different set of experiments, for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a flavoprotein coenzyme that plays an important role in many oxidoreductase and reversible redox conversions in biochemical reactions. AuNPs@GO hybrids synthesized by using UV light irradiation show exceptional stability and high intensification of the Raman signals showing that they have high potential for use as biomedical probes for the detection, monitoring, and diagnosis of medical diseases.

  16. Crystallization process and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, N D; Luong, N H; Chau, N; Hai, N H; Ngo, D T; Hoang, L H

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the crystallization process, phase transition and magnetic properties of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by the microwave heating technique. Thermal analysis and magnetodynamics studies revealed many interesting aspects of the amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles. The as-prepared sample was amorphous. Crystallization of the maghemite γ-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.71 eV) and the hematite α-Fe 2 O 3 (with an activation energy of 0.97 eV) phase occurred at around 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C, respectively. A transition from the maghemite to the hematite occurred at 500 deg. C with an activation energy of 1.32 eV. A study of the temperature dependence of magnetization supported the crystallization and the phase transformation. Raman shift at 660 cm -1 and absorption band in the infrared spectra at 690 cm -1 showed the presence of disorder in the hematite phase on the nanoscale which is supposed to be the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of that antiferromagnetic phase.

  17. Characteristics of Gadolinium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Terahertz Spectroscopy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Maeng, Inhee; Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Taekhoon; Cho, Byung Kyu; Lee, Kwangyeol; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2009-04-01

    The penetration property of the terahertz electromagnetic (THz) wave is relevant to its use. We used the THz wave spectroscopy system which easily penetrates some materials that do not contain water, e.g., plastic and ceramics. The system has been developed for several purposes, including measuring the properties of semiconductors and bio-materials, and detecting plastic bombs and ceramic knives at airports. It is also used for medical imaging systems, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at some research institutes. It can show not only the difference in amplitude, but also the difference of the phase of each point of sample. MRI technology usually uses contrast agents to enhance the quality of the image. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), made with a heavy metal ion, is commonly used as a clinical MRI contrast agent. Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle is a new contrast agent. It serves to equip the core of each particle with antibodies or ligands. It can freely circulate in blood vessels without amassing in the liver or lungs. This study shows the characteristics of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles to further advance terahertz medical imaging.

  18. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R; Bohidar, H B; Baral, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 )) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe 3 O 4 and CA-Fe 3 O 4 /ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe 3 O 4 , CA-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe 3 O 4 ) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe 3 O 4 ) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe 2 O 3 /ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5–500 ng mL −1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL −1 , sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml −1 cm −2 , and reproducibility more than 11 times. (paper)

  19. Characterization of physicochemical and colloidal properties of hydrogel chitosan-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, E; Di Benedetto, A

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have recently been investigated for their potential to kill cancer cells with promising results, owing to their ability to be targeted and heated by magnetic fields. In this study, novel hydrogel, chitosan Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized to induce magnetic hyperthermia, and targeted delivering of chemotherapeutics in the cancer microenvironment. The characteristic properties of synthesized bare and CS-MNPs were analyzed by various analytical methods: X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermo-gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. Magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using the co-precipitation method. This synthesis technique resulted in nanoparticles with an average particle size of 16 nm. The pure obtained nanoparticles were then successfully encapsulated with 4-nm-thick chitosan coating. The formation of chitosan on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by physicochemical analyses. Heating experiments at safe magnetic field (f = 100 kHz, H =10-20 kA m -1 ) revealed that the maximum achieved temperature of water stable chitosan-coated nanoparticles (50 mg ml -1 ) is fully in agreement with cancer therapy and biomedical applications. (paper)

  20. Characterization of physicochemical and colloidal properties of hydrogel chitosan-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, E.; Di Benedetto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have recently been investigated for their potential to kill cancer cells with promising results, owing to their ability to be targeted and heated by magnetic fields. In this study, novel hydrogel, chitosan Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized to induce magnetic hyperthermia, and targeted delivering of chemotherapeutics in the cancer microenvironment. The characteristic properties of synthesized bare and CS-MNPs were analyzed by various analytical methods: X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermo-gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis. Magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using the co-precipitation method. This synthesis technique resulted in nanoparticles with an average particle size of 16 nm. The pure obtained nanoparticles were then successfully encapsulated with 4-nm-thick chitosan coating. The formation of chitosan on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by physicochemical analyses. Heating experiments at safe magnetic field (f = 100 kHz, H =10-20 kA m-1) revealed that the maximum achieved temperature of water stable chitosan-coated nanoparticles (50 mg ml-1) is fully in agreement with cancer therapy and biomedical applications.

  1. Prophylactic Treatment with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Attenuate Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini D.P.K. Manne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatic ischemia reperfusion is one the main causes for graft failure following transplantation. Although, the molecular events that lead to hepatic failure following ischemia reperfusion (IR are diverse and complex, previous studies have shown that excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS are responsible for hepatic IR injury. Cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles have been previously shown to act as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: Control, CeO2 nanoparticle only, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR group and hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR plus CeO2 nanoparticle group (IR+ CeO2. Partial warm hepatic ischemia was induced in left lateral and median lobes for 1h, followed by 6h of reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 6h of reperfusion and blood and tissue samples were collected and processed for various biochemical experiments. Results: Prophylactic treatment with CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5mg/kg i.v (IR+CeO2 group 1 hour prior to hepatic ischemia and subsequent reperfusion injury lead to a decrease in serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and lactate dehydrogenase at 6 hours after reperfusion. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in hepatocyte necrosis along with reduction in several serum inflammatory markers such as macrophage derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, KC/GRO, myoglobin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. However, immunoblotting demonstrated no significant changes in the levels of apoptosis related protein markers such as bax, bcl2 and caspase 3 in IR and IR+ CeO2 groups at 6 hours suggesting necrosis as the main pathway for hepatocyte death. Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that CeO2 nanoparticles attenuate IR induced cell death and can be used as a prophylactic

  2. Silver nanoparticles anchored reduced graphene oxide for enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Mani; Singh, Rajinder; Mahajan, Aman

    2018-02-01

    In this report, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) anchored reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets (rGO/Ag) nanohybrid has been explored as anode material in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The synthesized rGO/Ag nanohybrid is characterized by XRD, XPS, FTIR spectroscopy and HRTEM techniques. Cyclic voltammograms demonstrate that the rGO/Ag nanohybrid exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity in comparison to rGO sheets for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). This enhancement is attributed to the synergetic effect produced by the presence of more active sites provided by Ag NPs anchored on a conducting network of large surface area rGO sheets.

  3. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser sintered MgO pellets with nanoparticles of Al 2 O 3 and Fe 2 O 3 . • Characterized these pellets by XRD, SEM and XPS. • Spinel formations were observed in both cases. • Changes in morphology and structure were analyzed. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 , 20–40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 , 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm 2 with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe 2 O 3 presented the MgFe 2 O 4 spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm 2 , there were the formations of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed

  4. Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles via sonochemical method and their characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Hassanjani-Roshan; Mohammad Reza Vaezi; Ali Shokuhfar; Zohreh Rajabali

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles was carried out via a sonochemical process. The process parameters such as temperature,sonication time and power of ultrasonication play important roles in the size and morphology of the final products. The iron oxide nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. From transmission electron microscopy observations,the size of the iron oxide nanoparticles is estimated to be significantly smaller than 19 nm. X-ray diffraction data of the powder after annealing provide direct evidence that the iron oxide was formed during the sonochemical process.

  5. Synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical evaluation of reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silwana, Bongiwe; Horst, Charlton van der [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Somerset, Vernon, E-mail: vsomerset@csir.co.za [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2015-10-01

    This paper demonstrates some aspects on the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles of metallic alloys using polyvinyl alcohol as a stabiliser, which combines high surface area and superior hybrid properties. The present experimental design was to synthesise a nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles to be used as thin films for macro- and micro-carbon electrodes for enhancing sensing of different toxic metal pollutants in the environment. The synthetic process of reduced graphene oxide was done using the modified Hummers method while antimony pentachloride was reduced with sodium borohydride into nanoparticles of antimony using polyvinyl-alcohol as a stabiliser. The systematic investigation of morphology was done by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscope, which revealed the synthesis of a product, consists of reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles. The electrochemical behaviour of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles coated on a glassy carbon electrode was performed using voltammetric and impedance techniques. Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the overall resistance, including the charge–transfer resistance, was smaller with reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles than reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles, on their own. Evaluation of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticle sensor in the stripping voltammetry has shown a linear working range for concentration of platinum (II) between 6.0 × 10{sup −6}–5.4 × 10{sup −5} μg L{sup −1} with limit of detection of 6 × 10{sup −6} μg L{sup −1} (signal-to-noise ratio = 3), which is below the World Health Organisation guidelines for freshwater. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles were chemically synthesised. • TEM results show rGO-Sb nanoparticles with a diameter range of between 2 and 20 nm. • Impedance results confirm

  6. Microbially Induced Precipitation of Gold(0) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Yu; Kang, Serku; Park, Bitna; Kim, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to synthesize gold nanoparticles by biomineralization using metal-reducing bacteria and to characterize their mineralogical properties. The metal-reducing bacteria were able to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) with organic fatty acids as electron donors, as indicated by the color change of the culture solution from colorless gold ions to black precipitates at 25 degrees C. XRD, SEM- and TEM-EDS analyses of the precipitates showed that Au(0) was precipitated and formed at either the cell membrane or extracellularly. The Au(0) nanoparticles were about 200 nm in size and ball-shaped. Biomineralization for elemental Au(0) nanoparticle synthesis may be useful for the recovery of natural gold in natural environments.

  7. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  8. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial activity of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against fish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaalan, Mohamed Ibrahim; El-Mahdy, Magdy Mohamed; Theiner, Sarah; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Saleh, Mona

    2017-07-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a global issue that threatens public health. The excessive use of antibiotics contributes to this problem as the genes of antibiotic resistance can be transferred between the bacteria in humans, animals and aquatic organisms. Metallic nanoparticles could serve as future substitutes for some conventional antibiotics because of their antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against major fish pathogens and assess their safety in vitro. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. The concentrations of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Subsequently, silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Edwardsiella tarda, Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis, Yersinia ruckeri and Aphanomyces invadans and the minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. MTT assay was performed on eel kidney cell line (EK-1) to determine the cell viability after incubation with nanoparticles. The interaction between silver nanoparticles and A. salmonicida was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The tested nanoparticles exhibited marked antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth of both A. salmonicida and A. invadans at a concentration of 17 µg/mL. Zinc oxide nanoparticles inhibited the growth of A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri and A. invadans at concentrations of 15.75, 31.5 and 3.15 µg/mL respectively. Silver nanoparticles showed higher cell viability when compared to zinc oxide nanoparticles in the MTT assay. Transmission electron microscopy showed the attachment of silver nanoparticles to the bacterial membrane and disruption of its

  9. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua; Zakaria, Sarani; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2015-01-01

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature

  10. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  11. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States); Qin, Ying [Alabama Innovation and Mentoring of Entrepreneurs, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Bao, Yuping, E-mail: ybao@eng.ua.edu [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa , AL 35487 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  12. Surface functionalization of dopamine coated iron oxide nanoparticles for various surface functionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, Jennifer; Xu, Yaolin; Lovas, Kira; Qin, Ying; Bao, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    We present effective conjugation of four small molecules (glutathione, cysteine, lysine, and Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane) onto dopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of these molecules could improve the surface functionality of nanoparticles for more neutral surface charge at physiological pH and potentially reduce non-specific adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles surfaces. The success of conjugation was evaluated with dynamic light scattering by measuring the surface charge changes and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for surface chemistry analysis. The stability of dopamine-coated nanoparticles and the ability of conjugated nanoparticles to reduce the formation of protein corona were evaluated by measuring the size and charge of the nanoparticles in biological medium. This facile conjugation method opens up possibilities for attaching various surface functionalities onto iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces for biomedical applications.

  13. Impact of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on plant: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anshu; Zivcak, Marek; Sytar, Oksana; Kalaji, Hazem M.; He, Xiaolan; Mbarki, Sonia; Brestic, Marian

    2017-10-01

    An increasing need of nanotechnology in various industries may cause a huge environment dispersion of nanoparticles in coming years. A concern about nanoparticles interaction with flora and fauna is raised due to a growing load of it in the environment. In recent years, several investigators have shown impact of nanoparticles on plant growth and its accumulation in food source. This review examines the research performed in the last decade to show how metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are influencing the plant metabolisms. We addressed here, the impact of nanoparticle on plant in relation to its size, concentration, and exposure methodology. Based on the available reports, we proposed oxidative burst as a general mechanism through which the toxic effects of nanoparticles are spread in plants. This review summarises the current understanding and the future possibilities of plant-nanoparticle research.

  14. Biogenic copper oxide nanoparticles synthesis using Tabernaemontana divaricate leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against urinary tract pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Rajiv, P.; Salam, Hasna Abdul; Venckatesh, R.

    2014-12-01

    This investigation explains the biosynthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles from an Indian medicinal plant by an eco-friendly method. The main objective of this study is to synthesize copper oxide nanoparticles from Tabernaemontana divaricate leaves through a green chemistry approach. Highly stable, spherical copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using 50% concentration of Tabernaemontana leaf extract. Formation of copper oxide nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. All the analyses revealed that copper oxide nanoparticles were 48 ± 4 nm in size. Functional groups and chemical composition of copper oxide were also confirmed. Antimicrobial activity of biogenic copper oxide nanoparticles were investigated and maximum zone of inhibition was found in 50 μg/ml copper oxide nanoparticles against urinary tract pathogen (Escherichia coli).

  15. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  16. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  17. Photocatalytic activity of silver oxide capped Ag nanoparticles constructed by air plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yingcui; Wu, Qingmeng; Li, Huanhuan; Zhang, Bing; Yan, Rong; Chen, Junling; Sun, Mengtao

    2018-04-01

    We construct a kind of structure of silver oxide capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cost-efficient air plasma irradiation, and study its visible-light driven photocatalytic activity (PA). By controlling the oxidization time, the relationship between the intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and the PA is well established. The PA reaches the maximum when the LSPR of AgNPs is nearly completely damped (according to absorption spectra); however, under this condition, the LSPR still works, confirmed with the high efficient selective transformation of p-Aminothiophenol (PATP) to p, p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) under visible light. The mechanism of the LSPR damping induced PA improvement is discussed. We not only provide a cost-efficient approach to construct a LSPR strong damping structure but also promote the understanding of LSPR strong damping and its relationship with photocatalysis.

  18. HIGHLY MICROBIAL RESISTANT GRAPHEME OXIDE NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaylaxmee Mishra; Richa Sharma

    2014-01-01

    The present work deigned to prepare graphene oxide nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity has been evaluated. Graphene oxide is a singal layer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal pattern the basal planes and the edges of graphene oxide nanoparticles contain functional exogenous groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy group, which not only expand the interlayer distance but also make the atomic thick layer hydrophilic. Most important application in area related to transparent conduct...

  19. Synthesis and functionalisation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Mundell, VJ

    2013-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles including calcium oxide, gold, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) were synthesised using a range of techniques including reduction, co-precipitation and spinning disc technology. SPIOs were primarily synthesised via a co-precipitation method using iron (II) chloride, iron (III) chloride and ammonia; a spinning disc reactor and gaseous ammonia were trialled successfully for scale up, producing spherical particles of 10-40 nm in diameter a...

  20. Cytotoxic Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by MTT Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Mohseni Kouchesfehani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of applications, there is a serious lack of information on the impact of the nanoparticles on human health and the environment. The present study was done to determine the range of dangerous concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticle and their effects on mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods: Iron oxide nanoparticles with less than 20 nanometers diameter were encapsulated by a PEG-phospholipid. The suspension of iron oxide nanoparticles was prepared using the culture media and cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Results: MTT assay was used to examine the cytotoxicity of iron oxide nanoparticle s. Royan B1 cells were treated with medium containing different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60µg/ml of the iron oxide nanoparticle. Cell viability was determined at 12 and 24 hours after treatment which showed significant decreases when concentration and time period increased. Conclusion: The main mechanism of nanoparticles action is still unknown, but in vivo and in vitro studies in different environments suggest that they are capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, they may have an effect on the concentration of intracellular calcium, activation of transcription factors, and changes in cytokine. The results of this study show that the higher concentration and duration of treatment of cells with iron oxide nanoparticles increase the rate of cell death.

  1. The detection of HBV DNA with gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle gene probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Dong; Luo Xiaoping; Lu Qianghua; Yao Kailun; Liu Zuli; Ning Qin

    2008-01-01

    Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA probes were prepared, and their application for HBV DNA measurement was studied. Gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the citrate reduction of tetra-chloroauric acid in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles which were added as seeds. With a fluorescence-based method, the maximal surface coverage of hexaethiol 30-mer oligonucleotides and the maximal percentage of hybridization strands on gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were (120 ± 8) oligonucleotides per nanoparticle, and (14 ± 2%), respectively, which were comparable with those of (132 ± 10) and (22 ± 3%) in Au nanoparticle groups. Large network aggregates were formed when gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticle HBV DNA gene probe was applied to detect HBV DNA molecules as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and the high specificity was verified by blot hybridization. Our results further suggested that detecting DNA with iron oxide nanoparticles and magnetic separator was feasible and might be an alternative effective method

  2. Colloidosome-based synthesis of a multifunctional nanostructure of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yue

    2010-03-16

    Nanoparticles that self-assemble on a liquid-liquid interface serve as the building block for making heterodimeric nanostructures. Specifically, hollow iron oxide nanoparticles within hexane form colloidosomes in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate, and iron oxide exposed to the aqueous phase catalyzes the reduction of silver ions to afford a heterodimer of silver and hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, and SQUID were used to characterize the heterodimers. Interestingly, the formation of silver nanoparticles helps the removal of spinglass layer on the hollow iron oxide nanoparticles. This work demonstrates a powerful yet convenient strategy for producing sophisticated, multifunctional nanostructures. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. The acute pulmonary and thrombotic effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemmar A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Suhail Al-Salam,2 Sumaya Beegam,1 Priya Yuvaraju,2 Badreldin H Ali3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; 3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs, used as a diesel fuel catalyst, can be emitted into the ambient air, resulting in exposure to humans by inhalation. Recent studies have reported the development of lung toxicity after pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs. However, little is known about the possible thrombotic effects of these NPs. The present study investigated the acute (24 hours effect of intratracheal (IT instillation of either CeO2 NPs (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg or saline (control on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and thrombosis in mice. CeO2 NPs induced a significant increase of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid with an elevation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant catalase. Lung sections of mice exposed to CeO2 NPs showed a dose-dependent infiltration of inflammatory cells consisting of macrophages and neutrophils. Similarly, the plasma levels of C-reactive protein and TNFα were significantly increased, whereas the activities of catalase and total antioxidant were significantly decreased. Interestingly, CeO2 NPs significantly and dose dependently induced a shortening of the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles and venules. Moreover, the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly elevated by CeO2 NPs. The direct addition of CeO2 NPs (1, 5, or 25 µg/mL to mouse whole blood, collected from the inferior vena cava, in vitro neither caused significant platelet aggregation nor affected prothrombin time or partial

  4. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for controlling the movement of immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ethan E.; Pai, Alex; Weng, Yiming; Suresh, Anil K.; van Haute, Desiree; Pailevanian, Torkom; Alizadeh, Darya; Hajimiri, Ali; Badie, Behnam; Berlin, Jacob M.

    2015-04-01

    Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were generated by loading the cells with iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with CpG oligonucleotides, serving as a proof of principle that nanoparticles can be used to both deliver an immunostimulatory cargo to cells and to control the movement of the cells. The nanoparticle-oligonucleotide conjugates are efficiently internalized, non-toxic, and immunostimulatory. We demonstrate that the in vitro migration of the adherent, loaded microglia can be controlled by an external magnetic field and that magnetically-induced migration is non-cytotoxic. In order to capture video of this magnetically-induced migration of loaded cells, a novel 3D-printed ``cell box'' was designed to facilitate our imaging application. Analysis of cell movement velocities clearly demonstrate increased cell velocities toward the magnet. These studies represent the initial step towards our final goal of using nanoparticles to both activate immune cells and to control their trafficking within the diseased brain.Immunotherapy is currently being investigated for the treatment of many diseases, including cancer. The ability to control the location of immune cells during or following activation would represent a powerful new technique for this field. Targeted magnetic delivery is emerging as a technique for controlling cell movement and localization. Here we show that this technique can be extended to microglia, the primary phagocytic immune cells in the central nervous system. The magnetized microglia were

  5. Sintering of oxide-supported Pt and Pd nanoparticles in air studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    This thesis presents a fundamental study of the sintering of supported nanoparticles in relation to diesel oxidation catalysts. The sintering of supported nanoparticles is an important challenge in relation to this catalyst, as well as many other catalyst systems, and a fundamental understanding...... of Pt, Pd and bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles supported on a flat and homogeneous Al2O3 or SiO2 surface. By using in situ TEM on the planar model catalysts it was possible to directly monitor the detailed dynamical changes of the individual nanoparticles during exposure to oxidizing conditions...

  6. Characterization of injected aluminum oxide nanoparticle clouds in an rf discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Harald; Killer, Carsten; Schütt, Stefan; Melzer, André

    2018-02-01

    An experimental setup to deagglomerate and insert nanoparticles into a radio frequency discharge has been developed to confine defined aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a dusty plasma. For the confined particle clouds we have measured the spatially resolved in situ size and density distributions. Implementing the whole plasma chamber into the sample volume of an FTIR spectrometer the infrared spectrum of the confined aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been obtained. We have investigated the dependency of the absorbance of the nanoparticles in terms of plasma power, pressure and cloud shape. The particles’ infrared phonon resonance has been identified.

  7. Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrolysis Reaction of Ethylene Glycol Solution of Alkoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Naofumi Uekawa; Naoya Endo; Keisuke Ishii; Takashi Kojima; Kazuyuki Kakegawa

    2012-01-01

    Transparent and stable sols of titanium oxide nanoparticles were obtained by heating a mixture of ethylene glycol solution of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TIP) and a NH3 aqueous solution at 368 K for 24 h. The concentration of NH3 aqueous solution affected the structure of the obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles. For NH3 aqueous solution concentrations higher than 0.2 mol/L, a mixture of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and layered titanic acid nanoparticles was obtained. The obtained sol was very...

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States); Ormsbee, Lindell E. [University of Kentucky, Department of Civil Engineering (United States); Sedlak, David L. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Bhattacharyya, Dibakar, E-mail: db@engr.uky.edu [University of Kentucky, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH{sup Bullet }) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80-100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by NP surface generated OH{sup Bullet} were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  9. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis in aqueous and membrane systems for oxidative degradation of trichloroethylene from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Minghui; Smuleac, Vasile; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Sedlak, David L.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2012-01-01

    The potential for using hydroxyl radical (OH • ) reactions catalyzed by iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) to remediate toxic organic compounds was investigated. Iron oxide NPs were synthesized by controlled oxidation of iron NPs prior to their use for contaminant oxidation (by H 2 O 2 addition) at near-neutral pH values. Cross-linked polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membranes were prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylic acid inside the membrane pores. Iron and iron oxide NPs (80–100 nm) were directly synthesized in the polymer matrix of PAA/PVDF membranes, which prevented the agglomeration of particles and controlled the particle size. The conversion of iron to iron oxide in aqueous solution with air oxidation was studied based on X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and BET surface area test methods. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was selected as the model contaminant because of its environmental importance. Degradations of TCE and H 2 O 2 by NP surface generated OH • were investigated. Depending on the ratio of iron and H 2 O 2 , TCE conversions as high as 100 % (with about 91 % dechlorination) were obtained. TCE dechlorination was also achieved in real groundwater samples with the reactive membranes.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and monocytes: Impact of size, charge and solubility on activation status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, Morag [Edinburgh Napier University, School of Life, Sport and Social Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Stone, Vicki [Heriot-Watt University, School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Proudfoot, Lorna, E-mail: l.proudfoot@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, School of Life, Sport and Social Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particle induced cytotoxicity was dependent on size, charge and solubility, factors which at sublethal concentrations may influence the activation of the human monocytic cell line THP1. ZnO nanoparticles (NP; average diameter 70 nm) were more toxic than the bulk form (< 44 μm mesh) and a positive charge enhanced cytotoxicity of the NP despite their relatively high dissolution. A positive charge of the particles has been shown in other studies to have an influence on cell viability. Centrifugal filtration using a cut off of 5 kDa and Zn element analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed that exposure of the ZnO particles and NP to 10% foetal bovine serum resulted in a strong association of the Zn{sup 2+} ion with protein. This association with protein may influence interaction of the ZnO particles and NP with THP1 cells. After 24 h exposure to the ZnO particles and NP at sublethal concentrations there was little effect on immunological markers of inflammation such as HLA DR and CD14, although they may induce a modest increase in the adhesion molecule CD11b. The cytokine TNFα is normally associated with proinflammatory immune responses but was not induced by the ZnO particles and NP. There was also no effect on LPS stimulated TNFα production. These results suggest that ZnO particles and NP do not have a classical proinflammatory effect on THP1 cells. -- Highlights: ► ZnO is cytotoxic to THP-1 monocytes. ► ZnO nanoparticles are more toxic than the bulk form. ► Positive charge enhances ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity. ► Sublethal doses of ZnO particles do not induce classical proinflammatory markers.

  11. Liquid Crystal Microlens Using Nanoparticle-Induced Vertical Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shug-June Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticle-induced vertical alignment (NIVA of the nematic liquid crystals (LC is applied to achieve an adaptive flat LC microlens with hybrid-aligned nematic (HAN mode by dropping polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS nanoparticle solution on a homogeneous alignment layer. The vertical alignment induced by the POSS nanoparticles resulted in the formation of a hybrid-aligned LC layer with concentric nonuniform distribution of the refractive index in the planar LC cell, which subsequently played the role of the lens, even in the absence of any applied voltages. The dimensions of the concentric HAN structure significantly depend on the volume of the microdroplet and the POSS concentration. The focus effect of this flat microlens was observed while electrically controlling its focal length using the applied voltages from −50 mm to −90 mm.

  12. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Agglomeration Influences Dose-Rates and Modulates Oxidative Stress Mediated Dose-Response Profiles In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Gaffrey, Matthew J.; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R.; Karin, Norman J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-07-31

    Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm-1.5 μm) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (μg/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their

  13. Iron oxide nanoparticle agglomeration influences dose rates and modulates oxidative stress-mediated dose–response profiles in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kodali, Vamsi; Gaffrey, Matthew; Wang, Wei; Minard, Kevin R.; Karin, Norman J.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous agglomeration of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is a common problem in cell culture media which can confound interpretation of in vitro nanotoxicity studies. The authors created stable agglomerates of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in conventional culture medium, which varied in hydrodynamic size (276 nm–1.5 μm) but were composed of identical primary particles with similar surface potentials and protein coatings. Studies using C10 lung epithelial cells show that the dose rate effects of agglomeration can be substantial, varying by over an order of magnitude difference in cellular dose in some cases. Quantification by magnetic particle detection showed that small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs induced greater cytotoxicity and redox-regulated gene expression when compared with large agglomerates on an equivalent total cellular IONP mass dose basis, whereas agglomerates of amine-modified IONPs failed to induce cytotoxicity or redox-regulated gene expression despite delivery of similar cellular doses. Dosimetry modelling and experimental measurements reveal that on a delivered surface area basis, large and small agglomerates of carboxylated IONPs have similar inherent potency for the generation of ROS, induction of stress-related genes and eventual cytotoxicity. The results suggest that reactive moieties on the agglomerate surface are more efficient in catalysing cellular ROS production than molecules buried within the agglomerate core. Because of the dynamic, size and density-dependent nature of ENP delivery to cells in vitro, the biological consequences of agglomeration are not discernible from static measures of exposure concentration (μg/ml) alone, highlighting the central importance of integrated physical characterisation and quantitative dosimetry for in vitro studies. The combined experimental and computational approach provides a quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their

  14. Genotoxic effects of bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reecep Liman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide is one of the important transition metal oxides and it has been intensively studied due to their peculiar characteristics (semiconductor band gap, high refractive index, high dielectric permittivity, high oxygen conductivity, resistivity, photoconductivity and photoluminescence etc.. Therefore, it is used such as microelectronics, sensor technology, optical coatings, transparent ceramic glass manufacturing, nanoenergetic gas generator, biosensor for DNA hybridization, potential immobilizing platforms for glucose oxidase and polyphenol oxidase, fuel cells, a additive in paints, an astringent in a variety of medical creams and topical ointments, and for the determination of heavy metal ions in drinking water, mineral water and urine. In addition this, Bismuth (III oxide nanoparticles (BONPs are favorable for the biomolecules adsorption than regular sized particles because of their greater advantages and novel characteristics (much higher specific surface, greater surface free energy, and good electrochemical stability etc.. Genotoxic effects of BONPs were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5 ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan’s multiple range test was performed. These result indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, applications, and challenges of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Attarad; Zafar, Hira; Zia, Muhammad; ul Haq, Ihsan; Phull, Abdul Rehman; Ali, Joham Sarfraz; Hussain, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Recently, iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much consideration due to their unique properties, such as superparamagnetism, surface-to-volume ratio, greater surface area, and easy separation methodology. Various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted to synthesize magnetic NPs with suitable surface chemistry. This review summarizes the methods for the preparation of iron oxide NPs, size and morphology control, and magnetic properties with recent bioengineering, commercial, and industrial applications. Iron oxides exhibit great potential in the fields of life sciences such as biomedicine, agriculture, and environment. Nontoxic conduct and biocompatible applications of magnetic NPs can be enriched further by special surface coating with organic or inorganic molecules, including surfactants, drugs, proteins, starches, enzymes, antibodies, nucleotides, nonionic detergents, and polyelectrolytes. Magnetic NPs can also be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumor using an external magnetic field for hyperthermic treatment of patients. Keeping in mind the current interest in iron NPs, this review is designed to report recent information from synthesis to characterization, and applications of iron NPs. PMID:27578966

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in liquid-phase pulsed laser ablation synthesized nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S. C.; Gopal, R.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic Room Temperature Ferromagnetism (RTF) has been observed in undoped/uncapped zinc oxide and titanium dioxide spherical nanoparticles (NPs) obtained by a purely green approach of liquid phase pulsed laser ablation of corresponding metal targets in pure water. Saturation magnetization values observed for zinc oxide (average size, 9 ± 1.2 nm) and titanium dioxide (average size, 4.4 ± 0.3 nm) NPs are 62.37 and 42.17 memu/g, respectively, which are several orders of magnitude larger than those of previous reports. In contrast to the previous works, no postprocessing treatments or surface modification is required to induce ferromagnetism in the case of present communication. The most important result, related to the field of intrinsic ferromagnetism in nonmagnetic materials, is the observation of size dependent ferromagnetism. Degree of ferromagnetism in titanium dioxide increases with the increase in particle size, while it is reverse for zinc oxide. Surface and volume defects play significant roles for the origin of RTF in zinc oxide and titanium dioxide NPs, respectively. Single ionized oxygen and neutral zinc vacancies in zinc oxide and oxygen and neutral/ionized titanium vacancies in titanium dioxide are considered as predominant defect centres responsible for observed ferromagnetism. It is expected that origin of ferromagnetism is a consequence of exchange interactions between localized electron spin moments resulting from point defects

  17. Chitosan nanoparticle-based neuronal membrane sealing and neuroprotection following acrolein-induced cell injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Riyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly reactive aldehyde acrolein is a very potent endogenous toxin with a long half-life. Acrolein is produced within cells after insult, and is a central player in slow and progressive "secondary injury" cascades. Indeed, acrolein-biomolecule complexes formed by cross-linking with proteins and DNA are associated with a number of pathologies, especially central nervous system (CNS trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Hydralazine is capable of inhibiting or reducing acrolein-induced damage. However, since hydralazine's principle activity is to reduce blood pressure as a common anti-hypertension drug, the possible problems encountered when applied to hypotensive trauma victims have led us to explore alternative approaches. This study aims to evaluate such an alternative - a chitosan nanoparticle-based therapeutic system. Results Hydralazine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using different types of polyanions and characterized for particle size, morphology, zeta potential value, and the efficiency of hydralazine entrapment and release. Hydralazine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles ranged in size from 300 nm to 350 nm in diameter, and with a tunable, or adjustable, surface charge. Conclusions We evaluated the utility of chitosan nanoparticles with an in-vitro model of acrolein-mediated cell injury using PC -12 cells. The particles effectively, and statistically, reduced damage to membrane integrity, secondary oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. This study suggests that a chitosan nanoparticle-based therapy to interfere with "secondary" injury may be possible.

  18. Different toxicity mechanisms between bare and polymer-coated copper oxide nanoparticles in Lemna gibba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perreault, François; Popovic, Radovan; Dewez, David

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we investigated how the presence of a polymer shell (poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) alters the toxicity of CuO NPs in Lemna gibba. Based on total Cu concentration, core–shell CuO NPs were 10 times more toxic than CuO NPs, inducing a 50% decrease of growth rate at 0.4 g l −1 after 48-h of exposure while a concentration of 4.5 g l −1 was required for CuO NPs for a similar effect. Toxicity of CuO NPs was mainly due to NPs solubilization in the media. Based on the accumulated copper content in the plants, core–shell CuO NPs induced 4 times more reactive oxygen species compared to CuO NPs and copper sulfate, indicating that the presence of the polymer shell changed the toxic effect induced in L. gibba. This effect could not be attributed to the polymer alone and reveals that surface modification may change the nature of NPs toxicity. -- Highlights: • Bare and polymer-coated CuO nanoparticles were toxic to Lemna gibba. • Toxicity of bare CuO was mainly due to solubilized soluble copper. • Coated CuO accumulated inside the plants four times more. • Formation of reactive oxygen species was increased by polymer coating. • Coating of nanomaterials modifies mechanisms of action at cellular level. -- Polymer coating increases oxidative stress effect by core–shell CuO nanoparticles

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Alkaline-Earth-Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra Pal; Lim, Weon Cheol; Won, Sung Ok; Song, Jonghan; Chae, Keun Hwa

    2018-04-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of MgO and CaO nanoparticles by using the sol-gel autocombustion method. The annealing of the precursor at 1200 °C was observed to lead the formation of MgO nanoparticles having average crystallite size of 31 nm. Annealing the precursor at same temperature produced materials having a CaO phase with a minor impure phase of calcium carbonate ( 3%). The crystallite size corresponding to the CaO phase was 38 nm. A change of thermal history in the precursor was observed not to result in an improvement of the CaO phase. The change of thermal history in the precursor gave rise to mixed phases of CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 rather than the phase of CaO. Further, annealing at 1200 °C for 12 h resulted in the formation of the CaO phase along with almost 1 - 5% of calcium hydroxide as an impurity phase. X-ray absorption spectroscopic measurements carried out on these materials revealed that the local electronic/atomic structure of these oxides was not only affected by the impurity phases but also influenced by the carbaneous impurities attached to the crystallites.

  20. Catalytic properties and biomedical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Walkey, Carl D.; Das, Soumen C.; Seal, Sudipta; Erlichman, Joseph S.; Heckman, Karin L.; Ghibelli, Lina; Traversa, Enrico; McGinnis, James F.; Self, William Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials?

  1. Catalytic properties and biomedical applications of cerium oxide nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Walkey, Carl D.

    2014-11-10

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) have shown promise as catalytic antioxidants in the test tube, cell culture models and animal models of disease. However given the reactivity that is well established at the surface of these nanoparticles, the biological utilization of nanoceria as a therapeutic still poses many challenges. Moreover the form that these particles take in a biological environment, such as the changes that can occur due to a protein corona, are not well established. This review aims to summarize the existing literature on biological use of nanoceria, and to raise questions about what further study is needed to apply this interesting catalytic material to biomedical applications. These questions include: 1) How does preparation, exposure dose, route and experimental model influence the reported effects of nanoceria in animal studies? 2) What are the considerations to develop nanoceria as a therapeutic agent in regards to these parameters? 3) What biological targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are relevant to this targeting, and how do these properties also influence the safety of these nanomaterials?

  2. Aqueous starch as a stabilizer in zinc oxide nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamiri, Reza; Zakaria, Azmi; Ahangar, Hossein Abbastabar; Darroudi, Majid; Zak, Ali Khorsand; Drummen, Gregor P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized via LASiS in aqueous starch solution. ► Nanoparticles of ±15 nm are produced with a narrow size distribution. ► Starch can be used as a template to control nanoparticle size. ► Starch stabilizes zinc oxide nanoparticles in solution through steric hindrance. - Abstract: Zinc oxide is a semiconductor with exceptional thermal, luminescent and electrical properties, even compared with other semiconducting nanoparticles. Its potential for advanced applications in lasers and light emitting diodes, as bio-imaging agent, in biosensors and as drug delivery vehicles, in ointments, coatings and pigments has pulled zinc oxide into the focus of various scientific and engineering research fields. Recently we started investigating if nanoparticle synthesis via laser ablation in the presence of natural stabilizers allows control over size and shape and constitutes a useful, uncomplicated alternative over conventional synthesis methods. In the current paper, we determined the ability of natural starch to act as a size controller and stabilizer in the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via ablation of a ZnO plate in a starch solution with a nanosecond Q-Switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser at its original wavelength (λ = 1064 nm). Our results show that the particle diameter decreases with increasing laser irradiation time to a mean nanoparticle size of approximately 15 nm with a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the obtained particle size in starch solution is considerably smaller compared with analogous ZnO nanoparticle synthesis in distilled water. The synthesized and capped nanoparticles retained their photoluminescent properties, but showed blue emission rather than the often reported green luminescence. Evaluation of old preparations compared with freshly made samples showed no agglomeration or flocculation, which was reflected in no significant change in the ZnO nanoparticle size and size distribution. Overall

  3. Polymer-supported metals and metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Guibal, E.; Quignard, F.; SenGupta, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles exhibit unique properties in regard to sorption behaviors, magnetic activity, chemical reduction, ligand sequestration among others. To this end, attempts are being continuously made to take advantage of them in multitude of applications including separation, catalysis, environmental remediation, sensing, biomedical applications and others. However, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles lack chemical stability and mechanical strength. They exhibit extremely high pressure drop or head loss in fixed-bed column operation and are not suitable for any flow-through systems. Also, nanoparticles tend to aggregate; this phenomenon reduces their high surface area to volume ratio and subsequently reduces effectiveness. By appropriately dispersing metal and metal oxide nanoparticles into synthetic and naturally occurring polymers, many of the shortcomings can be overcome without compromising the parent properties of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the appropriate choice of the polymer host with specific functional groups may even lead to the enhancement of the properties of nanoparticles. The synthesis of hybrid materials involves two broad pathways: dispersing the nanoparticles (i) within pre-formed or commercially available polymers; and (ii) during the polymerization process. This review presents a broad coverage of nanoparticles and polymeric/biopolymeric host materials and the resulting properties of the hybrid composites. In addition, the review discusses the role of the Donnan membrane effect exerted by the host functionalized polymer in harnessing the desirable properties of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for intended applications.

  4. Chemical synthesis and characterization of hollow dopamine coated, pentagonal and flower shaped magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riasat, Rabia; Kaynat, Sumbal

    2018-04-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have gained attention recently in the field of nanoscience and technology due to their unique physicochemical properties. We hereby chemically synthesized novel pentagonal flower shaped iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron penta-carbonyl in a two way annealing process. Controlled oxidation by acid etching was performed for these nanoparticles. At first 13 nm core shell nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe/Fe3O4) were synthesized at 120°C annealing temperature that act as template material. The core shell nanoparticles then converted into porous hollow core shell nanoparticles (PH Fe/ Fe3O4) in a two way annealing process of heating, first at 100°C then at 250°C and heating rate of 5°C was kept constant throughout the reaction time. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was done for the phase confirmation of as synthesized nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) clearly shows the flower like nanoparticles that are approx. 16 nm-18 nm in size having the 4-5 nm core of Fe and 1-2 nm of the pores in the shell while the cavity between the shell and core is about 2 nm and the shell is 4-5 nm in diameter according to the TEM micrographs. The as prepared nanoparticles were then surface functionalized by dopamine polymer to make them water dispersible. Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the dopamine coating on the nanoparticles and the magnetic saturation of 38 emu/g of nanoparticles was analyzed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Magnetic saturation persists in the dopamine coated nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were surface functionalized with dopamine and show dispersity in the aqueous media and can further be exploited in many nano-biotechnological applications including target specific therapeutic applications for several diseases.

  5. Facile Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles via Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for synthesizing copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles (NPs through electrospinning is reported. The approach is based on producing rough and discontinuous electrospun nanofibers from a precursor based on copper acetate salt and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA polymer. Selectively removing the polymeric phase from the fibers produced highly rough CuO nanofibers, which were composed of NPs that are weakly held together in a one-dimensional (1D manner. Sonication in a suitable liquid under controlled conditions completely disintegrated the nanofibers into NPs, resulting in the formation of uniform CuO NPs suspension. Aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM showed that the obtained NPs are highly crystalline and nearly sphere-like with a diameter of 30 to 70 nm. Thus, electrospinning, which is a low cost and industrially scalable technique, can also be employed for economic and large scale synthesis of NPs.

  6. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vijayendra K.; Kuzmann, Erno; Sharma, Virender K.; Kumar, Arun; Oliveira, Aderbal C.

    2016-10-01

    Studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been extensively carried out. Since the earlier work on Mössbauer studies on SPIONs in 1970s, many biomedical applications and their uses in innovative methods to produce new materials with improved performance have appeared. Applications of SPIONs in environmental remediation are also forthcoming. Several different methods of synthesis and coating of the magnetic particles have been described in the literature, and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been an important tool in the characterization of these materials. It is quite possible that the interpretation of the Mössbauer spectra might not be entirely correct because the possible presence of maghemite in the end product of SPIONs might not have been taken into consideration. Nanotechnology is an emerging field that covers a wide range of new technologies under development in nanoscale (1 to 100 nano meters) to produce new products and methodology.

  7. Cu-Ag core–shell nanoparticles with enhanced oxidation stability for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Na Rae; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Yung Jong; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we synthesized uniform Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles using a facile two-step process that consists of thermal decomposition and galvanic displacement methods. The core–shell structure of these nanoparticles was confirmed through characterization using transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, we investigated the oxidation stability of the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles in detail. Both qualitative and quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirm that the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles have considerably higher oxidation stability than Cu nanoparticles. Finally, we formulated a conductive ink using the synthesized nanoparticles and coated it onto glass substrates. Following the sintering process, we compared the resistivity of the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles with that of the Cu nanoparticles. The results of this study clearly show that the Cu–Ag core–shell nanoparticles can potentially be used as an alternative to Ag nanoparticles because of their superior oxidation stability and electrical properties. (paper)

  8. Synthesis and optical properties of Au decorated colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasebi, Nemat; Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation (PLA). • A very fine metallic Au particles or coating are decorated on the surface of tungsten oxide nanoparticles. • UV–Vis spectroscopy shows an absorption peak at ∼530 nm which is due to SPR effect of gold. • After exposing to hydrogen gas, Au/WO_3 colloidal nanoparticles show excellent gasochromic coloring. - Abstract: In this study, colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of tungsten target using the first harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in deionized water. After ablation, a 0.33 g/lit HAuCl_4 aqueous solution was added into as-prepared colloidal nanoparticles. In this process, Au"3"+ ions were reduced to decorate gold metallic state (Au"0) onto colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles surface. The morphology and chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles were studied by AFM, XRD, TEM and XPS techniques. UV–Vis analysis reveals a distinct absorption peak at ∼530 nm. This peak can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au and confirms formation of gold state. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that Au ions’ reduction happens after adding HAuCl_4 solution into as-prepared colloidal tungsten oxide nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope shows that an Au shell has been decorated onto colloidal WO_3 nanoparticles. Noble metal decorated tungsten oxide nanostructure could be an excellent candidate for photocatalysis, gas sensing and gasochromic applications. Finally, the gasochromic behavior of the synthesized samples was investigated by H_2 and O_2 gases bubbling into the produced colloidal Au/WO_3 nanoparticles. Synthesized colloidal nanoparticles show excellent coloration contrast (∼80%) through NIR spectra.

  9. Molecular Organization Induced Anisotropic Properties of Perylene - Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramulu, Deepa; Turaga, Shuvan Prashant; Bettiol, Andrew Anthony; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2017-08-10

    Optically active silica nanoparticles are interesting owing to high stability and easy accessibility. Unlike previous reports on dye loaded silica particles, here we address an important question on how optical properties are dependent on the aggregation-induced segregation of perylene molecules inside and outside the silica nanoparticles. Three differentially functionalized fluorescent perylene - silica hybrid nanoparticles are prepared from appropriate ratios of perylene derivatives and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and investigated the structure property correlation (P-ST, P-NP and P-SF). The particles differ from each other on the distribution, organization and intermolecular interaction of perylene inside or outside the silica matrix. Structure and morphology of all hybrid nanoparticles were characterized using a range of techniques such as electron microscope, optical spectroscopic measurements and thermal analysis. The organizations of perylene in three different silica nanoparticles were explored using steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, lifetime measurements and solid state polarized spectroscopic studies. The interactions and changes in optical properties of the silica nanoparticles in presence of different amines were tested and quantified both in solution and in vapor phase using fluorescence quenching studies. The synthesized materials can be regenerated after washing with water and reused for sensing of amines.

  10. Effect of Zn and Ni substitution on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of tin oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvana, S. [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamilnadu (India); Ramalingam, H.B.; Vadivel, K. [Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Udumalpet 642126, Tamilnadu (India); Ranjith Kumar, E., E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamilnadu (India); Ayesh, Ahmad I. [Department of Math., Stat. and Physics, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-12-01

    Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of Zn and Zn–Ni co-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method. The influence of doping concentration on phase and particle size of the nanoparticles was determined by X-ray diffraction. The XRD study reveals that the lattice constant and crystallite size of the samples decrease with the increase of doping concentration. The change in the band gap energy of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles influenced more by doping with Zn and Ni. The external morphology and particle size were recorded by SEM and TEM. The results indicated that Ni{sup 2+} ions would uniformly substituted into the Zn{sup 2+} sites of SnO{sub 2} lattice. The substitution of Ni creates a vital change in magnetic properties that has been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). - Highlights: • Sn{sub 2-(x+y)} Ni{sub x}Zn{sub y}O{sub 2}, (x=y=0.07 to 0.10) nano particles are prepared by simple sol gel method. • X-ray diffraction data confirms the single phase rutile tetragonal structure. • The VSM was used to confirm, the codoping of (Ni, Zn) increases the magnetic moment of the sample prepared. • Inducing ferromagnetism in sample makes it suitable for future spintronics applications.

  11. Scalable fractionation of iron oxide nanoparticles using a CO2 gas-expanded liquid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengsarkar, Pranav S.; Xu, Rui; Roberts, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit highly size-dependent physicochemical properties that are important in applications such as catalysis and environmental remediation. In order for these size-dependent properties to be effectively harnessed for industrial applications scalable and cost-effective techniques for size-controlled synthesis or size separation must be developed. The synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles can be a prohibitively expensive process on a large scale. An alternative involves the use of inexpensive synthesis procedures followed by a size-selective processing technique. While there are many techniques available to fractionate nanoparticles, many of the techniques are unable to efficiently fractionate iron oxide nanoparticles in a scalable and inexpensive manner. A scalable apparatus capable of fractionating large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles into distinct fractions of different sizes and size distributions has been developed. Polydisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (2–20 nm) coated with oleic acid used in this study were synthesized using a simple and inexpensive version of the popular coprecipitation technique. This apparatus uses hexane as a CO 2 gas-expanded liquid to controllably precipitate nanoparticles inside a 1L high-pressure reactor. This paper demonstrates the operation of this new apparatus and for the first time shows the successful fractionation results on a system of metal oxide nanoparticles, with initial nanoparticle concentrations in the gram-scale. The analysis of the obtained fractions was performed using transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The use of this simple apparatus provides a pathway to separate large quantities of iron oxide nanoparticles based upon their size for use in various industrial applications.

  12. Antibacterial activity of nitric oxide releasing silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B.; Manosalva, Nixson; de Araujo Lima, Bruna; Pelegrino, Milena T.; Brocchi, Marcelo; Rubilar, Olga; Duran, Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well known potent antimicrobial agents. Similarly, the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has important antibacterial activity, and due to its instability, the combination of NO and nanomaterials has been applied in several biomedical applications. The aim of this work was to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of a new NO-releasing AgNPs. Herein, AgNPs were synthesized by the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by catechin, a natural polyphenol and potent antioxidant agent, derived from green tea extract. Catechin acts as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule on the surface of AgNPs, minimizing particle agglomeration. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques. The results showed the formation of AgNPs with average hydrodynamic size of 44 nm, polydispersity index of 0.21, and zeta potential of -35.9 mV. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of the AgNP core and cathecin as capping agent. The low molecular weight mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which contain free thiol group, was added on the surface of catechin-AgNPs, leading to the formation of MSA-catechin-AgNPs (the NO precursor nanoparticle). Free thiol groups of MSA-catechin-AgNPs were nitrosated leading to the formation of S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid (S-nitroso-MSA), the NO donor. The amount of 342 ± 16 µmol of NO was released per gram of S-nitroso-MSA-catechin-AgNPs. The antibacterial activities of catechin-AgNPs, MSA-catechin-AgNPs, and S-nitroso-MSA-catechin-AgNPs were evaluated towards different resistant bacterial strains. The results demonstrated an enhanced antibacterial activity of the NO-releasing AgNP. For instance, the minimal inhibitory concentration values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) incubated with AgNPs-catechin, AgNPs-catechin-MSA, and AgNPs-catechin-S-nitroso-MSA were found to be 62, 125 and 3 µg/mL, respectively. While in the case of

  13. Physiological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junli; Chang, Peter R; Huang, Jin; Wang, Yunqiang; Yuan, Hong; Ren, Hongxuan

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been exploited in a diverse range of products in the past decade or so. However, the biosafety/environmental impact or legislation pertaining to this newly created, highly functional composites containing NPs (otherwise called nanomaterials) is generally lagging behind their technological innovation. To advance the agenda in this area, our current primary interest is focused on using crops as model systems as they have very close relationship with us. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the biological effects of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles towards watermelon seedlings. We have systematically studied the physiological effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles (nano-Fe2O3) on watermelon, and present the first evidence that a significant amount of Fe2O3 nanoparticles suspended in a liquid medium can be taken up by watermelon plants and translocated throughout the plant tissues. Changes in important physiological indicators, such as root activity, activity of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content were clearly presented. Different concentrations of nano-Fe2O3 all increased seed germination, seedling growth, and enhanced physiological function to some degree; and the positive effects increased quickly and then slowed with an increase in the treatment concentrations. Changes in CAT, SOD and POD activities due to nano-Fe2O3 were significantly larger than that of the control. The 20 mg/L treatment had the most obvious effect on the increase of root activity. Ferric reductase activity, root apoplastic iron content, and watermelon biomass were significantly affected by exposure to nano-Fe2O3. Results of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in all the above indexes between the treatment at optimal concentration and the control. This proved that the proper concentration of nano

  14. Compare analysis for the nanotoxicity effects of different amounts of endocytic iron oxide nanoparticles at single cell level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Ger, Tzong-Rong; Wei, Zung-Hang; Lai, Mei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Developing methods that evaluate the cellular uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and nanotoxicity effects at single-cellular level are needed. In this study, magnetophoresis combining fluorescence based cytotoxicity assay was proposed to assess the viability and the single-cellular MNPs uptake simultaneously. Malignant cells (SKHep-1, HepG2, HeLa) were incubated with 10 nm anionic iron oxide nanoparticles. Prussian blue stain was performed to visualize the distribution of magnetic nanoparticles. MTT and fluorescence based assay analyzed the cytotoxicity effects of the bulk cell population and single cell, respectively. DAPI/PI stained was applied to evaluate death mechanism. The number of intracellular MNPs was found to be strongly correlated with the cell death. Significant differences between cellular MNP uptake in living and dead cells were observed. The method could be useful for future study of the nanotoxicity induced by MNPs.

  15. Green Synthesis of Formulated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Chemical Protection of Skin Care and Related Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppolu, Ramya

    Nanomaterials have diversified applications based on the unique properties. These nanoparticles and functionalized nanocomposites have been studied in the health care filed. Nanoparticles are mostly used in sunscreens which are a part of human life. These sunscreens consist of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. Due to the higher band crevices, they help the skin to protect from ultraviolet rays, for instance, ultraviolet B and ultraviolet A. A series of nanostructured zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by cost-effective chemical and bioinspired methods and variables were optimized. Highly stable and spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles were formulated by aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis) plant extract and avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit extract. The state-of-the-art instrumentation was used to characterize the morphology, elemental composition, and particle size distribution. X-ray diffraction data indicated highly crystalline and ultrafine nanoparticles were obtained from the colloidal methods. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed the chemical state of zinc, carbon, and oxygen atoms were well-indexed and are used as fingerprint identification of the elements. Transmission electron microscopy images show the shape of particles were cubic and fiber shape contingent upon the protecting operators and heat treatment conditions. The toxicity studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles were found to cause an increase in nitric oxide, which is protecting against further oxidative stress and appears to be nontoxic.

  16. Thermal induced structural transformation of bimetallic AuPd nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, A; Li, Z Y

    2014-01-01

    High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (HAADF-STEM) has been employed for the study of thermal effects of structural transformation of AuPd nanoparticles produced by physical vapour deposition. Depending on the duration of annealing at a temperature of 500 K, atomic resolved imaging analysis reveals the formation of various structure morphologies from the ordered L1 2 superlattice to the core-shell structure. The effects of Pd-oxides are also discussed

  17. The interfacial orientation relationship of oxide nanoparticles in a hafnium-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin, E-mail: miao2@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mo, Kun [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60493 (United States); Cui, Bai [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Miller, Michael K.; Powers, Kathy A. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); McCreary, Virginia; Gross, David [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Almer, Jonathan [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60493 (United States); Robertson, Ian M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WA 53706 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    This work reports comprehensive investigations on the orientation relationship of the oxide nanoparticles in a hafnium-containing austenitic oxide dispersion-strengthened 316 stainless steel. The phases of the oxide nanoparticles were determined by a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy–electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atom probe tomography and synchrotron X-ray diffraction to be complex Y–Ti–Hf–O compounds with similar crystal structures, including bixbyite Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, fluorite Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}–HfO{sub 2} solid solution and pyrochlore (or fluorite) Y{sub 2}(Ti,Hf){sub 2−x}O{sub 7−x}. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the particle–matrix interfaces. Two different coherency relationships along with one axis-parallel relation between the oxide nanoparticles and the steel matrix were found. The size of the nanoparticles significantly influences the orientation relationship. The results provide insight into the relationship of these nanoparticles with the matrix, which has implications for interpreting material properties as well as responses to radiation. - Highlights: • The oxide nanoparticles in a hafnium-containing austenitic ODS were characterized. • The nanoparticles are Y–Hf–Ti–O enriched phases according to APT and STEM–EDS. • Two coherency and an axis-parallel orientation relationships were found by HR-TEM. • Particle size has a prominent effect on the orientation relationship (OR). • Formation mechanism of the oxide nanoparticles was discussed based on the ORs.

  18. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas. Patients with neuroblastoma are grouped into different risk groups that are characterized by different prognosis and different clinical behavior. Relapse and mortality in high risk patients is very high in spite of new advances in chemotherapy. Cell lines, obtained from neuroblastomas have different genotypic and phenotypic features. The cell lines SK-N-BE(2 and SH-SY5Y have different genetic mutations and tumorigenicity. Cells were exposed to low doses of GO for different times in order to investigate whether GO was a good vehicle for biological molecules delivering individualized therapy. Cytotoxicity in both cell lines was studied by measuring cellular oxidative stress (ROS, mitochondria membrane potential, expression of lysosomial proteins and cell growth. GO uptake and cytoplasmic distribution of particles were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM for up to 72 h. The results show that GO at low concentrations increased ROS production and induced autophagy in both neuroblastoma cell lines within a few hours of exposure, events that, however, are not followed by growth arrest or death. For this reason, we suggest that the GO nanoparticle can be used for therapeutic delivery to the brain tissue with minimal effects on healthy cells.

  19. Toxicity of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles on a Freshwater Green Algal Strain of Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Oukarroum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A freshwater microalga strain of Chlorella vulgaris was used to investigate toxic effects induced by nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs in suspension. Algal cells were exposed during 96 h to 0–100 mg L−1 of NiO-NPs and analyzed by flow cytometry. Physicochemical characterization of nanoparticles in tested media showed a soluble fraction (free Ni2+ of only 6.42% for 100 mg L−1 of NiO-NPs, indicating the low solubility capacity of these NPs. Toxicity analysis showed cellular alterations which were related to NiO-NPs concentration, such as inhibition in cell division (relative cell size and granularity, deterioration of the photosynthetic apparatus (chlorophyll synthesis and photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, and oxidative stress (ROS production. The change in cellular viability demonstrated to be a very sensitive biomarker of NiO-NPs toxicity with EC50 of 13.7 mg L−1. Analysis by TEM and X-ray confirmed that NiO-NPs were able to cross biological membranes and to accumulate inside algal cells. Therefore, this study provides a characterization of both physicochemical and toxicological properties of NiO-NPs suspensions in tested media. The use of the freshwater strain of C. vulgaris demonstrated to be a sensitive bioindicator of NiO-NPs toxicity on the viability of green algae.

  20. Photoactive nanocomplex formed from chlorophyll assembly on TMA-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaros, Sibel; Meray, Zeynep; Tecim, Tuğba; Genç, Rükan, E-mail: rukangnc@gmail.com [Mersin University, Functional Nanomaterials Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty (Turkey)

    2016-07-15

    In this study, hierarchical self-assembly of photocatalytic nanodisks through non-covalent interactions between spinach-extracted chlorophyll molecules and trimethylammonium hydroxide-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles was discussed. Combination of chlorophyll molecules with iron oxide nanoparticles generated an alteration in light absorption at both visible and near-IR region with accompanying enhancement in fluorescence emission. Further, photocatalytic role of resulting molecular assembly was studied by means of the photoinduced degradation of methylene blue dye under UV light and direct sun irradiation at neutral pH. In order to enhance the long-term stability of the hybrid nanocatalyst, commercially available cellulose membrane was used as a support and magnetic recovery and reusability was achieved where the nanocatalyst retained more than 90 % of its efficiency even after four cycles. This simple strategy could initiate the development of new materials for wastewater treatment including membrane-based technologies. On the other hand, their sunlight-induced photocatalytic activity could easily be conducted to dye-synthesized solar cells or their enhanced photoluminescence can provide a strong basis for future bioimaging tools.Graphical Abstract.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as calcium-responsive MRI contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Pengfei; Shen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Baolin; Wang, Jun; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SPIONs were conjugated with EGTA by EDC/sulfo-NHS method. • The presence of Ca"2"+ induced the aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs. • The aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs increased the T2 relaxation time. • EGTA-SPIONs can be used for the calcium imaging with MRI. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as T2 contrast agents have great potential to sense calcium ion (Ca"2"+) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we prepared calcium-responsive SPIONs for MRI, formed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) coated iron oxide nanoparticle (PEI/PEG-SPIONs) contrast agents with the straightforward calcium-sensing compound EGTA (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid). EGTA was conjugated onto PEI/PEG-SPIONs using EDC/sulfo-NHS method. EGTA-SPIONs were characterized using TEM, XPS, DSL, TGA and SQUIID. DSL results show that the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca"2"+. MRI analyses indicate that the water proton T2 relaxation rates in HEPES suspensions of the EGTA-SPIONs significantly increase with the calcium concentration because the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca"2"+. The T2 values decreased 25% when Ca"2"+ concentration decreased from 1.2 to 0.8 mM. The aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs could be reversed by EDTA. EGTA-SPIONs have potential as smart contrast agents for Ca"2"+-sensitive MRI.

  2. Chronic exposure of zinc oxide nanoparticles causes deviant phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Avnika Singh; Prasad, Dipti N.; Singh, Shashi Bala; Kohli, Ekta, E-mail: ektakohli@hotmail.com

    2017-04-05

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are commonly used nanomaterials (NMs) with versatile applications from high-end technologies to household products. This pervasive utilisation has brought human in the close interface with nanoparticles (NPs), hence questioning their safety prior to usage is a must. In this study, we have assessed the effects of chronic exposure to ZnO NPs (<50 nm) on the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Potential toxic effects were studied by evaluating longevity, climbing ability, oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Ensuing exposure, the F0 (parent), F1, F2, F3 and F4 generation flies were screened for the aberrant phenotype. Flies exposed to ZnO NPs showed distinctive phenotypic changes, like deformed segmented thorax and single or deformed wing, which were transmitted to the offspring’s in subsequent generations. The unique abnormal phenotype is evident of chronic toxicity induced by ZnO NPs, although appalling, it strongly emphasize the importance to understand NPs toxicity for safer use.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as calcium-responsive MRI contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Jian Gan Road 12, Guilin 541004 (China); Shen, Zhiwei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Dong Xia North Road, Shantou 515041,China (China); Zhang, Baolin, E-mail: baolinzhang@ymail.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Jian Gan Road 12, Guilin 541004 (China); Wang, Jun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Jian Gan Road 12, Guilin 541004 (China); Wu, Renhua, E-mail: rhwu@stu.edu.cn [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Dong Xia North Road, Shantou 515041,China (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • SPIONs were conjugated with EGTA by EDC/sulfo-NHS method. • The presence of Ca{sup 2+} induced the aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs. • The aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs increased the T2 relaxation time. • EGTA-SPIONs can be used for the calcium imaging with MRI. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as T2 contrast agents have great potential to sense calcium ion (Ca{sup 2+}) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here we prepared calcium-responsive SPIONs for MRI, formed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyethylenimine (PEI) coated iron oxide nanoparticle (PEI/PEG-SPIONs) contrast agents with the straightforward calcium-sensing compound EGTA (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid). EGTA was conjugated onto PEI/PEG-SPIONs using EDC/sulfo-NHS method. EGTA-SPIONs were characterized using TEM, XPS, DSL, TGA and SQUIID. DSL results show that the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. MRI analyses indicate that the water proton T2 relaxation rates in HEPES suspensions of the EGTA-SPIONs significantly increase with the calcium concentration because the SPIONs aggregate in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. The T2 values decreased 25% when Ca{sup 2+} concentration decreased from 1.2 to 0.8 mM. The aggregation of EGTA-SPIONs could be reversed by EDTA. EGTA-SPIONs have potential as smart contrast agents for Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive MRI.

  4. Coarsening of Pd nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib; Dahl, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The coarsening of supported palladium nanoparticles in an oxidizing atmosphere was studied in situ by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Specifically, the Pd nanoparticles were dispersed on a planar and amorphous Al2O3 support and were observed during the exposure to 10 mbar technical...... for the Ostwald ripening process indicates that the observed change in the particle size distribution can be accounted for by wetting of the Al2O3 support by the larger Pd nanoparticles....

  5. Synthesis of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles Using Gelatine as a Green Template for Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye

    OpenAIRE

    JAY YANG LEE

    2018-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles were synthesized through sol-gel method with an environmentally friendly templating agent, which is gelatin. The synthesized NiO were characterized to determine the chemical and physical properties of the nanoparticles. The optimum synthesis parameters were used in photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 and Acid Yellow 25 dye to determine the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles.

  6. Cationic nanoparticles induce nanoscale disruption in living cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiumei; Hessler, Jessica A; Putchakayala, Krishna; Panama, Brian K; Khan, Damian P; Hong, Seungpyo; Mullen, Douglas G; Dimaggio, Stassi C; Som, Abhigyan; Tew, Gregory N; Lopatin, Anatoli N; Baker, James R; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Orr, Bradford G

    2009-08-13

    It has long been recognized that cationic nanoparticles induce cell membrane permeability. Recently, it has been found that cationic nanoparticles induce the formation and/or growth of nanoscale holes in supported lipid bilayers. In this paper, we show that noncytotoxic concentrations of cationic nanoparticles induce 30-2000 pA currents in 293A (human embryonic kidney) and KB (human epidermoid carcinoma) cells, consistent with a nanoscale defect such as a single hole or group of holes in the cell membrane ranging from 1 to 350 nm(2) in total area. Other forms of nanoscale defects, including the nanoparticle porating agents adsorbing onto or intercalating into the lipid bilayer, are also consistent; although the size of the defect must increase to account for any reduction in ion conduction, as compared to a water channel. An individual defect forming event takes 1-100 ms, while membrane resealing may occur over tens of seconds. Patch-clamp data provide direct evidence for the formation of nanoscale defects in living cell membranes. The cationic polymer data are compared and contrasted with patch-clamp data obtained for an amphiphilic phenylene ethynylene antimicrobial oligomer (AMO-3), a small molecule that is proposed to make well-defined 3.4 nm holes in lipid bilayers. Here, we observe data that are consistent with AMO-3 making approximately 3 nm holes in living cell membranes.

  7. Laser sintering of magnesia with nanoparticles of iron oxide and aluminum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66451 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Laser sintered MgO pellets with nanoparticles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Characterized these pellets by XRD, SEM and XPS. • Spinel formations were observed in both cases. • Changes in morphology and structure were analyzed. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 20–40 nm) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 50 nm) were mixed in different concentrations (3, 5 and 7 wt%) in a magnesium oxide (MgO) matrix. The mixture pellet was irradiated with 532 nm output from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser using different laser fluence and translation speed for sintering. The refractory samples obtained were analyzed using X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples irradiated at translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2} with a concentration of 5 and 7 wt% of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} presented the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel-type phase. With the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles, at a translation speed of 110 μm/s and energy fluence of 1.7 J/cm{sup 2}, there were the formations of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. The changes in morphologies and microstructure due to laser irradiation were analyzed.

  8. Photoluminescence study on amino functionalized dysprosium oxide-zinc oxide composite bifunctional nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Aswathy; Praveen, G.L; Abha, K.; Lekha, G.M [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Kerala 695581 (India); George, Sony, E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Kerala 695581 (India)

    2012-08-15

    An organic dispersion of 9-15 nm size stable dysprosium oxide incorporated zinc oxide nanocomposites exhibiting luminescence in the visible region has been synthesised by a wet chemical precipitation technique at room temperature. Tetraethoxysilane TEOS [(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}O){sub 4}Si], (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTS) and a 1:1 mixture of TEOS-APTS have been used as capping agents to control the particle size as well as to achieve uniform dispersion of composite nanoparticles in methanol medium. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis reveals the formation phase of amino-functionalised colloidal dysprosium oxide incorporated ZnO composite nanoparticles to be of zincite structure. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images show that the particles are spheroids in shape, having average crystalline sizes ranging from 9 to 15 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) observed in these composites has been attributed to the presence of near band edge excitonic emission and existence of defect centres. The time correlated single photon counting studies of the composite nanoparticles exhibited three decay pathways. The enhanced PL emission intensity of solid state fluorescence spectra of samples is attributed to the absence of vibrational relaxation process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-composites are synthesised using a one step wet chemical precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant fluorescence life time of 8.25 ns is obtained for the nano-composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-composite particles exhibited pale yellow fluorescence rather than blue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vibrational cascade free enhanced fluorescence is obtained for the dry sample.

  9. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for immunoassay using iron oxide nanoparticles as probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jia; Tian, Sizhu; Wang, Kun; Wang, Yang; Zang, Shuang; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2018-02-01

    With the help of iron oxide nanoparticles, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was applied to immunoassay. Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as the ESR probe in order to achieve an amplification of the signal resulting from the large amount of Fe 3+ ion enclosed in each nanoparticle. Rabbit IgG was used as antigen to test this method. Polyclonal antibody of rabbit IgG was used as antibody to detect the antigen. Iron oxide nanoparticle with a diameter of either 10 or 30 nm was labeled to the antibody, and Fe 3+ in the nanoparticle was probed for ESR signal. The sepharose beads were used as solid phase to which rabbit IgG was conjugated. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody was first added in the sample containing antigen, and the antigen-conjugated sepharose beads were then added into the sample. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody bound to the antigen on sepharose beads was separated from the sample by centrifugation and measured. We found that the detection ranges of the antigen obtained with nanoparticles of different sizes were different because the amount of antibody on nanoparticles of 10 nm was about one order of magnitude higher than that on nanoparticles of 30 nm. When 10 nm nanoparticle was used as probe, the upper limit of detection was 40.00 μg mL -1 , and the analytical sensitivity was 1.81 μg mL -1 . When 30 nm nanoparticle was used, the upper limit of detection was 3.00 μg mL -1 , and the sensitivity was 0.014 and 0.13 μg mL -1 depending on the ratio of nanoparticle to antibody. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of procedure and ESR spectra.

  10. Stability of silver nanoparticles: agglomeration and oxidation in biological relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Laura E.; Giacomelli, Carla E.

    2017-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are the most used nanomaterial in consumer products due to the intrinsic antimicrobial capacity of silver. However, Ag-NP may be also harmful to algae, aquatic species, mammalian cells, and higher plants because both Ag+ and nanoparticles are responsible of cell damages. The oxidative dissolution of Ag-NP would proceed to completion under oxic conditions, but the rate and extent of the dissolution depend on several factors. This work correlates the effect of the capping agent (albumin and citrate) with the stability of Ag-NP towards agglomeration in simulated body fluid (SBF) and oxidation in the presence of ROS species (H2O2). Capping provides colloidal stability only through electrostatic means, whereas albumin acts as bulky ligands giving steric and electrostatic repulsion, inhibiting the agglomeration in SBF. However, citrate capping protects Ag-NP from dissolution to a major extent than albumin does because of its reducing power. Moreover, citrate in solution minimizes the oxidation of albumin-coated Ag-NP even after long incubation times. H2O2-induced dissolution proceeds to completion with Ag-NP incubated in SBF, while incubation in citrate leads to an incomplete oxidation. In short, albumin is an excellent capping agent to minimize Ag-NP agglomeration whereas citrate provides a mild-reductive medium that prevents dissolution in biological relevant media as well as in the presence of ROS species. These results provide insight into how the surface properties and media composition affect the release of Ag+ from Ag-NP, related to the cell toxicity and relevant to the storage and lifetime of silver-containing nanomaterials.

  11. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in induction of apoptosis and inflammatory response in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumar, Sumit; Paulraj, R.

    2015-01-01

    The ever increasing applications of engineered nanoparticles in 21st century cause serious concern about its potential health risks on living being. Regulatory health risk assessment of such particles has become mandatory for the safe use of nanomaterials in consumer products and medicines. In order to study the mechanism underlying the effects of nano-TiO 2 (TiO 2 nanoparticles) on the brain, wistar rats were administrated intravenously with various doses of nano-TiO 2 (21 nm) through the caudal vein, once a week for 4 weeks and different parameters such as bioaccumulation of nano-TiO 2 , oxidative stress-mediated response, level of inflammatory markers such as NF-κB (p65), HSP 60, p38, nitric oxide, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and level of neurochemicals in brain as well as DNA damage and expression of apoptosis markers (p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and cyto c) were evaluated. Results show that the concentration of nano-TiO 2 in the brain increased with increasing the doses of nano-TiO 2 . Oxidative stress and injury of the brain occurred as nano-TiO 2 appeared to trigger a cascade of reactions such as inflammation, lipid peroxidation, decreases the activities of antioxidative enzymes and melatonin level, the reduction of glutamic acid, downregulated levels of acetylcholinesterase activities, and the increase in caspase-3 activity (a biomarker of apoptosis), DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis. It may be concluded that nano-TiO 2 induces oxidative stress that leads to activation of inflammatory cytokines and an alteration in the level of neurotransmitters resulted in the induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis

  12. Stability of silver nanoparticles: agglomeration and oxidation in biological relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Laura E.; Giacomelli, Carla E., E-mail: giacomel@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Instituto de Investigaciones en Físico Química de Córdoba (INFIQC) CONICET-UNC, Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas (Argentina)

    2017-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are the most used nanomaterial in consumer products due to the intrinsic antimicrobial capacity of silver. However, Ag-NP may be also harmful to algae, aquatic species, mammalian cells, and higher plants because both Ag{sup +} and nanoparticles are responsible of cell damages. The oxidative dissolution of Ag-NP would proceed to completion under oxic conditions, but the rate and extent of the dissolution depend on several factors. This work correlates the effect of the capping agent (albumin and citrate) with the stability of Ag-NP towards agglomeration in simulated body fluid (SBF) and oxidation in the presence of ROS species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Capping provides colloidal stability only through electrostatic means, whereas albumin acts as bulky ligands giving steric and electrostatic repulsion, inhibiting the agglomeration in SBF. However, citrate capping protects Ag-NP from dissolution to a major extent than albumin does because of its reducing power. Moreover, citrate in solution minimizes the oxidation of albumin-coated Ag-NP even after long incubation times. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced dissolution proceeds to completion with Ag-NP incubated in SBF, while incubation in citrate leads to an incomplete oxidation. In short, albumin is an excellent capping agent to minimize Ag-NP agglomeration whereas citrate provides a mild-reductive medium that prevents dissolution in biological relevant media as well as in the presence of ROS species. These results provide insight into how the surface properties and media composition affect the release of Ag{sup +} from Ag-NP, related to the cell toxicity and relevant to the storage and lifetime of silver-containing nanomaterials.

  13. Permanganate-based synthesis of manganese oxide nanoparticles in ferritin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cameron R.; Smith, Trevor J.; Embley, Jacob S.; Maxfield, Jake H.; Hansen, Kameron R.; Peterson, J. Ryan; Henrichsen, Andrew M.; Erickson, Stephen D.; Buck, David C.; Colton, John S.; Watt, Richard K.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the comproportionation reaction of MnII with {{{{MnO}}}4}- as a route for manganese oxide nanoparticle synthesis in the protein ferritin. We report that {{{{MnO}}}4}- serves as the electron acceptor and reacts with MnII in the presence of apoferritin to form manganese oxide cores inside the protein shell. Manganese loading into ferritin was studied under acidic, neutral, and basic conditions and the ratios of MnII and permanganate were varied at each pH. The manganese-containing ferritin samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/Vis absorption, and by measuring the band gap energies for each sample. Manganese cores were deposited inside ferritin under both the acidic and basic conditions. All resulting manganese ferritin samples were found to be indirect band gap materials with band gap energies ranging from 1.01 to 1.34 eV. An increased UV/Vis absorption around 370 nm was observed for samples formed under acidic conditions, suggestive of MnO2 formation inside ferritin.

  14. Catalytic degradation of brominated flame retardants by copper oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, I.; Yecheskel, Y.; Berkowitz, B.

    2013-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been added to various products like plastic, textile, electronics and synthetic polymers at growing rates. In spite of the clear advantages of reducing fire damages, many of these BFRs may be released to the environment after their beneficial use which may lead to contamination of water resources. In this work we present the catalytic degradation of two brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA) and 2,4 dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) by copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) in aqueous solution. The degradation kinetics, the debromination, and the formation of intermediates by nCuO catalysis are compared to Fenton oxidation and to reduction by nano zero-valent iron (nZVI). The two studied BFRs are shown to degrade fully by the nCuO system within hours to days. Shorter reaction times showed differences in reaction pathways and kinetics for the two compounds. The 2,4-DBP showed faster degradation than TBNPA, by nCuO catalysis. Relatively high resistance to degradation was recorded for 2,4-DBP with nZVI, yielding 20% degradation after 24 h, while the TBNPA was degraded by 85% within 12 hours. A catalytic mechanism for radical generation and BFR degradation by nCuO is proposed. It is further suggested that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of the catalyst.

  15. Engineered nickel oxide nanoparticle causes substantial physicochemical perturbation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Indrani; Bandyopadhyay, Maumita

    2017-11-01

    Concentration of engineered NiO-NP in nature is on the rise, owing to large scale industrial uses and human interventions, which have accreted the scope of exposure especially at the primary trophic levels of the ecosystem. Nickel content in air, drinking water and soil is already above permissible limits in most parts of the developed world. Though nickel oxide is an essential micronutrient in the animal system, it has already been graded as a human carcinogen by WHO, and numerous studies have established the toxic nature of nickel in higher dosage in the animal system. Though studies depicting toxicity and bioaccumulation of nickel in plants is documented, the interaction of nickel oxide nanoparticle with plants is not fully a well-studied, well elucidated topic. What is known is that, exposure to nickel oxide nanoparticle, arouses stress response and leads to cytotoxicity and growth retardation in a handful of plants, a defined work on the intricate physicochemical cellular responses and genotoxic challenges has been so far absent. We have tried to fill in such gaps with this study. We planned the work around pertinent hypotheses like: whether NiO-NP cause cytotoxicity in a model plant system (Allium cepa L.)?If so, does internalization of nickel ion (the potent toxic) take place in the tissue? Does internalized NiO-NP create furore in the antioxidant enzyme system of the plant leading to cytotoxicity? In that case, whether the ENP causes genotoxicity and leads to pycknosis of the cell. The study has been designed to assess the change in biochemical profile and genotoxicity potential of NiO-NP at a wide range of concentrations using root tips of Allium cepa L., the model system for study of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and four of its closest relatives, Allium sativum L., Allium schoenoprasum L., Allium porrum L., Allium fistulosum L., chosen for their immense economic importance. Growing root tips were treated with seven different concentrations of Ni

  16. Samarium oxide as a radiotracer to evaluate the in vivo biodistribution of PLGA nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mandiwana, V

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available the biodistribution of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing samarium-153 oxide ([(sup153)Sm]Sm(sub2)O(sub3)) in vivo to prove that orally administered nanoparticles alter the biodistribution of a drug. These were then activated in a nuclear...

  17. Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motlatle, Abesach M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 18: DOI: 10.1007/s11051-016-3614-8 Chemical synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Cu and its oxide nanoparticles Motlatle AM Kesevan Pillai S Scriba MR Ray SS ABSTRACT: Cu...

  18. Characterization of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Obtained by Hydrolysis Reaction of Ethylene Glycol Solution of Alkoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Uekawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and stable sols of titanium oxide nanoparticles were obtained by heating a mixture of ethylene glycol solution of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TIP and a NH3 aqueous solution at 368 K for 24 h. The concentration of NH3 aqueous solution affected the structure of the obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles. For NH3 aqueous solution concentrations higher than 0.2 mol/L, a mixture of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles and layered titanic acid nanoparticles was obtained. The obtained sol was very stable without formation of aggregated precipitates and gels. Coordination of ethylene glycol to Ti4+ ions inhibited the rapid hydrolysis reaction and aggregation of the obtained nanoparticles. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles had a large specific surface area: larger than 350 m2/g. The obtained titanium oxide nanoparticles showed an enhanced adsorption towards the cationic dye molecules. The selective adsorption corresponded to presence of layered titanic acid on the obtained anatase TiO2 nanoparticles.

  19. After oxidation, zinc nanoparticles lose their ability to enhance responses to odorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Samantha; Daniels, Yasmine; Singletary, Melissa; Pustovyy, Oleg; Globa, Ludmila; MacCrehan, William A; Muramoto, Shin; Stan, Gheorghe; Lau, June W; Morrison, Edward E; Sorokulova, Iryna; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2016-12-01

    Electrical responses of olfactory sensory neurons to odorants were examined in the presence of zinc nanoparticles of various sizes and degrees of oxidation. The zinc nanoparticles were prepared by the underwater electrical discharge method and analyzed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Small (1.2 ± 0.3 nm) zinc nanoparticles significantly enhanced electrical responses of olfactory neurons to odorants. After oxidation, however, these small zinc nanoparticles were no longer capable of enhancing olfactory responses. Larger zinc oxide nanoparticles (15 nm and 70 nm) also did not modulate responses to odorants. Neither zinc nor zinc oxide nanoparticles produced olfactory responses when added without odorants. The enhancement of odorant responses by small zinc nanoparticles was explained by the creation of olfactory receptor dimers initiated by small zinc nanoparticles. The results of this work will clarify the mechanisms for the initial events in olfaction, as well as to provide new ways to alleviate anosmia related to the loss of olfactory receptors.

  20. Trophic transfer of differently coated zinc oxide nanoparticles using crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Winther-Nielsen, M.; Baun, Anders

    During the last couple of years the use of nanoparticles (NP) has dramatically increased. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) have a wide range of applications e.g. in personal care products, paints and semi conductors. However, only a limited number of studies have so far investigated...

  1. Uptake and depuration of three differently functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Winther-Nielsen, Margrete; Baun, Anders

    During the last couple of years the use of nanoparticles (NP) has dramatically increased. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) have a wide range of applications e.g. in personal care products, paints and semi conductors. However, few studies have so far investigated the ecotoxicity of ZnO NP...

  2. Nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals by electromagnetically induced acoustic cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldre, Imants; Bojarevičs, Andris; Grants, Ilmārs; Beinerts, Toms; Kalvāns, Matīss; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of magnetically induced cavitation applied for the purpose of nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals. The oscillating magnetic force due to the azimuthal induction currents and the axial magnetic field excites power ultrasound in the sample. If the fields are sufficiently high then it is possible to achieve the acoustic cavitation threshold in liquid metals. Cavitation bubble collapses are known to create microscale jets with a potential to break nanoparticle agglomerates and disperse them. The samples are solidified under the contactless ultrasonic treatment and later analyzed by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It is observed that SiC nanoparticles are dispersed in an aluminum magnesium alloy, whereas in tin the same particles remain agglomerated in micron-sized clusters despite a more intense cavitation.

  3. Adsorption of polar, nonpolar, and substituted aromatics to colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fang; Haftka, Joris J H; Sinnige, Theo L.; Hermens, Joop L M; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We conducted batch adsorption experiments to understand the adsorptive properties of colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) for a range of environmentally relevant aromatics and substituted aromatics, including model nonpolar compounds (pyrene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, and

  4. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Ink Development for Fully Printed Tunable Radio-Frequency Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad; Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2018-01-01

    . Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are successfully embedded in the SU8 matrix to make a magnetic substrate. The as-fabricated substrate is characterized for its magnetostatic and microwave properties. A frequency tunable printed patch antenna

  5. One-pot synthesis of graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepenienė, V.; Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, L.; Jablonskienė, J.; Semaško, M.; Vaičiūnienė, J.; Vaitkus, R.; Norkus, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles were prepared via microwave synthesis. The composition of prepared catalysts was examined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The shape and size of catalyst particles were determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles was investigated towards the electro-oxidation of methanol in an alkaline medium. It has been found that the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles having the Pt:Co molar ratio 1:7 show the highest activity towards the electro-oxidation of methanol among the catalysts with the Pt:Co molar ratios equal to 1:1 and 1:44, graphene supported bare Co and Pt/C catalysts. - Highlights: • Preparation of graphene supported Pt-Co nanoparticles by microwave synthesis. • Electrocatalysts for oxidation of methanol. • Higher activity of PtCo/graphene towards methanol oxidation.

  6. In vitro screening of metal oxide nanoparticles for effects on neural function using cortical networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data describe the effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on total spikes and active electrodes after exposure to various concentrations for 1, 24 and 48 hrs, or after...

  7. Synthesis of yttrium oxide nanoparticles via a facile microplasma-assisted process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Liangliang; Starostin, Sergey A.; Li, Sirui; Khan, Saif A.; Hessel, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Plasma electrochemistry is an emerging technique for nanomaterial synthesis. The present study reports the preparation of yttrium oxide nanoparticles via a simple, environmentally benign, microplasma-assisted process operated in pin-to-liquid configuration under ambient atmospheric conditions using

  8. One-pot synthesis of graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepenienė, V., E-mail: virginalisk@gmail.com [Department of Catalysis, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT 01108 (Lithuania); Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, L.; Jablonskienė, J.; Semaško, M.; Vaičiūnienė, J. [Department of Catalysis, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT 01108 (Lithuania); Vaitkus, R. [Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT 03225 (Lithuania); Norkus, E. [Department of Catalysis, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT 01108 (Lithuania)

    2016-03-01

    In the present study the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles were prepared via microwave synthesis. The composition of prepared catalysts was examined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The shape and size of catalyst particles were determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles was investigated towards the electro-oxidation of methanol in an alkaline medium. It has been found that the graphene supported platinum–cobalt nanoparticles having the Pt:Co molar ratio 1:7 show the highest activity towards the electro-oxidation of methanol among the catalysts with the Pt:Co molar ratios equal to 1:1 and 1:44, graphene supported bare Co and Pt/C catalysts. - Highlights: • Preparation of graphene supported Pt-Co nanoparticles by microwave synthesis. • Electrocatalysts for oxidation of methanol. • Higher activity of PtCo/graphene towards methanol oxidation.

  9. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide and cerium oxide nanoparticles in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that e...

  10. Evaluation of the sonosensitizing properties of nano-graphene oxide in comparison with iron oxide and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Shiran, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-07-01

    In cancer hyperthermia, ultrasound is considered as an appropriate source of energy to achieve desired therapeutic levels of heating. It is assumed that such a heating is targeted to cancer cells by using nanoparticles as sonosensitization agents. Here, we report the sonosensitizing effects of Nano-Graphene Oxide (NGO) and compare them with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), Iron Oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Experiments were conducted to explore the effects of nanoparticle type and concentration, as well as ultrasound power, on transient heating up of the solutions exposed by 1 MHz ultrasound. Nanoparticles concentration was selected from 0.25 to 2.5 mg/ml and the solutions were exposed by ultrasound powers from 1 to 8 W. Real time temperature monitoring was done by a thermocouple and obtained data was analyzed. Temperature profiles of various nanoparticle solutions showed the higher heating rates, in comparison to water. Heating rise was strongly depended on nanoparticles concentration and ultrasound power. AuNPs showed a superior efficiency in heat generation enhancement in comparison to IONPs and NGO. Our result supports the idea of sonosensitizing capabilities of AuNPs, IONPs, and NGO. Targeted hyperthermia may be achievable by preferential loading of tumor with nanoparticles and subsequent ultrasound irradiation.

  11. Novel titanium oxide nanoparticles for effective delivery of paclitaxel to human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mund, R., E-mail: rachnamund@gmail.com; Panda, N., E-mail: niladri1panda@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering (India); Nimesh, S., E-mail: surendranimesh@curaj.ac.in [Central University of Rajasthan, Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences (India); Biswas, A., E-mail: amitb79@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering (India)

    2014-12-15

    Novel titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were fabricated via a modified propanol drying step. These nanoparticles were loaded with anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) to yield PTX-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were characterized for their size and surface morphology employing nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM images showed spherical particles with smooth surface and narrow size distribution of ∼30–40 nm, which was also supported by NTA analysis data. The drug loading efficiency of the air-dried nanoparticles was observed to be ∼63.61 % while those prepared through propanol-induced drying step showed ∼69.70 %, thereby demonstrating higher efficiency of the latter. In vitro pH-dependent release of the loaded PTX was observed with higher release at acidic pH compared with physiological pH. Cell uptake studies suggested of time-dependent internalization of nanocomposites with significant improvement in uptake by increasing incubation time from 2 to 24 h, as evidenced by flow cytometry. Further, the cell viability as a measure of anti-cancer activity revealed that cell viability upon exposure to PTX only was 40.5 % while that of PTX-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite showed 21.6 % viability after 24 h, suggesting better anti-cancer efficacy of nanocomposites. Apoptosis studies revealed that cells treated with PTX-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites possessed more amount of apoptotic bodies as compared to those treated with PTX only.

  12. Novel lanthanide-labeled metal oxide nanoparticles improve the measurement of in vivo clearance and translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Aamir D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deposition, clearance and translocation of europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles in a mouse lung were investigated experimentally. Nanoparticles were synthesized by spray flame pyrolysis. The particle size, crystallinity and surface properties were characterized. Following instillation, the concentrations of particles in organs were determined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The protein corona coating the nanoparticles was found to be similar to the coating on more environmentally relevant nanoparticles such as iron oxide. Measurements of the solubility of the nanoparticles in surrogates of biological fluids indicated very little propensity for dissolution, and the elemental ratio of particle constituents did not change, adding further support to the contention that intact nanoparticles were measured. The particles were intratracheally instilled into the mouse lung. After 24 hours, the target organs were harvested, acid digested and the nanoparticle mass in each organ was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The nanoparticles were detected in all the studied organs at low ppb levels; 59% of the particles remained in the lung. A significant amount of particles was also detected in the feces, suggesting fast clearance mechanisms. The nanoparticle system used in this work is highly suitable for quantitatively determining deposition, transport and clearance of nanoparticles from the lung, providing a quantified measure of delivered dose.

  13. Linking interfacial chemistry of CO2 to surface structures of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles: hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Irina V; Ponnurangam, Sathish; Somasundaran, Ponisseril

    2013-05-14

    A better understanding of interaction with dissolved CO2 is required to rationally design and model the (photo)catalytic and sorption processes on metal (hydr)oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous media. Using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, we address this problem for rhombohedral 38 nm hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles as a model. We not only resolve the structures of the adsorbed carbonate species, but also specify their adsorption sites and their location on the nanoparticle surface. The spectral relationships obtained present a basis for a new method of characterizing the microscopic structural and acid-base properties (related to individual adsorption sites) of hydrated metal (hydr)oxide NPs using atmospherically derived CO2 as a probe. Specifically, we distinguish two carbonate species suggesting two principally different adsorption mechanisms. One species, which is more weakly adsorbed, has an inner-sphere mononuclear monodentate structure which is formed by a conventional ligand-exchange mechanism. At natural levels of dissolved carbonate and pH from 3 to 11, this species is attached to the most acidic/reactive surface cations (surface states) associated with ferrihydrite-like surface defects. The second species, which is more strongly adsorbed, presents a mixed C and O coordination of bent CO2. This species uniquely recognizes the stoichiometric rhombohedral {104} facets in the NP texture. Like in gas phase, it is formed through the surface coordination of molecular CO2. We address how the adsorption sites hosting these two carbonate species are affected by the annealing and acid etching of the NPs. These results support the nanosize-induced phase transformation of hematite towards ferrihydrite under hydrous conditions, and additionally show that the process starts from the roughened areas of the facet intersections.

  14. in vivo EFFECTS OF RARE-EARTH BASED NANOPARTICLES ON OXIDATIVE BALANCE IN RATS