WorldWideScience

Sample records for oxide ion conductivity

  1. Oxide interfaces with enhanced ion conductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    The new field of nano-ionics is expected to yield large improvements in the performance of oxide-based energy generation and storage devices based on exploiting size effects in ion conducting materials. The search for novel materials with enhanced ionic conductivity for application in energy devices

  2. New lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides related to (Li, La)TiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We describe the synthesis and lithium-ion conductivity of new perovskite-related oxides ... work on lithium-ion conducting perovskite oxides containing d0 cations. Keywords. ..... On the other hand, Nb/Ta compounds show a higher conductivity.

  3. Factors controlling the oxide ion conductivity of fluorite and perovskite structured oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Lybye, D.; Bonanos, N.

    2004-01-01

    Many metal oxides of fluorite and perovskite related structures are oxide ion conductors, which have practical applications in devices such as oxygen sensors, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and electrolysers. Several structural and thermodynamic parameters such as (1) critical radius of the pathway...... such parameters for fluorite and perovskite oxides by considering their sensitivities to the individual ionic radii. Based on experimental data available in the literature, it is argued that lattice distortion (lattice stress and deviation from cubic symmetry) due to ion radii mismatch determines the ionic...... conductivity to a very large extent, and that lattice distortion is of much greater importance than many other proposed parameters. In case of the perovskites, the charge of the B-site ion is also of major importance. (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  4. Proton and oxide ion conductivity of doped LaScO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybye, D.; Bonanos, N.

    1999-01-01

    . At temperatures below 800 degrees C and low partial pressure of oxygen, proton conduction was dominant. Above this temperature, the ionic conductivity is dominated by oxide ion transport. The protonic transport number was estimated from the conductivities measured in dry and in water-moisturised gas. An isotope......The conductivity of La0.9Sr0.1Sc0.9Mg0.1O3 has been studied by impedance spectroscopy in controlled atmospheres. The material was found to be a mixed conductor with p-type conduction at high oxygen partial pressures and a combined proton and oxide ion conductor at low oxygen partial pressures...

  5. A study of tritium behavior in lithium oxide by ion conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kenji; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Hideo; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    1989-01-01

    Ion conductivity of lithium oxide (Li 2 O) irradiated with oxygen ions was measured to obtain information about the effects of irradiation on the behavior of lithium ions and tritium. The conductivity around 490 K decreased with the ion fluence, while around 440 K it increased. The decrease around 490 K and the increase around 440 K were assumed to be attributed to the F + centers and the unspecified radiation defects, respectively. From the point of view that the rate determinant in the mechanism of diffusion of lithium ions in Li 2 O leading to the ion conductivity is the same as that of tritium, the diffusivity of tritium is assumed to be as follows: the diffusivity of tritium is decreased by the F + centers in the range from 490 K to the temperature at which almost all of F + centers are recovered, while it is increased around 440 K by the unspecified radiation defects. In addition, effects of the irradiation on valence states of tritium (i.e., T + , T - ) were discussed in terms of the radiation defects. (orig.)

  6. Oxide-ion and proton conducting electrolyte materials for clean energy applications: structural and mechanistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Fisher, Craig A J; Islam, M Saiful

    2010-11-01

    This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of oxide materials exhibiting fast oxide-ion or proton conductivity for use as solid electrolytes in clean energy applications such as solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between structural and mechanistic features of the crystalline materials and their ion conduction properties. After describing well-established classes such as fluorite- and perovskite-based oxides, new materials and structure-types are presented. These include a variety of molybdate, gallate, apatite silicate/germanate and niobate systems, many of which contain flexible structural networks, and exhibit different defect properties and transport mechanisms to the conventional materials. It is concluded that the rich chemistry of these important systems provides diverse possibilities for developing superior ionic conductors for use as solid electrolytes in fuel cells and related applications. In most cases, a greater atomic-level understanding of the structures, defects and conduction mechanisms is achieved through a combination of experimental and computational techniques (217 references).

  7. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Ionic conductivity of metal oxides : an essential property for all-solid-state Lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Eichel, R.-A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Essential progress has been made for adopting metal oxides (MeO) in various energy storage and energy conversion applications. Among these, utilizing MeO in Lithium-ions batteries (LIBs) seems to be one of the most promising applications. In particular, conductive Li-containing oxides or

  9. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Hemant Kr.; Avasthi, D.K.; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The objective is to study the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on photoanode of DSSC for better efficiency. •This work presents the effect of SHI irradiation on various Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). •Effects are studied in terms of conductivity and transmittance of TCOs. •ITO-PET gives best results in comparison to ITO and FTO for DSSC application under SHI irradiation. -- Abstract: Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO 2 :F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In 2 O 3 :Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag +9 ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 10 11 ions/cm 2 to 3.0 × 10 13 ions/cm 2 . The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications

  10. Formation of high oxide ion conductive phases in the sintered oxides of the system Bi2O3-Ln2O3 (Ln = La-Yb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, H.; Esaka, T.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical conduction in various phases of the system Bi 2 O 3 -Ln 2 O 3 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, or Yb) was investigated by measuring ac conductivity and the emf of the oxygen gas concentration cell. High-oxide-ion conduction was observed in the rhombohedral and face-centered cubic (fcc) phase in these systems. The fcc phase could be stabilized over a wide range of temperature by adding a certain amount of Ln 2 O 3 . In these cases, the larger the atomic number of Ln, the lower the content of Ln 2 O 3 required to form the fcc solid solution, except in the case of Yb 2 O 3 . The oxide ion conductivity of this phase decreased with increasing content of Ln 2 O 3 . Maximum conductivity was obtained at the lower limit of the fcc solid solution formation range in each system, which was more than one order of magnitude higher than those of conventional stabilized zirconias. Lattice parameters of the fcc phase were calculated from the x-ray diffraction patterns. The relationship between the oxide ion conductivity and the lattice parameter was also discussed

  11. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Hemant Kr. [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, Post Box 10502, New Delhi (India); Aggarwal, Shruti, E-mail: shruti.al@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: •The objective is to study the effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on photoanode of DSSC for better efficiency. •This work presents the effect of SHI irradiation on various Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). •Effects are studied in terms of conductivity and transmittance of TCOs. •ITO-PET gives best results in comparison to ITO and FTO for DSSC application under SHI irradiation. -- Abstract: Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO{sub 2}:F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag{sup +9} ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 3.0 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications.

  12. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G.; Hucknall, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO 5 have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb 3 O 10 together with small proportions of Sb 2 O 4 and USbO 5 ) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO 5 . Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO 5 in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation. (author)

  13. Electrical conductivity of uranium-antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golunski, S.E.; Nevell, T.G. (Portsmouth Polytechnic (UK)); Hucknall, D.J. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1985-05-01

    The relative ionic and electronic contributions to the electrical conductivity of a uranium-antimony oxide catalyst and of USbO/sub 5/ have been determined from measurements of a.c. and d.c. conductance. Under inert atmospheres (390 to 775 K) conduction in the catalyst (predominantly USb/sub 3/O/sub 10/ together with small proportions of Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and USbO/sub 5/) is associated with both electronic and effectively charged atomic point defects. Only electronic conduction occurs in USbO/sub 5/. Under oxygen (10 to 70 kPa, 493 to 682 K) both materials are n-type semiconductors at higher temperatures, but at lower temperatures semiconducting behaviour varies with the pressure of oxygen. Heating USbO/sub 5/ in oxygen induces an ionic contribution to conductivity. Ionic conduction in the catalyst is eliminated by heating in hydrogen or propene at 470 K but is restored by heating in oxygen. It is suggested that both charged oxygen vacancies and interstitial oxide ions are involved in interactions of gaseous components with uranium-antimony oxides. With alkenes, interstitial oxide ions give rise to the products of selective partial oxidation.

  14. Local structure and oxide-ion conduction mechanism in apatite-type lanthanum silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Olivier; Berghout, Abid; Béchade, Emilie; Jouin, Jenny; Thomas, Philippe; Asaka, Toru; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    The local structure of apatite-type lanthanum silicates of general formula La 9.33+x (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2+3x/2 has been investigated by combining the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method, conventional X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT was used to build structure models with stable positions of excess oxide ions within the conduction channel. Two stable interstitial positions were obtained in accordance with literature, the first one located at the very periphery of the conduction channel, neighbouring the SiO 4 tetrahedral units, and the second one closer to the channel axis. The corresponding PDFs and average structures were then calculated and tested against experimental PDFs obtained by X-ray total scattering and NPD Rietveld refinements results gathered from literature. It was shown that of the two stable interstitial positions obtained with DFT only the second one located within the channel is consistent with experimental data. This result consolidates one of the two main conduction mechanisms along the c-axis reported in the literature, namely the one involving cooperative movement of O4 and Oi ions.

  15. Speculations on the existence of hydride ions in proton conducting oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F.W.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical and physical nature of the hydride ion is briefly treated. Several reactions of the hydride ion in oxides or oxygen atmosphere are given, A number of perovskites and inverse perovskites are listed. which contain the H- ion on the oxygen or B-anion sites in the archetype ABO(3) System...

  16. Effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on transparent conducting oxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hemant Kr.; Avasthi, D. K.; Aggarwal, Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are used as electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their properties such as high transmittance and low resistivity. In the present work, the effects of swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation on various types of TCOs are presented. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SHI on TCOs. For the present study, three different types of TCOs are considered, namely, (a) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide, SnO2:F) on a Nippon glass substrate, (b) ITO (indium tin oxide, In2O3:Sn) coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on a Corning glass substrate, and (c) ITO on a Corning glass substrate. These films are irradiated with 120 MeV Ag+9 ions at fluences ranging from 3.0 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 3.0 × 1013 ions/cm2. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties are studied via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and four-probe resistivity measurements, respectively. The ITO-PET electrode is found to exhibit superior conductivity and transmittance properties in comparison with the others after irradiation and, therefore, to be the most suitable for solar cell applications.

  17. Lithium ion conductivity of molecularly compatibilized chitosan-poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane)-poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, S.; Retuert, P.J.; Gonzalez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Films of composites of chitosan/poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane)/poly(ethylene oxide) (CHI/pAPS/PEO) containing a fixed amount of lithium salt are studied. The ternary composition diagram of the composites, reporting information on the mechanic stability, the transparence and the electrical conductivity of the films, shows there is a window in which the molecular compatibility of the components is optimal. In this window, defined by the components ratios CHI/PEO 3:2, pAPS/PEO 2:3 and CHI/PEO 1:2, there is a particular composition Li x (CHI) 1 (PEO) 2 (pAPS) 1.2 for which the conductivity reaches a value of 1.7 x 10 -5 S cm -1 at near room temperature. Considering the balance between the Lewis acid and basic sites available in the component and the observed stoichiometry limits of formed polymer complexes, the conductivity values of these products may be understood by the formation of a layered structure in which the lithium ions, stabilized by the donors, poly(ethylene oxide) and/or poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane), are intercalated in a chitosan matrix

  18. Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The oxidation processes at the interface between different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V versus Li/Li+ were investigated. Depending on the nature and surface area of the carbon

  19. Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (R-SOFCs) with chemically stable proton-conducting oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Proton-conducting oxides offer a promising way of lowering the working temperature of solid oxide cells to the intermediate temperate range (500 to 700. °C) due to their better ionic conductivity. In addition, the application of proton-conducting oxides in both solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sold oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) provides unique advantages compared with the use of conventional oxygen-ion conducting conductors, including the formation of water at the air electrode site. Since the discovery of proton conduction in some oxides about 30. years ago, the development of proton-conducting oxides in SOFCs and SOECs (the reverse mode of SOFCs) has gained increased attention. This paper briefly summarizes the development in the recent years of R-SOFCs with proton-conducting electrolytes, focusing on discussing the importance of adopting chemically stable materials in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. The development of electrode materials for proton-conducting R-SOFCs is also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Formation of conductive polymers using nitrosyl ion as an oxidizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoung-Shin; Jung, Yongju; Singh, Nikhilendra

    2016-06-07

    A method of forming a conductive polymer deposit on a substrate is disclosed. The method may include the steps of preparing a composition comprising monomers of the conductive polymer and a nitrosyl precursor, contacting the substrate with the composition so as to allow formation of nitrosyl ion on the exterior surface of the substrate, and allowing the monomer to polymerize into the conductive polymer, wherein the polymerization is initiated by the nitrosyl ion and the conductive polymer is deposited on the exterior surface of the substrate. The conductive polymer may be polypyrrole.

  1. Electrochemical investigations of ion-implanted oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.W.; Danzfuss, B.; Meyer, O.; Stimming, U.

    1985-01-01

    Oxide films (passive films) of 40-50 nm thickness were prepared by anodic polarization of hafnium and titanium electrodes up to 20 V. Multiple-energy ion implantation of palladium, iron and xenon was used in order to obtain modified films with constant concentration profiles of the implanted ions. Rutherford backscattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and electrochemical charging curves prove the presence of implanted ions, but electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the dominating effect of ion implantation is the disordering of the oxide film. The capacity of hafnium electrodes increases as a result of an increase in the dielectric constant D. For titanium the Schottky-Mott analysis shows that ion implantation causes an increase in D and the donor concentration N. Additional electronic states in the band gap which are created by the implantation improve the conductivity of the semiconducting or insulating films. This is seen in the enhancement of electron transfer reactions and its disappearance during repassivation and annealing. Energy changes in the band gap are derived from photoelectrochemical measurements; the absorption edge of hafnium oxide films decreases by approximately 2 eV because of ion implantation, but it stays almost constant for titanium oxide films. All changes in electrochemical behavior caused by ion implantation show little variation with the nature of the implanted ion. Hence the dominating effect seems to be a disordering of the oxide. (Auth.)

  2. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  3. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-12-23

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn 4+ with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g -1 based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions.

  4. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn4+ with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g−1 based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions. PMID:28008955

  5. Ionic Conductivity and its Role in Oxidation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Mazin Abdulla

    In the field of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a substantial portion of research is focused on the ability of some oxide materials to conduct oxygen anions through their structure. For electrolytes, the benefits of improving bulk transport of ions are obvious: decrease the resistive losses of the electrolyte, and device efficiency goes up and higher power densities are possible. Even for cathode materials, better bulk ion transport leads to an increase in the oxygen exchange rate at the cathode surface, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the cathode surface is the rate limiting step for SOFC operation at intermediate temperatures (500-700ºC). As operation in this regime is a key step towards lowering the manufacturing cost and increasing the lifetime of devices, much effort is spent searching for new, more conductive materials, and analyzing existing materials to discover the structure-activity relationships that influence ionic conductivity. In the first part of this work, an overview is given of the neutron powder diffraction (NPD) techniques that are used to probe the structure of the materials in later parts. In the second part, NPD was used to analyze the structures of perovskite-type cathode materials, and show that increases in bulk conductivity led to increases in the surface oxygen exchange rate of these materials. In the final part, the methods used for SOFC cathode design were applied towards the design of oxide catalysts used for certain hydrocarbon partial oxidation reactions. The reactions studied follow the Mars van Krevelen mechanism, where oxygen atoms in the catalyst are consumed as part of the reaction and are subsequently replenished by oxygen in the gas phase. Similar to SOFC cathode operation, these processes include an oxygen reduction step, so it was hypothesized that increasing the ionic conductivity of the catalysts would improve their performance, just as it does for SOFC cathode materials. While the results are preliminary, the

  6. Nanoionics phenomenon in proton-conducting oxide: Effect of dispersion of nanosize platinum particles on electrical conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshige Matsumoto et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature proton conductors are oxides in which low-valence cations are doped as electron acceptors; the incorporation of water molecules into the oxides results in the formation of protonic defects that act as charge carriers. Since the protons thus formed are in equilibrium with other electronic defects, electrons and holes, the oxides possibly have different proton-conduction properties at and near boundaries when they are in contact with another phase. In this paper, we present our recent experimental observation of a marked change in the electrical properties of a proton conductor upon the dispersal of fine platinum particles in the oxide. First, the material shows extremely low electrical conductivity in comparison with the original proton-conducting perovskite. Second, there was a threshold amount of platinum at which such a drop in conductivity occurred. A percolation model is employed to explain these experimental results; the fine platinum particles dispersed in the proton-conducting oxide wears highly resistive skin that is formed due to shifts in defect equilibriums, which prevents ionic/electronic conduction. The experiments suggest that the ion-conducting properties of oxides can be varied by introducing interfaces at a certain density; nanoionics is a key to yielding enhanced and/or controlled ionic conduction in solids.

  7. Comparison of oxidation resistance of copper treated by beam-line ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Quanzhang; Li Liuhe; Hu Tao; Xin Yunchang; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Cai Xun; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Copper which has many favorable properties such as low cost, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as easy fabrication and joining is one of the main materials in lead frames, interconnects, and foils in flexible circuits. Furthermore, copper is one of the best antibacterial materials. However, unlike aluminum oxide or chromium oxide, the surface copper oxide layer does not render sufficient protection against oxidation. In this work, in order to improve the surface oxidation resistance of Cu, Al and N were introduced into copper by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and beam-line ion implantation (BII). The implantation fluences of Al and N were 2 x 10 17 ions cm -2 and 5 x 10 16 ions cm -2 , respectively. The implanted and untreated copper samples were oxidized in air at 260 deg. C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that both implantation methods can enhance the oxidation resistance of copper but to different extent. PIII is superior to BII in enhancing the oxidation resistance of copper. The effects and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Ionomers for Ion-Conducting Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Ralph

    For ionic actuators and battery separators, it is vital to utilize single-ion conducting ionomers that avoid the detrimental polarization of other ions. Single-ion conducting ionomers are synthesized based on DFT calculations, with low glass transition temperatures (facile dynamics) to prepare ion-conducting membranes for battery separators that conduct Li+ or Na+. Characterization by X-ray scattering, dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, NMR and linear viscoelasticity collectively develop a coherent picture of ionic aggregation and both counterion and polymer dynamics. 7Li NMR diffusion measurements find that diffusion is faster than expected by conductivity using the Nernst-Einstein equation, which means that the majority of Li diffusion occurs by ion pairs moving with the polymer segmental motion. Segmental motion only contributes to ionic conduction in the rare event that one of these ion pairs has an extra Li (a positive triple ion). This leads us to a new metric for ion-conducting soft materials, the product of the cation number density p0 and their diffusion coefficient D; p0D is the diffusive flux of lithium ions. This new metric has a maximum at intermediate ion content that corresponds to the overlap of ion pair polarizability volumes. At higher ion contents, the ion pairs interact strongly and form larger aggregation states that retard segmental motion of both mobile ion pairs and triple ions.

  9. Ion implantation induced conducting nano-cluster formation in PPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Patnaik, A.; Ghosh, G.; Dhara, S.

    1997-01-01

    Conversion of polymers and non-polymeric organic molecules from insulating to semiconducting materials as an effect of energetic ion implantation is an established fact. Formation of nano-clusters enriched with carbonaceous materials are made responsible for the insulator-semiconductor transition. Conduction in these implanted materials is observed to follow variable range hopping (VRH) mechanism. Poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide) [PPO] compatible in various proportion with polystyrene is used as a high thermal resistant insulating polymer. PPO has been used for the first time in the ion implantation study

  10. Single-ion conducting diblock terpolymers for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melody; Epps, Thomas H., III

    Block polymer (BP) electrolytes provide an attractive route to overcome the competing constraints of high conductivity and mechanical/thermal stability in lithium-ion batteries through nanoscale self-assembly. For example, macromolecules can be engineered such that one domain conducts lithium ions and the other prevents lithium dendrite formation. Herein, we report on the behavior of a single-ion conducting BP electrolyte that was designed to facilitate the transport of lithium ions. These polymers differ from traditional salt-doped BP electrolytes, which require the addition of a lithium salt to bestow conductivity and typically suffer from substantial counterion motion that reduces efficiency. New single-ion BPs were synthesized, and the nanoscale morphologies were determined using small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Electrolyte performance was measured using AC impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization, and the results were correlated to nanoscale morphology and ion content. Enhanced physical understanding of single-ion BPs was gained by connecting the ion mobility to the chemistry, chain structure, and ion content of the single-ion BP. These studies can be applied to other charged-neutral block polymers to elucidate the effects of ion content on self-assembly and macroscopic properties.

  11. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  12. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Alvi, Farah; Yasir Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbotabad 22060 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) center, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO-BOX 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Mohsin, Munazza [Department of Physics, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, 54000 (Pakistan); Javed, Muhammad Sufyan [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhu, Bin, E-mail: binzhu@kth.se, E-mail: zhubin@hubu.edu.cn [Department of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science/Faculty of Computer and Information, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei 430062 (China)

    2015-11-02

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O{sup −2} (oxygen ions) and H{sup +} (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  13. Composite electrolyte with proton conductivity for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Rizwan; Ahmed, Akhlaq; Akram, Nadeem; Saleem, Muhammad; Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Ajmal Khan, M.; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Shakir, Imran; Mohsin, Munazza; Alvi, Farah; Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Yasir Rafique, M.; Zhu, Bin

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, cost-effective nanocomposite electrolyte (Ba-SDC) oxide is developed for efficient low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LTSOFCs). Analysis has shown that dual phase conduction of O-2 (oxygen ions) and H+ (protons) plays a significant role in the development of advanced LTSOFCs. Comparatively high proton ion conductivity (0.19 s/cm) for LTSOFCs was achieved at low temperature (460 °C). In this article, the ionic conduction behaviour of LTSOFCs is explained by carrying out electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Further, the phase and structure analysis are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Finally, we achieved an ionic transport number of the composite electrolyte for LTSOFCs as high as 0.95 and energy and power density of 90% and 550 mW/cm2, respectively, after sintering the composite electrolyte at 800 °C for 4 h, which is promising. Our current effort toward the development of an efficient, green, low-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with the incorporation of high proton conductivity composite electrolyte may open frontiers in the fields of energy and fuel cell technology.

  14. Electrochemical studies of ferrocene in a lithium ion conducting organic carbonate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoire, Cormac O.; Plichta, Edward; Hendrickson, Mary; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Abraham, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a detailed study of the kinetics of oxidation of ferrocene (Fc) to ferrocenium ion (Fc + ) in the non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte composed of a solution of 1 M LiPF 6 in 1:1 EC:EMC solvent mixture. This study using cyclic (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry showed that the Fc 0 /Fc + redox couple is reversible in this highly concentrated electrolyte. The ferrocene and ferrocenium ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from these results. In addition, the electron transfer rate constant (k 0 ) and the exchange current density for the oxidation of ferrocene were determined. A comparison of the kinetic data obtained from the two electrochemical techniques appears to show that the data from the RDE experiments are more reliable because they are collected under strict mass transport control. A Tafel slope of c.a. 79 mV/decade and a transfer coefficient α of 0.3 obtained from analysis of the RDE data for ferrocene oxidation suggest that the structure of the activated complex is closer to that of the oxidized specie due to strong interactions with the carbonate solvents. The experiments reported here are relevant to the study of redox reagents for the chemical overcharge protection of Li-ion batteries.

  15. Sodium-Ion Intercalated Transparent Conductors with Printed Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Gu, Feng; Bao, Wenzhong; Dai, Jiaqi; Shen, Fei; Luo, Wei; Han, Xiaogang; Urban, Daniel; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-06-10

    In this work, we report for the first time that Na-ion intercalation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can significantly improve its printed network's performance as a transparent conductor. Unlike pristine graphene that inhibits Na-ion intercalation, the larger layer-layer distance of RGO allows Na-ion intercalation, leading to simultaneously much higher DC conductivity and higher optical transmittance. The typical increase of transmittance from 36% to 79% and decrease of sheet resistance from 83k to 311 Ohms/sq in the printed network was observed after Na-ion intercalation. Compared with Li-intercalated graphene, Na-ion intercalated RGO shows much better environmental stability, which is likely due to the self-terminating oxidation of Na ions on the RGO edges. This study demonstrated the great potential of metal-ion intercalation to improve the performance of printed RGO network for transparent conductor applications.

  16. Versatile Coating of Lithium Conductive Li2TiF6 on Over-lithiated Layered Oxide in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Wonchang; Benayard, Anass; Park, Jin-Hwan; Park, Junho; Doo, Seok-Gwang; Mun, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 2 TiF 6 coating was designed to grow surface lithium conductivity and stability. • We conducted an easy and versatile Li 2 TiF 6 lithium conductive coating on cathode. • The coating was performed very simply by ambient-temperature co-precipitation. • After the coating, rate capability, cycleability and thermal stability improved. - Abstract: We demonstrate an easy and versatile approach to modify a cathode-surface with a highly lithium–ion conductive layer by coating it with Li 2 TiF 6 . The thin and homogeneous Li 2 TiF 6 coating is introduced onto an over-lithiated layered oxide (OLO, namely Li 1.17 Ni 0.17 Co 0.1 Mn 0.56 O 2 ) surface via simple co-precipitation at ambient temperature by using Li 2 CO 3 and H 2 TiF 6 aqueous solutions. The lithium–conductive fluoride coating is expected to effectively suppress the undesired electrochemical and thermal interfacial reactions involving the OLO, which is critical in improving cycle performance and thermal stability. After Li 2 TiF 6 surface modification, the coated OLO materials showed high rate capability as well as long cyclability and improved thermal stability. The crystalline structure and surface microstructure of the prepared OLOs were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultimately, the performances of the assembled lithium ion batteries were thoroughly investigated by electrochemical methods and thermal analysis

  17. Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-11-21

    The oxidation processes at the interface between different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V versus Li/Li+ were investigated. Depending on the nature and surface area of the carbon additive, the irreversible capacity during galvanostatic cycling between 2.75 and 5.25 V versus Li/Li+ could be as high as 700 mAh g-1 (of carbon). In the potential region below 5 V versus Li/Li+, high surface carbon additives also showed irreversible plateaus at about 4.1-4.2 and 4.6 V versus Li/Li+. These plateaus disappeared after thermal treatments at or above 150 °C in inert gas. The influence of the irreversible capacity of carbon additives on the overall performances of positive electrodes was discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  18. Steam electrolysis by solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) with proton-conducting oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Boulfrad, Samir; Traversa, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Energy crisis and environmental problems caused by the conventional combustion of fossil fuels boost the development of renewable and sustainable energies. H2 is regarded as a clean fuel for many applications and it also serves as an energy carrier for many renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. Among all the technologies for H2 production, steam electrolysis by solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency and low environmental impact, provided that the needed electrical power is generated from renewable sources. However, the deployment of SOECs based on conventional oxygen-ion conductors is limited by several issues, such as high operating temperature, hydrogen purification from water, and electrode stability. To avoid these problems, proton-conducting oxides are proposed as electrolyte materials for SOECs. This review paper provides a broad overview of the research progresses made for proton-conducting SOECs, summarizing the past work and finding the problems for the development of proton-conducting SOECs, as well as pointing out potential development directions.

  19. Steam electrolysis by solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) with proton-conducting oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Boulfrad, Samir; Traversa, Enrico

    2014-12-21

    Energy crisis and environmental problems caused by the conventional combustion of fossil fuels boost the development of renewable and sustainable energies. H2 is regarded as a clean fuel for many applications and it also serves as an energy carrier for many renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. Among all the technologies for H2 production, steam electrolysis by solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency and low environmental impact, provided that the needed electrical power is generated from renewable sources. However, the deployment of SOECs based on conventional oxygen-ion conductors is limited by several issues, such as high operating temperature, hydrogen purification from water, and electrode stability. To avoid these problems, proton-conducting oxides are proposed as electrolyte materials for SOECs. This review paper provides a broad overview of the research progresses made for proton-conducting SOECs, summarizing the past work and finding the problems for the development of proton-conducting SOECs, as well as pointing out potential development directions.

  20. Comparison of reduction products from graphite oxide and graphene oxide for anode applications in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yige; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Li, Jing; Zhu, Da-Ming; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-02-16

    Hydrazine-reduced graphite oxide and graphene oxide were synthesized to compare their performances as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries. Reduced graphite oxide inherits the layer structure of graphite, with an average spacing between neighboring layers (d-spacing) of 0.374 nm; this exceeds the d-spacing of graphite (0.335 nm). The larger d-spacing provides wider channels for transporting lithium ions and sodium ions in the material. We showed that reduced graphite oxide as an anode in lithium-ion batteries can reach a specific capacity of 917 mA h g -1 , which is about three times of 372 mA h g -1 , the value expected for the LiC 6 structures on the electrode. This increase is consistent with the wider d-spacing, which enhances lithium intercalation and de-intercalation on the electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries with reduced graphite oxide anodes show a noticeable improvement compared to those with reduced graphene oxide anodes. This improvement indicates that reduced graphite oxide, with larger interlayer spacing, has fewer defects and is thus more stable. In summary, we found that reduced graphite oxide may be a more favorable form of graphene for the fabrication of electrodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  1. Dense ceramic membranes based on ion conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.L.; Larring, Y.; Bredesen, R.; Norby, T.; Grande, T.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent progress made in the fields of high temperature oxygen and hydrogen separation membranes. Studies of membranes for oxygen separation are mainly focusing on materials design to improve flux, and to lesser extent, related to stability issues. High oxygen fluxes satisfying industrial requirements can be obtained but, for many materials, the surface exchange rate is limiting the performance. The current status on electrolyte-type and mixed proton and electron conducting membranes is outlined, highlighting materials with improved stability in typical applications as solid oxide fuel cell technology and gas separation. In our presentation more fundamental aspects related to transport properties, chemical and mechanical stability of membrane materials are also treated. It is concluded that a significantly better understanding of the long term effects of operation in chemical gradients is needed for these types of membrane materials. (authors)

  2. Atomic Scale Picture of the Ion Conduction Mechanism in Tetrahedral Network of Lanthanum Barium Gallate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalarvo, Niina H [ORNL; Gourdon, Olivier [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Gout, Delphine J [ORNL; Ohl, Michael E [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Combined experimental study of impedance spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and quasielastic neutron scattering was performed to shed light into the atomic scale ion migration processes in proton and oxide ion conductor; La0.8Ba1.2GaO3.9 . This material consist of tetrahedral GaO4 units, which are rather flexible and rocking motion of these units promotes the ionic migration process. The oxide ion (vacancy) conduction takes place on channels along c axis, involving a single elementary step, which occurs between adjacent tetrahedron (inter-tetrahedron jump). The proton conduction mechanism consists of intra-tetrahedron and inter-tetrahedron elementary processes. The intra-tetrahedron proton transport is the rate-limiting process, with activation energy of 0.44 eV. The rocking motion of the GaO4 tetrahedron aids the inter-tetrahedral proton transport, which has the activation energy of 0.068 eV.

  3. A family of oxide ion conductors based on the ferroelectric perovskite Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Pietrowski, Martha J; De Souza, Roger A; Zhang, Huairuo; Reaney, Ian M; Cook, Stuart N; Kilner, John A; Sinclair, Derek C

    2014-01-01

    Oxide ion conductors find important technical applications in electrochemical devices such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), oxygen separation membranes and sensors. Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) is a well-known lead-free piezoelectric material; however, it is often reported to possess high leakage conductivity that is problematic for its piezo- and ferroelectric applications. Here we report this high leakage to be oxide ion conduction due to Bi-deficiency and oxygen vacancies induced during materials processing. Mg-doping on the Ti-site increases the ionic conductivity to ~0.01 S cm(-1) at 600 °C, improves the electrolyte stability in reducing atmospheres and lowers the sintering temperature. This study not only demonstrates how to adjust the nominal NBT composition for dielectric-based applications, but also, more importantly, gives NBT-based materials an unexpected role as a completely new family of oxide ion conductors with potential applications in intermediate-temperature SOFCs and opens up a new direction to design oxide ion conductors in perovskite oxides.

  4. Negative secondary ion emission from oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaser, H.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1984-01-01

    The emission of negative secondary ions from 23 elements was studied for 10 keV O 2 + and 10 keV In + impact at an angle of incidence of 45 0 . Partial oxidation of the sample surfaces was achieved by oxygen bombardment and/or by working at a high oxygen partial pressure. It was found that the emission of oxide ions shows an element-characteristic pattern. For the majority of the elements investigated these features are largely invariant against changes of the surface concentration of oxygen. For the others admission of oxygen strongly changes the relative intensities of oxide ions: a strong increase of MO 3 - signals (M stands for the respective element) is accompanied by a decrease of MO - and M - intensities. Different primary species frequently induce changes of both the relative and the absolute negative ion intensities. Carbon - in contrast to all other elements - does not show any detectable oxide ion emission but rather intense cluster ions Csub(n) - (detected up to n=12) whose intensities oscillate in dependence on n. (orig./RK)

  5. Ion conducting polymers and polymer blends for alkali metal ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Pandya, Ashish; Wong, Dominica; Vitale, Alessandra

    2017-08-29

    Electrolyte compositions for batteries such as lithium ion and lithium air batteries are described. In some embodiments the compositions are liquid compositions comprising (a) a homogeneous solvent system, said solvent system comprising a perfluropolyether (PFPE) and polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal salt dissolved in said solvent system. In other embodiments the compositions are solid electrolyte compositions comprising: (a) a solid polymer, said polymer comprising a crosslinked product of a crosslinkable perfluropolyether (PFPE) and a crosslinkable polyethylene oxide (PEO); and (b) an alkali metal ion salt dissolved in said polymer. Batteries containing such compositions as electrolytes are also described.

  6. Effect of calcium oxide on the efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation during ferrous ion oxidation in simulated acid mine drainage treatment with inoculation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Jun; Jin, Tongjun; Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Lanlan

    2016-01-01

    Calcium oxide was added into ferrous ion oxidation system in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans at concentrations of 0-4.00 g/L. The pH, ferrous ion oxidation efficiency, total iron precipitation efficiency, and phase of the solid minerals harvested from different treatments were investigated during the ferrous ion oxidation process. In control check (CK) system, pH of the solution decreased from 2.81 to 2.25 when ferrous ions achieved complete oxidation after 72 h of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans incubation without the addition of calcium oxide, and total iron precipitation efficiency reached 20.2%. Efficiency of ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation was significantly improved when the amount of calcium oxide added was ≤1.33 g/L, and the minerals harvested from systems were mainly a mixture of jarosite and schwertmannite. For example, the ferrous ion oxidation efficiency reached 100% at 60 h and total iron precipitation efficiency was increased to 32.1% at 72 h when 1.33 g/L of calcium oxide was added. However, ferrous ion oxidation and total iron precipitation for jarosite and schwertmannite formation were inhibited if the amount of calcium oxide added was above 2.67 g/L, and large amounts of calcium sulfate dihydrate were generated in systems.

  7. Ionic conductivity in oxide heterostructures: the role of interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Fabbri, Daniele Pergolesi and Enrico Traversa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing attention is being directed to the investigation of ionic conductivity in oxide film heterostructures. The main reason for this interest arises from interfacial phenomena in these heterostructures and their applications. Recent results revealed that heterophase interfaces have faster ionic conduction pathways than the bulk or homophase interfaces. This finding can open attractive opportunities in the field of micro-ionic devices. The influence of the interfaces on the conduction properties of heterostructures is becoming increasingly important with the miniaturization of solid-state devices, which leads to an enhanced interface density at the expense of the bulk. This review aims to describe the main evidence of interfacial phenomena in ion-conducting film heterostructures, highlighting the fundamental and technological relevance and offering guidelines to understanding the interface conduction mechanisms in these structures.

  8. Investigation of the lithium ion mobility in cyclic model compounds and their ion conduction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielen, Joerg

    2011-07-27

    combination to changes in glass transition temperatures. Though the glass transition temperatures of the blends are low, their conductivities are only in the range of typical polymer electrolytes. The highest {sigma}{sub dc} obtained at ambient temperatures was 6.0 x 10{sup -6} S.cm{sup -1}, strongly suggesting a rather tight coordination of the lithium ions to the solvating 2-oxo-1,3-dioxolane moieties, supported by the increased {sigma}{sub dc} values for the oligo(ethylene oxide) based analogues. Further insights into the mechanism of lithium ion dynamics were derived from {sup 7}Li and {sup 13}C Solid-State NMR investigations. While localized ion motion was probed by i.e. {sup 7}Li spinlattice relaxation measurements with apparent activation energies E{sub a} of 20 to 40 kJ/mol, long-range macroscopic transport was monitored by Pulsed-Field Gradient (PFG) NMR, providing an E{sub a} of 61 kJ/mol. The latter is in good agreement with the values determined from bulk conductivity data, indicating the major contribution of ion transport was only detected by PFG NMR. However, the {mu}m-diffusion is rather slow, emphasizing the strong lithium coordination to the carbonyl oxygens, which hampers sufficient ion conductivities and suggests exploring 'softer' solvating moieties in future electrolytes.

  9. Ion Concentration- and Voltage-Dependent Push and Pull Mechanisms of Potassium Channel Ion Conduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Kasahara

    Full Text Available The mechanism of ion conduction by potassium channels is one of the central issues in physiology. In particular, it is still unclear how the ion concentration and the membrane voltage drive ion conduction. We have investigated the dynamics of the ion conduction processes in the Kv1.2 pore domain, by molecular dynamics (MD simulations with several different voltages and ion concentrations. By focusing on the detailed ion movements through the pore including selectivity filter (SF and cavity, we found two major conduction mechanisms, called the III-IV-III and III-II-III mechanisms, and the balance between the ion concentration and the voltage determines the mechanism preference. In the III-IV-III mechanism, the outermost ion in the pore is pushed out by a new ion coming from the intracellular fluid, and four-ion states were transiently observed. In the III-II-III mechanism, the outermost ion is pulled out first, without pushing by incoming ions. Increases in the ion concentration and voltage accelerated ion conductions, but their mechanisms were different. The increase in the ion concentrations facilitated the III-IV-III conductions, while the higher voltages increased the III-II-III conductions, indicating that the pore domain of potassium channels permeates ions by using two different driving forces: a push by intracellular ions and a pull by voltage.

  10. Analysis of sources of bulk conductivity change in saturated silica sand after unbuffered TCE oxidation by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hort, Ryan D; Revil, André; Munakata-Marr, Junko

    2014-09-01

    Time lapse resistivity surveys could potentially improve monitoring of permanganate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE) by tracking changes in subsurface conductivity that result from injection of permanganate and oxidation of the contaminant. Bulk conductivity and pore fluid conductivity changes during unbuffered TCE oxidation using permanganate are examined through laboratory measurements and conductivity modeling using PHREEQC in fluid samples and porous media samples containing silica sand. In fluid samples, oxidation of one TCE molecule produces three chloride ions and one proton, resulting in an increase in fluid electrical conductivity despite the loss of two permanganate ions in the reaction. However, in saturated sand samples in which up to 8mM TCE was oxidized, at least 94% of the fluid conductivity associated with the presence of protons was removed within 3h of sand contact, most likely through protonation of silanol groups found on the surface of the sand grains. Minor conductivity effects most likely associated with pH-dependent reductive dissolution of manganese dioxide were also observed but not accounted for in pore-fluid conductivity modeling. Unaccounted conductivity effects resulted in an under-calculation of post-reaction pore fluid conductivity of 2.1% to 5.5%. Although small increases in the porous media formation factor resulting from precipitation of manganese dioxide were detected (about 3%), these increases could not be confirmed to be statistically significant. Both injection of permanganate and oxidation of TCE cause increases in bulk conductivity that would be detectable through time-lapse resistivity surveys in field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On fabrication procedures of Li-ion conducting garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanc, Emil [The Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Kraków (Poland); Zając, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.zajac@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Lu, Li; Yan, Binggong; Kotobuki, Masashi [Materials Science Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ziąbka, Magdalena [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Molenda, Janina [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-04-15

    Ceramic oxides exhibiting high lithium-ion mobility at room temperature receive broad attention as candidate electrolytes for lithium batteries. Lithium-stuffed garnets from the Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} group seem to be especially promising because of their high ionic conductivity at room temperature and their electrochemical stability. In this work, we discuss factors that affect formation of the garnet in its bulk form or in the form of thick and thin films. We demonstrate that zinc oxide can be applied as a sintering aid that facilitate the formation of the highly conducting cubic Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} garnet phase in a single-step sintering procedure. Based on our experience with the single-step sintering experiments, we successfully fabricated a thick-film membrane consisting of a garnet solid electrolyte using the tape casting technique. In order to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte even further we investigated the fabrication of a thin-film Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} electrolyte by means of the pulsed laser deposition technique.

  12. Structures and ion conduction pathways of amorphous lithium ion conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Onodera, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    For ( 7 Li 2 S) x (P 2 S 5 ) 100-x glasses (x = 50, 60, and 70) and 7 Li 7 P 3 S 11 metastable crystal, time-of-flight neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were performed, and three-dimensional structures and conduction pathways of lithium ions were studied using the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling and the bond valence sum (BVS) approach. The conduction pathways of the lithium ions could be classified into two types: lithium 'stable' and 'metastable' regions, respectively. Moreover, it was found that there is a significant relationship between the activation energy of the electrical conduction and the topology of the conduction pathways of the lithium ions. (author)

  13. Sorption of uranyl ions on hydrous oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.; Venkataramani, B.

    1988-01-01

    Sorption of uranyl ions on hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), magnetite (MAG), and hydrous thorium oxide (HThO) has been studied as a function of pH. Hydrous oxides have been characterized by their pH-titration curves, intrinsic dissociation constants (pK ai * ) and point of zero charge (pH pzc ). The fraction of protonated surface hydroxyl groups as well as the surface pH (pH surf ) as a function of solution pH have been computed. The distribution of various hydrolyzed species of uranyl ions with solution pH have been compared with uranyl sorption isotherm on these oxides. Sorption edge in all the cases occurs when free hydroxyl groups are available on the surface and pH surf is sufficiently high to favor the formation of dimer-like species on the surface. A new model for the sorption process, called surface hydrolysis model, which explains these and other features of uranyl sorption on hydrous oxides has been proposed. The model visualizes the sorption process as linking of uranyl ions with two adjacent free surface hydroxyl groups without deprotonation (provided the surface pH is high for the hydrolysis of uranyl ions) and formation of dimer-like structures on the surface. The new model has been successfully applied to the present and other available data on uranyl ion sorption on hydrous oxides. (author)

  14. Anisotropic Proton and Oxygen Ion Conductivity in Epitaxial Ba2In2O5 Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluri, Aline; Gilardi, Elisa; Karlsson, Maths

    2017-01-01

    Solid oxide oxygen ion and proton conductors are a highly important class of materials for renewable energy conversion devices like solid oxide fuel cells. Ba2In2O5 (BIO) exhibits both oxygen ion and proton conduction, in a dry and humid environment, respectively. In a dry environment...

  15. Preparation of hydroxide ion conductive KOH–layered double hydroxide electrolytes for an all-solid-state iron–air secondary battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsuneishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anion conductive solid electrolytes based on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were prepared for application in an all-solid-state Fe–air battery. The ionic conductivity and the conducting ion species were evaluated from impedance and electromotive force measurements. The ion conductivity of LDH was markedly enhanced upon addition of KOH. The electromotive force in a water vapor concentration cell was similar to that of an anion-conducting polymer membrane. The KOH–LDH obtained was used as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte for all-solid-state Fe–air batteries. The cell performance of the Fe–air batteries was examined using a mixture of KOH–LDH and iron-oxide-supported carbon as the negative electrode.

  16. Sulfonation degree effect on ion-conducting SPEEK-titanium oxide membranes properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline Costa; Gomes, Ailton de Souza; Dutra Filho, José Carlos, E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Hui, Wang Shu [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais; Oliveira, Vivianna Silva de [Escola Técnica Rezende Rammel (ETRR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK (sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)) polymer matrix, containing titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) (incorporated by sol-gel method). SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees (SD): 63% and 50% were used. The influence of sulfonation degree on membrane properties was investigated. The thermal analysis (TGA and DTGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluate the proton conductivity of the membranes. The proton conductivities in water were of 3.25 to 37.08 mS.cm{sup -1}. Experimental data of impedance spectroscopy were analyzed with equivalent circuits using the Zview software, and the results showed that, the best fitted was at 80 °C. (author)

  17. Ion thermal conductivity and ion distribution function in the banana regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating the ion thermal conductivity and the ion distribution function in the banana regime is formulated for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma of arbitrary aspect ratio. A simple expression for this conductivity is also derived. (author)

  18. Catalytic oxidation of silicon by cesium ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzis, A.E.; Huang, H.; Carr, W.E.; Seidl, M.

    1991-01-01

    Results for room-temperature oxidation of silicon using cesium ion bombardment and low oxygen exposure are presented. Bombardment with cesium ions is shown to allow oxidation at O 2 pressures orders of magnitude smaller than with noble gas ion bombardment. Oxide layers of up to 30 A in thickness are grown with beam energies ranging from 20--2000 eV, O 2 pressures from 10 -9 to 10 -6 Torr, and total O 2 exposures of 10 0 to 10 4 L. Results are shown to be consistent with models indicating that initial oxidation of silicon is via dissociative chemisorption of O 2 , and that the low work function of the cesium- and oxygen-coated silicon plays the primary role in promoting the oxidation process

  19. Theoretical prediction of ion conductivity in solid state HfO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wen-Zhou; Sun, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Zhen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical prediction of ion conductivity for solid state HfO2 is carried out in analogy to ZrO2 based on the density functional calculation. Geometric and electronic structures of pure bulks exhibit similarity for the two materials. Negative formation enthalpy and negative vacancy formation energy are found for YSH (yttria-stabilized hafnia) and YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia), suggesting the stability of both materials. Low activation energies (below 0.7 eV) of diffusion are found in both materials, and YSH's is a little higher than that of YSZ. In addition, for both HfO2 and ZrO2, the supercells with native oxygen vacancies are also studied. The so-called defect states are observed in the supercells with neutral and +1 charge native vacancy but not in the +2 charge one. It can give an explanation to the relatively lower activation energies of yttria-doped oxides and +2 charge vacancy supercells. A brief discussion is presented to explain the different YSH ion conductivities in the experiment and obtained by us, and we attribute this to the different ion vibrations at different temperatures.

  20. Effect of ion exchange on the rate of aerobic microbial oxidation of ammonium in hyporheic zone sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ailan; Liu, Chongxuan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Fen

    2018-03-01

    Microbially mediated ammonium oxidation is a major process affecting nitrogen transformation and cycling in natural environments. This study investigated whether ion exchange process can affect microbially mediated aerobic oxidation of ammonium in a hyporheic zone (HZ) sediments from the Columbia River at US Department of Energy's Hanford site, Washington State. Experiments were conducted using synthetic groundwater and river water to investigate their effect on ammonium oxidation. Results indicated that ammonium sorption through ion exchange reactions decreased the rate of ammonium oxidation, apparently resulting from the influence of the ion exchange on dissolved ammonium concentration, thus decreasing the bioavailability of ammonium for microbial oxidation. However, with the decrease in dissolved ammonium concentration, the sorbed ammonium released back to aqueous phase, and became bioavailable so that all the ammonium in the suspensions were oxidized. Our results implied a dynamic change in ammonium oxidation rates in an environment such as at HZ where river water and groundwater with different chemical compositions exchange frequently that can affect ammonium sorption and desorption through ion exchange reactions.

  1. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  2. Spinel-structured surface layers for facile Li ion transport and improved chemical stability of lithium manganese oxide spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Ri [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyo Ree; Lee, Boeun; Cho, Byung Won [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan-Young [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Si Hyoung, E-mail: sho74@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence Research, Korea Institute of Science Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Strategically-designed spinel-structured nano-scale surface layer, LiM{sub x}Mn{sup IV}{sub 1−x}O{sub 4}, featuring a high Li{sup +} ion conductivity and a good chemical stability was applied on Al-doped LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel for the drastic improvement of the electrochemical performance at the elevated temperature as a promising cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. - Highlights: • Spinel-structured surface layer with a high Li-ion conductivity and a good chemical stability was prepared. • Simple wet process was developed to apply nano-scale surface layer on aluminum doped lithium manganese oxide spinel. • The properties of nano-scale surface layer were characterized by analytical tools including GITT, HR-TEM and XAS. • Materials with surface coating layer exhibit an excellent electrochemical performance at the elevated temperature. - Abstract: Li-ion conducting spinel-structured oxide layer with a manganese oxidation state close to being tetravalent was prepared on aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide spinel for improving the electrochemical performances at the elevated temperatures. This nanoscale surface layer provides a good ionic conduction path for lithium ion transport to the core and also serves as an excellent chemical barrier for protecting the high-capacity core material from manganese dissolution into the electrolyte. In this work, a simple wet process was employed to prepare thin LiAlMnO{sub 4} and LiMg{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} layers on the surface of LiAl{sub 0.1}Mn{sub 1.9}O{sub 4}. X-ray absorption studies revealed an oxidation state close to tetravalent manganese on the surface layer of coated materials. Materials with these surface coating layers exhibited excellent capacity retentions superior to the bare material, without undermining the lithium ion transport characteristics and the high rate performances.

  3. Sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Menglu; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Xiaojun; Guan, Shiyou

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal self-assembly using silicon nanoparticles, graphene oxide and amino modified carbon nanotubes to develop high-performance anode materials of lithium ion batteries. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the structure of composites that Silicon nanoparticles are coated with reduced graphene oxide while amino modified carbon nanotubes wrap around the reduced graphene oxide in the composites. When applied to lithium ion battery, these composites exhibit high initial specific capacity of 2552 mA h/g at a current density of 0.05 A/g. In addition, reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites also have better cycle stability than bare Silicon nanoparticles electrode with the specific capacity of 1215 mA h/g after 100 cycles. The three-dimension sponge-like structure not only ensures the electrical conductivity but also buffers the huge volume change, which has broad potential application in the field of battery.

  4. Relaxation behavior of ion conducting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, A.; Dieterich, W.; Maass, P.; Meyer, M.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate by Monte Carlo simulations the diffusion of ions in an energetically disordered lattice, where the Coulomb interaction between the mobile ions is explicitly taken into account. We show that the combined effect of Coulomb interaction and disorder can account for the ionic ac-conductivity in glasses and the recently discovered non-Arrhenius behavior of the dc-conductivity in glassy fast ionic conductors. Our results suggest that glassy ionic conductors can be optimized by lowering the strength of the energetic disorder but that the ionic interaction effects set an upper bound for the conductivity at high temperatures. (author)

  5. Crystal structure and ionic conduction path of solid electrolytic materials by high temperature neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Masatomo; Nomura, Katsuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Research of the distribution of oxide ions and the ionic conduction path of bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ), cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) and lanthanum gallate ((La 0.8 Sr 0.2 )(Ga 0.8 Mg 0.15 Co 0.05 )O 3-δ ) is stated. The high temperature neutron diffraction method, analytical method such as Rietveld method, crystal structure analysis of ionic conductor and MEM (Maximum- Entropy Method) are explained. The nuclear density distribution of oxide ions in bismuth oxide showed so larger distribution in the direction of and than Bi ions that the oxide ions conducted these direction in the crystal. The nuclear density distribution of oxide ions of cerium oxide indicated larger distribution in the direction of than Ce ions and its tendency was remarkable at high temperature. Accordingly, the oxide ions conducted in the direction of and . The oxide ions distribution in lanthanum gallate compound was larger and complicated than positive ions. The oxide ions conducted to by describing an arc between the two stable positions. The nuclear density on the conduction path increased with increasing temperature. This above result corresponded to increase of oxide ion conductivity in the area. (S.Y.)

  6. Metal ion binding to iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthieu, M.; Juillot, F.; Hiemstra, T.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2006-06-01

    The biogeochemistry of trace elements (TE) is largely dependent upon their interaction with heterogeneous ligands including metal oxides and hydrous oxides of iron. The modeling of TE interactions with iron oxides has been pursued using a variety of chemical models. The objective of this work is to show that it is possible to model the adsorption of protons and TE on a crystallized oxide (i.e., goethite) and on an amorphous oxide (HFO) in an identical way. Here, we use the CD-MUSIC approach in combination with valuable and reliable surface spectroscopy information about the nature of surface complexes of the TE. The other objective of this work is to obtain generic parameters to describe the binding of the following elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) onto both iron oxides for the CD-MUSIC approach. The results show that a consistent description of proton and metal ion binding is possible for goethite and HFO with the same set of model parameters. In general a good prediction of almost all the collected experimental data sets corresponding to metal ion binding to HFO is obtained. Moreover, dominant surface species are in agreement with the recently published surface complexes derived from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data. Until more detailed information on the structure of the two iron oxides is available, the present option seems a reasonable approximation and can be used to describe complex geochemical systems. To improve our understanding and modeling of multi-component systems we need more data obtained at much lower metal ion to iron oxide ratios in order to be able to account eventually for sites that are not always characterized in spectroscopic studies.

  7. Alkali-Metal-Ion-Functionalized Graphene Oxide as a Superior Anode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fang; Li, Yu-Han; Liu, Dai-Huo; Guo, Jin-Zhi; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wu, Xing-Long

    2016-06-06

    Although graphene oxide (GO) has large interlayer spacing, it is still inappropriate to use it as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of the existence of H-bonding between the layers and ultralow electrical conductivity which impedes the Na(+) and e(-) transformation. To solve these issues, chemical, thermal, and electrochemical procedures are traditionally employed to reduce GO nanosheets. However, these strategies are still unscalable, consume high amounts of energy, and are expensive for practical application. Here, for the first time, we describe the superior Na storage of unreduced GO by a simple and scalable alkali-metal-ion (Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) )-functionalized process. The various alkali metals ions, connecting with the oxygen on GO, have played different effects on morphology, porosity, degree of disorder, and electrical conductivity, which are crucial for Na-storage capabilities. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that sodium-ion-functionalized GO (GNa) has shown outstanding Na-storage performance in terms of excellent rate capability and long-term cycle life (110 mAh g(-1) after 600 cycles at 1 A g(-1) ) owing to its high BET area, appropriate mesopore, high degree of disorder, and improved electrical conductivity. Theoretical calculations were performed using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to further study the Na-storage capabilities of functionalized GO. These calculations have indicated that the Na-O bond has the lowest binding energy, which is beneficial to insertion/extraction of the sodium ion, hence the GNa has shown the best Na-storage properties among all comparatives functionalized by other alkali metal ions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Transport of oxygen ions in Er doped La2Mo2O9 oxide ion conductors: Correlation with microscopic length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, T.; Ghosh, A.

    2018-01-01

    We report oxygen ion transport in La2-xErxMo2O9 (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) oxide ion conductors. We have measured conductivity and dielectric spectra at different temperatures in a wide frequency range. The mean square displacement and spatial extent of non-random sub-diffusive regions are estimated from the conductivity spectra and dielectric spectra, respectively, using linear response theory. The composition dependence of the conductivity is observed to be similar to that of the spatial extent of non-random sub-diffusive regions. The behavior of the composition dependence of the mean square displacement of oxygen ions is opposite to that of the conductivity. The attempt frequency estimated from the analysis of the electric modulus agrees well with that obtained from the Raman spectra analysis. The full Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data of the samples is performed to estimate the distance between different oxygen lattice sites. The results obtained from such analysis confirm the ion hopping within the spatial extent of non-random sub-diffusive regions.

  9. Carbon contaminant in the ion processing of aluminum oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaug, Y.; Roy, N.

    1989-01-01

    Ion processing can induce contamination on the bombarded surface. However, this process is essential for the microelectronics device fabrication. Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to study the simultaneous deposition of carbon impurity during ion bombardment of magnetron rf-sputtering deposited aluminum oxide film. Ion bombardment on aluminum oxide results in a preferential removal of surface oxygen and a formation of a metastable state of aluminum suboxide. Cosputtered implanted carbon contaminant appears to have formed a new state of stoichiometry on the surface of the ion bombarded aluminum oxide and existed as an aluminum carbide. This phase has formed due to the interaction of the implanted carbon and the aluminum suboxide. The Ar + ion sputter etching rate is reduced for the carbon contaminated oxide. The electrical resistance of the aluminum oxide between two gold strips has been measured. It is found that the electrical resistance is also reduced due to the formation of the new stoichiometry on the surface

  10. Wet oxidative destruction of spent ion-exchange resins using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Spent organic ion exchange resins are generated in large quantities during the operation of nuclear facilities. Wet oxidation as a mode of treatment of these gel-type ion exchange resins was investigated using H 2 O 2 as oxidant in the presence of CuSO 4 as catalyst. Experiments using commercial samples were conducted at 95-100 deg C under reflux conditions at atmospheric pressure. It was found that the reaction of cation resin with H 2 O 2 was instantaneous whereas with anion resin, there was a lag time. For efficient utilization of the oxidant, low rate of addition of H 2 O 2 , 0.01M concentration of CuSO 4 and neutral pH in mixed resin reactions, were found to be useful. Foaming was noted during reactions involving anion resins. This could be controlled by silicone-based agents. The residual solution left after resin oxidation is aqueous in nature and is expected to contain all the radioactivity originally present in the resin. Preliminary experiments showed that it could be efficiently trapped using available inorganic sorbents. Wet oxidation system offers a simple method of converting organic waste into environmentally acceptable inorganic products. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Ion irradiation studies of oxide ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the initial results of an investigation of the depth-dependent microstructures of three oxide ceramics following ion implantation to moderate doses. The implantations were performed using ion species that occur as cations in the target material; for example, Mg + ions were used for MgO and MgAl 2 O 4 (spinel) irradiations. This minimized chemical effects associated with the implantation and allowed a more direct evaluation to be made of the effects of implanted ions on the microstructure. 11 refs., 14 figs

  12. Ion beam irradiation as a tool to improve the ionic conductivity in solid polymer electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjunatha, H., E-mail: h-manjunath@blr.amrita.edu; Kumaraswamy, G. N. [Department of Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru-560 035 (India); Damle, R. [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bengaluru-560 056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have potential applications in solid state electronic and energy devices. The optimum conductivity of SPEs required for such applications is about 10{sup −1} – 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}, which is hard to achieve in these systems. It is observed that ionic conductivity of SPEs continuously increase with increasing concentration of inorganic salt in the host polymer. However, there is a critical concentration of the salt beyond which the conductivity of SPEs decreases due to the formation of ion pairs. In the present study, solid polymer thin films based on poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) complexed with NaBr salt with different concentrations have been prepared and the concentration at which ion pair formation occurs in PEO{sub x}NaBr is identified. The microstructure of the SPE with highest ionic conductivity is modified by irradiating it with low energy O{sup +1} ion (100 keV) of different fluencies. It is observed that the ionic conductivity of irradiated SPEs increases by one order in magnitude. The increase in ionic conductivity may be attributed to the enhanced segmental motion of the polymer chains due to radiation induced micro structural modification.

  13. Hollow carbon sphere/metal oxide nanocomposites anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenelska, K.; Ottmann, A.; Schneider, P.; Thauer, E.; Klingeler, R.; Mijowska, E.

    2016-01-01

    HCS (Hollow carbon spheres) covered with metal oxide nanoparticles (SnO_2 and MnO_2, respectively) were successfully synthesized and investigated regarding their potential as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Raman spectroscopy shows a high degree of graphitization for the HCS host structure. The mesoporous nature of the nanocomposites is confirmed by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. For both metal oxides under study, the metal oxide functionalization of HCS yields a significant increase of electrochemical performance. The charge capacity of HCS/SnO_2 is 370 mA hg"−"1 after 45 cycles (266 mA hg"−"1 in HCS/MnO_2) which clearly exceeds the value of 188 mA hg"−"1 in pristine HCS. Remarkably, the data imply excellent long term cycling stability after 100 cycles in both cases. The results hence show that mesoporous HCS/metal oxide nanocomposites enable exploiting the potential of metal oxide anode materials in Lithium-ion batteries by providing a HCS host structure which is both conductive and stable enough to accommodate big volume change effects. - Highlights: • Strategy to synthesize hollow carbon spheres decorated by metal oxides nanoparticles. • High-performance of HCS/MOx storage as mesoporous hybrid material. • The results hence demonstrate high electrochemical activity of the HCS/MOx.

  14. Fast sodium ion conductivity in supertetrahedral phosphidosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johrendt, Dirk; Haffner, Arthur; Hatz, Anna Katharina; Moudrakovski, Igor; Lotsch, Bettina Valeska

    2018-04-03

    Fast sodium ion conductors are key components of sodium-based all-solid-state batteries which hold promise as safe systems for large-scale storage of electrical power. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structure determination and Na+ ion conductivities of six new sodium ion conductors, the phosphidosilicates Na19Si13P25, Na23Si19P33, Na23Si28P45, Na23Si37P57, LT-NaSi2P3 and HT-NaSi2P3, which are entirely based on earth-abundant elements. The new structures exhibit SiP4 tetrahedra assembling interpenetrating networks of T3 to T5 supertetrahedral clusters which can be hierarchically assigned to sphalerite- or diamond-type structures. 23Na solid-state NMR spectra and geometrical pathway analysis indicate Na+ ion mobility between the supertetrahedral cluster networks. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed Na+ ion conductivities up to σ (Na+) = 4 ∙ 10-4 Scm-1 with an activation energy of Ea = 0.25 eV in HT-NaSi2P3 at 25 °C. The conductivities increase with the size of the supertetrahedral clusters due to the dilution of Na+ ions as the charge density of the anionic supertetrahedral networks decreases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Influence of SiO{sub 2} on conduction and relaxation mechanism of Li{sup +} ions in binary network former lead silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Navneet [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055, Haryana (India); Ahlawat, Neetu, E-mail: neetugju@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana (India); Aghamkar, Praveen [Department of Physics, Chaudhary Devi Lal University, Sirsa 125055, Haryana (India); Agarwal, Ashish; Sanghi, Sujata; Sindhu, Monica [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana (India)

    2013-04-01

    Ion conducting glasses having composition 30Li{sub 2}O·(70−x)PbO·xSiO{sub 2} were prepared by the normal melt quench technique. The compositional variations in density, molar volume and glass transition temperature confirm the dual role of PbO acting as a network modifying oxide as well as a network forming oxide. Conduction and relaxation mechanisms in these glasses were studied using impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 7 MHz and in a temperature range below glass transition temperature. The ac and dc conductivities, activation energy of the dc conductivity and relaxation frequency were extracted from the impedance spectra. Similar values of activation energy for dc conduction and for conductivity relaxation time indicate that the ions have to overcome the same energy barrier while conducting and relaxing. The increase in dc conductivity for silica rich compositions is attributed to the presence of mixed former effect in the studied glasses. The study of conductivity spectra reveals a transition from non-random to random hopping motion of lithium ions on successive replacement of PbO by SiO{sub 2} in glass matrix. The conduction and relaxation mechanism in the studied glasses are well explained with the concept of mismatch and relaxation (CMR) model.

  16. High-temperature oxidation of ion-implanted tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Musket, R.G.; Truhan, J.J.; Grabowski, K.S.; Singer, I.L.; Gossett, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    The oxidation of ion-implanted Ta in two different high temperature regimes has been studied. Oxidations were carried out at 500 0 C in Ar/O 2 mixtures, where oxide growth is known to follow a parabolic rate law in initial stages, and at 1000 0 C in pure O 2 , where a linear-rate behavior obtains. Implanted species include Al, Ce, Cr, Li, Si and Zr at fluences of the order of 10 17 /cm 2 . Oxidized samples were studied using Rutherford backscattering, nuclear reaction analysis, Auger spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Significant differences among the specimens were noted after the milder 500 0 C treatment, specifically, in the amount of oxide formed, the degree of oxygen dissolution in the metal beneath the oxide, and in the redistribution behavior of the implanted solutes. Under the severe 1000 0 C treatment, indications of different solute distributions and of different optical features were found, whereas overall oxidation rate appeared to be unaffected by the presence of the solute. 7 figures

  17. Early stages of oxidation of ion-implanted nickel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peide, Z.; Grant, W.A.; Procter, R.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    The early stages of oxidation of nickel implanted with nickel, chromium, or lithium ions in oxygen at 1100 0 C have been studied using various electron-optical techniques. The unimplanted metal develops initially a fine-grained, convoluted scale having a ridged, cellular structure. Subsequently, the oxide grains increase in size significantly and oxidation becomes predominantly controlled by diffusion of Ni /sup 2+/ ions across a compact, columnar scale. Implantation of the surface with nickel ions has no significant effect on the initial oxidation behavior. However, after implantation with chromium or lithium ions, the development of the NiO scale is, in the early stages of oxidation, suppressed by formation of NiCr 2 O 4 or LiO 2 nodules, respectively. Subsequently, the implanted species are incorporated into the steady-state NiO scale where they dope the oxide and thus influence the diffusion rate of Ni /sup 2+/ ions through it. As would be predicted, the steady-state oxidation rate of chromium-implanted nickel is increased while that of lithium- implanted nickel is decreased compared with that of the unimplanted metal

  18. Bloodcompatibility improvement of titanium oxide film modified by phosphorus ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Leng, Y.X.; Zhao, A.S.; Zhou, H.F.; Xu, L.X.; Hong, S.; Huang, N.

    2006-01-01

    Our recent investigation suggested that Ti-O thin film could be a newly developed antithrombotic material and its thromboresistance could be related to its physical properties of wide gap semiconductor. In this work, titanium oxide film was modified by phosphorus ion implantation and succeeding vacuum annealing. RBS were used to investigate phosphorus distribution profile. Contact angle test results show that phosphorus-doped titanium oxide film becomes more hydrophilic after higher temperature annealing, while its electric conductivity increases. Antithrombotic property of phosphorus-doped titanium oxide thin films was examined by clotting time and platelet adhesion tests. The results suggest that phosphorus doping is an effective way to improve the bloodcompatibility of titanium oxide film, and it is related to the changes of electron structure and surface properties caused by phosphorus doping

  19. Formation of tungsten oxide nanowires by ion irradiation and vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Dong; Ren, Feng; Wu, Heng-Yi; Qin, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Chang-Zhong

    2018-04-01

    Here we reported the fabrication of tungsten oxide (WO3-x ) nanowires by Ar+ ion irradiation of WO3 thin films followed by annealing in vacuum. The nanowire length increases with increasing irradiation fluence and with decreasing ion energy. We propose that the stress-driven diffusion of the irradiation-induced W interstitial atoms is responsible for the formation of the nanowires. Comparing to the pristine film, the fabricated nanowire film shows a 106-fold enhancement in electrical conductivity, resulting from the high-density irradiation-induced vacancies on the oxygen sublattice. The nanostructure exhibits largely enhanced surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect due to the oxygen vacancy. Thus, ion irradiation provides a powerful approach for fabricating and tailoring the surface nanostructures of semiconductors.

  20. Ethylenediamine-functionalized graphene oxide incorporated acid-base ion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Dan; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Haijun; Han, Xutong; Liu, Biqian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethylenediamine functionalized graphene oxide. • Layered structure of functionalized graphene oxide block vanadium ions crossover. • Protonated N-containing groups suppress vanadium ions permeation. • Ion transport channels are narrowed by electrostatic interactions. • Vanadium crossover decreased due to enhanced Donnan effect and special structure. - Abstract: As a promising large-scale energy storage battery, vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is urgently needed to develop cost-effective membranes with excellent performance. Novel acid-base ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are fabricated based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix and modified graphene oxide (GO) by solution blending. N-based functionalized graphene oxide (GO-NH 2 ) is fabricated by grafting ethylenediamine onto the edge of GO via a facile method. On one hand, the impermeable layered structures effectively block ion transport pathway to restrain vanadium ions crossover. On the other hand, acid-base pairs form between −SO 3 − groups and N-based groups on the edge of GO nanosheets, which not only suppress vanadium ions contamination but also provide a narrow pathway for proton migration. The structure is beneficial for achieving an intrinsic balance between conductivity and permeability. By altering amounts of GO-NH 2 , a sequence of acid-base IEMs are characterized in detail. The single cells assembled with acid-base IEMs show self-discharge time for 160 h, capacity retention 92% after 100 cycle, coulombic efficiency 97.2% and energy efficiency 89.5%. All data indicate that acid-base IEMs have promising prospects for VRFB applications.

  1. Migration of interfacial oxygen ions modulated resistive switching in oxide-based memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Gao, S.; Zeng, F.; Tang, G. S.; Li, S. Z.; Song, C.; Fu, H. D.; Pan, F.

    2013-07-01

    Oxides-based resistive switching memory induced by oxygen ions migration is attractive for future nonvolatile memories. Numerous works had focused their attentions on the sandwiched oxide materials for depressing the characteristic variations, but the comprehensive studies of the dependence of electrodes on the migration behavior of oxygen ions are overshadowed. Here, we investigated the interaction of various metals (Ni, Co, Al, Ti, Zr, and Hf) with oxygen atoms at the metal/Ta2O5 interface under electric stress and explored the effect of top electrode on the characteristic variations of Ta2O5-based memory device. It is demonstrated that chemically inert electrodes (Ni and Co) lead to the scattering switching characteristics and destructive gas bubbles, while the highly chemically active metals (Hf and Zr) formed a thick and dense interfacial intermediate oxide layer at the metal/Ta2O5 interface, which also degraded the resistive switching behavior. The relatively chemically active metals (Al and Ti) can absorb oxygen ions from the Ta2O5 film and avoid forming the problematic interfacial layer, which is benefit to the formation of oxygen vacancies composed conduction filaments in Ta2O5 film thus exhibit the minimum variations of switching characteristics. The clarification of oxygen ions migration behavior at the interface can lead further optimization of resistive switching performance in Ta2O5-based memory device and guide the rule of electrode selection for other oxide-based resistive switching memories.

  2. Ion-molecule reactions in the binary mixture of ethylene oxide and trioxane, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Sugiura, Toshio.

    1977-01-01

    The formation mechanism of protonated molecular ions by cross-reactions in ethylene oxide-trioxane mixtures has been studied with use of a modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The precursors of the product ions were determined by analysis of the fine structure of their ionization efficiency curves using deuterated ethylene oxide. Protonated ethylene oxide is formed by the hydrogen atom transfer reaction of ethylene oxide molecular ion with trioxane, and protonated trioxane by the proton transfer reaction of CHO + (from ethylene oxide) with trioxane. In the ion-molecule reactions of ethylene-d 4 oxide-trioxane mixtures, appreciable isotope effect was observed. The CHO + from ethylene oxide is an important reactant ion as compared with that from trioxane in the proton transfer reaction, and CHO + from ethylene oxide was suggested as a thermal reactive ion. The order of proton affinity could be estimated from the proton transfer reactions involving CHO + . It was found that the proton affinity of trioxane is smaller than that of ethylene oxide. (auth.)

  3. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO 2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a β-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca o used for reducing UO 2 and PuO 2 to U and Pu. 2 figures

  4. Structure and size of ions electrochemically doped in conducting polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, Keiichi; Hata, Fumito; Uto, Sadahito

    2018-05-01

    Among electroactive polymers (EAPs) for softactuators, conducting polymers have been intensively studied because of the large strain and stress caused by a low voltage operation. A larger deformation is desirable to extend their cycle life by reducing the operation voltage, and this is advantageous for their potential use in wider applications. The deformation is generated by the insertion of ions by electrochemical oxidation; hence, the magnitude of the strain depends on the bulkiness of the ions in the electrolytes. It is important, therefore, to clarify the structure and size of the ions during the electrochemical cycle, in order to achieve better performance of actuation. Anion and cation sizes (radii) in polypyrrole (PPy) film have been estimated using the precise measurement of strain against the amount of charge injected during the electrochemical cycles, assuming isotropic deformation of the film. The anion size was estimated using an anion-drive film, which was electrodeposited in TBABF4/methyl benzoate. The film was electrochemically cycled in sodium electrolytes, and the strain was measured simultaneously using a laser displacement meter. The cation size was obtained using a cation-drive film, being electropolymerized in aqueous dodecylbenzene sulfonic (DBS) acid. The cation-drive film was cycled in chloride electrolytes and measured the strain. The Cl-, Br-, NO3- , BF4- , and ClO4- radii were found to be approximately 235, 245, 250, 270 and 290 pm, respectively. The radii of K+, Na+ and Li+ were approximately 230, 237 and 274 pm, respectively. The results were discussed and took the crystalline ion radius and hydrated ion radius (Stokes radius) into consideration. It was found that the structure and size of the anions were slightly larger than the crystalline ion radius. Contrary to the anions, the cation radii were close to the hydrated ion radius, being larger than the crystalline ion radius.

  5. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of ion-implanted polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of ion-implanted films of Nylon 66, Polypropylene (PP), Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and mainly Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was determined by DC measurements at voltages up to 4500 V and compared with the corresponding values of pristine films. Measurements were made at 21 0 C +/- 1 0 C and 65 +/- 2% RH. The electrical conductivity of PET films implanted with F + , Ar + , or As + ions at energies of 50 keV increases by seven orders of magnitude as the fluence increases from 1 x 10 18 to 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 . The conductivity of films implanted with As + was approximately one order greater than those implanted with Ar + , which in turn was approximately one-half order greater than those implanted with F + . The conductivity of the most conductive film ∼1 S/m) was almost 14 orders of magnitude greater than the pristine PET film. Except for the three PET samples implanted at fluences near 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 with F + , Ar + , and As + ions, all implanted films were ohmic up to an electric field strength of 600 kV/m. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the three PET films implanted near a fluence of 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 was measured over the range of 80 K < T < 300 K

  6. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  7. Comparative study of 150 keV Ar+ and O+ ion implantation induced structural modification on electrical conductivity in Bakelite polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneesh Kumar, K. V.; Krishnaveni, S.; Asokan, K.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    A comparative study of 150 keV argon (Ar+) and oxygen (O+) ion implantation induced microstructural modifications in Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector material at different implantation fluences have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). Positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime (τ3) and its intensity (I3) upon lower implantation fluences can be interpreted as the cross-linking and the increased local temperature induced diffusion followed by trapping of ions in the interior polymer voids. The increased o-Ps lifetime (τ3) at higher O+ ion implantation fluences indicates chain scission owing to the oxidation and track formation. This is also justified by the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) results. The modification in the microstructure and electrical conductivity of Bakelite materials are more upon implantation of O+ ions than Ar+ ions of same energy and fluences. The reduced electrical conductivity of Bakelite polymer material upon ion implantation of both the ions is correlated to the conducting pathways and cross-links in the polymer matrix. The appropriate energy and fluence of implanting ions might reduce the leakage current and hence improve the performance of Bakelite RPC detectors.

  8. Photoionization and ion cyclotron resonance studies of the ion chemistry of ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corderman, R. R.; Williamson, A. D.; Lebreton, P. R.; Buttrill, S. E., Jr.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of the ethylene oxide molecular ion and its subsequent ion-molecule reactions leading to the products C2H5O(+) and C3H5O(+) have been studied using time-resolved photoionization mass spectroscopy, ion cyclotron resonance spectroscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. An examination of the effects of internal energy on reactivity shows that the ratio of C3H5O(+) to C2H5O(+) increases by an order of magnitude with a single quantum of vibrational energy. The formation of (C2H4O/+/)-asterisk in a collision-induced isomerization is found which yields a ring-opened structure by C-C bond cleavage. The relaxed ring-opened C2H4O(+) ion reacts with neutral ethylene oxide by CH2(+) transfer to yield an intermediate product ion C3H6O(+) which gives C3H5O(+) by loss of H.

  9. Pressure effect on ionic conductivity in yttrium-oxide-doped single-crystal zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, E.T.; Park, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the effect of pressure on the ionic conductivity of a 9.5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystal. The experiment was conducted in the elastic region, and the oxygen ion transport number was unity (t ion > 0.99999). A conventional four-probe DC method was used to measure the ionic conductivity of the rectangular-shaped sample under uniaxial pressures up to 600 atm at 750 C in air. Measured ionic conductivity decreased as applied pressure increased. Based on henry Eyring's absolute reaction rate theory, which states that the calculated activation volume has a positive value (ΔV 2 = 2.08 cm 3 /mol of O -2 ) for oxygen ion transport in the fluoride cubic lattice, they concluded that the results they obtained could be explained by an oxygen ion transport mechanism. This mechanism can explain the fact that the interionic distance increases during oxygen ion transport from one unit cell to neighboring unit cells

  10. Theory and simulation of ion conduction in the pentameric GLIC channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fangqiang; Hummer, Gerhard

    2012-10-09

    GLIC is a bacterial member of the large family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. To study ion conduction through GLIC and other membrane channels, we combine the one-dimensional potential of mean force for ion passage with a Smoluchowski diffusion model, making it possible to calculate single-channel conductance in the regime of low ion concentrations from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We then perform MD simulations to examine sodium ion conduction through the GLIC transmembrane pore in two systems with different bulk ion concentrations. The ion potentials of mean force, calculated from umbrella sampling simulations with Hamiltonian replica exchange, reveal a major barrier at the hydrophobic constriction of the pore. The relevance of this barrier for ion transport is confirmed by a committor function that rises sharply in the barrier region. From the free evolution of Na(+) ions starting at the barrier top, we estimate the effective diffusion coefficient in the barrier region, and subsequently calculate the conductance of the pore. The resulting diffusivity compares well with the position-dependent ion diffusion coefficient obtained from restrained simulations. The ion conductance obtained from the diffusion model agrees with the value determined via a reactive-flux rate calculation. Our results show that the conformation in the GLIC crystal structure, with an estimated conductance of ~1 picosiemens at 140 mM ion concentration, is consistent with a physiologically open state of the channel.

  11. Highly Conductive One-Dimensional Manganese Oxide Wires by Coating with Graphene Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Tomohiro; Shinohara, Masaki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Ahm Kim, Yoong; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-10-01

    Through coating with graphene oxides, we have developed a chemical route to the bulk production of long, thin manganese oxide (MnO2) nanowires that have high electrical conductivity. The average diameter of these hybrid nanowires is about 25 nm, and their average length is about 800 nm. The high electrical conductivity of these nanowires (ca. 189.51+/-4.51 µS) is ascribed to the homogeneous coating with conductive graphene oxides as well as the presence of non-bonding manganese atoms. The growth mechanism of the nanowires is theoretically supported by the initiation of morphological conversion from graphene oxide to wrapped structures through the formation of covalent bonds between manganese and oxygen atoms at the graphene oxide edge.

  12. Effects of low-energy ion beam bombardment on metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Saied, S.O.; Choudhury, T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study of Ar ion bombardment damage in metal oxides. In the energy range 1 to 5 keV, preferential oxygen removal and reduction of the oxides was found to depend on ion current density, but to be independent of beam energy. (author)

  13. Subattoampere current induced by single ions in silicon oxide layers of nonvolatile memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Larcher, L.; Visconti, A.; Bonanomi, M.

    2006-01-01

    A single ion impinging on a thin silicon dioxide layer generates a number of electron/hole pairs proportional to its linear energy transfer coefficient. Defects generated by recombination can act as a conductive path for electrons that cross the oxide barrier, thanks to a multitrap-assisted mechanism. We present data on the dependence of this phenomenon on the oxide thickness by using floating gate memory arrays. The tiny number of excess electrons stored in these devices allows for extremely high sensitivity, impossible with any direct measurement of oxide leakage current. Results are of particular interest for next generation devices

  14. Adhesion-enhanced thick copper film deposition on aluminum oxide by an ion-beam-mixed Al seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Jae-Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a highly-adherent 30-μm Cu conductive-path coating on an aluminum-oxide layer anodized on an aluminum-alloy substrate for a metal-printed circuit-board application. A 50-nm Al layer was first coated with an e-beam evaporative deposition method on the anodized oxide, followed by ion bombardment to mix the interfacial region. Subsequently, a Cu coating was deposited onto the mixed seed layer to the designed thickness. Adhesions of the interface were tested by using tape adhesion test, and pull-off tests and showed commercially acceptable adhesions for such thick coating layers. The ion beam mixing (IBM) plays the role of fastening the thin seed coating layer to the substrate and enhancing the adhesion of the Cu conductive path on the anodized aluminum surface.

  15. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  16. Network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuirong; Wang, Shuanjin; Ren, Shan; Han, Dongmei; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-08-01

    Electrolytes play a vital role in modulating lithium ion battery performance. An outstanding electrolyte should possess both high ionic conductivity and unity lithium ion transference number. Here, we present a facile method to fabricate a network type sp3 boron-based single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) with high ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number approaching unity. The SIPE was synthesized by coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato)borate (LiBAMB) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) via one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction in plasticizers. Influence of kinds and content of plasticizers was investigated and the optimized electrolytes show both outstanding ionic conductivity (1.47 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 25 °C) and high lithium transference number of 0.89. This ionic conductivity is among the highest ionic conductivity exhibited by SIPEs reported to date. Its electrochemical stability window is up to 5.2 V. More importantly, Li/LiFePO4 cells with the prepared single-ion conducting electrolytes as the electrolyte as well as the separator display highly reversible capacity and excellent rate capacity under room temperature. It also demonstrates excellent long-term stability and reliability as it maintains capacity of 124 mA h g-1 at 1 C rate even after 500 cycles without obvious decay.

  17. Cellulose nanofibers/reduced graphene oxide flexible transparent conductive paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kezheng; Shao, Ziqiang; Wu, Xue; Wang, Xi; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yunhua; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Feijun

    2013-08-14

    The cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) paper exhibit high visible light transmittance, high mechanical strength, and excellent flexibility. Therefore, CNFs paper may be an excellent substrate material for flexible transparent electronic devices. In this paper, we endeavor to prepare CNFs-based flexible transparent conductive paper by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly using divalent copper ions (Cu(2+)) as the crosslinking agent. The thickness of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) active layer in the CNFs paper can be controlled by the cycle times of the LbL assembly. CNFs/[RGO]20 paper has the sheet resistances of ∼2.5 kΩ/□, and the transmittance of about 76% at a wavelength of 550 nm. Furthermore, CNFs/[RGO]20 paper inherits the excellent mechanical properties of CNFs paper, and the ultimate strength is about 136 MPa. CNFs-based flexible transparent conductive paper also exhibits excellent electrical stability and flexibility. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A high performance cathode for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhiquan

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs)), as one of the energy conversion devices, have attracted worldwide interest for their great fuel efficiency, low air pollution, much reduced cost and excellent longtime stability. In the intermediate temperature range (500-700°C), SOFCs based on proton conducting electrolytes (PSOFCs) display unique advantages over those based on oxygen ion conducting electrolytes. A key obstacle to the practical operation of past P-SOFCs is the poor stability of the traditionally used composite cathode materials in the steam-containing atmosphere and their low contribution to proton conduction. Here we report the identification of a new Ruddlesden-Popper-type oxide Sr3Fe2O7-δ that meets the requirements for much improved long-term stability and shows a superior single-cell performance. With a Sr3Fe2O7-δ-5 wt% BaZr0.3Ce0.5Y0.2O3-δ cathode, the P-SOFC exhibits high power densities (683 and 583 mW cm-2 at 700°C and 650°C, respectively) when operated with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the cathode gas. More importantly, no decay in discharging was observed within a 100 hour test. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  19. Investigation of phase stability and oxide ion performance in new perovskite-type bismuth vanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alas, Ahlam; Beg, Saba; Al-Areqi, Niyazi A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Samples of the BICDVOX system, formulated as Bi 4 Cd x V 2−x O 11−(3x/2)−δ in the Cd substitution range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 were synthesized using the standard solid state reaction.The correlation between phase stability and oxide ion performance were investigated by variable temperature XRPD, DSC and AC impedance spectroscopy. The substitution of V 5+ by Cd 2+ exhibited different phase transitions upon varying composition. For compositions with x ≤ 0.05, two successive transitions; α↔β↔γ are evident, while the β↔γ transition exists in the composition range 0.05 4+ → V 5+ re–oxidation results in increased defect trapping effects in the system at higher temperatures. -- Highlights: ► γ-Stabilized BICDVOX at lower dopant concentrations. ► Good oxide-ion conductivity at lower temperatures. ► High temperature-vanadium reduction with lower dopant concentrations.

  20. Forging Fast Ion Conducting Nanochannels with Swift Heavy Ions: The Correlated Role of Local Electronic and Atomic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachan, Ritesh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Cooper, Valentino R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Liu, Bin [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Voas, Brian K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Lang, Maik [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ou, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Functional Material for Informatics; Trautmann, Christina [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science; Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Chisholm, Matthew F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division; Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Material Science and Technology Division

    2016-12-19

    Atomically disordered oxides have attracted significant attention in recent years due to the possibility of enhanced ionic conductivity. However, the correlation between atomic disorder, corresponding electronic structure, and the resulting oxygen diffusivity is not well understood. The disordered variants of the ordered pyrochlore structure in gadolinium titanate (Gd2Ti2O7) are seen as a particularly interesting prospect due to intrinsic presence of a vacant oxygen site in the unit atomic structure, which could provide a channel for fast oxygen conduction. In this paper, we provide insights into the subangstrom scale on the disordering-induced variations in the local atomic environment and its effect on the electronic structure in high-energy ion irradiation-induced disordered nanochannels, which can be utilized as pathways for fast oxygen ion transport. With the help of an atomic plane-by-plane-resolved analyses, the work shows how the presence of various types of TiOx polyhedral that exist in the amorphous and disordered crystalline phase modify the electronic structures relative to the ordered pyrochlore phase in Gd2Ti2O7. Finally, the correlated molecular dynamics simulations on the disordered structures show a remarkable enhancement in oxygen diffusivity as compared with ordered pyrochlore lattice and make that a suitable candidate for applications requiring fast oxygen conduction.

  1. Mixed conductivity studies in silver oxide based barium vanado-tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Meenakshi; Kanchan, D.K.; Sharma, Poonam; Jayswal, Manish S.

    2008-01-01

    The dc conductivity and frequency dependent ac conductivity of the quaternary glass system x(BaO:1.5 Ag 2 O)-(95 - x)V 2 O 5 -5TeO 2 , are reported in the frequency range 1 Hz to 32 MHz in the temperature range from room temperature to 433 K. The dc conductivity measured in high temperature range increased with transition metal oxide content while the activation range decreased. The conductivity arises mainly from polaron hopping between V 4+ and V 5+ ions. High temperature conductivity data satisfy Mott's small polaron hopping model. It is found that a mechanism of non-adiabatic hopping is the most appropriate conduction model for these glasses. A power law behavior σ(ω) = σ dc + Aω n (with 0 < n < 1) is well exhibited by the ac conductivity data of the glasses. The activation energy calculated from both the relaxation time and dc conductivity is found to be nearly same in both the cases. A scaling of the conductivity spectra with respect to temperature and composition is attempted and it is observed that the relaxation dynamics of charge carriers in the present glasses is independent of temperature and composition

  2. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  3. Diffusion and ionic conduction in oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrer, H; Imre, A W; Tanguep-Nijokep, E

    2008-01-01

    The ion transport properties of soda-lime silicate and alkali borate glasses have been studied with complimentary tracer diffusion and impedance spectroscopy techniques in order to investigate the ion dynamics and mixed-alkali effect (MAE). In soda-lime silicate glasses the tracer diffusivity of 22 Na alkali ions is more than six orders of magnitude faster than the diffusivity of earth alkali 45 Ca ions. This observation is attributed to a stronger binding of bivalent earth alkali ions to the glass network as compared to that of alkali ions. The conductivity of the investigated standard soda-lime silicate glasses is mostly due to the high mobility of sodium ions and a temperature independent Haven ratio of about 0.45 is obtained. For single alkali sodium-borate glasses, the Haven ratio is also temperature independent, however, it is decreases with decreasing temperature for rubidium-borate glass. The MAE was investigated for Na-Rb borate glasses and it was observed that the tracer diffusivities of 22 Na and 86 Rb ions cross, when plotted as function of the relative alkali content. This crossover occurs near the Na/(Na+Rb) ratio of the conductivity minimum due to MAE. The authors suggest that this crossover and the trend of diffusion coefficients is the key to an understanding of the MAE

  4. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Maranas, Janna K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Runt, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Winey, Karen I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li+, Na+, Cs+ or polycations that conduct small anions F-, OH-, Br-. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials characterization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li+ is -60 °C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ≈ -75 °C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80 °C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  5. Aspirated capacitor measurements of air conductivity and ion mobility spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aplin, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of ions in atmospheric air are used to investigate atmospheric electricity and particulate pollution. Commonly studied ion parameters are (1) air conductivity, related to the total ion number concentration, and (2) the ion mobility spectrum, which varies with atmospheric composition. The physical principles of air ion instrumentation are long established. A recent development is the computerized aspirated capacitor, which measures ions from (a) the current of charged particles at a sensing electrode, and (b) the rate of charge exchange with an electrode at a known initial potential, relaxing to a lower potential. As the voltage decays, only ions of higher and higher mobility are collected by the central electrode and contribute to the further decay of the voltage. This enables extension of the classical theory to calculate ion mobility spectra by inverting voltage decay time series. In indoor air, ion mobility spectra determined from both the voltage decay inversion, and an established voltage switching technique, were compared and shown to be of similar shape. Air conductivities calculated by integration were: 5.3±2.5 and 2.7±1.1 fSm -1 , respectively, with conductivity determined to be 3 fSm -1 by direct measurement at a constant voltage. Applications of the relaxation potential inversion method include air ion mobility spectrum retrieval from historical data, and computation of ion mobility spectra in planetary atmospheres

  6. A comparative study on electrochemical performances of the electrodes with different nanocarbon conductive additives for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Taiqiang; Pan, Likun; Liu, Xinjuan; Sun, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Three nanocarbon materials (0 D acetylene black (AB), 1 D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 D reduced graphene oxide (RGO)) were used as conductive additives (CAs) in the mesocarbon microbead anodes for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were investigated. The results show that the CAs have a significant impact on the electrode performance because they can influence the electron conduction and lithium ion transportation within the electrode. The electrode with RGO achieves a maximum capacity of 387 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g −1 , much higher than those of the electrodes with AB (334 mAh g −1 ) and CNTs (319 mAh g −1 ). The improvement should be mainly ascribed to the “plane-to-point” conducting network formed in the electrode with 2 D RGO which can favor the electron conduction and enhance the lithium ion transportation. - Highlights: • Three carbon materials were used as additives in the electrodes of Li ion battery. • The electrochemical performances of the electrodes were comparatively investigated. • The carbon additives have a significant impact on the electrode performance. • RGO additive acts as a bridge to form a “plane-to-point” conducting network. • The electrode with RGO exhibits better performance than those with other additives

  7. Effect of proton-conduction in electrolyte on electric efficiency of multi-stage solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshio; Tachikawa, Yuya; Somekawa, Takaaki; Hatae, Toru; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are promising electrochemical devices that enable the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies under high operating temperatures. The concept of multi-stage electrochemical oxidation using SOFCs has been proposed and studied over the past several decades for further improving the electrical efficiency. However, the improvement is limited by fuel dilution downstream of the fuel flow. Therefore, evolved technologies are required to achieve considerably higher electrical efficiencies. Here we present an innovative concept for a critically-high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency of up to 85% based on the lower heating value (LHV), in which a high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation is combined with a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. Switching a solid electrolyte material from a conventional oxide-ion conducting material to a proton-conducting material under the high-temperature multi-stage electrochemical oxidation mechanism has proven to be highly advantageous for the electrical efficiency. The DC efficiency of 85% (LHV) corresponds to a net AC efficiency of approximately 76% (LHV), where the net AC efficiency refers to the transmission-end AC efficiency. This evolved concept will yield a considerably higher efficiency with a much smaller generation capacity than the state-of-the-art several tens-of-MW-class most advanced combined cycle (MACC).

  8. Manganese oxide electrode with excellent electrochemical performance for sodium ion batteries by pre-intercalation of K and Na ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengya; Du, Qinghua; Su, Li; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Guiling; Ma, Zhipeng; Gao, Weimin; Qin, Xiujuan; Shao, Guangjie

    2017-05-22

    Materials with a layered structure have attracted tremendous attention because of their unique properties. The ultrathin nanosheet structure can result in extremely rapid intercalation/de-intercalation of Na ions in the charge-discharge progress. Herein, we report a manganese oxide with pre-intercalated K and Na ions and having flower-like ultrathin layered structure, which was synthesized by a facile but efficient hydrothermal method under mild condition. The pre-intercalation of Na and K ions facilitates the access of electrolyte ions and shortens the ion diffusion pathways. The layered manganese oxide shows ultrahigh specific capacity when it is used as cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It also exhibits excellent stability and reversibility. It was found that the amount of intercalated Na ions is approximately 71% of the total charge. The prominent electrochemical performance of the manganese oxide demonstrates the importance of design and synthesis of pre-intercalated ultrathin layered materials.

  9. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  10. Minimization of Ion-Solvent Clusters in Gel Electrolytes Containing Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Ting; Tseng, Yu-Hsien; Yeh, Te-Fu; Hou, Sheng-Shu; Jan, Jeng-Shiung; Lee, Yuh-Lang; Teng, Hsisheng

    2018-03-01

    This study uses graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) to enhance the Li + -ion mobility of a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The GPE comprises a framework of poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinylacetate) blended with poly(methyl methacrylate) and a salt LiPF 6 solvated in carbonate solvents. The GOQDs, which function as acceptors, are small (3-11 nm) and well dispersed in the polymer framework. The GOQDs suppress the formation of ion-solvent clusters and immobilize PF6- anions, affording the GPE a high ionic conductivity and a high Li + -ion transference number (0.77). When assembled into Li|electrolyte|LiFePO 4 batteries, the GPEs containing GOQDs preserve the battery capacity at high rates (up to 20 C) and exhibit 100% capacity retention after 500 charge-discharge cycles. Smaller GOQDs are more effective in GPE performance enhancement because of the higher dispersion of QDs. The minimization of both the ion-solvent clusters and degree of Li + -ion solvation in the GPEs with GOQDs results in even plating and stripping of the Li-metal anode; therefore, Li dendrite formation is suppressed during battery operation. This study demonstrates a strategy of using small GOQDs with tunable properties to effectively modulate ion-solvent coordination in GPEs and thus improve the performance and lifespan of LIBs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Systematic study of the ion beam mixing of oxide markers into alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.A.; Kung, H.; Nastasi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The study of ion beam mixing of layered compositions is important in two regards: first, there is the potential of alloying the layers into a new functionally different composition and, secondly, from a fundamental aspect, it is important be able to anticipate the potential damage due to degradation of the layer structure that could be caused in these materials due to a radiation environment. The authors have completed a systematic study of ion beam mixing of thin marker layers into amorphous alumina. The degree of mixing was found to be controlled by thermodynamic factors, the nature of the marker (oxidation state), and matrix crystallinity. Ballistic mixing was observed for all markers, but the mixing of some oxide markers exhibits a thermally activated regime at higher temperatures. The experiments were conducted from a low temperature of -170 C to a maximum temperature of 75O C. 210 keV Ar was used to ion beam mix the marker layer at the various temperatures. The marker spreading was analyzed using RBS. The mixing of one marker (Fe 2 O 3 ) into crystalline alumina (sapphire) was compared to that of the amorphous alumina. It was found that the marker mixed asymmetrically into the two matrix materials, with a higher degree of mixing into the amorphous matrix. TEM cross-section results verify that there is a preference for the marker to mix into the amorphous alumina layer preferentially to the crystalline layer. The interest in ion beam mixing of marker layers in ceramic systems is motivated by the fact that layered oxides are technologically important materials for fusion reactor applications

  12. Enhanced electrical conductivity in Xe ion irradiated CNT based transparent conducting electrode on PET substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Satyavir; Garg, Priyanka; Asokan, K.; Sachdev, Kanupriya

    2018-02-01

    An investigation of MWCNT-based hybrid electrode films with improved electrical conductivity after Xe ion irradiation is reported. A multilayer hybrid structure of Ag-MWCNT layer embedded in between two ZnO layers was fabricated and evaluated, pre and post 100 keV Xe ion irradiation, for their performance as Transparent Conducting Electrode in terms of their optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits highly c-axis oriented ZnO films with a small variation in lattice parameters with an increase in ion fluence. There is no significant change in the surface roughness of these films. Raman spectra were used to confirm the presence of CNT. The pristine multilayer films exhibit an average transmittance of ˜70% in the entire visible region and the transmittance increases with Xe ion fluence. A significant enhancement in electrical conductivity post-Xe ion irradiation viz from 1.14 × 10-7 Ω-1 cm-1 (pristine) to 7.04 × 103 Ω-1 cm-1 is seen which is due to the high connectivity in the top layer with Ag-CNT hybrid layer facilitating the smooth transfer of electrons.

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of furfural oxidation by ions of heterovalent metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupenskij, V.I. (Ukhtinskij Industrial' nyj Inst. (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    Real constants of rate of furfural oxidation by Cu/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Ce/sup 4 +/, Ag/sup +/, Hg/sup 2 +//sub 2/ ions are determined, other kinetic and activation parameters of reactions are calculated, constants of stability and other thermodynamic characteristics of furfural complex with cations-oxidizers are found. Schemes of furfural transformations at one- and two-electron oxidation by ions of variable-valency metals are suggested.

  14. Ion current rectification, limiting and overlimiting conductances in nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth van Oeffelen

    Full Text Available Previous reports on Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP simulations of solid-state nanopores have focused on steady state behaviour under simplified boundary conditions. These are Neumann boundary conditions for the voltage at the pore walls, and in some cases also Donnan equilibrium boundary conditions for concentrations and voltages at both entrances of the nanopore. In this paper, we report time-dependent and steady state PNP simulations under less restrictive boundary conditions, including Neumann boundary conditions applied throughout the membrane relatively far away from the nanopore. We simulated ion currents through cylindrical and conical nanopores with several surface charge configurations, studying the spatial and temporal dependence of the currents contributed by each ion species. This revealed that, due to slow co-diffusion of oppositely charged ions, steady state is generally not reached in simulations or in practice. Furthermore, it is shown that ion concentration polarization is responsible for the observed limiting conductances and ion current rectification in nanopores with asymmetric surface charges or shapes. Hence, after more than a decade of collective research attempting to understand the nature of ion current rectification in solid-state nanopores, a relatively intuitive model is retrieved. Moreover, we measured and simulated current-voltage characteristics of rectifying silicon nitride nanopores presenting overlimiting conductances. The similarity between measurement and simulation shows that overlimiting conductances can result from the increased conductance of the electric double-layer at the membrane surface at the depletion side due to voltage-induced polarization charges. The MATLAB source code of the simulation software is available via the website http://micr.vub.ac.be.

  15. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda, Yasushi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Katoh, Takashi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2007-12-06

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO{sub 2} positive electrode, a Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic. (author)

  16. Recent Advances in Fast Ion Conducting Materials and Devices - Proceedings of the 2nd Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Liu, Qingguo; Chen, Liquan

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Invited Papers * Recent Trends in Solid State Ionics * Theoretical Aspects of Fast Ion Conduction in Solids * Chemical Bonding and Intercalation Processes in Framework Structures * Extra-Large Near-Electrode Regions and Diffusion Length on the Solid Electrolyte-Electrode Interface as Studied by Photo-EMF Method * Frequency Response of Glasses * XPS Studies on Ion Conducting Glasses * Characterization of New Ambient Temperature Lithium Polymer-Electrolyte * Recent Development of Polymer Electrolytes: Solid State Voltammetry in Polymer Electrolytes * Secondary Solid State Batteries: From Material Properties to Commercial Development * Silver Vanadium Oxide Bronze and its Applications for Electrochemical Devices * Study on β''-Alumina Solid Electrolyte and β Battery in SIC * Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells * Processing for Super Superionic Ceramics * Hydrogen Production Using Oxide Ionic or Protonic Conductor * Ionically Conductive Sulfide-Based Lithium Glasses * Relation of Conductivity to Structure and Structural Relaxation in Ion-Conducting Glasses * The Mechanism of Ionic Conductivity in Glass * The Role of Synthesis and Structure in Solid State Ionics - Electrodes to Superconductors * Electrochromism in Spin-Coated Thin Films from Peroxo-Poly tungstate Solutions * Electrochemical Studies on High Tc Superconductors * Multivalence Fast Ionic Conductors - Montmorillonites * Contributed Papers * Volt-Ampere Characteristics and Interface Charge Transport in Solid Electrolytes * Internal Friction of Silver Chalcogenides * Thermal Expansion of Ionic and Superionic Solids * Improvement of PEO-LiCF3SO3 Complex Electrolytes Using Additives * Ionic Conductivity of Modified Poly (Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol Methacrylate) s-Lithium Salt Complexes * Solid Polymer Electrolytes of Crosslinked Polyethylene Glycol and Lithium Salts * Single Ionic Conductors Prepared by in Situ Polymerization of Methacrylic Acid

  17. Conductance of Ion Channels - Theory vs. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael; Mijajlovic, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane ion channels mediate a number of essential physiological processes in a cell ranging from regulating osmotic pressure to transmission of neural signals. Kinetics and selectivity of ion transport is of critical importance to a cell and, not surprisingly, it is a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies. In this presentation we will analyze in detail computer simulations of two simple channels from fungi - antiamoebin and trichotoxin. Each of these channels is made of an alpha-helical bundle of small, nongenomically synthesized peptides containing a number of rare amino acids and exhibits strong antimicrobial activity. We will focus on calculating ionic conductance defined as the ratio of ionic current through the channel to applied voltage. From molecular dynamics simulations, conductance can be calculated in at least two ways, each involving different approximations. Specifically, the current, given as the number of charges transferred through the channel per unit of time, can be obtained from the number of events in which ions cross the channel during the simulation. This method works well for large currents (high conductance values and/or applied voltages). If the number of crossing events is small, reliable estimates of current are difficult to achieve. Alternatively, conductance can be estimated assuming that ion transport can be well approximated as diffusion in the external potential given by the free energy profile. Then, the current can be calculated by solving the one-dimensional diffusion equation in this external potential and applied voltage (the generalized Nernst-Planck equation). To do so three ingredients are needed: the free energy profile, the position-dependent diffusion coefficient and the diffusive flux of ions into the channel. All these quantities can be obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. An important advantage of this method is that it can be used equally well to estimating large and small currents

  18. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  19. P -type transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Xi, Kai; Blamire, Mark G; Egdell, Russell G

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides constitute a unique class of materials combining properties of electrical conductivity and optical transparency in a single material. They are needed for a wide range of applications including solar cells, flat panel displays, touch screens, light emitting diodes and transparent electronics. Most of the commercially available TCOs are n -type, such as Sn doped In 2 O 3 , Al doped ZnO, and F doped SnO 2 . However, the development of efficient p -type TCOs remains an outstanding challenge. This challenge is thought to be due to the localized nature of the O 2 p derived valence band which leads to difficulty in introducing shallow acceptors and large hole effective masses. In 1997 Hosono and co-workers (1997 Nature 389 939) proposed the concept of ‘chemical modulation of the valence band’ to mitigate this problem using hybridization of O 2 p orbitals with close-shell Cu 3 d 10 orbitals. This work has sparked tremendous interest in designing p -TCO materials together with deep understanding the underlying materials physics. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive review on traditional and recently emergent p -TCOs, including Cu + -based delafossites, layered oxychalcogenides, nd 6 spinel oxides, Cr 3+ -based oxides (3 d 3 ) and post-transition metal oxides with lone pair state (ns 2 ). We will focus our discussions on the basic materials physics of these materials in terms of electronic structures, doping and defect properties for p -type conductivity and optical properties. Device applications based on p -TCOs for transparent p – n junctions will also be briefly discussed. (topical review)

  20. Structural evaluation of reduced graphene oxide in graphene oxide during ion irradiation: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in-situ sheet resistance studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, K.; Jayalakshmi, G.; Suresh, K.; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Phase, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    We report the structural evolution of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in graphene oxide (GO) flakes during 1 MeV Si+ ion irradiation. In-situ electrical resistivity measurements facilitate monitoring the sheet resistance with the increase in the fluence. The electrical sheet resistance of the GO flake shows the exponential decay behaviour with the increasing ion fluence. Raman spectra of the GO flake reveal the increase in the ID/IG ratio, indicating restoration of the sp2 network upon irradiation. The C/O ratio estimated from resonant Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis directly evidenced the reduction of oxygen moieties upon irradiation. C K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra reveal the restoration of C=C sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups in the GO flake. STM data reveal the higher conductance in the rGO regime in comparison with the regime, where the oxygen functional groups are present. The experimental investigation demonstrates that the ion irradiation can be employed for efficient reduction of GO with tunable electrical and structural properties.

  1. The alteration of oxidation and related properties of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of the various ways in which ion implanted additives can affect the thermal oxidation of metals, for example by blocking diffusion paths for ions, by catalytic effects or by altering the plasticity of the oxide. The versatility of the process has already proved useful in the study of oxidation mechanisms. Ways of achieving a long-lasting protection are discussed in relation to the dominant mechanisms of oxidation inhibition. In many practical applications at elevated temperatures oxidation and mechanical stresses co-exist. In steels the process of oxidative wear is important under conditions of poor lubrication and implanted metallic ions have been shown to be effective. In titanium alloys fatigue cracks probably initiate at dislocation sites at which oxidation proceeds most rapidly, and hence the same implanted species can improve both types of behaviour. Successful implantation treatments for fretting fatigue in titanium and a corrosion-erosion problem in steel are described. (orig.)

  2. Ion transport properties of lithium ionic liquids and their ion gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobukawa, Hitoshi; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Susan, Md. Abu Bin Hasan; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    A new series of lithium ionic liquids were prepared by introducing of two electron-withdrawing trifluoroacetyl groups in borate salts containing two methoxy-oligo(ethylene oxide) groups in the structures. Successive substitution reactions of oligo-ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and trifluroacetic acid from LiBH 4 yielded the lithium salts, which were clear and colorless liquids at room temperature. The fundamental physicochemical properties, such as density, thermal property, viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficients, and electrochemical stability, were measured. The lithium ionic liquids had self-dissociation ability and conducted ions even in the absence of organic solvents. New polymer electrolytes, named 'ion gels', were prepared by radical cross-linking reactions of a poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide)tri-acrylate macromonomer in the presence the lithium ionic liquid. An increase in the glass transition temperatures (T g ) of the ion gels was very small even with increasing lithium ionic liquid concentration, and the T g 's were lower than that of the ionic liquid itself. The ionic conductivity of the ion gels surpassed that of the lithium ionic liquid in the bulk at certain compositions

  3. On kinetics and mechanism of' furfural oxidation by ions of heterovalent metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupenskij, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Real constants of rate of furfural oxidation by Cu 2+ , Fe 3+ , Ce 4+ , Ag + , Hg 2+ 2 ions are determined, other kinetic and activation parameters of reactions are calculated, constants of stability and other thermodynamic characteristics of furfural complex with cations-oxidizers are found. Schemes of furfural transformations at one- and two-electron oxidation by ions of variable-valency metals are suggested

  4. Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (R-SOFCs) with chemically stable proton-conducting oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Boulfrad, Samir; Traversa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Proton-conducting oxides offer a promising way of lowering the working temperature of solid oxide cells to the intermediate temperate range (500 to 700. °C) due to their better ionic conductivity. In addition, the application of proton

  5. Ion conduction in crystalline superionic solids and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Angesh

    2014-06-01

    Superionic solids an area of multidisciplinary research activity, incorporates to study the physical, chemical and technological aspects of rapid ion movements within the bulk of the special class of ionic materials. It is an emerging area of materials science, as these solids show tremendous technological scopes to develop wide variety of solid state electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors, electrochromic displays (ECDs), memories, etc. These devices have wide range of applicabilities viz. power sources for IC microchips to transport vehicles, novel sensors for controlling atmospheric pollution, new kind of memories for computers, smart windows/display panels, etc. The field grew with a rapid pace since then, especially with regards to designing new materials as well as to explore their device potentialities. Amongst the known superionic solids, fast Ag+ ion conducting crystalline solid electrolytes are attracted special attention due to their relatively higher room temperature conductivity as well as ease of materials handling/synthesis. Ion conduction in these electrolytes is very much interesting part of today. In the present review article, the ion conducting phenomenon and some device applications of crystalline/polycrystalline superionic solid electrolytes have been reviewed in brief. Synthesis and characterization tools have also been discussed in the present review article.

  6. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christine H. J.; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ˜124% (237 F g-1) with excellent cycling stability (˜93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors.

  7. The influence of ion implantation on the oxidation of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, P.D.

    1975-11-01

    The effects of ion implantation on the oxidation of polycrystalline nickel have been studied for a range of implanted species: viz. He, Li, Ne, Ca, Ti, Ni, Co, Xe, Ce and Bi. The oxides were grown in dry oxygen at 630 0 C and the 16 O(d,p) 17 O nuclear reaction technique used to determine the amount of oxygen taken up. The influence of atomic and ionic size, valency and electronegativity of the implanted impurities was studied as also were the effects of ion bombardment damage and the influence of sputtering during implantation. Atomic size and the annealing of disorder were found to have a marked influence on oxide growth rate. The dependence of oxidation on annealing was further studied by implanting polycrystalline specimens with self ions and observing the oxide growth rate as a function of annealing temperature. A peak in the curve was found at 400 0 C and a similar peak observed at a somewhat higher temperature for oxidised single crystals. It is concluded that the oxidation rate will be influenced by those factors which alter the epitaxial relationship between metal and growing oxide. Such factors include atomic size of the implanted species, surface strain induced by implantation and changes in surface topography as a result of sputtering. In addition a model based on vacancy assisted cation migration is proposed to explain enhanced oxidation observed over a limited temperature range. (author)

  8. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  9. The air oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zirconium at 500 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, D Q; Chen, X W; Zhou, Q G

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of lanthanum ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zirconium at 500 deg. C has been studied. Zirconium specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions using a MEVVA source at energy of 40 keV with a fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at maximum temperature of 130 deg. C, The weight gain curves were measured after being oxidized in air at 500 deg. C for 100 min, which showed that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of zirconium ion implanted with lanthanum compared with that of the as-received zirconium. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; and then the depth distributions of the elements in the surface of the samples were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3 deg. incident angles was employed to examine the modification of its phase transformation because of the lanthanum ion implantation in the oxide films. It was obviously fou...

  10. Ionic conductivity in new perovskite type oxides: NaAZrMO6 (A = Ca or Sr; M = Nb or Ta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Deepthi N.; Ravindran Nair, K.; Prabhakar Rao, P.; Sibi, K.S.; Koshy, Peter; Vaidyan, V.K.

    2008-01-01

    New oxides of the type, NaAZrMO 6 (M = Ca or Sr; M = Nb or Ta), have been prepared by the solid-state reaction technique. Phase identification by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that NaCaZrMO 6 has orthorhombic perovskite type structure (Pnma) and NaSrZrMO 6 has cubic perovskite type structure (Pm3m). The grain morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows well-sintered grains. ac impedance spectra and electrical conductivity measurements in air, oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres indicate that they are probable oxide ion conductors with ionic conductivities of the order of 10 -3 S cm -1 at 750 deg. C

  11. Modifying the conductivity of polypyrrole through low-energy lead ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Marsilea Adela; Leveneur, Jérôme; Costa, Alexsandro Santos; Kennedy, John; Harbison, SallyAnn; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2012-01-01

    Interest lies in the creation of novel nanocomposite materials obtained through mixing, impregnation or incorporation techniques. One such technique is ion implantation which possesses the potential for retaining properties from the base material and implanted material as well as any effects observed from combining the two. To this end low-energy (15 keV) implantation of lead ions of various fluences was performed in conducting polypyrrole films. The presence of lead-rich particles was evidenced through transmission electron microscopy. An interesting trend was observed between fluence and conductivity. Of the fluences tested, the optimum fluences of lead ion implantation in polypyrrole films for enhanced conductivity are 5 × 10 14 at. cm −2 and 2 × 10 15 at. cm −2 . The conductivity and stability appear to result from a combination of effects: polymer degradation arising from ion beam damage, an increase in charge-carriers (dications) present after implantation and precipitation of Pb-rich nanoparticles. Monitoring conductivity over time showed increased retention of conductivity levels after lead implantation. Improvements in stability for polypyrrole open avenues for application and bring polypyrrole one step closer to practical use. A mechanism is suggested for this advantageous retained conductivity. -- Highlights: ► Implanted and characterized polypyrrole films with Pb ions at different fluences. ► Samples indicate high conductivity when implanted with particular fluences. ► Increase in charge carriers and precipitation of conductive Pb-rich phase. ► Conductivity stability is higher for some implanted fluences than for pristine polypyrrole.

  12. Ion sieving in graphene oxide membranes via cationic control of interlayer spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Shi, Guosheng; Shen, Jie; Peng, Bingquan; Zhang, Bowu; Wang, Yuzhu; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Deyuan; Qian, Zhe; Xu, Gang; Liu, Gongping; Zeng, Jianrong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Yizhou; Zhou, Guoquan; Wu, Minghong; Jin, Wanqin; Li, Jingye; Fang, Haiping

    2017-10-01

    Graphene oxide membranes—partially oxidized, stacked sheets of graphene—can provide ultrathin, high-flux and energy-efficient membranes for precise ionic and molecular sieving in aqueous solution. These materials have shown potential in a variety of applications, including water desalination and purification, gas and ion separation, biosensors, proton conductors, lithium-based batteries and super-capacitors. Unlike the pores of carbon nanotube membranes, which have fixed sizes, the pores of graphene oxide membranes—that is, the interlayer spacing between graphene oxide sheets (a sheet is a single flake inside the membrane)—are of variable size. Furthermore, it is difficult to reduce the interlayer spacing sufficiently to exclude small ions and to maintain this spacing against the tendency of graphene oxide membranes to swell when immersed in aqueous solution. These challenges hinder the potential ion filtration applications of graphene oxide membranes. Here we demonstrate cationic control of the interlayer spacing of graphene oxide membranes with ångström precision using K+, Na+, Ca2+, Li+ or Mg2+ ions. Moreover, membrane spacings controlled by one type of cation can efficiently and selectively exclude other cations that have larger hydrated volumes. First-principles calculations and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy reveal that the location of the most stable cation adsorption is where oxide groups and aromatic rings coexist. Previous density functional theory computations show that other cations (Fe2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+) should have a much stronger cation-π interaction with the graphene sheet than Na+ has, suggesting that other ions could be used to produce a wider range of interlayer spacings.

  13. Oxidized graphene as an electrode material for rechargeable metal-ion batteries – a DFT point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrota, Ana S.; Pašti, Igor A.; Skorodumova, Natalia V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In line with a growing interest in the use of graphene-based materials for energy storage applications and active research in the field of rechargeable metal-ion batteries we have performed a DFT based computational study of alkali metal atoms (Li, Na and K) interaction with an oxidized graphene. The presence of oxygen surface groups (epoxy and hydroxyl) alters the chemisorption properties of graphene. In particular, we observe that the epoxy groups are redox active and enhance the alkali metal adsorption energies by a factor of 2 or more. When an alkali metal atom interacts with hydroxyl-graphene the formation of metal-hydroxide is observed. In addition to a potential boost of metal ion storage capability, oxygen functional groups also prevent the precipitation of the metal phase. By simulating lithiation/de-lithiation process on epoxy-graphenes, it was concluded that the oxidized graphene can undergo structural changes during battery operation. Our results suggest that the content and the type of oxygen surface groups should be carefully tailored to maximize the performance of metal-ion batteries. This is mainly related to the control of the oxidation level in order to provide enough active centers for metal ion storage while preserving sufficient electrical conductivity

  14. Tuning the conductivity of vanadium dioxide films on silicon by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hofsäss

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the generation of a persistent conductivity increase in vanadium dioxide thin films grown on single crystal silicon by irradiation with 1 GeV 238U swift heavy ions at room temperature. VO2 undergoes a temperature driven metal-insulator-transition (MIT at 67 °C. After room temperature ion irradiation with high electronic energy loss of 50 keV/nm the conductivity of the films below the transition temperature is strongly increased proportional to the ion fluence of 5·109 U/cm2 and 1·1010 U/cm2. At high temperatures the conductivity decreases slightly. The ion irradiation slightly reduces the MIT temperature. This observed conductivity change is persistent and remains after heating the samples above the transition temperature and subsequent cooling. Low temperature measurements down to 15 K show no further MIT below room temperature. Although the conductivity increase after irradiation at such low fluences is due to single ion track effects, atomic force microscopy (AFM measurements do not show surface hillocks, which are characteristic for ion tracks in other materials. Conductive AFM gives no evidence for conducting ion tracks but rather suggests the existence of conducting regions around poorly conducting ion tracks, possible due to stress generation. Another explanation of the persistent conductivity change could be the ion-induced modification of a high resistivity interface layer formed during film growth between the vanadium dioxide film and the n-Silicon substrate. The swift heavy ions may generate conducting filaments through this layer, thus increasing the effective contact area. Swift heavy ion irradiation can thus be used to tune the conductivity of VO2 films on silicon substrates.

  15. Anodic oxidation of chloride ions in 1-butyl-3-methyl-limidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qibo; Hua, Yixin; Wang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The anodic oxidation of Cl − in BMIMBF 4 is electrochemically irreversible with diffusion controlled. • The oxidation of Cl − in BMIMBF 4 is more likely to form tri-chloride ion, Cl 3 − but not chlorine, Cl 2 . • The minute amount of Cl 2 detected after electrolysis forms according to the equilibrium of Cl 2 + Cl − ⇌ Cl 3 − . -- Abstract: The oxidation behavior of chloride ions on platinum electrodes was investigated in a natural ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl-limidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIMBF 4 ) in the presence of high concentrations of 1-butyl-3-methyl-limidazolium chloride (BMIMCl). Analysis of the electrode reaction was explored using cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry with a platinum micro-disk electrode, and bulk potentiostatic electrolysis and UV–vis spectroscopy. The anodic oxidation of chloride ions on the platinum micro-disk electrode in the mixture was considered to be an irreversible process with diffusion controlled as revealed by cyclic voltammetry. The diffusion coefficient, D, and the number of electrons transferred, n, for anodic oxidation of Cl − in BMIMBF 4 derived from results of chronoamperometry revealed that the oxidation of chloride ions was more likely to form tri-chloride ion, Cl 3 − but not chlorine, Cl 2 . Bulk electrolysis and UV–vis spectroscopy further confirmed that the tri-chloride ion was the main product from the overall oxidation of the chloride ion

  16. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II Ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ibrahim

    Full Text Available A photoelectrochemical (PEC sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II ions (Cu2+ was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO surface, with triethanolamine (TEA used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection.

  17. Silicon-conductive nanopaper for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the development of thin, flexible energy storage devices for new applications. For large scale and low cost devices, structures with the use of earth abundant materials are attractive. In this study, we fabricated flexible and conductive nanopaper aerogels with incorporated carbon nanotubes (CNT). Such conductive nanopaper is made from aqueous dispersions with dispersed CNT and cellulose nanofibers. Such aerogels are highly porous with open channels that allow the deposition of a thin-layer of silicon through a plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) method. Meanwhile, the open channels also allow for an excellent ion accessibility to the surface of silicon. We demonstrated that such lightweight and flexible Si-conductive nanopaper structure performs well as Li-ion battery anodes. A stable capacity of 1200. mA. h/g for 100 cycles in half-cells is achieved. Such flexible anodes based on earth abundant materials and aqueous dispersions could potentially open new opportunities for low-cost energy devices, and potentially can be applied for large-scale energy storage. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric stacks with Si nanoparticles obtained by low-energy ion beam synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou-Sougleridis, V; Dimitrakis, P; Vamvakas, V Em; Normand, P; Bonafos, C; Schamm, S; Mouti, A; Assayag, G Ben; Paillard, V

    2007-01-01

    Formation of a thin band of silicon nanoparticles within silicon nitride films by low-energy (1 keV) silicon ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing is demonstrated. Electrical characterization of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors reveals that oxide/Si-nanoparticles-nitride/oxide dielectric stacks exhibit enhanced charge transfer characteristics between the substrate and the silicon nitride layer compared to dielectric stacks using unimplanted silicon nitride. Attractive results are obtained in terms of write/erase memory characteristics and data retention, indicating the large potential of the low-energy ion-beam-synthesis technique in SONOS memory technology

  19. First-principles density functional calculation of electrochemical stability of fast Li ion conducting garnet-type oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Masanobu; Kotobuki, Masashi; Munakata, Hirokazu; Nogami, Masayuki; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-07-28

    The research and development of rechargeable all-ceramic lithium batteries are vital to realize their considerable advantages over existing commercial lithium ion batteries in terms of size, energy density, and safety. A key part of such effort is the development of solid-state electrolyte materials with high Li(+) conductivity and good electrochemical stability; lithium-containing oxides with a garnet-type structure are known to satisfy the requirements to achieve both features. Using first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the electrochemical stability of garnet-type Li(x)La(3)M(2)O(12) (M = Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Sb, Bi; x = 5 or 7) materials against Li metal. We found that the electrochemical stability of such materials depends on their composition and structure. The electrochemical stability against Li metal was improved when a cation M was chosen with a low effective nuclear charge, that is, with a high screening constant for an unoccupied orbital. In fact, both our computational and experimental results show that Li(7)La(3)Zr(2)O(12) and Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) are inert to Li metal. In addition, the linkage of MO(6) octahedra in the crystal structure affects the electrochemical stability. For example, perovskite-type La(1/3)TaO(3) was found, both experimentally and computationally, to react with Li metal owing to the corner-sharing MO(6) octahedral network of La(1/3)TaO(3), even though it has the same constituent elements as garnet-type Li(5)La(3)Ta(2)O(12) (which is inert to Li metal and features isolated TaO(6) octahedra).

  20. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Christine H J; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ∼124% (237 F g −1 ) with excellent cycling stability (∼93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors. (paper)

  2. Tunable sieving of ions using graphene oxide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jijo; Vasu, Kalangi S.; Williams, Christopher D.; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Su, Yang; Cherian, Christie T.; Dix, James; Prestat, Eric; Haigh, Sarah J.; Grigorieva, Irina V.; Carbone, Paola; Geim, Andre K.; Nair, Rahul R.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ˜9 Å (ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ˜13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge. Here, we describe how to control d by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ˜9.8 Å to 6.4 Å are demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated ions. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ˜10-100 kJ mol-1 depending on d. Importantly, permeation rates decrease exponentially with decreasing sieve size but water transport is weakly affected (by a factor of <2). The latter is attributed to a low barrier for the entry of water molecules and large slip lengths inside graphene capillaries. Building on these findings, we demonstrate a simple scalable method to obtain graphene-based membranes with limited swelling, which exhibit 97% rejection for NaCl.

  3. Integration of conducting polymer network in non-conductive polymer substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Anew method for integration ofconjugated, inherently conducting polymers into non-conductive polymer substrates has been developed. Alayer of the conducting polymer is polymerised by chemical oxidation, e.g. using Fe(ID) p-toluene sulfonate (ferri tosylate) followed by washing with a solvent which...... simultaneously removes residual and spent oxidant and at the same time dissolves the top layer of the polymer substrate. This results in an integration of the conducting polymer into the surface layers of the polymer substrate. Several combinations of conducting polymers and substrates have been tested...... absorption during sequential reactive ion etching has allowed for analysis of the PEDOT distribution within the surface layer of thePMMA substrate. The surface resistance ofthe conducting polymer layer remains low while the surface layer at the same time adapts some of the mechanical properties...

  4. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  5. Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1994-11-01

    Ion beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual ion beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. Optical properties ie refractive index and extinction coefficient of IBS films were determined in the 250 - 1100 nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n equals 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS ie deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 - 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 - 40 (mu) A/cm2) showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy while composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford scattering spectroscopy. Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target while assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals 35 (mu) A/cm2. All

  6. Ion-beam and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1995-02-01

    Ion-beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. The optical properties, i.e., refractive index and extinction coefficient, of IBS films were determined in the 250- to 1100-nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS, i.e., deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 to 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 to 40 (mu) A/cm2), showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy, whereas composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target whereas assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS-deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS-deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals

  7. Group IIB-VIA semiconductor oxide cluster ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekharan, Thankan

    2018-05-01

    Metal oxide cluster ions, MnOm± (M = Zn, Cd) and HgnOm- of various stoichiometry have been generated from solid IIB-VIA semiconductor oxides targets, (ZnO(s), CdO(s), and HgO(s)) by using pulse laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry with a laser of λ = 355 nm. Analysis of mass spectral data indicates the formation of stoichiometric cluster ions viz., (ZnO)n=1-30+ and (CdO)n=1-40+ along with -O bound anions, (ZnO)n=1-30O-, (CdO)n=1-40O- and (HgO)n=1-36O- from their respective solids. Further, metal oxoanions such as ZnOn=2,3-, CdOn=2,3,6-, and HgOn=2,3,6,7- have also been noted signifying the higher coordination ability of both Cd and Hg with O/O2/O3 species.

  8. Li-ion site disorder driven superionic conductivity in solid electrolytes: a first-principles investigation of β-Li3PS4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani Dathar, Gopi Krishna; Balachandran, Janakiraman; Kent, Paul R. C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Ganesh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The attractive safety and long-term stability of all solid-state batteries has added a new impetus to the discovery and development of solid electrolytes for lithium batteries. Recently several superionic lithium conducting solid electrolytes have been discovered. All the superionic lithium containing compounds (β-Li 3 PS 4 and Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 and oxides, predominantly in the garnet phase) have partially occupied sites. This naturally begs the question of understanding the role of partial site occupancies (or site disorder) in optimizing ionic conductivity in these family of solids. In this paper, we find that for a given topology of the host lattice, maximizing the number of sites with similar Li-ion adsorption energies, which gives partial site occupancy, is a natural way to increase the configurational entropy of the system and optimize the conductivity. For a given topology and density of Li-ion adsorption sites, the ionic conductivity is maximal when the number of mobile Li-ions are equal to the number of mobile vacancies, also the very condition for achieving maximal configurational entropy. We demonstrate applicability of this principle by elucidating the role of Li-ion site disorder and the local chemical environment in the high ionic conductivity of β-Li 3 PS 4 . In addition, for β-Li 3 PS 4 we find that a significant density of vacancies in the Li-ion sub-lattice (~25%) leads to sub-lattice melting at (~600 K) leading to a molten form for the Li-ions in an otherwise solid anionic host. This gives a lithium site occupancy that is similar to what is measured experimentally. We further show that quenching this disorder can improve conductivity at lower temperatures. As a consequence, we discover that (a) one can optimize ionic conductivity in a given topology by choosing a chemistry/composition that maximizes the number of mobile-carriers i.e. maximizing both mobile Li-ions and vacancies, and (b) when the concentration of vacancies becomes significant in

  9. Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, Matthew L.; Hack, Jennifer; Kuang, Xiaojun; McIntyre, Garry J.; Withers, Ray L.; Johnson, Mark R.; Radosavljevic Evans, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational study of Bi 1−x Nb x O 1.5+x (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 , previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi 0.88 Nb 0.12 O 1.62 exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M 4 and octahedral □M 6 vacancies. - Graphical abstract: Oxide ion migration in tetragonal Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 occurs by O 2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM 4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral M 4 and octahedral M 6 vacancies. - Highlights: • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 adopts a tetragonal √2×√2×1 fluorite superstructure. • Superstructure is due to ordering in the O-sublattice, with Bi/Nb disordered. • Bi 0.9375 Nb 0.0625 O 1.5625 is a good oxide ion conductor. • O 2− jump between OM 4 groups (M

  10. Atomistic Modeling of Ion Conduction through the Voltage-Sensing Domain of the Shaker K+ Ion Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mona L; Freites, J Alfredo; Tombola, Francesco; Tobias, Douglas J

    2017-04-20

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) sense changes in the membrane electrostatic potential and, through conformational changes, regulate a specific function. The VSDs of wild-type voltage-dependent K + , Na + , and Ca 2+ channels do not conduct ions, but they can become ion-permeable through pathological mutations in the VSD. Relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms of conduction through VSDs. The most detailed studies have been performed on Shaker K + channel variants in which ion conduction through the VSD is manifested in electrophysiology experiments as a voltage-dependent inward current, the so-called omega current, which appears when the VSDs are in their resting state conformation. Only monovalent cations appear to permeate the Shaker VSD via a pathway that is believed to be, at least in part, the same as that followed by the S4 basic side chains during voltage-dependent activation. We performed μs-time scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of a cation-conducting variant of the Shaker VSD under applied electric fields in an experimentally validated resting-state conformation, embedded in a lipid bilayer surrounded by solutions containing guanidinium chloride or potassium chloride. Our simulations provide insights into the Shaker VSD permeation pathway, the protein-ion interactions that control permeation kinetics, and the mechanism of voltage-dependent activation of voltage-gated ion channels.

  11. XPS study of vanadium surface oxidation by oxygen ion bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alov, N.; Kutsko, D.; Spirovová, Ilona; Bastl, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, č. 8 (2006), s. 1628-1631 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/04/0467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : vanadium oxide * oxide film * ion-beam oxidation * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  12. The special features of the crystal structure and properties of oxides with mixed conductivity based on lanthanum gallate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Ivanov, S. A.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Rusakov, V. S.

    2008-10-01

    The paper presents a review of works on the synthesis, structural composition effects, phase transitions, and electrical conductivity properties of multicomponent solid solutions based on heterosubstituted lanthanum gallate (La,A)(Ga,M)O3 - y . High-temperature phase transitions and structural and charge ordering effects were studied. The presence of iron cations in different valence states was proved; the relative contents of these cations depended on the x parameter and nonstoichiometry parameter y of the base composition. For M = Fe, antiferromagnetic ordering was observed; its temperature interval was determined by the concentration of iron cations in the high-spin state. The total conductivity was found to increase as the concentration of transition metal cations grew because of an increase in the electronic conductivity component. The data on structural parameters and dc and ac conductivity substantiated the conclusion that the highest ionic conductivity and permeability to oxygen were characteristic of iron-containing oxides. The results obtained are evidence that crystal chemical factors play a determining role in the formation of the ion-conducting properties of anion-deficient perovskite-like oxides.

  13. Ion heat conduction losses in Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennfors, E.

    1989-08-01

    The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using polynomial magnetic field profiles and compared to the power input. For polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found, where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses. Each set of coefficients corresponds to values of the parameters F and Θ used in RFP physics. The region determines a region in an F-Θ diagram, including the usual RFP region but extending to higher values of Θ and βΘ

  14. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Xia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga+ implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga+ implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 103 Ω−1m−1 to 1.46 × 104 Ω−1m−1 and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm−1K−1 to 1.22 Wm−1K−1 for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga+ implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga+ point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga+-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  15. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-01-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag 2 O−[(1−x)B 2 O 3 −xTeO 2 ] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO 2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10 −2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries

  16. Highly conductive cathode materials for Li-ion batteries prepared by thermal nanocrystallization of selected oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak, T.K.; Wasiucionek, M.; Michalski, P.P.; Kaleta, A.; Garbarczyk, J.E., E-mail: garbar@if.pw.edu.pl

    2016-11-15

    Glassy analogs of two important cathode materials for Li-ion cells: V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and phosphoolivine LiFePO{sub 4} were heat-treated in order to prepare nanocrystallized materials with high electronic conductivity of up to 7 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} and ca 7 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C, respectively. There is a clear correlation between the crystallization phenomena and the increase in the electrical conductivity for both groups of glasses. Electrochemical tests of heat-treated glasses of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system, used as cathodes in lithium cells confirm their good gravimetric capacity and reversibility. Heat-treatment of glasses of the Li{sub 2}O–FeO–V{sub 2}O{sub 5}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system also leads to a high increase in the conductivity and to formation of nanocrystalline grains in the glassy matrix, evidenced by HR-TEM images. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of these materials follows the Arrhenius formula. The presented results indicate that the overall increase in conductivity in nanocrystallized materials is due to good charge transport properties of their interfacial regions.

  17. Effect of variation in the glass-former network structure on the relaxation properties of conductive Ag+ ions in AgI-based fast ion conducting glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaya, Minoru; Nakayama, Michiko; Hatate, Atsuo; Oguni, Masaharu

    1995-08-01

    Heat capacities and ac conductivities of AgI-based fast ion conducting glasses of AgI-Ag2O-P2O5 and AgI-Ag2O-B2O3 systems with different P-O or B-O network structures but with the same AgI concentration of 1.55×104 mol m-3 were measured in the temperature range 14-400 K and in the temperature and frequency ranges 100-200 K and 10 Hz-1 MHz, respectively. The β-glass transition due to a freezing-in of the rearrangement of Ag+ ions was observed by adiabatic calorimetry for the glasses in the liquid-nitrogen temperature region, and the conductometry was suggested to see the same mode of Ag+-ion motion as the calorimetry. It was found that the development of the network structure of the glass former at constant AgI concentration resulted in the decrease of the β-glass transition temperature and the activation energy for the diffusional motion of Ag+ ions and in the increase of the heat-capacity jump associated with the glass transition. The results support the amorphous AgI aggregate model for the structure of the conductive region in the glasses with relatively high AgI compositions, indicating that Ag+-ion conductivity is mainly dominated by the degree of development of the AgI aggregate region dependent on the glass-former network structure as well as the AgI composition.

  18. Cobalt Oxide Porous Nanofibers Directly Grown on Conductive Substrate as a Binder/Additive-Free Lithium-Ion Battery Anode with High Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zheng, Zheng; Chen, Bochao; Liao, Libing; Wang, Xina

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the amount of inactive materials, such as binders and carbon additives in battery electrode, porous cobalt monoxide nanofibers were directly grown on conductive substrate as a binder/additive-free lithium-ion battery anode. This electrode exhibited very high specific discharging/charging capacities at various rates and good cycling stability. It was promising as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  19. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy for Studying Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard D. Dietzel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM is a scanning probe technique that utilizes the increase in access resistance that occurs if an electrolyte filled glass micro-pipette is approached towards a poorly conducting surface. Since an increase in resistance can be monitored before the physical contact between scanning probe tip and sample, this technique is particularly useful to investigate the topography of delicate samples such as living cells. SICM has shown its potential in various applications such as high resolution and long-time imaging of living cells or the determination of local changes in cellular volume. Furthermore, SICM has been combined with various techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or patch clamping to reveal localized information about proteins or protein functions. This review details the various advantages and pitfalls of SICM and provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of SICM in biological imaging. Furthermore, we show that in principle, a combination of SICM and ion selective micro-electrodes enables one to monitor the local ion activity surrounding a living cell.

  20. Variation in viscosity and ion conductivity of a polymer–salt complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ion conductivity shows a strong increase for an irradiation of. 35 kGy. DSC studies indicate a decrease in crystallinity with gamma dose. Keywords. Gamma irradiation; polymer electrolyte; viscosity; ion conductivity. PACS Nos 61.82.Pv; 66.30.Dn; 47.57.Ng; 81.70.Pg. 1. Introduction. When polymers are exposed to high ...

  1. Ion-molecule reactions in the binary mixture of ethylene oxide and trioxane, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Minoru; Arakawa, Kazuo; Sugiura, Toshio.

    1978-01-01

    The ion-molecule reactions in the binary mixture of ethylene oxide and trioxane have been studied with use of a modified time-of-flight mass spectrometer. As cross-reaction product ions, C 3 H 5 O 2 + , C 3 H 6 O 2 +sup(, and C**3**H**7**O**2**)+sup( were observed under the conditions of long delay times and elevated pressure. It was found that these ions are formed by the dissociation of unstable intermediate-complex resulting from the reaction of ethylene oxide molecular ion with trioxane. It was proposed that the complex is of cyclic structure in which positive charge is delocalized. From the consideration of isotopic distribution of the product ions in ethylene-d**4** oxide-trioxane mixtures, the skeletal structures of the product ions were investigated. The rate constants of the formation reactions of C**3**H**5**O**2**)+sup(, C**3**H**6**O**2**)+sup(, and C**3**H**7**O**2**)+sup( in ethylene oxide-trioxane mixtures were found to be 2.20 x 10)-10sup(, 2.61 x 10)-10sup(, and 1.74 x 10)-10sup( cm)3sup( molecule)-1sup(s)-1 , respectively. (auth.)

  2. Oxide glass structure evolution under swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, C.; Peuget, S.; Charpentier, T.; Moskura, M.; Caraballo, R.; Bouty, O.; Mir, A.H.; Monnet, I.; Grygiel, C.; Jegou, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Structure of SHI irradiated glass is similar to the one of a hyper quenched glass. • D2 Raman band associated to 3 members ring is only observed in irradiated glass. • Irradiated state seems slightly different to an equilibrated liquid quenched rapidly. - Abstract: The effects of ion tracks on the structure of oxide glasses were examined by irradiating a silica glass and two borosilicate glass specimens containing 3 and 6 oxides with krypton ions (74 MeV) and xenon ions (92 MeV). Structural changes in the glass were observed by Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a multinuclear approach ( 11 B, 23 Na, 27 Al and 29 Si). The structure of irradiated silica glass resembles a structure quenched at very high temperature. Both borosilicate glass specimens exhibited depolymerization of the borosilicate network, a lower boron coordination number, and a change in the role of a fraction of the sodium atoms after irradiation, suggesting that the final borosilicate glass structures were quenched from a high temperature state. In addition, a sharp increase in the concentration of three membered silica rings and the presence of large amounts of penta- and hexacoordinate aluminum in the irradiated 6-oxide glass suggest that the irradiated glass is different from a liquid quenched at equilibrium, but it is rather obtained from a nonequilibrium liquid that is partially relaxed by very rapid quenching within the ion tracks

  3. Conductivity change of defective graphene by helium ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Naitou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Applying a recently developed helium ion microscope, we demonstrated direct nano-patterning and Anderson localization of single-layer graphene (SLG on SiO2/Si substrates. In this study, we clarified the spatial-resolution-limitation factor of direct nano-patterning of SLG. Analysis of scanning capacitance microscopy measurements reveals that the conductivity of helium ion (H+-irradiated SLG nanostructures depends on their geometrical size, i.e., the smaller the H+-irradiated SLG region, the higher its conductivity becomes. This finding can be explained by the hopping carrier transport across strongly localized states of defective SLG.

  4. Structure and reactivity of molybdenum oxide cluster ions in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.B.; Fialko, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    A set of cluster ions of molybdenum oxides Mo x O y + (x = 1-5, y = 1-15) was prepared using a combination of the ionic cyclotron resonance method and Knudsen effusion source. Dependence of concentration of different molybdenum oxide ions on the time of retention and their interaction with carbon monoxide was studied. It is shown that Mo x O y + ions with x>3 contain cyclic fragment Mo 3 O 9 in their structure. Oxygen binding energies within ionic clusters Mo x O y + were estimated [ru

  5. Nano-size metallic oxide particle synthesis in Fe-Cr alloys by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Delauche, L.; Arnal, B.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles are advanced structural materials for nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides can help in improving mechanical properties of ODS steels, with a strong impact for their commercialization. A perfect tool to study these mechanisms is ion implantation, where various precipitate synthesis parameters are under control. In the framework of this approach, high-purity Fe-10Cr alloy samples were consecutively implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature and demonstrated a number of unexpected features. For example, oxide particles of a few nm in diameter could be identified in the samples already after ion implantation at room temperature. This is very unusual for ion beam synthesis, which commonly requires post-implantation high-temperature annealing to launch precipitation. The observed particles were composed of aluminium and oxygen, but additionally contained one of the matrix elements (chromium). The crystal structure of aluminium oxide compound corresponds to non-equilibrium cubic γ-Al2O3 phase rather than to more common corundum. The obtained experimental results together with the existing literature data give insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides in ODS alloys.

  6. Oxidative degradation of ion-exchange resins in acid medium. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Ghattas, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Volume reduction of spent ion-exchange resins used in nuclear facilities receive increasing importance due to the increase in storage cost, unstable physical and chemical properties and their relatively high specific activity (in some cases up to 1 Ci per liter). The present study is part of research program on the treatment and immobilization of radioactive spent ion-exchange resins simulate; hydrogen peroxide was used for the oxidative degradation of spent ion-exchange resins simulate in sulphuric acid medium. Five liters ring digester developed in Karlsruhe nuclear research center-(KFK)- in germany was the chosen option to perform the oxidation process. The work reported focused on the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation process. Heating the organic resins in sulphuric acid results in its carbonization and partial oxidation of only 1.7% of the carbon added. Results show that the oxidation reaction is a relatively slow process of first order with K value in the order of 10 -4 min -1 , and the main oxidation product was carbon dioxide. The production of carbon oxide in the off gas stream increased sharply by the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the hot sulphuric acid-resin mixture. The results obtained show that more than 97% of the carbon added was oxidized to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The rate constant value (K) of this reaction was calculated to be (1.69±0.13) x 10 -2 min -1 . The results of gas chromatographic analysis indicate that no significant amounts of hazardous organic materials were detected in the off-gas streams. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Ionic conductivity in new perovskite type oxides: NaAZrMO{sub 6} (A = Ca or Sr; M = Nb or Ta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Deepthi N.; Ravindran Nair, K. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Trivandrum 695019 (India); Prabhakar Rao, P. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Trivandrum 695019 (India)], E-mail: padala_rao@yahoo.com; Sibi, K.S.; Koshy, Peter [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Trivandrum 695019 (India); Vaidyan, V.K. [Department of Physics, University of Kerala, Trivandrum 695581 (India)

    2008-06-15

    New oxides of the type, NaAZrMO{sub 6} (M = Ca or Sr; M = Nb or Ta), have been prepared by the solid-state reaction technique. Phase identification by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that NaCaZrMO{sub 6} has orthorhombic perovskite type structure (Pnma) and NaSrZrMO{sub 6} has cubic perovskite type structure (Pm3m). The grain morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows well-sintered grains. ac impedance spectra and electrical conductivity measurements in air, oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres indicate that they are probable oxide ion conductors with ionic conductivities of the order of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 750 deg. C.

  8. Effect of ion irradiation on the optical properties and room temperature oxidation of copper surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poperenko, L.V.; Ramadan Shaaban, Essam; Khanh, N.Q.; Stashchuk, V.S.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Yurgelevich, I.V.; Nosach, D.V.; Lohner, T

    2004-05-01

    Ex situ and in situ spectroellipsometric investigation of room temperature oxidation of ion-implanted copper surface was performed. The ellipsometer is capable to measure simultaneously the ellipsometric parameters {psi} and {delta} at 88 different wavelength values in the range of 280-760 nm within a few minutes in the high precision operation mode using two zone averaging and within a fraction of a second in the one zone operation mode. The native oxide layer formed earlier on the surface of the copper was sputtered off during the aluminum ion implantation. In situ study of the growth of the newly formed native oxide layer on the ion implanted surface was carried out. Ion beam analytical measurements were performed to gain further information on the native oxide layer. The absolute number of the oxygen atoms in the native copper oxide layer was determined. The depth distribution of the implanted aluminum was extracted from Rutherford backscattering spectra. It is found that Al implantation enhanced the oxidation resistance.

  9. Effect of ion irradiation on the optical properties and room temperature oxidation of copper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poperenko, L.V.; Ramadan Shaaban, Essam; Khanh, N.Q.; Stashchuk, V.S.; Vinnichenko, M.V.; Yurgelevich, I.V.; Nosach, D.V.; Lohner, T.

    2004-01-01

    Ex situ and in situ spectroellipsometric investigation of room temperature oxidation of ion-implanted copper surface was performed. The ellipsometer is capable to measure simultaneously the ellipsometric parameters Ψ and Δ at 88 different wavelength values in the range of 280-760 nm within a few minutes in the high precision operation mode using two zone averaging and within a fraction of a second in the one zone operation mode. The native oxide layer formed earlier on the surface of the copper was sputtered off during the aluminum ion implantation. In situ study of the growth of the newly formed native oxide layer on the ion implanted surface was carried out. Ion beam analytical measurements were performed to gain further information on the native oxide layer. The absolute number of the oxygen atoms in the native copper oxide layer was determined. The depth distribution of the implanted aluminum was extracted from Rutherford backscattering spectra. It is found that Al implantation enhanced the oxidation resistance

  10. Carbon nanotube: nanodiamond Li-ion battery cathodes with increased thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ruben; Lee, Eungiee; Shevchenko, Elena V.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of excess heat accumulation within the Li-ion battery cells is a critical design consideration for electronic and photonic device applications. Many existing approaches for heat removal from batteries increase substantially the complexity and overall weight of the battery. Some of us have previously shown a possibility of effective passive thermal management of Li-ion batteries via improvement of thermal conductivity of cathode and anode material1. In this presentation, we report the results of our investigation of the thermal conductivity of various Li-ion cathodes with incorporated carbon nanotubes and nanodiamonds in different layered structures. The cathodes were synthesized using the filtration method, which can be utilized for synthesis of commercial electrode-active materials. The thermal measurements were conducted with the "laser flash" technique. It has been established that the cathode with the carbon nanotubes-LiCo2 and carbon nanotube layered structure possesses the highest in-plane thermal conductivity of 206 W/mK at room temperature. The cathode containing nanodiamonds on carbon nanotubes structure revealed one of the highest cross-plane thermal conductivity values. The in-plane thermal conductivity is up to two orders-of-magnitude greater than that in conventional cathodes based on amorphous carbon. The obtained results demonstrate a potential of carbon nanotube incorporation in cathode materials for the effective thermal management of Li-ion high-powered density batteries.

  11. Ion thermal conductivity for a pure tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    The ion thermal conductivity is calculated for a wide range of aspect ratios and collision frequencies. The calculation is done by solving the drift kinetic equation, with a model collision operator, using a finite element method, and then calculating the energy weighted friction force to determine the heat flux. The thermal conductivity, determined from the heat flux, is then curve fitted to analytic formulas. These formulas allow the conductivity to be calculated at all collision frequencies and aspect ratios down to about 3

  12. Mesoporous Tin-Based Oxide Nanospheres/Reduced Graphene Composites as Advanced Anodes for Lithium-Ion Half/Full Cells and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyan; Li, Aihua; Dong, Caifu; Li, Chuanchuan; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-10-04

    The large volume variations of tin-based oxides hinder their extensive application in the field of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this study, structure design, hybrid fabrication, and carbon-coating approaches have been simultaneously adopted to address these shortcomings. To this end, uniform mesoporous NiO/SnO 2 @rGO, Ni-Sn oxide@rGO, and SnO 2 @rGO nanosphere composites have been selectively fabricated. Among them, the obtained NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite exhibited a high capacity of 800 mAh g -1 at 1000 mA g -1 after 400 cycles. The electrochemical mechanism of NiO/SnO 2 as an anode for LIBs has been preliminarily investigated by ex situ XRD pattern analysis. Furthermore, an NiO/SnO 2 @rGO-LiCoO 2 lithium-ion full cell showed a high capacity of 467.8 mAh g -1 at 500 mA g -1 after 100 cycles. Notably, the NiO/SnO 2 @rGO composite also showed good performance when investigated as an anode for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). It is believed that the unique mesoporous nanospherical framework, synergistic effects between the various components, and uniform rGO wrapping of NiO/SnO 2 shorten the Li + ion diffusion pathways, maintain sufficient contact between the active material and the electrolyte, mitigate volume changes, and finally improve the electrical conductivity of the electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Influence of surface oxidation on ion dynamics and capacitance in porous and nonporous carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyatkin, Boris [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhang, Yu [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Mamontov, Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kolesnikov, Alexander I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, Yongqiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cummings, Peter T. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Here, we investigate the influence of surface chemistry and ion confinement on capacitance and electrosorption dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in supercapacitors. Using air oxidation and vacuum annealing, we produced defunctionalized and oxygen-rich surfaces of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). While oxidized surfaces of porous CDCs improve capacitance and rate handling abilities of ions, defunctionalized nonporous GNPs improve charge storage densities on planar electrodes. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) probed the structure, dynamics, and orientation of RTIL ions confined in divergently functionalized pores. Oxidized, ionophilic surfaces draw ions closer to pore surfaces and enhance potential-driven ion transport during electrosorption. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations corroborated experimental data and demonstrated the significance of surface functional groups on ion orientations, accumulation densities, and capacitance.

  14. Oxidation potentials, Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies of actinide ions in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The values of the Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of different actinide ions, thermodynamic characteristics of the processes of hydration of these ions, and the presently known ionization potentials of actinides are given. The enthalpy and entropy components of the oxidation potentials of actinide elements are considered. The curves of the dependence of the Gibbs energy of ion formation on the atomic number of the element and the Frost diagrams are analyzed. The diagram proposed by Frost represents the graphical dependence of the Gibbs energy of hydrated ions on the degree of oxidation of the element. Using the Frost diagram it is easy to establish whether a given ion is stable to disproportioning

  15. Hydrophilicity Reinforced Adhesion of Anodic Alumina Oxide Template Films to Conducting Substrates for Facile Fabrication of Highly Ordered Nanorod Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanju; Wang, Guiqiang; Yang, Rui; Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Hui; Sun, Shuqing

    2017-01-17

    Arrays of ordered nanorods are of special interest in many fields. However, it remains challenging to obtain such arrays on conducting substrates in a facile manner. In this article, we report the fabrication of highly ordered and vertically standing nanorod arrays of both metals and semiconductors on Au films and indium tin oxide glass substrates without an additional layering. In this approach, following the simple hydrophilic treatment of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane and conducting substrates, the AAO membrane was transferred onto the modified substrates with excellent adhesion. Subsequently, nanorod arrays of various materials were electrodeposited on the conducting substrates directly. This method avoids any expensive and tedious lithographic and ion milling process, which provides a simple yet robust route to the fabrication of arrays of 1D materials with high aspect ratio on conducting substrates, which shall pave the way for many practical applications in a range of fields.

  16. Electrical conductivity enhancement of polyethersulfone (PES) by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridwell, L.B.; Giedd, R.E.; Wang Yongqiang; Mohite, S.S.; Jahnke, T.; Brown, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous polyethersulfone (PES) films have been implanted with a variety of ions (He, B, C, N and As) at a bombarding energy of 50 keV in the dose range 10 16 -10 17 ions/cm 2 . Surface resistance as a function of dose indicates a saturation effect with a significant difference between He and the other ions used. ESR line shapes in the He implanted samples changed from a mixed Gaussian/Lorentzian to a pure Lorentzian and narrowed with increasing dose. Temperature dependent resistivity indicates an electron hopping mechanism for conduction. Infrared results indicate cross-linking or self-cyclization occurred for all implanted ions with further destruction in the case of As. (orig.)

  17. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  18. Pore-Size-Tuned Graphene Oxide Frameworks as Ion-Selective and Protective Layers on Hydrocarbon Membranes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Choi, Junghoon; Choi, Chanyong; Heo, Jiyun; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2018-05-07

    The laminated structure of graphene oxide (GO) membranes provides exceptional ion-separation properties due to the regular interlayer spacing ( d) between laminate layers. However, a larger effective pore size of the laminate immersed in water (∼11.1 Å) than the hydrated diameter of vanadium ions (>6.0 Å) prevents its use in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRFB). In this work, we report an ion-selective graphene oxide framework (GOF) with a d tuned by cross-linking the GO nanosheets. Its effective pore size (∼5.9 Å) excludes vanadium ions by size but allows proton conduction. The GOF membrane is employed as a protective layer to address the poor chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) membranes against VO 2 + in VRFB. By effectively blocking vanadium ions, the GOF/SPAES membrane exhibits vanadium-ion permeability 4.2 times lower and a durability 5 times longer than that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the VRFB with the GOF/SPAES membrane achieves an energy efficiency of 89% at 80 mA cm -2 and a capacity retention of 88% even after 400 cycles, far exceeding results for Nafion 115 and demonstrating its practical applicability for VRFB.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Antiamoebin Ion Channel: Linking Structure and Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Wei, Chenyu; Bjelkmar, Paer; Wallace, B. A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out in order to ascertain which of the potential multimeric forms of the transmembrane peptaibol channel, antiamoebin, is consistant with its measured conductance. Estimates of the conductance obtained through counting ions that cross the channel and by solving the Nernst-Planck equation yield consistent results, indicating that the motion of ions inside the channel can be satisfactorily described as diffusive.The calculated conductance of octameric channels is markedly higher than the conductance measured in single channel recordings, whereas the tetramer appears to be non-conducting. The conductance of the hexamer was estimated to be 115+/-34 pS and 74+/-20 pS, at 150 mV and 75 mV, respectively, in satisfactory agreement with the value of 90 pS measured at 75 mV. On this basis we propose that the antiamoebin channel consists of six monomers. Its pore is large enough to accommodate K(+) and Cl(-) with their first solvation shells intact. The free energy barrier encountered by K(+) is only 2.2 kcal/mol whereas Cl(-) encounters a substantially higher barrier of nearly 5 kcal/mol. This difference makes the channel selective for cations. Ion crossing events are shown to be uncorrelated and follow Poisson statistics. keywords: ion channels, peptaibols, channel conductance, molecular dynamics

  20. Improved oxidation resistance of group VB refractory metals by Al+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampikian, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum ion implantation of vanadium, niobium, and tantalum improved the metals' oxidation resistances at 500 C and 735 C. Implanted vanadium oxidized only to one-third the extent of unimplanted vanadium when exposed at 500 C to air. The oxidative weight gains of implanted niobium and tantalum proved negligible when measured at 500 C and for times sufficient to fully convert the untreated metals to their pentoxides. At 735 C, implantation of vanadium only slightly retarded its oxidation, while oxidative weight gains of niobium and tantalum were reduced by factors of 3 or more. Implanted niobium exhibited weight gain in direct proportion to oxidation time squared at 735 C. Microstructural examination of the metals implanted with selected fluences of the 180 kV aluminum ions showed the following. The solubility limit of aluminum is extended by implantation, the body centered cubic (bcc) phases being retained to ∼60 at. pct Al in all three metals. The highest fluence investigated, 2.4 x 10 22 ions/m 2 , produced an ∼400-nm layer of VAl 3 beneath the surface of vanadium, and ∼300-nm layers of an amorphous phase containing ∼70 at. pct Al beneath the niobium and tantalum surfaces. All three metals, implanted to this fluence and annealed at 600 C, contained tri-aluminides, intermetallic compounds known for their oxidation resistances. Specimens implanted to this fluence were thus selected for the oxidation measurements

  1. N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries with greatly enhanced electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guanghui, Wu; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a novel N-doped graphene/graphite anode material for lithium ion batteries. The composite exhibits a largely enhanced electrochemical performance. The study also provides an attractive approach for the fabrication of various graphite-based materials for high power batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • The paper developed a new N-doped graphene/graphite composite for lithium ion battery • The composite contains a three-dimensional graphene framework with rich of open pores • The hybrid offers a higher electrical conductivity when compared with pristine graphite • The hybrid electrode provides a greatly enhanced electrochemical performance • The study provides a prominent approach for fabrication of graphite-based materials -- ABSTRACT: Present graphite anode cannot meet the increasing requirement of electronic devices and electric vehicles due to its low specific capacity, poor cycle stability and low rate capability. The study reported a promising N-doped graphene/graphite composite as a conductive agent-free anode material for lithium ion batteries. Herein, graphite oxide and urea were dispersed in ultrapure water and partly reduced by ascorbic acid. Followed by mixing with graphite and hydrothermal treatment to produce graphene oxide/graphite hydrogel. The hydrogel was dried and finally annealed in Ar/H 2 to obtain N-doped graphene/graphite composite. The result shows that all of graphite particles was dispersed in three-dimensional graphene framework with a rich of open pores. The open pore accelerates the electrolyte transport. The graphene framework works as a conductive agent and graphite particle connector and improves the electron transfer. Electrical conductivity of the composite reaches 5912 S m −1 , which is much better than that of the pristine graphite (4018 S m −1 ). The graphene framework also acts as an expansion absorber in the anodes of lithium ion battery to relieve the large strains

  2. Adaptation of intertidal biofilm communities is driven by metal ion and oxidative stresses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Renmao; Cao, Huiluo; Gao, Zhaoming; Li, Yongxin; Yu, Li; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Marine organisms in intertidal zones are subjected to periodical fluctuations and wave activities. To understand how microbes in intertidal biofilms adapt to the stresses, the microbial metagenomes of biofilms from intertidal and subtidal zones were compared. The genes responsible for resistance to metal ion and oxidative stresses were enriched in both 6-day and 12-day intertidal biofilms, including genes associated with secondary metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, signal transduction and extracellular polymeric substance metabolism. In addition, these genes were more enriched in 12-day than 6-day intertidal biofilms. We hypothesize that a complex signaling network is used for stress tolerance and propose a model illustrating the relationships between these functions and environmental metal ion concentrations and oxidative stresses. These findings show that bacteria use diverse mechanisms to adapt to intertidal zones and indicate that the community structures of intertidal biofilms are modulated by metal ion and oxidative stresses.

  3. Adaptation of intertidal biofilm communities is driven by metal ion and oxidative stresses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Weipeng

    2013-11-11

    Marine organisms in intertidal zones are subjected to periodical fluctuations and wave activities. To understand how microbes in intertidal biofilms adapt to the stresses, the microbial metagenomes of biofilms from intertidal and subtidal zones were compared. The genes responsible for resistance to metal ion and oxidative stresses were enriched in both 6-day and 12-day intertidal biofilms, including genes associated with secondary metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, signal transduction and extracellular polymeric substance metabolism. In addition, these genes were more enriched in 12-day than 6-day intertidal biofilms. We hypothesize that a complex signaling network is used for stress tolerance and propose a model illustrating the relationships between these functions and environmental metal ion concentrations and oxidative stresses. These findings show that bacteria use diverse mechanisms to adapt to intertidal zones and indicate that the community structures of intertidal biofilms are modulated by metal ion and oxidative stresses.

  4. Neoclassical electron heat conduction in tokamaks performed by the ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.A.

    1987-07-01

    The increment to neoclassical ion heat conduction caused by electron collisions is shown to act like electron heat conduction since the energy is taken from and given back to the electrons at each diffusion step length. It can exceed electron neoclassical heat conduction by an order of magnitude

  5. Paramagnetism in ion-implanted oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, Torben Esmann; Gíslason, Hafliði Pétur; Ólafsson, Sveinn

    This thesis describes the investigation on para-magnetism in dilute ion-implanted single-crystal oxide samples studied by on- and off-line $^{57}$Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ion-implantation of the radioactive isotopes ( $^{57}$Mn and $^{57}$Co) was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The off-line measurements were performed at Aarhus University, Denmark. Mössbauer spectroscopy is a unique method, giving simultaneously local information on valence/spin state of the $^{57}$Fe probe atoms, site symmetry and magnetic properties on an atomic scale. The utilisation of emission Mössbauer spectroscopy opens up many new possibilities compared with traditional transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. Among them is the possibility of working with a low concentration below 10$^{-4}$ –10$^{-3}$ at.%, where the implanted Mössbauer $^{57}$Fe probes are truly dilute impurities exclusively interacting with their nearest neighbours and therefore the possibility of crea...

  6. Ion beam synthesis of indium-oxide nanocrystals for improvement of oxide resistive random-access memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafos, C.; Benassayag, G.; Cours, R.; Pécassou, B.; Guenery, P. V.; Baboux, N.; Militaru, L.; Souifi, A.; Cossec, E.; Hamga, K.; Ecoffey, S.; Drouin, D.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the direct ion beam synthesis of a delta-layer of indium oxide nanocrystals (In2O3-NCs) in silica matrices by using ultra-low energy ion implantation. The formation of the indium oxide phase can be explained by (i) the affinity of indium with oxygen, (ii) the generation of a high excess of oxygen recoils generated by the implantation process in the region where the nanocrystals are formed and (iii) the proximity of the indium-based nanoparticles with the free surface and oxidation from the air. Taking advantage of the selective diffusivity of implanted indium in SiO2 with respect to Si3N4, In2O3-NCs have been inserted in the SiO2 switching oxide of micrometric planar oxide-based resistive random access memory (OxRAM) devices fabricated using the nanodamascene process. Preliminary electrical measurements show switch voltage from high to low resistance state. The devices with In2O3-NCs have been cycled 5 times with identical operating voltages and RESET current meanwhile no switch has been observed for non implanted devices. This first measurement of switching is very promising for the concept of In2O3-NCs based OxRAM memories.

  7. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  8. Covalently Bonded Polyaniline and para-phenylenediamine Functionalized Graphene Oxide: How the Conductive Two-dimensional Nanostructure Influences the Electrochromic Behaviors of Polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Li, Zhufeng; Gong, Ming; Wang, Xiaoqin; Fu, Jialun; Shi, Yujing; Wu, Bohua; Chu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) was attached onto the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets through copolymerization of aniline with a para-phenylenediamine (PPD) functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PPD) using the poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) as the macromolecular dopant agent to produce a water-dispersible electrochromic material. The structures and the morphologies analysis confirm that the final electrochromic materials (rGO-PANI) are the mixture of PANI/PSS and the covalently bonded rGO-PANI (rGO-PANI hybrid). The rGO-PANI hybrid can be found to form a parallel arrangement to the substrate in the spin-coated film. This parallel arrangement of the layered two-dimensional nanostructure of rGO-PANI hybrid may narrow the ion transportation pathways of the exchanged ions, which will result in a high charge transfer resistance and slow switching speed. Meanwhile, with the conductive rGO added, the electrical conductivity of the electrochromic layer will be increased, which will benefit to low charge transfer resistance and high optical contrast. So the conductive two-dimensional nanostructure has a double-face influence on the electrochromic performances of PANI, which include a positive influence on the electrical conductivity and a negative influence on the ion diffusion. The overall influences depend on the loading amount of GO-PPD. With 4 wt.% GO-PPD feeding, the optical contrast was enhanced by 36% from 0.38 for PANI/PSS to 0.52 for rGO-PANI-3, while the coloration time was almost same as that of PANI/PSS and the bleaching time was decreased by ∼20% from 9.1s for PANI/PSS to 7.4s for rGO-PANI-3. The electrochemical tests showed that with the increasing of GO-PPD loading, the peak currents of cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves were increased, and the peak locations shifted to the positive potential for oxidation peak and the negative potential for reduction peak, respectively, which confirmed that the double-face influences of rGO-PANI on the

  9. Corrosion Protection of Steels by Conducting Polymer Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohtsuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of steels by conducting polymer coating is reviewed. The conducting polymer such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophen works as a strong oxidant to the steel, inducing the potential shift to the noble direction. The strongly oxidative conducting polymer facilitates the steel to be passivated. A bilayered PPy film was designed for the effective corrosion protection. It consisted of the inner layer in which phosphomolybdate ion, PMo12O3−40 (PMo, was doped and the outer layer in which dodecylsulfate ion (DoS was doped. The inner layer stabilized the passive oxide and the outer possessed anionic perm-selectivity to inhibit the aggressive anions such as chloride from penetrating through the PPy film to the substrate steel. By the bilayered PPy film, the steel was kept passive for about 200 h in 3.5% sodium chloride solution without formation of corrosion products.

  10. Conductivity studies of Chitosan doped with different ammonium salts: Effect of ion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C. Raja; Senthilkumar, M.; Jayakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present investigation influence of ion size on the electrical properties of various ammonium salts of various concentrations doped with Chitosan liquid electrolyte has been studied. The attachment of ammonium salts with Chitosan has been confirmed through FTIR Spectrum. Polarizability is calculated from the refractive index data. Addition of ammonium salts increases the conductivity. It is also observed that increase in ion size, increases the ionic conductivity due to increase in amorphous nature of the material. Increase in concentration leads to increase in conductivity due to the presence of more number of free ions.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL EFFECTS OF CONDUCTIVITY AND MAJOR IONS ON STREAM PERIPHYTON - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our study examined if specific conductivities comprised of different ions associated with resource extraction affected stream periphyton assemblages, which are important sources of primary production. Sixteen artificial streams were dosed with two ion recipes intended to mimic so...

  12. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  13. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  14. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N G; Gudage, Y G; Ghosh, A; Vyas, J C; Singh, F; Tripathi, A; Sharma, Ramphal

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au 8+ ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10 -4 Ω cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications

  15. Oxidative dissolution of ruthenium deposits onto stainless steel by permanganate ions in alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floquet, S.; Eysseric, C.; Maurel, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA/Valrho), Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    During spent nuclear fuel reprocessing ruthenium is liable to form black ruthenium deposits on the stainless steel walls of process equipments. These deposits promote corrosion and can eventually obstruct the off-gas lines. The results of decontamination of 304L stainless steel test specimens covered with RuO(OH){sub 2} . xH{sub 2}O deposits by permanganate ions in alkaline medium are described. The ruthenium deposits were dissolved by oxidation of RuO(OH){sub 2} to RuO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions, while the permanganate ions were reduced to MnO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions and then to manganese dioxide MnO{sub 2}. The parameters affecting the kinetics of oxidative dissolution of these deposits were examined. The results indicate that the oxidative dissolution kinetics depends on the instantaneous surface area of the deposit, and that the dissolution rate increases with the concentrations of MnO{sub 4}{sup -} and OH{sup -} ions. (orig.)

  16. Isotopic exchange rate of sodium ions between hydrous metal oxides and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    1991-01-01

    To elucidate the kinetics of ion-exchange reaction on hydrous metal oxide, the isotopic exchange rates of sodium ions between hydrous metal oxides such as hydrous tin (IV), niobium (V), zirconium (IV) and titanium (IV) oxides, and aqueous solutions were measured radiochemically and compared with each other. The rate of reaction cannot be understood by an unified view since the rate controlling step differs with the kind of exchangers. The rate constants relevant to each exchanger such as diffusion constants and their activation energies were also determined. (author)

  17. Vanadium oxide nanotubes as cathode material for Mg-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Kolle; Sørensen, Daniel Risskov; Bøjesen, Espen Drath

    Vanadium oxide compounds as cathode material for secondary Li-ion batteries gained interest in the 1970’s due to high specific capacity (>250mAh/g), but showed substantial capacity fading.1 Developments in the control of nanostructured morphologies have led to more advanced materials, and recently...... vanadium oxide nanotubes (VOx-NT) were shown to perform well as a cathode material for Mg-ion batteries.2 The VOx-NTs are easily prepared via a hydrothermal process to form multiwalled scrolls of VO layer with primary amines interlayer spacer molecules.3 The tunable and relative large layer spacing 1-3 nm...... synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction measured during battery operation. These results indicate Mg-intercalation in the multiwalled VOx-NTs occurs within the space between the individual vanadium oxide layers while the underlying VOx frameworks constructing the walls are affected only to a minor degree...

  18. Effect of annealing and oxide layer thickness on doping profiles shape of ''through-oxide'' implanted P+ ions in textured silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouki, M.S.; Galloni, R.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphorous ions at energies of 60+100 KeV, and doses (4+5)x10 15 atom/cm 2 have been implanted randomly through SiO 2 layers into textured silicon crystals. The penetration profiles of the P + ions have been determined by means of differential sheet resistivity and Hall-effect, together with the anodic oxidation stripping technique. The effect of the oxide layer thickness, annealing temperature on the junction properties has been studied. The damage produced by implantation, has also been investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM). From the mobility measurements of the free carriers as a function of depth through the junction, two minima have been observed in through oxide implanted samples. The one nearer to the Si-SiO 2 interface (at about 200A from the interface) was related to the damage produced by the recoil oxygen atoms from the oxide layer into silicon. The deeper minimum is lying at ∼ 0.2μm from the interface and was attributed to the damage produced by the implanted P + ions, which caused clusters and defect loops after annealing. This damage was observed through TEM photographs. The optimum conditions for producing shallow junction without losing much of the implanted P + ions through the oxide layer were estimated. (author). 22 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  19. Heavy-ion induced current through an oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ohki, Takahiro; Nagasawa, Takaharu; Nakajima, Yasuhito; Kawanabe, Ryu; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Hirao, Toshio; Onoda, Shinobu; Mishima, Kenta; Kawano, Katsuyasu; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the heavy-ion induced current in MOS structure is investigated. We have measured the transient gate current in a MOS capacitor and a MOSFET induced by single heavy-ions, and found that a transient current can be observed when the semiconductor surface is under depletion condition. In the case of MOSFET, a transient gate current with both positive and negative peaks is observed if the ion hits the gate area, and that the total integrated charge is almost zero within 100-200 ns after irradiation. From these results, we conclude that the radiation-induced gate current is dominated by a displacement current. We also discuss the generation mechanism of the radiation-induced current through the oxide layer by device simulation

  20. Conductive oxide cantilever for cryogenic nano-potentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroya, Tsutomu; Inagaki, Katsuhiko; Tanda, Satoshi; Tsuneta, Taku; Yamaya, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale electrical transport properties have attracted attentions because of new phenomena such as ballistic transport, quantized resistance, and Coulomb blockade. For measurement of nanoscale resistance, we have been developing a cryogenic atomic force microscope that can operate at 1.8 K. To use it as an electrode, we coated the cantilever with conductive oxides of TiO and indium tin oxide (ITO). We verified that TiO and ITO thin films remain conductive even at 4.2 K. Also we measured I-V characteristics of the tip-sample contact with a standard sample of NbSe 2 single crystal, and found that the conductive coats were not lost under large stresses due to the tip-sample contact. Moreover, we succeeded in obtaining a room temperature nano-potentiometry of a gold thin film with the ITO coated cantilever. In conclusion, the TiO and ITO coated cantilevers are applicable to cryogenic nano-potentiometry

  1. Adsorption of Cadmium Ions from Water on Double-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Iron Oxide Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Seffah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new material (DWCNT/iron oxide for heavy metals removal was developed by combining the adsorption features of double-walled carbon nanotubes with the magnetic properties of iron oxides. Batch experiments were applied in order to evaluate adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide composite for cadmium ions. The influence of operating parameters such as pH value, amount of adsorbent, initial adsorbate concentration and agitation speed was studied. The adsorption capacity of the DWCNT/iron oxide adsorbent for Cd2+ ions was 20.8 mg g-1, which is at the state of the art. The obtained results revealed that DWCNT/iron oxide composite is a very promising adsorbent for removal of Cd2+ ions from water under natural conditions. The advantage of the magnetic composite is that it can be used as adsorbent for contaminants in water and can be subsequently controlled and removed from the medium by a simple magnetic process.

  2. Iron oxide nanoparticle-micelles (ION-micelles for sensitive (molecular magnetic particle imaging and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas W E Starmans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs are a promising nanoplatform for contrast-enhanced MRI. Recently, magnetic particle imaging (MPI was introduced as a new imaging modality, which is able to directly visualize magnetic particles and could serve as a more sensitive and quantitative alternative to MRI. However, MPI requires magnetic particles with specific magnetic properties for optimal use. Current commercially available iron oxide formulations perform suboptimal in MPI, which is triggering research into optimized synthesis strategies. Most synthesis procedures aim at size control of iron oxide nanoparticles rather than control over the magnetic properties. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and application of a novel ION platform for sensitive MPI and MRI. METHODS AND RESULTS: IONs were synthesized using a thermal-decomposition method and subsequently phase-transferred by encapsulation into lipidic micelles (ION-Micelles. Next, the material and magnetic properties of the ION-Micelles were analyzed. Most notably, vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed that the effective magnetic core size of the IONs is 16 nm. In addition, magnetic particle spectrometry (MPS measurements were performed. MPS is essentially zero-dimensional MPI and therefore allows to probe the potential of iron oxide formulations for MPI. ION-Micelles induced up to 200 times higher signal in MPS measurements than commercially available iron oxide formulations (Endorem, Resovist and Sinerem and thus likely allow for significantly more sensitive MPI. In addition, the potential of the ION-Micelle platform for molecular MPI and MRI was showcased by MPS and MRI measurements of fibrin-binding peptide functionalized ION-Micelles (FibPep-ION-Micelles bound to blood clots. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data underlines the potential of the ION-Micelle nanoplatform for sensitive (molecular MPI and warrants further investigation of the FibPep-ION

  3. Ultrafine tin oxide on reduced graphene oxide as high-performance anode for sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yandong; Xie, Jian; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A nanohybrid based on ultrafine SnO 2 and few-layered rGO has been prepared. • The nanohybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties. • The rGO supplies combined conducting, buffering and dispersing effects. - Abstract: Na-ion Battery is attractive alternative to Li-ion battery due to the natural abundance of sodium resource. Searching for suitable anode materials is one of the critical issues for Na-ion battery due to the low Na-storage activity of carbon materials. In this work, we synthesized a nanohybrid anode consisting of ultrafine SnO 2 anchored on few-layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by a facile hydrothermal route. The SnO 2 /rGO hybrid exhibits a high capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability. The hybrid can deliver a high charge capacity of 324 mAh g SnO2 −1 at 50 mA g −1 . At 1600 mA g −1 (2.4C), it can still yield a charge capacity of 200 mAh g SnO2 −1 . After 100 cycles at 100 mA g −1 , the hybrid can retain a high charge capacity of 369 mAh g SnO2 −1 . X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ex situ transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the origin of the excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties of SnO 2 /rGO

  4. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  5. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  6. Sorption of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion on chars with long-term natural oxidation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.; Lin, T.; Lai, C.

    2011-12-01

    Biochar has been proposed as a measure to sequestrate carbon (C) and to increase soil fertility in sustainable agriculture. However, its sorption characteristics to herbicides, such as lowing herbicides efficacy, may constrain its agricultural application. This assertion may be arguable because most studies so far were conducted with the newly produced char and barely considered the "ageing effect" of old char since it could be oxidized over long time. In this study, historical char samples were collected and compared with the newly produced char. Batch sorption studies of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion onto chars was performed. Greater sorption of Cu was observed on the historical char samples and reached a saturated sorption at 30 mg g-1 for Cu, much higher adsorption value than newly produced char at 4 mg g-1. In contrast, sorption of diuron and atrazine on newly produced char had the highest sorption capacity than the historical char samples. The historical chars also had much higher negative charge than the newly produced char, but its surface area were lower than the new char. The results indicated that change in surface functional groups through natural oxidation rather than the change of surface area may have more pronounced influences on sorption characteristics, in which the negative charge on the historical chars' surface could hinder the adsorption of diuron and atrazine while enhance the sorption to copper ion. Biological assay to test the toxicity of diuron and copper ion for both historical and new chars on rye seed were conducted and will be presented in our poster.

  7. Highly Efficient Adsorption of Copper Ions by a PVP-Reduced Graphene Oxide Based On a New Adsorptions Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongji Zhang; HuiJuan Chi; WenHui Zhang; Youyi Sun; Qing Liang; Yu Gu; Riya Jing

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummers method and was used as adsorbent for removing Cu ions from wastewater. The effects of contact time and ions concentration on adsorption capacity were examined. The maximum adsorption capacity of 1689 mg/g was observed at an initial p H value of 3.5 after agitating for 10 min. It was demonstrated that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide had a huge adsorption capacity for Cu ions, which was 10 times higher than maximal value reported in previous works. The adsorption mechanism was also discussed by density functional theory. It demonstrates that Cu ions are attracted to surface of reduced graphene oxide by C atoms in reduced graphene oxide modified by polyvinylpyrrolidone through physisorption processes, which may be responsible for the higher adsorption capacity. Our results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide is an effective adsorbent for removing Cu ions in wastewater. It also provides a new way to improve the adsorption capacity of reduced graphene oxide for dealing with the heavy metal ion in wastewater.

  8. Surface reactions of oxygen ions--2. Oxidation of alkenes by O/sup -/ on MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aika, K.; Lunsford, J.H.

    1978-08-10

    Ethylene, propylene, 1-butene, and cis-2-butene were adsorbed on magnesium oxide containing O/sup -/ and the product distributions of their temperature-programed desorption compared with those of the desorption of possible intermediates (e.g., acetaldehyde) from untreated magnesium oxide. The results and ESR and IR spectroscopic studies suggested the alkenes reacted initially via hydrogen abstraction to form radicals; the 1-butene radical is oxidized to the alkoxide ion and forms mainly butadiene by a mechanism similar to that previously reported for alkane dehydrogenation; ethylene and propylene radicals form carboxylate ions which yield methane and carbonate ions as the main products.

  9. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  10. Emission characteristics of negative oxygen ions into vacuum from cerium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Yukio; Kaimai, Atsushi; Yashiro, Keiji; Matsumoto, Hiroshige; Nigara, Yutaka; Kawada, Tatsuya; Mizusaki, Junichiro

    2006-01-01

    The oxygen ion emission characteristics of CeO 2 were studied under electric field in a vacuum chamber to find a candidate material for a novel ion source, 'solid oxide ion source (SOIS)'. The emission current was observed from CeO 2 under a pressure of around 10 -3 Pa, at the temperature ranging from 973 K to 1173 K. It was found that the emission current increased with temperature and applied voltage. The ions emitted from CeO 2 were confirmed to be oxygen negative ions (O - ) by the use of quadrupole mass spectrometer. The emission current decreased with time as was observed in the earlier works with other oxide ion conductors such as stabilized zirconia or other materials . To enhance the emission current from CeO 2 , an introduction of donor into CeO 2 was tested using Ce 0.992 Nb 0.008 O 2 . For comparison, effect of acceptor doping was also tested using Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 . The emission current from Ce 0.9 Gd 0.1 O 1.95 was smaller than that from donor-doped and pure CeO 2. Clear enhancement of the emission current was not observed with Ce 0.992 Nb 0.008 O 2

  11. Removal of Cu(II) ions from contaminated waters using a conducting microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueye; Wang, Zhiwei; Chen, Haiqin; Wu, Zhichao

    2017-10-05

    Efficient removal of toxic metals using low-pressure membrane processes from contaminated waters is an important but challenging task. In the present work, a conducting microfiltration membrane prepared by embedding a stainless steel mesh in the active layer of a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane is developed to remove Cu(II) ions from contaminated waters. Results showed that the conducting membrane had favorable electrochemical properties and stability as cathode. Batch tests showed that Cu(II) removal efficiency increased with the increase of voltages and leveled off with the further enhancement of electric field. The optimal voltages were determined to be 1.0V and 2.0V for the influent Cu(II) concentrations of 5mg/L and 30mg/L, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results demonstrated the presence of Cu(0) and Cu(OH) 2 on the membrane surface. The removal mechanisms involved the intrinsic adsorption of membrane, electrosorption of membrane, adsorption of deposited layer, chemical precipitation of Cu(OH) 2 and deposition of Cu(0) which were aided by electrophoresis and electrochemical oxidation-reduction. Long-term tests showed that the major contributors for Cu(II) removal were the deposition of Cu(0) by electrochemical reduction-oxidation (47.3%±8.5%) and chemical precipitation (41.1%±0.2%), followed by electrosorption, adsorption by the fouling layer and membrane intrinsic sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Hydrogels Containing Metal Ions and Metals/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has caused a serious health problem. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial materials to prevent or control infections caused by these pathogens. Polymer-based nanocomposite hydrogels are versatile materials as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents. Cross-linking of polymeric materials by metal ions or the combination of polymeric hydrogels with nanoparticles (metals and metal oxide is a simple and effective approach for obtaining a multicomponent system with diverse functionalities. Several metals and metal oxides such as silver (Ag, gold (Au, zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and magnesium oxide (MgO have been loaded into hydrogels for antimicrobial applications. The incorporation of metals and metal oxide nanoparticles into hydrogels not only enhances the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels, but also improve their mechanical characteristics. Herein, we summarize recent advances in hydrogels containing metal ions, metals and metal oxide nanoparticles with potential antimicrobial properties.

  13. Properties of grafted polymer metal complexes as ion exchangers and its electrical conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Abdel Ghaffar, A.M.; Eid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The polyelectrolyte has been prepared as a potential proton exchanger polymer by grafting of acrylic acid/acrylamide and acrylic acid/acrylonitrile comonomer onto low density polyethylene film via gamma radiation. The influence of grafting percent on the electrical conductivity was studied. The resulting polymers were then characterized by evaluating their physico-chemical properties such as ion exchange capacity, and electrical conductivity as a function of grafting yield. The grafted films at different compositions was characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the grafted film at grafting % (191) and monomer concentration ratio 50:50 for (LDPE-g-AAc/AAm) was found to be more than that for (LDPE-g-AAc/AN). The electrical conductivity was found to be greatly affected by the comonomer composition where it increased as the degree of grafting increased for all grafted films. After alkaline treatment with 3% KOH, the electrical conductivity of the grafted films found to be increased. The presence of potassium as counter ion maximized the electrical conductivity of the grafted films. The electrical conductivity of Cu-membrane complexes was higher than that of both Co and Ni complexes. The electrical conductivity increases by increasing both Cu ions content and temperature

  14. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  15. Comparative study of ion conducting pathways in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Andreas; Swenson, Jan; Adams, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The conduction pathways in metal-halide doped silver, lithium, and sodium diborate glasses have been examined by bond valence analysis of reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) produced structural models of the glasses. Although all glass compositions have basically the same short-range structure of the boron-oxygen network, it is evident that the intermediate-range structure is strongly dependent on the type of mobile ion. The topography of the pathways and the coordination of the pathway sites differ distinctly between the three glass systems. The mobile silver ions in the AgI-doped glass tend to be mainly iodine-coordinated and travel in homogeneously distributed pathways located in salt-rich channels of the borate network. In the NaCl-doped glass, there is an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of pathways that reflects the inhomogeneous introduction of salt ions into the glass. However, since the salt clusters are not connected, no long-range conduction pathways are formed without including also oxygen-rich regions. The pathways in the LiCl-doped glass are slightly more evenly distributed compared to the NaCl-doped glass (but not as ordered as in the AgI-doped glass), and the regions of mainly oxygen-coordinated pathway sites are of higher importance for the long-range migration. In order to more accurately investigate how these differences in the intermediate-range order of the glasses affect the ionic conductivity, we have compared the realistic structure models to more or less randomized structures. An important conclusion from this comparison is that we find no evidence that a pronounced intermediate-range order in the atomic structure or in the network of conduction pathways, as in the AgI-doped glass, is beneficial for the dc conductivity

  16. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential–time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science. PMID:28484332

  17. [Ultrasound induced the formation of nitric oxide and nitrosonium ions in water and aqueous solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepuro, I I; Adamchuk, R I; Stepuro, V I

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide, nitrosonium ions, nitrites, and nitrates are formed in water saturated with air under the action of ultrasound. Nitrosonium ions react with water and hydrogen peroxide to form nitrites and nitrates in sonicated solution, correspondingly. Nitric oxide is practically completely released from sonicated water into the atmosphere and reacts with air oxygen, forming NOx compounds. The oxidation of nitric oxide in aqueous medium by hydroxyl radicals and dissolved oxygen is a minor route of the formation of nitrites and nitrates in ultrasonic field.

  18. In situ reduction of WS{sub 2} nanosheets for WS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide composite with superior Li-ion storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liyan [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng, E-mail: yansc@njupt.edu.cn [School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, 210023 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Lin, Zixia [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, such as tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}), have been actively studied as suitable candidates for anode materials used in lithium ion batteries recently, due to their remarkable ion intercalation properties. However, the difficulties in the synthesis of phase-pure WS{sub 2}, restacking between WS{sub 2} nanosheets, low electronic conductivity and brittle nature of WS{sub 2} severely limit its Li-ion batteries application. Here, we adopt a one-pot method for synthesizing of WS{sub 2}/reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) composite to improve the battery performance dramatically. The WS{sub 2}/rGO anode shows a stable discharge capacity of 431.2 mAh/g, at a current density of 0.1 A/g after 100 cycles, while the capacity of bare WS{sub 2} is only 65.5 mAh/g under the same condition. The added graphene oxide is reduced to rGO in reaction process and constitute stable composite with WS{sub 2}, not only avoiding the restacking between WS{sub 2} nanosheets and improving the conductive properties, but also promoting the reduction of WO{sub 3} effectively. Our work may provide a possible route to avoid oxygen impurities in transition metal dichalcogenides. - Highlights: • The WS{sub 2}/rGO composite were synthesized to improve the battery performance. • The WS{sub 2}/rGO anode shows a capacity of 431.2 mAh/g, much higher than WS{sub 2}. • The added graphene oxide is reduced to rGO, improving the conductive properties. • The rGO can avoid the restacking, and promote the reduction of WO{sub 3}.

  19. Impact of metal-ion contaminated silica particles on gate oxide integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Ingrid; Wali, F.; Knotter, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of metal-ion contamination (present on wafer surface before oxidation) on gate oxide integrity (GOI) is well known in literature, which is not the case for clean silica particles [1, 2]. However, it is known that particles present in ultra-pure water (UPW) decrease the random yield in

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy/Ar+ ion profile study of thin oxide layers on InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurgate, S.M.; Erickson, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of incremental ion bombardment on the surface layers of an aqua regia etched InP sample was studied by monitoring the components of the In 3d 5/2 and O 1s x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) lines as the sample was bombarded with low energy (1 keV) Ar + ions. The changes in the stoichiometry of the surface produced large shifts in the position of the In 3d and O 1s lines that were not paralleled by shifts in the P 2p line. Analysis of these shifts indicated that the surface was covered with a mixture of indium hydroxide and indium phosphate, with the phosphate closer to the InP substrate. It is proposed that this layer structure is due to differences in the dissolution rates of the oxidation products in the acid etch and the effect of the distilled water rinse. It may be possible to alter the composition of such oxides by carefully tailoring the etch conditions to optimize the kinetics for the particular oxide phase required. The analysis of the XPS lines also showed that the InP substrate was damaged at very low ion doses, and finally decomposed by the ion beam. When the ion ''cleaned'' sample was exposed to oxygen, a different oxide system was produced which consisted largely of In 2 O 3 and InPO 4 [or In(PO 3 ) x ]. This model of the oxidized surface of InP is consistent with other measurements and we conclude that ion milling together with XPS and careful curve fitting can be used to find the nature of the thin oxides on InP

  1. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  2. Decomposition of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex ion in the presence of metal oxides in carbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong-Yong Chung; Min-Sung Park; Keun-Young Lee; Eil-Hee Lee; Kwang-Wook Kim; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2015-01-01

    Uranium oxide was dissolved in the form of the uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex ion, UO 2 (O 2 )(CO 3 ) 2 4- in carbonate solutions with hydrogen peroxide. When UO 2 (O 2 )(CO 3 ) 2 4- ions lose their peroxide component, they become a stable species of uranyl tricarbonato complex ion, UO 2 (O 2 )(CO 3 ) 2 4- . The uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex self-decomposed more rapidly into the uranyl tricarbonato complex ion in the presence of a metal oxide in the carbonate solution. In this study, decomposition of the uranyl peroxo-carbonato complex in a carbonate solution was investigated in the presence of several metal oxides using absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  3. Inhibition of cellulase-catalyzed lignocellulosic hydrolysis by iron and oxidative metal ions and complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejirian, Ani; Xu, Feng

    2010-12-01

    Enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis plays a key role in microbially driven carbon cycling and energy conversion and holds promise for bio-based energy and chemical industries. Cellulases (key lignocellulose-active enzymes) are prone to interference from various noncellulosic substances (e.g., metal ions). During natural cellulolysis, these substances may arise from other microbial activities or abiotic events, and during industrial cellulolysis, they may be derived from biomass feedstocks or upstream treatments. Knowledge about cellulolysis-inhibiting reactions is of importance for the microbiology of natural biomass degradation and the development of biomass conversion technology. Different metal ions, including those native to microbial activity or employed for biomass pretreatments, are often tested for enzymatic cellulolysis. Only a few metal ions act as inhibitors of cellulases, which include ferrous and ferric ions as well as cupric ion. In this study, we showed inhibition by ferrous/ferric ions as part of a more general effect from oxidative (or redox-active) metal ions and their complexes. The correlation between inhibition and oxidation potential indicated the oxidative nature of the inhibition, and the dependence on air established the catalytic role that iron ions played in mediating the dioxygen inhibition of cellulolysis. Individual cellulases showed different susceptibilities to inhibition. It is likely that the inhibition exerted its effect more on cellulose than on cellulase. Strong iron ion chelators and polyethylene glycols could mitigate the inhibition. Potential microbiological and industrial implications of the observed effect of redox-active metal ions on enzymatic cellulolysis, as well as the prevention and mitigation of this effect in industrial biomass conversion, are discussed.

  4. Metallic oxide nano-clusters synthesis by ion implantation in high purity Fe10Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ce

    2015-01-01

    ODS (Oxide Dispersed Strengthened) steels, which are reinforced with metal dispersions of nano-oxides (based on Y, Ti and O elements), are promising materials for future nuclear reactors. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of these nano-oxides would improve manufacturing and mechanical properties of these ODS steels, with a strong economic impact for their industrialization. To experimentally study these mechanisms, an analytical approach by ion implantation is used, to control various parameters of synthesis of these precipitates as the temperature and concentration. This study demonstrated the feasibility of this method and concerned the behaviour of alloys models (based on aluminium oxide) under thermal annealing. High purity Fe-10Cr alloys were implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the nano-oxides appear in the Fe-10Cr matrix upon ion implantation at room temperature without subsequent annealing. The mobility of implanted elements is caused by the defects created during ion implantation, allowing the nucleation of these nanoparticles, of a few nm in diameter. These nanoparticles are composed of aluminium and oxygen, and also chromium. The high-resolution experiments show that their crystallographic structure is that of a non-equilibrium compound of aluminium oxide (cubic γ-Al 2 O 3 type). The heat treatment performed after implantation induces the growth of the nano-sized oxides, and a phase change that tends to balance to the equilibrium structure (hexagonal α-Al 2 O 3 type). These results on model alloys are fully applicable to industrial materials: indeed ion implantation reproduces the conditions of milling and heat treatments are at equivalent temperatures to those of thermo-mechanical treatments. A mechanism involving the precipitation of nano-oxide dispersed in ODS alloys is proposed in this manuscript based on the obtained experimental results

  5. Oxygen ion implantation induced microstructural changes and electrical conductivity in Bakelite RPC detector material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. V. Aneesh, E-mail: aneesh1098@gmail.com; Ravikumar, H. B., E-mail: hbr@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India); Ranganathaiah, C., E-mail: cr@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Govt. Research Centre, Sahyadri Educational Institutions, Mangalore-575007 (India); Kumarswamy, G. N., E-mail: kumy79@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bangalore-560035 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In order to explore the structural modification induced electrical conductivity, samples of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector materials were exposed to 100 keV Oxygen ion in the fluences of 10{sup 12}, 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Ion implantation induced microstructural changes have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime and its intensity shows the deposition of high energy interior track and chain scission leads to the formation of radicals, secondary ions and electrons at lower ion implantation fluences (10{sup 12} to10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}) followed by cross-linking at 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence due to the radical reactions. The reduction in electrical conductivity of Bakelite detector material is correlated to the conducting pathways and cross-links in the polymer matrix. The appropriate implantation energy and fluence of Oxygen ion on polymer based Bakelite RPC detector material may reduce the leakage current, improves the efficiency, time resolution and thereby rectify the aging crisis of the RPC detectors.

  6. Enhanced electrochemical performance of sandwich-structured polyaniline-wrapped silicon oxide/carbon nanotubes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zou, Yongjin; Huang, Liyan; Yin, Hao; Xi, Chengqiao; Chen, Xin; Shentu, Hongwei; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jingjing; Lv, ChunJu; Fan, Meiqiang

    2018-06-01

    Sandwich-structured carbon nanotubes, silicon oxide, and polyaniline (hereafter denoted as CNTs/SiOx/PANI) were prepared by combining a sol-gel method, magnesiothermic reduction at 250 °C, and chemical oxidative polymerization. The CNTs, SiOx and PANI in the composite was 16 wt%, 51 wt% and 33 wt%, respectively. The CNTs/SiOx/PANI electrodes exhibited excellent cycle and high-rate performance as anodes in Li-ion batteries, including charge/discharge capacities of 1156/1178 mAh g-1 after 60 cycles at 0.2 A g-1 current density and 728/725 mAh g-1 at 8 A g-1 current density. The improvement was due to the synergy between CNTs and PANI. The SiOx scattered on the CNTs core and coated by PANI improved its conductivity and accommodated the volume change during repeated lithiation/delithiation cycles. This simple synthesis provided a scalable route for the large-scale production of CNTs/SiOx/PANI nanostructures, with various applications such as in Li-ion batteries.

  7. Nanostructured Transparent Conducting Oxides for Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Titas

    2011-12-01

    Research on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) has attracted a lot of attention due to the serious concern related to cost and chemical stability of indium tin oxide. The primary aim of this research is to develop low cost alternative transparent conducting oxides with an eye towards (1) increasing the organic solar cell efficiency and (2) fabricating transparent electronic devices utilizing p-type TCOs. To investigate the fundamental properties, the novel TCO films have been grown on sapphire and economical glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were also grown under different deposition conditions in order to understand the effect of processing parameters on the film properties. The characteristics of the thin films have been investigated in detail using (X-ray diffraction, TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV- photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), four probe resistivity and UV-Vis transmittance measurements) in order to establish processing-structure-property correlation. ZnO doped with group III elements is a promising candidate because of its superior stability in hydrogen environment, benign nature and relatively inexpensive supply. However, ZnO based TCO films suffer from low work function (4.4 eV, compared to that of 4.8 eV for ITO), which increases the energy barrier and affects the carrier transport across ZnGa0.05O/organic layer interface. To overcome this issue of ZnO based TCOs, the growth of bilayered structure consisting of very thin MoOx (2.0 target composition. These optimized bilayer films exhibited good optical transmittance (≥ 80%) and low resistivity of ˜ 10-4 O-cm. The optimized NiO1+x / GZO and MoOx / GZO bilayers showed significant increase in work function values (˜5.3 eV). The work function of the bilayer films was tuned by varying the processing conditions and doping of over layers. Preliminary test device results of the organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs

  8. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S

    2017-08-09

    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  9. In-line monitoring of an oxide ion in LiCl molten salt using a YSZ based oxide ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hwan; Jeon, Jong Seon; Yeon, Jei Won; Choi, In Kyu; Kim, Won Ho

    2004-01-01

    The electrode potential characteristics of a YSZ based membrane metal oxide electrode have been studied in molten LiCl at 700 .deg. C by the potentiometric method. The electrode exhibited a good potential response to log[O 2 ] and data reproducibility. The calibration plot (potential vs. log[O 2 ] was found to be linear, obeying the nernst equation. The electrode potential showed a good reversibility corresponding to increase/decrease of the oxide ion present in the molten LiCl. The physical and chemical durability appeared to be sound after several repeated uses, resulting in reproducible results. However, 'the proposed electrode' failed when metallic Li was present in the melt

  10. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Benjamin Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, τ, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single

  11. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li-Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-10-01

    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li-Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li+ ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m2 g-1. They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li+/H+ ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li-Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods.

  12. Synthesis of ultrasmall Li–Mn spinel oxides exhibiting unusual ion exchange, electrochemical, and catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumi; Kuroda, Yoshiyuki; Uematsu, Tsubasa; Oshikawa, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Suzuki, Kosuke; Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-01-01

    The efficient surface reaction and rapid ion diffusion of nanocrystalline metal oxides have prompted considerable research interest for the development of high functional materials. Herein, we present a novel low-temperature method to synthesize ultrasmall nanocrystalline spinel oxides by controlling the hydration of coexisting metal cations in an organic solvent. This method selectively led to Li–Mn spinel oxides by tuning the hydration of Li+ ions under mild reaction conditions (i.e., low temperature and short reaction time). These particles exhibited an ultrasmall crystallite size of 2.3 nm and a large specific surface area of 371 ± 15 m2 g−1. They exhibited unique properties such as unusual topotactic Li+/H+ ion exchange, high-rate discharge ability, and high catalytic performance for several aerobic oxidation reactions, by creating surface phenomena throughout the particles. These properties differed significantly from those of Li–Mn spinel oxides obtained by conventional solid-state methods. PMID:26456216

  13. Poly-crystallinity of indium-tin-oxide films improved by using simultaneous ion beam and heat treatment of the plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Phil Kook; Kim, Taehyung; Choi, Suk-Won; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-08-01

    The combined treatment effects of an ion beam with directionality and heat of a low temperature on a plastic substrate was investigated as a method to increase the electrical conductivity of indiumtin-oxide (ITO) films deposited on plastic substrate surfaces at low temperatures. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface treatment by using an ion beam at low temperature (120 °C), which can be applied to plastic substrates, improves the conductivity of ITO films. X-ray diffraction indicates that ITO films deposited on PET surfaces treated simultaneously by using an ion beam and heat of a low temperature have an almost polycrystalline structure even though they have small amorphous party on. As a supplementary measurement, the contact angle showed that the polycrystalline structure was due to a self-assembly effect at the PET surfaces. Consequently, the electrical conductivity of an ITO film deposited by using the proposed technique is three times higher than that of an ITO film treated only with heat of low temperature due to the improved polycrystalline structure.

  14. Tungsten oxide proton conducting films for low-voltage transparent oxide-based thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Wan, Qing; Wan, Changjin; Wu, Guodong; Zhu, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO x ) electrolyte films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering showed a high room temperature proton conductivity of 1.38 × 10 −4 S/cm with a relative humidity of 60%. Low-voltage transparent W-doped indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors gated by WO x -based electrolytes were self-assembled on glass substrates by one mask diffraction method. Enhancement mode operation with a large current on/off ratio of 4.7 × 10 6 , a low subthreshold swing of 108 mV/decade, and a high field-effect mobility 42.6 cm 2 /V s was realized. Our results demonstrated that WO x -based proton conducting films were promising gate dielectric candidates for portable low-voltage oxide-based devices.

  15. An Electrochemical Sensor Based on Nanostructured Hollandite-type Manganese Oxide for Detection of Potassium Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Lima

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The participation of cations in redox reactions of manganese oxides provides an opportunity for development of chemical sensors for non-electroactive ions. A sensor based on a nanostructured hollandite-type manganese oxide was investigated for voltammetric detection of potassium ions. The detection is based on the measurement of anodic current generated by oxidation of Mn(III to Mn(IV at the surface of the electrode and the subsequent extraction of the potassium ions into the hollandite structure. In this work, an amperometric procedure at an operating potential of 0.80 V (versus SCE is exploited for amperometric monitoring. The current signals are linearly proportional to potassium ion concentration in the range 4.97 × 10−5 to 9.05 × 10−4 mol L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997.

  16. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  17. Flexible probe for measuring local conductivity variations in Li-ion electrode films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Emilee; Clement, Derek; Vogel, John; Wheeler, Dean; Mazzeo, Brian

    2018-04-01

    Li-ion battery performance is governed by electronic and ionic properties of the battery. A key metric that characterizes Li-ion battery cell performance is the electronic conductivity of the electrodes, which are metal foils with thin coatings of electrochemically active materials. To accurately measure the spatial variation of electronic conductivity of these electrodes, a micro-four-line probe (μ4LP) was designed and used to non-destructively measure the properties of commercial-quality Li-ion battery films. This previous research established that the electronic conductivity of film electrodes is not homogeneous throughout the entirety of the deposited film area. In this work, a micro-N-line probe (μNLP) and a flexible micro-flex-line probe (μFLP) were developed to improve the non-destructive micro-scale conductivity measurements that we can take. These devices were validated by comparing test results to that of the predecessor, the micro-four-line probe (μ4LP), on various commercial-quality Li-ion battery electrodes. Results show that there is significant variation in conductivity on a millimeter and even micrometer length scale through the electrode film. Compared to the μ4LP, the μNLP and μFLP also introduce additional measurement configuration possibilities, while providing a more robust design. Researchers and manufacturers can use these probes to identify heterogeneity in their electrodes during the fabrication process, which will lead to the development of better batteries.

  18. PEMODELAN KONDUKTIVITAS ION DALAM STRUKTUR Li2Sc3(PO43 (Modeling Ionic Conductivity in Li2Sc3(PO43 Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram La Kilo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Fasa Li2Sc3(PO43 merupakan material konduktor superionik yang dapat diaplikasikan sebagai baterai yang dapat diisi ulang (rechargeable. Ion Li+ dalam struktur Li2Sc3(PO4 dapat mengalami migrasi dari posisi terisi ke posisi kosong. Penelitian ini telah memodelkan migrasi ion Li+ dalam struktur Li2Sc3(PO4 dengan menggunakan metode bond valence sum (BVS. Metode ini dapat memprediksi bilangan oksidasi suatu atom berdasarkan jarak dengan atom-atom tetangga. Source code berbasis BVS yang digunakan adalah JUMPITER yang mensimulasi efek gaya listrik eksternal yang bertindak pada ion litium sehingga nilai BVS litium dapat dipetakan terhadap jarak. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa konduksi ion Li+ dapat terjadi pada arah [010], [101], dan [120]. Namun, lintasan konduksi ion Li+ lebih mudah terjadi pada arah [120] atau bidang ab dengan nilai maksimum BVS adalah 0,982. ABSTRACT g-phase of Li2Sc3(PO43 is a lithium super ionic conductor which can be applied as a rechargeable lithium battery. Lithium ions of g-Li2Sc3(PO43 can migrate from occupied site to vacant site. In this research, simulation of Li+ ions migration in the structure of g-Li2Sc3(PO43 carried out using bond valence sum (BVS to predict the oxidation state of Li+ion based on the distance of the ion to neighboring atoms. BVS-based code used JUMPITER to simulate the effect of external electrical force acting on the lithium ions to produce the lithium BVS value which can be mapped to the distance. The simulation results shows that Li+ ion conduction can be occurred on [010], [101], and [120] directions. However, the Li ion conduction pathway occur more easily in the direction of [120] or ab plane with the BVS maximum value is 0.982.

  19. Conductivity study of nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yu-Ting; Lan, Wen-How; Huang, Kai-Feng; Lin, Jia-Ching; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the spray pyrolysis method was used to prepare unintentionally doped and nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films by using zinc acetate, calcium nitrate precursor, and ammonium acetate precursor. Morphological and structural analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that film grain size decreased as the nitrogen doping was increased. Both calcium oxide and zinc oxide structures were identified in the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. When nitrogen doping was introduced, the film mainly exhibited a zinc oxide structure with preferred (002) and (101) orientations. The concentration and mobility were investigated using a Hall measurement system. P-type films with a mobility and concentration of 10.6 cm"2 V"−"1 s"−"1 and 2.8×10"1"7 cm"−"3, respectively, were obtained. Moreover, according to a temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, an acceptor state with activation energy 0.266 eV dominated the p-type conduction for the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. By contrast, a grain boundary with a barrier height of 0.274–0.292 eV dominated the hole conduction for the nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films.

  20. Iodine doping effects on the lattice thermal conductivity of oxidized polyacetylene nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Kedong, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: kedongbi@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Weathers, Annie; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu, E-mail: kedongbi@seu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Goh, Munju [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Eunha-ri san 101, Bondong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeolabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-21

    Thermal transport in oxidized polyacetylene (PA) nanofibers with diameters in the range between 74 and 126 nm is measured with the use of a suspended micro heater device. With the error due to both radiation and contact thermal resistance corrected via a differential measurement procedure, the obtained thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers varies in the range between 0.84 and 1.24 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} near room temperature, and decreases by 40%–70% after iodine doping. It is also found that the thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers increases with temperature between 100 and 350 K. Because of exposure to oxygen during sample preparation, the PA nanofibers are oxidized to be electrically insulating before and after iodine doping. The measurement results reveal that iodine doping can result in enhanced lattice disorder and reduced lattice thermal conductivity of PA nanofibers. If the oxidation issue can be addressed via further research to increase the electrical conductivity via doping, the observed suppressed lattice thermal conductivity in doped polymer nanofibers can be useful for the development of such conducting polymer nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion.

  1. Iodine doping effects on the lattice thermal conductivity of oxidized polyacetylene nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Kedong; Weathers, Annie; Pettes, Michael T.; Shi, Li; Matsushita, Satoshi; Akagi, Kazuo; Goh, Munju

    2013-01-01

    Thermal transport in oxidized polyacetylene (PA) nanofibers with diameters in the range between 74 and 126 nm is measured with the use of a suspended micro heater device. With the error due to both radiation and contact thermal resistance corrected via a differential measurement procedure, the obtained thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers varies in the range between 0.84 and 1.24 W m −1  K −1 near room temperature, and decreases by 40%–70% after iodine doping. It is also found that the thermal conductivity of oxidized PA nanofibers increases with temperature between 100 and 350 K. Because of exposure to oxygen during sample preparation, the PA nanofibers are oxidized to be electrically insulating before and after iodine doping. The measurement results reveal that iodine doping can result in enhanced lattice disorder and reduced lattice thermal conductivity of PA nanofibers. If the oxidation issue can be addressed via further research to increase the electrical conductivity via doping, the observed suppressed lattice thermal conductivity in doped polymer nanofibers can be useful for the development of such conducting polymer nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion

  2. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, P.; Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V.; Vrnata, M.; Kormunda, M.; Danis, S.

    2016-12-01

    Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C-600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C-600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu2O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition - in the depth Cu2O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH)2. A limited amount of Cu2O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance RS of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing RS was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□-2.45 GΩ/□. The highest RS values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the 16O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed an increased response to hydrogen at 300 °C, while Au-covered films were more sensitive to methanol vapours at 350 °C.

  3. Characteristics of growth of complex ferroelectric oxide films by plasma-ion sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortov, V. M.; Golovko, Yu. I.; Mukhortov, Vl. M.; Dudkevich, V. P.

    1981-02-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the process of growth of a complex oxide film, such as BaTiO3 or (Ba, Sr)TiO3, by plasma-ion sputtering. It was found that ion bombardment of a ceramic target knocked out neutral excited atoms. These atoms lost energy away from the target by collisions and at a certain critical distance hcr they were capable of oxidation to produce BaO, TiO, TiO2, and SrO. Therefore, depending on the distance between the cathode and the substrate, the “construction” material arrived in the form of atoms or molecules of simple oxides. These two (atomic and molecular) deposition mechanisms corresponded to two mechanisms of synthesis and crystallization differing in respect of the dependences of the growth rate, unit cell parameters, and other structural properties on the deposition temperature. The role of re-evaporation and of oxidation-reduction processes was analyzed.

  4. Probing the bulk ionic conductivity by thin film hetero-epitaxial engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Pergolesi, Daniele; Roddatis, Vladimir; Fabbri, Emiliana; Schneider, Christof W; Lippert, Thomas; Traversa, Enrico; Kilner, John A

    2015-01-01

    Highly textured thin films with small grain boundary regions can be used as model systems to directly measure the bulk conductivity of oxygen ion conducting oxides. Ionic conducting thin films and epitaxial heterostructures are also widely used

  5. In situ recording of particle network formation in liquids by ion conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenhuber, Christian; Sörgel, Seniz; Weichert, Katja; Bele, Marjan; Mundinger, Tabea; Göbel, Marcus; Maier, Joachim

    2011-09-21

    The formation of fractal silica networks from a colloidal initial state was followed in situ by ion conductivity measurements. The underlying effect is a high interfacial lithium ion conductivity arising when silica particles are brought into contact with Li salt-containing liquid electrolytes. The experimental results were modeled using Monte Carlo simulations and tested using confocal fluorescence laser microscopy and ζ-potential measurements.

  6. Air, aqueous and thermal stabilities of Ce3+ ions in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers with substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Naganuma, Tamaki

    2014-01-01

    Abundant oxygen vacancies coexisting with Ce3+ ions in fluorite cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have the potential to enhance catalytic ability, but the ratio of unstable Ce3+ ions in CNPs is typically low. Our recent work, however, demonstrated that the abundant Ce3+ ions created in cerium oxide nanoparticle layers (CNPLs) by Ar ion irradiation were stable in air at room temperature. Ce valence states in CNPs correlate with the catalytic ability that involves redox reactions between Ce3+ and Ce4+ ions in given application environments (e.g. high temperature in carbon monoxide gas conversion and immersion conditions in biomedical applications). To better understand the mechanism by which Ce3+ ions achieve stability in CNPLs, we examined (i) extra-long air-stability, (ii) thermal stability up to 500 °C, and (iii) aqueous stability of Ce 3+ ions in water, buffer solution and cell culture medium. It is noteworthy that air-stability of Ce3+ ions in CNPLs persisted for more than 1 year. Thermal stability results showed that oxidation of Ce 3+ to Ce4+ occurred at 350 °C in air. Highly concentrated Ce3+ ions in ultra-thin CNPLs slowly oxidized in water within 1 day, but stability was improved in the cell culture medium. Ce 3+ stability of CNPLs immersed in the medium was associated with phosphorus adsorption on the Ce3+ sites. This study also illuminates the potential interaction mechanisms of stable Ce3+ ions in CNPLs. These findings could be utilized to understand catalytic mechanisms of CNPs with abundant oxygen vacancies in their application environments. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  7. Comparative ion insertion study into a nanostructured vanadium oxide in aqueous salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Q.; Ren, S. L.; Zukowski, J.; Pomeroy, M.; Soghomonian, V., E-mail: soghomon@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We present a comparative study for the electrochemical insertion of different cations into a nanostructured vanadium oxide material. The oxide is hydrothemally synthesized and electrically characterized by variable temperature measurements. The electrochemical reactions are performed in aqueous chloride solutions of lithium, sodium, potassium, and ammonium, and the electrochemical behavior of various cycles are correlated with visual changes in the vanadium oxide nanosheets as observed by scanning electron microscopy. We note an increase in the specific charge per cycle in the cases of sodium and ammonium ions only, correlated with minimal physical changes to the nanosheets. The differing behavior of the various ions has implications for their use in electrical energy storage applications.

  8. Effects of A-site nonstoichiometry on oxide ion conduction in 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.06BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasiporn Prasertpalichat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lead free 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.06BaTiO3 ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state mixed oxide route with the A-site stoichiometry modified to incorporate donor-doping (through Bi-excess and acceptor-doping (through Na-excess. Both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric ceramics exhibited a single perovskite phase with pseudo-cubic symmetry. A significant improvement in the dielectric properties was observed in Bi-excess compositions and a deterioration in the dielectric properties was observed in Na-excess compositions. Impedance spectroscopy was utilized to analyze the effects of A-site nonstoichiometry on conduction mechanisms. Compositions with Bi-excess resulted in an electrically homogeneous microstructure with an increase in resistivity by ∼3–4 orders of magnitude and an associated activation energy of 1.57eV which was close to half of the optical bandgap. In contrast, an electrically heterogeneous microstructure was observed in both the stoichiometric and Na-excess compositions. In addition, the Na-excess compositions exhibited low resistivities (ρ∼103Ω-cm with characteristic peaks in the impedance data comparable to the recent observations of oxide ion conduction in (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3. Long term annealing studies were also conducted at 800∘C to identify changes in crystal structure and electrical properties. The results of this study demonstrates that the dielectric and electrical properties of 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–0.06BaTiO3 ceramics are very sensitive to Bi/Na stoichiometry.

  9. Decoupling ion conductivity and fluid permeation through optimizing hydrophilic channel morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Peter Po-Jen, E-mail: pjchu@cc.ncu.edu.tw; Fang, Yu-Shin; Tseng, Yu-Chen [Department of Chemistry, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (R.O.C.) (China)

    2016-05-18

    Approaches to improve membrane ion conductivity usually leads to higher degree of swelling, more serious fuel cross-over and often sacrificed membrane mechanical strength. Preserving all three main membrane properties is a tough challenge in searching high ion conducting fuel cell membrane. The long standing dilemma is resolved by decoupling ion conduction and fluid permeation property by creating optimized channel morphology using external electric field poling. Success of this approach is demonstrated in the proton conducting membrane composed of poly(ether sulfones) (PES) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK, degree of sulfonation=50%) composites prepared under electric field poling condition. The external field enhanced the aromatic chain ordering from both sPEEK and PES and improved the miscibility. This induced interaction is conducive to the formation of more densely packed amorphous domains that eventually leads to preferentially ordered hydrophilic proton conducting channels having a average dimension (3 nm) smaller than that in generic sPEEK or Nafion. The narrower but more ordered channel displayed much lower methanol permeability (3.17×10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s), and lower swelling ratio (31.20%), while the conductivity (~10{sup −1} S/cm) is higher than that of Nafion, or sPEEK at higher (64%) degree of sulfonation. The composite is chemically stable and highly durable with improved membrane mechanical strength. Nearly 50% increase of DMFC power output is observed using this membrane, and the best power density is recorded at 155 mA/cm{sup 2} (80 °C, 1M Methanol).

  10. Modelling of low energy ion sputtering from oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubart, T; Nyberg, T; Berg, S

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this work is to present a way to estimate the values of surface binding energy for oxides. This is done by fitting results from the binary collisions approximation code Tridyn with data from the reactive sputtering processing curves, as well as the elemental composition obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Oxide targets of Al, Ti, V, Nb and Ta are studied. The obtained surface binding energies are then used to predict the partial sputtering yields. Anomalously high sputtering yield is observed for the TiO 2 target. This is attributed to the high sputtering yield of Ti lower oxides. Such an effect is not observed for the other studied metals. XPS measurement of the oxide targets confirms the formation of suboxides during ion bombardment as well as an oxygen deficient surface in the steady state. These effects are confirmed from the processing curves from the oxide targets showing an elevated sputtering rate in pure argon.

  11. Ion-beam-directed self-organization of conducting nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzill, M.; Bardou, F.; Snowdon, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Glancing-incidence ion-beam irradiation has been used both to ease kinetic constraints which otherwise restrict the establishment of long-range order and to impose external control on the orientation of nanowire arrays formed during stress-field-induced self-ordering of calcium atoms on a CaF 2 (111) surface. The arrays exhibit exceptional long-range order, with the long axis of the wires oriented along the azimuthal direction of ion-beam incidence. Transport measurements reveal a highly anisotropic electrical conductivity, whose maximum lies in the direction of the long axis of the 10.1-nm-period calcium wires

  12. Bi{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 1.5+x} (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, Matthew L. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Hack, Jennifer [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Kuang, Xiaojun [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); McIntyre, Garry J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Withers, Ray L. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Radosavljevic Evans, Ivana, E-mail: ivana.radosavljevic@durham.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Science Site, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    A combined experimental and computational study of Bi{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 1.5+x} (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625}, previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi{sub 0.88}Nb{sub 0.12}O{sub 1.62} exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O{sup 2−} jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM{sub 4} groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M{sub 4} and octahedral □M{sub 6} vacancies. - Graphical abstract: Oxide ion migration in tetragonal Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} occurs by O{sup 2−} jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM{sub 4} groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral M{sub 4} and octahedral M{sub 6} vacancies. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 0.9375}Nb{sub 0.0625}O{sub 1.5625} adopts a tetragonal √2×√2×1 fluorite superstructure. • Superstructure is due to ordering in the O-sublattice, with Bi

  13. Facile and large-scale preparation of sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hongmei; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based metal oxides are desirable as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior electrochemical properties. In this work, sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide (ZnO, NiO) composites are facilely synthesized on a large scale through self-assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets and metal ammine complexes, and then thermal decomposition of the self-assembled products. ZnO or NiO nanoparticles with diameters of 5∼10 nm are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets, which may provide the space for accommodating the volume change of metal oxides during cycles, and highly improve the electronic conductivity of the composites. Accordingly, these sandwich-structured composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared to metal oxide particles or stacked graphene nanosheets. This facile synthesis method is very suitable for the large-scale production of three-dimensional graphene-based composites as high-performance anodes for LIBs.

  14. Thermal diffusivity and conductivity of thorium- uranium mixed oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, M.; Staicu, D.; Mouris, J.; Bergeron, A.; Hamilton, H.; Naji, M.; Freis, D.; Cologna, M.

    2018-03-01

    Thorium-uranium oxide pellets with high densities were prepared at the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) by co-milling, pressing, and sintering at 2023 K, with UO2 mass contents of 0, 1.5, 3, 8, 13, 30, 60 and 100%. At the Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (JRC-Karlsruhe), thorium-uranium oxide pellets were prepared using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique with 79 and 93 wt. % UO2. The thermal diffusivity of (Th1-xUx)O2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) was measured at CNL and at JRC-Karlsruhe using the laser flash technique. ThO2 and (Th,U)O2 with 1.5, 3, 8 and 13 wt. % UO2 were found to be semi-transparent to the infrared wavelength of the laser and were coated with graphite for the thermal diffusivity measurements. This semi-transparency decreased with the addition of UO2 and was lost at about 30 wt. % of UO2 in ThO2. The thermal conductivity was deduced using the measured density and literature data for the specific heat capacity. The thermal conductivity for ThO2 is significantly higher than for UO2. The thermal conductivity of (Th,U)O2 decreases rapidly with increasing UO2 content, and for UO2 contents of 60% and higher, the conductivity of the thorium-uranium oxide fuel is close to UO2. As the mass difference between the Th and U atoms is small, the thermal conductivity decrease is attributed to the phonon scattering enhanced by lattice strain due to the introduction of uranium in ThO2 lattice. The new results were compared to the data available in the literature and were evaluated using the classical phonon transport model for oxide systems.

  15. Metal oxide collectors for storing matter technique applied in secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miśnik, Maciej [Institute of Tele and Radio Technology, ul. Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warszawa (Poland); Gdańsk University of Technology (Poland); Konarski, Piotr [Institute of Tele and Radio Technology, ul. Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warszawa (Poland); Zawada, Aleksander [Institute of Tele and Radio Technology, ul. Ratuszowa 11, 03-450 Warszawa (Poland); Military University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    We present results of the use of metal and metal oxide substrates that serve as collectors in ‘storing matter’, the quantitative technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). This technique allows separating the two base processes of secondary ion formation in SIMS. Namely, the process of ion sputtering is separated from the process of ionisation. The technique allows sputtering of the analysed sample and storing the sputtered material, with sub-monolayer coverage, onto a collector surface. Such deposits can be then analysed by SIMS, and as a result, the so called ‘matrix effects’ are significantly reduced. We perform deposition of the sputtered material onto Ti and Cu substrates and also onto metal oxide substrates as molybdenum, titanium, tin and indium oxides. The process of sputtering is carried within the same vacuum chamber where the SIMS analysis of the collected material is performed. For sputtering and SIMS analysis of the deposited material we use 5 keV Ar{sup +} beam of 500 nA. The presented results are obtained with the use of stationary collectors. Here we present a case study of chromium. The obtained results show that the molybdenum and titanium oxide substrates used as collectors increase useful yield by two orders, with respect to such pure elemental collectors as Cu and Ti. Here we define useful yield as a ratio of the number of detected secondary ions during SIMS analysis and the number of atoms sputtered during the deposition process.

  16. Novel iron oxide nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Fan, Huiqing; Chang, Ling; Shao, Haibo; Wang, Jianming; Zhang, Jianqing; Cao, Chu-nan

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured iron oxides can be promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, improvement on the rate capability and/or electrochemical cycling stability of iron oxide anode materials remains a key challenge because of their poor electrical conductivities and large volume expansion during cycling. Herein, the vertically aligned arrays of one-dimensional (1D) iron oxide nanotubes with 5.8 wt% carbon have been fabricated by a novel surfactant-free self-corrosion process and subsequent thermal treatment. The as-fabricated nanotube array electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 932 mAh g-1 after 50 charge-discharge cycles at a current of 0.6 A g-1. The electrode still shows a reversible capacity of 610 mAh g-1 even at a very high rate (8.0 A g-1), demonstrating its prominent rate capability. Furthermore, the nanotube array electrode also exhibits the excellent electrochemical cycling stability with a reversible capacity of 880 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current of 4 A g-1. The nanotube array electrode with superior lithium storage performance reveals the promising potential as a high-performance anode for LIBs.

  17. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadini,, E-mail: nur-chem@yahoo.co.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institiut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  18. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Deming; Sun, Li; Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongping

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10 15 –1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 ) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp 2 carbon clusters. The sp 2 carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature

  19. Novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends for battery separators in lithium-ion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.M.; Nunes-Pereira, J.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Silva, M.M.; Ribelles, J.L. Gomez; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► New P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO polymer blends were prepared for battery separator. ► The porosity and hydrophilicity degree are tailored within this blend. ► Ionic conductivity depends on PEO presence and is stable with temperature. ► High ionic conductivity of 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 blend. -- Abstract: Polymer blends based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide), P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO for Li-ion battery separator applications have been prepared through solvent casting technique. The microstructure, hydrophilicity and electrolyte uptake strongly depend on PEO content within the blend. The best value of ionic conductivity at room temperature was 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 membrane. The membranes are electrochemically stable

  20. Transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löffler, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes research on thin-film silicon solar cells with focus on the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for such devices. In addition to the formation of a transparent and electrically conductive front electrode for the solar cell allowing photocurrent collection with low ohmic losses,

  1. Mesoporous silica wrapped with graphene oxide-conducting PANI nanowires as a novel hybrid electrode for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Mohsin; Abbas, Syed Mustansar; Siddiq, Mohammad; Han, Dongxue; Niu, Li

    2018-02-01

    A high charge-carrier transport is an important aim in the synthesis of nanostructures for an effective supercapacitor. This article describes a methodology to prepare mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) wrapped with graphene oxide (GO) together with conducting polyaniline (PANI) wires. The morphology and chemical structure of the prepared samples have been tested by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas the stability and electrostatic interaction of the structures have been verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The supercapacitive behaviour of these nanocomposites has been analysed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with pristine MSNs and PANI, the 20%-GO@MSNs/PANI nanocomposite had the highest specific capacitance, reaching 412 F g-1. The nanocomposite structure maximizes the synergy between mesoporous metal oxide, conducting PANI, and GO, yielding a significantly enhanced specific capacitance, rapid charge-discharge rates, and good cycling stability of the resulting device. The wrapping with GO prevents the structural breakdown and acts as a highly conductive pathway by bridging the individual particles, whereas the MSNs nanoparticles greatly enlarge the specific surface area to facilitate ion transport and charge transfer throughout the cycling performance of supercapacitor. The approach adopted in this article can be applied for preparing similar novel functional materials in future for electrochemical applications.

  2. Electrical conductivity and ion diffusion in porcine meniscus: effects of strain, anisotropy, and tissue region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Kelsey L; McMahan, Jeffrey B; Jackson, Alicia R

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mechanical strain, anisotropy, and tissue region on electrical conductivity and ion diffusivity in meniscus fibrocartilage. A one-dimensional, 4-wire conductivity experiment was employed to measure the electrical conductivity in porcine meniscus tissues from two tissue regions (horn and central), for two tissue orientations (axial and circumferential), and for three levels of compressive strain (0%, 10%, and 20%). Conductivity values were then used to estimate the relative ion diffusivity in meniscus. The water volume fraction of tissue specimens was determined using a buoyancy method. A total of 135 meniscus samples were measured; electrical conductivity values ranged from 2.47mS/cm to 4.84mS/cm, while relative ion diffusivity was in the range of 0.235 to 0.409. Results show that electrical conductivity and ion diffusion are significantly anisotropic (pmeniscus fibrocartilage, which is essential in developing new strategies to treat and/or prevent tissue degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of reduced graphene oxide on electrical conductivity of LiFePO4-based composite as cathode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifin, Muhammad; Aimon, Akfiny Hasdi; Winata, Toto; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Iskandar, Ferry

    2016-01-01

    LiFePO 4 is fascinating cathode active materials for Li-ion batteries application because of their high electrochemical performance such as a stable voltage at 3.45 V and high specific capacity at 170 mAh.g −1 . However, their low intrinsic electronic conductivity and low ionic diffusion are still the hindrance for their further application on Li-ion batteries. Therefore, the efforts to improve their conductivity are very important to elevate their prospecting application as cathode materials. Herein, we reported preparation of additional of reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) into LiFePO 4 -based composite via hydrothermal method and the influence of rGO on electrical conductivity of LiFePO 4 −based composite by varying mass of rGO in composition. Vibration of LiFePO 4 -based composite was detected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, while single phase of LiFePO 4 nanocrystal was observed on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, it furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images showed that rGO was distributed around LiFePO4-based composite. Finally, the 4-point probe measurement result confirmed that the optimum electrical conductivity is in additional 2 wt% rGO for range 1 to 2 wt% rGO

  4. Altered Potassium Ion Channel Function as a Possible Mechanism of Increased Blood Pressure in Rats Fed Thermally Oxidized Palm Oil Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanu, Etah E; Owu, Daniel U; Osim, Eme E

    2017-12-27

    Intake of thermally oxidized palm oil leads to cytotoxicity and alteration of the potassium ion channel function. This study investigated the effects of fresh and thermally oxidized palm oil diets on blood pressure and potassium ion channel function in blood pressure regulation. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of eight rats. Control group received normal feed; fresh palm oil (FPO) and thermally oxidized palm oil (TPO) groups were fed a diet mixed with 15% (weight/weight) fresh palm oil and five times heated palm oil, respectively, for 16 weeks. Blood pressure was measured; blood samples, hearts, and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Thermally oxidized palm oil significantly elevated basal mean arterial pressure (MAP). Glibenclamide (10 -5 mmol/L) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 10 -3 mmol/L) significantly raised blood pressure in TPO compared with FPO and control groups. Levcromakalim (10 -6 mmol/L) significantly (p palm oil increases MAP probably due to the attenuation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) and large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium (BK Ca ) channels, tissue peroxidation, and altered histological structures of the heart and blood vessels.

  5. Nanostructured transparent conducting oxide electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Delia; Tangirala, Ravisubhash; Llordes, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella; Garcia, Guillermo

    2016-05-17

    The embodiments described herein provide an electrochromic device. In an exemplary embodiment, the electrochromic device includes (1) a substrate and (2) a film supported by the substrate, where the film includes transparent conducting oxide (TCO) nanostructures. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes (a) an electrolyte, where the nanostructures are embedded in the electrolyte, resulting in an electrolyte, nanostructure mixture positioned above the substrate and (b) a counter electrode positioned above the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a conductive coating deposited on the substrate between the substrate and the mixture. In a further embodiment, the electrochromic device further includes a second substrate positioned above the mixture.

  6. Electronic structure and dynamics of ordered clusters with ME or RE ions on oxide surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulagin, N.A., E-mail: nkulagin@bestnet.kharkov.u [Kharkiv National University for Radio Electronics, Avenue Shakespeare 6-48, 61045 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15

    Selected data of ab initio simulation of the electronic structure and spectral properties of either cluster with ions of iron, rare earth or actinium group elements have been presented here. Appearance of doped Cr{sup +4} ions in oxides, Cu{sup +2} in HTSC, Nd{sup +2} in solids has been discussed. Analysis of experimental data for plasma created ordered structures of crystallites with size of about 10{sup -9} m on surface of separate oxides are given, too. Change in the spectroscopic properties of clusters and nano-structures on surface of strontium titanate crystals discussed shortly using the X-ray line spectroscopy experimental results. - Research highlights: External influence and variation of technology induce changes in valence of nl ions in compounds. Wave function of cluster presented as anti-symmetrical set of ions wave functions. The main equation describes the self-consistent field depending on state of all electrons of cluster. Level scheme of Cr{sup 4+} ions in octo- and tetra-site corresponds to doped oxides spectra after treatment. Plasma treatment effects in appearance of systems of unit crystallites with size of about 10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} m.

  7. Electronic structure and dynamics of ordered clusters with ME or RE ions on oxide surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Selected data of ab initio simulation of the electronic structure and spectral properties of either cluster with ions of iron, rare earth or actinium group elements have been presented here. Appearance of doped Cr +4 ions in oxides, Cu +2 in HTSC, Nd +2 in solids has been discussed. Analysis of experimental data for plasma created ordered structures of crystallites with size of about 10 -9 m on surface of separate oxides are given, too. Change in the spectroscopic properties of clusters and nano-structures on surface of strontium titanate crystals discussed shortly using the X-ray line spectroscopy experimental results. - Research highlights: → External influence and variation of technology induce changes in valence of nl ions in compounds. → Wave function of cluster presented as anti-symmetrical set of ions wave functions. → The main equation describes the self-consistent field depending on state of all electrons of cluster. → Level scheme of Cr 4+ ions in octo- and tetra-site corresponds to doped oxides spectra after treatment. → Plasma treatment effects in appearance of systems of unit crystallites with size of about 10 -6 -10 -9 m.

  8. Effect of oxide ion concentration on the electrochemical oxidation of carbon in molten LiCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J. W.; Choi, I. K.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    The continuous measurement of lithium oxide concentration was required in DOR (Direct Oxide Reduction) process, which converts spent nuclear fuel to metal form, for the reactivity monitor and effective control of the process. The concentration of lithium oxide was measured by the electrochemical method, which was based on the phenomenon that carbon atoms of glassy carbon electrode electrochemically react with oxygen ions of lithium oxide in molten LiCl medium. From the results of electrode polarization experiments, the trend of oxidation rate of carbon atoms was classified into two different regions, which were proportional and non-proportional ones, dependent on the amount of lithium oxide. Below about 2.5 wt % Li 2 O, as the carbon atom ionization rate was fast enough for reacting with diffusing lithium oxide to the surface of carbon electrode. In this concentration range, the oxidation rate of carbon atoms was controlled by the diffusion of lithium oxide, and the concentration of lithium oxide could be measured by electrochemical method. But, above 2.5 wt % Li 2 O, the oxidation rate of carbon atoms was controlled by the applied electrochemical potential, because the carbon atom ionization rate was suppressed by the huge amounts of diffusing Li 2 O. Above this concentration, the electrochemical method was not applicable to determine the concentration of lithium oxide

  9. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m 2 /g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2+ , respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way

  10. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 Ω cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  11. A general strategy toward graphitized carbon coating on iron oxides as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunyan; Zhou, Weiwei; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yong; Wen, Guangwu

    2017-08-25

    Integration of carbon materials with benign iron oxides is blazing a trail in constructing high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, a unique general, simple, and controllable strategy is developed toward in situ uniform coating of iron oxide nanostructures with graphitized carbon (GrC) layers. The basic synthetic procedure only involves a simple dip-coating process for the loading of Ni-containing seeds and a subsequent Ni-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for the growth of GrC layers. More importantly, the CVD treatment is conducted at a quite low temperature (450 °C) and with extremely facile liquid carbon sources consisting of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethanol (EA). The GrC content of the resulting hybrids can be controllably regulated by altering the amount of carbon sources. The electrochemical results reveal remarkable performance enhancements of iron oxide@GrC hybrids compared with pristine iron oxides in terms of high specific capacity, excellent rate and cycling performance. This can be attributed to the network-like GrC coating, which can improve not only the electronic conductivity but also the structural integrity of iron oxides. Moreover, the lithium storage performance of samples with different GrC contents is measured, manifesting that optimized electrochemical property can be achieved with appropriate carbon content. Additionally, the superiority of GrC coating is demonstrated by the advanced performance of iron oxide@GrC compared with its corresponding counterpart, i.e., iron oxides with amorphous carbon (AmC) coating. All these results indicate the as-proposed protocol of GrC coating may pave the way for iron oxides to be promising anodes for LIBs.

  12. Structural and electrical evolution of He ion irradiated hydrocarbon films observed by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyu [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Yang, Deming [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Sun, Li [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); School of Physics, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Bi, Zhenhua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Liu, Dongping, E-mail: dongping.liu@dlnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China); Fujian Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, Department of Electronic Science, Aeronautics, School of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Polymer-like hydrocarbon films are irradiated with 100 keV He ion at the fluences of 1.0 × 10{sup 15}–1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} or at the irradiation temperature ranging from 25 to 600 °C. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) has been used to evaluate the nanoscale electron conducting properties of these irradiated hydrocarbon films. Nanoscale and conducting defects have been formed in the hydrocarbon films irradiated at a relatively high ion fluence (1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}) or an elevated sample temperature. Analysis indicates that He ion irradiation results in the evolution of polymer-like hydrocarbon into a dense structure containing a large fraction of sp{sup 2} carbon clusters. The sp{sup 2} carbon clusters formed in irradiated hydrocarbon films can contribute to the formation of filament-like conducting channels with a relatively high local field-enhancing factor. Measurements indicate that the growth of nanoscale defects due to He ion irradiation can result in the surface swelling of irradiated hydrocarbon films at a relatively high ion fluences or elevated temperature.

  13. Peculiarities in film growth of ferroelectric complex oxides in ion-plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhortov, V.M.; Golovko, Yu.I.; Mukhortov, Vl.M.; Dudkevich, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental investigation into the process of complex oxide film growth (using BaTiO 3 and (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 as an example) during ion-plasma sputtering has been carried out. It is shown that neutral excited atoms are knocked out of a ceramic target during its ion bombardment. Removing from the target they loss energy at the expence of collisions and at some distance hsub(cr) the oxidation reaction (BaO, TiO, TiO 2 , SrO) becomes possible. So the ''construction'' material comes in either in the form of atoms or in the form of molecules of simple oxides depending on a distance between cathode and substrate. Two mechanisms of synthesis and crystallization distinguished with dependences of growth rate, elementary cell parameters and other structure characteristics on precipitation temperature correspond to two precipitation mechanisms. Part of re-evaporation and reduction processes is discussed [ru

  14. Chalcogenide glasses as optical and ion-conducting materials. Kogaku oyobi ion dendo zairyo toshite no chalcogenide glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toge, N.; Minami, T. (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Nonoxide glasses whose main constituent are chalcogen elements like S, Se, or Te etc. show a lot of various properties, for instance, high infrared transmittancy and semi-conductivity which are already well known. Additionally, the optical properties change a lot along with the phase transition's happening between crystal and noncrystal under comparative low temperature. Further, it is also observed that the glasses containing proper cation appear high ion-conductivity. This paper supplies a brief reviews of chalcogenide glasses used as materials for infrared fiber, phase transition optical memory and superionic conductor, wherein the former two have already on the stage of utilization, particularly the realization of a rewritable optical memory is possible by using chalcogenide glasses film, and ion-conductor is in the phase to have shown the possibility of high conductivity while the development thereof is being expected. 22 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Method for monitoring the course of oxidation of iodide ion during radioactive iodination operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuezhong, Luo

    1986-05-01

    A micro-iodine ion selective electrode is developed to follow and monitor the course of oxidation of iodide ion during radioactive iodination operation. The experimental results indicate that this method can quickly respond to the course of oxidation if the reacting liquid is greater than 30 micro liter in volume. Therefore it can be used for accurate controlling the amount of oxidzing reagent used for the reaction, for example, the amount of chloroamine T can be reduced to 1/40 of the amount ordinarily used for the preparation of angiotonin II and insulin. The effect of pH and concentration of phosphate of the reacting liquid to the oxidation reaction of I with chloroamine T is also studied.

  16. Ionic Conductance, Thermal and Morphological Behavior of PEO-Graphene Oxide-Salts Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films composites of poly(ethylene oxide-graphene oxide were fabricated with and without lithium salts by solvent cast method. The ionic conductivity of these composites was studied at various concentrations of salt polymer-GO complexes and at different temperatures. The effects of temperature and graphene oxide concentration were measured from Arrhenius conductance plots. It is shown that the addition of salts in pure PEO increases conductance many times. The graphene oxide addition has enhanced the conductance approximately 1000 times as compared to that of pure PEO. The activation energies were determined for all the systems which gave higher values for pure PEO and the value decreased with the addition of LiClO4 and LiCl salts and further decreases with the addition of graphene oxide. The composite has also lowered the activation energy values which mean that incorporation of GO in PEO has decreased crystallinity and the amorphous region has increased the local mobility of polymer chains resulting in lower activation energies. SEM analysis shows uniform distribution of GO in polymer matrix. The thermal stability studies reveal that incorporation of GO has somewhat enhanced the thermal stability of the films.

  17. Oxidized calmodulin kinase II regulates conduction following myocardial infarction: a computational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Christensen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII mediates critical signaling pathways responsible for divergent functions in the heart including calcium cycling, hypertrophy and apoptosis. Dysfunction in the CaMKII signaling pathway occurs in heart disease and is associated with increased susceptibility to life-threatening arrhythmia. Furthermore, CaMKII inhibition prevents cardiac arrhythmia and improves heart function following myocardial infarction. Recently, a novel mechanism for oxidative CaMKII activation was discovered in the heart. Here, we provide the first report of CaMKII oxidation state in a well-validated, large-animal model of heart disease. Specifically, we observe increased levels of oxidized CaMKII in the infarct border zone (BZ. These unexpected new data identify an alternative activation pathway for CaMKII in common cardiovascular disease. To study the role of oxidation-dependent CaMKII activation in creating a pro-arrhythmia substrate following myocardial infarction, we developed a new mathematical model of CaMKII activity including both oxidative and autophosphorylation activation pathways. Computer simulations using a multicellular mathematical model of the cardiac fiber demonstrate that enhanced CaMKII activity in the infarct BZ, due primarily to increased oxidation, is associated with reduced conduction velocity, increased effective refractory period, and increased susceptibility to formation of conduction block at the BZ margin, a prerequisite for reentry. Furthermore, our model predicts that CaMKII inhibition improves conduction and reduces refractoriness in the BZ, thereby reducing vulnerability to conduction block and reentry. These results identify a novel oxidation-dependent pathway for CaMKII activation in the infarct BZ that may be an effective therapeutic target for improving conduction and reducing heterogeneity in the infarcted heart.

  18. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, P., E-mail: phorak@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Vrnata, M. [Department of Physics and Measurements, The University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kormunda, M. [Department of Physics, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Danis, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A rapid oxidation process of thin copper films. • Sheet resistance up to 10{sup 9} Ω/◊. • Mixed oxide phase at 200 °C with significant hydroxide presence. • Gas sensing response to 1000 ppm of hydrogen and methanol vapours. • Increased sensitivity with Pd and Au catalyst to hydrogen and methanol, respectively. - Abstract: Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C–600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C–600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition − in the depth Cu{sub 2}O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH){sub 2}. A limited amount of Cu{sub 2}O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance R{sub S} of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing R{sub S} was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□–2.45 GΩ/□. The highest R{sub S} values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the {sup 16}O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed

  19. Terbium(III) ions as sensitizers of oxidation of indole and its derivatives in Fenton system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Małgorzata, E-mail: mkaczmar@amu.edu.pl; Staninski, Krzysztof

    2017-03-15

    Oxidation of indole and its derivatives in the Fenton system as a source of oxidising agents, in the presence of terbium(III) ions was studied by chemiluminescence methods to get the kinetic curves of emission decay and spectral distributions of chemiluminescence. Terbium(III) ions acted as a sensitizer of the mixtures Tb(III)-Fe(II)/Fe(III)-H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-indole or its derivative (tryptophan, tryptamine, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl aspartic acid). For the above indolic compounds, linear dependencies of integrated intensity of chemiluminescence on concentration of indolic compound in water and in water-acetonitrile solution were obtained. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the indolic compounds studied were found to be by one or two orders of magnitude lower in the system with terbium(III) ions than without them. - Highlights: • Chemiluminescence emitted on oxidation of indolic compounds in Fenton system. • Tb (III) ions as sensitizers of indolic compounds oxidation in solutions. • Linear relations between CL intensity and indolic compound concentration.

  20. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Anna Esmeralda K; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Patel, Shrayesh Naran; Hallinan, Jr., Daniel T

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  1. Metal ion release from metallothioneins: proteolysis as an alternative to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroza, Estevão A; dos Santos Cabral, Augusto; Wan, Xiaoqiong; Freisinger, Eva

    2013-09-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are among others involved in the cellular regulation of essential Zn(II) and Cu(I) ions. However, the high binding affinity of these proteins requires additional factors to promote metal ion release under physiological conditions. The mechanisms and efficiencies of these processes leave many open questions. We report here a comprehensive analysis of the Zn(II)-release properties of various MTs with special focus on members of the four main subfamilies of plant MTs. Zn(II) competition experiments with the metal ion chelator 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) in the presence of the cellular redox pair glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) show that plant MTs from the subfamilies MT1, MT2, and MT3 are remarkably more affected by oxidative stress than those from the Ec subfamily and the well-characterized human MT2 form. In addition, we evaluated proteolytic digestion with trypsin and proteinase K as an alternative mechanism for selective promotion of metal ion release from MTs. Also here the observed percentage of liberated metal ions depends strongly on the MT form evaluated. Closer evaluation of the data additionally allowed deducing the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the Zn(II) release processes. The Cu(I)-form of chickpea MT2 was used to exemplify that both oxidation and proteolysis are also effective ways to increase the transfer of copper ions to other molecules. Zn(II) release experiments with the individual metal-binding domains of Ec-1 from wheat grain reveal distinct differences from the full-length protein. This triggers the question about the roles of the long cysteine-free peptide stretches typical for plant MTs.

  2. Ionic conduction in 70-MeV C5+-ion-irradiated poly(vinylidenefluoride- co-hexafluoropropylene)-based gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, D.; Kumar, A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.; Mishra, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the Li + -ion diffusivity, poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-(propylene carbonate+diethyl carbonate)-lithium perchlorate gel polymer electrolyte system has been irradiated with 70-MeV C 5+ -ion beam of nine different fluences. Swift heavy-ion irradiation shows enhancement in ionic conductivity at lower fluences and decrease in ionic conductivity at higher fluences with respect to unirradiated gel polymer electrolyte films. Maximum room-temperature (303 K) ionic conductivity is found to be 2x10 -2 S/cm after irradiation with a fluence of 10 11 ions/cm 2 . This interesting result could be attributed to the fact that for a particular ion beam with a given energy, a higher fluence provides critical activation energy for cross linking and crystallization to occur, which results in the decrease in ionic conductivity. X-ray-diffraction results show decrease in the degree of crystallinity upon ion irradiation at low fluences (≤10 11 ions/cm 2 ) and increase in crystallinity at higher fluences (>10 11 ions/cm 2 ). Analysis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results suggests the bond breaking at a fluence of 5x10 9 ions/cm 2 and cross linking at a fluence of 10 12 ions/cm 2 and corroborate conductivity and x-ray-diffraction results. Scanning electron micrographs exhibit increased porosity of the polymer electrolyte after ion irradiation

  3. Rare earth oxide doping in oxide cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsen, Daniel den; Gaertner, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The effect on life performance and poisoning with O 2 by doping oxide cathodes with rare earth oxides and pseudo rare earth oxides, notably yttria, is qualitatively explained in terms of electrolysis of BaO during emission of electrons. Doped cathodes show less electrolysis and consume therefore less Ba during life: consequently, doped cathodes have a better life performance. However, the lower Ba-production makes doped cathodes more sensitive to oxygen poisoning. The experimentally found relation between conductivity and yttria concentration was the motive to propose a new model for the crystal imperfections in BaO. In this new imperfection model most Y 3+ -ions will combine with barium vacancies, therefore, the increase of the conductivity is modest and also the effect on the position of the Fermi level is modest. By assuming a combination of bulk and surface conductivity, the agreement between experiment and theory can be improved further

  4. Self-assembly of metal–organic frameworks and graphene oxide as precursors for lithium-ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xia [Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Liu, Linlin [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) (Hong Kong); Yuan, Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Lee, Chun-Sing, E-mail: apcslee@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) (Hong Kong)

    2016-10-15

    We fabricated composites of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide as lithium-ion batteries anode material with controlled structures by employing self-assembly of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and polymer-functionalized graphene oxide as precursors. By electrostatic interaction, the negatively charged MOFs, Prussian Blue (PB), are assembled on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized graphene oxide (positive charge). Then the PB cubes become FeOOH nanosheets when treated with sodium hydroxide. Upon further annealing, the FeOOH nanosheets transform to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles while the graphene oxide become reduced graphene oxide simultaneously. It was found that the composites have good performance as anode of lithium-ion battery. This work shows a new way for self-assembling MOFs and 2D materials.

  5. Comparison of the air oxidation behaviors of Zircaloy-4 implanted with yttrium and cerium ions at 500 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.W.; Bai, X.D.; Xu, J.; Zhou, Q.G.; Chen, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    As a valuable process for surface modification of materials, ion implantation is eminent to improve mechanical properties, electrochemical corrosion resistance and oxidation behaviors of varieties of materials. To investigate and compare the oxidation behaviors of Zircaloy-4, implantation of yttrium ion and cerium ion were respectively employed by using an MEVVA source at the energy of 40 keV with a dose ranging from 1x10 16 to 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 . Subsequently, weight gain curves of the different specimens including as-received Zircaloy-4 and Zircaloy-4 specimens implanted with the different ions were measured after oxidation in air at 500 deg. C for 100 min. It was obviously found that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behaviors of implanted Zircaloy-4 compared with that of the as-received Zircaloy-4, and the oxidation behavior of cerium-implanted Zircaloy-4 was somewhat better than that of yttrium-implanted specimen. To obtain the valence and the composition of the oxides in the scale, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used in the present study. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction, employed to analyze the phase transformation in the oxide films, showed that the addition of yttrium transformed the phase from monoclinic zirconia to tetragonal zirconia, yet the addition of cerium transformed the phase from monoclinic zirconia to hexagonal zirconia. In the end, the mechanism of the improvement of the oxidation behavior was discussed

  6. The effect of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of vacuum plasma sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Jie [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhao Huayu; Zhou Xiaming [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Tao Shunyan, E-mail: shunyantao@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ding Chuanxian [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Institute of Ceramic, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used ion implantation to improve the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coating at 1100 Degree-Sign C for 1000 h was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Nb ion implanted coating exhibited better oxidation resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influences of Nb and Al ion implantation into CoNiCrAlY coatings were evaluated. - Abstract: CoNiCrAlY coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) were implanted with Nb and Al ions at a fluence of 10{sup 17} atoms/cm{sup 2}. The effects of ion implantation on the oxidation resistance of CoNiCrAlY coatings were investigated. The thermally grown oxide (TGO) formed on each specimen was characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS, respectively. The results showed that the oxidation process of CoNiCrAlY coatings could be divided into four stages and the key to obtaining good oxidation resistance was to remain high enough amount of Al and promote the lateral growth of TGO. The implantation of Nb resulted in the formation of continuous and dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale to improve the oxidation resistance. The Al implanted coating could form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at the initial stage, however, the scale was soon broken and TGO transformed to non-protective spinel.

  7. High energy (MeV) ion-irradiated π-conjugated polyaniline: Transition from insulating state to carbonized conducting state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.K.; Lee, S.Y.; Lee, C.S.; Kim, H.M.; Joo, J.; Beag, Y.W.; Koh, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (MeV) C 2+ , F 2+ , and Cl 2+ ions were irradiated onto π-conjugated polyaniline emeraldine base (PAN-EB) samples. The energy of an ion beam was controlled to a range of 3-4.5 MeV, with the ion dosage varying from 1x10 12 to 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . The highest dc conductivity (σ dc ) at room temperature was measured to be ∼60 S/cm for 4.5 MeV Cl 2+ ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples with a dose of 1x10 16 ions/cm 2 . We observed the transition of high energy ion-irradiated PAN-EB samples from insulating state to conducting state as a function of ion dosage based on σ dc and its temperature dependence. The characteristic peaks of the Raman spectrum of the PAN-EB samples were reduced, while the D-peak (disordered peak) and the G peak (graphitic peak) appeared as the ion dose increased. From the analysis of the D and G peaks of the Raman spectra of the systems compared to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ion-irradiated graphites, and annealed carbon films, the number of the clusters of hexagon rings with conducting sp 2 -bonded carbons increased with ion dosage. We also observed the increase in the size of the nanocrystalline graphitic domain of the systems with increasing ion dosage. The intensity of normalized electron paramagnelic resonance signal also increased in correlation with ion dose. The results of this study demonstrate that π-conjugated pristine PAN-EB systems changed from insulating state to carbonized conducting state through high energy ion irradiation with high ion dosage

  8. Electrically Conductive, Corrosion-Resistant Coatings Through Defect Chemistry for Metallic Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of this work was to develop oxidation protective coatings for metallic interconnect based on a defect chemistry approach. It was reasoned that the effectiveness of a coating is dictated by oxygen permeation kinetics; the slower the permeation kinetics, the better the protection. All protective coating materials investigated to date are either perovskites or spinels containing metals exhibiting multiple valence states (Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, etc.). As a result, all of these oxides exhibit a reasonable level of electronic conductivity; typically at least about ∼0.05 S/cm at 800 C. For a 5 micron coating, this equates to a maximum ∼0.025 (Omega)cm 2 area specific resistance due to the coating. This suggests that the coating should be based on oxygen ion conductivity (the lower the better) and not on electronic conductivity. Measurements of ionic conductivity of prospective coating materials were conducted using Hebb-Wagner method. It was demonstrated that special precautions need to be taken to measure oxygen ion conductivity in these materials with very low oxygen vacancy concentration. A model for oxidation under a protective coating is presented. Defect chemistry based approach was developed such that by suitably doping, oxygen vacancy concentration was suppressed, thus suppressing oxygen ion transport and increasing effectiveness of the coating. For the cathode side, the best coating material identified was LaMnO 3 with Ti dopant on the Mn site (LTM). It was observed that LTM is more than 20 times as effective as Mn-containing spinels. On the anode side, LaCrO3 doped with Nb on the Cr site (LNC) was the material identified. Extensive oxidation kinetics studies were conducted on metallic alloy foils with coating ∼1 micron in thickness. From these studies, it was projected that a 5 micron coating would be sufficient to ensure 40,000 h life

  9. The Preparation and Property of Graphene /Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene doped tin oxide composites were prepared with SnCIZ·2HZ 0 and graphene oxide as raw materials with sol-gel method and then spincoated on the quartz glass to manufacture a new transparent conductive film. The composite film was characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRDand scanning electron microscopy(SEM analysis. XRD results show that the graphene oxide was successfully prepared with Hummers method. The graphene layers and particulate SnOZ can be clearly observed in SEM photos. The transmittance and conductivity of the thin films were tested with ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The results show that the transmittivity of composite film in visible region is more than 90% and surface square resistance is 41 S2/口.The graphene/ SnOZ film exhibits a higher performance in transparence and conductivity than commercial FTO glass.

  10. Formation of conductive and reflective silver nanolayers on plastic films via ion doping and solid–liquid interfacial reduction at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Guanghui; Wu, Dezhen; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhanpeng

    2013-01-01

    Conductive and reflective silver layers on both sides of polyimide films have been prepared by doping silver–ammonia ions into the surfaces of polyimide film, and subsequent solid–liquid interfacial reduction, during which double diffusion of silver ions and newly formed silver crystals occurred between the interfaces of polyimide films and the aqueous reducing surroundings. The newly formed silver nanoparticles could migrate and aggregate onto both sides of substrate films, forming continuous and compact silver layers that result in excellent conductivity, i.e. ∼0.6 and 0.5 Ω/sq on the upside and downside surfaces, respectively. The surface reflectivity could be detected up to 80% on the downside and 90% on the upside surface as well. The effects of the silver contents and reducing conditions on the morphologies and properties have been investigated comprehensively, and the two-side properties differences were discussed. A convictive relationship between the morphologies and properties has been established, providing reliable and general guidance in terms of preparation of inorganic nanoparticles on plastic substrates. This novel and simple strategy can be extended to fabricate many other metal, metal oxide and metal sulfide nanoparticles on plastic substrates, using proper oxidants or sulfions to replace the diverse reductants. The films were characterized by inductively coupled plasma, contact angle measurement, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, four-point probe instrument and ultraviolet spectrophotometry

  11. A dendrite-suppressing composite ion conductor from aramid nanofibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Siu-On; Ho, Szushen; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Ruilin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-01-27

    Dendrite growth threatens the safety of batteries by piercing the ion-transporting separators between the cathode and anode. Finding a dendrite-suppressing material that combines high modulus and high ionic conductance has long been considered a major technological and materials science challenge. Here we demonstrate that these properties can be attained in a composite made from Kevlar-derived aramid nanofibres assembled in a layer-by-layer manner with poly(ethylene oxide). Importantly, the porosity of the membranes is smaller than the growth area of the dendrites so that aramid nanofibres eliminate 'weak links' where the dendrites pierce the membranes. The aramid nanofibre network suppresses poly(ethylene oxide) crystallization detrimental for ion transport, giving a composite that exhibits high modulus, ionic conductivity, flexibility, ion flux rates and thermal stability. Successful suppression of hard copper dendrites by the composite ion conductor at extreme discharge conditions is demonstrated, thereby providing a new approach for the materials engineering of solid ion conductors.

  12. Charge-transfer spectra of tetravalent lanthanide ions in oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefdraad, H.E.

    The charge-transfer spectra of Ce4+, Pr4+ and Tb4+ in a number of oxides are reported. It is noted that the position of the first charge-transfer band is fixed for the metal ion in an oxygen coordination of VI, but varies in VIII coordination as a function of the host lattice. It is argued that this

  13. Facile synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opra, Denis P.; Gnedenkov, Sergey V.; Sokolov, Alexander A.; Minaev, Alexander N.; Kuryavyi, Valery G.; Sinebryukhov, Sergey L.

    2017-09-01

    At all times, energy storage is one of the greatest scientific challenge. Recently, Li-ion batteries are under special attention due to high working voltage, long cycle life, low self-discharge, reliability, no-memory effect. However, commercial LIBs usage in medium- and large-scale energy storage are limited by the capacity of lithiated metal oxide cathode and unsafety of graphite anode at high-rate charge. In this way, new electrode materials with higher electrochemical performance should be designed to satisfy a requirement in both energy and power. As it known, nanostructured transition metal oxides are promising electrode materials because of their elevated specific capacity and high potential vs. Li/Li+. In this work, the perspective of an original facile technique of pulsed high-voltage plasma discharge in synthesis of nanostructured transition metal oxides as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries has been demonstrated.

  14. Ion conductivities of ZrF4-BaF2-CsF glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yoji; Nohara, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The glass-forming region in the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glass system has been determined and the ac conductivity and the transport number of fluoride ions have been measured. The conductivities of compounds β-Cs 2 ZrF 6 , α-SrZrF 6 , α-BaZrF 6 , β-BaZrF 6 and α-PbZrF 6 have also been measured. These results and a previous study of ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -MF n (M: the groups I-IV metals) glasses revealed the following: (1) the ZrF 4 -BaF 2 -CsF glasses are exclusively fluoride-ion conductors; (2) the ionic conductivities of ZrF 4 -based glasses are predominantly determined by the activation energies for conduction; (3) the activation energy for conduction decreases with an increase in the average polarizability of glass-constituting cations; (4) a decrease in average Zr-F bond length and a lowering of the average F coordination number of Zr are presumed to increase the activation energy for conduction. Principles of developing ZrF 4 -based glasses with higher conductivities have also been proposed. (Auth.)

  15. A high performance cathode for proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhiquan; Yang, Wenqiang; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Bi, Lei; Wang, Zhenbin; Peng, Ranran; Xia, Changrong; Liu, Wei; Lu, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    . In the intermediate temperature range (500-700°C), SOFCs based on proton conducting electrolytes (PSOFCs) display unique advantages over those based on oxygen ion conducting electrolytes. A key obstacle to the practical operation of past P-SOFCs is the poor stability

  16. Ion beam analysis of PECVD silicon oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lima, F.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Pedrero, E.; Fonseca Filho, H.D.; Llovera, A.; Riera, M.; Dominguez, C.; Behar, M.; Zawislak, F.C.

    2006-01-01

    A study of ion beam analysis techniques of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) silicon oxide thin films (1 μm thick) obtained from silane (SiH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is reported. The film, elemental composition and surface morphology were determined as function of the reactant gas flow ratio, R = [N 2 O]/[SiH 4 ] in the 22-110 range using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis and atomic force microscopy techniques. The density of the films was determined by combining the RBS and thickness measurements. All the experiments were done at a deposition temperature of 300 deg. C. In all the cases almost stoichiometric oxides were obtained being the impurity content function of R. It was also observed that physical properties such as density, surface roughness and shape factor increase with R in the studied interval

  17. Low temperature solid oxide electrolytes (LT-SOE): A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Ghosh, S.; Aich, S.; Roy, B.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LT-SOFC) can be a source of power for vehicles, online grid, and at the same time reduce system cost, offer high reliability, and fast start-up. A huge amount of research work, as evident from the literature has been conducted for the enhancement of the ionic conductivity of LT electrolytes in the last few years. The basic conduction mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of different LT oxide ion conducting electrolytes {BIMEVOX systems, bilayer systems including doped cerium oxide/stabilised bismuth oxide and YSZ/DCO}, mixed ion conducting electrolytes {doped cerium oxides/alkali metal carbonate composites}, and proton conducting electrolytes {doped and undoped BaCeO3, BaZrO3, etc.} are discussed here based on the recent research articles. Effect of various material aspects (composition, doping, layer thickness, etc.), fabrication methods (to achieve different microstructures and particle size), design related strategies (interlayer, sintering aid etc.), characterization temperature & environment on the conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the fuel cells made from these electrolytes are shown in tabular form and discussed. The conductivity of the electrolytes and performance of the corresponding fuel cells are compared. Other applications of the electrolytes are mentioned. A few considerations regarding the future prospects are pointed.

  18. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  19. Mechanisms of electrical conductivity in olivine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R.N.; Duba, A.G.; Shankland, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the electrical conductivity and the thermoelectric effect in single crystals indicate that the charge conduction mechanism in pure magnesium forsterite is electrons. The concentration of electrons can be varied by controlling the number of oxygen vacancies through manipulation of the oxygen pressure. For iron bearing olivine, the conduction mechanism is by electron holes localized on an iron ion. Since iron strongly affects the creep process as well, oxidation of iron is probably accompanied by the production of magnesium vacancies. 15 references

  20. A Universal Strategy for Hollow Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Encapsulated into B/N Co-Doped Graphitic Nanotubes as High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Hassina; Zou, Ruqiang; Mahmood, Asif; Liang, Zibin; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Song; Qu, Chong; Guo, Wenhan; Guo, Shaojun

    2018-02-01

    Yolk-shell nanostructures have received great attention for boosting the performance of lithium-ion batteries because of their obvious advantages in solving the problems associated with large volume change, low conductivity, and short diffusion path for Li + ion transport. A universal strategy for making hollow transition metal oxide (TMO) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated into B, N co-doped graphitic nanotubes (TMO@BNG (TMO = CoO, Ni 2 O 3 , Mn 3 O 4 ) through combining pyrolysis with an oxidation method is reported herein. The as-made TMO@BNG exhibits the TMO-dependent lithium-ion storage ability, in which CoO@BNG nanotubes exhibit highest lithium-ion storage capacity of 1554 mA h g -1 at the current density of 96 mA g -1 , good rate ability (410 mA h g -1 at 1.75 A g -1 ), and high stability (almost 96% storage capacity retention after 480 cycles). The present work highlights the importance of introducing hollow TMO NPs with thin wall into BNG with large surface area for boosting LIBs in the terms of storage capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Effects of metal ions on growth, β-oxidation system, and thioesterase activity of Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Ma, Ying

    2014-10-01

    The effects of divalent metal ions (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), and Cu(2+)) on the growth, β-oxidation system, and thioesterase activity of Lactococcus lactis were investigated. Different metal ions significantly influenced the growth of L. lactis: Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) accelerated growth, whereas Cu(2+) inhibited growth. Furthermore, Mg(2+) inhibited growth of L. lactis at a low concentration but stimulated growth of L. lactis at a high concentration. The divalent metal ions had significant effects on activity of the 4 key enzymes of the β-oxidation system (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and thiolase) and thioesterase of L. lactis. The activity of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases increased markedly in the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), whereas it decreased with 1 mmol/L Fe(2+) or 12 mmol/L Mg(2+). All the metal ions could induce activity of enoyl-CoA hydratase. In addition, 12 mmol/L Mg(2+) significantly stimulated activity of L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and all metal ions could induce activity of thiolase, although thiolase activity decreased significantly when 0.05 mmol/L Cu(2+) was added into M17 broth. Inhibition of thioesterase activity by all 4 metal ions could be reversed by 2 mmol/L Ca(2+). These results help us understand the effect of metal ions on the β-oxidation system and thioesterase activity of Lactococcus lactis. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxide/n-Type Semiconductor Heterojunctions for Efficient and Stable Solar Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Le; Yang, Jinhui; Klaus, Shannon; Lee, Lyman J; Woods-Robinson, Rachel; Ma, Jie; Lum, Yanwei; Cooper, Jason K; Toma, Francesca M; Wang, Lin-Wang; Sharp, Ian D; Bell, Alexis T; Ager, Joel W

    2015-08-05

    Achieving stable operation of photoanodes used as components of solar water splitting devices is critical to realizing the promise of this renewable energy technology. It is shown that p-type transparent conducting oxides (p-TCOs) can function both as a selective hole contact and corrosion protection layer for photoanodes used in light-driven water oxidation. Using NiCo2O4 as the p-TCO and n-type Si as a prototypical light absorber, a rectifying heterojunction capable of light driven water oxidation was created. By placing the charge separating junction in the Si using a np(+) structure and by incorporating a highly active heterogeneous Ni-Fe oxygen evolution catalyst, efficient light-driven water oxidation can be achieved. In this structure, oxygen evolution under AM1.5G illumination occurs at 0.95 V vs RHE, and the current density at the reversible potential for water oxidation (1.23 V vs RHE) is >25 mA cm(-2). Stable operation was confirmed by observing a constant current density over 72 h and by sensitive measurements of corrosion products in the electrolyte. In situ Raman spectroscopy was employed to investigate structural transformation of NiCo2O4 during electrochemical oxidation. The interface between the light absorber and p-TCO is crucial to produce selective hole conduction to the surface under illumination. For example, annealing to produce more crystalline NiCo2O4 produces only small changes in its hole conductivity, while a thicker SiOx layer is formed at the n-Si/p-NiCo2O4 interface, greatly reducing the PEC performance. The generality of the p-TCO protection approach is demonstrated by multihour, stable, water oxidation with n-InP/p-NiCo2O4 heterojunction photoanodes.

  3. The stopping power and energy straggling of light ions in graphene oxide foils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšová, Romana; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Sofer, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 406, SEP (2017), s. 173-178 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GA16-05167S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion energy loss * ion energy straggling * graphene oxide Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  4. Nanoporous titanium niobium oxide and titanium tantalum oxide compositions and their use in anodes of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Guo, Bingkun; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Qiao, Zhenan

    2017-10-31

    Nanoporous metal oxide framework compositions useful as anodic materials in a lithium ion battery, the composition comprising metal oxide nanocrystals interconnected in a nanoporous framework and having interconnected channels, wherein the metal in said metal oxide comprises titanium and at least one metal selected from niobium and tantalum, e.g., TiNb.sub.2-x Ta.sub.xO.sub.y (wherein x is a value from 0 to 2, and y is a value from 7 to 10) and Ti.sub.2Nb.sub.10-vTa.sub.vO.sub.w (wherein v is a value from 0 to 2, and w is a value from 27 to 29). A novel sol gel method is also described in which sol gel reactive precursors are combined with a templating agent under sol gel reaction conditions to produce a hybrid precursor, and the precursor calcined to form the anodic composition. The invention is also directed to lithium ion batteries in which the nanoporous framework material is incorporated in an anode of the battery.

  5. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-05-16

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  6. Electronically conductive perovskite-based oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Schultz, Andrew M

    2015-04-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide has a perovskite-based crystal structure and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide has an empirical formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta., where A is at least a first element at the A-site, B is at least a second element at the B-site, and where 0.8perovskite-based oxides include but are not limited to La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCoO.sub.3, La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xMnO.sub.3, LaCrO.sub.3, LaNiO.sub.3, La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xMn.sub.1-yCr.sub.yO.sub.3, SrFeO.sub.3, SrVO.sub.3, La-doped SrTiO.sub.3, Nb-doped SrTiO.sub.3, and SrTiO.sub.3-.delta..

  7. Synthesis of oxide-free aluminum nanoparticles for application to conductive film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong Lee, Yung; Lee, Changsoo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2018-02-01

    Aluminum nanoparticles are considered promising as alternatives to conventional ink materials, replacing silver and copper nanoparticles, due to their extremely low cost and low melting temperature. However, a serious obstacle to realizing their use as conductive ink materials is the oxidation of aluminum. In this research, we synthesized the oxide-free aluminum nanoparticles using catalytic decomposition and an oleic acid coating method, and these materials were applied to conductive ink for the first time. The injection time of oleic acid determines the size of the aluminum nanoparticles by forming a self-assembled monolayer on the nanoparticles instead of allowing the formation of an oxide phase. Fabricated nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify their structural and chemical composition. In addition, conductive inks made of these nanoparticles exhibit electrical properties when they are sintered at over 300 °C in a reducing atmosphere. This result shows that aluminum nanoparticles can be used as an alternative conductive material in printed electronics and can solve the cost issues associated with noble metals.

  8. Electrochemistry of carbonaceous materials; 1. Oxidation of Sardinian coal by Fe(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomat, R.; Salmaso, R.; Zecchin, S. (CNR-Instituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Padova (Italy))

    1992-04-01

    Oxidation of subbitiminous coal (Sulcis basin, Sardinia, Italy) by Fe(III) ions in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution was investigated over a wide temperature range (20-80{degree}C). Experimental results are in accord with a reaction scheme involving a reversible complex between coal particles and Fe(III) ions as a first step in the oxidation process. At low coal concentration, the reaction rate follows first-order kinetics in both coal and ferric ions (overall second order), while at sufficiently high coal concentration, the reaction rate is consistent with first-order kinetics in Fe(III) concentration, appearing to be independent of coal concentration. The kinetic results obtained give preliminary information on the advantageous use of the Fe(III)/slurried coal reaction system to depolarize the anodic compartment of an electrolysis cell, for the production of H{sub 2}. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiOx resistive random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehonic, Adnan; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J.; Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G 0 , is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices

  10. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiOx resistive random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehonic, Adnan; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David; Kenyon, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G0, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  11. A computational study of adsorption of divalent metal ions on graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somphob Thompho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of divalent metal ions (Pb2+,Cd2+, Zn2+,Cu2+ on graphene oxide (GO was studied using density functional theory (DFT. Adsorption geometries and energies, as well as the nature of the binding energy, were calculated for the interaction of divalent metal ions with oxygen-containing groups on the surface of GO. The configurations of the complexes were modeled by placing the divalent metal ions above the center and perpendicular to the surface. Binding of Cu2+ to the GO sheet was predicted to be much stronger than that for other divalent metal ions. Calculated results show good agreement with experimental observations and provide useful information for environmental pollution cleanup.

  12. Synthesis of rock-salt type lithium borohydride and its peculiar Li+ ion conduction properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miyazaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The high energy density and excellent cycle performance of lithium ion batteries makes them superior to all other secondary batteries and explains why they are widely used in portable devices. However, because organic liquid electrolytes have a higher operating voltage than aqueous solution, they are used in lithium ion batteries. This comes with the risk of fire due to their flammability. Solid electrolytes are being investigated to find an alternative to organic liquid. However, the nature of the solid-solid point contact at the interface between the electrolyte and electrode or between the electrolyte grains is such that high power density has proven difficult to attain. We develop a new method for the fabrication of a solid electrolyte using LiBH4, known for its super Li+ ion conduction without any grain boundary contribution. The modifications to the conduction pathway achieved by stabilizing the high pressure form of this material provided a new structure with some LiBH4, more suitable to the high rate condition. We synthesized the H.P. form of LiBH4 under ambient pressure by doping LiBH4 with the KI lattice by sintering. The formation of a KI - LiBH4 solid solution was confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically. The obtained sample was shown to be a pure Li+ conductor despite its small Li+ content. This conduction mechanism, where the light doping cation played a major role in ion conduction, was termed the “Parasitic Conduction Mechanism.” This mechanism made it possible to synthesize a new ion conductor and is expected to have enormous potential in the search for new battery materials.

  13. Interstitial pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of some rare earth oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, P.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal transport properties of powdered materials depend upon interstitial gas pressure. The present study reports the experimental results for the effective thermal conductivity of three rare earth oxide powders viz. yttrium oxide, samarium oxide, and gadolinium oxide, at various interstitial pressures by using transient plane source (TPS) method. A theoretical model is also proposed for the interpretation of the variation of the effective thermal conductivity with interstitial gas pressure. Its validity is found to be good in low pressure range of 45 mm Hg to normal pressure when compared with the experimental results. Also an attempt has been made to calculate the variation of thermal conductivity with interstitial pressure in the high pressure range up to 2 kbar using the proposed model. (author)

  14. “Double-Sandwich-Like” CuS@reduced graphene oxide as an Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yurong; Wei, Hengma; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jiawei; Ding, Jianning

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: CuS@reduced graphene oxide displays excellent electrochemical behavior as an anode material for Lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: The CuS@reduced graphene oxide (CSG) was synthesized and used as an anode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). CuS nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets via a hydrothermal method. The rGO nanosheets in the CSG hydrids can improve the electrical conductivity and structure stability of CSG. The LIB with a CSG anode displays excellent performance, with a first discharge capacity up to 851 mAh/g, a reversible capacity of 648.1 mAh/g in the initial cycle, and an enhanced cyclic performance with a discharge capacity of 710.7 mAh/g at the 100 th cycle, which corresponds to 114.3% of the theoretical value of CSG and 83.5% of the first discharge capacity accompanied by an excellent Coulombic efficiency of 99.1% at a current density of 0.2 C, which is much larger than (close to 4.5 times) that with a pure CuS anode at the 100 th cycle (159.7 mAh/g). This phenomenon can be attributed to the synergistic action of CuS nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets in the “double-sandwich-like” CSG hybrids. These results indicate that CSG is an excellent anode material and has promising prospects in lithium ion batteries applications

  15. Sinterability and conductivity of barium doped aluminium lanthanum oxyapatite La{sub 9.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.5} electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xiaoguo [Faculty of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Jiang Sanping, E-mail: s.jiang@curtin.edu.au [Fuels and Energy Technology Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102 (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba doping enhances the sintering and densification properties of aluminium lanthanum apatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ba doping improves the oxide conductivity of aluminium lanthanum apatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhancement of Ba doping is mainly due to the significantly reduced grain boundary resistance of the aluminium lanthanum apatite. - Abstract: Apatite ceramics are interesting alternative solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) electrolytes because of their open structure for the transportation of oxide ions and their good chemical stability. This study reports the influence of barium doping on the microstructure, sinterability and oxide conductivity properties of the aluminium lanthanum oxyapatite La{sub 9.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.5}. SEM results show that lanthanum substitution with barium improves the sinterability of apatite ceramics. The barium doping also enhances the conductivity of the aluminium lanthanum silicates. The oxygen ion conductivity of La{sub 9.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.5} sintered at 1600 Degree-Sign C is 2.21 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 800 Degree-Sign C, higher than 9.81 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} of La{sub 10}Si{sub 5}AlO{sub 26.5} sample prepared under the same conditions. The results in the present study demonstrate that doping Ba on the La site for aluminium lanthanum oxyapatite reduces the sintering temperature and improves the ion conductivity. The enhancement of Ba dopant is mainly on the improvement of the densification and thus substantially reduced grain boundary resistance of aluminium lanthanum oxyapatite particularly at low temperatures.

  16. Micro-length anodic porous niobium oxide for lithium-ion thin film battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Jiyoung; Cha, Gihoon; Choi, Jinsub

    2013-01-01

    The anodization of niobium in an aqueous mixture of H 3 PO 4 and HF in the potential range from 2.5 to 30 V for 2 h at 5 °C was performed, demonstrating that anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of up to 2000 nm, including a surface dissolution layer, can be obtained by controlling the applied potential and composition of the electrolytes. Specifically, surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 800 nm can be prepared in a low electrolyte concentration. The surface dissolution is observed when the concentration ratio of HF (wt.%):H 3 PO 4 (M) was more than 2:1. The discontinuous layers in the niobium oxide film were observed when the thickness was higher than 500 nm, which was ascribed to the large volume expansion of the niobium oxide grown from the niobium metal. The anodic porous niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries in the potential range from 1.2 to 3.0 V at a current density of 7.28 × 10 − 6 A cm −2 . The first discharge capacity of ca. 53 μA h cm − 2 was obtained in 800 nm thick niobium oxide without a surface dissolution layer. - Highlights: ► Anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 2000 nm was obtained. ► Surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film was prepared. ► The niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries

  17. Electrospinning of Ceramic Solid Electrolyte Nanowires for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Enhanced Ionic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting

    Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics electrolytes such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) and lithium lanthanum zirconate (LLZO). Pellets made from ceramic nanopowders using conventional sintering can be porous due to the agglomeration of nanoparticles (NPs). Electrospinning is a simple and versatile technique for preparing oxide ceramic nanowires (NWs) and was used to prepare electrospun LLTO and LLZO NWs. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO NWs had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with conventional sol-gel methods, which demonstrated the potential that electrospinning can provide towards improving the properties of sol-gel derived ceramics. Cubic phase LLZO was stabilized at room temperature in the form of electrospun NWs without extrinsic dopants. Bulk LLZO with tetragonal structure was transformed to the cubic phase using particle size reduction via ball milling. Heating conditions that promoted particle coalescence and grain growth induced a transformation from the cubic to tetragonal phase in both types of nanostructured LLZO. Composite polymer solid electrolyte was fabricated using LLZO NWs as the filler and showed an improved ionic conductivity at room temperature. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies show that LLZO NWs partially modify the polymer matrix and create preferential pathways for Li+ conduction through the modified polymer regions. Doping did not have significant effect on improving the overall conductivity as the interfaces played a predominant role. By comparing fillers with different morphologies and intrinsic conductivities, it was found that both NW morphology and high intrinsic conductivity are desired.

  18. Modification of oxide films by ion implantation: TiO2-films modified by Ti+ and O+ as example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.W.; Elfenthal, L.; Leitner, K.; Meyer, O.

    1988-01-01

    Oxide films can be modified by ion implantation. Changes in the electrochemical properties of the films are due to the deposition profile of the implanted ion, ie doping and stoichiometric changes, as well as to the radiation damage. The latter is due to the formation of Frenkel defects and at high concentrations to a complete amorphization of the oxide film. TiOsub(x)-films with 1 + - and O + -ions into anodic oxide films on titanium. The electrode capacity shows always the behaviour of an n-type semiconductor with an almost constant flatband potential but a strong maximum donor concentration at about 3% Ti + concentration. Oxygen implantation, on the other hand, causes a small increase of donor concentration only at high concentration of O + . Electron transfer reactions show strong modifications of the electronic behaviour of the oxide film with a maximum again at 3% titanium. Photocurrent spectra prove the increasing amorphization and show interband states 2.6 eV above the VB or below the CB. During repassivation measurements at various potentials different defects formed by Ti + - and O + -implantation become mobile. A tentative model of the band structure is constructed which takes into account the interband states due to localised Ti + - and O + -ions. The modification of ion implanted oxide films is compared with the effects of other preparation techniques. (author)

  19. Evaluation of covalency of ions in lead-free perovskite-type dielectric oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa Takesue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic states of ions in lead-free perovskite-type dielectric oxides have been investigated with a first-principle cluster calculation. For this calculation a double-perovskite cluster model based upon the simple cubic ABO3 was used; A and B are both the cations, and O is the oxygen anion. Systematic variations of ionic species for A and B, and lengths of the model cube edge were given to the model. Results of charge transfers of the ions show that their magnitudes depend on the edge length; the lager length leads to the higher transfer magnitude. This tendency implies spatial tolerance of the ions to the clusters, and are expected to correlate with electric polarizability and dipole reversibility of this kind of oxides. The density of states and the overlap population indicate that the higher cation valence causes the higher covalency of the anions. Considering all results together provides us an idea to obtain lead-free high-performance ferroelectrics, as high as the lead-based solid solutions.

  20. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Wuzong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO 2 displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO 2 hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co 3 O 4 possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  1. Effect of magnesium ions on the initial oxidation stages of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, H.; Subramanian, Veena; Rangarajan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2012-09-01

    Metal Ion Passivation (MIP) is a technique in which passivating ions get into the oxide of structural materials and modifies the oxide in such a way as to reduce the corrosion and corrosion release rates. Magnesium ions are found to be efficient in passivating carbon steel. This study is an attempt to understand the role of magnesium ions during the early stage of film growth on carbon steel. The study reveals that in the presence of Mg, the initial oxide film formed by the application of potential had a different electrochemical property. The microstructure of the parent alloy of steel also interacted differently with Mg during the film formation. The ferrite film was grown on carbon steel by applying 0.1 V (vs SCE) in borate buffer (pH=9, 85 deg. C). The formation and coverage of film on the surface was ascertained by measuring the steady state current density as a function of time. The steady state current density was achieved faster when Mg was present in the solution. The thin film formed was characterized by both by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The formation of a passive film (at 0.1 V vs SCE) was evident in both with and without Mg cases, with total impedance of the system increasing by an order of magnitude compared to the film formed at OCP (∼ - 0.825 V vs SCE). The data was fitted to an equivalent circuit representing a metal covered with a porous film. The fit parameters were significantly different for Mg containing system and the charge transfer resistance at oxide/solution interface was observed to be two times higher. The capacitance of the film was also higher in presence of Mg indicating a thinner film. The thin films on carbon steel were characterized by AFM in semi contact mode. The surfaces were found to be covered with fine oxide. Two morphologically different regions could be identified on the surface and they were assigned as pearlite and ferrite regions. One of the most notable observations was the

  2. Mixed mobile ion effect on a.c. conductivity of boroarsenate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we report the study of mixed mobile ion effect (MMIE) in boroarsenate glasses. DSC and a.c. electrical conductivity studies have been carried out for MgO–(25−)Li2O–50B2O3–25As2O3 glasses. It is observed that strength of MMIE in a.c. conductivity is less pronounced with increase in temperature and ...

  3. Adsorption of lithium ion to amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hideo; Kitamura, Takao; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku

    1982-01-01

    Adsorption process of lithium ion to amorphous hydrous aluminium oxide (a-HAO) was investigated by pH titration method with lithium chloride-lithium hydroxide mixed solution and X-ray diffraction analysis of a-HAO after pH titration. In the pH titration, the addition of hydroxide ion in amount from 0 to 4.0 mmol.g -1 gave no change to the pH of the solution and caused adsorption of lithium ion equivalent in amount to added hydroxide ion. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of lithium hydrogenaluminate LiH (AlO 2 ) 2 .5H 2 O (LHA) in the a-HAO after pH titration. These results showed that adsorption of lithium ion by a-HAO was related to a reaction which consumed hydroxide ion and formed LHA. In order to elucidate detail process of the reaction, changes of pH, aluminium concentration and lithium concentration of the solution, respectively with time, were determined. The pH of the solution decreased in two stages. At the first stage of the pH decrease, the aluminium concentration increased whereas the lithium concentration did not change. At the second stage, the lithium concentration decreased together with the decrease of the aluminium concentration. It was inferred that adsorption of lithium ion proceeded through dissolution of a-HAO and precipitation of LHA. Theoretical adsorption capacity calculated from the above formula for LHA and aluminium content in a-HAO was 4.7 mmol.g -1 and agreed fairly well with observed value 4.0 mmol.g -1 . (author)

  4. Physicochemical, spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of magnesium ion-conducting, room temperature, ternary molten electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, N. S. Venkata; Ashok Raj, B. V.; Sampath, S.

    Room temperature, magnesium ion-conducting molten electrolytes are prepared using a combination of acetamide, urea and magnesium triflate or magnesium perchlorate. The molten liquids show high ionic conductivity, of the order of mS cm -1 at 298 K. Vibrational spectroscopic studies based on triflate/perchlorate bands reveal that the free ion concentration is higher than that of ion-pairs and aggregates in the melt. Electrochemical reversibility of magnesium deposition and dissolution is demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry and impedance studies. The transport number of Mg 2+ ion determined by means of a combination of d.c. and a.c. techniques is ∼0.40. Preliminary studies on the battery characteristics reveal good capacity for the magnesium rechargeable cell and open up the possibility of using this unique class of acetamide-based room temperature molten electrolytes in secondary magnesium batteries.

  5. Ion conductivity of nasicon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoj, J.W.; Engell, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Nasicon ss ,Na 1 + X Zr 2 Si X P 3 - X O 12 o , X , 3, includes some of the best solid state sodium conductors known today. Compositions in the interval 1.6 , X , 2.6 show conductivities comparable to the best β double-prime-alumina ceramics. It is well known that the ion conductivity of β-alumina is strongly dependent on the texture of the ceramic. Here a similar behavior is reported for Nasicon ceramics. Ceramics of the bulk composition Na 2.94 Zr 1.49 Si 2.20 P 0.80 O 10.85 were prepared by a gel method. The final ceramics consist of Nasicon crystals with x = 2.14 and a glass phase. The grain size and texture of the ceramics were controlled by varying the thermal history of the gel based raw materials and the sintering conditions. The room temperature resistivity of the resulting ceramics varies from 3.65*10 3 ohm cm to 1.23*10 3 ohm cm. Using the temperature comparison method and estimates of the area of grain boundaries in the ceramics, the resistivity of the Nasicon phase is estimated to be 225 ohm cm at 25 degrees C. B 2 O 3 - or Al 2 O 3 -doping of the glass bearing Nasicon ceramic lower the room temperature resistivity by a factor 2 to 5. The dopants do not substitute into the Nasicon phase in substantial amounts

  6. Self-assembly silicon/porous reduced graphene oxide composite film as a binder-free and flexible anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Xiong, Q.Q.; Cheng, J.D.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    A Si/porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite film synthesized by evaporation and leavening method are developed as a high-performance anode material for lithium ion batteries. The porous structure as buffer base can effectively release the volume expansion of the silicon particles, increase the electrical conductivity and reduce the transfer resistance of Li ions. The Si/porous rGO composite film presents high specific capacity and good cycling stability (1261 mA h g −1 at 50 mA g −1 up to 70 cycles), as well as enhanced rate capability. This approach to prepare such a unique structure is a low-cost and facile route for the silicon-based anode materials

  7. Polyrhodanine modified anodic aluminum oxide membrane for heavy metal ions removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jooyoung; Oh, Hyuntaek; Kong, Hyeyoung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2011-03-15

    Polyrhodanine was immobilized onto the inner surface of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane via vapor deposition polymerization method. The polyrhodanine modified membrane was applied to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution because polyrhodanine could be coordinated with specific metal ions. Several parameters such as initial metal concentration, contact time and metal species were evaluated systematically for uptake efficiencies of the fabricated membrane under continuous flow condition. Adsorption isotherms of Hg(II) ion on the AAO-polyrhodanine membrane were analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption rate of Hg(II) ion on the membrane was obeyed by a pseudo-second order equation, indicating the chemical adsorption. The maximum removal capacity of Hg(II) ion onto the fabricated membrane was measured to be 4.2 mmol/g polymer. The AAO-polyrhodanine membrane had also remarkable uptake performance toward Ag(I) and Pb(II) ions. Furthermore, the polyrhodanine modified membrane could be recycled after recovery process. These results demonstrated that the polyrhodanine modified AAO membrane provided potential applications for removing the hazardous heavy metal ions from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy landscapes for mobile ions in ion conducting solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    molecular dynamics (MD) simulations yields quantitative predictions of the ion transport characteristics. As ... Solid electrolytes; bond valence analysis; ion transport in glasses. 1. .... clusters are considered to contribute only to a.c. conduc-.

  9. Ion-conduction mechanisms in NaSICON-type membranes for energy storage and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ihlefeld, Jon F. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bartelt, Norman Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Next generation metal-ion conducting membranes are key to developing energy storage and utilization technologies like batteries and fuel ce lls. Sodium super-ionic conductors (aka NaSICON) are a class of compounds with AM 1 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 stoichiometry where the choice of "A" and "M" cation varies widely. This report, which de scribes substitutional derivatives of NZP (NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 ), summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory D irected Research and Development (LDRD) project to analyze transport mec hanisms using a combination of in situ studies of structure, composition, and bonding, com bined with first principles theory and modeling. We developed an experimental platform and applied methods, such as synchrotron- based X-ray spectroscopies, to probe the electronic structure of compositionally well-controlled NaSICON films while in operation ( i.e ., conducting Na ions exposed to oxygen or water va por atmospheres). First principles theory and modeling were used to interpret the experimental observations and develop an enhanced understanding of atomistic processes that give rise to, and affect, ion conduction.

  10. Oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ using in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takanori; Imai, Hideto

    2018-03-01

    The time changes of the white line and pre-edge intensities of Co and Fe K-edge in (Ba0.5Sr0.5)(Co0.8Fe0.2)O3-δ (BSCF) were observed to estimate the oxide ion diffusion related to Co and Fe ions by using in - situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during oxidation. The 20 μm self-standing BSCF film was prepared for in - situ XAS measurements. The time changes of absorption were fitted to the exponential decay function with two terms. The longer relaxation time (τ), related to the oxide ion diffusion during the oxidation of BSCF, is dependent on temperature. The oxide ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from the τ s estimated by in - situ XAS. The values of the activation energy (Ea) for D related to Co K-edge white line, Co pre-edge, and Fe pre-edge were 1.8-2.0 eV. The value of Ea for D related to Fe K-edge white line, however, was higher than other absorption values at approximately 2.3 eV. We discussed the oxide ion diffusion mechanism related to Co and Fe ions in BSCF using in - situ XAS.

  11. Non-noble metal graphene oxide-copper (II) ions hybrid electrodes for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Muralikrishna, S.; Ravishankar, T.N.; Ramakrishnappa, T.; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.; Krishna Pai, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    Non-noble metal and inexpensive graphene oxide-copper (II) ions (GO-Cu2+) hybrid catalysts have been explored for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We were able to tune the binding abilities of GO toward the Cu2+ ions and hence their catalytic

  12. Nanostructures and thin films of transparent conductive oxides studied by perturbed angular correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, M B; Redondo-Cubero, A; Miranda, S M C; Simon, R; Kessler, P; Brandt, M; Henneberger, F; Nogales, E; Méndez, B; Johnston, K; Alves, E; Vianden, R; Araújo, J P; Lorenz, K; Correia, J G

    2013-01-01

    The versatility of perturbed angular correlations (PAC) in the study of nanostructures and thin films is demonstrated, namely for the specific cases of ZnO/Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O thin films and Ga$_2$O$_3$ powder pellets and nanowires, examples of transparent conductive oxides. PAC measurements as a function of annealing temperature were performed after implantation of $^{111m}$Cd$/^{111}$Cd (T$_{1/2}$=48$\\,$min.) and later compared to density functional theory simulations. For ZnO, the substitution of Cd probes at Zn sites was observed, as well as the formation of a probe-defect complex. The ternary Cd$_x$Zn$_{1-x}$O (x=0.16) showed good macroscopic crystal quality but revealed some clustering of local defects around the probe Cd atoms, which could not be annealed. In the Ga$_2$O$_3$ samples, the substitution of the Cd probes in the octahedral Ga-site was observed, demonstrating the potential of ion-implantation for the doping of nanowires.

  13. Effects of solid fission products forming dissolved oxide (Nd) and metallic precipitate (Ru) on the thermal conductivity of uranium base oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Yang, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jong-Hun; Rhee, Young-Woo; Kang, Ki-Won; Kim, Keon-Sik; Song, Kun-Woo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of solid fission products on the thermal conductivity of uranium base oxide nuclear fuel were experimentally investigated. Neodymium (Nd) and ruthenium (Ru) were added to represent the physical states of solid fission products such as 'dissolved oxide' and 'metallic precipitate', respectively. Thermal conductivity was determined on the basis of the thermal diffusivity, density and specific heat values. The effects of the additives on the thermal conductivity were quantified in the form of the thermal resistivity equation - the reciprocal of the phonon conduction equation - which was determined from the measured data. It is concluded that the thermal conductivity of the irradiated nuclear fuel is affected by both the 'dissolved oxide' and the 'metallic precipitate', however, the effects are in the opposite direction and the 'dissolved oxide' influences the thermal conductivity more significantly than that of the 'metallic precipitate'

  14. Lanthanide ions (III) as sensitizers of melatonin oxidation in reaction mixtures providing reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Małgorzata, E-mail: mkaczmar@amu.edu.pl

    2015-06-15

    Chemiluminescence (CL) of the reactive systems providing strong oxidants (reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen) containing lanthanide ions (III) and melatonin, was studied. Kinetic curves of emission decay and spectral distributions of chemiluminescence were obtained. Analysis of differences in the intensity of chemiluminescence and CL spectra proved that excitation of Tb(III) and Dy(III) ions takes place with the energy transfer from the products of melatonin oxidation: N{sup 1}-acetyl-N{sup 2}-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N{sup 1}-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK) to the lanthanide ions. In the system Fe(II)/Fe(III)–H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–Mel–Tb(III) a linear correlation was established between the integrated CL intensity and melatonin concent. - Highlights: • Chemiluminescence (CL) of melatonin (Mel) oxidation by reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. • Tb(III) and Dy(III) ions as sensitizers of a melatonin oxidation process. • New CL method for determination of melatonin in pharmaceutical preparations based on CL of Fe(II)/Fe(III)–H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–Mel–Tb(III) system.

  15. Study of the thermal oxidation of titanium and zirconium under argon ion irradiation in the low MeV range (E = 15 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, N.-L.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that argon ion irradiation between 1 and 15 MeV produces damage on both titanium and zirconium surfaces, taking the form of accelerated oxidation and/or craterization effects, varying as a function of the projectile energy and the annealing atmosphere (temperature and pressure) simulating the environmental conditions of the fuel/cladding interface of PWR fuel rods. Using AFM, we have shown that the titanium and zirconium surface is attacked under light argon ion bombardment at high temperature (up to 500 C) in weakly oxidizing medium (under rarefied dry air pressure ranging from 5,7 10 -5 Pa to 5 10 -3 Pa) for a fixed fluence of about 5 10 14 ions.cm -2 . We observed the formation of nano-metric craters over the whole titanium surface irradiated between 2 and 9 MeV and the whole zirconium surface irradiated at 4 MeV, the characteristics of which vary depending on the temperature and the pressure. In the case of the Ar/Ti couple, the superficial damage efficiency increases when the projectile energy decreases from 9 to 2 MeV. Moreover, whereas the titanium surface seems to be transparent under the 15-MeV ion beam, the zirconium surface exhibits numerous micrometric craters surrounded by a wide halo. The crater characteristics (size and superficial density) differ significantly from that observed both in the low energy range (keV) where the energy losses are controlled by ballistic collisions (Sn) and in the high energy range (MeV - GeV) where the energy losses are controlled by electronic excitations (Se), which was not completely unexpected in this intermediate energy range for which combined Sn - Se stopping power effects are possibly foreseen. Using XPS associated to ionic sputtering, we have shown that there is an irradiation effect on thermal oxidation of titanium, enhanced under the argon ion beam between 2 and 9 MeV, and that there is also an energy effect on the oxide thickness and stoichiometry. The study conducted using Spectroscopic

  16. Stannic oxide spherical nanoparticles: an anode material with long-term cyclability for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalubarme, Ramchandra S.; Kale, Bharat B.; Gosavi, Suresh W.

    2017-08-01

    Transition metal oxides are widely used in energy storage applications. Stannic oxide nanostructures are prepared using a controlled, NaOH assisted, simple precipitation method. The morphology of the prepared material confirms the formation of fine nanoparticles having a rutile stannic oxide (SnO2) phase, with cassiterite structure, and size distribution ~20 nm. On testing, as an anode material for a Li-ion battery, stannic oxide delivers a reversible charge capacity of 957 mAh g-1 at an applied current rate of C/10. The stannic oxide shows excellent rate performance displaying capacity of 577 mAh g-1 at 10 C and capacity of 919 mAh g-1 retained after 200 cycles at an applied current rate of C/2. The super performance of stannic oxide fine particles stem from both the effective diffusion of Li-ions to reaction sites through porous channels and weaker stress/strain during Li insertion/desertion owing to its fine size.

  17. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  18. Effect of heavy ion irradiation and α+β phase heat treatment on oxide of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@barc.gov.in [Quality Assurance Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mukherjee, P.; Gayathri, N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, 700064 (India); Kain, V.; Kiran Kumar, M.; Srivastava, D. [Material Science Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mukherjee, D. [Quality Assurance Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Dey, G.K. [Material Science Division, BARC, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Effect of heavy-ion irradiation on the crystalline phase transformation of oxide of Zr-2.5Nb alloys has been studied. The steam-autoclaved oxide of pressure tube is irradiated with 306 KeV Ar{sup +9} ions at a dose of 3 × 10{sup 19} Ar{sup +9}/m{sup 2}. The damage profile has been estimated using “Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter” computer program. The variation of the crystal structure along the depth of the irradiated oxide have been characterized non-destructively by Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction technique and compared with unirradiated-oxide. The effect of different base metal microstructures on the characteristic of oxide has also been studied. Base metal microstructure as well as the cross-sectional oxide have been characterized using transmission electron microscope. Heavy ion irradiation can significantly alter the distribution of phases in the oxide of the alloy. The difference in chemical state of alloying element has also been found between unirradiated-oxide with that of irradiated-oxide using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Chemical state of Nb in steam autoclaved oxide is also altered when the base metal is α + β heat treated.

  19. Defects and defect generation in oxide layer of ion implanted silicon-silicon dioxide structures

    CERN Document Server

    Baraban, A P

    2002-01-01

    One studies mechanism of generation of defects in Si-SiO sub 2 structure oxide layer as a result of implantation of argon ions with 130 keV energy and 10 sup 1 sup 3 - 3.2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 doses. Si-SiO sub 2 structures are produced by thermal oxidation of silicon under 950 deg C temperature. Investigations were based on electroluminescence technique and on measuring of high-frequency volt-farad characteristics. Increase of implantation dose was determined to result in spreading of luminosity centres and in its maximum shifting closer to boundary with silicon. Ion implantation was shown, as well, to result in increase of density of surface states at Si-SiO sub 2 interface. One proposed model of defect generation resulting from Ar ion implantation into Si-SiO sub 2

  20. Peculiarities of the diffusion of silver and sodium ions in phosphate glasses with a high content of sodium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syutkin, V.M.; Tolkatchev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The phosphate glasses with a high content of alkali metal ions are good ionic conductors. Despite active studies, the mechanism of ion diffusion is not so far clear. The present work discusses the characteristics of ion diffusion in phosphate glasses with a high content of sodium oxide. An effective method to study ion transport is the investigation of relaxation processes the kinetics of which depends on ion diffusion. We use the data for two types of relaxation processes the kinetics of which is determined by ion diffusion. This is the conductivity relaxation due to sodium (host) ions and the decay of radiation-induced centers controlled by silver (guest) ion diffusion. Both of the processes being actually the first-order processes display a nonexponential kinetic behavior. The relaxation law can be interpreted either as the inherently nonexponential function or as the weighted sum of exponential decay functions with a distribution of relaxation times. It has been demonstrated that on the molecular level the relaxation function should be interpreted in the frame of the scheme of parallel first-order processes. This fact allows one to formulate a number of features of ion diffusion: (i) the mean square displacement of ions does not exceed several angstrom when transport becomes non-dispersive; (ii) the diffusion coefficient of ions is the function of coordinates. In this case, a characteristic distance at which D(r) noticeably varies is no less than a hundred of angstrom; (iii) the instantaneous concentration of mobile ions is well below the overall concentration ions

  1. The influence of reduced graphene oxide on electrical conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite as cathode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arifin, Muhammad; Aimon, Akfiny Hasdi; Winata, Toto; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 Indonesia (Indonesia); Iskandar, Ferry, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 Indonesia (Indonesia); Research Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung 40132 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    LiFePO{sub 4} is fascinating cathode active materials for Li-ion batteries application because of their high electrochemical performance such as a stable voltage at 3.45 V and high specific capacity at 170 mAh.g{sup −1}. However, their low intrinsic electronic conductivity and low ionic diffusion are still the hindrance for their further application on Li-ion batteries. Therefore, the efforts to improve their conductivity are very important to elevate their prospecting application as cathode materials. Herein, we reported preparation of additional of reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) into LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite via hydrothermal method and the influence of rGO on electrical conductivity of LiFePO{sub 4}−based composite by varying mass of rGO in composition. Vibration of LiFePO{sub 4}-based composite was detected on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, while single phase of LiFePO{sub 4} nanocrystal was observed on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern, it furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images showed that rGO was distributed around LiFePO4-based composite. Finally, the 4-point probe measurement result confirmed that the optimum electrical conductivity is in additional 2 wt% rGO for range 1 to 2 wt% rGO.

  2. Novel transparent conducting oxide technology for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, P.T.; Sutton, P.A.; Gardener, M.; Wakefield, G.

    2005-07-01

    This report outlines the development of both n- and p-type transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) materials and the demonstrated feasibility of economic production of TCO films by deposition techniques. Descriptions are given of the four main tasks of the project with Task A concentrating on material design and synthesis covering the new precursor to zinc oxide thin films and selection of polymers for formulation; Task B dealing with film formation involving film deposition by spin coating, screen printing, inkjet printing, dip coating and chemical vapour deposition; Task C concerning performance evaluation; and Task D examining manufacturing process development. The prospects for commercialisation are explored and recommendation for future work are considered.

  3. Magnetron sputtered transparent conductive zinc-oxide stabilized amorphous indium oxide thin films on polyethylene terephthalate substrates at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Zhang, X.-F.; Ding, Y.-T.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous transparent conducting zinc-oxide stabilized indium oxide thin films, named amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO), were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at ambient temperature on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. It has been demonstrated that the electrical resistivity could attain as low as ∼ 5 × 10 −4 Ω cm, which was noticeably lower than amorphous indium tin oxide films prepared at the same condition, while the visible transmittance exceeded 84% with the refractive index of 1.85–2.00. In our experiments, introduction of oxygen gas appeared to be beneficial to the improvement of the transparency and electrical conductivity. Both free carrier absorption and indirect transition were observed and Burstein–Moss effect proved a-IZO to be a degenerated amorphous semiconductor. However, the linear relation between the optical band gap and the band tail width which usually observed in covalent amorphous semiconductor such as a-Si:H was not conserved. Besides, porosity could greatly determine the resistivity and optical constants for the thickness variation at this deposition condition. Furthermore, a broad photoluminescence peak around 510 nm was identified when more than 1.5 sccm oxygen was introduced. - Highlights: ► Highly conducting amorphous zinc-oxide stabilized indium oxide thin films were prepared. ► The films were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate at ambient temperature. ► Introduction of oxygen can improve the transparency and electrical conductivity. ► The linear relation between optical band gap and band tail width was not conserved

  4. High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of alkali metals with conductivity detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of alkali metal and ammonium ions was studied using a conductivity meter as detector. Elution with 0.003 N mitric acid gave excellent resolution. Sensitivity levels, for a 200 micro litre injection, vary from 5 ppm for potassium to 0.1 ppm for lithium. A method to decrease retention times by reducing the exchange capacity of the cation exchange column used by loading it with calciumions, without affecting the resolation, has been described. Application of the method to water, soil and uranium dioxide samples has been demonstrated. (author)

  5. Conductivity in transparent oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; Veal, T D

    2011-08-24

    Despite an extensive research effort for over 60 years, an understanding of the origins of conductivity in wide band gap transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors remains elusive. While TCOs have already found widespread use in device applications requiring a transparent contact, there are currently enormous efforts to (i) increase the conductivity of existing materials, (ii) identify suitable alternatives, and (iii) attempt to gain semiconductor-engineering levels of control over their carrier density, essential for the incorporation of TCOs into a new generation of multifunctional transparent electronic devices. These efforts, however, are dependent on a microscopic identification of the defects and impurities leading to the high unintentional carrier densities present in these materials. Here, we review recent developments towards such an understanding. While oxygen vacancies are commonly assumed to be the source of the conductivity, there is increasing evidence that this is not a sufficient mechanism to explain the total measured carrier concentrations. In fact, many studies suggest that oxygen vacancies are deep, rather than shallow, donors, and their abundance in as-grown material is also debated. We discuss other potential contributions to the conductivity in TCOs, including other native defects, their complexes, and in particular hydrogen impurities. Convincing theoretical and experimental evidence is presented for the donor nature of hydrogen across a range of TCO materials, and while its stability and the role of interstitial versus substitutional species are still somewhat open questions, it is one of the leading contenders for yielding unintentional conductivity in TCOs. We also review recent work indicating that the surfaces of TCOs can support very high carrier densities, opposite to the case for conventional semiconductors. In thin-film materials/devices and, in particular, nanostructures, the surface can have a large impact on the total

  6. Effect of alkali content on AC conductivity of borate glasses containing two transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, I.; Rahman, Samy A.; Soliman, A.A.; Ibrahim, E.M.; Abdel-Khalek, E.K.; Mostafa, A.G.; Sanad, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium borate glasses containing iron and molybdenum ions with the total concentration of transition ions constant and gradual substitution of sodium oxide (network modifier) by borate oxide (network former) was prepared. Densities, molar volume, DC and AC conductivities are measured. The trends of these properties are attributed to changes in the glass network structure. Their DC and AC conductivity increased with increasing NaO concentration. The increase of AC conductivity of sodium borate glasses is attributed to the chemical composition and the hopping mechanism of conduction. Measurements of the dielectric constant (ε) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as a function of frequency (50 Hz-100 kHz) and temperature (RT-600 K) indicate that the increase in dielectric constant and loss (ε and tan δ) values with increasing sodium ion content could be attributed to the assumption that Fe and Mo ions tend to assume network-forming position in the glass compositions studied. The variation of the value of frequency exponent s for all glass samples as the function of temperature at a definite frequency indicates that the value of s decreases with increasing the temperature which agrees with the correlated barrier-hopping (CBH) model.

  7. Superconducting oxide thin films by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, P.H.; DeNatale, J.F.; Housley, R.M.; Flintoff, J.F.; Harker, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of ternary copper oxides from the Y-Ba-Cu-O and La-Sr-Cu-O systems have been deposited by ion beam sputtering of ceramic targets. Crystallographic orientation of the polycrystalline films has been shown to vary with substrate identity, deposition temperature and annealing temperature. The onset of the superconductive transition occurs near 90K in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system. Fe impurities of < 0.2% have been found to inhibit the superconducting transition, probably by migrating to the grain boundaries

  8. Ionic conductivity and fuel cell properties of apatite-type lanthanum silicates doped with Mg and containing excess oxide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hideki [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology, 3-1-12 Yukihira-cho, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0037 (Japan); Nojiri, Yoshihiro [Kyushu University, Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0935 (Japan); Tanase, Shigeo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2008-11-30

    Enhancement of the ionic conductivity of lanthanum silicate-based apatites is examined with emphasis on optimizing the La composition and the Mg doping level at the same time. La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 26.8} and La{sub 9.8}Si{sub 5.7}Mg{sub 0.3}O{sub 26.4} show the highest level of the ionic conductivities among apatite silicates, 8.8 and 7.4 x 10{sup -} {sup 2} S cm{sup -} {sup 1} at 800 C, respectively, with a very low level of activation energy (0.42-0.43 eV). Their conductivities are higher than yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) below 900 C and even comparable to Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) below 550 C. A solid oxide fuel cell using La{sub 9.8}Si{sub 5.7}Mg{sub 0.3}O{sub 26.4} as an electrolyte with Ni-ceria cermet anode and Sr doped lanthanum cobaltite cathode exhibits a remarkable improvement in power generation compared to previous data using Pt electrodes. Structural investigation by the Rietveld analysis on the powder X-ray diffraction pattern shows significant enlargement of the bottleneck triangle sizes of the conduction channel with the Mg doping. (author)

  9. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  10. Highly Confined Electronic and Ionic Conduction in Oxide Heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    The conductance confined at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures provides new opportunities to explore nanoelectronic as well as nanoionic devices. In this talk I will present our recent results both on ionic and electronic conductivity at different heterostructures systems. In the first...... unattainable for Bi2O3-based materials, is achieved[1]. These confined heterostructures provide a playground not only for new high ionic conductivity phenomena that are sufficiently stable but also uncover a large variety of possible technological perspectives. At the second part, I will discuss and show our...

  11. Electronic-Reconstruction-Enhanced Tunneling Conductance at Terrace Edges of Ultrathin Oxide Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfei; Kim, Rokyeon; Kim, Yoonkoo; Kim, Choong H; Hwang, Sangwoon; Cho, Myung Rae; Shin, Yeong Jae; Das, Saikat; Kim, Jeong Rae; Kalinin, Sergei V; Kim, Miyoung; Yang, Sang Mo; Noh, Tae Won

    2017-11-01

    Quantum mechanical tunneling of electrons across ultrathin insulating oxide barriers has been studied extensively for decades due to its great potential in electronic-device applications. In the few-nanometers-thick epitaxial oxide films, atomic-scale structural imperfections, such as the ubiquitously existed one-unit-cell-high terrace edges, can dramatically affect the tunneling probability and device performance. However, the underlying physics has not been investigated adequately. Here, taking ultrathin BaTiO 3 films as a model system, an intrinsic tunneling-conductance enhancement is reported near the terrace edges. Scanning-probe-microscopy results demonstrate the existence of highly conductive regions (tens of nanometers wide) near the terrace edges. First-principles calculations suggest that the terrace-edge geometry can trigger an electronic reconstruction, which reduces the effective tunneling barrier width locally. Furthermore, such tunneling-conductance enhancement can be discovered in other transition metal oxides and controlled by surface-termination engineering. The controllable electronic reconstruction can facilitate the implementation of oxide electronic devices and discovery of exotic low-dimensional quantum phases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Gas-phase fragmentation of coordination compounds: loss of CO(2) from inorganic carbonato complexes to give metal oxide ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard; McKenzie

    1999-10-01

    Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, novel transition metal oxide coordination complex ions are proposed as the products of the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of some carbonato complex ions through the loss of a mass equivalent to CO(2). CID spectra of [(tpa)CoCO(3)](+) (tpa = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)methylamine), [(bispicMe(2)en)Fe(&mgr;-O)(&mgr;-CO(3))Fe(bispicMe(2)en)]2+ (bispicMe(2)en = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethy)eth- ane-1, 2-diamine) and [(bpbp)Cu(2)CO(3)](+) (bpbp(-) = bis[(bis-(2-pyridylmethyl)amino)methyl]-4-tertbutylpheno-lato(1-)), show peaks assigned to the mono- and dinuclear oxide cations, [(tpa)CoO](+), [(bispicMe(2)en)(2)Fe(2)(O)(2)]2+ and [(bpbp)Cu(2)O](+), as the dominant species. These results can be likened to the reverse of typical synthetic reactions in which metal hydroxide compounds react with CO(2) to give metal carbonato compounds. Because of the lack of available protons in the gas phase, novel oxide species rather than the more common hydroxide ions are generated. These oxide ions are relevant to the highly oxidizing species proposed in oxygenation reactions catalysed by metal oxides and metalloenzymes. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Incorporation and conduction of proton in Sr-doped LaMO3 (M=Al, Sc, In, Yb, Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Yuji; Kozai, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shohei; Matsuka, Maki; Sakai, Takaaki; Matsumoto, Hiroshige

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the effect of the B site species in ABO 3 perovskite oxides on the proton transport properties, the proton incorporation into a series of La 0.9 Sr 0.1 MO 3-δ , (M = Al, Sc, In, Yb, Y) was studied by measuring the electrical conductivity and electromotive forces of the gas concentration cells, and by a thermogravimetric analysis. The proton concentration and electrical conductivity increased in the order of the B site species, Al 0.9 Sr 0.1 AlO 3-δ showed an oxide ion conductivity, while La 0.9 Sr 0.1 YbO 3-δ and La 0.9 Sr 0.1 YO 3-δ exhibited a protonic conductivity in the temperature range of 573–1173 K. La 0.9 Sr 0.1 ScO 3-δ and La 0.9 Sr 0.1 InO 3-δ showed a protonic conductivity under 873 K, and a mixed proton and oxide ion conductivity at 1073 K

  14. Oxidation of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine by hypochlorite ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheidorov, V. P.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Chalyi, G. Yu.; Titorovich, O. V.

    2011-08-01

    The kinetics of the oxidative conversion of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine upon treatment with hypochlorite ions (OCl-) in aqueous medium at 283-298 K and pH 8.2 was studied. The reaction order with respect to each component was determined and proved to be 1. It was established that the temperature dependence of the reaction rate follows the Arrhenius equation. The activation parameters of the reaction were measured: E a = 33.58 kJ/mol, Δ H ≠ = 31.12 kJ/mol, Δ S ≠ = -170.02 J/(K mol), Δ G ≠ = 81.45 kJ/mol. The stoichiometry of the reaction was studied, and the chemistry of the oxidative conversion of caffeine treated with OCl- is discussed.

  15. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

    2010-05-18

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  16. A novel electrode surface fabricated by directly attaching gold nanoparticles onto NH2+ ions implanted-indium tin oxide substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenyao; Jiao Jiao; Chen Qunxia; Xia Ji; Li Shuoqi; Hu Jingbo; Li Qilong

    2010-01-01

    A new type of gold nanoparticle attached to a NH 2 + ion implanted-indium tin oxide surface was fabricated without using peculiar binder molecules, such as 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane. A NH 2 /indium tin oxide film was obtained by implantation at an energy of 80 keV with a fluence of 5 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The gold nanoparticle-modified film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques and compared with a modified bare indium tin oxide surface and 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane linked surface, which exhibited a relatively low electron transfer resistance and high electrocatalytic activity. The results demonstrate that NH 2 + ion implanted-indium tin oxide films can provide an important route to immobilize nanoparticles, which is attractive in developing new biomaterials.

  17. III-V/Si wafer bonding using transparent, conductive oxide interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Adele C., E-mail: Adele.Tamboli@nrel.gov; Hest, Maikel F. A. M. van; Steiner, Myles A.; Essig, Stephanie; Norman, Andrew G.; Bosco, Nick; Stradins, Paul [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perl, Emmett E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9560 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    We present a method for low temperature plasma-activated direct wafer bonding of III-V materials to Si using a transparent, conductive indium zinc oxide interlayer. The transparent, conductive oxide (TCO) layer provides excellent optical transmission as well as electrical conduction, suggesting suitability for Si/III-V hybrid devices including Si-based tandem solar cells. For bonding temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 350 °C, Ohmic behavior is observed in the sample stacks, with specific contact resistivity below 1 Ω cm{sup 2} for samples bonded at 200 °C. Optical absorption measurements show minimal parasitic light absorption, which is limited by the III-V interlayers necessary for Ohmic contact formation to TCOs. These results are promising for Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P/Si tandem solar cells operating at 1 sun or low concentration conditions.

  18. Modification and structuring of conducting polymer films on insulating substrates by ion beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, T.; Wolf, Gerhard K.

    2000-01-01

    Besides the commonly used procedures of UV-, X-ray and electron beam lithography, surface structuring by ion beam processes represents an alternative route to receive patterns in the nanometre-micrometre scale. In this work we focused on changes of surface properties of the polymer materials induced by ion irradiation and on reproducing hexagonal and square patterns in the micrometre scale. To achieve a better understanding of modification and structuring of insulating and conducting polymers by ion beam treatment we investigated effects of 14 keV Ar + bombardment on thin films of doped conducting polyethoxithiophene (PEOT) and polyethylenedioxithiophene (PEDT) on polyethersulfone (PES) as insulating substrate within the fluence range from 10 14 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . Changes of surface properties like wettability, solubility, topology and electrochemical behaviour have been studied by contact angle technique, AFM/LFM, cyclovoltammetry and electrochemical microelectrode. By irradiation through copper masks structured patterns were achieved. These patterns can be converted by galvanic or electroless copper deposition in structured metal layers

  19. Synthesis, Structure, and Li-Ion Conductivity of LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Cl, Br, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GharibDoust, Seyed Hosein Payandeh; Brighi, Matteo; Sadikin, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new type of addition reaction between La(BH4)3 and LiX, X = Cl, Br, I, is used to synthesize LiLa(BH4)3Cl and two new compounds LiLa(BH4)3X, X = Br, I. This method increases the amounts of LiLa(BH4)3X and the sample purity. The highest Li-ion conductivity is observed for LiLa(BH4...... with increasing lattice parameter, that is, increasing size of the halide ion in the structure. Thus, we conclude that the sizes of both windows are important for the lithium ion conduction in LiLa(BH4)3X compounds. The lithium ion conductivity is measured over one to three heating cycles and with different...

  20. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  1. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  2. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiO{sub x} resistive random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehonic, Adnan, E-mail: a.mehonic@ee.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J., E-mail: a.mehonic@ee.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-28

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  3. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of thiocyanate ion by di-m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phenanthroline)dimanganese(III,IV) perchlorate in acid medium has been investigated. The reaction follows first order in both the oxidant and the reductant. The reaction is catalysed by hydrogen ion and the rate dependence given as k2 = a + b[H+].

  4. Studies of ion implanted thermally oxidised chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal oxidation of 99.99% pure chromium containing precise amounts of foreign elements has been studied and compared to the oxidation of pure chromium. Thirty-three foreign elements including all of the naturally occurring rare earth metals were ion implanted into chromium samples prior to oxidation at 750 0 C in oxygen. The role of radiation induced damage, inherent in this doping technique, has been studied by chromium implantations at various energies and doses. The repair of the damage has been studied by vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 800 0 C prior to oxidation. Many of the implants caused an inhibition of oxidation, the greatest being a 93% reduction for 2 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 of praseodymium. The distribution of the implant was investigated by the use of 2 MeV alpha backscattering and ion microprobe analysis. Differences in the topography and structure of the chromic oxide on and off the implanted area were studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to investigate if a rare earth-chromium compound of a perovskite-type structure had been formed. Lastly, the electrical conductivity of chromic oxide on and off the implanted region was examined at low voltages. (author)

  5. Effects of oxygen gas flow rate and ion beam plasma conditions on the opto-electronic properties of indium molybdenum oxide films fabricated by ion beam-assisted evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, C.C.; Liu, C.C.; Lin, C.C.; Liou, Y.Y.; He, J.L.; Chen, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to experimentally study the effects of the oxygen gas flow rate and ion beam plasma conditions on the properties of indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) films deposited onto the polyethersulfone (PES) substrate. Crystal structure, surface morphology, and optoelectronic properties of IMO films are examined as a function of oxygen gas flow rate and ion beam discharge voltage. Experimental results show that the IMO films consist of a cubic bixbyite B-In 2 O 3 single phase with its crystal preferred orientation alone B(222). Mo 6+ ions are therefore considered to partially substitute In 3+ sites in the deposit. Under-controlled ion bombardment during deposition enhances the reaction among those arriving oxygen and metal ion species to condense into IMO film and facilitates a decreased surface roughness of IMO film. The film with ultimate crystallinity and the lowest surface roughness is obtained when the oxygen flow rate of 3 sccm and the discharge voltage of 110 V are employed. This results in the lowest electrical resistivity due mainly to the increased Hall mobility and irrelevant to carrier concentration. The lowest electrical resistivity of 8.63 x 10 -4 ohm-cm with a 84.63% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm can be obtained, which satisfies the requirement of a flexible transparent conductive polymer substrate

  6. Conductive iron oxide minerals accelerate syntrophic cooperation in methanogenic benzoate degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Li; Tang, Jia; Wang, Yueqiang; Hu, Min; Zhou, Shungui, E-mail: sgzhou@soil.gd.cn

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Paddy soil contaminated with benzoate incubated with hematite and magnetite. • Iron oxides addition enhanced methanogenic benzoate degradation by 25–53%. • The facilitated syntrophy might involve direct interspecies electron transfer. • Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved. - Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that conductive iron oxide minerals can facilitate syntrophic metabolism of the methanogenic degradation of organic matter, such as ethanol, propionate and butyrate, in natural and engineered microbial ecosystems. This enhanced syntrophy involves direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) powered by microorganisms exchanging metabolic electrons through electrically conductive minerals. Here, we evaluated the possibility that conductive iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) can stimulate the methanogenic degradation of benzoate, which is a common intermediate in the anaerobic metabolism of aromatic compounds. The results showed that 89–94% of the electrons released from benzoate oxidation were recovered in CH{sub 4} production, and acetate was identified as the only carbon-bearing intermediate during benzoate degradation. Compared with the iron-free controls, the rates of methanogenic benzoate degradation were enhanced by 25% and 53% in the presence of hematite and magnetite, respectively. This stimulatory effect probably resulted from DIET-mediated methanogenesis in which electrons transfer between syntrophic partners via conductive iron minerals. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Bacillaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Methanobacterium are potentially involved in the functioning of syntrophic DIET. Considering the ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within soils and sediments, the findings of this study will increase the current understanding of the natural biological attenuation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic environments.

  7. Phase stability of zirconium oxide films during focused ion beam milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Felicity; Garner, Alistair; Topping, Matthew; Hulme, Helen; Preuss, Michael; Frankel, Philipp

    2018-06-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) is a widely used technique for preparation of electron transparent samples and so it is vital to understand the potential for introduction of FIB-induced microstructural artefacts. The bombardment of both Xe+ and Ga+ ions is observed to cause extensive monoclinic to tetragonal phase transformation in ZrO2 corrosion films, however, this effect is diminished with reduced energy and is not observed below 5 KeV. This study emphasises the importance of careful FIB sample preparation with a low energy cleaning step, and also gives insight into the stabilisation mechanism of the tetragonal phase during oxidation.

  8. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Bejšovec, Václav; Vacík, Jiří; Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vrňata, M.; Kormunda, M.; Daniš, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 389, DEC (2016), s. 751-759 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Copper oxide * ion beam sputtering * Van der Pauw * nuclear reaction analysis * gas sensing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  9. Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

    2013-07-23

    Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (σe,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, σe,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries.

  10. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rong [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yue, Wenbo, E-mail: wbyue@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ren, Yu [National Institute of Clean-and-Low-Carbon Energy, Beijing 102209 (China); Zhou, Wuzong [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fite KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO{sub 2} displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO{sub 2} hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO{sub 2} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  11. Mixed mobile ion effect in fluorozincate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S; Ghosh, A

    2005-01-01

    The mixed mobile ion effect has been investigated for the first time in zinc fluoride glasses where in addition to alkali cations fluorine anions also participate in the diffusion process, unlike mixed alkali oxide glasses. The minimum in the conductivity, conductivity relaxation frequency, crossover frequency and decoupling index indicates the existence of the mixed mobile ion effect in these fluoride glasses. It has been observed that the non-exponential parameter and the frequency exponent are independent of temperature. It has been established that alkali ions and fluorine anions exhibit lower dimensionality of the conduction pathways in mixed alkali zinc fluoride glasses than that in the single alkali lithium based zinc fluoride glasses while they are migrating. From the scaling of the conductivity spectra, it has been established that the relaxation dynamics in mixed alkali zinc fluoride glasses is independent of temperature and composition

  12. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashok V [Salt Lake City, UT; Balagopal, Shekar [Sandy, UT; Pendelton, Justin [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  13. Quantum conductance of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Zhe; Nelson, Christopher; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons (ZGOR) are presented. The results show interesting behaviors which are considerably different from the properties of the perfect graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The theoretical methods include a Huckel-tight binding approach, a Green's function methodology, and the Landauer formalism. The presence of oxygen on the edge results in band bending, a noticeable change in density of states and thus the conductance. Consequently, the occupation in the valence bands increase for the next neighboring carbon atom in the unit cell. Conductance drops in both the conduction and valence band regions are due to the reduction of allowed k modes resulting from band bending. The asymmetry of the energy band structure of the ZGOR is due to the energy differences of the atoms. The inclusion of a foreign atom's orbital energies changes the dispersion relation of the eigenvalues in energy space. These novel characteristics are important and valuable in the study of quantum transport of GNRs

  14. Enhanced AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles irradiated with Ni12+ swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the 160 MeV Ni 12+ swift heavy ions (SHIs) irradiation effects on AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles in the frequency range of 42 Hz–5 MHz. Four ion fluences of 5 × 10 10 , 1 × 10 11 , 5 × 10 11 and 1 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 have been used for the irradiation purpose. Transport properties in the pristine and irradiated PPy nanoparticles have been investigated with permittivity and modulus formalisms to study the polarization effects and conductivity relaxation. With increasing ion fluence, the relaxation peak in imaginary modulus (M ″ ) plots shifts toward high frequency suggesting long range motion of the charge carriers. The AC conductivity studies suggest correlated barrier hopping as the dominant transport mechanism. The hopping distance (R ω ) of the charge carriers decreases with increasing the ion fluence. Binding energy (W m ) calculations depict that polarons are the dominant charge carriers

  15. Kinetics of uranium (4) oxidation with nitrous acid in the presence of oxalate-ions in nitric and perchloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    Kinetics of uranium (4) oxidation with nitrous acid in the presence of oxalate-ions are studied spectrometrically. It is shown that even at small oxalate concentrations a notable effect of tetravalent uranium stabilization is observed relatively to the oxidation with nitrous acid. In case of a significant excess of oxalate-ions the oxidation rate will be considerably slower as a result of the formation of U(4) bisoxalate complex

  16. Innovative oxide materials for electrochemical energy conversion and oxygen separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Ion-conducting solid metal oxides are widely used in high-temperature electrochemical devices for energy conversion and oxygen separation. However, liquid metal oxides possessing unique electrochemical properties still remain of limited use. The review demonstrates the potential for practical applications of molten oxides. The transport properties of molten oxide materials are discussed. The emphasis is placed on the chemical diffusion of oxygen in the molten oxide membrane materials for electrochemical energy conversion and oxygen separation. The thermodynamics of these materials is considered. The dynamic polymer chain model developed to describe the oxygen ion transport in molten oxides is discussed. Prospects for further research into molten oxide materials are outlined. The bibliography includes 145 references.

  17. Codeposition of deuterium ions with beryllium oxide at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Markin, A V; Gorodetsky, A E; Negodaev, M A; Rozhanskii, N V; Scaffidi-Argentina, F; Werle, H; Wu, C H; Zalavutdinov, R K; Zakharov, A P

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium-loaded BeO films were produced by sputtering the beryllium target with 10 keV Ne ions in D sub 2 gas at a pressure of approximately 1 Pa. The sputtered beryllium reacts - on the substrate surface - with the residual oxygen, thus forming a beryllium oxide layer. Biasing the substrate negatively with respect to the target provides the simultaneous bombardment of the growing film surface with D ions formed by Ne-D sub 2 collisions. Substrate potential governs the maximum energy of ions striking the growing film surface while its size governs the flux density. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) data, the beryllium is deposited in the form of polycrystalline hcp-BeO layers with negligible (about 1 at.%) carbon and neon retention. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data shows a strong deuterium bonding, with a desorption peak at 950 K, in the films deposited at -50 and -400 V substrate potentia...

  18. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  19. Roles of Bulk and Surface Chemistry in the Oxygen Exchange Kinetics and Related Properties of Mixed Conducting Perovskite Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola H. Perry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic, and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties. This review highlights selected work at the International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER, Kyushu University, set in the context of work in the broader community, aiming to characterize and understand relationships between bulk and surface composition and oxygen electrode performance. Insights into aspects of bulk point defect chemistry, electronic structure, crystal structure, and cation choice that impact carrier concentrations and mobilities, surface exchange kinetics, and chemical expansion coefficients are emerging. At the same time, an understanding of the relationship between bulk and surface chemistry is being developed that may assist design of electrodes with more robust surface chemistries, e.g., impurity tolerance or limited surface segregation. Ion scattering techniques (e.g., secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, or low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, LEIS with high surface sensitivity and increasing lateral resolution are proving useful for measuring surface exchange kinetics, diffusivity, and corresponding outer monolayer chemistry of electrodes exposed to typical operating conditions. Beyond consideration of chemical composition, the use of strain and/or a high density of active interfaces also show promise for enhancing performance.

  20. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  1. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  2. Immediate fabrication of flower-like graphene oxide by ion beam bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Junjie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guilong; Xiong, Shiquan; Pei, Renjun; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment (IBB) could modify the microstructure of graphene oxide (GO). • IBB could transform a compact multi-layered GO to a few-layered flower-like GO. • IBB could effectively improve the dispersion and the related properties of GO. • The main mechanism was proposed to be the etching and charge effects of IBB. - Abstract: An effective and convenient method using ion beam bombardment (IBB) for separating a multi-layered compact graphene oxide (GO) piece into several small few-layered loose pieces was developed, and it was found that those small GO pieces had formed a flower-like structure. Therein, the main mechanism was proposed to be the etching and charge effects of IBB. This work could provide a facile and promising approach for improving the dispersion and the related properties of GO. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum determinations demonstrated that, with the increasing fluence, IBB could effectively decrease the chemical groups in the layers of GO, resulting in the decrease of the layer distance.

  3. Immediate fabrication of flower-like graphene oxide by ion beam bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Junjie [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Division of Nanobiomedicine, Key Laboratory for Nano-Bio Interface Research, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xiong, Shiquan [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pei, Renjun, E-mail: rjpei2011@sinano.ac.cn [Division of Nanobiomedicine, Key Laboratory for Nano-Bio Interface Research, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ion beam bombardment (IBB) could modify the microstructure of graphene oxide (GO). • IBB could transform a compact multi-layered GO to a few-layered flower-like GO. • IBB could effectively improve the dispersion and the related properties of GO. • The main mechanism was proposed to be the etching and charge effects of IBB. - Abstract: An effective and convenient method using ion beam bombardment (IBB) for separating a multi-layered compact graphene oxide (GO) piece into several small few-layered loose pieces was developed, and it was found that those small GO pieces had formed a flower-like structure. Therein, the main mechanism was proposed to be the etching and charge effects of IBB. This work could provide a facile and promising approach for improving the dispersion and the related properties of GO. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrum determinations demonstrated that, with the increasing fluence, IBB could effectively decrease the chemical groups in the layers of GO, resulting in the decrease of the layer distance.

  4. Microstructure of titanium oxide films synthesized by ion beam dynamic mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Y.; Setsuhara, Y.; Miyake, S.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructure of titanium oxide films synthesized by the ion beam dynamic mixing (IBDM) method is investigated by glancing angle X-ray diffraction and multi-reflectance FT-IR methods. Titanium oxide films are identified as rutile phases having different degrees of (110) orientation. The IBDM rutile phase with a standard crystalline state is produced by controlling the ratio of the intensities between the (110) and (101) peaks of the rutile, I(110)/I(101), so as to approach the ratio to the value (=2.0) of ASTM standard rutile. The crystallite size of the rutile phase increases with increasing ratio of intensities of the two XRD peaks, I(110)/I(101). The increase of the crystallite size is suggested to be attributed to the increase of oxygen ion energy per Ti atom. From the dependence of the IR absorption near 500 cm -1 upon I(110)/I(101), it is indicated that the Ti-O bond strength is delicately affected by the degree of (110) orientation of the IBDM rultile phase. ((orig.))

  5. Zn substitution NiFe_2O_4 nanoparticles with enhanced conductivity as high-performances electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Junwei; Hou, Xianhua; Huang, Fengsi; Shen, Kaixiang; Lam, Kwok-ho; Ru, Qiang; Hu, Shejun

    2016-01-01

    Zn"2"+ ion substituted nickel ferrite nanomaterials with the chemical formula Ni_1_−_xZn_xFe_2O_4 for x = 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 have been synthesized by a facile green-chemical hydrothermal method as anode materials in lithium ion battery. The morphology and structure of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physical and electrochemical properties were tested by electrochemical system. Furthermore, the energetic and electronic properties of the samples were investigated by density functional calculations. The results suggest that Zn substitution can affect the conduction performance of the zinc - nickel ferrite. Meanwhile, electrochemical results show that an enhancement in the capacity with increasing Zn concentration is observed especially for x = 0.3 which exhibit high discharge capacity of 1416 mAh g"−"1at the end of 100th cycle. Moreover, the theoretical research method with high yield synthesis strategy described in the present work holds promise for the general fabrication of other metallic elements substitution in complex transition metal oxides for high power LIBs. - Highlights: • Ni_1_−_xZn_xFe_2O_4 anodes have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • First principles calculation was used to investigate the conduction performance. • Electrochemical performance was enhanced with Zn substitution.

  6. Mixed-conducting polyaniline-Fuller's Earth nanocomposites prepared by stepwise intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajapakse, R.M.G.; Krishantha, D.M.M.; Tennakoon, D.T.B.; Dias, H.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    A series of polyaniline-Fuller's Earth (PANI-FE) nanocomposites were prepared by the successive intercalation of anilinium ions followed by polymerisation within the interlayer spaces of Fuller's Earth (a type of calcium montmorillonite). The first member in the series is prepared by exchanging the calcium ions in Fuller's Earth for ammonium ions and subsequently for anilinium ions and polymerising the latter using an externally introduced oxidant. The emeraldine salt form of polyaniline formed is then neutralised with ammonium hydroxide and more anilinium ions are exchanged for ammonium ions and polymerised to get the second member. In this manner, by making use the unique chemistry of clay and polyniline, four members of PANI-FE are prepared. In the last member, the negative layer charges of Fuller's Earth is completely neutralised by the positive charges of the polymer. The extent of polymer loading in each stage, the effect polymer has on the host structure and the electronic and ionic components of the conductivities of the new PANI-FE nanocomposites are investigated. The Fe(III) sites in FE are capable of spontaneously polymerising aniline within its intergalleries. The extent of spontaneous polymerisation is limited by the amount of Fe(III) present in the FE. The deliberate polymerisation of remaining anilinium ions by externally introduced oxidant results in highly conductive emeraldine salt-FE (EMS-FE) nanocomposites. The FE host accommodates higher amount of emeraldine salt and the repetitive insertions of the polymer could be done four times for complete layer charge neutralisation whereas with Bentonite the layer charge saturation takes place with three successive insertions. The new EMS-FE nanocomposites exhibit more than order of magnitude greater tuneable ionic and electronic conductivities compared to those of the same polymer incorporated in Bentonite

  7. A design strategy of large grain lithium-rich layered oxides for lithium-ion batteries cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiong; Wang, Zhenhua; Rooney, David; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Feng, Jie; Qiao, Jinshuo; Sun, Wang; Sun, Kening

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasound-assisted mixing lithium was used to synthesize Lithium-rich layered oxides. • Lithium-rich layered oxides composed of large grain had high capacity and high cycling stability. • This unique large grain overcomes stress-induced structural collapse caused by Li-ion insertion/extraction and reduces dissolution of Mn ions. • A new strategy of large grain could be employed to synthesize the other complex architectures for various applications. - Abstract: Li-rich materials are considered the most promising for Li-ion battery cathodes, as high capacity can be achieved. However, poor cycling stability is a critical drawback that leads to poor capacity retention. Here a strategy is used to synthesize a large-grain lithium-rich layered oxides to overcome this difficulty without sacrificing rate capability. This material is designed with micron scale grain with a width of about 300 nm and length of 1–3 μm. This unique structure has a better ability to overcome stress-induced structural collapse caused by Li-ion insertion/extraction and reduce the dissolution of Mn ions, which enable a reversible and stable capacity. As a result, this cathode material delivered a highest discharge capacity of around 308 mAh g −1 at a current density of 30 mA g −1 with retention of 88.3% (according to the highest discharge capacity) after 100 cycles, 190 mAh g −1 at a current density of 300 mA g −1 and almost no capacity fading after 100 cycles. Therefore, Lithium-rich material of large-grain structure is a promising cathode candidate in Lithium-ion batteries with high capacity and high cycle stability for application. This strategy of large grain may furthermore open the door to synthesize the other complex architectures for various applications

  8. Ion bombardment effects on surface states in selected oxide systems: rutile and alkaline earth titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, the nature of the surface states of n-type TiO 2 and SrTiO 3 is discussed and the role of ion bombardment in modifying the properties of these states is elucidated. Insofar as possible, the interrelationships between oxide nonstoichiometry, surface states, ion bombardment effects and photoelectrolysis are explored

  9. Hollow reduced graphene oxide microspheres as a high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Riguo; Song, Xiaorui; Hu, Yan; Yang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jingjie

    2015-01-01

    Hollow reduced graphene oxide (RGO) microspheres are successfully synthesized in large quantities through spray-drying suspension of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and subsequent carbothermal reduction. With this new procedure, blighted-microspherical GO precursor is synthesized through the process of spray drying, afterwards the GO precursor is subsequently calcined at 800 °C for 5 h to obtain hollow RGO microspheres. A series of analyses, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are performed to characterize the structure and morphology of intermediates and as-obtained product. The as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres provide a high specific surface area (175.5 m 2 g −1 ) and excellent electronic conductivity (6.3 S cm −1 ), and facilitated high electrochemical performance as anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with the RGO nanosheets, the as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres exhibit superior specific capacity and outstanding cyclability. In addition, this spray drying and carbothermal reduction (SDCTR) method provided a facile route to prepare hollow RGO microspheres in large quantities

  10. Electrical conduction in 100 keV Kr+ ion implanted poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P. K.; Kumar, V.; Gupta, Renu; Mahendia, S.; Anita, Kumar, S.

    2012-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples have been implanted to 100 keV Kr+ ions at the fluences 1×1015-- 1×1016 cm-2. From I-V characteristics, the conduction mechanism was found to be shifted from ohmic to space charge limited conduction (SCLC) after implantation. The surface conductivity of these implanted samples was found to increase with increasing implantation dose. The structural alterations in the Raman spectra of implanted PET samples indicate that such an increase in the conductivity may be attributed to the formation of conjugated double bonded carbonaceous structure in the implanted layer of PET.

  11. Oxide-Based Composite Electrolytes Using Na3Zr2Si2PO12/Na3PS4 Interfacial Ion Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noi, Kousuke; Nagata, Yuka; Hakari, Takashi; Suzuki, Kenji; Yubuchi, So; Ito, Yusuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2018-05-31

    All-solid-state sodium batteries using Na 3 Zr 2 Si 2 PO 12 (NASICON) solid electrolytes are promising candidates for safe and low-cost advanced rechargeable battery systems. Although NASICON electrolytes have intrinsically high sodium-ion conductivities, their high sintering temperatures interfere with the immediate development of high-performance batteries. In this work, sintering-free NASICON-based composites with Na 3 PS 4 (NPS) glass ceramics were prepared to combine the high grain-bulk conductivity of NASICON and the interfacial formation ability of NPS. Before the composite preparation, the NASICON/NPS interfacial resistance was investigated by modeling the interface between the NASICON sintered ceramic and the NPS glass thin film. The interfacial ion-transfer resistance was very small above room temperature; the area-specific resistances at 25 and 100 °C were 15.8 and 0.40 Ω cm 2 , respectively. On the basis of this smooth ion transfer, NASICON-rich (70-90 wt %) NASICON-NPS composite powders were prepared by ball-milling fine powders of each component. The composite powders were well-densified by pressing at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed highly dispersed sub-micrometer NASICON grains in a dense NPS matrix to form closed interfaces between the oxide and sulfide solid electrolytes. The composite green (unfired) compacts with 70 and 80 wt % NASICON exhibited high total conductivities at 100 °C of 1.1 × 10 -3 and 6.8 × 10 -4 S cm -1 , respectively. An all-solid-state Na 15 Sn 4 /TiS 2 cell was constructed using the 70 wt % NASICON composite electrolyte by the uniaxial pressing of the powder materials, and its discharge properties were evaluated at 100 °C. The cell showed the reversible capacities of about 120 mAh g -1 under the current density of 640 μA cm -2 . The prepared oxide-based composite electrolytes were thus successfully applied in all-solid-state sodium rechargeable batteries without sintering.

  12. Oxidation of sulfur (IV by oxygen in aqueous solution: role of some metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Claudia R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic effect of metal ions: Cr(VI, Cr(III, Cd(II, V(V and chloride anion, on the oxidation of S(IV in aqueous solution, at concentrations of metal ions and S(IV usually found in urban atmospheres, were studied under controlled experimental conditions (pH (2.1 - 4,5, T (25.0 - 35.0 °C, air flow rate, concentration of reactants, etc.... The kinetic constant determined at 25.0 °C and pH range (2.1 - 4.5, using ultra pure water was 8.0 ± 0.5 x 10-4 s-1. This value was considered as a reference for the oxidation reaction rate. The kinetic constants determined in the presence of Cr(VI revealed that the oxidation reaction of S(IV is quite influenced by the acidity. At pH = 2.1 (K = 2.3 x 10-2 mg-1 L s-1 the reaction is carried out with a rate five times greater when compared to pH = 2.6 (K = 4.3 x 10-3 mg-1 L s-1 and thirty times greater when compared to pH = 3.4 (K= 8.0 x 10 -4 mg-1 L s-1. The following rate expression was obtained at pH = 2.6: -r(S(IV =K [Cr(VI] [S(IV] and the activation energy found was: Ea =70.3KJ/mol. No catalytic effects were observed for Cd(II or chloride ion, while inhibitory effects were observed for Cr(III and V(V ions.

  13. Photochemical methodologies for organic waste treatment: advanced oxidation process using uranyl ion with H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, D.B.; Sarkar, S.K.; Mukherjee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Excited uranyl ion is able to degrade dyes such as thionine and methylene blue on irradiation with 254 nm/300 nm light. By adding H 2 O 2 along with uranyl ion, photodegradation takes place with visible light and also with enhanced rate. The hydroxyl radicals generated in the reoxidation of U(IV)/UO 2 + to UO 2 2+ are responsible for this enhanced degradation. The above advanced oxidation process (AOP) was applied to study the oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone. (author)

  14. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  15. Fluorine and chlorine determination in oxides and metals by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evseeva, T.I.; Poletaeva, I.L.; Zemlyanukhina, N.A.; Pavlova, I.V.; Rybin, A.M.; Malykh, M.Yu.; Fedorova, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Method for simultaneous determination of fluorine and chlorine microquantitie in tantalum, uranium and plutonium oxides, based on combined methods of pyrohydrolysis (1000-1100 deg C) and two-column ion chromatography with conductometric detection is suggested. The relative root-mean-square deviation of determination error is 0.2, the fluorine and chlorine content being 5·10 -4 mass%

  16. Red Phosphorus Nanodots on Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Flexible and Ultra-Fast Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Anyi; Shen, Chenfei; Liu, Qingzhou; Cao, Xuan; Ma, Yuqiang; Chen, Liang; Lau, Christian; Chen, Tian-Chi; Wei, Fei; Zhou, Chongwu

    2017-06-27

    Sodium-ion batteries offer an attractive option for potential low cost and large scale energy storage due to the earth abundance of sodium. Red phosphorus is considered as a high capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries with a theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh/g. However, similar to silicon in lithium-ion batteries, several limitations, such as large volume expansion upon sodiation/desodiation and low electronic conductance, have severely limited the performance of red phosphorus anodes. In order to address the above challenges, we have developed a method to deposit red phosphorus nanodots densely and uniformly onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (P@RGO) to minimize the sodium ion diffusion length and the sodiation/desodiation stresses, and the RGO network also serves as electron pathway and creates free space to accommodate the volume variation of phosphorus particles. The resulted P@RGO flexible anode achieved 1165.4, 510.6, and 135.3 mAh/g specific charge capacity at 159.4, 31878.9, and 47818.3 mA/g charge/discharge current density in rate capability test, and a 914 mAh/g capacity after 300 deep cycles in cycling stability test at 1593.9 mA/g current density, which marks a significant performance improvement for red phosphorus anodes for sodium-ion chemistry and flexible power sources for wearable electronics.

  17. Kinetic studies of electrochemical generation of Ag(II) ion and catalytic oxidation of selected organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, W.H.; Martinez, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a method to treat mixed hazardous wastes containing selected organic compounds and heavy metals, including actinide elements. One approach is to destroy the organic via electrochemical oxidation to carbon dioxide, then recover the metal contaminants through normally accepted procedures such as ion exchange, precipitation, etc. The authors have chosen to study the electrochemical oxidation of a simple alcohol, iso-propanol. Much of the recent work reported involved the use of an electron transfer mediator, usually the silver(I)/(II) redox couple. This involved direct electrochemical generation of the mediator at the anode of a divided cell followed by homogeneous reaction of the mediator with the organic compound. In this study the authors have sought to compare the mediated reaction with direct electrochemical oxidation of the organic. In addition to silver(I)/(II) they also looked at the cobalt(II)/(III) redox coupled. In the higher oxidation state both of these metal ions readily hydrolyze in aqueous solution to ultimately form insoluble oxide. The study concluded that in a 6M nitric acid solution at room temperature iso-propanol can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and acetic acid. Acetic acid is a stable intermediate and resists further oxidation. The presence of Co(III) enhances the rate or efficiency of the reaction

  18. Effect of ionic conductivity of zirconia electrolytes on polarization properties of various electrodes in SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Manabu [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been intensively investigated because, in principle, their energy conversion efficiency is fairly high. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs from 1000{degrees}C to around 800{degrees}C is desirable for reducing serious problems such as physical and chemical degradation of the constructing materials. The object of a series of the studies is to find a clue for achieving higher electrode performances at a low operating temperature than those of the present level. Although the polarization loss at electrodes can be reduced by using mixed-conducting ceria electrolytes, or introducing the mixed-conducting (reduced zirconia or ceria) laver on the conventional zirconia electrolyte surface, no reports are available on the effect of such an ionic conductivity of electrolytes on electrode polarizations. High ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, of course, reduces the ohmic loss. However, we have found that the IR-free polarization of a platinum anode attached to zirconia electrolytes is greatly influenced by the ionic conductivity, {sigma}{sub ion}, of the electrolytes used. The higher the {sigma}{sub ion}, the higher the exchange current density, j{sub 0}, for the Pt anode in H{sub 2} at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C. It was indicated that the H{sub 2} oxidation reaction rate was controlled by the supply rate of oxide ions through the Pt/zirconia interface which is proportional to the {sigma}{sub ion}. Recently, we have proposed a new concept of the catalyzed-reaction layers which realizes both high-performances of anodes and cathodes for medium-temperature operating SOFCs. We present the interesting dependence of the polarization properties of various electrodes (the SDC anodes with and without Ru microcatalysts, Pt cathode, La(Sr)MnO{sub 3} cathodes with and without Pt microcatalysts) on the {sigma}{sub ion} of various zirconia electrolytes at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C.

  19. Copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide composites for high performance Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Hee-Sang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prepared a composite electrode structure consisting of copper nanofiber-networked cobalt oxide (CuNFs@CoO x . The copper nanofibers (CuNFs were fabricated on a substrate with formation of a network structure, which may have potential for improving electron percolation and retarding film deformation during the discharging/charging process over the electroactive cobalt oxide. Compared to bare CoO x thin-film (CoO x TF electrodes, the CuNFs@CoO x electrodes exhibited a significant enhancement of rate performance by at least six-fold at an input current density of 3C-rate. Such enhanced Li-ion storage performance may be associated with modified electrode structure at the nanoscale, improved charge transfer, and facile stress relaxation from the embedded CuNF network. Consequently, the CuNFs@CoO x composite structure demonstrated here can be used as a promising high-performance electrode for Li-ion batteries.

  20. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A. S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Djebli, M. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab Ezzour, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-06-09

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1 keV and 23.3 keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  1. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, A. S.; Moslem, W. M.; Djebli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1 keV and 23.3 keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  2. Surface-conductivity enhancement of PMMA by keV-energy metal-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannister, M.E.; Hijazi, H.; Meyer, H.M.; Cianciolo, V.; Meyer, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment has been proposed to measure the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) with high precision at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source. One of the requirements of this experiment is the development of PMMA (Lucite) material with a sufficiently conductive surface to permit its use as a high-voltage electrode while immersed in liquid He. At the ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility, an R and D activity is under way to achieve suitable surface conductivity in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) using metal ion implantation. The metal implantation is performed using an electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source and a recently developed beam line deceleration module that is capable of providing high flux beams for implantation at energies as low as a few tens of eV. The latter is essential for reaching implantation fluences exceeding 1 × 10 16 cm −2 , where typical percolation thresholds in polymers have been reported. In this contribution, we report results on initial implantation of Lucite by Ti and W beams with keV energies to average fluences in the range 0.5–6.2 × 10 16 cm −2 . Initial measurements of surface-resistivity changes are reported as function of implantation fluence, energy, and sample temperature. We also report X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface and depth profiling measurements of the ion implanted samples, to identify possible correlations between the near surface and depth resolved implanted W concentrations and the measured surface resistivities

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition of Stable LiAlF4 Lithium Ion Conductive Interfacial Layer for Stable Cathode Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Sendek, Austin D; Cubuk, Ekin D; Zhang, Xiaokun; Lu, Zhiyi; Gong, Yongji; Wu, Tong; Shi, Feifei; Liu, Wei; Reed, Evan J; Cui, Yi

    2017-07-25

    Modern lithium ion batteries are often desired to operate at a wide electrochemical window to maximize energy densities. While pushing the limit of cutoff potentials allows batteries to provide greater energy densities with enhanced specific capacities and higher voltage outputs, it raises key challenges with thermodynamic and kinetic stability in the battery. This is especially true for layered lithium transition-metal oxides, where capacities can improve but stabilities are compromised as wider electrochemical windows are applied. To overcome the above-mentioned challenges, we used atomic layer deposition to develop a LiAlF 4 solid thin film with robust stability and satisfactory ion conductivity, which is superior to commonly used LiF and AlF 3 . With a predicted stable electrochemical window of approximately 2.0 ± 0.9 to 5.7 ± 0.7 V vs Li + /Li for LiAlF 4 , excellent stability was achieved for high Ni content LiNi 0.8 Mn 0.1 Co 0.1 O 2 electrodes with LiAlF 4 interfacial layer at a wide electrochemical window of 2.75-4.50 V vs Li + /Li.

  4. Reduced graphene oxide and Fe_2(MoO_4)_3 composite for sodium-ion batteries cathode with improved performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Yubin; Xu, Maowen

    2016-01-01

    Fe_2(MoO_4)_3@reduced graphene oxide (FMO@rGO) composite have been synthesized by precipitation-hydrothermal method. Herein, the graphene oxide in the present synthesis acts not only as baffles between particle and particle that helps to prevent the increase of particle size, but also as conductive networks after hydrothermal treatment, providing high electronic conductivity between particle and particle. The special surface area of the as-prepared materials significantly increases from 19.738 m"2 g"−"1 (FMO) to 51.401 m"2 g"−"1 (FMO@rGO), which undoubtedly provide more interface area between the active materials and the electrolyte. As a cathode material for sodium-ion batteries, the FMO@rGO composite delivers high discharge capacity at 0.5 C, which is comparable to theoretical capacity and literatures, and impressive rate performance. As the current density is at 5 C, for the first time, the initial specific capacity of FMO@rGO composite is about 68.2 mAh g"−"1, and it remains 56.5 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles, of which the excellent electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to good conductivity, high specific surface area and significantly enhanced diffusion coefficient. - Highlights: • Fe_2(MoO_4)_3@reduced graphene oxide composite have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The obtained materials reveal large discharge capacity, outstanding rate performance and good stability. • The enhancement mechanism was explored.

  5. Magnetic properties of Pr ions in perovskite-type oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekizawa, K.; Kitagawa, M.; Takano, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Pr ions with the controlled valence on the A and B sites of perovskite-type oxides (ABO 3 ) were investigated for two systems. PrSc 1-x Mg x O 3 and BaPr 1-x Bi x O 3 . From the magnetic susceptibility χ versus temperature T curves of PrSc 1-x Mg x O 3 , the χ-T curve for molar Pr 3+ ions on the A site and that of Pr 4+ ions were obtained. The 1/χ-T curves for both ions exhibit the crystalline electric field (CEF) effect and the effective magneticmoment μ eff above 100 K is 3.41 μ B for Pr 3- and 2.58 μ B for Pr 4+ , respectively. The χ-T curve of PrSc 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3 is similar to that of PrBa 2 Cu 3 O y . In the BaPr 1-x Bi x O 3 system, only one intermediate phase BaPr 0.5 Bi 0.5 O 3 exists, in which Pr and Bi take an ordered arrangement on the B site. The magnetic susceptibility χ for Pr 4+ and that of Pr 3+ in the ordered arrangement with Bi 5- on the B site are much smaller than those for the A site, reflecting the strong CEF effect on the B site. Experimental χ-T curves can be well reproducedby the numerical calculation for Pr 3+ or Pr 4+ ions in the molecular field and the CEF with proper respective parameters. (orig.)

  6. Ion beam application for improved polymer surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R.; Lewis, M.B.; Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    Various polymeric materials were subjected to bombardment by different energetic ions with energies ranging from 200 to 1000 keV. Tests showed substantial improvements in hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance, resistance to chemicals, and electrical conductivity. The magnitude of property changes was strongly dependent upon ion species, energy, dose, and polymer structure. Both hardness and electrical conductivity increased with ion energy and dose. These properties were apparently related to the effectiveness of cross-linking. Ion species with a large electronic stopping cross-section are expected to produce more crosslinking. It is believed that the polymer property improvements are commensurate with the extent of crosslinking, which is responsible for the formation of three-dimensionally-connected, carbon-rich, rigid networks. 22 refs, 5 figs

  7. A novel solution combustion synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoparticles as negative-electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wei; Wu Jinming; Tu Jiangping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the electrochemical performance of cobalt oxides fabricated by solution combustion synthesis for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. ► The additive of NaF in precursor results in an eruption combustion mode. ► The eruption combustion leads to fluffy networks with smaller grains and more macroporous voids. ► The network contributes to higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: Low cost mass production of cobalt oxide nanoparticles with high electrochemical performance is of practical interest for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In this report, cobalt oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by solution combustion synthesis, with the introduction of NaF into the precursor to alter the combustion mode. The novel eruption combustion resulted in fluffy networks with smaller particles and more macroporous voids, which contributed to the higher discharge capacity, higher initial coulombic efficiency, and better cycling performance when compared with that achieved by the conventional combustion mode.

  8. Electronic and ionic conductivity studies on microwave synthesized glasses containing transition metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basareddy Sujatha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glasses in the system xV2O5·20Li2O·(80 − x [0.6B2O3:0.4ZnO] (where 10 ≤ x ≤ 50 have been prepared by a simple microwave method. Microwave synthesis of materials offers advantages of efficient transformation of energy throughout the volume in an effectively short time. Conductivity in these glasses was controlled by the concentration of transition metal ion (TMI. The dc conductivity follows Arrhenius law and the activation energies determined by regression analysis varies with the content of V2O5 in a non-linear passion. This non-linearity is due to different conduction mechanisms operating in the investigated glasses. Impedance and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopic studies were performed to elucidate the nature of conduction mechanism. Cole–cole plots of the investigated glasses consist of (i single semicircle with a low frequency spur, (ii two depressed semicircles and (iii single semicircle without spur, which suggests the operation of two conduction mechanisms. EPR spectra reveal the existence of electronic conduction between aliovalent vanadium sites. Further, in highly modified (10V2O5 mol% glasses Li+ ion migration dominates.

  9. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy of Live Keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, V; Mason, A; Saliev, T; Smith, F J D; McLean, W H I; Campbell, P A

    2012-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is perhaps the least well known technique from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) family of instruments. As with its more familiar counterpart, atomic force microscopy (AFM), the technique provides high-resolution topographic imaging, with the caveat that target structures must be immersed in a conducting solution so that a controllable ion current may be utilised as the basis for feedback. In operation, this non-contact characteristic of SICM makes it ideal for the study of delicate structures, such as live cells. Moreover, the intrinsic architecture of the instrument, incorporating as it does, a scanned micropipette, lends itself to combination approaches with complementary techniques such as patch-clamp electrophysiology: SICM therefore boasts the capability for both structural and functional imaging. For the present observations, an ICnano S system (Ionscope Ltd., Melbourn, UK) operating in 'hopping mode' was used, with the objective of assessing the instrument's utility for imaging live keratinocytes under physiological buffers. In scans employing cultured HaCaT cells (spontaneously immortalised, human keratinocytes), we compared the qualitative differences of live cells imaged with SICM and AFM, and also with their respective counterparts after chemical fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. Characteristic surface microvilli were particularly prominent in live cell imaging by SICM. Moreover, time lapse SICM imaging on live cells revealed that changes in the pattern of microvilli could be tracked over time. By comparison, AFM imaging on live cells, even at very low contact forces (< nN), could not routinely image microvilli: rather, an apparently convolved image of the underlying cytoskeleton was instead prevalent. We note that the present incarnation of the commercial instrument falls some way behind the market leading SPMs in terms of technical prowess and scanning speed, however, the intrinsic non-obtrusive nature of

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye on the boron-doped diamond electrode in the presence of phosphate ions: Effect of current density, pH, and chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Carla Regina; Montilla, Francisco; Morallon, Emilia; Olivi, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of acid black 210 dye (AB-210) on the boron-doped diamond (BDD) was investigated under different pH conditions. The best performance for the AB-210 oxidation occurred in alkaline phosphate solution. This is probably due to oxidizing agents such as phosphate radicals and peroxodiphosphate ions, which can be electrochemically produced with good yields on the BDD anode, mainly in alkaline solution. Under this condition, the COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal was higher than that obtained from the model proposed by Comninellis. Electrolyses performed in phosphate buffer and in the presence of chloride ions resulted in faster COD and color removals in acid and neutral solutions, but in alkaline phosphate solution, a better performance in terms of TOC removal was obtained in the absence of chloride. Moreover, organochloride compounds were detected in all electrolyses performed in the presence of chloride. The AB-210 electrooxidation on BDD using phosphate as supporting electrolyte proved to be interesting since oxidizing species generated from phosphate ions were able to completely degrade the dye without producing organochloride compounds.

  12. Reactivity of surface of metal oxide particles: from adsorption of ions to deposition of colloidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In this Accreditation to supervise research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of his research works in the field of chemistry. These works more particularly addressed the understanding of the surface reactivity of metal oxide particles and its implication on sorption and adherence processes. In a first part, he addresses the study of surface acidity-alkalinity: measurement of surface reactivity by acid-base titration, stability of metal oxides in suspension, effect of morphology on oxide-hydroxide reactivity. The second part addresses the study of sorption: reactivity of iron oxides with selenium species, sorption of sulphate ions on magnetite, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). Adherence effects are addressed in the third part: development of an experimental device to study adherence in massive substrates, deposition of particles under turbulent flow. The last part presents a research project on the effect of temperature on ion sorption at solids/solutions interfaces, and on the adherence of metal oxide particles. The author gives his detailed curriculum, and indicates his various publications, teaching activities, research and administrative responsibilities

  13. Binary conductive network for construction of Si/Ag nanowires/rGO integrated composite film by vacuum-filtration method and their application for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Xia, X.H.; Zhang, Y.J.; Tong, Y.Y.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Construction of high-capacity anode is highly important for the development of next-generation high-performance lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we fabricate Si/Ag nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (Si/Ag NWs/rGO) integrated composite film by introducing binary conductive networks (Ag NWs and rGO) into Si active materials with the help of a facile vacuum-filtration method. Active Si nanoparticles are homogeneously encapsulated by binary Ag NWs-rGO conductive network, in which Ag NWs are interwoven among the rGO sheets. The electrochemical properties of the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film are thoroughly characterized as anode of LIBs. Compared to the Si/rGO composite film, the integrated Si/Ag NWs/rGO composite film exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better high-rate capability and cycling stability (1269 mAh g"−"1 at 50 mA g"−"1 up to 50 cycles). The binary conductive network plays a positive role in the enhancement of performance due to its faster ion/electron transfer, and better anti-structure degradation caused by volume expansion during the cycling process.

  14. Comparison of the effects and distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc ions in activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Chew, Evelyn; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-09-19

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being increasingly applied in the industry, which results inevitably in the release of these materials into the hydrosphere. In this study, simulated waste-activated sludge experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Zinc Oxide NPs and to compare it with its ionic counterpart (as ZnSO 4 ). It was found that even 1 mg/L of ZnO NPs could have a small impact on COD and ammonia removal. Under 1, 10 and 50 mg/L of ZnO NP exposure, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from 79.8% to 78.9%, 72.7% and 65.7%, respectively. The corresponding ammonium (NH 4 + N) concentration in the effluent significantly (P zinc ions were more toxic towards microorganisms compared to ZnO NPs. Under 50 mg/L exposure, the effluent Zn level was 5.69 mg/L, implying that ZnO NPs have a strong affinity for activated sludge. The capacity for adsorption of ZnO NPs onto activated sludge was found to be 2.3, 6.3, and 13.9 mg/g MLSS at influent ZnO NP concentrations of 1.0, 10 and 50 mg/L respectively, which were 1.74-, 2.13- and 2.05-fold more than under Zn ion exposure.

  15. Hydrogen ion conducting starch-chitosan blend based electrolyte for application in electrochemical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukur, M.F.; Kadir, M.F.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cation transference number of the highest conducting starch-chitosan-NH 4 Cl-glycerol electrolyte is 0.56. • LSV has shown that the polymer electrolyte is suitable for fabrication of EDLC and proton batteries. • The fabricated EDLC has been charged and discharged for 500 cycles. • Secondary proton battery has been charged and discharged for 40 cycles. - Abstract: This paper reports the characterization of starch-chitosan blend based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system and its application in electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) and proton batteries. All the SPEs are prepared via solution cast technique. Results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) verify the conductivity result from our previous work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows the difference in the electrolyte's surface with respect to NH 4 Cl and glycerol content. From transference number measurements (TNM), transference number of ion (t ion ) of the electrolytes shows that ion is the dominant conducting species. Transference number of cation (t + ) for the highest conducting electrolyte is found to be 0.56. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) result confirms the suitability of the highest conducting electrolyte to be used in the fabrication of EDLC and proton batteries. The EDLC has been characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The open circuit potential (OCP) of the primary proton batteries for 48 h is lasted at (1.54 ± 0.02) V, while that of secondary proton batteries is lasted at (1.58 ± 0.01) V. The primary proton batteries have been discharged at different constant currents. The secondary proton battery has been charged and discharged for 40 cycles

  16. Structure and conductive properties of poly(ethylene oxide)/layered double hydroxide nanocomposite polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-S.; Ye, W.-B.

    2004-01-01

    The oligo(ethylene oxide) modified layered double hydroxide (LDH) prepared by template method was added as a nanoscale nucleating agent into poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form PEO/OLDH nanocomposite electrolytes. The effects of OLDH addition on morphology and conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffractometer, polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and ionic conductivity measurement. The results show that the exfoliated morphology of nanocomposites is formed due to the surface modification of LDH layers with PEO matrix compatible oligo(ethylene oxide)s. The nanoscale dispersed OLDH layers inhibit the crystal growth of PEO crystallites and result in a plenty amount of intercrystalline grain boundary within PEO/OLDH nanocomposites. The ionic conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes are enhanced by three orders of magnitude compared to the pure PEO polymer electrolytes at ambient temperature. It can be attributed to the ease transport of Li + along intercrystalline amorphous phase. This novel nanocomposite electrolytes system with high conductivities will be benefited to fabricate the thin-film type of Li-polymer secondary battery

  17. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  18. Swift heavy ion induced phase transformation and thermoluminescence properties of zirconium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokesha, H.S. [Physics R & D Centre, PES Institute of Technology, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Nagabhushana, K.R., E-mail: bhushankr@gmail.com [Physics R & D Centre, PES Institute of Technology, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Department of Physics, PES University, BSK 3rd Stage, Bangalore 560085 (India); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) powder is synthesized by combustion technique. XRD pattern of ZrO{sub 2} shows monoclinic phase with average crystallite size 35 nm. Pellets of ZrO{sub 2} are irradiated with 100 MeV swift Si{sup 7+}, Ni{sup 7+} and 120 MeV swift Ag{sup 9+} ions in the fluence range 3 × 10{sup 10}–3 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}. XRD pattern show the main diffraction peak correspond to monoclinic and tetragonal phase of ZrO{sub 2} in 2θ range 27–33°. Structural phase transformation is observed for Ni{sup 7+} and Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiated samples at a fluence 1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2} and 3 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2} respectively, since the deposited electronic energy loss exceeds an effective threshold (>12 keV nm{sup −1}). Phase transition induced by Ag{sup 9+} ion is nearly 2.9 times faster than Ni{sup 7+} ion at 1 × 10{sup 13} ions cm{sup −2}. Ag{sup 9+} ion irradiation leads two ion impact processes. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves exhibit two glows, a well resolved peak at ∼424 K and unresolved peak at 550 K for all SHI irradiated samples. TL response is decreased with increase of ion fluence. Beyond 3 × 10{sup 12} ions cm{sup −2}, samples don’t exhibit TL due to annihilation of defects.

  19. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  20. All-solid-state ion-selective silicone rubber membrane electrodes with a new conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Rang; Chung, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Sun Woo

    2012-01-01

    New conducting polymers containing heterocyclic rings with carbazole, ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) and benzobisthiazole were synthesized and the characterized by using organic spectroscopic methods. Potentiometric ion-selective membrane electrodes (ISMEs) have been extensively used for ion analysis in clinical, environmental, and industrial fields owing to their wide response range (4 to 7 orders of magnitude), no effect of sample turbidity, fast response time, and ease of miniaturization. Considerable attention has been given to alternative use of room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV)-type silicone rubber (SR) owing to its strong adhesion and high thermal durability. Unfortunately, the high membrane resistance of SR-based ion-selective membranes (ISMs) (2 to 3 higher orders of magnitude compared to those of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC)-based ones) has significantly restricted their application. Herein, we demonstrate a new method to reduce the membrane resistance via addition of a new conducting polymer into the SR-based ISMs.

  1. Electrical Properties of Conductive Cotton Yarn Coated with Eosin Y Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Arul, Narayanasamy Sabari; Han, Jeong In

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication and investigation of the electrical properties of two types of conductive cotton yarns coated with eosin Y or eosin B functionalized reduced graphene (RGO) and bare graphene oxide (GO) using dip-coating method. The surface morphology of the conductive cotton yarn coated with reduced graphene oxide was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Due to the strong electrostatic attractive forces, the negatively charged surface such as the eosin Y functionalized reduced graphene oxide or bare GO can be easily coated to the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated cotton yarn. The maximum current for the conductive cotton yarn coated with eosin Y functionalized RGO and bare GO with 20 cycles repetition of (5D + R) process was found to be 793.8 μA and 3482.8 μA. Our results showed that the electrical conductivity of bare GO coated conductive cotton yarn increased by approximately four orders of magnitude with the increase in the dipping cycle of (5D+R) process.

  2. Hydration number of alkali metal ions determined by insertion in a conducting polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    of all other water molecules whose properties are still influenced significantly by the cation. Knowing the hydration number is important when considering, for instance, the transport of Na+ and K+ in biological cell membranes, since their different behavior may depend on the details of ion hydration....... The solvation of alkali metal ions has been discussed for many years without a clear consensus. This work presents a systematic study of the hydration numbers of the 5 alkali metal ions, using the electrochemical insertion of the ions in a conducting polymer (polypyrrole containing the large immobile anion DBS...... direct calculation of the number of M+ ions entering the film, and therefore the inserted M+ mass. The mass of the water molecules is calculated as a difference. The results yield the following primary hydration numbers: Li+: 5.5-5.6; Na+: 4.0-4.1; K+: 2.0-2.5; Rb+: 0.6-1.2; Cs+: ~0. The most important...

  3. Proton dynamics in oxides: insight into the mechanics of proton conduction from quasielastic neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maths

    2015-01-07

    This article is concerned with the use of quasielastic neutron scattering as a technique for investigation of the dynamical properties of proton conducting oxides. Currently, the main interest in these materials comes from their promise as electrolytes in future electrochemical devices and particularly through their use as electrolytes in next-generation, intermediate-temperature, fuel cells. However, the realization of such devices depends critically on the development of new, more highly proton conducting oxides. Such a development depends on increasing the current understanding of proton conduction in oxides and for this purpose quasielastic neutron scattering is an important mean. The aim of this article is to introduce the non-specialist reader to the basic principles of quasielastic neutron scattering, its advantages and disadvantages, to summarize the work that has been done on proton conducting oxides using this technique, as well as to discuss future opportunities within this field of research.

  4. Coupling ultraviolet light and ultrasound irradiation with Conductive-Diamond Electrochemical Oxidation for the removal of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidales, María J. Martín de; Barba, Silvia; Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Single sonolysis and photolysis technologies entail a slight progesterone removal and nil mineralization. • Synergistic effects of irradiating UV light and US are clearly observed in the oxidation rate. • The energy required by CDSEO and CDSPEO prevents against their application. • CDSEO mainly favors the mass transfer of organics to the conductive-diamond surface. • CDPEO promotes the formation of radicals in the bulk solution. - Abstract: This work focusses on the improvement of the efficiency of Conductive Diamond Electrochemical Oxidation (CDEO) by coupling US and UV irradiation in the degradation of progesterone from wastewater. Results show that CDEO is a promising technology for the degradation of progesterone, just the opposite of that observed for single sonolysis and photolysis technologies, which only entail a slight removal of progesterone and nil mineralization. Coupling UV light and US irradiations with CDEO seems to have a very positive effect, improving results obtained by single CDEO very significantly. Conductive Diamond Sono Electrochemical Oxidation (CDSEO) mainly seems to improve the transfer of pollutants to the conductive-diamond surface, while Conductive Diamond Photo Electrochemical Oxidation (CDPEO) seems to promote the formation of radicals from oxidants produced electrochemically. Soft oxidation conditions are obtained with the single application of both irradiation technologies, whereas an efficient mineralization is attained with CDEO, CDSEO, CDPEO and Conductive Diamond Sono-Photo Electrochemical Oxidation (CDSPEO). However, the high energy demands of US irradiation technologies advices against the use of CDSEO and CDSPEO

  5. Divalent Cations Regulate the Ion Conductance Properties of Diverse Classes of Aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kourghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are known to facilitate water and solute fluxes across barrier membranes. An increasing number of AQPs are being found to serve as ion channels. Ion and water permeability of selected plant and animal AQPs (plant Arabidopsis thaliana AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, AtPIP2;7, human Homo sapiens HsAQP1, rat Rattus norvegicus RnAQP4, RnAQP5, and fly Drosophila melanogaster DmBIB were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined in chelator-buffered salines to evaluate the effects of divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+ and Cd2+ on ionic conductances. AtPIP2;1, AtPIP2;2, HsAQP1 and DmBIB expressing oocytes had ionic conductances, and showed differential sensitivity to block by external Ca2+. The order of potency of inhibition by Ca2+ was AtPIP2;2 > AtPIP2;1 > DmBIB > HsAQP1. Blockage of the AQP cation channels by Ba2+ and Cd2+ caused voltage-sensitive outward rectification. The channels with the highest sensitivity to Ca2+ (AtPIP2;1 and AtPIP2;2 showed a distinctive relief of the Ca2+ block by co-application of excess Ba2+, suggesting that divalent ions act at the same site. Recognizing the regulatory role of divalent cations may enable the discovery of other classes of AQP ion channels, and facilitate the development of tools for modulating AQP ion channels. Modulators of AQPs have potential value for diverse applications including improving salinity tolerance in plants, controlling vector-borne diseases, and intervening in serious clinical conditions involving AQPs, such as cancer metastasis, cardiovascular or renal dysfunction.

  6. Mesocosm Community Response Sensitivities to Specific Conductivity Comprised of Different Major Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional toxicity test assays have been used to evaluate the relative sensitivity to different major ion mixtures as a proxy for understanding what the response of aquatic species growing in their natural environment would be during exposure to specific conductivity stress ema...

  7. Exploring Lithium-Cobalt-Nickel Oxide Spinel Electrodes for ≥3.5 V Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eungje; Blauwkamp, Joel; Castro, Fernando C.; Wu, Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chongmin; Kim, Soo; Wolverton, Christopher; Benedek, Roy; Dogan, Fulya; Park, Joong Sun; Croy, Jason R.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-10-19

    Recent reports have indicated that a manganese oxide spinel component, when embedded in a relatively small concentration in layered xLi2MnO3(1-x)LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) electrode systems, can act as a stabilizer that increases their capacity, rate capability, cycle life, and first-cycle efficiency. These findings prompted us to explore the possibility of exploiting lithiated cobalt oxide spinel stabilizers by taking advantage of (1) the low mobility of cobalt ions relative to manganese and nickel ions in close-packed oxides and (2) their higher potential (~3.6 V vs. Li0) relative to manganese oxide spinels (~2.9 V vs. Li0) for the spinel-to-lithiated spinel electrochemical reaction. In particular, we have revisited the structural and electrochemical properties of lithiated spinels in the LiCo1-xNixO2 (0x0.2) system, first reported almost 25 years ago, by means of high-resolution (synchrotron) X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electrochemical cell tests, and theoretical calculations. The results provide a deeper understanding of the complexity of intergrown layered/lithiated spinel LiCo1-xNixO2 structures, when prepared in air between 400 and 800 C, and the impact of structural variations on their electrochemical behavior. These structures, when used in low concentration, offer the possibility of improving the cycling stability, energy, and power of high energy (≥3.5 V) lithium-ion cells.

  8. Conductivity enhancement of ion tracks in tetrahedral amorphous carbon by doping with N, B, Cu and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauser, J.; Nix, A.-K.; Gehrke, H.-G.; Hofsäss, H.; Trautmann, C.; Weidinger, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conducting ion tracks are formed when high-energy heavy ions (e.g. 1 GeV Au) pass through tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). These nanowires with a diameter of about 8 nm are embedded in the insulating ta-C matrix and of interest for various nanotechnological applications. Usually the overall conductivity of the tracks and the current/voltage characteristics (Ohmic or non-Ohmic) vary strongly from track to track, even when measured on the same sample, indicating that the track formation is neither complete nor homogeneous. To improve the track conductivity, doping of ta-C with N, B, Cu, or Fe is investigated. Beneficial changes in track conductivity after doping compete with a conductivity increase of the surrounding matrix material. Best results are achieved by incorporation of 1 at.% Cu, while for different reasons, the improvement of the tracks remains moderate for N, B, and Fe doping. Conductivity enhancement of the tracks is assumed to develop during the ion track formation process by an increased number of localized states which contribute to the current transport.

  9. Nanosystems in Ceramic Oxides Created by Means of Ion Implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Huis, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The material properties of nanometer-sized clusters are dependent on the cluster size. Changing the cluster dimensions induces structural phase transformations, metal-insulator transitions, non-linear optical properties and widening of the band gap of semiconductors. In this work, nanoclusters are created by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. The ceramic oxides MgO and Al2O3 are used as embedding materials because of their stability and optical transparency. All clusters were cre...

  10. A conductivity study of preferential solvation of lithium ion in acetonitrile-dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhzhukhina, Nataliia; Longinotti, M. Paula; Corti, Horacio R.; Calvo, Ernesto J.

    2015-01-01

    The electrical mobility of LiPF 6 in acetonitrile–dimethyl sulfoxide (ACN–DMSO) mixtures, a potential electrolyte in oxygen cathodes of lithium-air batteries, has been studied using a very precise conductance technique, which allowed the determination of the infinite dilution molar conductivity and association constant of the salt in the whole composition range. In the search for preferential Li + ion solvation, we also measured the electrical conductivity of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF 6 ), a salt formed by a bulky cation, over the same composition range. The results show a qualitative change in the curvature of the LiPF 6 molar conductivity composition dependence for ACN molar fraction (x ACN ) ∼ 0.95, which was not observed for TBAPF 6 . The dependence of the measured Li/Li + couple potential with solvent composition also showed a pronounced change around the same composition. We suggest that these observations can be explained by Li + ion preferential solvation by DMSO in ACN–DMSO mixtures with very low molar fractions of DMSO

  11. Removal of cobalt ions from aqueous solution by an amination graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Fang [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Kong, Lingtao, E-mail: ltkong@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Jiarui [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000 (China); Wu, Shibiao [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Zhang, Kaisheng [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Xuelong [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230039 (China); Sun, Bai; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Jin [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu, E-mail: xjhuang@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Jinhuai, E-mail: jhliu@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A newly designed GO-NH{sub 2}: Higher adsorption capability than that of activated carbon. • Very quick adsorption property: More than 90% of Co(II) can be removed within 5 min. • One of the highest adsorption capabilities of today's nanomaterials for Co(II) (116.35 mg/g). • GO-NH{sub 2} membrane can remove more than 98% Co(II) from the water. - Abstract: A newly designed amination graphene oxide (GO-NH{sub 2}), a superior adsorption capability to that of activated carbon, was fabricated by graphene oxide (GO) combining with aromatic diazonium salt. The resultant GO-NH{sub 2} maintained a high surface area of 320 m{sup 2}/g. When used as an adsorbent, the GO-NH{sub 2} demonstrated a very quick adsorption property for the removal of Co(II) ions, more than 90% of Co(II) ions could be removed within 5 min for dilute solutions at 0.3 g/L adsorbent dose. The adsorption capability approaches 116.35 mg/g, which is one of the highest capabilities of today's materials. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that the Co(II) ions adsorption on GO-NH{sub 2} was a spontaneous process. Considering the superior adsorption capability, the GO-NH{sub 2} filter membrane was fabricated for the removal of Co(II) ions. Membrane filtration experiments revealed that the removal capabilities of the materials for cobalt ions depended on the membrane's thickness, flow rate and initial concentration of Co(II) ions. The highest percentage removal of Co(II) exceeds 98%, indicating that the GO-NH{sub 2} is one of the very suitable membrane materials in environmental pollution management.

  12. Hydrothermally Processed Oxide Nanostructures and Their Lithium–ion Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Y- and Si-based oxide nanopowders were synthesized by a hydrothermal reaction of Y or Si powders with NaOH or LiOH aqueous solution. Nanoparticles with different morphology such as elongated nanospheres, flower-like nanoparticles and nanowires were produced by a control of processing parameters, in particular, the starting composition of solution. The preliminary result of electrochemical examination showed that the hydrothermally processed nanowires exhibit high initial capacities of Li-ion storage: 653 mAh/g for Y2O3 nanowires as anode materials and 186 mAh/g for Li2Si2O5 nanowires as cathode materials in a Li secondary cell. Compared to the powder with elongated sphere or flower-like shapes, the nanowires showed a higher Li-ion capacity and a better cycle property.

  13. ZnO based transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharescu, M., E-mail: mzaharescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Mihaiu, S., E-mail: smihaiu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Toader, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Atkinson, I., E-mail: irinaatkinson@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Calderon-Moreno, J.; Anastasescu, M.; Nicolescu, M.; Duta, M.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vojisavljevic, K.; Malic, B. [Institute Jožef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ivanov, V.A.; Zaretskaya, E.P. [State Scientific and Production Association “Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of the National Academy of Science Belarus, P. Brovska str.19, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-11-28

    The transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction are of great importance and their preparation is intensively studied. In our work, the preparation of such films based on doped ZnO was realized in order to achieve controlled type of conduction and high concentration of the charge carriers. Sol–gel method was used for films preparation and several dopants were tested (Sn, Li, Ni). Multilayer deposition was performed on several substrates: SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers, silica-soda-lime and/or silica glasses. The structural and morphological characterization of the obtained films were done by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively, while spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were done for determination of optical properties. The selected samples with the best structural, morphological and optical properties were subjected to electrical measurement (Hall and Seebeck effect). In all studied cases, samples with good adherence and homogeneous morphology as well as monophasic wurtzite type structure were obtained. The optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) were calculated from spectroscopic ellipsometry data using Cauchy model. Films with n- or p-type conduction were obtained depending on the composition, number of deposition and thermal treatment temperature. - Highlights: • Transparent conductive ZnO based thin films were prepared by the sol–gel method. • Controlled type of conduction is obtained in (Sn, Li) doped and Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • Hall and Seebeck measurements proved the p-type conductivity for Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • The p-type conductivity was maintained even after 4-months of storage. • Influence of dopant- and substrate-type on the ZnO films properties was established.

  14. Ion irradiation-induced diffusion in bixbyite-fluorite related oxides: Dislocations and phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolly, Gaboriaud, E-mail: Rolly.gaboriaud@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS-University of Poitiers, SP2MI-BP 30179, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Fabien, Paumier [Institut Pprime, CNRS-University of Poitiers, SP2MI-BP 30179, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Bertrand, Lacroix [CSIC – University of Sevilla, Avenida Américo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Ion-irradiation induced diffusion and the phase transformation of a bixbyite-fluorite related rare earth oxide thin films are studied. This work is focused on yttrium sesquioxide, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin films deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates using the ion beam sputtering technique (IBS). As-deposited samples were annealed ant then irradiated at cryogenic temperature (80 K) with 260 keV Xe{sup 2+} at different fluences. The irradiated thin oxide films are characterized by X-ray diffraction. A cubic to monoclinic phase transformation was observed. Analysis of this phenomenon is done in terms of residual stresses. Stress measurements as a function of irradiation fluences were realised using the XRD-sin{sup 2}ψ method. Stress evolution and kinetic of the phase transformation are compared and leads to the role-played by the nucleation of point and extended defects.

  15. Room temperature deposition of high figure of merit Al-doped zinc oxide by pulsed-direct current magnetron sputtering: Influence of energetic negative ion bombardment on film's optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, F., E-mail: francesco.fumagalli@iit.it; Martí-Rujas, J., E-mail: javier.rujas@iit.it; Di Fonzo, F., E-mail: fabio.difonzo@iit.it

    2014-10-31

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide is regarded as a promising indium-free transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic and transparent electronics. In this study high transmittance (up to 90,6%) and low resistivity (down to 8,4°1{sup −4} Ω cm) AZO films were fabricated at room temperature on thermoplastic and soda-lime glass substrates by means of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering in argon gas. Morphological, optical and electrical film properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis–nIR photo-spectrometer, X-ray spectroscopy and four probes method. Optimal deposition conditions were found to be strongly related to substrate position. The dependence of functional properties on substrate off-axis position was investigated and correlated to the angular distributions of negative ions fluxes emerging from the plasma discharge. Figure of merit as high as 2,15 ± 0,14 Ω{sup −1} were obtained outside the negative oxygen ions confinement region. Combination of high quality AZO films deposited on flexible polymers substrates by means of a solid and scalable fabrication technique is of interest for application in cost-effective optoelectrical devices, organic photovoltaics and polymer based electronics. - Highlights: • High figure of merit transparent conductive oxide's deposited at room temperature. • High transmittance and low resistivity obtained on thermoplastic substrates. • Competitive optoelectrical properties compared to high temperature deposition. • Negative ion fluxes confinement influence structural and optoelectrical properties. • Easily adaptable for scaled-up low temperature AZO film deposition installations.

  16. Measurement of thermal conductivity of the oxide coating on autoclaved monel-400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dua, A.K.; George, V.C.; Agarwala, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of the oxide coating on monel-400 has been measured by a direct method. The oxide coating is applied on an electrically conducting wire having stable characteristics. The wire is placed in a constant temperature bath and a constant direct current is passed through it. The wire gets heated and loses heat to the surrounding. Temperature is measured by considering it as a resistance thermometer. A convection heat transfer coefficient, which is difficult to measure experimentally but is involved in the analytical expression for thermal conductivity, is eliminated by connecting a second uncoated wire of a noble metal having similar surface finish as that of the coated wire in series with it. The accuracy of the method is nearly six percent. However, the method is not easily applicable for very thin (thickness <= 1μ), highly porous coatings and materials having relatively large thermal conductivity. (M.G.B.)

  17. Understanding the ionic conductivity maximum in doped ceria: trapping and blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koettgen, Julius; Grieshammer, Steffen; Hein, Philipp; Grope, Benjamin O H; Nakayama, Masanobu; Martin, Manfred

    2018-02-26

    Materials with high oxygen ion conductivity and low electronic conductivity are required for electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and high-temperature electrolysis (SOEC). A potential candidate for the electrolytes, which separate oxidation and reduction processes, is rare-earth doped ceria. The prediction of the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes and a better understanding of the underlying atomistic mechanisms provide an important contribution to the future of sustainable and efficient energy conversion and storage. The central aim of this paper is the detailed investigation of the relationship between defect interactions at the microscopic level and the macroscopic oxygen ion conductivity in the bulk of doped ceria. By combining ab initio density functional theory (DFT) with Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, the oxygen ion conductivity is predicted as a function of the doping concentration. Migration barriers are analyzed for energy contributions, which are caused by the interactions of dopants and vacancies with the migrating oxygen vacancy. We clearly distinguish between energy contributions that are either uniform for forward and backward jumps or favor one migration direction over the reverse direction. If the presence of a dopant changes the migration energy identically for forward and backward jumps, the resulting energy contribution is referred to as blocking. If the change in migration energy due to doping is different for forward and backward jumps of a specific ionic configuration, the resulting energy contributions are referred to as trapping. The influence of both effects on the ionic conductivity is analyzed: blocking determines the dopant fraction where the ionic conductivity exhibits the maximum. Trapping limits the maximum ionic conductivity value. In this way, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms determining the influence of dopants on the ionic conductivity is obtained and the ionic conductivity is predicted

  18. Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boli; Li, Dan; Liu, Zhengjiao; Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Li, Qun; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The C-MnO/rGO composites were anchored on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. • The novel architecture of anodes effectively improved the electrochemical performance of lithium ion battery. • The active MnO nanodendrites became smaller nanoparticles still wrapped in graphene sheets after cycles. - Abstract: Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets (C-MnO/rGO) were prepared on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. As a binder-free anode of lithium-ion battery, the nanodendritic structure of C-MnO accommodates the huge volume expansion and shortens the diffusion length for lithium ion and electron, rGO sheets prevent C-MnO nanodendites from aggregation and offer a good electronic conduction. As a result, the electrode with such a novel architecture delivers superior electrochemical properties including high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and cycle stability. Moreover, MnO nanodendrites change to nanoparticles wrapped in graphene sheets during the lithiation/delithiation process, which is a more beneficial microstructure to further increase the specific capacity and cycle life of the electrode.

  19. In-situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified lithium vanadium phosphate for high-rate lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaozhi; Guo, Haifu; Yan, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-decorated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is synthesized via microwave irradiation. • Both Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and RGO can be simultaneously achieved through this route. • The GO is reduced by microwave irradiation not the carbon. • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /RGO displays excellent high-rate ability and cyclic stability. - Abstract: We report a simple and rapid method to synthesize graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation. By treating graphene oxide and the precursor of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 in a commercial microwave oven, both reduced graphene oxide and Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 could be simultaneously synthesized within 5 min. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performances of as-synthesized graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 are investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XRD result indicates that single-phase graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 with monoclinic structure can be obtained. Both SEM and TEM images show that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocrystals are embedded in the reduced graphene oxide sheets which could provide an easy path for the electrons and Li-ions during the cycling process. Compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 electrode, graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits a better high-rate ability and cyclic stability. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the good conductivity of reduced graphene oxide which enhances the electrons and Li-ions transport on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . Thus, this simple and rapid method could be promising to synthesize graphene-modified electrode materials

  20. Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by nickel oxide nano catalyst prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metal is arising as the most endangering tasks to both water sources and atmosphere quality today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. To limit the spread of the heavy metals within water sources, nickel oxide nanoparticles adsorbents were synthesized and characterized with the aim of removal of one of the aggressive heavy elements, namely; lead ions. Nano nickel oxide adsorbents were prepared using NaOH and oxalic acid dissolved in ethanol as precursors. The results indicated that adsorption capacity of Pb(II ion by NiO-org catalyst is favored than that prepared using NaOH as a precipitant. Nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared by the two methods were characterized structurally and chemically through XRD, DTA, TGA, BET and FT-IR. Affinity and efficiency sorption parameters of the solid nano NiO particles, such as; contact time, initial concentration of lead ions and the dosage of NiO nano catalyst and competitive adsorption behaviors were studied. The results showed that the first-order reaction law fit the reduction of lead ion, also showed good linear relationship with a correlation coefficient (R2 larger than 0.9.

  1. Respiration sensor made from indium tin oxide-coated conductive fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Joo Hyeon; Jee, Seung Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Conductive fabrics with new properties and applications have been the subject of extensive research over the last few years, with wearable respiration sensors attracting much attention. Different methods can be used to obtain fabrics that are electrically conducting, an essential property for various applications. For instance, fabrics can be coated with conductive polymers. Here, indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated conductive fabrics with cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (C-PVA) were prepared using a doctor-blade. The C-PVA was employed in the synthesis to bind ITO on the fabrics with the highest possible mechanical strength. The feasibility of a respiration sensor prepared using the ITO-coated conductive fabric was investigated. The ITO-coated conductive fabric with the C-PVA was demonstrated to have a high potential for use in respiration sensors.

  2. Ionic conduction studies in Li3+ ion irradiated P(VDF-HFP)-(PC + DEC)-LiCF3SO3 gel polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, D.; Hussain, A.M.P.; Kumar, A.; Singh, F.; Avasthi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the Li ion diffusivity in gel polymer electrolytes, the effects of Li 3+ ion irradiation in P(VDF-HFP)-(PC + DEC)-LiCF 3 SO 3 electrolyte system, with five different fluences, is studied. Irradiation with swift heavy ions shows enhancement in conductivity at low fluences and decreased in conductivity at higher fluences with respect to pristine polymer electrolyte films. Maximum room temperature ionic conductivity after irradiation is found to be 2.6 x 10 -3 S/cm. This interesting result could be attributed to the fact that, higher fluence provides critical activation energy for cross-linking and crystallization to occur, which results in decrease in ionic conductivity. XRD results show decrease in the degree of crystallinity upon ion irradiation at low fluences (≤10 11 ions/cm 2 ) and increase in crystallinity at high fluences (>10 11 ions/cm 2 ). In FTIR spectra the absorption band intensities around 3025 cm -1 and 2985 cm -1 decrease upon irradiation with a fluence of 5 x 10 1 ions/cm 2 suggesting chain scission and increase upon irradiation with a fluence of 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 indicating cross-linking. FTIR analyses corroborate the conductivity and XRD results

  3. K2 Mn4 O8 /Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Excellent Lithium Storage and Adsorption of Lead Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shu-Meng; Qu, Jin; Yang, Jing; Gui, Chen-Xi; Wang, Qian-Qian; Li, Qian-Jie; Li, Xiaofeng; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Ion diffusion efficiency at the solid-liquid interface is an important factor for energy storage and adsorption from aqueous solution. Although K 2 Mn 4 O 8 (KMO) exhibits efficient ion diffusion and ion-exchange capacities, due to its high interlayer space of 0.70 nm, how to enhance its mass transfer performance is still an issue. Herein, novel layered KMO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites are fabricated through the anchoring of KMO nanoplates on RGO with a mild solution process. The face-to-face structure facilitates fast transfer of lithium and lead ions; thus leading to excellent lithium storage and lead ion adsorption. The anchoring of KMO on RGO not only increases electrical conductivity of the layered nanocomposites, but also effectively prevents aggregation of KMO nanoplates. The KMO/RGO nanocomposite with an optimal RGO content exhibits a first cycle charge capacity of 739 mA h g -1 , which is much higher than that of KMO (326 mA h g -1 ). After 100 charge-discharge cycles, it still retains a charge capacity of 664 mA h g -1 . For the adsorption of lead ions, the KMO/RGO nanocomposite exhibits a capacity of 341 mg g -1 , which is higher than those of KMO (305 mg g -1 ) and RGO (63 mg g -1 ) alone. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Swift heavy ion induced modification in morphological and physico-chemical properties of tin oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Nanocomposite thin films of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2})/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) were grown on silicon (1 0 0) substrates by electron beam evaporation deposition technique using sintered nanocomposite pellet of SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} in the percentage ratio of 95:5. Sintering of the nanocomposite pellet was done at 1300 °C for 24 h. The thicknesses of these films were measured to be 100 nm during deposition using piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. TiO{sub 2} doped SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite films were irradiated by 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ion beam at fluence range varying from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, India. Chemical properties of pristine and ion irradiation modified thin films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR peak at 610 cm{sup −1} confirms the presence of O–Sn–O bridge of tin (IV) oxide signifying the composite nature of pristine and irradiated thin films. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in tapping mode was used to study the surface morphology and grain growth due to swift heavy ion irradiation at different fluencies. Grain size calculations obtained from sectional analysis of AFM images were compared with results obtained from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) measurements using Scherrer’s formulae. Phase transformation due to irradiation was observed from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) results. The prominent 2θ peaks observed in GAXRD spectrum are at 30.67°, 32.08°, 43.91°, 44.91° and 52.35° in the irradiated films.

  5. Iron oxide shell coating on nano silicon prepared from the sand for lithium-ion battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furquan, Mohammad; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Mitra, Sagar

    2018-05-01

    Elemental silicon, due to its high specific capacity (4200 mAh g-1) and non-toxicity is expected to be an attractive anode material for Li-ion battery. But its huge expansion volume (> 300 %) during charging of battery, leads to pulverization and cracking in the silicon particles and causes sudden failure of the Li-ion battery. In this work, we have designed yolk-shell type morphology of silicon, prepared from carbon coated silicon nanoparticles soaked in aqueous solution of ferric nitrate and potassium hydroxide. The soaked silicon particles were dried and finally calcined at 800 °C for 30 minutes. The product obtained is deprived of carbon and has a kind of yolk-shell morphology of nano silicon with iron oxide coating (Si@Iron oxide). This material has been tested for half-cell lithium-ion battery configuration. The discharge capacity is found to be ≈ 600 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 1.0 A g-1 for 200 cycles. It has shown a stable performance as anode for Li-ion battery application.

  6. Ion-conductivity of thin film Li-Borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouzari, M.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the specific conductivity of ion-sputtered lithium borate thin films is studied. To this end, lithium borate glasses of the composition yLi 2 O.(1-y)B 2 O 3 with y=0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.35 were produced as sputter targets. Films with thicknesses between 7 nm and 700 nm are deposited on silicon substrate between two AlLi electrodes. Conductivity spectra have been taken over a frequency range of 5 Hz to 2 MHz. The measurements were performed at different temperatures between 40 C and 350 C depending on the thickness and the composition of the films. The following results are derived by studying the conductivities of the films: i) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses larger than 150 nm is independent of their thicknesses; we call these layers 'thick films' and consider their conductivity as the 'base conductivity'. ii) The specific dc conductivity of layers with thicknesses smaller than 150 nm, called 'thin films', depends on the layer thickness. A nontrivial enhancement of the specific dc conductivity about three orders of magnitude for y=0.15, 0.2, and 0.25 is observed. iii) The base conductivity depends on y and at 120 C it varies between 4 x 10 -10 Ω -1 cm -1 and 2.5 x 10 -6 Ω -1 cm -1 when y varies between 0.15 and 0.35, whereas the maximum value of the specific dc conductivity of extremely thin films (with a thickness of some nanometre) seems to be independent of y and equals to the specific dc conductivity of layers with y= 0.35. Furthermore, we found in this work a physical interpretation of the so-called 'Constant Phase Element' (CPE) which is widely used in equivalent circuits for ionic conductors. This element describes correctly the depressed impedance semicircles observed in impedance spectroscopy. So far, this effect is sometimes attributed to the surface roughness. We have shown not only the invalidity of this approach, but we have also found that the depression arises from the nature of ionic motions. The model

  7. The role of calcium ions in the photocatalytic oxidation of humic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariquit, Eden G; Salim, Chris; Hinode, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    Humic acids (HAs) are natural organic matter derived from the decomposition of plant, algal, and microbial materials. They belong to the group of the most predominant type of natural organic matter present in ground and surface waters. HAs affect the mobility and bioavailability of aquatic contaminants. However, if they are left unremoved from the water before water treatment processes, they can form carcinogenic disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and other halogenated disinfection by-products, that can pose a threat to human beings. An advanced oxidation process using UV light and a commercially available titanium dioxide was used to oxidize HA at a pH that is similar to that of natural water. The effect of adding calcium ions to the adsorption and the photocatalytic oxidation of HAs was studied. The effect of varying the TiO(2) load was also investigated. The experiment was done using a photochemical batch reactor equipped with a mercury lamp emitting light with wavelengths of 310-580 nm. The absorbances by the samples were determined at wavelengths of 254 nm and 436 nm, which represent the aromatic-compound content of and the color of the solution, respectively. Results indicated calcium ions have an effect on both the adsorption and the photocatalytic oxidation of HA at a pH within 8.0 +/- 0.5. Calcium ions facilitated adsorption of HA onto the surface of TiO(2) and resulted to faster photocatalytic oxidation. The data were plotted with respect to the normalized absorbances and irradiation time.

  8. Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Changlin [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu; Wang, Yuechao; Yang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    This Letter reports a phase modulation (PM) mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. In this mode, an AC current is directly generated by an AC voltage between the electrodes. The portion of the AC current in phase with the AC voltage, which is the current through the resistance path, is modulated by the tip-sample distance. It can be used as the input of feedback control to drive the scanner in Z direction. The PM mode, taking the advantages of both DC mode and traditional AC mode, is less prone to electronic noise and DC drift but maintains high scanning speed. The effectiveness of the PM mode has been proven by experiments.

  9. The electronic conduction of glass and glass ceramics containing various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Matsuno, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Nb 2 O 5 -V 2 O 5 -P 2 O 5 glasses containing only Group Va oxides have been investigated to elucidate their electronic conduction and structure, as compared with other glasses obtained by the addition of various transition metal oxides to vanadium phosphate. The P 2 O 5 introduction for Nb 2 O 5 in this glass with the same amount of V 2 O 5 increased the conductivity about two times. Glass ceramics having high conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude and the activation energy for conduction decreased from about 0.5 to 0.2 eV. The crystals were confirmed to be (V,Nb) 2 O 5 and Nb phosphate, one of which was highly conductive and developed a pillar-like shape with a length of more than 20 μm. (orig.)

  10. thermal, electrical and structural characterization of fast ion conducting glasses (Ag Br)x(AgPO)1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, E.; Yufus, S.; Priyanto, T; Indayaningsih, N; Collins, M F

    2001-01-01

    Fast ion conducting glasses are of considerable technological interest because of their possible application in batteries, sensors, and displays. One of the main scientific challenges is to explain how the disordered structure of the glass is related to the high ionic conductivity that can be achieved at ambient temperature. Fast ion conducting glasses (AgBr) x (AgPO3) 1- x with x=0.0; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7; and 0.85 were prepared by rapid quenching. The studies of structure, thermal property and electrical conductivity have been made. The X-ray diffraction patterns of this system show that the sample are glasses for x 0.5. The neutron diffraction data shows that all AgBr doped glasses exhibit a strong and relatively sharp diffraction peak at anomalously low momentum transfer value, Q∼ 0.7 Α - 1. The low Q-peak is not observed in AgPO 3 glass, and in the X-ray data. The results of electrical conductivity show that the conduction is essentially ionic and due to silver ions alone. The logarithm of the ionic conductivity increases with increasing AgBr mole fraction, and reaches maximum for x = 0.5. The thermal property results measured by differential scanning calorimetric show that the temperatures of the glass transition, the crystallization and the melt reach minimum for the glass with composition x 0.5. We conclude that there appears to be a relation between higher conductivity at ambient temperature, and the low Q-peak. Based on this investigation a better fast ion conducting glass proposed is (AgBr) 0 .5(AgPO 3 ) 0 .5 with the conductivity of 8 x 10 - 5 S/cm

  11. Original Conductive Nano-Co3O4 Investigated as Electrode Material for Hybrid Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Godillot, Gérôme; Guerlou-Demourgues, Liliane; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Delmas, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt oxides have been extensively used as conductive additives for Ni-MH batteries. We report in this paper the performances of an original nanometric cobalt oxide, close to Co3O4, as electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. This spinel type phase contains hydrogen, lithium, cobalt vacancies, and especially Co4þ ions within the structure, leading to a high electronic conductivity. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements show interesting capacitance (320 F/g in 8M-KO...

  12. Composition Dependence of the Na(+) Ion Conductivity in 0.5Na2S + 0.5[xGeS2 + (1 - x)PS5/2] Mixed Glass Former Glasses: A Structural Interpretation of a Negative Mixed Glass Former Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve W; Bischoff, Christian; Schuller, Katherine

    2015-12-24

    smaller than the measured values for all compositions x. The new concept of an effective Madelung constant for the Na(+) ions in glass is introduced, MD(Na(+)), to account for the difference. Calculated MD(Na(+)) values necessary to bring the CMAS and experimental ΔEact values into agreement are in excellent agreement with nominal values for typical oxide crystals containing Na(+). New MD simulations of oxide glasses were performed and were used to calculate MD(Na(+)) values for Na2O + SiO2 glasses for the first time and were found to agree quite well with the values for the sulfide glasses studied here. Insights from the current study have been used to predict and design new MGF systems that may lead to a positive MGFE in the ionic conductivity.

  13. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel electrode surface fabricated by directly attaching gold nanoparticles onto NH{sub 2}{sup +} ions implanted-indium tin oxide substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenyao; Jiao Jiao; Chen Qunxia [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Xia Ji [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Shuoqi [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Hu Jingbo, E-mail: hujingbo@bnu.edu.c [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Qilong [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2010-12-01

    A new type of gold nanoparticle attached to a NH{sub 2}{sup +} ion implanted-indium tin oxide surface was fabricated without using peculiar binder molecules, such as 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane. A NH{sub 2}/indium tin oxide film was obtained by implantation at an energy of 80 keV with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The gold nanoparticle-modified film was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques and compared with a modified bare indium tin oxide surface and 3-(aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane linked surface, which exhibited a relatively low electron transfer resistance and high electrocatalytic activity. The results demonstrate that NH{sub 2}{sup +} ion implanted-indium tin oxide films can provide an important route to immobilize nanoparticles, which is attractive in developing new biomaterials.

  15. An Anion Conductance, the Essential Component of the Hydroxyl-Radical-Induced Ion Current in Plant Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Pottosin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress signaling is essential for plant adaptation to hostile environments. Previous studies revealed the essentiality of hydroxyl radicals (HO•-induced activation of massive K+ efflux and a smaller Ca2+ influx as an important component of plant adaptation to a broad range of abiotic stresses. Such activation would modify membrane potential making it more negative. Contrary to these expectations, here, we provide experimental evidence that HO• induces a strong depolarization, from −130 to −70 mV, which could only be explained by a substantial HO•-induced efflux of intracellular anions. Application of Gd3+ and NPPB, non-specific blockers of cation and anion conductance, respectively, reduced HO•-induced ion fluxes instantaneously, implying a direct block of the dual conductance. The selectivity of an early instantaneous HO•-induced whole cell current fluctuated from more anionic to more cationic and vice versa, developing a higher cation selectivity at later times. The parallel electroneutral efflux of K+ and anions should underlie a substantial leak of the cellular electrolyte, which may affect the cell’s turgor and metabolic status. The physiological implications of these findings are discussed in the context of cell fate determination, and ROS and cytosolic K+ signaling.

  16. Ion exchange resins destruction in a stirred supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A.; Guichardon, P.; Boutin, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins (IERs) are radioactive process wastes for which there is no satisfactory industrial treatment. Supercritical water oxidation offers a viable treatment alternative to destroy the organic structure of resins, used to remove radioactivity. Up to now, studies carried out in supercritical water for IER destruction showed that degradation rates higher than 99% are difficult to obtain even using a catalyst or a large oxidant excess. In this study, a co-fuel, isopropanol, has been used in order to improve degradation rates by initiating the oxidation reaction and increasing temperature of the reaction medium. Concentrations up to 20 wt% were tested for anionic and cationic resins. Total organic carbon reduction rates higher than 99% were obtained from this process, without the use of a catalyst. The influence of operating parameters such as IERs feed concentration, nature and counterions of exchanged IERs were also studied. (authors)

  17. Robust binder-free anodes assembled with ultralong mischcrystal TiO2 nanowires and reduced graphene oxide for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongzheng; Yang, Dongzhi; Yu, Ruomeng; Liu, Yaxin; Hao, Shu-Meng; Zhang, Shiyi; Qu, Jin; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-04-01

    To satisfy increasing power demands of mobile devices and electric vehicles, rationally designed electrodes with short diffusion length are highly imperative to provide highly efficient ion and electron transport paths for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries. Herein, binder-free electrodes with the robust three-dimensional conductive network are prepared by assembling ultralong TiO2 nanowires with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for high-performance lithium-ion storage. Ultralong TiO2 nanowires are synthesized and used to construct an interconnecting network that avoids the use of inert auxiliary additives of polymer binders and conductive agents. By thermal annealing, a small amount of anatase is generated in situ in the TiO2(B) nanowires to form abundant TiO2(B)/anatase interfaces for accommodating additional lithium ions. Simultaneously, RGO sheets efficiently enhance the electronic conductivity and enlarge the specific surface area of the TiO2/RGO nanocomposite. The robust 3D network in the binder-free electrode not only effectively avoids the agglomeration of TiO2/RGO components during the long-term charging/discharging process, but also provides direct and fast ion/electron transport paths. The binder-free electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 259.9 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C and an excellent cycling performance with a high reversible capacity of 111.9 mA h g-1 at 25 C after 5000 cycles.

  18. High H⁻ ionic conductivity in barium hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H(-)) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm(-1) at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  19. Enhanced AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole nanoparticles irradiated with Ni{sup 12+} swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, J.; Kumar, A., E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, we report the 160 MeV Ni{sup 12+} swift heavy ions (SHIs) irradiation effects on AC conductivity and dielectric relaxation properties of polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles in the frequency range of 42 Hz–5 MHz. Four ion fluences of 5 × 10{sup 10}, 1 × 10{sup 11}, 5 × 10{sup 11} and 1 × 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} have been used for the irradiation purpose. Transport properties in the pristine and irradiated PPy nanoparticles have been investigated with permittivity and modulus formalisms to study the polarization effects and conductivity relaxation. With increasing ion fluence, the relaxation peak in imaginary modulus (M{sup ″}) plots shifts toward high frequency suggesting long range motion of the charge carriers. The AC conductivity studies suggest correlated barrier hopping as the dominant transport mechanism. The hopping distance (R{sub ω}) of the charge carriers decreases with increasing the ion fluence. Binding energy (W{sub m}) calculations depict that polarons are the dominant charge carriers.

  20. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Silver Ion Conducting Nanocomposite Solid Polymer Electrolytes Based on Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shujahadeen B.; Rasheed, Mariwan A.; Abidin, Zul H. Z.

    2017-10-01

    Optical and electrical properties of nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes based on chitosan have been investigated. Incorporation of alumina nanoparticles into the chitosan:silver triflate (AgTf) system broadened the surface plasmon resonance peaks of the silver nanoparticles and shifted the absorption edge to lower photon energy. A clear decrease of the optical bandgap in nanocomposite samples containing alumina nanoparticles was observed. The variation of the direct-current (DC) conductivity and dielectric constant followed the same trend with alumina concentration. The DC conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude, which can be attributed to hindrance of silver ion reduction. Transmission electron microscopy was used to interpret the space-charge and blocking effects of alumina nanoparticles on the DC conductivity and dielectric constant. The ion conduction mechanism was interpreted based on the dependences of the electrical and dielectric parameters. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the dielectric constant is explained empirically. Relaxation processes associated with conductivity and viscoelasticity were distinguished based on the incomplete semicircular arcs in plots of the real and imaginary parts of the electric modulus.

  1. Use of ion beam techniques to characterize thin plasma grown GaAs and GaAlAs oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Feldman, L.C.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Thin plasma grown films of GaAs oxides and GaAlAs oxides have been analyzed using the combined techniques of Rutherford backscattering, ion-induced X-rays, and nuclear resonance profiling. The stoichiometries of the films have been quantitatively determined and can be combined with other Auger profiling results to characterize the films. The ion-induced X-ray technique has been checked against other measurements to determine its accuracy. For uniform films such as these the X-ray measurements can provide accurate quantitative results. (Auth.)

  2. Isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Itami, Akira

    1989-01-01

    The isotopic exchange rate of cobalt ions between hydrous tin(IV) oxide ion exchanger and aqueous solutions was radiochemically measured to obtain fundamental data which are useful for elucidating the ion-exchange kinetics of the material for the transition metal elements. The rate can be understood by considering that the cobalt ions were present in the exchanger as three kinds of species: (A 1 ) Free ions which can diffuse in the exchanger particles, (A 2 ) Weakly bound ions to the exchange sites which exchange rapidly with A 1 , and (B) Covalently fixed ions to the exchange sites which exchange very slowly with A 1 . At low fraction of B, the rate is controlled by the diffusion of A 1 with the effective diffusion coefficient, D eff , the values of which depend on the concentration ratios of A 2 to A 1 . When B predominates over the A species, the concentration ratios of B to A 1 affect greatly D eff . The values of D eff and their activation energy(20 kJ/mol) were also estimated

  3. An Aqueous Metal-Ion Capacitor with Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes and Metallic Zinc Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuheng; Amal, Rose; Wang, Da-Wei, E-mail: da-wei.wang@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-03

    An aqueous metal ion capacitor comprising of a zinc anode, oxidized carbon nanotubes (oCNTs) cathode, and a zinc sulfate electrolyte is reported. Since the shuttling cation is Zn{sup 2+}, this typical metal ion capacitor is named as zinc-ion capacitor (ZIC). The ZIC integrates the divalent zinc stripping/plating chemistry with the surface-enabled pseudocapacitive cation adsorption/desorption on oCNTs. The surface chemistry and crystallographic structure of oCNTs were extensively characterized by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The function of the surface oxygen groups in surface cation storage was elucidated by a series of electrochemical measurement and the surface-enabled ZIC showed better performance than the ZIC with an un-oxidized CNT cathode. The reaction mechanism at the oCNT cathode involves the additional reversible Faradaic process, while the CNTs merely show electric double layer capacitive behavior involving a non-Faradaic process. The aqueous hybrid ZIC comprising the oCNT cathode exhibited a specific capacitance of 20 mF cm{sup −2} (corresponding to 53 F g{sup −1}) in the range of 0–1.8 V at 10 mV s{sup −1} and a stable cycling performance up to 5000 cycles.

  4. Directing the Branching Growth of Cuprous Oxide by OH- Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Si, Yunfei; Xue, Dongfeng

    The effect of OH- ions on the branching growth of cuprous oxide microcrystals was systematically studied by a reduction route, where copper-citrate complexes were reduced by glucose under alkaline conditions. Different copper salts including Cu(NO3)2, CuCl2, CuSO4, and Cu(Ac)2 were used in this work. The results indicate that the Cu2O branching growth habit is closely correlated to the concentration of OH- ions, which plays an important role in directing the diffusion-limited branching growth of Cu2O and influencing the reduction power of glucose. A variety of Cu2O branching patterns including 6-pod, 8-pod and 24-pod branches, have been achieved without using template and surfactant. The current method can provide a good platform for studying the growth mechanism of microcrystal branching patterns.

  5. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  6. Effect of Amine Adlayer on Electrochemical Uric Acid Sensor Conducted on Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sumi; Kim, Kyuwon

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical biosensing efficiency of uric acid (UA) detection on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-decorated electrode surface was studied by using various amine linkers used to immobilize ERGO. The amine linkers aminoethylphenyldiazonium , 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine), 3-aminopro-pyltriethoxysilane, and polyethyleneimine were coated on indium-tin-oxide electrode surfaces through chemical or electrochemical deposition methods. ERGO-decorated surfaces were prepared by the electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), which was immobilized on the amine-coated electrode surfaces through the electrostatic interaction between GO and the ammonium ion of the linker on the surface. We monitored the sensing results of electrochemical UA detection with differential pulse voltammetry. The ERGO-modified surface presented electrocatalytic oxidation of UA and ascorbic acid. Among the different amines tested, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane provided the best biosensing performance in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility.

  7. The ion dependent change in the mechanism of charge storage of chemically preintercalated bilayered vanadium oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clites, Mallory; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina

    2017-08-01

    Chemical pre-intercalation is a soft chemistry synthesis approach that allows for the insertion of inorganic ions into the interlayer space of layered battery electrode materials prior to electrochemical cycling. Previously, we have demonstrated that chemical pre-intercalation of Na+ ions into the structure of bilayered vanadium oxide (δ-V2O5) results in record high initial capacities above 350 mAh g-1 in Na-ion cells. This performance is attributed to the expanded interlayer spacing and predefined diffusion pathways achieved by the insertion of charge-carrying ions. However, the effect of chemical pre-intercalation of δ-V2O5 has not been studied for other ion-based systems beyond sodium. In this work, we report the effect of the chemically preintercalated alkali ion size on the mechanism of charge storage of δ- MxV2O5 (M = Li, Na, K) in Li-ion, Na-ion, and K-ion batteries, respectively. The interlayer spacing of the δ-MxV2O5 varied depending on inserted ion, with 11.1 Å achieved for Li-preintercalated δ-V2O5, 11.4 Å for Na-preintercalated δ- V2O5, and 9.6 Å for K-preintercalated δ-V2O5. Electrochemical performance of each material has been studied in its respective ion-based system (δ-LixV2O5 in Li-ion cells, δ-NaxV2O5 in Na-ion cells, and δ-KxV2O5 in K-ion cells). All materials demonstrated high initial capacities above 200 mAh g-1. However, the mechanism of charge storage differed depending on the charge-carrying ion, with Li-ion cells demonstrating predominantly pseudocapacitive behavior and Naion and K-ion cells demonstrating a significant portion of capacity from diffusion-limited intercalation processes. In this study, the combination of increased ionic radii of the charge-carrying ions and decreased synthesized interlayer spacing of the bilayered vanadium oxide phase correlates to an increase in the portion of capacity attributed diffusion-limited charge-storage processes.

  8. Conductivity, transport number measurements and hydration thermodynamics of BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y(0.1 − ξ)NiξO(3 − δ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Wang, Hsiang-Jen

    2011-01-01

    pressures, as well as the emf technique. The compounds exhibit p-type conduction in oxidizing atmosphere, and ionic conduction elsewhere. The oxide ion contribution of the conductivity is negligible only for temperatures below 600 °C. The determination of hydration enthalpies, our second goal, was achieved...

  9. Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Spengler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

  10. Mixed-conducting polyaniline-Fuller's Earth nanocomposites prepared by stepwise intercalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajapakse, R.M.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka)]. E-mail: rmgr@pdn.ac.lk; Krishantha, D.M.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Tennakoon, D.T.B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Dias, H.V.R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2006-02-25

    A series of polyaniline-Fuller's Earth (PANI-FE) nanocomposites were prepared by the successive intercalation of anilinium ions followed by polymerisation within the interlayer spaces of Fuller's Earth (a type of calcium montmorillonite). The first member in the series is prepared by exchanging the calcium ions in Fuller's Earth for ammonium ions and subsequently for anilinium ions and polymerising the latter using an externally introduced oxidant. The emeraldine salt form of polyaniline formed is then neutralised with ammonium hydroxide and more anilinium ions are exchanged for ammonium ions and polymerised to get the second member. In this manner, by making use the unique chemistry of clay and polyniline, four members of PANI-FE are prepared. In the last member, the negative layer charges of Fuller's Earth is completely neutralised by the positive charges of the polymer. The extent of polymer loading in each stage, the effect polymer has on the host structure and the electronic and ionic components of the conductivities of the new PANI-FE nanocomposites are investigated. The Fe(III) sites in FE are capable of spontaneously polymerising aniline within its intergalleries. The extent of spontaneous polymerisation is limited by the amount of Fe(III) present in the FE. The deliberate polymerisation of remaining anilinium ions by externally introduced oxidant results in highly conductive emeraldine salt-FE (EMS-FE) nanocomposites. The FE host accommodates higher amount of emeraldine salt and the repetitive insertions of the polymer could be done four times for complete layer charge neutralisation whereas with Bentonite the layer charge saturation takes place with three successive insertions. The new EMS-FE nanocomposites exhibit more than order of magnitude greater tuneable ionic and electronic conductivities compared to those of the same polymer incorporated in Bentonite.

  11. Superionic Conductivity of Sm3+, Pr3+, and Nd3+ Triple-Doped Ceria through Bulk and Surface Two-Step Doping Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Fan, Liangdong; Cai, Yixiao; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Baoyuan; Zhu, Bin

    2017-07-19

    Sufficiently high oxygen ion conductivity of electrolyte is critical for good performance of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). Notably, material conductivity, reliability, and manufacturing cost are the major barriers hindering LT-SOFC commercialization. Generally, surface properties control the physical and chemical functionalities of materials. Hereby, we report a Sm 3+ , Pr 3+ , and Nd 3+ triple-doped ceria, exhibiting the highest ionic conductivity among reported doped-ceria oxides, 0.125 S cm -1 at 600 °C. It was designed using a two-step wet-chemical coprecipitation method to realize a desired doping for Sm 3+ at the bulk and Pr 3+ /Nd 3+ at surface domains (abbreviated as PNSDC). The redox couple Pr 3+ /Pr 4+ contributes to the extraordinary ionic conductivity. Moreover, the mechanism for ionic conductivity enhancement is demonstrated. The above findings reveal that a joint bulk and surface doping methodology for ceria is a feasible approach to develop new oxide-ion conductors with high impacts on advanced LT-SOFCs.

  12. Effects of radiation damage in ion-implanted thin films of metal-oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.J.; Marwick, A.D.; Koch, R.H.; Laibowitz, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of ion implantation into thin films of the superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub x/ have been studied. Using oxygen and arsenic ions, the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/, the change in room-temperature electrical properties from conducting to insulating, and the crystalline to amorphous structural transition in the films were studied as a function of ion dose. The deposited energy required to change T/sub c/ was found to be 0.2 eV/atom, while 1--2 eV/atom was required to affect the room-temperature conductivity, and 4 eV/atom to render the film amorphous. This hierarchy of effects is discussed in terms of the damage mechanisms involved

  13. Methodologies For Characterising Mixed Conducting