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Sample records for oxalate bridges synthesis

  1. Hydroxyproline Metabolism and Oxalate Synthesis in Primary Hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargue, Sonia; Milliner, Dawn S; Knight, John; Olson, Julie B; Lowther, W Todd; Holmes, Ross P

    2018-06-01

    Background Endogenous oxalate synthesis contributes to calcium oxalate stone disease and is markedly increased in the inherited primary hyperoxaluria (PH) disorders. The incomplete knowledge regarding oxalate synthesis complicates discovery of new treatments. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) metabolism results in the formation of oxalate and glycolate. However, the relative contribution of Hyp metabolism to endogenous oxalate and glycolate synthesis is not known. Methods To define this contribution, we performed primed, continuous, intravenous infusions of the stable isotope [ 15 N, 13 C 5 ]-Hyp in nine healthy subjects and 19 individuals with PH and quantified the levels of urinary 13 C 2 -oxalate and 13 C 2 -glycolate formed using ion chromatography coupled to mass detection. Results The total urinary oxalate-to-creatinine ratio during the infusion was 73.1, 70.8, 47.0, and 10.6 mg oxalate/g creatinine in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3 and controls, respectively. Hyp metabolism accounted for 12.8, 32.9, and 14.8 mg oxalate/g creatinine in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3, respectively, compared with 1.6 mg oxalate/g creatinine in controls. The contribution of Hyp to urinary oxalate was 15% in controls and 18%, 47%, and 33% in subjects with PH1, PH2, and PH3, respectively. The contribution of Hyp to urinary glycolate was 57% in controls, 30% in subjects with PH1, and synthesis in individuals with PH2 and PH3. In patients with PH1, who have the highest urinary excretion of oxalate, the major sources of oxalate remain to be identified. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Synthesis, Crystal structure and Characterization of a New Oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in a slightly distorted octahedral environment, by two O atoms from two water molecules and four O atoms of two oxalate anions acting as chelating ligands. ... component for building up supramolecular systems and for participating in hydrogen bonding ... heating rate of 10◦C min−1. 2.2 Synthesis of the complex. Aqueous ...

  3. Reaction of hydrazine hydrate with oxalic acid: synthesis and crystal structure of dihydrazinium oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    Selvakumar, Rajendran; Premkumar, Thathan; Manivannan, Vadivelu; Saravanan, Kaliannan; Govindarajan, Subbiah

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of oxalic acid with hydrazine hydrate (in appropriate mole ratio) forms the dihydrazinium oxalate under specific experimental condition. The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate anion is perfectly planar and there is a crystallographic centre of symmetry in the middle of the C-C bond. The C-O bond distances are almost equal indicating the presence of resonance in the oxalate ion. The crystal packing is st...

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of uranyl squarates and squarate-oxalates: hydrolysis trends and in situ oxalate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Clare E; Cahill, Christopher L

    2010-07-19

    We report the synthesis of two uranyl squarates and two mixed-ligand uranyl squarate-oxalates from aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions. These products exhibit a range of uranyl building units from squarates with monomers in (UO(2))(2)(C(4)O(4))(5).6NH(4).4H(2)O (1; a = 16.731(17) A, b = 7.280(8) A, c = 15.872(16) A, beta = 113.294(16) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/c) and chains in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(C(4)O(4)) (2; a = 12.909(5) A, b = 8.400(3) A, c = 10.322(4) A, beta = 100.056(7) degrees , monoclinic, C2/c) to two squarate-oxalate polymorphs with dimers in (UO(2))(2)(OH)(C(4)O(4))(C(2)O(4)).NH(4).H(2)O (3; a = 9.0601(7) A, b = 15.7299(12) A, c = 10.5108(8) A, beta = 106.394(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/n; and 4; a = 8.4469(6) A, b = 7.7589(5) A, c = 10.5257(7) A, beta = 105.696(1) degrees , monoclinic, P2(1)/m). The dominance at low pH of monomeric species and the increasing occurrence of oligomeric species with increasing pH suggests that uranyl hydrolysis, mUO(2)(2+) + nH(2)O right harpoon over left harpoon [(UO(2))(m)(OH)(n)](2m-n) + nH(+), has a significant role in the identity of the inorganic building unit. Additional factors that influence product assembly include in situ hydrolysis of squaric acid to oxalic acid, dynamic metal to ligand concentration, and additional binding modes resulting from the introduction of oxalate anions. These points and the effects of uranyl hydrolysis with changing pH are discussed in the context of the compounds presented herein.

  5. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å 6.2378(12; b(Å 7,1115(14; c(Å 10.489(2; α(° 94.65(3; β(° 100.12(3; γ(° 97.78(3. The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both oxalic acid and hydrogen oxalate anion act as polydentate bridging ligands. Centrosymmetric sodium cations are bounded by hydrogen oxalate anions through a system of H bonds involving the molecules of oxalic acid. In the lattice, the 3D structure stabilized by H bonds is formed.

  6. Reaction of Hydrazine Hydrate with Oxalic Acid: Synthesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2013-11-28

    Nov 28, 2013 ... The title compound is a molecular salt containing two discrete hydrazinium cations and an oxalate anion. The oxalate ... RESEARCH ARTICLE ... Scheme and reaction showing the simple experimental procedure for the preparation of .... 7 A.I. Vogel, A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, 4th edn.,.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of actinide oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.

    2011-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a well-known reagent to recover actinides thanks to the very low solubility of An(IV) and An(III) oxalate compounds in acidic solution. Therefore, considering mixed-oxide fuel or considering minor actinides incorporation in ceramic fuel materials for transmutation, oxalic co-conversion is convenient to synthesize mixed oxalate compounds, precursors of oxide solid solutions. As the existing oxalate single crystal syntheses are not adaptable to the actinide-oxalate chemistry or to their manipulation constrains in gloves box, several original crystal growth methods were developed. They were first validate and optimized on lanthanides and uranium before the application to transuranium elements. The advanced investigations allow to better understand the syntheses and to define optimized chemical conditions to promote crystal growth. These new crystal growth methods were then applied to a large number of mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) or An1(IV)-An2(IV) systems and lead to the formation of the first original mixed An1(IV)-An2(III) and An1(IV)-An2(IV) oxalate single crystals. Finally thanks to the first thorough structural characterizations of these compounds, single crystal X-ray diffraction, EXAFS or micro-RAMAN, the particularly weak oxalate-actinide compounds structural database is enriched, which is essential for future studied nuclear fuel cycles. (author) [fr

  8. Influence of nutrition on feline calcium oxalate urolithiasis with emphasis on endogenous oxalate synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Plantinga, E.A.; Baal, van J.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths detected in cats with lower urinary tract disease has shown a sharp increase over the last decades with a concomitant reciprocal decrease in the occurrence of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) uroliths. CaOx stone-preventative diets are

  9. Origin of Urinary Oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ross P.; Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2007-04-01

    Urinary oxalate is mostly derived from the absorption of ingested oxalate and endogenous synthesis. The breakdown of vitamin C may also contribute small amounts to the urinary oxalate pool. The amount of oxalate absorbed is influenced by the oxalate content of the diet, the concentrations of divalent cations in the gut, the presence of oxalate-degrading organisms, transport characteristics of the intestinal epithelium, and other factors associated with the intestinal environment. Knowledge of pathways associated with endogenous oxalate synthesis is limited. Urinary oxalate excretion can be modified using strategies that limit dietary oxalate absorption and the ingestion of oxalogenic substrates such as hydroxyproline.

  10. Synthesis of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine oxalate from rejected liquid rocket propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaogang; Yang, Jingjing; Zhang, Youzhi

    2018-02-01

    The rejected liquid propellant unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) was converted to UDMH oxalate, which has commercial value. The UDMH oxalate structure and stability were investigated by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicate that UDMH oxalate has good thermal and aqueous solution stability, a melting point of 144 °C, an initial decomposition temperature of 180 °C, and a peak wavelength of UV in aqueous solution at λ = 204 nm. This disposal method of rejected UDMH is highly efficient and environmentally safe.

  11. Two novel metal–organic coordination polymers based on diphosphonate and oxalate: Synthesis, structures and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Qing-Jun; Zheng, Yue-Qing; Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Two 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonato and oxalic acid bridged coordination polymers (H 2 en)[Co 3 (H 2 zdn) 2 (ox)(H 2 O) 2 ] (1) and Cd 2 (H 2 zdn)(ox) 0.5 (H 2 O) (2) (2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid=H 5 zdn; oxalic acid=H 2 ox) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the infrared (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analyses (EA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compound 1 is bridged by phosphonate anions to 1D chain, and further linked by oxalate anions to 2D layer. Compound 2 is bridged by O–P–O units of H 5 zdn to the layer, and then pillared by oxalate anions to generate 3D frameworks. Compound 1 shows anti-ferromagnetic behaviors analyzed with the temperature-dependent zero-field ac magnetic susceptibilities, while compound 2 exhibits an influence on the luminescent property. - Graphical abstract: Linked by oxalate, two zoledronate-based metal–organic frameworks are synthesized, which exhibits the different frameworks. Magnetism and luminescent properties have been studied. The weak antiferromagnetic coupling is conducted in 1. - Highlights: • Compound 1 and 2 are first linked by oxalate anion based on zoledronic acid. • Compound 1 generates a classic “dia Diamond” (6 6 ) topology. • Compound 2 exhibits a (4 4 ·6 2 )(4 4 ·6 6 ) topology. • Magnetism and luminescent properties of 1 and 2 have been studied, respectively

  12. Two novel metal-organic coordination polymers based on diphosphonate and oxalate: Synthesis, structures and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qing-Jun; Zheng, Yue-Qing; Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2015-07-01

    Two 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonato and oxalic acid bridged coordination polymers (H2en)[Co3(H2zdn)2(ox)(H2O)2] (1) and Cd2(H2zdn)(ox)0.5(H2O) (2) (2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid=H5zdn; oxalic acid=H2ox) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the infrared (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analyses (EA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compound 1 is bridged by phosphonate anions to 1D chain, and further linked by oxalate anions to 2D layer. Compound 2 is bridged by O-P-O units of H5zdn to the layer, and then pillared by oxalate anions to generate 3D frameworks. Compound 1 shows anti-ferromagnetic behaviors analyzed with the temperature-dependent zero-field ac magnetic susceptibilities, while compound 2 exhibits an influence on the luminescent property.

  13. Crystal structure and spectroscopic analysis of a new oxalate-bridged MnII compound: catena-poly[guanidinium [[aquachloridomanganese(II]-μ2-oxalato-κ4O1,O2:O1′,O2′] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Sehimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of our studies on the synthesis and the characterization of oxalate-bridged compounds M–ox–M (ox = oxalate dianion and M = transition metal ion, we report the crystal structure of a new oxalate-bridged MnII phase, {(CH6N3[Mn(C2O4Cl(H2O]·H2O}n. In the compound, a succession of MnII ions (situated on inversion centers adopting a distorted octahedral coordination and bridged by oxalate ligands forms parallel zigzag chains running along the c axis. These chains are interconnected through O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions to form anionic layers parallel to (010. Individual layers are held together via strong hydrogen bonds involving the guanidinium cations (N—H...O and N—H...Cl and the disordered non-coordinating water molecule (O—H...O and O—H...Cl, as well as by guanidinium π–π stacking. The structural data were confirmed by IR and UV–Visible spectroscopic analysis.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of new oxalate ester-polymer composites for practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petre, Razvan [Scientific Research Centre for CBRN Defense and Ecology, 225 Sos. Oltenitei, Bucharest 041309 (Romania); University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 149 Calea Victoriei, Bucharest 010072 (Romania); Zecheru, Teodora, E-mail: teodora.zecheru@yahoo.com [Scientific Research Centre for CBRN Defense and Ecology, 225 Sos. Oltenitei, Bucharest 041309 (Romania)

    2013-03-15

    The present study focused on the synthesis of high purity oxalate esters: bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) and bis(2,4,5-trichloro-6-carbobutoxyphenyl) oxalate (TCCBPO), and further on their incorporation into potentially applicative polymer composites. The organic compounds were characterized through NMR and the composites obtained were evaluated for light capacity availability at room temperature and low temperatures. The concentrations of the peroxide, fluorescer, catalyst, and polymer additives were optimized. The chemiluminescent composites' performances were evaluated after 360 days and returned satisfactory results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer bis(2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl)-oxalate (TCPO) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer bis(2,4,5-Trichloro-6-carbobutoxiphenyl)-oxalate (TCCBPO) was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCPO and TCCBPO-based composites were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composites light emission was evaluated versus scotopic visual sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The new compositions present superior performances within extensive emission time.

  15. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, V.B.; Adhyapak, P.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO 3 was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO 3 , however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO 3 with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO 3 bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm −1 ) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C

  16. Oxalic acid induced hydrothermal synthesis of single crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, V.B. [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Adhyapak, P.V. [Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India); Suryavanshi, S.S., E-mail: sssuryavanshi@rediffmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413255 (India); Mulla, I.S., E-mail: ismulla2001@gmail.com [Emeritus Scientist (CSIR), Centre for Materials for Electronic Technology (C-MET), Pune 411008 (India)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • We report synthesis of 1D tungsten oxide using a hydrothermal route at 170 °C. • Oxalic acid plays an important role in the formation of 1D nanostructure. • Monoclinic transforms to hexagonal phase with increment in reaction duration. -- Abstract: One-dimensional single-crystalline tungsten oxide nanorods have been synthesized by the hydrothermal technique. The controlled morphology of tungsten oxide was obtained by using sodium tungstate and oxalic acid as an organic inducer. The reaction was carried out at 170 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained tungsten oxides were investigated by using XRD, SEM and HRTEM techniques. In order to understand the role of organic inducer on the shape, size and phase formation of WO{sub 3} was prepared with and without organic inducer. On heating of sodium tungstate without organic inducer for 72 h at 170 °C in the hydrothermal unit we obtain nanoparticles of monoclinic WO{sub 3}, however, on addition of oxalic acid a single phase hexagonal WO{sub 3} with distinct nanorods was formed. On addition of oxalic acid a systematic emergence of nanorod-like morphology was obtained with incrementing reaction times from 24 h to 48 h. The 72 h reaction generates self-assembled 20–30 nm diameter and 4–5 μm long h-WO{sub 3} bundles of nanorods. The XRD studies show hexagonal structure of tungsten oxide, while SAED reveals its single crystalline nature. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum shows a characteristic blue emission peak at 3 eV (410 nm). Raman spectra provide the evidence of hexagonal structure with stretching vibrations (830 cm{sup −1}) for 72 h of heating at 170 °C.

  17. Structure of the oxalate-ATP complex with pyruvate kinase: ATP as a bridging ligand for the two divalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodato, D.T.; Reed, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The 2 equiv of divalent cation that are required cofactors for pyruvate kinase reside in sites of different affinities for different species of cation. The intrinsic selectivity of the protein-based site for Mn(II) and of the nucleotide-based site for Mg(II) has been exploited in electron paramagnetic resonance (EOR) investigations of ligands for Mn(II) at the protein-based site. Oxalate, a structural analogue of the enolate of pyruvate, has been used as a surrogate for the reactive form of pyruvate in complexes with enzyme, Mn(II), Mg(II), and ATP. Superhyperfine coupling between the unpaired electron spin of Mn(II) and the nuclear spin of 17 O, specifically incorporated into oxalate, shows that oxalate is bound at the active site as a bidentate chelate with Mn(II). Coordination of the γ-phosphate of ATP to this same Mn(II) center is revealed by observation of superhyperfine coupling from 17 O regiospecifically incorporated into the γ-phosphate group of ATP. By contrast, 17 O in the α-phosphate or in the β-phosphate groups of ATP does not influence the spectrum. Experiments in 17 O-enriched water show that there is also a single water ligand bound to the Mn(II). These data indicate that ATP bridges Mn(II) and Mg(II) at the active site. A close spacing of the two divalent cations is also evident from the occurrence of magnetic interactions for complexes in which 2 equiv of Mn(II) are present at the active site. The structure for the enzyme-Mn(II)-oxalate-Mg(II)-ATP complex suggests a scheme for the normal reverse reaction of pyruvate kinase in which the divalent cation at the protein-based site activates the keto acid substrate through chelation and promotes phospho transfer by simultaneous coordination to the enolate oxygen and to a pendant oxygen from the γ-phosphate of ATP

  18. The use of microemulsions for the synthesis of oxalate precursors of YBaCuO superconduction oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Muhammed, M.

    1992-01-01

    Although emulsion technique has been used as an advanced separation method, little attention has been paid to the particular feature of emulsions as a powerful reaction media for synthesis of powders, e.g., precipitation of fine particles. In the present paper, the authors report the use of some microemulsion systems as a reaction media in a controlled coprecipitation of the oxalate precursors of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ceramics. The phase diagram of the system: oil (hydrocarbon) - surfactant (Aerosol Orange T) - water, in the absence and presence of nitric/oxalic acids and nitrates, have been systematically investigated. Several hydrocarbons, n-hexane, n-haptene and n-octane have been tested. The different stability regions of microemulsions have been determined. The oxalate coprecipitation of Y, Ba and Cu from nitrate solution was studied under various operating conditions, pH, ratio of oil/surfactant/water and ratio of Y/Ba/Cu/.H 2 C 2 O 4 2 . The chemical and morphological properties of the oxalate powders obtained in the microemulsion systems have been examined by different techniques, e.g., ICP, TGA, XRD and SEM. By XRD, the optimum products are found to be amorphous oxalate composite with exact required stoichiometry and high homogeneity. The average size of the dispersed particles is 50-70 nm while the mean diameter of the agglomerates is around 300 nm. The best sinters bulk sample has T, (R = 0) at 92 K. These powders are used as fine precursors for the synthesis of high T c superconducting ceramics as bulk material and particularly thick films

  19. 3.2.1. Synthesis, crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ1-oxalic acid)-µ3-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I)).

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kovalchukova*, Sergey Aldoshin, Andrey Utenyshev, Konstantin Bogenko, Valeriy Tkachev

    2015-01-01

    The crystal and molecular structure of catena-(bis(µ- oxalic acid)-µ-hydrogen oxalate-di-aqua-sodium(I)) was detected by X-Ray analysis. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, with a(Å) 6.2378(12); b(Å) 7,1115(14); c(Å) 10.489(2); α(°) 94.65(3); β(°) 100.12(3); γ(°) 97.78(3). The sodium cation in the title compound is eight coordinated and forms a square antiprism. It is surrounded by two molecules of oxalic acid, one hydrogen oxalate anion and one water molecule. Both ox...

  20. Synthesis of CaTiO 3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calcium titanate, CaTiO3, an important microwave dielectric material and one of major phases in synroc (synthetic rock), a titanate ceramic with potential application for fixation of high level nuclear waste was synthesized from calcium titanyl oxalate [CaTiO (C2O4)2.6H2O] (CTO) by employing microwave heating technique.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of two layered indium oxalates with 12-membered apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenxia; Zhou Yaming; Weng Linhong; Zhang Haoyu; Zhao Dongyuan

    2003-01-01

    Two layered indium oxalates, In(C 2 O 4 ) 2.5 (C 3 N 2 H 12 )(H 2 O) 3 , I, and In(C 2 O 4 ) 1.5 (H 2 O) 3 , II, have been hydrothermally synthesized. In I, the linkage between indium and oxalate units gives rise to a sheet with a rectangular 12-membered aperture (six indium atoms and six oxalate units). Indium atom of II has an unusual pentagonal bipyramidal coordination arrangement. The connectivity between indium and oxalate units forms a neutral puckered layer with 12- (along a-axis) and eight-membered (along b-axis) apertures. Crystal data for these two indium oxalates are as follows: I, triclinic, space group: P-1 (No. 2), a=8.725(3) A, b=9.170(3) A, c=9.901(3) A, α=98.101(4) deg. , β=97.068(4) deg. , γ=102.403(4) deg. , V=756.3(4) A 3 , Z=2, M=463.0(5), ρ calc =2.042 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0377, wR 2 =0.0834. II, monoclinic, space group: P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=10.203(5) A, b=6.638(1) A, c=11.152(7) A, β=95.649(4) deg. , V=751.7(4)A 3 , Z=4, M=300.9(0), ρ calc =2.659 g/cm 3 , R 1 =0.0229, wR 2 =0.0488. TG analyses indicate the water molecules of I can be removed at 150 deg. C. The dehydrated product retains structural integrity

  2. Concise synthesis of new bridged-nicotine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Hooyberghs, Geert; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively.......This study describes a very efficient strategy for the synthesis of two new bridged-nicotine analogues. Starting from either 4- or 3-chloropyridine the desired tricyclic ring systems are accessed in just three steps in 23% and 40% overall yield, respectively....

  3. Synthesis and characterization of polymorphs of photoluminescent Eu(III)-(2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, oxalic acid) MOFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Fa-Nian; Ananias, Duarte; Yang, Ting-Hai; Rocha, João

    2013-01-01

    A novel metal organic framework (MOF) formulated as [Eu(H 2 O) 2 (fdc)(ox) 0.5 ·(H 2 O)] n (1, fdc 2− =2,5-furandicarboxylate, ox 2− =oxalate), was hydrothermally synthesized via in situ ox 2− generation from the partial decomposition of the fdc 2− ligand. This material crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, unit cell parameters of 1: a=16.7570(10), b=10.5708(7), c=13.5348(14) Å, β=116.917(2)° (Z=8), and exhibits a three-dimensional (3D)-porous framework, with guest water molecules residing in the channel linking all other ligands (H 2 O, ox 2− and fdc 2− ) via hydrogen bonding interactions. Compound 2 is a polymorph of 1 crystallizing in monoclinic P21/c space group. The photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 were studied at room temperature. The spectra show the typical Eu 3+ red emission and the differences observed reflects the slightly different structures of these polymorphs. - Graphical abstract: Exploring metal organic framework polymorphism in the system Eu(H 2 O) 2 (fdc)(ox) 0.5 ·(H 2 O)] n (fdc 2− =2,5-furandicarboxylate, ox 2− =oxalate) for tuning light emission. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of Eu(III)-(2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, oxalic acid) MOF polymorphs. • Detailed single-crystal study of polymorphs including hydrogen-bonding networks. • Photoluminescence spectroscopy show subtle differences light emission properties

  4. De-agglomeration of thorium oxalate - a method for the synthesis of sinteractive thoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.; Singh, Alok; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thorium oxalate was obtained by precipitation in water and in non-aqueous solvents and de-agglomerated by ultrasonication in both aqueous as well as non-aqueous media. Sinteractive thoria (crystallite size 6-20 nm) obtained from the de-agglomerated thorium oxalate was characterised for residual carbon, crystallite size, specific surface area, particle size distribution and bulk density. Microstructure of the precursor and the product was studied using TEM and HRTEM. The morphology of the sintered pellets was studied using SEM. The reactivity of the calcined powders was determined by measuring the density of the sintered compacts. The solvent used for de-agglomeration was found to have significant influence on the microstructure of the powders. Thoria derived through aqueous precipitation route could be sintered to a density of 9.7 Mg m -3 at 1673 K. It was demonstrated that ultrasonic de-agglomeration could be a useful method for obtaining sinteractive thoria

  5. Two New Families of Lanthanide Mixed-Ligand Complexes, Oxalate-Carbonate and Oxalate-Formate: Synthesis and Structure of [Ce(H 2O)] 2(C 2O 4) 2(CO 3)·2.5 H 2O and Ce(C 2O 4)(HCO 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, S.; Mosset, A.; Trombe, J. C.

    1996-12-01

    Two new families of lanthanide complexes associating the ligands oxalate and carbonate or oxalate and formate have been prepared under autogenous pressure at 200°C using a pseudo-hydrothermal method. The two families have been extended to some lanthanides ( Ln): oxalate-carbonate Ln= Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu; oxalate-formate Ln= La, Ce, and Sm. The starting suspension contains either oxalate or a mixture of oxalate and oxalic acid. The structures have been solved for the element cerium. In both cases, the structure is built up from cerium atoms sharing all their oxygen atoms with oxalate and carbonate or oxalate and formate ligands, thus forming a three-dimensional network. The cerium polyhedra share either faces or edges or corners. The coordination scheme of the oxalate ligands is variable: bischelating, bischelating and monodentate, or bischelating and bismonodentate. The carbonate group acts as a bischelating and bismonodentate ligand while the formate group is chelating and monodentate. The characterization of these two original families by infrared spectra and thermal behavior is presented for some pure phases. A tentative explanation of the synthesis of these two phases will be emphasized.

  6. Synthesis from zinc oxalate, growth mechanism and optical properties of ZnO nano/micro structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C. Justin; Varma, K.B.R. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Joshi, R.K. [Special Center for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2011-11-15

    We report the synthesis of various morphological micro to nano structured zinc oxide crystals via simple precipitation technique. The growth mechanisms of the zinc oxide nanostructures such as snowflake, rose, platelets, porous pyramid and rectangular shapes were studied in detail under various growth conditions. The precursor powders were prepared using several zinc counter ions such as chloride, nitrate and sulphate along with oxalic acid as a precipitating agent. The precursors were decomposed by heating in air resulting in the formation of different shapes of zinc oxide crystals. Variations in ZnO nanostructural shapes were possibly due to the counter ion effect. Sulphate counter ion led to unusual rose-shape morphology. Strong ultrasonic treatment on ZnO rose shows that it was formed by irregular arrangement of micro to nano size hexagonal zinc oxide platelets. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the wurzite structure of all zinc oxide samples synthesized using different zinc counter ions. Functional groups of the zinc oxalate precursor and zinc oxide were identified using micro Raman studies. The blue light emission spectra of the various morphologies were recorded using luminescence spectrometer. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes bridging metal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlar, M.; Vojs, M.; Marton, M.; Vesel, M.; Redhammer, R.

    2012-01-01

    In our work we demonstrate growth of carbon nanotubes that can conductively bridge the metal electrodes. The role of different catalysts was examined. Interdigitated metal electrodes are made from copper and we are using bimetal Al/Ni as catalyst for growth of carbon nanotubes. We are using this catalyst composition for growth of the single-walled carbon nanotube network. (authors)

  8. Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.P.; Krasnobaeva, O.N.; Nosova, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

  9. SYNTHESIS, THERMAL STUDIES AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 4-AMINOPYRIDINIUM SEMI-OXALATE HEMIHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA CHACÓN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound has been synthesized by grinding in an agate mortar. Its structure was characterized by TGA-DSC studies and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This compound crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, Z = 4, and unit cell parameters a = 16.109(2 Å, b = 5.748(7 Å, c = 20.580(3 Å, β = 107.36(1°. The salt, C2HO4-.C5H7N+.0.5 H2O, is an ionic ensemble assisted by hydrogen bonds established between 4-aminopyridinium cations, oxalate anions and water molecules. The three components thus construct a supramolecular assembly with a three-dimensional hydrogen bonded framework.

  10. Controlled synthesis of porous anhydrous cobalt oxalate nanorods with high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Junmin; He, Lei; Liu, Hui; Han, Tao; Wang, Yongjian; Zhang, Changjin; Zhang, Yuheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Abstract: One-dimensional porous anhydrous cobalt oxalate nanorods are prepared via a facile water-controlled coprecipitate method followed by thermal annealing treatment under N 2 at 300 °C. The nanorods are characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. When evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the nanorods exhibit high reversible specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (924 mA h g −1 at 50 mA g −1 after 100 cycles and 709 mA h g −1 at 200 mA g −1 after 220 cycles). This remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to the one-dimensional porous nanostructure that can provide large electrode/electrolyte contact area and short lithium-ion diffusion pathway, meanwhile reduce the volume expansion during the repeated discharge/charge process

  11. Preparation of [11C]diethyl oxalate and [11C]oxalic acid and demonstration of their use in the synthesis of [11C]-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorell, J.-O.; Stone-Elander, S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for the production of two new carbon-11 labelled difunctional radiolabelling precursors, [ 11 C]diethyl oxalate,2, and [ 11 C]oxalic acid, 3 is described. Methyl chloroformate was reacted with no-carrier-added [ 11 C]cyanide to generate the intermediate nitrile, methyl [ 11 C]cyanoformate. Alcoholysis with HC1 in ethanol generated 2, which could subsequently be converted to 3 with aqueous acid. The total time of preparation from end-or-trapping of [ 11 C]cyanide was 6-7 min using combined microwave and thermal treatment or, by exclusively thermal treatment, 15 and 20 min for 2 and 3, respectively. The radiochemical conversion of [ 11 C]cyanide to 2 and 3 was ∼ 80% and ∼ 70%, respectively. Both 2 and 3 were used in a model reaction with 1,2-phenylenediamine to synthesize the heterocyclic compound, 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline, a basic structural unit in antagonists for the excitatory amino acid receptor system. (Author)

  12. Synthesis and X-ray diffraction study of new uranyl malonate and oxalate complexes with carbamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedkov, Ya. A.; Serezhkina, L. B.; Grigor’ev, M. S.; Serezhkin, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Two new malonate-containing uranyl complexes with carbamide of the formulas [UO 2 (C 3 H 2 O 4 )(Urea) 2 ] (I) and [UO 2 (C 3 H 2 O 4 )(Urea) 3 ] (II), where Urea is carbamide, and one uranyl oxalate complex of the formula [UO 2 (C 2 O 4 )(Urea) 3 ] (III) were synthesized, and their crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction. The main structural units in crystals I are the electroneutral chains [UO 2 (C 3 H 2 O 4 )(Urea) 2 ] ∞ belonging to the crystal-chemical group AT 11 M 2 1 (A = UO 2 2+ , T 11 = C 3 H 2 O 4 2- , M 1 = Urea) of uranyl complexes. Crystals II and III are composed of the molecular complexes [UO 2 (L)(Urea) 3 ], where L = C 3 H 2 O 4 2- or C 2 O 4 2- , belonging to the crystal-chemical group AB 01 M 3 1 (A = UO 2 2+ , B 01 = C 3 H 2 O 4 2- or C 2 O 4 2- , M 1 = Urea). The characteristic features of the packing of the uranium-containing complexes are discussed in terms of molecular Voronoi–Dirichlet polyhedra. The effect of the Urea: U ratio on the structure of uranium-containing structural units is considered.

  13. Synthesis and X-ray diffraction study of new uranyl malonate and oxalate complexes with carbamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedkov, Ya. A.; Serezhkina, L. B., E-mail: Lserezh@samsu.ru [Samara State University (Russian Federation); Grigor’ev, M. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Serezhkin, V. N. [Samara State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Two new malonate-containing uranyl complexes with carbamide of the formulas [UO{sub 2}(C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4})(Urea){sub 2}] (I) and [UO{sub 2}(C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4})(Urea){sub 3}] (II), where Urea is carbamide, and one uranyl oxalate complex of the formula [UO{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4})(Urea){sub 3}] (III) were synthesized, and their crystals were studied by X-ray diffraction. The main structural units in crystals I are the electroneutral chains [UO{sub 2}(C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4})(Urea){sub 2}]{sub ∞} belonging to the crystal-chemical group AT{sup 11}M{sub 2}{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, T{sup 11} = C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-}, M{sup 1} = Urea) of uranyl complexes. Crystals II and III are composed of the molecular complexes [UO{sub 2}(L)(Urea){sub 3}], where L = C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} or C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-}, belonging to the crystal-chemical group AB{sup 01}M{sub 3}{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, B{sup 01} = C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} or C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-}, M{sup 1} = Urea). The characteristic features of the packing of the uranium-containing complexes are discussed in terms of molecular Voronoi–Dirichlet polyhedra. The effect of the Urea: U ratio on the structure of uranium-containing structural units is considered.

  14. Sustainable Synthesis of Oxalic and Succinic Acid through Aerobic Oxidation of C6 Polyols Under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maria; Williamson, David; Lobefaro, Francesco; Jones, Matthew D; Mattia, Davide; Nocito, Francesco; Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela

    2018-03-22

    The sustainable chemical industry encompasses a shift from the use of fossil carbon to renewable carbon. The synthesis of chemicals from nonedible biomass (cellulosic or oil) represents one of the key steps for "greening" the chemical industry. In this paper, we report the aerobic oxidative cleavage of C6 polyols (5-HMF, glucose, fructose and sucrose) to oxalic acid (OA) and succinic acid (SA) in water under mild conditions using M@CNT and M@NCNT (M=Fe, V; CNT=carbon nanotubes; NCNT=N-doped CNT), which, under suitable conditions, were recoverable and reusable without any loss of efficiency. The influence of the temperature, O 2 pressure (PO2 ), reaction time and stirring rate are discussed and the best reaction conditions are determined for an almost complete conversion of the starting material and a good OA yield of 48 %. SA and formic acid were the only co-products. The former could be further converted into OA by oxidation in the presence of formic acid, resulting in an overall OA yield of >62 %. This process was clean and did not produce organic waste nor gas emissions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthesis of BaTiO3 powder from barium titanyl oxalate (BTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the synthesis of BaTiO3 from the mixture of barium car- bonate and titanium dioxide employing microwave heat- ing. They observed that hypostoichiometric TiO2 (TiO2–x) reacted with BaCO3 in the presence of microwave field at temperature as low as 350°C to give the mixture of hexa- gonal and tetragonal forms of BaTiO3 ...

  16. Analytical Study of Oxalates Coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana MARTA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the establishing of the oxalates coprecipitation conditions in view of the synthesis of superconducting systems. A systematic analytical study of the oxalates precipitation conditions has been performed, for obtaining superconducting materials, in the Bi Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. For this purpose, the formulae of the precipitates solubility as a function of pH and oxalate excess were established. The possible formation of hydroxo-complexes and soluble oxalato-complexes was taken into account. A BASIC program was used for tracing the precipitation curves. The curves of the solubility versus pH for different oxalate excess have plotted for the four oxalates, using a logaritmic scale. The optimal conditions for the quantitative oxalate coprecipitation have been deduced from the diagrams. The theoretical curves were confirmed by experimental results. From the precursors obtained by this method, the BSCCO superconducting phases were obtained by an appropriate thermal treatment. The formation of the superconducting phases was identified by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  17. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  18. Influence of oxalate ligand functionalization on Co/ZSM-5 activity in Fischer Tropsch synthesis and hydrodeoxygenation of oleic acid into hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodele, Olumide Bolarinwa

    2017-08-30

    Achieving high degree of active metal dispersions at the highest possible metal loading and high reducibility of the metal remains a challenge in Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) as well as in hydrogeoxygenation (HDO).This study therefore reports the influence of oxalic acid (OxA) functionalization on the metal dispersion, reducibility and activity of Co supported ZSM-5 catalyst in FTS and HDO of oleic acid into paraffin biofuel. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that cobalt oxalate supported ZSM-5 catalyst (CoOx/ZSM-5) synthesized from the incorporation of freshly prepared cobalt oxalate complex into ZSM-5 displayed increase in surface area, pore volume and average pore size while the nonfunctionalized cobalt supported on ZSM-5 (Co/ZSM-5) catalyst showed reduction in those properties. Furthermore, both XRD and XPS confirmed the presence of Co° formed from the decomposition of CoOx during calcination of CoOx/ZSM-5 under inert atmosphere. The HRTEM showed that Co species average particle sizes were smaller in CoOx/ZSM-5 than in Co/ZSM-5, and in addition, CoOx/ZSM-5 shows a clear higher degree of active metal dispersion. The FTS result showed that at CO conversion over Co/ZSM-5 and CoOx/ZSM-5 catalysts were 74.28% and 94.23% and their selectivity to C 5+ HC production were 63.15% and 75.4%, respectively at 4 h TOS. The HDO result also showed that the CoOx/ZSM-5 has higher OA conversion of 92% compared to 59% over Co/ZSM-5. In addition CoOx/ZSM-5 showed higher HDO and isomerization activities compared to Co/ZSM-5.

  19. Directed synthesis of crystalline plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalates: accessing redox-controlled separations in acidic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runde, Wolfgang; Brodnax, Lia F.; Goff, George S.; Bean, Amanda C.; Scott, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    Both binary and ternary solid complexes of Pu(III) and Pu(IV) oxalates have been previously reported in the literature. However, uncertainties regarding the coordination chemistry and the extent of hydration of some compounds remain mainly because of the absence of any crystallographic characterization. Single crystals of hydrated oxalates of Pu(III), Pu 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 (H 2 O) 6 ·3H 2 O (I) and Pu(IV), KPu(C 2 O 4 ) 2 (OH)·2.5H 2 O (II), were synthesized under moderate hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds I and II are the first plutonium(III) or (IV) oxalate compounds to be structurally characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Crystallographic data for I: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 11.246(3) A, b = 9.610(3) A, c = 10.315(3) A, Z = 4 and II: monoclinic, space group C2/c, a = 23.234(14) A, b = 7.502(4) A, c = 13.029(7) A, Z = 8.

  20. Morphology-controllable synthesis of cobalt oxalates and their conversion to mesoporous Co3O4 nanostructures for application in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dewei; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2011-07-18

    In this work, one-dimensional and layered parallel folding of cobalt oxalate nanostructures have been selectively prepared by a one-step, template-free, water-controlled precipitation approach by simply altering the solvents used at ambient temperature and pressure. Encouragingly, the feeding order of solutions played an extraordinary role in the synthesis of nanorods and nanowires. After calcination in air, the as-prepared cobalt oxalate nanostructures were converted to mesoporous Co(3)O(4) nanostructures while their original frame structures were well maintained. The phase composition, morphology, and structure of the as-obtained products were studied in detail. Electrochemical properties of the Co(3)O(4) electrodes were carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements by a three-electrode system. The electrochemical experiments revealed that the layered parallel folding structure of mesoporous Co(3)O(4) exhibited higher capacitance compared to that of the nanorods and nanowires. A maximum specific capacitance of 202.5 F g (-1) has been obtained in 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte at a current density of 1 A g(-1) with a voltage window from 0 to 0.40 V. Furthermore, the specific capacitance decay after 1000 continuous charge-discharge cycles was negligible, revealing the excellent stability of the electrode. These characteristics indicate that the mesoporous Co(3)O(4) nanostructures are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  1. Synthesis, structure and characterization of two new open-framework gallium phosphite-oxalates of varying dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Caixia; Huang, Liangliang; Zhou, Mingdong; Xia, Jing; Ma, Hongwei; Zang, Shuliang; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Using N, N-dimethyl-piperazine as structure directing agent, two new gallium phosphite-oxalates [Ga 2 (HPO 3 ) 2 (H 2 PO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )](C 6 N 2 H 16 ) (I) and [Ga 2 (HPO 3 ) 2 (H 2 PO 3 )(C 2 O 4 )](C 6 N 2 H 16 ) 0.5 (II) have been synthesized under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions, respectively and further characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, TGA, ICP-AES and elemental analyses. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the striking feature of I and II is that they possess the same second building unit (SBU) Ga 2 P 2 constructed from two GaO 6 octahedra and two [HPO 3 2− ] pseudo-pyramids sharing oxygen atoms. However, due to the different connecting fashions of SBUs, [C 2 O 4 2− ] groups and [H 2 PO 3 − ] pseudo-pyramids, the final frameworks of them are distinctly different. Compound I shows 2D layered structures with 8-membered ring (8-MR) windows in the ab plane while compound II presents a 3D open-framework with 8-MR channels along the b axis. - Graphical abstract: Using N, N-dimethyl-piperazine as structure directing agent, two new gallium phosphite-oxalates I showing 2D layered structure and II presenting 3D open-framework have been synthesized under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions, respectively. - Highlights: • Using N, N-dimethyl-piperazine as structure directing agent, two new gallium phosphite-oxalates have been synthesized under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions, respectively. • The same second building unit (SBU) is displayed in both compounds. • Compound I shows 2D layered structure with 8-MR windows while compound II presents 3D open-framework with 8-MR channels. • The solvent plays an important role on the formation of microporous compounds

  2. Synthesis of concrete bridge piles prestressed with CFRP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation frequently constructs prestressed concrete piles for use in bridge : foundations. Such prestressed concrete piles are typically built with steel strands that are highly susceptible to : environmental degradation...

  3. Structural variability in neptunium(V) oxalate compounds: synthesis and structural characterization of Na2NpO2(C2O4)OH.H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Amanda C; Garcia, Eduardo; Scott, Brian L; Runde, Wolfgang

    2004-10-04

    Reaction of a (237)Np(V) stock solution in the presence of oxalic acid, calcium chloride, and sodium hydroxide under hydrothermal conditions produces single crystals of a neptunium(V) oxalate, Na(2)NpO(2)(C(2)O(4))OH.H(2)O. The structure consists of one-dimensional chains running down the a axis and is the first example of a neptunium(V) oxalate compound containing hydroxide anions.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinxiang; Cao Yanning; Zhang Hanhui; Chen Yiping; Chen Xuehuan; Chai Xiaochuan

    2008-01-01

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C 5 NH 6 ) 2 [Bi 2 (H 2 O) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 4 ].2H 2 O 1 and (NH 4 )[Bi(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ].3H 2 O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2 1 /c space group with a=10.378(2) A, b=17.285(3) A, c=16.563(5) A, α=90 deg., β=119.66(2) deg., γ=90 deg., V=2581.8(10) A 3 , Z=4, R 1 =0.0355 and wR 2 =0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2σ(I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4 1 /amd space group with a=11.7026(17) A, b=11.7026(17) A, c=9.2233(18) A, α=90 deg., β=90 deg., γ=90 deg., V=1263.1(4) A 3 , Z=32, R 1 =0.0208 and wR 2 =0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2σ(I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6 6 uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH 4 + by K + on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 deg. C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS). - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3-D extended porous coordination polymers have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Both compounds are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6 6 uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers. Study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH 4 + by K + on potassium ion exchange

  5. Solvothermal synthesis of Zn1−xMnxO nanoparticles using oxalate precursor route: Optical and magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokeer Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of Zn1−xMnxO (x = 0.022, 0.061 and 0.098 were synthesized by a modified solvothermal method through the oxalate precursor route. The precursors were characterized by TG/DTA analysis. Their kinetics has also been studied using the Freeman and Carroll method. The prepared oxide nanoparticles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, optical and BET surface area studies. PXRD patterns were matched with hexagonal ZnO structure, however few impurity peaks of ZnMnO3 appeared. Reflectance measurements showed that Mn2+ is incorporated in the Zn matrix. The band gap decreases on increasing Mn concentration. The particle size decreases from 18 to 9 nm and the surface area increases (255.4–582.9 m2g−1 on increasing Mn concentration. All these solid solutions show paramagnetic behaviour with very weak antiferromagnetic interactions. The effective magnetic moment of these nanoparticles comes out to be 4.91, 4.77 and 4.18 μB/Mn2+.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and study of some physical properties of some lanthanide complexes of salicylaldehyde oxal-dihydrazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, S.; Rao, T.R.; Narang, K.K.; Shrestha, S.P.

    2006-05-01

    Some Lanthanoid complexes of the type [Ln (L-2H).A.H 2 O] [Ln = Y, La, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, A=OAc; and L = Salicyaldehyde oxal di-hydrazone] was synthesized and characterized by various physico- chemical techniques. Dehydration study at two specific temperatures (110 deg. C and 150 deg. C) indicates the presence of water molecules only in co-ordination sphere of the metal ion. IR, electronic spectra, DTA-TG have been recorded to establish the bonding sites of the ligand. All the complexes decomposed above and not melting up to 350 deg. C. The complexes are insoluble in any common organic solvent even in DMF and DMSO. Solid state electrical conductivities at various frequencies show a semiconducting nature of the complexes. Optical band gap measurement of the complex [Dy(SODH-2H).OAc.H 2 O] shows that complex behaves as direct band gap material. No well-defined peaks, except broad humps were observed in X-ray diffractogram of these complexes, indicating an amorphous nature of the complexes. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polymorphs of photoluminescent Eu(III)-(2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, oxalic acid) MOFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fa-Nian; Ananias, Duarte; Yang, Ting-Hai; Rocha, João

    2013-08-01

    A novel metal organic framework (MOF) formulated as [Eu(H2O)2(fdc)(ox)0.5·(H2O)]n (1, fdc2-=2,5-furandicarboxylate, ox2-=oxalate), was hydrothermally synthesized via in situ ox2- generation from the partial decomposition of the fdc2- ligand. This material crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, unit cell parameters of 1: a=16.7570(10), b=10.5708(7), c=13.5348(14) Å, β=116.917(2)° (Z=8), and exhibits a three-dimensional (3D)-porous framework, with guest water molecules residing in the channel linking all other ligands (H2O, ox2-and fdc2-) via hydrogen bonding interactions. Compound 2 is a polymorph of 1 crystallizing in monoclinic P21/c space group. The photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 were studied at room temperature. The spectra show the typical Eu3+ red emission and the differences observed reflects the slightly different structures of these polymorphs.

  8. Bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate to what extent bridges in Mozambique lead to transport cost reductions and attribute these reductions to key determinants, in particular road distance, road quality and crossing borders. For identification we exploit the introduction of a road bridge over the Zambezi river, in August

  9. Synthesis and crystal structures of three isophthalato-bridged ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dral environments, and the isophthalato ligand bridges two Ni(II) centres in a bis bidentate fashion to form dimers in all three complexes. ... building blocks to construct supramolecular isomers, and one-dimensional left-handed helical chains of ... region using KBr pellets and a Bruker. EQUINOX 55 spectrometer. The solid ...

  10. Synthesis and structural characterisation of mixed An(IV)-An(III) actinide oxalates used as precursors for dedicated fuel or target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, Christelle; Grandjean, Stephane; Arab Chapelet, Benedicte; Abraham, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Oxalic co-conversion process plays an important role by producing mixed-actinide compounds used as starting materials as they are particularly suitable precursors of actinide oxide solid solutions. In these oxalate compounds, a mixed crystallographic site which accommodates both elements in spite of their different oxidation states has been established. The charge compensation is ensured by monovalent cations present in the acidic solution. This communication reviews the various mixed-actinide oxalates obtained by crystallization from acidic solution. First, crystallographic structures determined by X-ray diffraction from single crystals are described. Then completing data obtained by powder X-ray diffraction are presented on various systems. The different supramolecular arrangements underline the complexity of An(IV)-An(III)/Ln(III) oxalate system and the need to pursue studies on single crystals. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of oxalate decarboxylase and oxalate oxidase for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassland, Pierre; Sjöde, Anders; Winestrand, Sandra; Jönsson, Leif J; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    2010-05-01

    Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching.

  12. Preparation of [[sup 11]C]diethyl oxalate and [[sup 11]C]oxalic acid and demonstration of their use in the synthesis of [[sup 11]C]-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorell, J -O; Stone-Elander, S [Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden) Karolinska Hospital and Institute, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology; Elander, N [Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-11-01

    A method for the production of two new carbon-11 labelled difunctional radiolabelling precursors, [[sup 11]C]diethyl oxalate,2, and [[sup 11]C]oxalic acid, 3 is described. Methyl chloroformate was reacted with no-carrier-added [[sup 11]C]cyanide to generate the intermediate nitrile, methyl [[sup 11]C]cyanoformate. Alcoholysis with HC1 in ethanol generated 2, which could subsequently be converted to 3 with aqueous acid. The total time of preparation from end-or-trapping of [[sup 11]C]cyanide was 6-7 min using combined microwave and thermal treatment or, by exclusively thermal treatment, 15 and 20 min for 2 and 3, respectively. The radiochemical conversion of [[sup 11]C]cyanide to 2 and 3 was [approx] 80% and [approx] 70%, respectively. Both 2 and 3 were used in a model reaction with 1,2-phenylenediamine to synthesize the heterocyclic compound, 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline, a basic structural unit in antagonists for the excitatory amino acid receptor system. (Author).

  13. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new iron phosphonate-oxalate with 3D framework: [Fe(O3PCH3)(C2O4)0.5(H2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangyang; Qi Yue; Zhang Ying; Liu Ziyu; Zhao Yinfeng; Liu Zhongmin

    2007-01-01

    A new iron phosphonate-oxalate [Fe(O 3 PCH 3 )(C 2 O 4 ) 0.5 (H 2 O)] (1), has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that 1 consists of layers of vertex-linked FeO 6 octahedra and O 3 PC tetrahedra, which are further connected by bis-chelate oxalate bridges, giving to a 3D structure with 10-membered channels. Crystal data: monoclinic, P2 1 /n (no. 14), a=4.851(2)A, b=16.803(7)A, c=7.941(4)A, β=107.516(6) o , V=617.2(5)A 3 , Z=4, R 1 =0.0337 and wR 2 =0.0874 for 1251 reflections [I>2σ(I)]. Mossbauer spectroscopy measurement confirms the existence of high-spin Fe(III) in 1. Magnetic studies show that 1 exhibits weak ferromagnetism with T N =30K due to a weak spin canting

  14. On the americium oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakolupin, S.A.; Korablin, Eh.V.

    1977-01-01

    The americium oxalate solubility at different nitric (0.0-1 M) and oxalic (0.0-0.4 M) acid concentrations was investigated in the temperature range from 14 to 60 deg C. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was determined. Increasing oxalic acid concentration was found to reduce the americium oxalate solubility. The dependence of americium oxalate solubility on the oxalic acid concentration was noted to be a minimum at low acidity (0.1-0.3 M nitric acid). This is most likely due to Am(C 2 O 4 ) + , Am(C 2 O 4 ) 2 - and Am(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3- complex ion formation which have different unstability constants. On the basis of the data obtained, a preliminary estimate was carried out for the product of americium oxalate solubility in nitric acid medium (10 -29 -10 -31 ) and of the one in water (6.4x10 -20 )

  15. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  16. Heterogeneous nucleation of calcium oxalate on native oxide surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, L.; Pattillo, M.J.; Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    The aqueous deposition of calcium oxalate onto colloidal oxides has been studied as a model system for understanding heterogeneous nucleation processes of importance in biomimetic synthesis of ceramic thin films. Calcium oxalate nucleation has been monitored by measuring induction times for nucleation using Constant Composition techniques and by measuring nucleation densities on extended oxide surfaces using an atomic force microscope. Results show that the dependence of calcium oxalate nucleation on solution supersaturation fits the functional form predicted by classical nucleation theories. Anionic surfaces appear to promote nucleation better than cationic surfaces, lowering the effective energy barrier to heterogeneous nucleation

  17. Combinatorial Synthesis of Structurally Diverse Triazole-Bridged Flavonoid Dimers and Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Han Sum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are a large family of compounds associated with a broad range of biologically useful properties. In recent years, synthetic compounds that contain two flavonoid units linked together have attracted attention in drug discovery and development projects. Numerous flavonoid dimer systems, incorporating a range of monomers attached via different linkers, have been reported to exhibit interesting bioactivities. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, the 1,2,3-triazole ring system has been identified as a particularly attractive linker moiety in dimeric derivatives (owing to several favourable attributes including proven biological relevance and metabolic stability and triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers possessing anticancer and antimalarial activities have recently been reported. However, there are relatively few examples of libraries of triazole-bridged flavonoid dimers and the diversity of flavonoid subunits present within these is typically limited. Thus, this compound type arguably remains underexplored within drug discovery. Herein, we report a modular strategy for the synthesis of novel and biologically interesting triazole-bridged flavonoid heterodimers and also very rare heterotrimers from readily available starting materials. Application of this strategy has enabled step-efficient and systematic access to a library of structurally diverse compounds of this sort, with a variety of monomer units belonging to six different structural subclasses of flavonoid successfully incorporated.

  18. Uranyl Oxalate Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G.; Costenoble, S.; Grandjean, S. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA - BP17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The solubility of uranyl oxalate was determined at ambient temperature by precipitation in oxalic-nitric solutions, using an initial uranyl concentration of 0.1 mol/L. Oxalic concentration varied from 0.075 to 0.3 mol/L while nitric concentration ranged between 0.75 and 3 mol/L. Dissolution tests, using complementary oxalic-nitric media, were carried out for 550 hours in order to study the kinetic to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. Similar solubility values were reached by dissolution and precipitation. Using the results, it was possible to draw the solubility surface versus oxalic and nitric concentrations and to determine both the apparent solubility constant of UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 3H{sub 2}O (Ks) and the apparent formation constant of the first uranyl-oxalate complex UO{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} (log {beta}1), for ionic strengths varying between 1 and 3 mol/L. Ks and log {beta}1 values were found to vary from 1.9 10{sup -8} to 9.2 10{sup -9} and from 5.95 to 6.06, respectively, when ionic strength varied from 1 to 3 mol/L. A second model may fit our data obtained at an ionic strength of 3 mol/L suggesting as reported by Moskvin et al. (1959) that no complexes are formed for [H{sup +}] at 3 M. The Ks value would then be 1.3 10{sup -8}. (authors)

  19. Cerium oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    1987-02-01

    Cerium, a nonradioactive, common stand-in for plutonium in development work, has been used to simulate several plutonium precipitation processes at the Savannah River Laboratory. There are similarities between the plutonium trifluoride and the cerium oxalate precipitations in particle size and extent of plating, but not particle morphology. The equilibrium solubility, precipitation kinetics, particle size, extent of plating, and dissolution characteristics of cerium oxalate have been investigated. Interpretations of particle size and plating based on precipitation kinetics (i.e., nucleation and crystal growth) are presented. 16 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  1. Thorium oxalate solubility and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, P.R. Jr.; Hall, R.

    1981-10-01

    Thorium was used as a stand-in for studying the solubility and precipitation of neptunium and plutonium oxalates. Thorium oxalate solubility was determined over a range of 0.001 to 10.0 in the concentration parameter [H 2 C 2 O 4 ]/[HNO 3 ] 2 . Morphology of thorium oxide made from the oxalate precipitates was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The different morphologies found for oxalate-lean and oxalate-rich precipitations were in agreement with predictions based on precipitation theory

  2. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  3. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  4. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjun; Li Guodong; Chen Jiesheng

    2009-01-01

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ].2H 2 O (I) and [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ][In(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2 .5H 2 O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3) o , β=102.03(3) o , γ=104.52(3) o , while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  5. Superhydrophobic hybrid membranes by grafting arc-like macromolecular bridges on graphene sheets: Synthesis, characterization and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhao-Hua; Luo, Zheng; Huang, Qiang; Deng, Jian-Ping; Wu, Yi-Xian

    2018-05-01

    Grafting single end-tethered polymer chains on the surface of graphene is a conventional way to modify the surface properties of graphene oxide. However, grafting arc-like macromolecular bridges on graphene surfaces has been barely reported. Herein, a novel arc-like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) macromolecular bridges grafted graphene sheets (GO-g-Arc PDMS) was successfully synthesized via a confined interface reaction at 90 °C. Both the hydrophilic α- and ω-amino groups of linear hydrophobic NH2-PDMS-NH2 macromolecular chains rapidly reacted with epoxy and carboxyl groups on the surfaces of graphene oxide in water suspension to form arc-like PDMS macromolecular bridges on graphene sheets. The grafting density of arc-like PDMS bridges on graphene sheets can reach up to 0.80 mmol g-1 or 1.32 arc-like bridges per nm2 by this confined interface reaction. The water contact angle (WCA) of the hybrid membrane could be increased with increasing both the grafting density and content of covalent arc-like bridges architecture. The superhydrophobic hybrid membrane with a WCA of 153.4° was prepared by grinding of the above arc-like PDMS bridges grafted graphene hybrid, dispersing in ethanol and filtrating by organic filter membrane. This superhydrophobic hybrid membrane shows good self-cleaning and complete oil-water separation properties, which provides potential applications in anticontamination coating and oil-water separation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of functional hybrid membranes by grafting arc-like PDMS macromolecular bridges on graphene sheets via a confined interface reaction.

  6. Intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction as a key step in tandem or sequential processes: a versatile tool for the synthesis of fused and bridged bicyclic or polycyclic compounds.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, P.T.; Kadam, H.K.; Tilve, S.G.

    This review summarizes the recent examples of tandem or sequential reactions used for the last 10 years for the synthesis of fused and bridged bicyclic or polycyclic compounds with IMDA cycloaddition as the key means to access these compounds...

  7. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-03-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  8. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, C.P.; Schreferl-Kunar, G.; Woehrer, W.; Roehr, M.

    1988-01-01

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added 14 CO 2 was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle

  9. Tetraphenylphosphonium hydrogen oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. W. Dean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H20P+·C2HO4−, two symmetry-independent ion pairs are present. The cations aggregate into puckered sheets via zigzag infinite chains of sixfold phenyl embraces and parallel fourfold phenyl embraces, while the anions form hydrogen-bonded chains between the sheets of cations. In the two independent oxalate anions, the angles between the normals to the two least-squares carboxylate COO planes are unusually large, viz. 72.5 (1 and 82.1 (1°.

  10. Calcium oxalate stone and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marickar, Y M Fazil

    2009-12-01

    Gout is well known to be produced by increased uric acid level in blood. The objective of this paper is to assess the relationship between gout and calcium oxalate stone formation in the humans. 48 patients with combination of gout and calcium oxalate stone problem were included. The biochemical values of this group were compared with 38 randomly selected uric acid stone patients with gout, 43 stone patients with gout alone, 100 calcium oxalate stone patients without gout and 30 controls, making a total of 259 patients. Various biochemical parameters, namely serum calcium, phosphorus and uric acid and 24-h urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, oxalate, citrate and magnesium were analysed. ANOVA and Duncan's multiple-range tests were performed to assess statistical significance of the variations. The promoters of stone formation, namely serum calcium (P stone patients and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients compared to the non-gouty patients and controls. Urine oxalate (P stones patients. The inhibitor urine citrate (P stone gouty patients, followed by the gouty uric acid stone formers and gouty calcium oxalate stone patients. The high values of promoters, namely uric acid and calcium in the gouty stone patients indicate the tendency for urinary stone formation in the gouty stone patients. There is probably a correlation between gout and calcium oxalate urinary stone. We presume this mechanism is achieved through the uric acid metabolism. The findings point to the summation effect of metabolic changes in development of stone disease.

  11. Oxalate: Effect on calcium absorbability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, R.P.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption of calcium from intrinsically labeled Ca oxalate was measured in 18 normal women and compared with absorption of Ca from milk in these same subjects, both when the test substances were ingested in separate meals and when ingested together. Fractional Ca absorption from oxalate averaged 0.100 +/- 0.043 when ingested alone and 0.140 +/- 0.063 when ingested together with milk. Absorption was, as expected, substantially lower than absorption from milk (0.358 +/- 0.113). Nevertheless Ca oxalate absorbability in these women was higher than we had previously found for spinach Ca. When milk and Ca oxalate were ingested together, there was no interference of oxalate in milk Ca absorption and no evidence of tracer exchange between the two labeled Ca species

  12. Bridging ligands in organometallic chemistry. II. Synthesis and reactivity of the green dimer of molybdenocene containing a bridging fulvalene ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J.C.; Curtis, C.J.

    1978-11-01

    Synthesis, precipitation, and isolation of dicyclopentadienyl(fulvalene)dihydridomolybdenum are described. The compound was used in reaction studies involving the addition of carbon monoxide and deprotonation with n-butyllithium. Data for elemental analysis, ir spectral and NMR(in toluene-d) spectral analysis are reported for the title compound and its reaction products.

  13. Synthesis, Structure and Thermal Behavior of Oxalato-Bridged Rb+ and H3O+ Extended Frameworks with Different Dimensionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kherfi, Hamza; Hamadène, Malika; Guehria-Laïdoudi, Achoura; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Correlative studies of three oxalato-bridged polymers, obtained under hydrothermal conditions for the two isostructural compounds {Rb(HC2O4)(H2C2O4)(H2O)2}∞1, 1, {H3O(HC2O4)(H2C2O4).2H2O}∞1, 2, and by conventional synthetic method for {Rb(HC2O4)}∞3, 3, allowed the identification of H-bond patterns and structural dimensionality. Ferroïc domain structures are confirmed by electric measurements performed on 3. Although 2 resembles one oxalic acid sesquihydrate, its structure determination doesn’t display any kind of disorder and leads to recognition of a supramolecular network identical to hybrid s-block series, where moreover, unusual H3O+ and NH4+ similarity is brought out. Thermal behaviors show that 1D frameworks with extended H-bonds, whether with or without a metal center, have the same stability. Inversely, despite the dimensionalities, the same metallic intermediate and final compounds are obtained for the two Rb+ ferroïc materials.

  14. Electrolytic destruction of oxalate ions in plutonium oxalate supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, K.M.; Talnikar, S.G.; Jambunathan, U.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.; Venkataraman, N.

    1996-01-01

    A simple and efficient electrolytic method is described for the destruction of the oxalate ions present in plutonium oxalate supernatant. Using platinum electrode and very little KMnO 4 , in situ generation of Mn 3+ ions is achieved which in turn destroys the oxalate. The use of lower current density helps in achieving maximum current efficiency. The end point is easily detectable by the pink colour of permanganate. By reversing the current, this slight excess of permanganate can be destroyed, thus avoiding the use of hydrogen peroxide. By this simple electrolytic method, the corrosive oxalate ion is completely destroyed and the salt content of the waste solution is considerably reduced. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  15. Destruction of oxalate by reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [Hydrazine oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.; Arwood, P.C.

    1981-09-01

    The destruction of oxalate by oxidation to carbon dioxide using hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative method for the disposal of oxalate in connection with the possible use of an aqueous hydrazine oxalate solution as a scrubbing agent for solvent cleanup in processes for the recovery of uranium, plutonium, and thorium by solvent extraction. The rate of oxidation of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in acid solution at the reflux temperature was adequate for process application; reaction half-times at 100/sup 0/C were less than one hour when the hydrogen peroxide concentration was greater than 0.5 M. The reaction was first order with respect to both the oxalate and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and had an activation energy of 58.7 kJ/g-mol. The rate increased with the hydrogen ion concentration as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 3/ but was not significantly affected by the presence of 100 ppM of uranium or copper in solution. In the near-neutral hydrazine oxalate solutions, the reaction of either component with hydrogen peroxide was too slow for process application.

  16. Two series of reactant's ratio-dependent lanthanide organic frameworks derived from nicotinic acid N-oxide and oxalate: synthesis, crystal structures and luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yunshan; Zuhra, Zareen

    2015-03-14

    Two series of lanthanide(III)–organic frameworks with the molecular formula [Ln2(NNO)2(OX)2(H2O)4]n (Ln = Eu 1, Tb 2, Sm 3, Dy 4, Gd 5) and [Ln2(NNO)4(OX)(H2O)2]n (Ln = Eu 6, Tb 7, Sm 8, Dy 9, Gd 10) were synthesized successfully under the same hydrothermal conditions with nicotinic N-oxide (HNNO) and oxalic acid (H2OX) as the mixed ligands merely through varying the molar ratio of the reactants. The compounds were characterized by IR, elemental analysis, UV, TG-DTA and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses of compounds 1 and 7 selected as representatives and powder XRD analysis of the compounds revealed that both the series of compounds feature three-dimensional (3-D) open frameworks, and crystallize in the triclinic P1 space group while with different unit cell parameters. In compound 1, pairs of Eu(3+) ions and pairs of NNO(−) ligands connect with each other alternately to form a 1-D infinite Eu-NNO double chain, the adjacent 1-D double-chains are then joined together through OX(2−) ligands leading to a 2D layer, the 2-D layers are further ‘pillared’ by OX(2−) ligands resulting in a 3-D framework. In compound 7, the 1-D Tb-NNO infinite chain and its 2-D layer are formed in an almost similar fashion to that in compound 1. The difference between the structures of the two compounds 1 and 7 is that the adjacent 2-D layers in compound 7 are further connected by NNO(−) ligands resulting in a 3-D framework. The photoluminescence properties and energy transfer mechanism of the compounds were studied systematically. The energy level of the lowest triplet states of the HNNO ligand (23148 cm(−1)) was determined based on the phosphorescence spectrum of compound 5 at 77 K. The (5)D0 (Eu(3+)) and (5)D4 (Tb(3+)) emission lifetimes are 0.46 ms, 0.83 ms, 0.69 ms and 0.89 ms and overall quantum yields are 1.03%, 3.29%, 2.58% and 3.78% for the compounds 1, 2, 6 and 7, respectively.

  17. Ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular metathesis of dienes and its application in the synthesis of bridged and spiro azabicycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. Yu; Bubnov, Yu N.

    2015-07-01

    The review presents a historical excursion into catalytic alkene metathesis, covering the problems of history of the discovery of this process, as well as investigations on the properties, structure and reactivity of the most popular ruthenium catalysts for metathesis, mechanism of their action and decomposition. The main part covers studies devoted to the syntheses of bridged azabicyclic and 1-azaspirocyclic compounds comprising the intramolecular metathesis of dienes as the key step. The formation of a bicyclic skeleton of a series of natural bridged (cocaine, ferruginine, calystegines, and anatoxin-a) and spiro (pinnaic acids, halichlorine, hystrionicotoxin, and cephalotaxine) azabicycles, as well as their analogues and compounds with larger rings is demonstrated. The methods for the synthesis of diene precursors and the conditions for final assembling of the bicyclic compounds are considered in detail. The generalization of the literature data allows one to efficiently carry out the mentioned process taking into account the most important features. The bibliography includes 129 references.

  18. Ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular metathesis of dienes and its application in the synthesis of bridged and spiro azabicycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N Yu; Bubnov, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    The review presents a historical excursion into catalytic alkene metathesis, covering the problems of history of the discovery of this process, as well as investigations on the properties, structure and reactivity of the most popular ruthenium catalysts for metathesis, mechanism of their action and decomposition. The main part covers studies devoted to the syntheses of bridged azabicyclic and 1-azaspirocyclic compounds comprising the intramolecular metathesis of dienes as the key step. The formation of a bicyclic skeleton of a series of natural bridged (cocaine, ferruginine, calystegines, and anatoxin-a) and spiro (pinnaic acids, halichlorine, hystrionicotoxin, and cephalotaxine) azabicycles, as well as their analogues and compounds with larger rings is demonstrated. The methods for the synthesis of diene precursors and the conditions for final assembling of the bicyclic compounds are considered in detail. The generalization of the literature data allows one to efficiently carry out the mentioned process taking into account the most important features. The bibliography includes 129 references

  19. Hygroscopic properties of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingxin; He, Hong; Liu, Chang

    2013-04-01

    Oxalic acid and oxalates represent an important fraction of atmospheric organic aerosols, however, little knowledge about the hygroscopic behavior of these particles is known. In this study, the hygroscopic behavior of oxalic acid and atmospherically relevant oxalates (H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4) were studied by Raman spectrometry and vapor sorption analyzer. Under ambient relative humidity (RH) of 10-90%, oxalic acid and these oxalates hardly deliquesce and exhibit low hygroscopicity, however, transformation between anhydrous and hydrated particles was observed during the humidifying and dehumidifying processes. During the water adsorption process, conversion of anhydrous H2C2O4, (NH4)2C2O4, CaC2O4, and FeC2O4 to their hydrated particles (i.e., H2C2O4·2H2O, (NH4)2C2O4·H2O, CaC2O4·H2O, and FeC2O4·2H2O) occurred at about 20% RH, 55% RH, 10% RH, and 75% RH, respectively. Uptake of water on hydrated Ca-oxalate and Fe-oxalate particles can be described by a multilayer adsorption isotherm. During the dehumidifying process, dehydration of H2C2O4·2H2O and (NH4)2C2O4·H2O occurred at 5% RH while CaC2O4·H2O and FeC2O4·2H2O did not undergo dehydration. These results implied that hydrated particles represent the most stable state of oxalic acid and oxalates in the atmosphere. In addition, the assignments of Raman shift bands in the range of 1610-1650 cm-1 were discussed according to the hygroscopic behavior measurement results.

  20. A new polymorph of magnesium oxalate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-An Chen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, catena-poly[[diaquamagnesium(II]-μ-oxalato], [Mg(C2O4(H2O2]n, there is one Mg atom in an octahedral coordination with site symmetry 222, a unique C atom of the oxalate anion lying on a twofold axis, an O atom of the anion in a general position and a water O atom at a site with imposed twofold rotation symmetry. The Mg2+ ions are ligated by water molecules and bridged by the anions to form chains that are held together by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The structure of the title compound has already been reported in a different space group [Lagier, Pezerat & Dubernat (1969. Rev. Chim. Miner. 6, 1081–1093; Levy, Perrotey & Visser (1971. Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. pp. 757–761].

  1. Role of cellular oxalate in oxalate clearance of patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate stone formation and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlschläger, Sven; Fuessel, Susanne; Meye, Axel; Herrmann, Jana; Froehner, Michael; Albrecht, Steffen; Wirth, Manfred P

    2009-03-01

    To examine the cellular, plasma, and urinary oxalate and erythrocyte oxalate flux in patients with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stone formation vs normal controls. Pathologic oxalate clearance in humans is mostly integrated in calcium oxalate stone formation. An underlying cause of deficient oxalate clearance could be defective transmembrane oxalate transport, which, in many tissues, is regulated by an anion exchanger (SLC26). We studied 2 groups: 40 normal controls and 41 patients with COM stone formation. Red blood cells were divided for cellular oxalate measurement and for resuspension in a buffered solution (pH 7.40); 0.1 mmol/L oxalate was added. The supernatant was measured for oxalate immediately and 1 hour after incubation. The plasma and urinary oxalate were analyzed in parallel. The mean cellular oxalate concentrations were significantly greater in the normal controls (5.25 +/- 0.47 micromol/L) than in those with COM stone formation (2.36 +/- 0.28 micromol/L; P stone formation (0.31 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) than in the controls (0.24 +/- 0.02 mmol/L; P r = 0.49-0.63; P r = -0.29-0.41; P r = -0.30; P r = 0.25; P stone formation. Our data implicate the presence of a cellular oxalate buffer to stabilize plasma and urinary oxalate concentrations in normal controls.

  2. Structural diversity of the lanthanide oxalates: Condensation of neodymium oxygen polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, A.; Rivenet, M.; Abraham, F.; De Almeida, L.; Grandjean, S.

    2013-01-01

    New neodymium hydroxo-oxalate and oxalate [Nd 6 (H 2 O) 6 (C 2 O 4 ) 7 (OH) 4 ].4H 2 O (1) and [Nd 2 (H 2 O) 4 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 ].2H 2 O (2) were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 C between neodymium nitrate and oxalic acid solutions at pH = 10-11 obtained by adding various monoamines. The structures were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The two compounds crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c and a = 17.4384 (11), b = 8.1717 (5), c = 12.9929 (7), β = 94.66 (1) degrees, V = 1845.38 (19) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 1 and a = 9.8249 (2) Angstroms, b = 8.2487 (2) Angstroms, c = 10.1911 (3) Angstroms, β = 99.09 (1), V = 815.53 (4) (Angstroms) 3 , Z = 2 for 2. Full matrix least-squares refinement yielded R1 = 0.0365 and 0.0267 for 6033 and 3382 independent reflections for 1 and 2 respectively. In 2, the three-dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement results from dimeric units of edge shared NdO 9 polyhedra connected through oxalate ions acting as bis-bidentate. In 1, the neodymium atoms are connected through μ2-OH and μ3-OH ions to form a hexa-nuclear inorganic core [Nd 6 (OH) 4 (H 2 O) 6 ] with an un-precedently reported geometry leading to a hexa-nuclear polyhedra block. The blocks are connected through an O-O bridge involving two oxygen atoms of two oxalate ions to build a centipede-like ribbon. The ribbons are further connected through oxalate ions to form a three dimensional neodymium oxalate arrangement. In 1, oxalates adopt four distinct bridging modes of coordination, μ2, μ3, μ4 and μ5. (authors)

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  4. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Yadav

    Full Text Available Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah, Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2 transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4 secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2 transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2 containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil.

  5. Functional characterization of the oxaloacetase encoding gene and elimination of oxalate formation in the ?-lactam producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.M.; Pronk, J.T.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Nijland, J.G.; Lamboo, F.; Puig-Martinez, M.; Veiga, T.; Gombert, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is widely used as an industrial antibiotic producer, in particular in the synthesis of ß-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. In industrial processes, oxalic acid formation leads to reduced product yields. Moreover, precipitation of calcium oxalate

  6. Functional characterization of the oxaloacetase encoding gene and elimination of oxalate formation in the beta-lactam producer Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gombert, A. K.; Veiga, T.; Puig-Martinez, M.; Lamboo, F.; Nijland, J. G.; Driessen, A. J. M.; Pronk, J. T.; Daran, J. M.

    Penicillium chrysogenum is widely used as an industrial antibiotic producer, in particular in the synthesis of g-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. In industrial processes, oxalic acid formation leads to reduced product yields. Moreover, precipitation of calcium oxalate

  7. The small molecule '1-(4-biphenylylcarbonyl)-4-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) piperazine oxalate' and its derivatives regulate global protein synthesis by inactivating eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mi-Na; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Kyung Kon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, InKi

    2016-05-01

    By environmental stresses, cells can initiate a signaling pathway in which eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha (eIF2-α) is involved to regulate the response. Phosphorylation of eIF2-α results in the reduction of overall protein neogenesis, which allows cells to conserve resources and to reprogram energy usage for effective stress control. To investigate the role of eIF2-α in cell stress responses, we conducted a viability-based compound screen under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress condition, and identified 1-(4-biphenylylcarbonyl)-4-(5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) piperazine oxalate (AMC-01) and its derivatives as eIF2-α-inactivating chemical. Molecular characterization of this signaling pathway revealed that AMC-01 induced inactivation of eIF2-α by phosphorylating serine residue 51 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the negative control compounds did not affect eIF2-α phosphorylation. In contrast with ER stress induction by thapsigargin, phosphorylation of eIF2-α persisted for the duration of incubation with AMC-01. By pathway analysis, AMC-01 clearly induced the activation of protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) kinase and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), whereas it did not modulate the activity of PERK or heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI). Finally, we could detect a lower protein translation rate in cells incubated with AMC-01, establishing AMC-01 as a potent chemical probe that can regulate eIF2-α activity. We suggest from these data that AMC-01 and its derivative compounds can be used as chemical probes in future studies of the role of eIF2-α in protein synthesis-related cell physiology.

  8. Microbial growth on oxalate by a route not involving glyoxylate carboligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Maureen A.; Quayle, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The metabolism of oxalate by the pink-pigmented organisms, Pseudomonas AM1, Pseudomonas AM2, Protaminobacter ruber and Pseudomonas extorquens has been compared with that of the non-pigmented Pseudomonas oxalaticus. 2. During growth on oxalate, all the organisms contain oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, formate dehydrogenase and oxalyl-CoA reductase. This is consistent with oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide taking place via oxalyl-CoA, formyl-CoA and formate as intermediates, and also reduction of oxalate to glyoxylate taking place via oxalyl-CoA. 3. The pink-pigmented organisms, when grown on oxalate, contain l-serine–glyoxylate aminotransferase and hydroxypyruvate reductase but do not contain glyoxylate carboligase. The converse of this obtains in oxalate-grown Ps. oxalaticus. This indicates that, in contrast with Ps. oxalaticus, synthesis of C3 compounds from oxalate by the pink-pigmented organisms occurs by a variant of the `serine pathway' used by Pseudomonas AM1 during growth on C1 compounds. 4. Evidence in favour of this scheme is provided by the finding that a mutant of Pseudomonas AM1 that lacks hydroxypyruvate reductase is not able to grow on oxalate. PMID:5472155

  9. Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. P.; Kennedy, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate ingested may be an important risk factor in the development of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Reliable food tables listing the oxalate content of foods are currently not available. The aim of this research was to develop an accurate and reliable method to measure the food content of oxalate. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and ion chromatography (IC) were compared as direct techniques for the estimation of the oxalate content of foods. Foods were thoroughly homogenized in acid, heat extracted, and clarified by centrifugation and filtration before dilution in water for analysis. Five individuals consuming self-selected diets maintained food records for three days to determine their mean daily oxalate intakes. RESULTS: Both techniques were capable of adequately measuring the oxalate in foods with a significant oxalate content. With foods of very low oxalate content (choice over IC for estimating the oxalate content of foods with a medium (>10 mg/100 g) to high oxalate content due to a faster analysis time and lower running costs, whereas IC may be better suited for the analysis of foods with a low oxalate content. Accurate estimates of the oxalate content of foods should permit the role of dietary oxalate in urinary oxalate excretion and stone formation to be clarified. Other factors, apart from the amount of oxalate ingested, appear to exert a major influence over the amount of oxalate excreted in the urine.

  10. Protection of metal artefacts with the formation of metal-oxalates complexes by Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eJoseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several fungi present high tolerance to toxic metals and some are able to transform metals into metal-oxalate complexes. In this study, the ability of Beauveria bassiana to produce copper oxalates was evaluated in vitro. Growth performance was tested on various copper-containing media. B. bassiana proved highly resistant to copper, tolerating concentrations of up to 20 g.L-1, and precipitating copper oxalates on all media tested. Chromatographic analyses showed that this species produced oxalic acid as sole metal chelator. The production of metal-oxalates can be used in the restoration and conservation of archaeological and modern metal artefacts. The production of copper-oxalates was confirmed directly using metallic pieces (both archaeological and modern. The conversion of corrosion products into copper oxalates was demonstrated as well. In order to assess whether the capability of B. bassiana to produce metal-oxalates could be applied to other metals, iron and silver were tested as well. Iron appears to be directly sequestered in the wall of the fungal hyphae forming oxalates and probably goethite. However, the formation of a homogeneous layer on the object is not yet optimal. Silver nitrate was extracellularly reduced into nanoparticles of elemental silver by an unknown mechanism. The production of copper oxalates is immediately applicable for the conservation of copper-based artefacts. For iron and silver this is not yet the case. However, the vast ability of B. bassiana to transform toxic metals using different immobilization mechanisms seems to offer considerable possibilities for industrial applications, such as the bioremediation of contaminated soils or the green synthesis of chemicals.

  11. Enhanced nitrogen availability in karst ecosystems by oxalic acid release in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujing ePan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In karst ecosystems, a high level of CaCO3 enhances the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM and causes nitrogen (N and/or phosphorus (P limitation in plants. Oxalic acid has been suggested to be involved in the nutrient-acquisition strategy of plants because its addition can temporarily relieve nutrient limitation. Therefore, understanding how oxalic acid drives N availability may help support successful vegetation restoration in the karst ecosystems of southwest China. We tested a model suggested by Clarholm et al. (2015 where oxalate reacts with Ca bridges in SOM, thus exposing previously protected areas to enzymatic attacks in a way that releases N for local uptake. We studied the effects of oxalic acid, microbial biomass C (MBC, and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG on potential N mineralization rates in rhizosphere soils of four plant species (two shrubs and two trees in karst areas. The results showed that rhizosphere soils of shrubs grown on formerly deforested land had significantly lower oxalic acid concentrations and NAG activity than that of trees in a 200-year-old forest. The levels of MBC in rhizosphere soils of shrubs were significantly lower than those of trees in the growing season, but the measure of shrubs and trees were similar in the non-growing season; the potential N mineralization rates showed a reverse pattern. Positive relationships were found among oxalic acid, MBC, NAG activity, and potential N mineralization rates for both shrubs and trees. This indicated that oxalic acid, microbes, and NAG may enhance N availability for acquisition by plants. Path analysis showed that oxalic acid enhanced potential N mineralization rates indirectly through inducing microbes and NAG activities. We found that the exudation of oxalic acid clearly provides an important mechanism that allows plants to enhance nutrient acquisition in karst ecosystems.

  12. 4-Methoxybenzamidinium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Irrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The title hydrated salt, C8H11N2O+·C2HO4−·H2O, was synthesized by a reaction of 4-methoxybenzamidine (4-amidinoanisole and oxalic acid in water solution. In the cation, the amidinium group forms a dihedral angle of 15.60 (6° with the mean plane of the benzene ring. In the crystal, each amidinium unit is bound to three acetate anions and one water molecule by six distinct N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The ion pairs of the asymmetric unit are joined by two N—H...O hydrogen bonds into ionic dimers in which the carbonyl O atom of the semi-oxalate anion acts as a bifurcated acceptor, thus generating an R12(6 motif. These subunits are then joined through the remaining N—H...O hydrogen bonds to adjacent semi-oxalate anions into linear tetrameric chains running approximately along the b axis. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and O—H...O intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The water molecule plays an important role in the cohesion and the stability of the crystal structure being involved in three hydrogen bonds connecting two semi-oxalate anions as donor and a benzamidinium cation as acceptor.

  13. Synthesis, structure and magnetic behavior of a new three-dimensional Manganese phosphite-oxalate: [C2N2H10][Mn2II(OH2)2(HPO3)2(C2O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, Padmini; Mandal, Sukhendu; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    A novel manganese phosphite-oxalate, [C 2 N 2 H 10 ][Mn 2 II (OH 2 ) 2 (HPO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )] has been hydothermally synthesized and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure consists of neutral manganese phosphite layers, [Mn(HPO 3 )] ∞ , formed by MnO 6 octahedra and HPO 3 units, cross-linked by the oxalate moieties. The organic cations occupy the middle of the 8-membered one-dimensional channels. Magnetic studies indicate weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn 2+ ions. - Abstract: A new antiferromagnetic three-dimensional inorganic-organic hybrid compound, [C 2 N 2 H 10 ][Mn 2 II (OH 2 ) 2 (HPO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )] has been prepared hydrothermally. The compound has neutral manganese layers pillared by oxalate units. The neutral manganese layers are shown here. Display Omitted

  14. Dinuclear ruthenium sawhorse-type complexes containing carboxylato bridges and ferrocenyl substituents: Synthesis and electrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Auzias, M.; Süss-Fink, G.; Štěpnička, P.; Ludvík, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 360, č. 6 (2007), s. 2023-2028 ISSN 0020-1693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : carboxylato bridges * dinuclear complexes * ruthenium * electrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2007

  15. Sustainable synthesis gas from biomass. A bridge to a sustainable supply of energy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Uil, H.; Van Ree, R.; Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.

    2004-04-01

    Synthesis gas is currently primarily used in the (petro)chemical industry and for the production of liquid fuels. Smaller amounts are being used for electricity and synthetic natural gas (=SNG) production. Finite fossil resources, the dependence on political instable regimes and the Kyoto-protocol are drivers for the attention for renewable synthesis gas. In this report the market for, production of, use of and economy of renewable synthesis gas are analysed. Current synthesis gas use is limited to about 3% of the Dutch primary energy consumption; worldwide this is about 2%. Driven by the targets for renewable energy and the wide range of possible uses, the market for renewable synthesis gas has a large potential. When using synthesis gas for the production of SNG, electricity, liquid fuels and chemicals, the Dutch market for renewable synthesis gas can be 150 PJ in 2010, doubling about every decade to 1500 PJ in 2040. SNG and electricity, together about 80%. To reach these market volumes, import of biomass will be required due to the limited availability of local biomass resources in the Netherlands. The specifications for synthesis gas are dependent on the application. For (petro)chemical use and the production of liquid fuels high H2 and CO concentrations are required, for SNG and electricity production high CH4 concentrations are preferred. Due to the different specifications the names synthesis gas and product gas are used in this study. The name synthesis gas is claimed for a large number of gasification processes under development. But only for a number of processes this claim is justified. The gasification temperature determines the type of gas produced. At high temperatures, above 1300C, synthesis gas is produced, at low temperatures, 700-1000C, so-called product gas is being produced. Entrained-flow gasification is the only possibility for large-scale synthesis gas production in one step. For this process the particle size of the feed has to be small

  16. Cable Supported Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...... to quantify the different structural configurations and allows a preliminary optimization of the main structure.Included are the most recent advances in structural design, corrosion protection of cables, aerodynamic safety, and erection procedures....

  17. Synthesis of coesite nanocrystals from ethane bridged periodic mesoporous organosilica at low temperature and extreme pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhili; Mohanty, Paritosh; Fei, Yingwei; Landskron, Kai

    2010-12-14

    Coesite nanocrystals have been synthesized from periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with (CH(2))(2) bridges heated at 300 °C for 150 min and 12 GPa. The crystals are not sintered, single crystalline, and have diameters of ca. 100-300 nm. Below 300 °C, an amorphous non-porous organosilica glass was obtained. Heating above 300 °C at 12 GPa results in the rapid crystal growth and micron size coesite crystals were formed.

  18. Synthesis and characteristics of a novel 3-D organic amine oxalate: (enH2)1.5[Bi3(C2O4)6(CO2CONHCH2CH2NH3)].6.5H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaohong; Zhang Hanhui; Cao Yanning; Chen Yiping; Wang Zhen

    2006-01-01

    A novel 3-D compound of (enH 2 ) 1.5 [Bi 3 (C 2 O 4 ) 6 (CO 2 CONHCH 2 CH 2 NH 3 )].6.5H 2 O has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection integral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS), fluorescence spectra, TGA and single crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with a=31.110(8)A, b=11.544(3)A, c=22.583(6)A, β=112.419(3) o , V=7497(3)A 3 , Z=8, R 1 =0.0463 and wR 2 =0.1393 for unique 7686 reflections I>2σ(I). In the title compound, the Bi atoms have eight-fold and nine-fold coordination with respect to the oxygen atoms, with the Bi atoms in distorted dodecahedron and monocapped square antiprism, respectively. The 3-D framework of the title compound contains channels and is composed of linkages between Bi atoms and oxalate units, forming honeycomb-like layers with two kinds of 6+6 membered aperture, and pillared by oxalate ligands and monamide groups. The channels have N-ethylamine oxalate monamide group - CO 2 CONHCH 2 CH 2 NH 3 + , which is formed by the in situ reaction of en and oxalate acid. At room temperature, the complex exhibits intense blue luminescence with an emission peak at 445nm

  19. Hydrazinium lanthanide oxalates: synthesis, structure and thermal reactivity of N_2H_5[Ln_2(C_2O_4)_4(N_2H_5)].4H_2O, Ln = Ce, Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Almeida, Lucie; Grandjean, Stephane; Abraham, Francis; Rivenet, Murielle; Patisson, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    New hydrazinium lanthanide oxalates N_2H_5[Ln_2(C_2O_4)_4(N_2H_5)].4H_2O, Ln = Ce (Ce-H_yO_x) and Nd (Nd- H_yO_x), were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 C between lanthanide nitrate, oxalic acid and hydrazine solutions. The structure of the Nd compound was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, space group P2_1/c with a = 16.315(4), b = 12.127(3), c = 11.430(2) Angstroms, β = 116.638(4) degrees, V = 2021.4(7) Angstroems"3, Z = 4, and R1 = 0.0313 for 4231 independent reflections. Two distinct neodymium polyhedra are formed, NdO_9 and NdO_8N, an oxygen of one monodentate oxalate in the former being replaced by a nitrogen atom of a coordinated hydrazinium ion in the latter. The infrared absorption band at 1005 cm"-"1 confirms the coordination of N_2H_5"+ to the metal. These polyhedra are connected through μ"2 and μ"3 oxalate ions to form an anionic three-dimensional neodymium-oxalate arrangement. A non-coordinated charge-compensating hydrazinium ion occupies, with water molecules, the resulting tunnels. The N-N stretching frequencies of the infrared spectra demonstrate the existence of the two types of hydrazine ions. Thermal reactivity of these hydrazinium oxalates and of the mixed isotypic Ce/Nd (CeNd-H_yO_x) oxalate were studied by using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses coupled with gas analyzers, and high temperature X-ray diffraction. Under air, fine particles of CeO_2 and Ce_0_._5Nd_0_._5O_1_._7_5 are formed at low temperature from Ce-H_yO_x and CeNd-H_yO_x, respectively, thanks to a decomposition/oxidation process. Under argon flow, dioxy-mono-cyanamides Ln_2O_2CN_2 are formed. (authors)

  20. Hydrazinium lanthanide oxalates: synthesis, structure and thermal reactivity of N2H5[Ln2(C2O4)4(N2H5)]·4H2O, Ln = Ce, Nd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Lucie; Grandjean, Stéphane; Rivenet, Murielle; Patisson, Fabrice; Abraham, Francis

    2014-03-28

    New hydrazinium lanthanide oxalates N2H5[Ln2(C2O4)4(N2H5)]·4H2O, Ln = Ce (Ce-HyOx) and Nd (Nd-HyOx), were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 °C between lanthanide nitrate, oxalic acid and hydrazine solutions. The structure of the Nd compound was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, space group P2₁/c with a = 16.315(4), b = 12.127(3), c = 11.430(2) Å, β = 116.638(4)°, V = 2021.4(7) Å(3), Z = 4, and R1 = 0.0313 for 4231 independent reflections. Two distinct neodymium polyhedra are formed, NdO9 and NdO8N, an oxygen of one monodentate oxalate in the former being replaced by a nitrogen atom of a coordinated hydrazinium ion in the latter. The infrared absorption band at 1005 cm(-1) confirms the coordination of N2H5(+) to the metal. These polyhedra are connected through μ2 and μ3 oxalate ions to form an anionic three-dimensional neodymium-oxalate arrangement. A non-coordinated charge-compensating hydrazinium ion occupies, with water molecules, the resulting tunnels. The N-N stretching frequencies of the infrared spectra demonstrate the existence of the two types of hydrazine ions. Thermal reactivity of these hydrazinium oxalates and of the mixed isotypic Ce/Nd (CeNd-HyOx) oxalate were studied by using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses coupled with gas analyzers, and high temperature X-ray diffraction. Under air, fine particles of CeO2 and Ce(0.5)Nd(0.5)O(1.75) are formed at low temperature from Ce-HyOx and CeNd-HyOx, respectively, thanks to a decomposition/oxidation process. Under argon flow, dioxymonocyanamides Ln2O2CN2 are formed.

  1. Hydrothermal growth of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kakihana, Masato

    2012-06-01

    A facile and surfactant-free approach has been developed for the synthesis of cross-linked hyperbranched copper dendrites using copper oxalate complex as a precursor and oxalic acid as a reducing and structure-directing agent. The synthesized particles are composed of highly branched nanostructures with unusual cross-linked hierarchical networks. The formation of copper dendrites can be explained in view of both diffusion control and aggregation-based growth model accompanied by the chelation-assisted assembly. Oxalic acid was found to play dual roles as reducing and structure-directing agent based on the investigation results. The understanding on the crystal growth and the roles of oxalic acid provides clear insight into the formation mechanism of hyperbranched metal dendrites.

  2. Bridges between multiple-point geostatistics and texture synthesis: Review and guidelines for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Multiple-Point Simulations (MPS) is a family of geostatistical tools that has received a lot of attention in recent years for the characterization of spatial phenomena in geosciences. It relies on the definition of training images to represent a given type of spatial variability, or texture. We show that the algorithmic tools used are similar in many ways to techniques developed in computer graphics, where there is a need to generate large amounts of realistic textures for applications such as video games and animated movies. Similarly to MPS, these texture synthesis methods use training images, or exemplars, to generate realistic-looking graphical textures. Both domains of multiple-point geostatistics and example-based texture synthesis present similarities in their historic development and share similar concepts. These disciplines have however remained separated, and as a result significant algorithmic innovations in each discipline have not been universally adopted. Texture synthesis algorithms present drastically increased computational efficiency, patterns reproduction and user control. At the same time, MPS developed ways to condition models to spatial data and to produce 3D stochastic realizations, which have not been thoroughly investigated in the field of texture synthesis. In this paper we review the possible links between these disciplines and show the potential and limitations of using concepts and approaches from texture synthesis in MPS. We also provide guidelines on how recent developments could benefit both fields of research, and what challenges remain open.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and electrochemical and DNA binding studies of oxygen bridged-copper(II) carboxylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Muhammad, Niaz; Shah, Naseer Ali; Sohail, Manzar; Pandarinathan, Vedapriya

    2015-08-01

    A new binuclear O-bridged Cu(II) complex with 4-chlorophenyl acetate and 2,2‧-bipyridine has been synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, powder and single crystal XRD and electrochemical solution studies. The results revealed that the two penta-coordinated Cu(II) centers are linked by two carboxylate ligands in end-on bonding fashion. The coordination geometry is slightly distorted square pyramidal (SP) with bridging oxygen atoms occupying the apical position and other ligands lying in the equatorial plane. The striking difference in Cu-O bond distance of the bridging oxygen atom in the complex may be responsible for the SP geometry of Cu(II) ion. The complex gave rise to metal centered irreversible electro-activity where one electron Cu(II)/Cu(III) oxidation process and a single step two electron Cu(II)/Cu(0) reduction process was observed. The redox processes were found predominantly adsorption controlled. The values of diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous rate constant for oxidation process were 6.98 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 and 4.60 × 10-5 cm s-1 while the corresponding values for reduction were 5.30 × 10-8 cm2 s-1 and 5.41 × 10-6 cm s-1, respectively. The formal potential and charge transfer coefficient were also calculated. The DNA-binding ability was explored through cyclic voltammetry and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Diminution in the value of Do for oxidation indicated the binding of the complex with DNA corresponding to Kb = 8.58 × 104 M-1. UV-Visible spectroscopy yielded ε = 49 L mol-1 cm-1 and Kb = 2.96 × 104 M-1. The data of both techniques support each other. The self-induced redox activation of the complex, as indicated by cyclic voltammetry heralds its potential applications in redox catalysis and anticancer activity.

  4. trans-Methylpyridine cyclen versus cross-bridged trans-methylpyridine cyclen. Synthesis, acid-base and metal complexation studies (metal = Co2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicolas; Costa, Judite; Delgado, Rita; Félix, Vítor; Royal, Guy; Tripier, Raphaël

    2011-05-07

    The synthesis of the cross-bridged cyclen CRpy(2) {4,10-bis((pyridin-2-yl)methyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazabicyclo[5.5.2]tetradecane}, a constrained analogue of the previously described trans-methylpyridine cyclen Cpy(2) is reported. The additional ethylene bridge confers to CRpy(2) proton-sponge type behaviour which was explored by NMR and potentiometric studies. Transition metal complexes have been synthesized (by complexation of both ligands with Co(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+)) and characterized in solution and in the solid state. The single crystal X-ray structures of [CoCpy(2)](2+), [CuCpy(2)](2+) and [ZnCpy(2)](2+) complexes were determined. Stability constants of the complexes, including those of the cross-bridged derivative, were determined using potentiometric titration data and the kinetic inertness of the [CuCRpy(2)](2+) complex in an acidic medium (half-life values) was evaluated by spectrophotometry. The pre-organized structure of the cross-bridged ligand imposes an additional strain for the complexation leading to complexes with smaller thermodynamic stability in comparison with the related non-bridged ligand. The electrochemical study involving cyclic voltammetry underlines the importance of the ethylene cross-bridge on the redox properties of the transition metal complexes.

  5. In vivo oxalate degradation by liposome encapsulated oxalate oxidase in rat model of hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Dahiya

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: EMA-oxalate oxidase encapsulated liposome caused oxalate degradation in experimental hyperoxaluria indicating that the enzyme could be used as a therapeutic agent in hyperoxaluria leading to urinary stones.

  6. Synthesis and magnetic Properties of dinuclear oxovanadium(IV) complexes bridged by tetracarboxylato groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.-T.; Guan, H.-S.; Yan, C.-W.

    2004-01-01

    Three novel μ-tetracarboxylato-bridged oxovanadium(IV) complexes described by the overall formula [(VO) 2 (PMTA)L 2 ] where PMTA stands for the tetraanion of pyromellitic acid, and L denotes 2,2'-bipyridine(bpy), 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me 2 bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), respectively, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity and room-temperature magnetic moment measurements, IR, ESR, and electronic spectral studies. It is proposed that these complexes have PMTA-bridged structures and consist of two oxovanadium(IV) ions, each in the square-pyramidal environment. The [(VO) 2 (PMTA)(bpy) 2 ] (1) and [(VO) 2 (PMTA)(phen) 2 ] (2) complexes were further characterized by variable temperature (4.2 - 300 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements and the observed data were fitted to the modified Bleaney-Bowers equation by the least-squares, giving the exchange integral J = -2.75 cm -1 for (1) and J -3.91 cm -1 for (2). This results indicates that there is a weak antiferromagnetic spin-exchange interaction between the two VO 2+ ions within each molecule. (author)

  7. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45 Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO 3 and CaCl 2 than from CaC 2 O 4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach

  8. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Hyung Yoo; Eung-Ho Kim

    1999-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, some experimental work of photochemical decomposition of oxalate was carried out to prove its feasibility as a step of partitioning process. The decomposition of oxalic acid in the presence of nitric acid was performed in advance in order to understand the mechanistic behaviour of oxalate destruction, and then the decomposition of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was examined. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate was found as 0.003 mole/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  9. Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged PMOs. • Phosphonic acid loaded PMOs as adsorbent for cationic and anionic dyes. • Due to electrostatic interaction the adsorbent has high dye adsorption capacity. • π–π stacking interaction between benzene and dye enhances adsorption capacity. • Intraparticle diffusion played a dominant role in the adsorption process. - Abstract: Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved π–π stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles

  10. Vibrational studies in aqueous solutions. Part II. The acid oxalate ion and oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippey, T. A.

    1980-08-01

    Assignments for oxalic acid in solution are re-examined. A detailed assignment of the IR and Raman spectra of the acid oxalate ion is presented for the first time. Raman spectroscopy is used to study the first ionization of oxalic acid.

  11. A First Synthesis and Physical Properties of Asymmetric Anthracenes-Thiophenes Bridged with Ethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Min Ji; Park, Ji Hee; Jeong, Eun Bin

    2012-01-01

    Here we report our recent result of a new semiconductor material, which has an asymmetric structure. The synthesized molecules consist of anthracene and thiophene connected by bridged ethylene and substituted with hexyl or dodecyl groups as pendants. The semiconductors were synthesized using a McMurry coupling reaction between anthracene-2-carbaldehyde and corresponding 5-hexyl(or dodecyl)thiophene-2-carbaldehyde. A first investigation of synthesized asymmetry AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) for the physical properties showed that they have high oxidation potential and thermal stability. The devices prepared by using AVHT (9a) and AVDT (9b) showed the mobility of 2.6 Χ 10 -2 cm 2 /Vs and 4.4 Χ 10 -3 cm 2 /Vs, respectively, in solution processed OTFTs

  12. Energy and Biocides Storage Compounds: Synthesis and Characterization of Energetic Bridged Bis(triiodoazoles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunlin; Zhao, Gang; Hooper, Joseph P; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2017-11-06

    Energetic bridged triiodopyrazoles and triiodoimidazoles were designed and synthsized by reacting potassium triiodopyrazolate or triiodoimidazolate with corresponding dichloro compounds. All compounds were fully characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. The structure of compound 1 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of the compounds exhibit good thermal stability with decomposition temperatures between 199 and 270 °C and high densities ranging from 2.804 to 3.358 g/cm 3 . The detonation performances and the detonation products were calculated by CHEETAH 7. Compound 3 (D v = 4765 m s -1 ; P = 17.9 GPa) and compound 7 (D v = 4841 m s -1 ; P = 18.5 GPa) show comparable detonation pressure to TNT, and high iodine content makes them promising as energy and biocides storage compounds.

  13. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of metal complexes of cross-bridged tetraazamacrocyclic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubin, Timothy J; Amoyaw, Prince N-A; Roewe, Kimberly D; Simpson, Natalie C; Maples, Randall D; Carder Freeman, TaRynn N; Cain, Amy N; Le, Justin G; Archibald, Stephen J; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, M O Faruk

    2014-07-01

    Using transition metals such as manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II), several new metal complexes of cross-bridged tetraazamacrocyclic chelators namely, cyclen- and cyclam-analogs with benzyl groups, were synthesized and screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The metal-free chelators tested showed little or no antimalarial activity. All the metal complexes of the dibenzyl cross-bridged cyclam ligand exhibited potent antimalarial activity. The Mn(2+) complex of this ligand was the most potent with IC50s of 0.127 and 0.157μM against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) P. falciparum strains, respectively. In general, the dibenzyl hydrophobic ligands showed better anti-malarial activity compared to the activity of monobenzyl ligands, potentially because of their higher lipophilicity and thus better cell penetration ability. The higher antimalarial activity displayed by the manganese complex for the cyclam ligand in comparison to that of the cyclen, correlates with the larger pocket of cyclam compared to that of cyclen which produces a more stable complex with the Mn(2+). Few of the Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) complexes also showed improvement in activity but Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) complexes did not show any improvement in activity upon the metal-free ligands for anti-malarial development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Morphological control of strontium oxalate particles by PSMA-mediated precipitation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jiaguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)]. E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Tang Hua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cheng Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, strontium oxalate particles with different morphologies could be easily obtained by a precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with strontium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of pH, aging time and concentration of PSMA on the phase structures and morphologies of the as-prepared strontium oxalate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that strontium oxalate particles with various morphologies, such as, bi-pyramids, rods, peanuts, and spherical particles, etc., could be obtained by varying the experimental conditions. PSMA promoted the formation of strontium oxalate dihydrate (SOD) phase. Suitable pH values (pH 7 and 8) favor the formation of the peanut-shaped SrC{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. This research may provide new insight into the control of morphologies and phase structures of strontium oxalate particles and the biomimetic synthesis of novel inorganic materials.

  15. Towards novel efficient and stable nuclear import signals: synthesis and properties of trimethylguanosine cap analogs modified within the 5',5'-triphosphate bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytek, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Joanna; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Wojtczak, Blazej A; Zuberek, Joanna; Ferenc-Mrozek, Aleksandra; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Jemielity, Jacek

    2014-12-07

    A trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap is present at the 5' end of several small nuclear and nucleolar RNAs. Recently, it has been reported that the TMG cap is a potential nuclear import signal for nucleus-targeting therapeutic nucleic acids and proteins. The import is mediated by recognition of the TMG cap by the snRNA transporting protein, snurportin1. This work describes the synthesis and properties of a series of dinucleotide TMG cap (m3(2,2,7)GpppG) analogs modified in the 5',5'-triphosphate bridge as tools to study TMG cap-dependent biological processes. The bridge was altered at different positions by introducing either bridging (imidodiphosphate, O to NH and methylenebisphosphonate, O to CH2) or non-bridging (phosphorothioate, O to S and boranophosphate, O to BH3) modifications, or by elongation to tetraphosphate. The stability of novel analogs in blood serum was studied to reveal that the α,β-bridging O to NH substitution (m3(2,2,7)GppNHpG) confers the highest resistance. Short RNAs capped with analogs containing α,β-bridging (m3(2,2,7)GppNHpG) or β-non-bridging (m3(2,2,7)GppSpG D2) modifications were resistant to decapping pyrophosphatase, hNudt16. Preliminary studies on binding by human snurportin1 revealed that both O to NH and O to S substitutions support this binding. Due to favorable properties in all three assays, m3(2,2,7)GppNHpG was selected as a promising candidate for further studies on the efficiency of the TMG cap as a nuclear import signal.

  16. Synthesis, structure characterization, and anticancer activity of a novel oxygen-bridged tricyclic Biginelli adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; El-Sheshtawy, Hamdy S.; El-Kemary, Maged; Al-Juaid, Salih; Youssef, Mohamed; El-Azab, Islam H.

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we report the one-pot cyclization of Biginelli Adduct, ethyl 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (I) to the oxygen-bridged adduct, ethyl 2-methyl-4-thioxo-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-2,6-methanobenzo[g] [1,3,5]oxadiazocine-11-carboxylate (II) in a high yield and purity under mild reaction condition using zinc(II) perchlorate hexahydrate as a highly efficient catalyst. The cyclic product (II) was characterized both in the solid state and in solution using FT-IR, 1H NMR, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level were used to further investigate the structure properties. DFT calculations (gas phase) revealed the stability of cyclic compound II (3.45 kcal/mol) than compound I. In addition, the anticancer activity of II was investigated using MCF-7 human breast cell line. The results revealed a moderate activity with 223.55 μg/ml IC50 value.

  17. Bifunctional bridging linker-assisted synthesis and characterization of TiO{sub 2}/Au nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žunič, Vojka, E-mail: vojka.zunic@ijs.si, E-mail: vojka13@gmail.com; Kurtjak, Mario; Suvorov, Danilo [Jožef Stefan Institute, Advanced Materials Department (Slovenia)

    2016-11-15

    Using a simple organic bifunctional bridging linker, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were coupled with the Au nanoparticles to form TiO{sub 2}/Au nanocomposites with a variety of Au loadings. This organic bifunctional linker, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, contains two types of functional groups: (i) the carboxyl group, which enables binding to the TiO{sub 2}, and (ii) the thiol group, which enables binding to the Au. In addition, the organic bifunctional linker acts as a stabilizing agent to prevent the agglomeration and growth of the Au particles, resulting in the formation of highly dispersed Au nanoparticles. To form the TiO{sub 2}/Au nanocomposites in a simple way, we deliberately applied a synthetic method that simultaneously ensures: (i) the capping of the Au nanoparticles and (ii) the binding of different amounts of Au to the TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2}/Au nanocomposites formed with this method show enhanced UV and Vis photocatalytic activities when compared to the pure TiO{sub 2} nanopowders.Graphical Abstract.

  18. MRP-1 and BCRP Promote the Externalization of Phosphatidylserine in Oxalate-treated Renal Epithelial Cells: Implications for Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YiFu; Yu, ShiLiang; Gan, XiuGuo; Zhang, Ze; Wang, Yan; Wang, YingWei; An, RuiHua

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in the oxalate-induced redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in renal epithelial cell membranes. A western blot analysis was used to examine the MRP-1 and BCRP expression levels. Surface-expressed PS was detected by the annexin V-binding assay. The cell-permeable fluorogenic probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to measure the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. A rat model of hyperoxaluria was obtained using 0.5% ethylene glycol and 1.0% ammonium chloride. In addition, certain animals received verapamil (50 mg/kg body weight), which is a common inhibitor of MRP-1 and BCRP. The degree of nephrolithiasis was assessed histomorphometrically using sections stained by Pizzolato method and by measuring the calcium oxalate crystal content in the renal tissue. Oxalate produced a concentration-dependent increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP. Treatment with MK571 and Ko143 (MRP-1- and BCRP-specific inhibitors, respectively) significantly attenuated the oxalate-induced PS externalization. Adding the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine significantly reduced MRP-1 and BCRP expression. In vivo, markedly decreased nephrocalcinosis was observed compared with that in the rat model of hyperoxaluria without verapamil treatment. Oxalate induces the upregulation of MRP-1 and BCRP, which act as phospholipid floppases causing PS externalization in the renal epithelial cell membrane. The process is mediated by intracellular ROS production. The ROS-mediated increase in the synthesis of MRP-1 and BCRP can play an important role in hyperoxaluria-promoted calcium oxalate urolithiasis by facilitating phosphatidylserine redistribution in renal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Precipitation of plutonium oxalate from homogeneous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.K.; Pius, I.C.; Subbarao, M.; Chinnusamy, A.; Natarajan, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the precipitation of plutonium(IV) oxalate from homogeneous solutions using diethyl oxalate is reported. The precipitate obtained is crystalline and easily filterable with yields in the range of 92-98% for precipitations involving a few mg to g quantities of plutonium. Decontamination factors for common impurities such as U(VI), Am(III) and Fe(III) were determined. TGA and chemical analysis of the compound indicate its composition as Pu(Csub(2)Osub(4))sub(2).6Hsub(2)O. Data are obtained on the solubility of the oxalate in nitric acid and in mixtures of nitric acid and oxalic acid of varying concentrations. Green PuOsub(2) obtained by calcination of the oxalate has specifications within the recommended values for trace foreign substances such as chlorine, fluorine, carbon and nitrogen. (author)

  20. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Reactivity of uranium(IV) bridged chalcogenido complexes UIV–E–UIV (E = S, Se) with elemental sulfur and selenium: synthesis of polychalcogenido-bridged uranium complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Sebastian M.; Heinemann, Frank W.; Meyer, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We report the syntheses, electronic properties, and molecular structures of a series of polychalcogenido-bridged dinuclear uranium species. These complexes are supported by the sterically encumbering but highly flexible, single N-anchored tris(aryloxide) chelator (AdArO)3N3−. Reaction of an appropriate uranium precursor, either the U(III) starting material, [((AdArO)3N)U(DME)], or the dinuclear mono-chalcogenido-bridged uranium(IV/IV) compounds [{((AdArO)3N)U(DME)}2(μ-E)] (E = S, Se), with el...

  2. DISY. The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, a bridge for innovative applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzzoni, R.; Perego, C. [Eni S.p.A., Novara (Italy). Research Center for Non-Conventional Energies

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is largely recognized as the green oxidant of choice for future sustainable processes. The current industrial production still goes through the old anthraquinone process, a complex, two-step process suffering from a low specific productivity. Following the development of TS-1/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} based selective oxidation processes e.g. propylene epoxidation, cyclohexanone ammoximation and the new benzene direct oxidation to phenol, there has been an incentive for the development of a new technology, simpler and with better economics. DISY process, based on direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen, is highly suitable to the design of integrated selective oxidation processes as well as for production of commercial-grade high concentration aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions. Catalyst and process development up to pilot scale are described. (orig.)

  3. Crystal structure of dimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2+·HC2O4−·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH22C2O4 salt and Sn(CH33Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a dimethylammonium cation (Me2NH2+, an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4−, and half a molecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4 situated about an inversion center. From a supramolecular point of view, the three components interact together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2+ cations and the HC2O4− anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4− anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4 molecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four intermolecular interactions with two Me2NH2+ and two HC2O4− ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H...O and two O—H...O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting molecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010, and reinforced by a C—H...O hydrogen bond.

  4. Novel methylene bridged ethylenediamine-type ligands: Synthesis and spectral characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović-Lalić Ljiljana E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report the synthesis of two new organic compounds, diisobutyl- and diisopentyl N,N′-methylene-(S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexylpropanoate. A one-pot procedure was carried out by adding the reducing agent and carbonyl compound into the methanol solution of the parent compounds (iso-butyl and iso-pentyl esters of (S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid in appropriate stoichiometric ratios. The compounds were fully characterized by infrared, ESI-MS, 1D (1H, 13C and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The spectral data confirm the presence of -CH2- group introduced between nitrogen atoms of the ethylenediamine moiety revealing neutral form of potential bidentate ligand. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172035. The authors also acknowledge the support of the FP7 RegPot project FCUB ERA GA No. 256716. The EC does not share responsibility for the content of the article

  5. Inorganic-organic hybrid structure: Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a cobalt phosphite-oxalate, [C4N2H12][Co4(HPO3)2(C2O4)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Sukhendu; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2005-01-01

    A hydrothermal reaction of a mixture of cobalt (II) oxalate, phosphorous acid, piperazine and water at 150 o C for 96h followed by heating at 180 o C for 24h gave rise to a new inorganic-organic hybrid solid, [C 4 N 2 H 12 ][Co 4 (HPO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 3 ], I. The structure consists of edge-shared CoO 6 octahedra forming a [Co 2 O 10 ] dimers that are connected by HPO 3 and C 2 O 4 units forming a three-dimensional structure with one-dimensional channels. The amine molecules are positioned within these channels. The oxalate units have a dual role of connecting within the plane of the layer as well as out of the plane. Magnetic susceptibility measurement shows the compound orders antiferromagnetically at low temperature (T N =22K). Crystal data: I, monoclinic, space group=P2 1 /c (No. 14). a=7.614(15), b=7.514(14), c=17.750(3)A, β=97.351(3) o , V=1007.30(3)A 3 , Z=2, ρ calc =2.466g/cm 3 , μ (MoKα) =3.496mm -1 , R 1 =0.0310 and wR 2 =0.0807 data [I>2σ(I)

  6. Decomposition of oxalate precipitates by photochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J.H.; Kim, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    A photo-radiation method was applied to decompose oxalate precipitates so that it can be dissolved into dilute nitric acid. This work has been studied as a part of partitioning of minor actinides. Minor actinides can be recovered from high-level wastes as oxalate precipitates, but they tend to be coprecipitated together with lanthanide oxalates. This requires another partitioning step for mutual separation of actinide and lanthanide groups. In this study, therefore, the photochemical decomposition mechanism of oxalates in the presence of nitric acid was elucidated by experimental work. The decomposition of oxalates was proved to be dominated by the reaction with hydroxyl radical generated from the nitric acid, rather than with nitrite ion also formed from nitrate ion. The decomposition rate of neodymium oxalate, which was chosen as a stand-in compound representing minor actinide and lanthanide oxalates, was found to be 0.003 M/hr at the conditions of 0.5 M HNO 3 and room temperature when a mercury lamp was used as a light source. (author)

  7. Oxidation of ferrocene by thiocyanic acid in the presence of ammonium oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslin, Farah bt; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2014-09-01

    A flake-like crystalline salt was obtained from the reaction of ferrocene, oxalic acid and ammonium thiocyanate in ethanol The elemental analysis and spectroscopic data were in agreement with the preliminary X-ray molecular structure. The compound consists of four ferrocenium moieties and a counter anion consisting of two (tetraisothiocyanato)iron(III) linked by an oxalato bridging group in such a way that both iron central atoms adopt octahedral geometries.

  8. Dinuclear 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (tacn) complexes of cobalt(III) with amido and tacn bridges. Synthesis, characterization and reversible acid-accelerated bridge cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter; Glerup, Jørgen; Gumm, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    -tacn(-H)]Co(NH3)]3+, were isolated as perchlorates, and the crystal structure of the perrhenate of the latter complex was determined by X-ray diffraction. In this compound a nitrogen atom (deprotonated) from one of the tacn ligands forms a third bridge together with two amido bridges. In 1.0 M (Na,H)ClO4 ([H+] 0......)]4+. An isolated perchlorate of this complex appeared to be the salt of the trans-ammineaqua isomer as determined by X-ray diffraction. Equilibration from both sides fits the first-order rate constant dependence k(obs)=6.2(3) x 10(-5)[H+] + 2.1(2) x 10(-5)(s(-1)) at 40 degrees C. Prolonged treatment of the two...

  9. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wagner; O. Möhler; H. Saathoff; M. Schnaiter; T. Leisner

    2010-01-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to ...

  10. Heteropentanuclear Oxalato-Bridged nd–4f (n=4, 5) Metal Complexes with NO Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Aqueous Stability and Antiproliferative Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen; Cremer, Laura; Gavriluta, Anatolie; Jovanović, Katarina K.; Filipović, Lana; Hummer, Alfred A.; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Dojčinović, Biljana P.; Meier, Samuel M.; Rompel, Annette; Radulović, Siniša; Tommasino, Jean Bernard; Luneau, Dominique; Arion, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    A series of heteropentanuclear oxalate-bridged Ru(NO)-Ln (4d–4f) metal complexes of the general formula (nBu4N)5[Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4], where Ln=Y (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5) and ox=oxalate anion, were obtained by treatment of (nBu4N)2[RuCl3(ox)(NO)] (1) with the respective lanthanide salt in 4:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, while 1, 2, and 5 were in addition analyzed by X-ray crystallography, 1 by Ru K-edge XAS and 1 and 2 by 13C NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that in 2 and 5 four complex anions [RuCl3(ox)(NO)]2− are coordinated to YIII and DyIII, respectively, with formation of [Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4]5− (Ln=Y, Dy). While YIII is eight-coordinate in 2, DyIII is nine-coordinate in 5, with an additional coordination of an EtOH molecule. The negative charge is counterbalanced by five nBu4N+ ions present in the crystal structure. The stability of complexes 2 and 5 in aqueous medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of ruthenium-lanthanide complexes 2–5 were assayed in two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and A549) and in a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) and compared with those obtained for the previously reported Os(NO)-Ln (5d–4f) analogues (nBu4N)5[Ln{OsCl3(ox)(NO)}4] (Ln=Y (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9)). Complexes 2–5 were found to be slightly more active than 1 in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and A549 cells, and significantly more cytotoxic than 5d–4f metal complexes 6–9 in terms of IC50 values. The highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 20.0 and 22.4 μM was found for 4 in HeLa and A549 cell lines, respectively. These cytotoxicity results are in accord with the presented ICP-MS data, indicating five- to eightfold greater accumulation of ruthenium versus osmium in human A549 cancer cells.

  11. Heteropentanuclear Oxalato-Bridged nd–4f (n=4, 5) Metal Complexes with NO Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structures, Aqueous Stability and Antiproliferative Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Kuhn, Paul-Steffen

    2015-08-10

    A series of heteropentanuclear oxalate-bridged Ru(NO)-Ln (4d–4f) metal complexes of the general formula (nBu4N)5[Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4], where Ln=Y (2), Gd (3), Tb (4), Dy (5) and ox=oxalate anion, were obtained by treatment of (nBu4N)2[RuCl3(ox)(NO)] (1) with the respective lanthanide salt in 4:1 molar ratio. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, while 1, 2, and 5 were in addition analyzed by X-ray crystallography, 1 by Ru K-edge XAS and 1 and 2 by 13C NMR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that in 2 and 5 four complex anions [RuCl3(ox)(NO)]2− are coordinated to YIII and DyIII, respectively, with formation of [Ln{RuCl3(μ-ox)(NO)}4]5− (Ln=Y, Dy). While YIII is eight-coordinate in 2, DyIII is nine-coordinate in 5, with an additional coordination of an EtOH molecule. The negative charge is counterbalanced by five nBu4N+ ions present in the crystal structure. The stability of complexes 2 and 5 in aqueous medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of ruthenium-lanthanide complexes 2–5 were assayed in two human cancer cell lines (HeLa and A549) and in a noncancerous cell line (MRC-5) and compared with those obtained for the previously reported Os(NO)-Ln (5d–4f) analogues (nBu4N)5[Ln{OsCl3(ox)(NO)}4] (Ln=Y (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9)). Complexes 2–5 were found to be slightly more active than 1 in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa and A549 cells, and significantly more cytotoxic than 5d–4f metal complexes 6–9 in terms of IC50 values. The highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 values of 20.0 and 22.4 μM was found for 4 in HeLa and A549 cell lines, respectively. These cytotoxicity results are in accord with the presented ICP-MS data, indicating five- to eightfold greater accumulation of ruthenium versus osmium in human A549 cancer cells.

  12. Metabolic Conversion of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joan C.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1975-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid-1-14C and its oxidation product, dehydro-l-ascorbic acid, produced labeled oxalic acid in oxalate-accumulating plants such as spinach seedlings (Spinacia oleracea) and the detached leaves of woodsorrel (Oxalis stricta and O. oregana), shamrock (Oxalis adenopylla), and begonia (Begonia evansiana). In O. oregana, conversion occurred equally well in the presence or absence of light. This relationship between l-ascorbic acid metabolism and oxalic acid formation must be given careful consideration in attempts to explain oxalic accumulation in plants. PMID:16659288

  13. Dissolution of oxalate precipitate and destruction of oxalate ion by hydrogen peroxide in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Ho; Chung, Dong-Yong; Park, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Jae-Hyung

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at developing an oxalate precipitation process, which is applicable to a partitioning of long-lived radionuclides from the high-level radioactive liquid waste. In order to achieve this, a study for decomposition-reaction of oxalic acid by hydrogen peroxide was first carried out. The decomposition rates of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid increased with an increase of nitric acid concentration, and especially those decomposition rates steeply increased at more than 2 M HNO 3 . Based on this result, the decomposition kinetics of H 2 O 2 and oxalic acid were suggested in this work. Then, the dissolution of oxalate precipitate and the destruction of oxalate ion in the solution were examined. Oxalate precipitates were prepared by adding oxalic acid into a simulated radioactive waste containing 8 metallic elements. The precipitates obtained thereby were dissolved in various nitric acid concentrations and reacted with H 2 O 2 at 90degC. When the oxalates were completely dissolved, most of the oxalates were decomposed by adding H 2 O 2 , but in a slurry state the decomposition yield of the oxalate decreased with an increase of the slurry density in the solution. Such phenomenon was considered to be due to a catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 on a solid surface of oxalate and the decomposition mechanism was explained by a charge transfer from a surface of oxalate solid to H 2 O 2 , producing OH radicals which can destruct H 2 O 2 explosively. Accordingly, the experimental condition for the decomposition of the oxalate precipitates was found to be most favorable at 3 M HNO 3 under the initial concentrations of 0.2 M oxalate and 1 M H 2 O 2 . At 3M HNO 3 , oxalate precipitates could be safely and completely dissolved, and almost decomposed. Additionally, it was observed that the presence of ferric ion in the solution largely affects the decomposition rate of H 2 O 2 . This could be explained by a chain reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferric ion in the solution

  14. The bioavailability of oxalate from Oca (Oxalis tuberosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albihn, P B; Savage, G P

    2001-08-01

    It is believed that soluble oxalate has higher bioavailability than insoluble oxalate. Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) is moderately high in oxalate and contains oxalate in soluble form only. We estimated the bioavailability of oxalate in oca based on the urinary excretion of oxalate after oxalate loading with oca to estimate the bioavailability of oxalate in oca. We also clarified whether bioavailability differs in various oxalate loads from the same food source and studied the effect of an additional calcium source on the bioavailability of oxalate from oca. Four men and 4 women ingested 50, 100 and 150 gm. oca as well as 100 gm. oca with 100 gm. sour cream. Oxalate was measured in a 6-hour urine sample from each volunteer. The mean bioavailability of oxalate from oca plus or minus standard deviation was 1.44% +/- 1.31% during the 6-hour period after intake. There was no significant difference in oxalate bioavailability among oxalate intake levels in this study, although oca consumption with sour cream significantly decreased the uptake of oxalate (p oca appears to be similar to that in spinach. However, bioavailability varies among individuals and depends on other constituents of a combined meal.

  15. Further Studies on Oxalic Acid Biosynthesis in Oxalate-accumulating Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Richard F.; Loewus, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid functions as a precursor of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulating plants. The present study extends this observation to include Rumex crispus L. (curly dock), Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red root pigweed), Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters), Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet), Halogeton glomeratus M. Bieb. (halogeton), and Rheum rhabarbarum L. (rhubarb). Several species with low oxalate content are also examined. When l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is supplied to young seedlings of R. crispus or H. glomeratus, a major portion of the 14C is released over a 24-hour period as 14CO2 and only a small portion is recovered as [14C]oxalate, unlike cuttings from 2- or 4-month-old plants which retain a large part of the 14C as [14C]oxalic acid and release very little 14CO2. Support for an intermediate role of oxalate in the release of 14CO2 from l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid is seen in the rapid release of 14CO2 by R. crispus and H. glomeratus seedlings labeled with [14C]oxalic acid. The common origin of oxalic acid carbon in the C1 and C2 fragment from l-ascorbic acid is demonstrated by comparison of 14C content of oxalic acid in several oxalate-accumulators after cuttings or seedlings are supplied equal amounts of l-[1-14C]- or l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid. Theoretically, l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid will produce labeled oxalic acid containing three times as much 14C as l-[UL-14C]ascorbic acid when equal amounts of label are provided. Experimentally, a ratio of 2.7 ± 0.5 is obtained in duplicate experiments with six different species. PMID:16660342

  16. Myocardial Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Myocardial Bridge Menu Topics Topics FAQs Myocardial Bridge En español Your heart is made of muscle, ... surface of the heart. What is a myocardial bridge? A myocardial bridge is a band of heart ...

  17. Equilibrium aluminium hydroxo-oxalate phases during initial clay formation; H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid-Na + system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Halka; Horvath, Laszlo; Ingri, Nils; Sjöberg, Staffan

    1986-09-01

    The conditions necessary for initial clay formation have been studied in different model systems comprising different organic acids besides Si and Al. In the present paper the solid phases and the precipitation boundary characterizing the subsystem H +-Al 3+-oxalic acid (H 2L) are discussed. pH and tyndallometric measurements were performed in an ionic medium of 0.6 M Na(Cl) at 25 °C. The two phases Al 3(OH) 7(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase I) and NaAl(OH) 2(C 2O 4) · 3H 2O (phase II) determine the precipitation boundary. The following formation constants for the two phases were deduced: lgβ1 = lg([ Al3+] -3[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 9 = -21.87 ± 0.08 and lgβ11 = lg([ Al3+] -1[ H2C2O4] -1[ H+] 4 = -5.61 ± 0.06. Phase I exists in the range [ Al] tot≥ 10 -4.4moldm-3,[ H2C2O4] tot ≥ 10 -4.9moldm-3 and at pH oxalic-rich natural waters. The more soluble sodium phase is unlikely to exist in natural waters. The two phases are metastable relative to crystalline gibbsite and may be considered as the first precipitation step in the transition from aqueous Al oxalates down to stable Al hydroxide. Model calculations illustrating these competing hydrolysis-complexation reactions are discussed in terms of predominance and speciation diagrams. The solid phases have been characterized by X-ray analysis of powders, TGA and IR spectra, and tentative structures are proposed. Phase I seems to be an octahedral layer structure, in which 3/5 of the octahedral sites between two close packed oxygen sheets are occupied by Al 3+ and the oxalate ion acts as a bridge ligand between two aluminium atoms. Phase II forms a more open sheet structure and has ion exchange properties. Powder data for a phase crystallized from the studied solution after a year are also presented. This phase, Na 4Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 4 · 10H 2O, supports the results from the equilibrium analysis of recent solution data by SJöBERG and ÖHMAN (1985), who have found the dinuclear complex Al 2(OH) 2(C 2O 4) 44- to exist in a

  18. Oxalates in oca (New Zealand yam) (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A B; Savage, G P; Martin, R J; Vanhanen, L

    1999-12-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) or New Zealand yam, in common with other members of this genus, contains oxalate, an antinutritive factor. Twelve South American and two New Zealand cultivars of oca were analyzed for total and soluble oxalate contents of the tubers. The range of total oxalate levels was 92-221 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Levels of soluble and total oxalate extracted from the tubers were not significantly different, suggesting that no calcium oxalate is formed in the tubers. The oxalate concentrations obtained in this study for oca suggest that previously reported values are too low and that oca is a moderately high oxalate-containing food. This is the first report of a tuber crop containing moderate to high levels of soluble oxalates in the tubers and no insoluble oxalates.

  19. Variation in oxalate and oxalate decarboxylase production by six species of brown and white rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Oliver, Jason; Howell, Caitlin

      Oxalic acid (C2O4H2), the strongest of the organic acids is produced by both brown and white rot decay fungi and has been connected to various aspects of brown- and white rot decay including the Fenton reaction (Green and Highley, 1997; Munir et al.,2001). Oxalic acid is secreted into the wood...... cell lumen where it quickly dissociates into hydrogen ions and oxalate, resulting in a pH decrease of the environment, and oxalate-cation complexes. Generally, brown rot fungi accumulate larger quantities of oxalic acid in the wood than white rot fungi. The amount of oxalic acid has been shown to vary...... of formic acid and CO2 (Makela et al., 2002). So far only a few species of brown rot fungi have been shown to accumulate this enzyme (Micales, 1995, Howell and Jellison, 2006).   The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the levels of soluble oxalate and total oxalate, in correlation...

  20. Short communication: Urinary oxalate and calcium excretion by dogs and cats diagnosed with calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Kummeling, A.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urine concentrations of oxalate and calcium play an important role in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation in dogs and cats, with high excretions of both substances increasing the chance of CaOx urolithiasis. In 17 CaOx-forming dogs, urine calcium:creatinine ratio (Ca:Cr) was found

  1. Investigation of composition and properties of some neptunium (5) oxalate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, V.G.; Krot, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    A simple way of neptunium (5) oxalate synthesis is described and its composition is determined: (NpO 2 ) 2 C 2 O 4 xH 2 O. The compound is precipitated from solution during pouring together stoichiometric quantities of neptunium (5) nitrate and ammonium, sodium or potassium oxalate at pH=4-5. An explanation to unusual effect of solubility change with time of neptunium (5) monooxalate complexes and alkali metal or ammonium ion is found taking into account the slow formation of precipitate and low solubility of the compound obtained (0.62 g/l as to metal). Thermal decomposition of the compound is studied. At 180 deg C a water molecule is split off and at 260 deg C decomposition of neptunium oxalate starts. IR spectra and interplane distances (dsub(hkl)) of the compound crystal lattice are determined. New data on the synthesis and properties of complex neptunium (5) oxalates and monovalent cation in second sphere with the ratio ligand: metal=2:1 and 3:1 are presented. On the basis of results of IR spectroscopy and X-ray phase analyses a supposition is made on the existence of such complex compounds [ru

  2. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  3. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  4. Update on probiotics for the treatment of calcium oxalate stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is one of the common diseases in urinary system, among which calcium oxalate stone is the most common one with a high recurrence rate. An important pathological factor for the formation of calcium oxalate stone is the increased absorption of oxalate from intestine, which leads to a high urine oxalate concentration. Intestinal bacteria known to be able to degrade oxalate includes Oxalobacter formigenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Eubacterium lentum, Providencia rettgeri, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species, etc. Among those, Oxalobacter formigenes is the first oxalate-degrading obligate anaerobe found in human, while the rest are just conditioned bacteria with the function to degrade intestinal oxalate. There are three kinds of enzymes in Oxalobacter formigenes involved in the metabolism of oxalate, namely oxalate-formate antiporter (OxlT, formyl-CoA transferase (Frc and oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase (Oxc. Animal experiments have verified that Oxalobacter formigenes could reduce intestinal oxalate absorption by promoting the secretion of oxalate and degradation as well, thus decrease the excretion of urine oxalate. The present review will focus on the research progress of probiotics treatment for the calcium oxalate stones so as to provide reference for further research and development. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.08.16

  5. Advanced Oxidation: Oxalate Decomposition Testing With Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing

  6. ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2012-02-29

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration

  7. Recovery Ce from Ce - TBP Used Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwani, MV; Subagiono, R.; Suyanti

    2007-01-01

    Recovery or stripping Ce from Ce - TBP product of monazite sand used oxalic acid. Ce - TBP as organic phase and oxalic acid as aqueous phase and as strong precipitant compound to precipitate metal element. The stripping product as Ce - oxalic precipitate. The influence parameter were percentage of oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce-TBP with oxalic acid, time and rate of stripping. At stripping of 25 ml Ce - TBP used oxalic acid, the optimum condition were achieve at using 5% oxalic acid, volume ratio of Ce - TBP : 5% oxalic acid = 1 : 1, time of stripping 7.5 minute and rate of stripping 150 rpm. At the optimum condition was obtained the recovery efficiency was 100%. (author)

  8. Interaction Studies of Dilute Aqueous Oxalic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kandpal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular conductance λm, relative viscosity and density of oxalicacid at different concentration in dilute aqueous solution were measured at 293 K.The conductance data were used to calculate the value association constant.Viscosity and density data were used to calculate the A and B coefficient ofJone-Dole equation and apparent molar volume respectively. The viscosityresults were utilized for the applicability of Modified Jone-Dole equation andStaurdinger equations. Mono oxalate anion acts, as structure maker and thesolute-solvent interaction were present in the dilute aqueous oxalic acid.

  9. Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel. P V DALAL. ∗ and K B SARAF. Postgraduate Department of Physics, Pratap College, Amalner 425 401, India. MS received 16 March 2008; revised 5 April 2010. Abstract. Single crystals of strontium oxalate have been grown by using strontium chloride and oxalic acid in.

  10. Railroad Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Bridges-Rail in the United States According to The National Bridge Inspection Standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (23 CFR 650.3), a bridge isA...

  11. Oxalate metal complexes in aerosol particles: implications for the hygroscopicity of oxalate-containing particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols have both a direct and an indirect cooling effect that influences the radiative balance at the Earth's surface. It has been estimated that the degree of cooling is large enough to weaken the warming effect of carbon dioxide. Among the cooling factors, secondary organic aerosols (SOA play an important role in the solar radiation balance in the troposphere as SOA can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN and extend the lifespan of clouds because of their high hygroscopic and water soluble nature. Oxalic acid is an important component of SOA, and is produced via several formation pathways in the atmosphere. However, it is not certain whether oxalic acid exists as free oxalic acid or as metal oxalate complexes in aerosols, although there is a marked difference in their solubility in water and their hygroscopicity. We employed X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to characterize the calcium (Ca and zinc (Zn in aerosols collected at Tsukuba in Japan. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were collected for this purpose using an impactor aerosol sampler. It was shown that 10–60% and 20–100% of the total Ca and Zn in the finer particles (<2.1 μm were present as Ca and Zn oxalate complexes, respectively. Oxalic acid is hygroscopic and can thus increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, while complexes with various polyvalent metal ions such as Ca and Zn are not hygroscopic, which cannot contribute to the increase of the CCN activity of aerosols. Based on the concentrations of noncomplexed and metal-complexed oxalate species, we found that most of the oxalic acid is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, suggesting that oxalic acid does not always increase the hygroscopicity of aerosols in the atmosphere. Similar results are expected for other dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic and succinic acids. Thus, it is advisable that the cooling effect of organic aerosols should be estimated by including the

  12. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate on the ... The test plant was sown in aluminium-polluted soil (conc. ... The perseverance of the test plant in the aluminium spiked soil is an indication of adaptation to the stress ...

  13. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  14. Effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid and Ammonium Oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    acid and ammonium oxalate on the prevalence of microorganisms and removal of aluminum in soil by bitter leaf plant (Vernonia ... highest accumulation of aluminium in the root (16.92mg/kg); however concentrations of aluminium in the roots were .... whereas the sulphate was 13.75mg/kg. Table 2: The total colony count of ...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of self-bridged silver vanadium oxide/CNTs composite and its enhanced lithium storage performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liying; Liu, Haimei; Yang, Wensheng

    2013-02-07

    The improvement of the electrochemical properties of electrode materials with large capacity and good capacity retention is becoming an important task in the field of lithium ion batteries (LIBs). We designed a function-oriented hybrid material consisting of silver vanadium oxide (β-AgVO(3)) nanowires modified with uniform Ag nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a high-performance cathode material for LIBs. The Ag nanoparticles which precipitated automatically in the synthetic process act as a bridge between the β-AgVO(3) nanowires and CNTs, creating a self-bridged network structure. The Ag particles at the junction of the nanowires and CNTs facilitate electron transport from the CNTs to the nanowires, and thereby improve the electrical conductivity of the β-AgVO(3) nanowires and the composite. Moreover, the self-bridged network is hierarchically porous with a high surface area. When used as a cathode material, this composite electrode reveals high discharge capacities, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability. The improved performance of the composite arises from its unique nanosized β-AgVO(3) nanowires with short diffusion pathway for lithium ions, efficient electron collection and transfer in the presence of Ag nanoparticles, together with excellent electrical conductivity of CNTs.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic characterization of a cyanide-bridged Mo-Ni nanosized molecular wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Daopeng; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Ping [Shandong Univ. of Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zibo (China); Kong, Lingqian [Liaocheng Univ. (China). Dongchang College

    2015-11-01

    By using K{sub 4}[Mo(CN){sub 8}] and [Ni(L)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][ClO{sub 4}]{sub 2} as reagents (L = 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo [11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene), a new cyanide-bridged Mo-Ni complex containing the building blocks [Ni(H{sub 2}O)(L)]{sup 2+} and [Ni(L)]{sup 2+} bridged by [Mo(CN){sub 8}]{sup 4-} units has been obtained. The complex with the formula {[Ni(H_2O)(L)][Ni(L)][Mo(CN)_8]}{sub 6} . 36H{sub 2}O . 2CH{sub 3}OH (1) was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure determination reveals an octadecanuclear cluster in the form of a 36-membered macrocycle, in which the largest intramolecular W..W and Ni..Ni distances are 16.5 and 14.4 Aa, respectively, indicating that complex 1 is a nanosized molecular wheel. Investigation of its magnetic properties has shown weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the adjacent Ni(II) ions bridged by the diamagnetic [Mo(CN){sub 8}]{sup 4-} ions.

  17. Oxalate complexation in dissolved carbide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Bokelund, H.; Valkiers, S.

    1983-01-01

    It has been shown that the oxalic acid produced in the dissolution of mixed uranium, plutonium carbides in nitric acid can account for the problems of incomplete uranium and plutonium extraction on the Purex process. Moreover, it was demonstrated that other identified products such as benzene polycarboxylic acids are either too insoluble or insufficiently complexing to be of concern. The stability constants for oxalate complexing of UO 2 +2 and Pu +4 ions (as UO 2 (C 2 O 4 ), Pu(C 2 O 4 ) 2+ and Pu(C 2 O 4 ) 2 , respectively) were measured in nitrate solutions of 4.0 molar ionic strength (0-4 M HNO 3 ) by extraction of these species with TBP. (orig.)

  18. A novel asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper compound: Synthesis, supramolecular structure and magnetic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Du, Ke-Jie; Wang, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Xue-Li; Nie, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    A new polynuclear Cu(II) compound, [Cu4(bpy)4(OH)4(H2O)(BTC)]NO3·8H2O (1), was prepared by self-assembly from the solution of copper(II) nitrate and two kinds of ligands, 2,2‧-bipyridine (bpy) and benzene-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC). Single crystal structure analysis reveals that 1 features a rare asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper cluster: [Cu4(OH)4] core along with one H2O and one BTC3- occupied each terminal coordinated site. In addition, the magnetic property has been investigated.

  19. Synthesis of lucifensin by native chemical ligation and characteristics of its isomer having different disulfide bridge pattern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanchev, Stancho; Zawada, Zbigniew; Monincová, Lenka; Bednárová, Lucie; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Čeřovský, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2014), s. 725-735 ISSN 1075-2617 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : lucifensin * native chemical ligation * solid-phase peptide synthesis * antimicrobial activity * CD spectroscopy * DTT reduction Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.546, year: 2014

  20. Isolation of oxalic acid tolerating fungi and decipherization of its potential to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through oxalate oxidase like protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shivani; Srivastava, Alok K; Singh, Dhanajay P; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-11-01

    Oxalic acid plays major role in the pathogenesis by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; it lowers the pH of nearby environment and creates the favorable condition for the infection. In this study we examined the degradation of oxalic acid through oxalate oxidase and biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. A survey was conducted to collect the rhizospheric soil samples from Indo-Gangetic Plains of India to isolate the efficient fungal strains able to tolerate oxalic acid. A total of 120 fungal strains were isolated from root adhering soils of different vegetable crops. Out of 120 strains a total of 80 isolates were able to grow at 10 mM of oxalic acid whereas only 15 isolates were grow at 50 mM of oxalic acid concentration. Then we examined the antagonistic activity of the 15 isolates against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. These strains potentially inhibit the growth of the test pathogen. A total of three potential strains and two standard cultures of fungi were tested for the oxalate oxidase activity. Strains S7 showed the maximum degradation of oxalic acid (23 %) after 60 min of incubation with fungal extract having oxalate oxidase activity. Microscopic observation and ITS (internally transcribed spacers) sequencing categorized the potential fungal strains into the Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma. Trichoderma sp. are well studied biocontrol agent and interestingly we also found the oxalate oxidase type activity in these strains which further strengthens the potentiality of these biocontrol agents.

  1. Addition of calcium compounds to reduce soluble oxalate in a high oxalate food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Wen-Chun; Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is often used as a base vegetable to make green juices that are promoted as healthy dietary alternatives. Spinach is known to contain significant amounts of oxalates, which are toxic and, if consumed regularly, can lead to the development of kidney stones. This research investigates adding 50-500mg increments of calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, calcium citrate and calcium sulphate to 100g of raw homogenates of spinach to determine whether calcium would combine with the soluble oxalate present in the spinach. Calcium chloride was the most effective additive while calcium carbonate was the least effective. The formation of insoluble oxalate after incubation at 25°C for 30min is a simple practical step that can be incorporated into the juicing process. This would make the juice considerably safer to consume on a regular basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies in the solubility of Pu(III) oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasilkar, S P; Khedekar, N B; Chander, K; Jadhav, V; Jain, H C [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Fuel Reprocessing Div.

    1994-11-01

    Studies have been carried out on the solubility of Pu(III) oxalate by precipitation of Pu(III) oxalate from varying concentrations of HNO[sub 3]/HCl (0.5-2.0M) solutions and also by equilibrating freshly prepared Pu(III) oxalate with solutions containing varying concentrations of HNO[sub 3]/HCl, oxalic acid and ascorbic acid. Pu(III) solutions in HNO[sub 3] and HCl media were prepared by reduction of Pu(IV) with ascorbic acid. 0.01-0.10M ascorbic acid concentration in the aqueous solution was maintained as holding reductant. The solubility of Pu(III) oxalate was found to be a minimum in 0.5M-1M HNO[sub 3]/HCl solutions containing 0.05M ascorbic acid and 0.2M excess oxalic acid in the supernatant. (author) 6 refs.; 6 tabs.

  3. Bridging Anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical centers in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. A more detailed description of the study is ... Your Personal Message Send Message Share on Social Media Bridging Anticoagulation The BRIDGE Study Investigators Circulation. 2012; ...

  4. Features of atopic dermatitis in children with oxalic acid dysmetabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Stoieva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of atopic dermatitis in children with concomitant metabolic disturbances of oxalic acid. The influence of metabolic shifts was evaluated by clinical presentation, morphofunctional parameters of the skin and the features of oxalic acid metabolites excretion. In this study, a high incidence of dysmetabolic changes was identified, their significance was determined by the involvement of different systems for oxalic acid products excretion. The increased concentration of oxalate in the urine and in the exhaled air condensate had irritant effect and is associated with the hereditary metabolic disorders, early manifestation of atopy symptoms and the intensity of skin itching, with moderate increase of immunoglobulin E level.

  5. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Thanh, Hang; Phan Vu, Hai; Vu Van, Hai; Le Duc, Ngoan; Le Minh, Tuan; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM) while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35%) of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%). There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%). The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption. PMID:28231080

  6. Oxalate Content of Taro Leaves Grown in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Du Thanh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves were harvested from four different cultivars of Colocasia esculenta and three cultivars of Alocasia odora that were growing on nine different farms in central Vietnam. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. Total calcium determinations were also carried out on the same samples. The total oxalate content of the leaves ranged from 433.8 to 856.1 mg/100 g wet matter (WM while the soluble oxalate ranged from 147.8 to 339.7 mg/100 g WM. The proportion of soluble oxalate ranged from 28% to 41% (overall mean 35% of the total oxalate content of the leaves. The equivalent insoluble oxalate proportion ranged from 59% to 72% of the total (overall mean 65%. There was little difference between the Colocasia esculenta and Alocasia odora taro cultivars, although the total oxalate content was significantly higher in Alocasia odora cultivars. The overall mean total calcium content was 279.5 mg/100 WM and the percentage of insoluble calcium bound as calcium oxalate ranged from 31.7% to 57.3% of the total calcium content (overall mean 47.1%. The oxalate content in taro leaves is a major factor to consider when different cultivars of taro are recommended for human or animal consumption.

  7. Pathology and Epidemiology of Oxalate Nephrosis in Cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Emily P; Church, Molly E; Nemser, Sarah M; Yakes, Betsy Jean; Evans, Eric R; Reimschuessel, Renate; Lemberger, Karin; Thompson, Peter N; Terio, Karen A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate cases of acute oxalate nephrosis without evidence of ethylene glycol exposure, archived data and tissues from cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus) from North America ( n = 297), southern Africa ( n = 257), and France ( n = 40) were evaluated. Renal and gastrointestinal tract lesions were characterized in a subset of animals with ( n = 100) and without ( n = 165) oxalate crystals at death. Crystals were confirmed as calcium oxalate by Raman spectroscopy in 45 of 47 cheetahs tested. Crystals were present in cheetahs from 3.7 months to 15.9 years old. Cheetahs younger than 1.5 years were less likely to have oxalates than older cheetahs ( P = .034), but young cheetahs with oxalates had more oxalate crystals than older cheetahs ( P Cheetahs with oxalate crystals were more likely to have renal amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or colitis and less likely to have glomerular loop thickening or gastritis than those without oxalates. Crystal number was positively associated with renal tubular necrosis ( P ≤ .001), regeneration ( P = .015), and casts ( P ≤ .001) but inversely associated with glomerulosclerosis, renal amyloidosis, and interstitial nephritis. Crystal number was unrelated to the presence or absence of colitis and was lower in southern African than American and European animals ( P = .01). This study found no evidence that coexisting chronic renal disease (amyloidosis, interstitial nephritis, or glomerulosclerosis), veno-occlusive disease, gastritis, or enterocolitis contributed significantly to oxalate nephrosis. Oxalate-related renal disease should be considered as a potential cause of acute renal failure, especially in young captive cheetahs. The role of location, diet, stress, and genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of oxalate nephrosis in cheetahs warrants further study.

  8. Uranyl oxalate hydrates: structures and IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesting, P.A.; Porter, N.J.; Burns, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The novel compound (UO 2 ) 2 C 2 O 4 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (UrOx2A) and the previously studied compound UO 2 C 2 O 4 (H 2 O) 3 (UrOx3) have been synthesized by mild hydrothermal methods. Single crystal diffraction data collected at 125 K using MoK α radiation and a CCD-based area detector were used to solve and refine the crystal structures by full-matrix least-squares techniques to agreement indices (UrOx2A, UrOx3) wR 2 = 0.037, 0.049 for all data, and R1 0.015, 0.024 calculated for 1285, 2194 unique reflections respectively. The compound UrOx2A is triclinic, space group P1, Z = 1, a = 5.5353(4), b 6.0866(4), c = 7.7686(6) Aa, α = 85.6410(10) , β = 89.7740(10) , γ = 82.5090(10) , V = 258.74(3) Aa 3 . The compound UrOx3 is monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c, Z = 4, a = 5.5921(4), b = 16.9931(13), c = 9.3594(7) Aa, β = 99.5330(10) , V = 877.11(11) Aa 3 . The structures consist of chains of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids connected by oxalate groups and, in UrOx2A, hydroxyl groups; UrOx2A is also notable for its high (2:1) ratio of uranyl to oxalate groups, higher than any observed in other published structures of uranyl oxalates. The structure determined for UrOx3, previously studied by Jayadevan and Chackraburtty (1972); Mikhailov et al. (1999) is in agreement with the previous results; however, the increased precision of the present low-temperature structure refinement allows for the assignment of H atom positions based on the difference Fourier map of electron density. The infrared spectra of these two materials collected at room temperature are also presented and compared with previous work on uranyl oxalate systems. (orig.)

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence properties of lanthanide coordination polymers with a new semirigid bridging thenylsalicylamide ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xue-Qin; Wang, Li; Zhao, Meng-Meng; Wang, Xiao-Run; Peng, Yun-Qiao; Cheng, Guo-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Two new lanthanide coordination polymers based on a semirigid bridging thenylsalicylamide ligand ([Ln 2 L 3 (NO 3 ) 6 ]·(C 4 H 8 O 2 ) 2 ) ∞ were obtained and characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, IR and TGA measurements. The two compounds are isostructure and possess one dimensional trapezoid ladder-like chain built up from the connection of isolated LnO 3 (NO 3 ) 3 polyhedra (distorted monocapped antisquare prism) through the ligand. The photoluminescence analysis suggest that there is an efficient ligand-to-Ln(III) energy transfer in Tb(III) complex and the ligand is an efficient “antenna” for Tb(III). From a more general perspective, the results demonstrated herein provide the possibility of controlling the formation of the desired lanthanide coordination structure to enrich the crystal engineering strategy and enlarge the arsenal for developing excellent luminescent lanthanide coordination polymers. - Graphical abstract: We present herein one dimensional lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand which not only display interesting structures but also possess strong luminescence properties. Display Omitted - Highlights: • We present lanthanide coordination polymers of a new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand. • The lanthanide coordination polymers exhibit interesting structures. • The luminescent properties of Tb(III) complexes are discussed in detail

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of A Novel Carbon Bridged Half-metallocene Chromium Catalyst for Methyl Methacrylate Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhengzai; GONG Kai; WANG Yang; ZHOU Xue; ZHANG Weixing; LI Yin; SUN Junquan; LI Wenbing

    2014-01-01

    A new carbon bridged cyclopentadienyl chromium complex of the type [(C5H4)C(CH3)2 CH2(C5H4N)]CrCl2 was prepared by treatment of CrCl3•(THF)3 in THF solution with the lithium salt of ligand containing cyclopentadienyl and pyridyl groups. The chromium complex was characterized by 1H NMR and elemental analysis(EA), and the crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Activated by Al(i-Bu)3, the chromium complex displayed a very high activity for methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerization. After 24 hours,more than 95.5%MMA was converted to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with a viscosity average molecular weight (Wη) of 416000 g•mol-1 at 60℃for MMA/Al(i-Bu)3/chromium catalyst molar ratio of up to 2000:20:1. Effects of temperature, molar ratios of MMA/catalyst and catalyst/cocatalyst on the polymerization have been studied. The high conversion of MMA and high molecular weight of PMMA with narrow molecular weight distribution is caused by the unique stable active site formed by the new chromium complex and aluminum cocatalyst.

  11. A short synthesis and biological evaluation of potent and nontoxic antimalarial bridged bicyclic beta-sulfonyl-endoperoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Mario D; Korshin, Edward E; Hoos, Roland; Szpilman, Alex M; Ploypradith, Poonsakdi; Xie, Suji; Shapiro, Theresa A; Posner, Gary H

    2003-06-05

    The syntheses and in vitro antimalarial screening of 50 bridged, bicyclic endoperoxides of types 9-13 are reported. In contrast to antimalarial trioxanes of the artemisinin family, but like yingzhaosu A and arteflene, the peroxide function of compounds 9-13 is contained in a 2,3-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane system 6. Peroxides 9 and 10 (R(1) = OH) are readily available through a multicomponent, sequential, free-radical reaction involving thiol-monoterpenes co-oxygenation (a TOCO reaction). beta-Sulfenyl peroxides 9 and 10 (R(1) = OH) are converted into beta-sulfinyl and beta-sulfonyl peroxides of types 11-13 by controlled S-oxidation and manipulation of the tert-hydroxyl group through acylation, alkylation, or dehydration followed by selective hydrogenation. Ten enantiopure beta-sulfonyl peroxides of types 12 and 13 exhibit in vitro antimalarial activity comparable to that of artemisinin (IC(50) = 6-24 nM against Plasmodium falciparum NF54). In vivo testing of a few selected peroxides against Plasmodium berghei N indicates that the antimalarial efficacies of beta-sulfonyl peroxides 39a, 46a, 46b, and 50a are comparable to those of some of the best antimalarial drugs and are higher than artemisinin against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium yoelii ssp. NS. In view of the nontoxicity of beta-sulfonyl peroxides 39a, 46a, and 46b in mice, at high dosing, these compounds are regarded as promising antimalarial drug candidates.

  12. Two- and three-dimensional lanthanide-organic frameworks constructed using 1-hydro-6-oxopyridine-3-carboxylate and oxalate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-Ming; Xiong, Ming; Zhang, De-Qing; Du, Miao; Zhu, Dao-Ben

    2009-08-07

    6-Hydroxypyridine-3-carboxylic acid (6-HOPy-3-CO(2)H) reacts with Ln(2)O(3) (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) and oxalic acid (H(2)OX) under hydrothermal conditions to generate four novel lanthanide-organic coordination polymeric networks [Ln(2)(1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2))(2)(OX)(2)(H(2)O)(3)] x 2.5 H(2)O (Ln = Nd, 1; Sm, 2; 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) = 1-hydro-6-oxopyridine-3-carboxylate) and [Ln(1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2))(OX)(H(2)O)(2)] x H(2)O (Ln = Eu, 3; Gd, 4). The new co-ligand 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) anion was generated by the autoisomerization of the single deprotonated 6-HOPy-3-CO(2)(-) anion (from the enol form into the ketone one). 1 and 2 are isomorphous, they possess a three-dimensional architecture constructed from Ln(3+) ions bridged by oxalate anions and two types of 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) bridges, showing a three-nodal (4,5)-connected topology (3.4(2).5(2).6(3).7.8)(2)(3.5(3).6(2))(2)(3(2).6.7(2).8) or a simplified uninodal 6-connected topology (3(3).4(6).5(5).6), both topologies are completely new; while only one type of 1H-6-Opy-3-CO(2)(-) bridge is used to construct the two-dimensional layer networks of 3 and 4 besides oxalate bridges, both complexes 3 and 4 are isostructural, exhibiting the honeycomb topology 6(3). The lanthanide contraction effect is believed to play a key role in directing the formation of a particular structure. A magnetic study of 1-3 indicated that the coupling interaction between Ln(3+) ions is weak.

  13. Bridging the data gaps in the epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection in Malaysia using multi-parameter evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott A; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Dahlui, Maznah; Naning, Herlianna; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-11-07

    Collecting adequate information on key epidemiological indicators is a prerequisite to informing a public health response to reduce the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Malaysia. Our goal was to overcome the acute data shortage typical of low/middle income countries using statistical modelling to estimate the national HCV prevalence and the distribution over transmission pathways as of the end of 2009. Multi-parameter evidence synthesis methods were applied to combine all available relevant data sources - both direct and indirect - that inform the epidemiological parameters of interest. An estimated 454,000 (95% credible interval [CrI]: 392,000 to 535,000) HCV antibody-positive individuals were living in Malaysia in 2009; this represents 2.5% (95% CrI: 2.2-3.0%) of the population aged 15-64 years. Among males of Malay ethnicity, for 77% (95% CrI: 69-85%) the route of probable transmission was active or a previous history of injecting drugs. The corresponding proportions were smaller for male Chinese and Indian/other ethnic groups (40% and 71%, respectively). The estimated prevalence in females of all ethnicities was 1% (95% CrI: 0.6 to 1.4%); 92% (95% CrI: 88 to 95%) of infections were attributable to non-drug injecting routes of transmission. The prevalent number of persons living with HCV infection in Malaysia is estimated to be very high. Low/middle income countries often lack a comprehensive evidence base; however, evidence synthesis methods can assist in filling the data gaps required for the development of effective policy to address the future public health and economic burden due to HCV.

  14. Wu-Ling-San formula prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wu-Ling-San (WLS) formula has been proved to prevent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial of WLS in calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis prevention. All patients who enrolled were asked to drink enough fluid to urinate at least 2 L ...

  15. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  16. Spectroscopic properties of Pr -doped erbium oxalate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic properties of praseodymium ions-doped erbium oxalate ... solution with specific gravity 1.04 g/cm3 was mixed homogeneously with 0.5 M oxalic ... of concentrated nitric acid were transferred carefully and gently through the wall ...

  17. Radiolysis of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo, Y; Ono, I [Industrial Research Inst. of Kanagawa Prefecture, Yokohama (Japan); Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    The dissolution state of titanium potassium oxalate in aqueous solution is different according to the pH. The yellowish brown titanium complex produced by the reaction of titanium potassium oxalate and hydrogen peroxide seems to be different in its structure according to the pH. Considering these points, gamma-ray irradiation was carried out on the sample by dissolving titanium potassium oxalate in purified water under the conditions of oxygen saturation and nitrogen saturation, and the relation between irradiation dose and the production of titanium complex was determined. On the basis of the experimental result, the mechanism of forming hydrogen peroxide was presumed. The radiation source used was 2,000 Ci of /sup 60/Co. For photometric analysis, a 139 type photoelectric spectrophotometer of Hitachi Ltd. was used. From the experimental results, in neutral water, titanium potassium oxalate exists in the state that two oxalic acid ions are coordinated to titanyl ion, while in case of the pH lowered by the addition of sulfuric acid, it can exist in the state that one oxalic acid ion is coordinated to titanyl ion. The yield of hydrogen peroxide produced by irradiating titanium potassium oxalate aqueous solution with gamma-ray is the sum of the molecular product from water and the radiolysis product from titanium potassium oxalate.

  18. Probable functions of calcium oxalate crystals in different tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Representatives of seven major edible aroid accessions were screened for calcium oxalate using standard histochemical methods. All the accessions were noted to contain calcium oxalate in the forms of raphide bundles and intra-amylar crystals. The crystals were widely present in all parts of the plants including spongy ...

  19. Unusual calcium oxalate crystals in ethylene glycol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Meagher, E P; Sanders, H D; Frohlich, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient poisoned with ethylene glycol exhibited the symptoms of (1) hysteria, (2) metabolic acidosis with both a large anion gap and osmolal gap, and (3) crystalluria. However, the shape of the urinary crystals was prismatic and resembled hippurate rather than the expected dipyramidal calcium oxalate dihydrate. X-ray crystallography positively identified them as calcium oxalate monohydrate.

  20. New donor-acceptor-donor molecules based on quinoline acceptor unit with Schiff base bridge: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotowicz, Sonia [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Siwy, Mariola [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Str., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Filapek, Michal; Malecki, Jan G. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Smolarek, Karolina; Grzelak, Justyna; Mackowski, Sebastian [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 5 Grudziadzka Str., 87-100 Torun (Poland); Slodek, Aneta, E-mail: aneta.slodek@us.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.schab-balcerzak@us.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, 40-006 Katowice (Poland); Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Curie-Sklodowska Str., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    Three solution-processable small organic molecules bearing quinoline as electron-accepting moiety were synthesized via condensation reaction of novel 6-amino-2-(2,2’-bithiophen-5-yl)-4-phenylquinoline with 2,2’-bithiophene-5-carboxaldehyde, 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde and 9-phenanthrenecarboxaldehyde. The presence of alternating electron-donating and accepting units results in a donor-acceptor-donor architecture of these molecular systems. Thermal, photophysical, and electrochemical properties of these small molecules were examined and the experimental results were supported by the density functional theory calculations. The obtained molecular systems exhibited high thermal stability with decomposition temperatures (5% weight loss) exceeding 330 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. It was found, based on DSC measurements, that investigated Schiff bases form amorphous material with glass transition temperatures between 88 and 190 °C. They also showed a UV–vis absorption in the range of 250–500 nm both in solution and in solid state as film and blend with PMMA and PVK. Photoluminescence measurements revealed moderately strong blue-light emission of the imines in solution as well as in PMMA blend with quantum yields in the range of 2–26%. In the case of imines dispersed in PVK matrix the emission of green light was mainly observed. In addition, when mixed with plasmonically active silver nanowires, the compounds exhibit relatively strong electroluminescence signal, associated with plasmonics enhancement, as evidenced by high-resolution photoluminescence imaging. The energy band gap estimated based on cyclic voltammetry was between 2.38 and 2.61 eV. - Highlights: • New Schiff bases possess donor-acceptor-imine-bridge-donor architecture were synthesized and examined. • Thorough characterization of optical and electrochemical properties of novel Schiff bases has been carried out. • Optical and electrochemical measurements were compared with DFT

  1. Acute oxalate nephropathy caused by ethylene glycol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Woong Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (EG is a sweet-tasting, odorless organic solvent found in many agents, such as anti-freeze. EG is composed of four organic acids: glycoaldehyde, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid in vivo. These metabolites are cellular toxins that can cause cardio-pulmonary failure, life-threatening metabolic acidosis, central nervous system depression, and kidney injury. Oxalic acid is the end product of EG, which can precipitate to crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the tubular lumen and has been linked to acute kidney injury. We report a case of EG-induced oxalate nephropathy, with the diagnosis confirmed by kidney biopsy, which showed acute tubular injury of the kidneys with extensive intracellular and intraluminal calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal depositions.

  2. Urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy Turkish schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ismail; Çelik, İlknur; Poyrazoglu, Hakan M; Köse, Kader; Tanrıkulu, Esen; Sahin, Habibe; Yılmaz, Kenan; Öztürk, Ahmet; Yel, Sibel; Gündüz, Zübeyde; Düşünsel, Ruhan

    2017-11-01

    we aimed to establish reference values for urinary oxalate to creatinine ratios in healthy children aged 6-15 years and to investigate the relationship between their nutritional habits and oxalate excretion. Random urine specimens from 953 healthy children aged 6-15 years were obtained and analyzed for oxalate and creatinine. Additionally, a 24-h dietary recall form was prepared and given to them. The ingredient composition of the diet was calculated. The children were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (69 years, n = 353), Group II (10-12 years, n = 335), and Group III (13-15 years, n = 265). The 95th percentile of the oxalate to creatinine ratio for subjects aged 6-9, 10-12, and 13-15 years were 0.048, 0.042, and 0.042 mg/mg, respectively. The oxalate to creatinine ratio was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and Group 3. Urinary oxalate excretion was positively correlated with increased protein intake and negatively correlated with age. A significant positive correlation was determined between urinary oxalate excretion and the proline, serine, protein, and glycine content of diet. Dietary proline intake showed a positive correlation with the urine oxalate to creatinine ratio and was found to be an independent predictor for urinary oxalate. These data lend support to the idea that every country should have its own normal reference values to determine the underlying metabolic risk factor for kidney stone disease since regional variation in the dietary intake of proteins and other nutrients can affect normal urinary excretion of oxalate.

  3. OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-22

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  4. Synthesis, structure, and electronic properties of a dimer of Ru(bpy)2 doubly bridged by methoxide and pyrazolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jude, Hershel; Rein, Francisca N; White, Peter S; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Rocha, Reginaldo C

    2008-09-01

    valence averaging on the picosecond time scale. Other than a relatively short Ru...Ru distance (3.72 A for the crystalline Ru (II)-Ru (II) complex), the extensive communication between metal centers is attributed mostly to the pi-donor ability of the bridging ligands (pyz, OMe) combined with the pi-acceptor ability of the peripheral (bpy) ligands.

  5. Myocardial Bridging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial bridging is rare. Myocardial bridges are most commonly localized in the middle segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The anatomic features of the bridges vary significantly. Alterations of the endothelial morphology and the vasoactive agents impact on the progression of atherosclerosis of myocardial bridging. Patients may present with chest pain, myocardial infarction, arrhythmia and even sudden death. Patients who respond poorly to the medical treatment with β-blockers warrant a surgical intervention. Myotomy is a preferred surgical procedure for the symptomatic patients. Coronary stent deployment has been in limited use due to the unsatisfactory long-term results.

  6. Which providers can bridge the health literacy gap in lifestyle risk factor modification education: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with low health literacy may not have the capacity to self-manage their health and prevent the development of chronic disease through lifestyle risk factor modification. The aim of this narrative synthesis is to determine the effectiveness of primary healthcare providers in developing health literacy of patients to make SNAPW (smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight lifestyle changes. Methods Studies were identified by searching Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Joanna Briggs Institute, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australian Medical Index, Community of Science and Google Scholar from 1 January 1985 to 30 April 2009. Health literacy and related concepts are poorly indexed in the databases so a list of text words were developed and tested for use. Hand searches were also conducted of four key journals. Studies published in English and included males and females aged 18 years and over with at least one SNAPW risk factor for the development of a chronic disease. The interventions had to be implemented within primary health care, with an aim to influence the health literacy of patients to make SNAPW lifestyle changes. The studies had to report an outcome measure associated with health literacy (knowledge, skills, attitudes, self efficacy, stages of change, motivation and patient activation and SNAPW risk factor. The definition of health literacy in terms of functional, communicative and critical health literacy provided the guiding framework for the review. Results 52 papers were included that described interventions to address health literacy and lifestyle risk factor modification provided by different health professionals. Most of the studies (71%, 37/52 demonstrated an improvement in health literacy, in particular interventions of a moderate to high intensity. Non medical health care providers were effective in improving health literacy. However this was confounded by intensity of

  7. Neurotoxic effects of carambola in rats: the role of oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chung, Hsiao-Min

    2002-05-01

    Carambola (star fruit) has been reported to contain neurotoxins that cause convulsions, hiccups, or death in uremic patients, and prolong barbiturate-induced sleeping time in rats. The constituent responsible for these effects remains uncertain. Carambola contains a large quantity of oxalate, which can induce depression of cerebral function and seizures. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxalate in carambola toxicity in rats. The effects on barbiturate-induced sleeping time and death caused by intraperitoneal administration of carambola juice were observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. To obtain a dose-dependent response curve and evaluate the lethal dose, rats were treated with serial amounts of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline in a volume of 1:1. To test the role of oxalate in the neurotoxic effect of carambola, either 5.33 g/kg carambola after oxalate removal or 5.33 g/kg of pure carambola juice diluted with normal saline were administered intraperitoneally, while the control group was given normal saline before pentobarbital injection. The effects of carambola and oxalate-removed carambola on barbiturate-induced sleeping time were compared with those of saline. To assess the lethal effect of oxalate in carambola, we gave rats chemical oxalate at comparable concentrations to the oxalate content of carambola. Carambola juice administration prolonged barbiturate-induced sleeping time in a dose-dependent manner. The sleeping time of rats that received normal saline and 1.33 g/kg, 2.67 g/kg, 5.33 g/kg, and 10.67 g/kg of carambola juice were 66 +/- 16.6, 93.7 +/- 13.4, 113.3 +/- 11.4, 117.5 +/- 29.0, and 172.5 +/- 38.8 minutes, respectively. The three higher-dose groups had longer sleeping times than controls (p carambola juice. Four of eight rats in the 10.67-g/kg group and all rats in the 21.33 g/kg and chemical oxalate groups died after seizure. Lethal doses of carambola juice were rendered harmless by the oxalate removal procedure

  8. Influence of additives on the structure and microstructure of lanthanides and actinides oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidon, Blaise; Vitart, Anne-Lise; Rivenet, Murielle; Arab-Chapelet, Benedicte; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud; Grandjean, Stephane; Abraham, Francis

    2015-07-01

    Oxalic conversion is a well-known process in the nuclear industry where it is used for precipitating plutonium as an oxalate thereafter calcinated into an oxide. As there is a strong relationship between the morphology of the oxalate precursor and that of the resulting oxide, it is of interest to control the oxalate structure and microstructure during the precipitation step. The influence of additives on the precipitation of neodymium (III) oxalates, non-radioactive analogs of actinides (III) oxalates, was explored. With the use of nitrilotri-methylphosphonic acid (NTMP), the structure and microstructure of the neodymium oxalates are different from that obtained without additive. (authors)

  9. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implications for the formation mechanism of oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM were studied using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD region in China. Oxalic-acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, elemental and organic carbon (ECOC, biomass burning (BB, heavy metal (HM, secondary (Sec, sodium-potassium (NaK, and dust. Oxalic acid was found predominantly mixing with sulfate and nitrate during the whole sampling period, likely due to aqueous-phase reactions. In summer, oxalic-acid-containing particle number and ozone concentration followed a very similar trend, which may reflect the significant contribution of photochemical reactions to oxalic acid formation. The HM particles were the most abundant oxalic acid particles in summer and the diurnal variations in peak area of iron and oxalic acid show opposite trends, which suggests a possible loss of oxalic acid through the photolysis of iron oxalato-complexes during the strong photochemical activity period. In wintertime, carbonaceous particles contained a substantial amount of oxalic acid as well as abundant carbon clusters and BB markers. The general existence of nitric acid in oxalic-acid-containing particles indicates an acidic environment during the formation process of oxalic acid. The peak areas of nitrate, sulfate and oxalic had similar temporal change in the carbonaceous type oxalic acid particles, and the organosulfate-containing oxalic acid particles correlated well with total oxalic acid particles during the haze episode, which suggests that the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.

  10. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  11. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of lanthanide coordination polymers assembled from imidazophenanthroline derivative and oxalate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Huai-Ming; An, Ran; Yang, Meng-Lin; Xue, Ganglin

    2017-01-01

    Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, [Ln(Hsfpip)(ox)0.5(H2O)]n·2n(H2O) ((Ln=Eu (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Yb (6), Y(7)), [Ln(H2sfpip)(ox)(H2O)4]n·2n(H2O) (Ln=Nd (8) Sm (9)), [H2ox=oxalic acid, H3sfpip=2-(2,4-disulfophenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)(1,10)-phenanthroline] have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. When sodium oxalate is added, the reactions of lanthanide ions with H3sfpip resulted in two types of structures. Compounds 1-7 are obtained at pH 5.0 and exhibit 3D tfz-d networks with ox2- anions as linkers to bridge the adjacent layers. Compounds 8-9 are obtained at pH 2.0, and display a 1D chain which is further extended to a 3D supramolecular framework through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. The structural variation from compounds 1-7 to 8-9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescence properties of 1-9 were also investigated.

  12. Studies on the decomposition of oxalic acid by nitric acid in presence of catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, D.M.; Pius, I.C.; Chaudhury, S.

    2015-01-01

    Impure Plutonium oxalate generated from the recovery of plutonium from waste solutions may require further purification via anion exchange. Conventionally, plutonium oxalate is converted to oxide in a furnace and the oxide is dissolved in Conc. HNO 3 containing HF and purified by anion exchange route. Studies initiated on the decomposition of oxalic acid with Conc. HNO 3 to facilitate direct dissolution of plutonium oxalate and quantitative destruction of oxalate are discussed in this paper. (author)

  13. Isolation and some characteristics of anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria from the rumen.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K A; Allison, M J; Hartman, P A

    1980-01-01

    Obligately anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria were isolated from an enriched population of rumen bacteria in an oxalate-containing medium that had been depleted of other readily metabolized substrates. These organisms, which are the first reported anaerobic oxalate degraders isolated from the rumen, were gram negative, nonmotile rods. They grew in a medium containing sodium oxalate, yeast extract, cysteine, and minerals. The only substrate that supported growth was oxalate. Growth was direc...

  14. Catalytic upgrading of oleic acid into biofuel using Mo modified zeolite supported Ni oxalate catalyst functionalized with fluoride ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayodele, O.B.; Abbas, Hazzim F.; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Wan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Modification of zeolite with freshly prepared molybdenum oxalate. • Functionalization of Ni oxalate with HF and incorporation into Mo modified zeolite. • Characterization of synthesized Mo modified zeolite supported Ni oxalate catalyst. • Deoxygenation of oleic acid with the synthesized zeolite supported catalyst. • Reusability study on the synthesized zeolite supported catalyst. - Abstract: In this study, fluoride ion functionalized nickel oxalate supported on molybdenum modified zeolite (NiMoFOx/Zeol) catalyst was synthesized, characterized and tested on the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of oleic acid (OA) into paraffinic fuel. The NiMoFOx/Zeol characterization results confirmed the presence of both Ni and Mo as well as the formation of NiMoO 4 which is a highly HDO reactive specie at 2θ value of 43.6° according to the XRD result. NiMoFOx/Zeol also showed loss in crystallinity and reduction in the average particle size leading to increase in the pore volume and specific surface area due to the combined effects of fluoride ion presence, oxalic acid functionalization and calcination. The effect of temperature, pressure and NiMoFOx/Zeol loading studied showed that initial increase in their values increased the yield of the target fractions until some points where reduction was observed. The best observed experimental conditions to hydrodeoxygenate 40 g (∼45 mL) of OA into 75% n-C 18 and 23% i-C 18 were 360 °C, 30 mg NiMoFOx/Zeol loading and 20 bar using 100 mL H 2 /min. The presence of i-C 18 was due to the functionalization of the catalyst with fluoride ion. The catalyst reusability result displayed excellent qualities with marginal loss of only 2% in activity after third reuse due to the improved synthesis protocol that employed organometallic precursor. The results are strongly encouraging for further studies toward industrialization of HDO process

  15. Determination of alkaloids and oxalates in some selected food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Source of samples. Samples ... until the colour of solution changed from salmon pink colour to a faint yellow colour. .... Effect of cooking on the soluble and insoluble oxalate content of some New ...

  16. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts.

  17. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.L.; Hammelman, J.E.; Borgonovi, G.M.

    1977-11-01

    In support of LLL material safeguards program, a dynamic process model was developed which simulates the performance of a plutonium (IV) oxalate precipitator. The plutonium oxalate precipitator is a component in the plutonium oxalate process for making plutonium oxide powder from plutonium nitrate. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization descriptive equations, the parameters of which are quantified through the use of batch experimental data. The dynamic model predicts performance very similar to general Hanford oxalate process experience. The utilization of such a process model in an actual plant operation could promote both process control and material safeguards control by serving as a baseline predictor which could give early warning of process upsets or material diversion. The model has been incorporated into a FORTRAN computer program and is also compatible with the DYNSYS 2 computer code which is being used at LLL for process modeling efforts

  18. Charge dynamics in conducting polyaniline–metal oxalate composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polyaniline; metal oxalate composites; charge transport; mobile and fixed spins; VRH conduc- tion mechanism ... Al, Mn and Co on doping into Pani improve the poly- merization ... dopants on charge dynamics with EPR and other tech- niques.

  19. The effect of processing and preservation methods on the oxalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    vegetables and consequently the associated food safety problems. Keywords: .... vegetables prepared in slightly two different ... Table 2: Oxalate levels of selected leafy vegetables as a function of cooking method and the interplay of freezing.

  20. Measurement of plutonium oxalate in thermal neutron coincidence counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Erkkila, B.H.

    1979-01-01

    A coincidence neutron counting method has been developed for assaying batches of plutonium oxalate. Using counting data from two concentric rings of 3 He detectors, corrections are made for the effects that water has on the coincidence neutron count rate. Batches of plutonium oxalate varying from 750 to 1000 g of plutonium and from 34 to 54% water are assayed with an average accuracy of +-3%

  1. Oxalate Encapsulation in Aqueous Medium by Tripodal Urea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1H-NMR titration studies: All 1H-NMR titration experiments for L1 and L2 were conducted on a Bruker 300 MHz spectrometer at 298 K respectively. Potassium oxalate dihydrate (K2C2O4.2H2O) was used to prepare the stock solution of anion in DMSO-d6:D2O (1:1.1) solvent system. Lower solubility of potassium oxalate in ...

  2. Optimization of precipitation conditions of thorium oxalate precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    Thorium precipitation in the form of difficultly soluble oxalate has been investigated. The equation binding the concentration of metal with the nitric acid in the initial solution and quantity of a precipitator necessary for minimization of desired product losses is derived. The graphical solution of this equation for a case, when the oxalic acid with 0.78 mol/l concentration is the precipitator, is presented

  3. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  4. Oxalate quantification in hemodialysate to assess dialysis adequacy for primary hyperoxaluria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojing; Voskoboev, Nikolay V; Wannarka, Stacie L; Olson, Julie B; Milliner, Dawn S; Lieske, John C

    2014-01-01

    Patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH) overproduce oxalate which is eliminated via the kidneys. If end-stage kidney disease develops they are at high risk for systemic oxalosis, unless adequate oxalate is removed during hemodialysis (HD) to equal or exceed ongoing oxalate production. The purpose of this study was to validate a method to measure oxalate removal in this unique group of dialysis patients. Fourteen stable patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PH on HD were included in the study. Oxalate was measured serially in hemodialysate and plasma samples in order to calculate rates of oxalate removal. HD regimens were adjusted according to a given patient's historical oxalate production, amount of oxalate removal at dialysis, residual renal clearance of oxalate, and plasma oxalate levels. After a typical session of HD, plasma oxalate was reduced by 78.4 ± 7.7%. Eight patients performed HD 6 times/week, 2 patients 5 times/week, and 3 patients 3 times/week. Combined oxalate removal by HD and the kidneys was sufficient to match or exceed endogenous oxalate production. After a median period of 9 months, pre-dialysis plasma oxalate was significantly lower than initially (75.1 ± 33.4 vs. 54.8 ± 46.6 mmol/l, p = 0.02). This methodology can be used to individualize the dialysis prescription of PH patients to prevent oxalosis during the time they are maintained on HD and to reduce risk of oxalate injury to a transplanted kidney.

  5. Preparation, characterization and catalytic effects of copper oxalate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Dubey, Reena; Srivastava, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Prepared copper oxalate nanocrystals were characterized by FE-SEM and bright field TEM micrographs. Its catalytic activity was evaluated on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate using TG and TG-DSC techniques. Highlights: ► Preparation of nanocrystals (∼9.0 nm) of copper oxalate using Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, oxalic acid and acetone under thermal conditions. ► Method is simple and novel. ► Characterization using XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and ED pattern. ► Catalytic activity of copper oxalate nanocrystals on AP thermal decomposition using thermal techniques (TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay). ► Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP + CONs using isoconversional and model fitting kinetic approaches. - Abstract: Recent work has described the preparation and characterization of copper oxalate nanocrystals (CONs). It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). The catalytic activity of CONs on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and composite solid propellants (CSPs) has been done by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ignition delay measurements. Burning rate of CSPs was also found to be enhanced in presence of copper oxalate nanocrystals. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP with and without CONs has also been investigated. The model free (isoconversional) and model-fitting kinetic approaches have been applied to data for isothermal TG decomposition.

  6. (Dimethylphosphorylmethanaminium hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid (2/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bialek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of (dimethylphosphorylmethanamine (dpma with oxalic acid in ethanol yielded the title solvated salt, C3H11NOP+·C2HO4−·0.5C2H2O4. Its asymmetric unit consists of one dpmaH+ cation, one hydrogen oxalate anion and a half-molecule of oxalic acid located around a twofold rotation axis. The H atom of the hydrogen oxalate anion is statistically disordered over two positions that are trans to each other. The hydrogen oxalate monoanion is not planar (bend angle ∼16° whereas the oxalic acid molecule shows a significantly smaller bend angle (∼7°. In the crystal, the components are connected by strong O—H...O and much weaker N—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of layers extending parallel to (001. The structure was refined from a racemically twinned crystal with twin components in an approximate 1:1 ratio.

  7. Oxalic acid biosynthesis and oxalacetate acetylhydrolase activity in Streptomyces cattleya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, D.R.; Inamine, E.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to producing the antibiotic thienamycin, Streptomyces cattleya accumulates large amounts of oxalic acid during the course of a fermentation. Washed cell suspensions were utilized to determine the specific incorporation of carbon-14 into oxalate from a number of labeled organic and amino acids. L-[U- 14 C]aspartate proved to be the best precursor, whereas only a small percentage of label from [1,5- 14 C]citrate was found in oxalate. Cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of [ 14 C]oxalate and [ 14 C]acetate from L-[U- 14 C]aspartate. When L-[4- 14 C]aspartate was the substrate only [ 14 C]acetate was formed. The cell-free extracts were found to contain oxalacetate acetylhydrolase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxalacetate to oxalate and acetate. The enzyme is constitutive and is analogous to enzymes in fungi that produce oxalate from oxalacetate. Properties of the crude enzyme were examined

  8. Acute oxalate nephropathy after ingestion of star fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Fang, H C; Chou, K J; Wang, J S; Chung, H M

    2001-02-01

    Acute oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of star fruit (carambola) has not been reported before. We report the first two cases. These patients developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and backache within hours of ingesting large quantities of sour carambola juice; then acute renal failure followed. Both patients needed hemodialysis for oliguric acute renal failure, and pathologic examinations showed typical changes of acute oxalate nephropathy. The renal function recovered 4 weeks later without specific treatment. Sour carambola juice is a popular beverage in Taiwan. The popularity of star fruit juice is not compatible with the rare discovery of star fruit-associated acute oxalate nephropathy. Commercial carambola juice usually is prepared by pickling and dilution processes that reduce oxalate content markedly, whereas pure fresh juice or mild diluted postpickled juice for traditional remedies, as used in our cases, contain high quantities of oxalate. An empty stomach and dehydrated state may pose an additional risk for development of renal injury. To avoid acute oxalate nephropathy, pure sour carambola juice or mild diluted postpickled juice should not be consumed in large amounts, especially on an empty stomach or in a dehydrated state.

  9. The comparability of oxalate excretion and oxalate:creatinine ratio in the investigation of primary hyperoxaluria: review of data from a referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford-Mobley, Oliver; Tims, Christopher; Rumsby, Gill

    2015-01-01

    Urine oxalate measurement is an important investigation in the evaluation of renal stone disease. Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a rare inherited metabolic disease characterised by persistently elevated urine oxalate, but the diagnosis may be missed in adults until renal failure has developed. Urine oxalate results were reviewed to compare oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion, and to estimate the potential numbers of undiagnosed PH. Urine oxalate results from August 2011 to April 2013 were reviewed. Oxalate excretion and oxalate:creatinine ratio were evaluated for 24 h collections and ratio alone for spot urine samples. Oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion were moderately correlated (R=0.63) in 24-h urine collections from patients aged 18 years and above. Sex-related differences were found requiring implementation of male and female reference ranges for oxalate:creatinine ratio. Of samples with both ratio and excretion above the reference range, 7% came from patients with confirmed PH. There were 24 patients with grossly elevated urine oxalate who had not been evaluated for PH. Oxalate:creatinine ratio and oxalate excretion were discordant in many patients, which is likely to be a result of intra-individual variation in creatinine output and imprecision in the collection itself. Some PH patients had urine oxalate within the reference range on occasion, and therefore it is not possible to exclude PH on the finding of a single normal result. A significant number of individuals had urine oxalate results well above the reference range who potentially have undiagnosed PH and are consequently at risk of renal failure. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Biosynthesis of l-Ascorbic Acid and Conversion of Carbons 1 and 2 of l-Ascorbic Acid to Oxalic Acid Occurs within Individual Calcium Oxalate Crystal Idioblasts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostman, Todd A.; Tarlyn, Nathan M.; Loewus, Frank A.; Franceschi, Vincent R.

    2001-01-01

    l-Ascorbic acid (AsA) and its metabolic precursors give rise to oxalic acid (OxA) found in calcium oxalate crystals in specialized crystal idioblast cells in plants; however, it is not known if AsA and OxA are synthesized within the crystal idioblast cell or transported in from surrounding mesophyll cells. Isolated developing crystal idioblasts from Pistia stratiotes were used to study the pathway of OxA biosynthesis and to determine if idioblasts contain the entire path and are essentially independent in OxA synthesis. Idioblasts were supplied with various 14C-labeled compounds and examined by micro-autoradiography for incorporation of 14C into calcium oxalate crystals. [14C]OxA gave heavy labeling of crystals, indicating the isolated idioblasts are functional in crystal formation. Incubation with [1-14C]AsA also gave heavy labeling of crystals, whereas [6-14C]AsA gave no labeling. Labeled precursors of AsA (l-[1-14C]galactose; d-[1-14C]mannose) also resulted in crystal labeling, as did the ascorbic acid analog, d-[1-14C]erythorbic acid. Intensity of labeling of isolated idioblasts followed the pattern OxA > AsA (erythorbic acid) > l-galactose > d-mannose. Our results demonstrate that P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts synthesize the OxA used for crystal formation, the OxA is derived from the number 1 and 2 carbons of AsA, and the proposed pathway of ascorbic acid synthesis via d-mannose and l-galactose is operational in individual P. stratiotes crystal idioblasts. These results are discussed with respect to fine control of calcium oxalate precipitation and the concept of crystal idioblasts as independent physiological compartments. PMID:11161021

  11. Atmospheric production of oxalic acid/oxalate and nitric acid/nitrate in the Tampa Bay airshed: Parallel pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelango, P. Kalyani; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Al-Horr, Rida S.

    Oxalic acid is the dominant dicarboxylic acid (DCA), and it constitutes up to 50% of total atmospheric DCAs, especially in non-urban and marine atmospheres. A significant amount of particulate H 2Ox/oxalate (Ox) occurred in the coarse particle fraction of a dichotomous sampler, the ratio of oxalate concentrations in the PM 10 to PM 2.5 fractions ranged from 1 to 2, with mean±sd being 1.4±0.2. These results suggest that oxalate does not solely originate in the gas phase and condense into particles. Gaseous H 2Ox concentrations are much lower than particulate Ox concentrations and are well correlated with HNO 3, HCHO, and O 3, supporting a photochemical origin. Of special relevance to the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) is the extent of nitrogen deposition in the Tampa Bay estuary. Hydroxyl radical is primarily responsible for the conversion of NO 2 to HNO 3, the latter being much more easily deposited. Hydroxyl radical is also responsible for the aqueous phase formation of oxalic acid from alkenes. Hence, we propose that an estimate of rad OH can be obtained from H 2Ox/Ox production rate and we accordingly show that the product of total oxalate concentration and NO 2 concentration approximately predicts the total nitrate concentration during the same period.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of lightweight concrete research relevant to the AASHTO LRFD bridge design specifications : potential revisions for definition and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Much of the fundamental basis for the current lightweight concrete provisions in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge : Design Specifications is based on research of lightweight concrete (LWC) from the 1960s. The LWC that was : part of this research used tradition...

  13. National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Bridges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NBI is a collection of information (database) describing the more than 600,000 of the Nation's bridges located on public roads, including Interstate Highways,...

  14. Surface analysis of transition metal oxalates: Damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenakin, S.P., E-mail: chenakin@imp.kiev.ua [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Institute of Metal Physics, Nat. Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, Akad. Vernadsky Blvd. 36, 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Szukiewicz, R. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Barbosa, R.; Kruse, N. [Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Chimie-Physique des Matériaux, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, 155 Wegner Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Gas evolution from the Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation is studied. • A comparative study of the damage caused by X-rays in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is carried out. • Effect of Ar{sup +} bombardment on the structure and composition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} is studied. - Abstract: The behavior of transition metal oxalates in vacuum, under X-ray irradiation and low-energy Ar{sup +} ion bombardment was studied. A comparative mass-spectrometric analysis was carried out of gas evolution from the surface of Mn, Co, Ni and Cu oxalate hydrates in vacuum, during exposure to X-rays and after termination of X-ray irradiation. The rates of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} liberation from the oxalates were found to be in an inverse correlation with the temperatures of dehydration and decomposition, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to study the X-ray induced damage in NiC{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CuC{sub 2}O{sub 4} by measuring the various XP spectral characteristics and surface composition of the oxalates as a function of time of exposure to X-rays. It was shown that Cu oxalate underwent a significantly faster degradation than Ni oxalate and demonstrated a high degree of X-ray induced reduction from the Cu{sup 2+} to the Cu{sup 1+} chemical state. 500 eV Ar{sup +} sputter cleaning of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} for 10 min was found to cause a strong transformation of the oxalate structure which manifested itself in an appreciable alteration of the XP core-level and valence band spectra. The analysis of changes in stoichiometry and comparison of XP spectra of bombarded oxalate with respective spectra of a reference carbonate CoCO{sub 3} implied that the bombardment-induced decomposition of CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4} gave rise to the formation of CoO-like and disordered CoCO{sub 3}-like phases.

  15. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.M.; Tammam, Riham H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 containing different additives as Br - , Cl - or Silicate. → The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. → For the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br - , Cl - or SiO 3 2- ) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na 2 C 2 O 4 ). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br - or Cl - , the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  16. Corrosion and impedance studies on magnesium alloy in oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M., E-mail: hham4@hotmail.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Tammam, Riham H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Gamaa Street, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} containing different additives as Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or Silicate. > The corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. > For the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank. - Abstract: Corrosion behavior of AZ91E alloy was investigated in oxalate solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements (EIS). The effect of oxalate concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate increases with increasing oxalate concentration. The effect of added ions (Br{sup -}, Cl{sup -} or SiO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) on the electrochemical behavior of magnesium alloy in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} solution at 298 K, was investigated. It was found that the corrosion rate of 0.1 M oxalate solution containing silicate ion is lower than the blank (0.1 M Na{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}). This was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. However, for the other added ions Br{sup -} or Cl{sup -}, the corrosion rate is higher than the blank.

  17. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Greco, L.; Adelfang, P.

    1989-01-01

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author) [es

  18. Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, T.; Rodgers, A.

    1998-09-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate was studied in minimally diluted (92%) urine using a mixed suspension mixed product crystallizer in series with a Malvern particle sizer. The crystallization was initiated by constant flow of aqueous sodium oxalate and urine into the reaction vessel via two independent feed lines. Because the Malvern cell was in series with the reaction vessel, noninvasive measurement of particle sizes could be effected. In addition, aliquots of the mixed suspension were withdrawn and transferred to a Coulter counter for crystal counting and sizing. Steady-state particle size distributions were used to determine nucleation and growth kinetics while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposited crystals. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, the effect of the concentration of the exogenous sodium oxalate was investigated while in the second, the effect of temperature was studied. Calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates were found to be dependent on supersaturation levels inside the crystallizer. However, while growth rate increased with increasing temperature, nucleation rates decreased. The favored phases were the trihydrate at 18°C, the dihydrate at 38° and the monohydrate at 58°C. The results of both experiments are in agreement with those obtained in other studies that have been conducted in synthetic and in maximally diluted urine and which have employed invasive crystal counting and sizing techniques. As such, the present study lends confidence to the models of urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes which currently prevail in the literature.

  19. Assembling Metal Ions Induced Cyanide-Bridged Heterometallic 1D and Ion-Pair Complexes: Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Lingqian; Zhao, Zengdian; Chen, Kexun; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Daopeng

    2013-01-01

    We obtained a heterobimetallic one-dimensional cyanide-bridged Mn(II)-Ni(II) complex and an Co(III)-Ni(II) ion-pair complex with [Ni(CN) 4 ] 2- as building block and M(II)-phenanthroline (M = Mn, Co) compounds as assembling segment. The different structural types of complexes 1 and 2 indicate that the property of the metal ions the assembling segment contained have obvious influence on the structure of the cyanide-bridged complex. Investigation over the magnetic properties of complex 1 reveals an overall weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the adjacent Mn(II) ions bridged by the antiferromagnetic [-NC-Ni-CN-] unit. Among of all the molecular magnetism systems, for the well known reasons, cyanide-containing complexes have been widely employed as bridges to assemble homo/hetero-metallic molecular magnetic materials by using the cyanide bridge transferring magnetic coupling between the neighboring paramagnetic ions, in whichsome showed interesting magnetic properties, such as high-Tc magnets, spin crossover materials, single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and single-chain magnets (SCMs)

  20. Assembling Metal Ions Induced Cyanide-Bridged Heterometallic 1D and Ion-Pair Complexes: Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingqian [Liaocheng Univ., Liaocheng (China); Zhao, Zengdian; Chen, Kexun; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Daopeng [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Zibo (China)

    2013-07-15

    We obtained a heterobimetallic one-dimensional cyanide-bridged Mn(II)-Ni(II) complex and an Co(III)-Ni(II) ion-pair complex with [Ni(CN){sub 4}]{sup 2-} as building block and M(II)-phenanthroline (M = Mn, Co) compounds as assembling segment. The different structural types of complexes 1 and 2 indicate that the property of the metal ions the assembling segment contained have obvious influence on the structure of the cyanide-bridged complex. Investigation over the magnetic properties of complex 1 reveals an overall weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the adjacent Mn(II) ions bridged by the antiferromagnetic [-NC-Ni-CN-] unit. Among of all the molecular magnetism systems, for the well known reasons, cyanide-containing complexes have been widely employed as bridges to assemble homo/hetero-metallic molecular magnetic materials by using the cyanide bridge transferring magnetic coupling between the neighboring paramagnetic ions, in whichsome showed interesting magnetic properties, such as high-Tc magnets, spin crossover materials, single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and single-chain magnets (SCMs)

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structures of new uranyl oxalate hydroxides: α- and β-[(UO2)2(C2O4)(OH)2(H2O)2] and [(UO2)2(C2O4)(OH)2(H2O)2].H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvieubourg, Laurence; Nowogrocki, Guy; Abraham, Francis; Grandjean, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    Two modifications of the new uranyl oxalate hydroxide dihydrate [UO 2 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] (1 and 2) and one form of the new uranyl oxalate hydroxide trihydrate [(UO 2 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ].H 2 O (3) were synthesized by hydrothermal methods and their structures determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The crystal structures were refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to agreement indices R(wR)=0.0372(0.0842) and 0.0267(0.0671) calculated for 1096 and 1167 unique observed reflections (I>2σ(I)), for α (1) and β (2) forms, respectively and to R(wR)=0.0301(0.0737) calculated for 2471 unique observed reflections (I>2σ(I)), for 3. The α-form of the dihydrate is triclinic, space group P1-bar , Z=1, a=6.097(2), b=5.548(2), c=7.806(3)A, α=89.353(5), β=94.387(5), γ=97.646(5) o , V=260.88(15)A 3 , β-form is monoclinic, space group C2/c, Z=4, a=12.180(3), b=8.223(2), c=10.777(3)A, β=95.817(4), V=1073.8(5)A 3 . The trihydrate is monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c, Z=4, a=5.5095(12), b=15.195(3), c=13.398(3)A, β=93.927(3), V=1119.0(4)A 3 . In the three structures, the coordination of uranium atom is a pentagonal bipyramid composed of dioxo UO 2 2+ cation perpendicular to five equatorial oxygen atoms belonging to one bidentate oxalate ion, one water molecule and two hydroxyl ions in trans configuration in 2 and in cis configuration in 1 and 3. The UO 7 polyhedra are linked through hydroxyl oxygen atoms to form different structural building units, dimers [U 2 O 10 ] obtained by edge-sharing in 1, chains [UO 6 ] ∼ and tetramers [U 4 O 26 ] built by corner-sharing in 2 and 3, respectively. These units are further connected by oxalate entities that act as bis-bidentate to form one-dimensional chains in 1 and bi-dimensional network in 2 and 3. These chains or layers are connected in frameworks by hydrogen-bond arrays

  2. Oxalate Content of the Herb Good-King-Henry, Blitum Bonus-Henricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the leaves, stems and buds of Good-King-Henry (Blitum Bonus-Henricus were extracted and measured using HPLC chromatography. The large, mature leaves contained 42% more total oxalate than in the small leaves and the soluble oxalate content of the large leaves was 33% higher than the smaller leaves. Cooking the mixed leaves, stems and buds in boiling water for two minutes significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate when compared to the raw plant parts. Pesto sauce made from mixed leaves contained 257 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight; this was largely made up of insoluble oxalates (85% of the total oxalate content. Soup made from mixed leaves contained lower levels of total oxalates (44.26 ± 0.49 mg total oxalate/100 g fresh weight and insoluble oxalate made up 49% of the oxalate contents. The levels of oxalates in the Good-King-Henry leaves were high, suggesting that the leaves should be consumed occasionally as a delicacy because of their unique taste rather than as a significant part of the diet. However, the products made from Good-King-Henry leaves indicated that larger amounts could be consumed as the oxalate levels were reduced by dilution and processing.

  3. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  4. Effect of medium pH on chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger W78C in submerged batch cultures with sucrose as a carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Ewa; Podgórski, Waldemar; Janczar-Smuga, Małgorzata; Dymarska, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    The pH of the medium is the key environmental parameter of chemical selectivity of oxalic acid biosynthesis by Aspergillus niger . The activity of the enzyme oxaloacetate hydrolase, which is responsible for decomposition of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate inside the cell of the fungus, is highest at pH 6. In the present study, the influence of pH in the range of 3-7 on oxalic acid secretion by A. niger W78C from sucrose was investigated. The highest oxalic acid concentration, 64.3 g dm -3 , was reached in the medium with pH 6. The chemical selectivity of the process was 58.6% because of the presence of citric and gluconic acids in the cultivation broth in the amount of 15.3 and 30.2 g dm -3 , respectively. Both an increase and a decrease of medium pH caused a decrease of oxalic acid concentration. The obtained results confirm that pH 6 of the carbohydrate medium is appropriate for oxalic acid synthesis by A. niger , but the chemical selectivity of the process described in this paper was high in comparison to values reported previously in the literature.

  5. Crystal structure of di?methyl?ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid)

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aur?lien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, H?l?ne

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 +?HC2O4 ??0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di?methyl?ammonium cation (Me2NH2 +), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 ?), and half a mol?ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra?molecular point of view, the t...

  6. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, Francois; Whittaker, James W.

    2007-01-01

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an α-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10 4 U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions

  7. NDA technique for the assay of wet plutonium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Canada, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitatively measure batches of wet plutonium oxalate. The method is based on a count of coincidence neutrons to which a correction is applied for the effects of neutron moderation by water. A therma-neutron coincidence counter (TNC) with two concentric rings of 3 He detectors provides the signal needed for the water correction. The signal is the ratio of neutron counts between the detector rings that changes with the percent of water in plutonium oxalate. To evaluate the measurement technique, 26 batches of plutonium oxalate were measured in an in-line TNC. The evaluation showed the measurements to be essentially unbiased and precise to 2.2%

  8. Crystal structure of di­methyl­ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemi(oxalic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Waly; Gueye, Ndongo; Crochet, Aurélien; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, Me2NH2 +·HC2O4 −·0.5H2C2O4, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving Me2NH, H2C2O4 and Sn(n-Bu)3Cl in a 1:2 ratio in methanol or by the reaction of the (Me2NH2)2C2O4 salt and Sn(CH3)3Cl in a 2:1 ratio in ethanol. The asymmetric unit comprises a di­methyl­ammonium cation (Me2NH2 +), an hydrogenoxalate anion (HC2O4 −), and half a mol­ecule of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) situated about an inversion center. From a supra­molecular point of view, the three components inter­act together via hydrogen bonding. The Me2NH2 + cations and the HC2O4 − anions are in close proximity through bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds, while the HC2O4 − anions are organized into infinite chains via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, propagating along the a-axis direction. In addition, the oxalic acid (H2C2O4) mol­ecules play the role of connectors between these chains. Both the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups of each diacid are involved in four inter­molecular inter­actions with two Me2NH2 + and two HC2O4 − ions of four distinct polymeric chains, via two N—H⋯O and two O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The resulting mol­ecular assembly can be viewed as a two-dimensional bilayer-like arrangement lying parallel to (010), and reinforced by a C—H⋯O hydrogen bond. PMID:25995858

  9. Successful treatment of sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis with Helichrysum flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, Metin; Orhan, Nilüfer; Farahvash, Amirali; Ekin, Hasya Nazlı; Kocabıyık, Murat; Gönül, İpek Işık; Şen, İlker; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    Helichrysum (Asteraceae) flowers, known as "altın otu, yayla çiçeği, kudama çiçeği" , are widely used to remove kidney stones and for their diuretic properties in Turkey. To determine the curative effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M. Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and H. stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on sodium oxalate induced kidney stones. Infusions prepared from the capitulums of HG and HS were tested for their curative effect on calcium oxalate deposition induced by sodium oxalate (70mg/kg i.p.). Following the injection of sodium oxalate for 5 days, plant extracts were administered to rats at two different doses. Potassium citrate was used as positive control. Water intake, urine volume, body, liver and kidney weights were measured; biochemical and hematological analyses were conducted on urine and blood samples. Additionally, histopathological examinations were done on kidney samples. H. stoechas extract showed prominent effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 0.33), whereas number of kidney stones was maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.33). The reduction in the uric acid and oxalate levels of urine samples and the elevation in the urine citrate levels are significant and promising in extract groups. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymatic markers are also ameliorated by the extracts. This is the first report on the curative effect of immortal flowers. Our preliminary study indicated that Helichrysum extracts may be used for treatment of urolithiasis and Helichrysum extracts are an alternative therapy to potassium citrate for patients suffering from kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interaction of Celestine Concentrate and Reagent Grade SrSO4 with Oxalate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Obut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of reagent grade strontium sulphate and celestine concentrate with aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, sodiumoxalate and ammonium oxalate for the production of strontium carbonate were investigated for different oxalate compound:SrSO4 moleratios and reaction times using x-ray diffraction analysis and dissolution tests. Under the same experimental conditions, it was foundthat aqueous oxalic acid and sodium oxalate solutions had no or little effect on reagent grade strontium sulphate or celestineconcentrate, but aqueous ammonium oxalate solution converted them into strontium oxalate hydrate. Strontium carbonate was obtainedat conversion ratios of 74.7% for the celestine concentrate and 84.6 % for the reagent grade strontium sulphate by the decompositionof the obtained strontium oxalate hydrate at 600 °C under air atmosphere.

  11. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  12. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in Pereskia species (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2009-01-01

    Calcium oxalate druses were isolated from the stems and leaves of six Pereskioideae family members and investigated by infrared spectroscopy, showing that in all samples the biomineral was present in the form of whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O. As Pereskia is thought to represent the "ancestral" condition of the leafless stem-succulent cacti, these results suggest that the biomineralization of calcium oxalate in Cactaceae represents a primitive characteristic of the group and also support a close genetic relationship between Pereskia and Opuntia.

  13. A Novel Pentadentate Coordination Mode for the Carbonato Bridge: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Behavior of (&mgr;(3)-CO(3))[Ni(3)(Medpt)(3)(NCS)(4)], a New Trinuclear Nickel(II) Carbonato-Bridged Complex with Strong Antiferromagnetic Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuer, Albert; Vicente, Ramon; Kumar, Sujit B.; Solans, Xavier; Font-Bardía, Mercé; Caneschi, Andrea

    1996-05-22

    The trinuclear complex (&mgr;(3)-CO(3))[Ni(3)(Medpt)(3)(NCS)(4)] was obtained by reaction of basic solutions of nickel(II), Medpt (bis(3aminopropyl)methylamine) and thiocyanate ligand with atmospheric CO(2) or by simple reaction with carbonate anion. (&mgr;(3)-CO(3))[Ni(3)(Medpt)(3)(NCS)(4)] crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P&onemacr;, with a = 12.107(5) Å, b = 12.535(7) Å, c = 16.169(9) Å, alpha = 102.69(5) degrees, beta = 92.91(5) degrees, gamma = 118.01(4) degrees, Z = 2, and R = 0.043. The three nickel atoms are asymmetrically bridged by one pentadentate carbonato ligand, which shows a novel coordination mode. The (&mgr;(3)-CO(3))[Ni(3)(Medpt)(3)(NCS)(4)] compound shows a very strong antiferromagnetic coupling. Fit as irregular triangular arrangement gave J(1) = -88.4, J(2) = -57.7, and J(3) = -9.6 cm(-)(1), which is the strongest AF coupling observed to date for Ni(3) compounds. The magnetic behavior of the carbonato bridge is discussed.

  14. Synthesis and optical resolution of a Cu(I) double-stranded helicate with ketimine-bridged tris(bipyridine) ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusho, Yoshio; Goto, Hidetoshi; Itomi, Ken; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Toyoharu; Yashima, Eiji

    2011-09-21

    A tetranuclear Cu(I) double-stranded helicate was synthesized from ketimine-bridged tris(bipyridine) ligands and Cu(I) ions, and the racemate was successfully resolved by diastereomeric salt formation using an optically pure phosphate anion followed by anion exchange with NaPF(6) without racemization.

  15. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid

  16. A hybrid lithium oxalate-phosphinate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Andrew R; Deligonul, Nihal; Scherson, Daniel A; Protasiewicz, John D

    2010-12-06

    The novel organophosphorus-containing lithium salt Li(THF)[(C(2)O(4))B(O(2)PPh(2))(2)] (1; THF = tetrahydrofuran) was synthesized and characterized using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. An X-ray structural analysis on crystals of 1 grown from THF reveals a dimeric structure [Li(THF)(C(2)O(4))B(O(2)PPh(2))(2)](2)·THF, whereby the two units of 1 are bridged via P-O···Li interactions. Compound 1 displays high air and water stability and is also thermally robust, properties needed of electrolytes for their possible use as electrolytes and/or additives in lithium-ion battery applications.

  17. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  18. A new method for the analysis of soluble and insoluble oxalate in pulp and paper matrices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for determining soluble and insoluble forms of oxalate in pulp and paper samples by ion chromatography. Methanesulphonic acid is used to dissolve insoluble oxalate, and total oxalate is then determined by ion...

  19. Oxaloacetate hydrolase, the C-C bond lyase of oxalate secreting fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Joosten, H.J.; Niu, W.; Zhao, Z.; Mariano, P.S.; McCalman, M.; Kan, van J.; Schaap, P.J.; Dunaway-Mariano, D.

    2007-01-01

    Oxalate secretion by fungi is known to be associated with fungal pathogenesis. In addition, oxalate toxicity is a concern for the commercial application of fungi in the food and drug industries. Although oxalate is generated through several different biochemical pathways, oxaloacetate

  20. Correlation between oxalic acid production and copper tolerance in Wolfiporia cocos

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; Frederick Green; B. M. Woodward; J. W. Evans; R. C. DeGroot

    2000-01-01

    The increased interest in copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. Due in part to accumulation of oxalic acid by brown-rot fungi and visualization of copper oxalate crystals in wood decayed by known copper-tolerant decay fungi, oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by...

  1. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience......, Brian O’Neill, Andra Siibak, Sascha Trültzsch-Wijnen, Nicoletta Vittadini, Igor Vobič and Frauke Zeller. Stakeholder feedback from: Michelle Arlotta (DeAgostini), Andreea M. Costache (Association of Consumers of Audiovisual Media in Catalonia/TAC), Francesco Diasio (AMARC Europe), Marius Dragomir (Open...

  2. Mathematical bridges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu; Tetiva, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Building bridges between classical results and contemporary nonstandard problems, Mathematical Bridges embraces important topics in analysis and algebra from a problem-solving perspective. Blending old and new techniques, tactics and strategies used in solving challenging mathematical problems, readers will discover numerous genuine mathematical gems throughout that will heighten their appreciation of the inherent beauty of mathematics. Most of the problems are original to the authors and are intertwined in a well-motivated exposition driven by representative examples. The book is structured to assist the reader in formulating and proving conjectures, as well as devising solutions to important mathematical problems by making connections between various concepts and ideas from different areas of mathematics. Instructors and educators teaching problem-solving courses or organizing mathematics clubs, as well as motivated mathematics students from high school juniors to college seniors, will find Mathematical Bri...

  3. Synthesis of bis-cyclopentadienyl compounds with the 9.9-fluorenylidene bridge. The crystal and molecular structure of [μ-9.9-Flu(η5-Cp)2]ZrCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivchenko, N.B.; Ivchenko, P.V.; Nifant'ev, I.Eh.; Bagrov, V.V.; Kuz'mina, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Effect method for synthesis of ansa-zirconocenes containing short 9,9-fluorenylidene bridges between cyclopentadienyl ligands of zirconium complex was developed. Crystal and molecular structures of one of the complexes synthesized of the composition [μ-9,9-Flu(η 5 -Cp) 2 ]ZrCl 2 (Flu = fluorenylidene, Cp = cydopentadiene) were determined by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound has a monoclinic cell with the following parameters: a = 11.386 (6), b = 13.555 (5), c = 15.947 (1)A; α = 90 deg, β = 102.59 deg, γ = 90 deg; sp.gr. P2 1 /n, Z 4; d calcld. = 1.512 g/cm 3 [ru

  4. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: rkkawadkar@chm.vnit.ac.in. MS received 13 ... vent or porogen to form a pre-polymerization complex, followed by .... tered off and the filtrate was analysed for oxalic acid by. UV/VIS ... The experimental binding data were fitted to the.

  5. Competitive adsorption and photodegradation of salicylate and oxalate on goethite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Bajt, O.; Mailhot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2011), s. 221-227 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : goethite * oxalate * salicylate Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.407, year: 2011

  6. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cis-locked vinylogous combretastatin-A4 analogues: derivatives with a cyclopropyl-vinyl or a cyclopropyl-amide bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ty, Nancy; Kaffy, Julia; Arrault, Alban; Thoret, Sylviane; Pontikis, Renée; Dubois, Joelle; Morin-Allory, Luc; Florent, Jean-Claude

    2009-03-01

    A series of novel combretastatin A4 analogues, in which the cis-olefinic bridge is replaced by a cyclopropyl-vinyl or a cyclopropyl-amide moiety, were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin polymerization and antiproliferative activity. The derivative 9a with a (cis,E)-cyclopropyl-vinyl unit is the most promising compound. As expected, molecular docking of 9a has shown that only one of the cis-cyclopropyl enantiomers is a good ligand for tubulin.

  8. Calcium extraction from brine water and seawater using oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasha, Nadia Chrisayu; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum

    2017-01-01

    Calcium can be extracted not only from rocks but also from natural liquor such as seawater and brine water. In order to extract the calcium from seawater and brine water, oxalic acid was used in this research. Effect of variations of the volume of the oxalic acid at a constant concentration in seawater and brine water to produce calcium was investigated. The concentration of oxalic acid was 100 g/l and the variations of its volume were 2 ml, 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml, 10 ml, 20 ml, 30 ml, 40 ml, and 50 ml. The used seawater and brine water were firstly evaporated from 100 ml into 50 ml and then the oxalic acid was added into them with mixing to produce the calcium precipitates. The precipitates were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the filtrates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The SEM analysis showed that the precipitates from brine water were consisted of only calcium compound while from seawater sodium one was also found along with calcium compound. The XRD analysis showed that the calcium was present in the form of calcium oxalate for both seawater and brine water. The ICP-OES analysis of the filtrate from seawater precipitation showed that the its calcium content was decreased from 826.20 ppm to 0.04 ppm while from brine water, it decreased from 170.06 ppm to 1.96 ppm. These results showed that both seawater and brine water have the potential to be a raw material for calcium production.

  9. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) s...

  10. Co-precipitation of plutonium(IV) and americium(III) from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pius, I.C.; Noronha, D.M.; Chaudhury, Satyajeet

    2017-01-01

    Co-precipitation of plutonium and americium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions with bismuth oxalate has been investigated for the removal of these long lived α-active nuclides from waste solutions. Effect of concentration of bismuth and oxalic acid on the co-precipitation of Pu(IV) from 3 M HNO_3 has been investigated. Similar experiments were also carried out from 3.75 M HNO_3 on co-precipitation of Am(III) to optimize the conditions of precipitation. Strong co-precipitation of Pu(IV) and Am(III) with bismuth oxalate indicate feasibility of treatment of plutonium and americium bearing waste solutions. (author)

  11. Calcium oxalate contribution to calcium cycling in forests of contrasting nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (Ca oxalate) is an insoluble biomineral that forms in plants and fungi, and occurs in soils across many types of ecosystems. Assessing how Ca oxalate may shape ecosystem Ca cycling requires information on the distribution of Ca oxalate among plant biomass, detritus, and mineral soil, and how it varies with ecosystem Ca status. We compared two Douglas-fir forests of contrasting ecosystem Ca availability, and found that Ca oxalate was partitioned similarly among plant biomass, detritus and mineral soil major ecosystem compartments at both sites, and total pools of Ca oxalate were greater in the high-Ca forest. However, the proportional importance of Ca oxalate was greater in the low-Ca than high-Ca forest (18% versus 4% of actively cycling ecosystem Ca, respectively). And calcium oxalate in mineral soil, which is of particular interest as a potential long-term Ca reservoir, was a larger portion of total available Ca (exchangeable Ca plus Ca oxalate Ca) in the low-Ca site than the high-Ca site (9% versus 1% of available soil Ca, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the dominant form of Ca returned from plants to soil as leaf litterfall at the high-Ca site, yet calcium oxalate disappeared rapidly from decomposing litter (0.28 yr−1 or faster) at both sites. We conclude that accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest ecosystems appears most closely related to overall Ca supply for live biomass pools, and that the accumulation of Ca oxalate in forest floor and mineral soil is limited by rapid microbial degradation of putatively unavailable Ca oxalate.

  12. Novel Inorganic Coordination Polymers Based on Cadmium Oxalates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P. A.; Neeraj, S.; Vaidhyanathan, R.; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2002-06-01

    Three new cadmium oxalate coordination polymers, I-III, with extended layered structures have been synthesized in the presence of imidazole. While I was prepared by the reaction between imidazolium oxalate and Cd, II and III were synthesized from their constituents using hydrothermal methods. [Cd(C2O4)(C3N2H4)]∞ (I): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=8.7093(1) Å, b=9.9477(3) Å, c=8.4352 Å, β=93.796(1)°, Z=4; [Cd(C2O4)2(C3N2H4)3(H2O)]∞ (II): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=7.8614(2) Å, b=14.9332(3) Å, c=15.9153(4) Å β=94.587(1)°, Z=4; [Cd(C2O4)2(C3N2H4)3(H2O)]∞ (III): monoclinic, space group P21/c (no. 14), a=11.844(2) Å, b=9.066(1) Å, c=18.583(2) Å, β=103.84(2)°, Z=4. While the structure of I is made from CdO5N distorted octahedra linked with oxalate, II and III are built-up from CdO6N, CdO5N2 distorted pentagonal bi-pyramids connected to oxalate units. The framework formulas of II and III are identical and their structures closely related. In all the cases, the networking between the Cd-O/N polyhedra and oxalates give rise to layered architectures with the amine molecules pointing in a direction perpendicular to the layers (in the inter-lamellar region). The difference in the linkages between the oxalates and the Cd atoms in I-III, produces unusual Cd-O-Cd one-dimensional chains, which have been observed for the first time.

  13. Three Cyanide-Bridged One-Dimensional Single Chain Co"I"I"I-Mn"I"I Complexes: Rational Design, Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Magnetic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Daopeng; Zhao, Zengdian; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xia

    2012-01-01

    Two pyridinecarboxamide dicyanidecobalt(III) building blocks and two mononuclear seven-coordinated macrocycle manganese(II) compounds have been rationally selected to assemble cyanide-bridged heterobimetallic complexes, resulting in three cyanide-bridged Co"I"I"I-Mn"I"I complexes. Single X-ray diffraction analysis show that these complexes {[Mn(L"1)][Co(bpb)]}ClO_4·CH_3OH·0.5H_2O (1), {[Mn(L"2)][Co(bpb)]}ClO_4·0.5CH_3OH (2) and {[Mn(L"1)][Cobpmb]}ClO_4·H_2O (3) (L"1 = 3,6-diazaoctane-1,8-diamine, L"2 = 3,6-dioxaoctano-1,8- diamine: bpb"2"- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzenate, bpmb"2"- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)-4- methyl-benzenate) all present predictable one-dimensional single chain structures. The molecular structures of these one-dimensional complexes consists of alternating units of [Mn(L)]"2"+ (L = L"1 or L"2) and [Co(L')(CN)_2]"- (L' = bpb"2"-, or bpmb"2"-), forming a cyanide-bridged cationic polymeric chain with free ClO_4"- as the balance anion. The coordination geometry of manganese(II) ion in the three one-dimensional complexes is a slightly distorted pentagonal-bipyrimidal with two cyanide nitrogen atoms at the trans positions and N_5 or N_3O_2 coordinating mode at the equatorial plane from ligand L"1 or L"2. Investigation over magnetic properties of these complexes reveals that the very weak magnetic coupling between neighboring Mn(II) ions connected by the diamagnetic dicyanidecobalt(III) building block. A best-fit to the magnetic susceptibility of complex 1 leads to the magnetic coupling constants J = .0.084(3) cm"-"1

  14. Bridge resource program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The mission of Rutgers Universitys Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT) Bridge Resource Program (BRP) is to provide bridge engineering support to the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT)s Bridge Engineering an...

  15. Efficient green luminescence of terbium oxalate crystals: A case study with Judd-Ofelt theory and single crystal structure analysis and the effect of dehydration on luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dinu; Joy, Monu; Thomas, Kukku; Sisira, S.; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.; Sudarsanakumar, C.; Ittyachen, M. A.; Joseph, Cyriac

    2018-06-01

    Design and synthesis of Lanthanide based metal organic framework is a frontier area of research owing to their structural diversity enabling specific applications. The luminescence properties of rare earths, tuned by the structural features of Ln-MOFs are investigated extensively. Rare earth oxalates which can be synthesized in a facile method, ensuring the structural features of MOFs with excellent photoluminescence characteristics deserves much attention. This work is the first time report on the single crystal structure and Judd-Ofelt (JO) theoretical analysis - their correlation with the intense and sharp green luminescence of Terbium oxalate crystals. The intense green luminescence observed for Terbium oxalate crystals for a wide range of excitation from DUV to visible region despite the luminescence limiting factors are discussed. The absence of concentration quenching and lifting up of forbidden nature of f-f transitions, allowing direct excitation of Terbium ions is analysed with the help of JO theory and single crystal structure analysis. The JO analysis predicted the asymmetry of Terbium sites, allowing the electric dipole transitions and from the JO intensity parameters, promising spectroscopic parameters - emission cross section, branching ratio, gain band width and gain coefficient of the material were calculated. The single crystal structure analysis revealed the asymmetry of Tb sites and structure of Terbium oxalate is formed by the hydrogen bonded stacking of overlapped six Terbium membered rings connected by the oxalate ligands. The molecularly thick layers thus formed on the crystal surface are imaged by the atomic force microscopy. The presence of water channels in the structure and the effect of lattice water molecules on the luminescence intensity are also investigated.

  16. Six-flow operations for catalyst development in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis : Bridging the gap between high-throughput experimentation and extensive product evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.; Jansma, H.; Bosma, D.; Boshuizen, B.; Makkee, M.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2013-01-01

    Design and operation of a “six-flow fixed-bed microreactor” setup for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is described. The unit consists of feed and mixing, flow division, reaction, separation, and analysis sections. The reactor system is made of five heating blocks with individual temperature

  17. Cyanide-limited complexation of molybdenum(III): synthesis of octahedral [Mo(CN)(6)](3-) and cyano-bridged [Mo(2)(CN)(11)](5-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Laurance G; Long, Jeffrey R

    2002-03-13

    Octahedral coordination of molybdenum(III) is achieved by limiting the amount of cyanide available upon complex formation. Reaction of Mo(CF(3)SO(3))(3) with LiCN in DMF affords Li(3)[Mo(CN)(6)] x 6DMF (1), featuring the previously unknown octahedral complex [Mo(CN)(6)](3-). The complex exhibits a room-temperature moment of mu(eff) = 3.80 mu(B), and assignment of its absorption bands leads to the ligand field parameters Delta(o) = 24800 cm(-1) and B = 247 cm(-1). Further restricting the available cyanide in a reaction between Mo(CF(3)SO(3))(3) and (Et(4)N)CN in DMF, followed by recrystallization from DMF/MeOH, yields (Et(4)N)(5)[Mo(2)(CN)(11)] x 2DMF x 2MeOH (2). The dinuclear [Mo(2)(CN)(11)](5-) complex featured therein contains two octahedrally coordinated Mo(III) centers spanned by a bridging cyanide ligand. A fit to the magnetic susceptibility data for 2, gives J = -113 cm(-1) and g = 2.33, representing the strongest antiferromagnetic coupling yet observed through a cyanide bridge. Efforts to incorporate these new complexes in magnetic Prussian blue-type solids are ongoing.

  18. Bimetallic ruthenium complexes bridged by divinylphenylene bearing oligo(ethylene glycol)methylether: synthesis, (spectro)electrochemistry and the lithium cation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li Yan; Liu, Yuan Mei; Tian, Guang-Xuan; Wu, Xiang Hua; Li, Zhen; Kou, Jun-Feng; Ou, Ya-Ping; Liu, Sheng Hua; Fu, Wen-Fu

    2014-03-14

    A series of 1,4-disubstituted ruthenium-vinyl complexes, (E,E)-[{(PMe3)3(CO)ClRu}2(μ-HC=CH-Ar-CH=CH)], in which the 1,4-diethenylphenylene bridge bears two oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether side chains at different positions (2,5- and 2,3-positions), were prepared. The respective products were characterized by elemental analyses and NMR spectroscopy. The structures of complexes 1b and 1e were established by X-ray crystallography. The electronic properties of the complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and IR and UV-vis/NIR spectroscopies. Electrochemical studies showed that the 2,5-substituents better stabilized the mixed-valence states; the electrochemical behavior was greatly affected by lithium cations, especially complex 1g with 2,3-substituents, which was further supported by IR and UV-vis/NIR spectra changes. Spectroelectrochemical studies showed that the redox chemistry was dominated by the non-innocent character of the bridging fragment.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of μ-hydroxido- and μ-polycarboxylato-bridged iron(III complexes with 2,2’-bipyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four novel polymeric iron(III complexes with 2,2’-bipyridine (bipy and different aromatic polycarboxylato ligands as anions of phthalic (pht, isophthalic (ipht, terephthalic (tpht and pyromellitic (pyr acid were synthesized by ligand exchange reaction. The complexes were characterized by elemental and TG/DSC analysis, FTIR and diffuse reflectance UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Based on analytical and spectral data the formulae of the complexes are {[Fe4(bipy2 (H2O2(OH6(pht3]•2H2O}n (1, {[Fe4(bipy2(Hipht2(ipht2(OH6]•4H2O}n (2, {[Fe4(bipy2(Htpht2(OH6(tpht2]•4H2O}n (3 and {[Fe4(bipy(H2O8(OH4 (pyr2]•H2O}n (4. All complexes are red brown and low-spin with a distorted octahedral geometry and FeO6 or FeN2O4 chromophore. Polycarboxylato ligands have a bridging role in all cases, whereas monodentate COO groups are present in 2 and 3, bridging and chelate COO groups are established in 1 and 4. The thermal behaviour of 1-4 was investigated in detail and the molar dehydration enthalpies were calculated. According to the all those results, the structural formulae of the complexes 1-4 were proposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45007

  20. Synthesis of 2D polymeric dicyanamide bridged hexa-coordinated Cu(II) complex: Structural characterization, spectral studies and TDDFT calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Saugata; Saha, Urmila; Dolai, Malay; Chatterjee, Sudipta

    2014-10-01

    A rare 2D polymeric dicyanamide bridged hexa-coordinated copper(II) complex [Cu(L1‧)(μ1,5-dca)2]n (1) (L1‧ = 2-carboxypyrazine) has been synthesized from the reaction of Cu(NO3)2ṡ6H2O, 2-pyrazinecarbonitrile (L1) and sodium dicyanamide (Nadca) in methanolic medium. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that the complex has a 2D infinite zigzag chain structure in which copper(II) ions are bridged by single dicyanamide ligand in an end-to-end fashion. Such 2-carboxypyrazine can be obtained on the way of metal-assisted nitrile hydrolysis which well connected with Cu(NO3)2ṡ6H2O and dicyanamide (dca) to give rare 2D Cu(II) polymeric complex due to the flexibility in the coordination ability of the copper(II) ions within the polymeric chain. The geometry of the asymmetric unit of the complex was optimized in singlet state by DFT method with multilayer ONIOM model at doublet spin state accordance with repeating asymmetric unit only. The electronic spectrum of the complex is explained using TDDFT calculation.

  1. Framework for a comprehensive bridge management and information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    "The purpose of this research project was to provide a framework for the development of a Bridge : Management Information System (BMIS). Researchers developed a synthesis of current BMIS development : activities and identified sources of data availab...

  2. Two novel 3-D bismuth oxalates with organic amines protruding in channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaohong; Zhang Hanhui; Cao Yanning; Hu Zhongjian; Chen Yiping; Wang Zhen

    2006-01-01

    Two novel 3-D oxalate-containing bismuth compounds of formula (C 3 N 2 H 5 ) 2 [Bi 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ].2H 2 O 1 and [NH(C 2 H 5 ) 3 ][Bi 3 (C 2 O 4 ) 5 ] 2 were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic P2/n space group with a=9.7541(13)A, b=17.7404(15)A, c=14.6321(6)A, β=97.280(3) o , Z=4, R 1 =0.0340 and wR 2 =0.0766 for unique 4734 reflections I>2σ(I). Compound 2 belongs to the orthorhombic Pbcn space group with a=14.803(4)A, b=19.783(7)A, c=8.202(2)A, Z=4, R 1 =0.0222 and wR 2 =0.0568 for unique 2472 reflections I>2σ(I). The Bi III centers have nine-fold coordination for 1 and eight-fold for 2 with the Bi atoms in distorted monocapped square antiprism and distorted dodecahedron, respectively. And oxalate ligands adopt different coordination modes: bidentate for 1, bidentate and tricoordinate for 2. Compounds 1 and 2 are both 3-D open-framework structures containing channels with guest molecules. These two compounds exhibit intense blue luminescence with the emission peaks at 419nm for 1 and 442nm for 2, respectively, in the solid state at room temperature. These compounds with novel structural frameworks could be useful in the field of photoactive materials

  3. Precipitation behavior of uranium in multicomponent solution by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.J.; Kim, I.S.; Lee, W.K.; Shin, H.S.; Ro, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study on the precipitation of uranium by oxalic acid was carried out in a multicomponent solution. The precipitation method is usually applied to the treatment of radioactive waste and the recovery of uranium from a uranium-scrap contaminated with impurities. In these cases, the problem is how to increase the precipitation yield of target element and to prevent impurities from coprecipitation. The multicomponent solution in the present experiment was prepared by dissolving U, Nd, Cs and Sr in nitric acid. The effects of concentrations of oxalic acid and ascorbic acid on the precipitation yield and purity of uranium were observed. As results of the study, the maximum precipitation yield of uranium is revealed to be about 96.5% and the relative precipitation ratio of Nd, Cs and Sr versus uranium are discussed at the condition of the maximum precipitation yield of uranium, respectively. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. The metabolic and ecological interactions of oxalate-degrading bacteria in the Mammalian gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron W; Dearing, Denise

    2013-12-06

    Oxalate-degrading bacteria comprise a functional group of microorganisms, commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Oxalate is a plant secondary compound (PSC) widely produced by all major taxa of plants and as a terminal metabolite by the mammalian liver. As a toxin, oxalate can have a significant impact on the health of mammals, including humans. Mammals do not have the enzymes required to metabolize oxalate and rely on their gut microbiota for this function. Thus, significant metabolic interactions between the mammalian host and a complex gut microbiota maintain the balance of oxalate in the body. Over a dozen species of gut bacteria are now known to degrade oxalate. This review focuses on the host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions that regulate the degradation of oxalate by the gut microbiota. We discuss the pathways of oxalate throughout the body and the mammalian gut as a series of differentiated ecosystems that facilitate oxalate degradation. We also explore the mechanisms and functions of microbial oxalate degradation along with the implications for the ecological and evolutionary interactions within the microbiota and for mammalian hosts. Throughout, we consider questions that remain, as well as recent technological advances that can be employed to answer them.

  5. Polyfunctional inorganic-organic hybrid materials: an unusual kind of NLO active layered mixed metal oxalates with tunable magnetic properties and very large second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Elena; Macchi, Roberto; Roberto, Dominique; Ugo, Renato; Galli, Simona; Casati, Nicola; Macchi, Piero; Sironi, Angelo; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2007-08-01

    Mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates, as "stripes" connected through strong hydrogen bonding by para-dimethylaminobenzaldeide (DAMBA) and water, form an organic-inorganic 2D network that enables segregation in layers of the cationic organic NLO-phore trans-4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium, [DAMS+]. The crystalline hybrid materials obtained have the general formula [DAMS]4[M2M'(C2O4)6].2DAMBA.2H2O (M = Rh, Fe, Cr; M' = Mn, Zn), and their overall three-dimensional packing is non-centrosymmetric and polar, therefore suitable for second harmonic generation (SHG). All the compounds investigated are characterized by an exceptional SHG activity, due both to the large molecular quadratic hyperpolarizability of [DAMS+] and to the efficiency of the crystalline network which organizes [DAMS+] into head-to-tail arranged J-type aggregates. The tunability of the pairs of metal ions allows exploiting also the magnetic functionality of the materials. Examples containing antiferro-, ferro-, and ferri-magnetic interactions (mediated by oxalato bridges) are obtained by coupling proper M(III) ions (Fe, Cr, Rh) with M(II) (Mn, Zn). This shed light on the role of weak next-nearest-neighbor interactions and main nearest-neighbor couplings along "stripes" of mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates of the organic-inorganic 2D network, thus suggesting that these hybrid materials may display isotropic 1D magnetic properties along the mixed M(II)/M(III) metal oxalates "stripes".

  6. Oxalic acid has an additional, detoxifying function in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose Heller

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the diseases caused by the necrotroph plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is not well understood. To investigate the role of oxalic acid during infection high resolution, light-, scanning-, transmission electron microscopy and various histochemical staining methods were used. Our inoculation method allowed us to follow degradation of host plant tissue around single hyphae and to observe the reaction of host cells in direct contact with single invading hyphae. After penetration the outer epidermal cell wall matrix appeared degraded around subcuticular hyphae (12-24 hpi. Calcium oxalate crystals were detected in advanced (36-48 hpi and late (72 hpi infection stages, but not in early stages. In early infection stages, surprisingly, no toxic effect of oxalic acid eventually secreted by S. sclerotiorum was observed. As oxalic acid is a common metabolite in plants, we propose that attacked host cells are able to metabolize oxalic acid in the early infection stage and translocate it to their vacuoles where it is stored as calcium oxalate. The effects, observed on healthy tissue upon external application of oxalic acid to non-infected, living tissue and cell wall degradation of dead host cells starting at the inner side of the walls support this idea. The results indicate that oxalic acid concentrations in the early stage of infection stay below the toxic level. In plant and fungi oxalic acid/calcium oxalate plays an important role in calcium regulation. Oxalic acid likely could quench calcium ions released during cell wall breakdown to protect growing hyphae from toxic calcium concentrations in the infection area. As calcium antimonate-precipitates were found in vesicles of young hyphae, we propose that calcium is translocated to the older parts of hyphae and detoxified by building non-toxic, stable oxalate crystals. We propose an infection model where oxalic acid plays a detoxifying role in late infection stages.

  7. Binding abilities of copper to phospholipids and transport of oxalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šádek, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 831-837 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-21409P; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : copper cations * dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (lecithin) * ESI-MS * impedance spectroscopy * oxalic acid * voltammetry * membrane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  8. Dynamic process model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgonovi, G.M.; Hammelman, J.E.; Miller, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    A dynamic model of a plutonium oxalate precipitator is developed to provide a means of predicting plutonium inventory on a continuous basis. The model is based on state-of-the-art crystallization equations, which describe nucleation and growth phenomena. The model parameters were obtained through the use of batch experimental data. The model has been used to study the approach to steady state, to investigate the response to input transients, and to simulate the control of the precipitation process. 12 refs

  9. Hafnium(IV) complexation with oxalate at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, Mitchell T.; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullmanm, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-08-01

    Appropriate management of fission products in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is crucial in developing advanced reprocessing schemes. The addition of aqueous phase complexing agents can prevent the co-extraction of these fission products. A solvent extraction technique was used to study the complexation of Hf(IV) - an analog to fission product Zr(IV) - with oxalate at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4} utilizing a {sup 175+181}Hf radiotracer. The mechanism of the solvent extraction system of 10{sup -5} M Hf(IV) in 1 M HClO{sub 4} to thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) in toluene demonstrated a 4{sup th}-power dependence in both TTA and H{sup +}, with Hf(TTA){sub 4} the only extractable species. The equilibrium constant for the extraction of Hf(TTA){sub 4} was determined to be log K{sub ex}=7.67±0.07 (25±1 C, 1 M HClO{sub 4}). The addition of oxalate to the aqueous phase decreased the distribution ratio, indicating aqueous Hf(IV)-oxalate complex formation. Polynomial fits to the distribution data identified the formation of Hf(ox){sup 2+} and Hf(ox){sub 2(aq)} and their stability constants were measured at 15, 25, and 35 C in 1 M HClO{sub 4}. van't Hoff analysis was used to calculate Δ{sub r}G, Δ{sub r}H, and Δ{sub r}S for these species. Stability constants were observed to increase at higher temperature, an indication that Hf(IV)-oxalate complexation is endothermic and driven by entropy.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on the structure of incorporated oxalate species and photoluminescent properties of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevsky, I.; Jagminas, A.; Hemeltjen, S.; Goedel, W. A.

    2008-09-01

    The present work focuses on the use of IR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectral measurements for studying the treatment temperature effect on the compositional and luminescent properties of oxalic acid alumina films. In line with the recent researches we have also found that heat treatment of porous alumina films formed in oxalic acid leads to considerable changes in their photoluminescence properties: upon annealing the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) increases reaching a maximum at the temperature of around 500 °C and then decreases. IR spectra of as-grown and heat-treated films have proved that PL emission in the anodic alumina films is related with the state of 'structural' oxalate species incorporated in the oxide lattice. These results allowed us to conclude that PL behavior of oxalic acid alumina films can be explained through the concept of variations in the bonding molecular orbitals of incorporated oxalate species including σ- and π-bonds.

  11. Primary Nonfunction of Renal Allograft Secondary to Acute Oxalate Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Parasuraman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nonfunction (PNF accounts for 0.6 to 8% of renal allograft failure, and the focus on causes of PNF has changed from rejection to other causes. Calcium oxalate (CaOx deposition is common in early allograft biopsies, and it contributes in moderate intensity to higher incidence of acute tubular necrosis and poor graft survival. A-49-year old male with ESRD secondary to polycystic kidney disease underwent extended criteria donor kidney transplantation. Posttransplant, patient developed delayed graft function (DGF, and the biopsy showed moderately intense CaOx deposition that persisted on subsequent biopsies for 16 weeks, eventually resulting in PNF. The serum oxalate level was 3 times more than normal at 85 μmol/L (normal <27 μmol/L. Allograft nephrectomy showed massive aggregates of CaOx crystal deposition in renal collecting system. In conclusion, acute oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of DGF since optimal management could change the outcome of the allograft.

  12. Liquid waste processing from plutonium (III) oxalate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, A.; Cassaniti, P.; Orosco, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plutonium (III) oxalate filtrates contain about 0.2M oxalic acid, 0.09M ascorbic acid, 0.05M hydrazine, 1M nitric acid and 20-100 mg/l of plutonium. The developed treatment of liquid wastes consist in two main steps: a) Distillation to reduce up to 10% of the initial volume and refluxing to destroy organic material. Then, the treated solution is suitable to adjust the plutonium at the tetravalent state by addition of hydrogen peroxide and the nitric molarity up to 8.6M. b) Recovery and purification of plutonium by anion exchange using two columns in series containing Dowex 1-X4 resin. With the proposed process, it is possible to transform 38 litres of filtrates with 40mg/l of Pu into 0.1 l of purified solution with 15-20g/l of Pu. This solution is suitable to be recycled in the Pu (III) oxalate precipitation process. This process has several potential advantages over similar liquid waste treatments. These include: 1) It does not increase the liquid volume. 2) It consumes only few reagents. 3) The operations involved are simple, requiring limited handling and they are feasible to automatization. 4) The Pu recovery factor is about 99%. (Author) [es

  13. Six-flow operations for catalyst development in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Bridging the gap between high-throughput experimentation and extensive product evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartipi, S.; Jansma, H.; Bosma, D.; Boshuizen, B.; Makkee, M.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.

    2013-01-01

    Design and operation of a “six-flow fixed-bed microreactor” setup for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is described. The unit consists of feed and mixing, flow division, reaction, separation, and analysis sections. The reactor system is made of five heating blocks with individual temperature controllers, assuring an identical isothermal zone of at least 10 cm along six fixed-bed microreactor inserts (4?mm inner diameter). Such a lab-scale setup allows running six experiments in parallel, under...

  14. A bipyridine-ligated zinc(II) complex with bridging flavonolate ligation: synthesis, characterization, and visible-light-induced CO release reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shayne; Popova, Marina; Arif, Atta M; Berreau, Lisa M

    2017-09-01

    Metal-flavonolate compounds are of significant current interest as synthetic models for quercetinase enzymes and as bioactive compounds of importance to human health. Zinc-3-hydroxyflavonolate compounds, including those of quercetin, kampferol, and morin, generally exhibit bidentate coordination to a single Zn II center. The bipyridine-ligated zinc-flavonolate compound reported herein, namely bis(μ-4-oxo-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-3-olato)-κ 3 O 3 :O 3 ,O 4 ;κ 3 O 3 ,O 4 :O 3 -bis[(2,2'-bipyridine-κ 2 N,N')zinc(II)] bis(perchlorate), {[Zn 2 (C 15 H 9 O 3 ) 2 (C 10 H 8 N 2 ) 2 ](ClO 4 ) 2 } n , (1), provides an unusual example of bridging 3-hydroxyflavonolate ligation in a dinuclear metal complex. The symmetry-related Zn II centers of (1) exhibit a distorted octahedral geometry, with weak coordination of a perchlorate anion trans to the bridging deprotonated O atom of the flavonolate ligand. Variable-concentration conductivity measurements provide evidence that, when (1) is dissolved in CH 3 CN, the complex dissociates into monomers. 1 H NMR resonances for (1) dissolved in d 6 -DMSO were assigned via HMQC to the H atoms of the flavonolate and bipyridine ligands. In CH 3 CN, (1) undergoes quantitative visible-light-induced CO release with a quantum yield [0.004 (1)] similar to that exhibited by other mononuclear zinc-3-hydroxyflavonolate complexes. Mass spectroscopic identification of the [(bpy) 2 Zn(O-benzoylsalicylate)] + ion provides evidence of CO release from the flavonol and of ligand exchange at the Zn II center.

  15. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  16. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  17. Removal of plutonium from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions using anion exchange method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasar, U.M.; Pawar, S.M.; Joshi, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    An anion exchange method using Amberlyst A-26 (MP) resin was developed for removal of Pu from nitric acid-oxalic acid solutions without destroying oxalate. The method consists of sorption of Pu(IV) on Amberlyst A-26, a macroporous anion exchange resin, from nitric acid-oxalic acid medium in the presence of Al(NO 3 ) 3 . Pu(IV) breakthrough capacity of Amberlyst A-26 using synthetic feed solution was determined. (author)

  18. Availability of calcium from chemically pure potassium oxalate to the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sudarshan; Sareen, V.K.; Marwah, S.R.; Sharma, K.C.; Bhatia, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the true dige'stibility of calcium in the buffalo calves fed chemically pure potassium oxalate. In each experiments 6 calves were divided into two groups, viz. control and oxalate-fed. The control group was given basal ration consisting of wheat straw, mustard-cake and maize grains. The oxalate-fed group was fed the basal ration supplemented with 60, 100 and 140 g potassium oxalate per day in experiments 1,2, and 3 respectively. The percent true digestibility of calcium was 51.7 and 52.5 in experiment 1, 60.5 and 44.1 in experiment 2, and 59.3 and 44.1 in experiment 3 in the control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. In all the experiments the oxalate was completely broken down in the rumen. The volume of water intake and urine excretion was more in the oxalate-fed groups. The daily alkali output in the urine in terms of N-acid was 0.7 and 1.3 in experiment 1, 1.5 and 2.5 in experiment 2, and 2.1 and 3.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. The daily bicarbonate concentration in the urine (in g) was 26.5 and 53.4 in experiment 1, 83.2 and 146.2 in experiment 2, and 132.6 and 222.8 in experiment 3 in control and oxalate-fed groups respectively. Likewise the excretion of oxalate in the urine was more in oxalate-fed groups. On the basis of the results obtained, the reason for the somewhat low true digestibility of calcium in the calves consuming more than 60 g of potassium oxalate/day are discussed. Isotope-dilution technique using 45 CaCl 2 was employed in the study. (auth.)

  19. Studies on removal of plutonium from oxalic acid containing hydrochloric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadse, D R; Noronha, D M; Joshi, A R [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Solution containing hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid and considerable quantities of plutonium may be generated while recycling of scrap produced during the metallic fuel fabrication. Plutonium from such waste is normally recovered by anion exchange method after the destruction of oxalic acid using suitable oxidising agent. Solvent extraction and ion exchange methods are being explored in this laboratory for recovery of Pu from oxalic acid containing HCl solutions without prior destruction of oxalic acid. This paper describes the results on the determination of distribution ratios for extraction of Pu(IV) from hydrochloric acid using Aliquot-336 or HDEHP under varying experimental conditions. (author). 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Reaction of uranyl nitrate with carboxylic di-acids under hydrothermal conditions. Crystal structure of complexes with L(+)-tartaric and oxalic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, P.

    2007-01-01

    L(+)-tartaric acid reacts with uranyl nitrate in the presence of KOH, under mild hydrothermal conditions, to give the complex [UO 2 (C 4 H 4 O 6 )(H 2 O)] (1), the first uranyl tartrate to be crystallographically characterized. Each tartrate ligand bridges three uranyl ions, one of them in chelating fashion through proximal carboxylate and hydroxyl groups. The resulting assemblage is two-dimensional, with the uranyl pentagonal bipyramidal coordination polyhedra separated from one another. Prolonged heating of an uranyl tartrate solution resulted in oxidative cleavage of the acid and formation of the oxalate complex [(UO 2 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 2 (OH)Na(H 2 O) 2 ] (2). The bis-bidentate oxalate and bridging hydroxide groups ensure the formation of sheets with corner-sharing uranyl pentagonal bipyramidal coordination polyhedra, in which six-membered metallacycles encompass the sodium ions. These sheets are assembled into a three-dimensional framework through further oxo-bonding of the sodium ions. (authors)

  1. Synthesis and magnetism of μ-oxamido-bridged Cu2IILnIII - type heterotrinuclear complexes (Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.T.; Yan, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    Eight new Cu 2 II Ln III - type (Ln = Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er) heterotrinuclear complexes bridged by N,N'-bis (2-aminopropyl)oxamidocopper(II) [Cu(oxdn)], namely Cu 2 (oxdn)Ln(NO 3 ) 3 , have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements and spectroscopic (IR, UV, ESR) studies. Magnetic susceptibility measurements (4.2 ∼300 K) and studies of Cu 2 (oxdn)Gd(NO 3 ) 3 complex have revealed that the central gadolinium(III) and terminal copper(II) ions are ferromagnetically coupled with the exchange integral J (Cu-Gd) = +2.98 cm -1 , while an antiferromagnetic coupling is detected between the terminal copper(II) metal ions with the exchange integral J' (Cu-Gd) = -0.75 cm -1 , on the basis of the spin Hamiltonian operator [H -2J(S Cu1 -S Gd +S Cu2 +S Gd )-2J'(S Cu1 S Cu2 )]. (author)

  2. Synthesis of rare-earth metal amides bearing an imidazolidine-bridged bis(phenolato) ligand and their application in the polymerization of L-lactide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongjian; Xu, Xiaoping; Li, Wenyi; Yao, Yingming; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Qi; Luo, Yunjie

    2009-07-06

    A series of neutral rare-earth metal amides supported by an imidazolidine-bridged bis(phenolato) ligand were synthesized, and their catalytic activity for the polymerization of l-lactide was explored. The amine elimination reactions of Ln[N(TMS)(2)](3)(mu-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with H(2)[ONNO] {H(2)[ONNO] = 1,4-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butyl-benzyl)-imidazolidine} in a 1:1 molar ratio in tetrahydrofuran (THF) gave the neutral rare-earth metal amides [ONNO]Ln[N(TMS)(2)](THF) [Ln = La (1), Pr (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Yb (5), and Y (6)] in high isolated yields. All of these complexes are fully characterized. X-ray structural determination revealed that complexes 1-6 are isostructural and have a solvated monomeric structure. The coordination geometry around each of the rare-earth metal atoms can be best described as a distorted trigonal bipyramid. It was found that complexes 1-6 are efficient initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide, and the ionic radii of the central metals have a significant effect on the catalytic activity. A further study revealed that these rare-earth metal amides can initiate l-lactide polymerization in a controlled manner in the presence of 1 equiv of isopropyl alcohol.

  3. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of lanthanide coordination polymers assembled from imidazophenanthroline derivative and oxalate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Huai-Ming; An, Ran; Yang, Meng-Lin; Xue, Ganglin

    2017-01-01

    Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, [Ln(Hsfpip)(ox) 0.5 (H 2 O)] n ·2n(H 2 O) ((Ln=Eu (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Yb (6), Y(7)), [Ln(H 2 sfpip)(ox)(H 2 O) 4 ] n ·2n(H 2 O) (Ln=Nd (8) Sm (9)), [H 2 ox=oxalic acid, H 3 sfpip=2-(2,4-disulfophenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)(1,10)-phenanthroline] have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. When sodium oxalate is added, the reactions of lanthanide ions with H 3 sfpip resulted in two types of structures. Compounds 1–7 are obtained at pH 5.0 and exhibit 3D tfz-d networks with ox 2− anions as linkers to bridge the adjacent layers. Compounds 8–9 are obtained at pH 2.0, and display a 1D chain which is further extended to a 3D supramolecular framework through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. The structural variation from compounds 1–7 to 8–9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescence properties of 1–9 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compounds 1–7 exhibit a 3D tfz-d network. Compounds 8–9 display a 1D chain structure. The structural variation from compounds 1–7 to 8–9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. - Highlights: • Nine lanthanide coordination polymers were prepared under hydrothermal conditions. • Their crystal structures have been determined. • The luminescence and thermal stabilities were studied in the solid state.

  4. Syntheses, structures and luminescent properties of lanthanide coordination polymers assembled from imidazophenanthroline derivative and oxalate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hui; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Huai-Ming, E-mail: ChemHu1@NWU.EDU.CN; An, Ran; Yang, Meng-Lin; Xue, Ganglin

    2017-01-15

    Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, [Ln(Hsfpip)(ox){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}·2n(H{sub 2}O) ((Ln=Eu (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Yb (6), Y(7)), [Ln(H{sub 2}sfpip)(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sub n}·2n(H{sub 2}O) (Ln=Nd (8) Sm (9)), [H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, H{sub 3}sfpip=2-(2,4-disulfophenyl)imidazo(4,5-f)(1,10)-phenanthroline] have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. When sodium oxalate is added, the reactions of lanthanide ions with H{sub 3}sfpip resulted in two types of structures. Compounds 1–7 are obtained at pH 5.0 and exhibit 3D tfz-d networks with ox{sup 2−} anions as linkers to bridge the adjacent layers. Compounds 8–9 are obtained at pH 2.0, and display a 1D chain which is further extended to a 3D supramolecular framework through intermolecular hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. The structural variation from compounds 1–7 to 8–9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. Moreover, the thermal stabilities and luminescence properties of 1–9 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Nine new lanthanide coordination polymers have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compounds 1–7 exhibit a 3D tfz-d network. Compounds 8–9 display a 1D chain structure. The structural variation from compounds 1–7 to 8–9 can attribute to the pH effect on construction of lanthanide coordination polymers. - Highlights: • Nine lanthanide coordination polymers were prepared under hydrothermal conditions. • Their crystal structures have been determined. • The luminescence and thermal stabilities were studied in the solid state.

  5. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  6. BaTiO3 thick fi lms obtained by tape casting from powders prepared by the oxalate route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Ianculescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BaTiO3 powders were prepared by co-precipitation via oxalate route. The size, morphology and particle size distribution of the oxalate powders have been optimized by the control of different synthesis parameters during the precipitation reaction (nature of salts, concentration of different solutions, aging time. The single phase BaTiO3 oxide particles were obtained after a thermal decomposition of the as-synthesized powders at 850°C for 4 hours under air atmosphere. Oxide powders with a suitable specifi c surface area were selected in order to obtain thick fi lms by the tape casting technique. The microstructure and dielectric properties of the thick films varied obviously depending on the deposition-calcination-sintering cycle used. A double depositioncalcination cycle followed by sintering, as well as a two step deposition-calcination-sintering procedure was used in order to improve the compactness and therefore, the dielectric behaviour. A higher dielectric constant value (~ 750 and lower dielectric losses (~ 2 % were achieved at room temperature and at 1 kHz frequency for the dense, double-deposited fi lm obtained after two deposition-calcination-sintering cycles. For this film, a superior value of the dielectric constant (~ 1100, almost frequency independent in the frequency range of 100 Hz – 10 kHz was gained also at the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperature of 130°C.

  7. Preventive treatment of calcium oxalate crystal deposition with immortal flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Onaran, Metin; Şen, İlker; Işık Gönül, İpek; Aslan, Mustafa

    2015-04-02

    A number of medicinal plants are used for their diuretic, urolithiatic and anti-inflammatory effects on urinary system problems in Turkey and the most common traditional remedy for kidney stones is the tea of immortal flowers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the preventive effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M.Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and Helichrysum stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on formation of kidney stones. Sodium oxalate (Ox-70mg/kg intraperitoneally) was used to induce kidney stones on Wistar albino rats. At the same time, two different doses of the plant extracts (HG: 62.5 and 125mg/kg; HS: 78 and 156mg/kg) were dissolved in the drinking water and administered to animals for 5 days. Potassium citrate was used as positive control in the experiments. During the experiment, water intake, urine volume and body weights of the animals were recorded. At the end of the experiments, liver, kidney and body weights of the animals were determined; biochemical analysis were conducted on urine, blood and plasma samples. Histopathological changes in kidney tissues were examined and statistical analysis were evaluated. HS extract showed the highest preventive effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 1.16), whereas a number of kidney stones were maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.66). Helichrysum extracts decreased urine oxalate and uric acid levels and increased citrate levels significantly. In addition, Helichrysum extracts regulated the negative changes in biochemical and hematological parameters occurred after Ox injection. We conclude that Helichrysum extracts could reduce the formation and growth of kidney stones in Ox-induced urolithiasis and can be beneficial for patients with recurrent stones. In addition, this is the first study on the preventive effect of immortal flowers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma biochemistry and urinalysis variables of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with and without oxalate nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K Natasha; Haynes, Julie I; Boardman, Wayne; Breed, William G; Taggart, David A; Rich, Brian; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-06-01

    Oxalate nephrosis is a highly prevalent disease in the Mount Lofty Ranges koala population in South Australia, but associated clinicopathologic findings remain undescribed. The aims of this study were to determine plasma biochemical and urinalysis variables, particularly for renal function and urinary crystal morphology and composition, in koalas with oxalate nephrosis. Blood and urine samples from Mount Lofty Ranges koalas with oxalate nephrosis were compared with those unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition from Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island, South Australia and Moggill, Queensland. Plasma and urine biochemistry variables were analyzed using a Cobas Bio analyzer, and urinary oxalate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary crystal composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Azotemia (urea > 6.6 mmol/L, creatinine > 150 μmol/L) was found in 93% of koalas with oxalate nephrosis (n = 15). All azotemic animals had renal insufficiency (urine specific gravity [USG] < 1.035), and in 83%, USG was < 1.030. Koalas with oxalate nephrosis were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Urinary crystals from koalas with oxalate nephrosis had atypical morphology and were composed of calcium oxalate. Mount Lofty Ranges koalas unaffected by renal oxalate crystal deposition had renal insufficiency (43%), although only 14% had USG < 1.030 (n = 7). Unaffected Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island koalas were hyperoxaluric compared with Queensland koalas (P < .01). Koalas with oxalate nephrosis from the Mount Lofty Ranges had renal insufficiency, hyperoxaluria, and pathognomonic urinary crystals. The findings of this study will aid veterinary diagnosis of this disease. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Phenoxo bridged dinuclear Zn(II) Schiff base complex as new precursor for preparation zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures and photoluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeednia, S., E-mail: sami_saeednia@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan 77188-97111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iranmanesh, P. [Department of physics, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan 77188-97111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ardakani, M. Hatefi; Mohammadi, M.; Norouzi, Gh. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan 77188-97111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A novel nano-scale Zn(II) complex was synthesized by solvothermal method. • Chemical structure of the nanostructures was characterized as well as bulk complex. • The photoluminescence property of the complex was investigated at room temperature. • The thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were carried out. • Thermal decomposition of the nanostructures was prepared zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of a novel Zn(II) Schiff base complex, [Zn(HL)NO{sub 3}]{sub 2} (1), (H{sub 2}L = 2-[(2-hydroxy-propylimino) methyl] phenol), was synthesized by using solvothermal method. Shape, morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectoscopy (FT-IR) and UV–vis spectroscopy. Structural determination of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results were revealed that the zinc complex is a centrosymmetric dimer in which deprotonated phenolates bridge the two five-coordinate metal atoms and link the two halves of the dimer. The thermal stability of compound 1 was analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of the initial substrates concentration and reaction time on size and morphology of compound 1 nanostructure was investigated as well. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of the complex 1 were examined. ZnO nanoparticles with diameter between 15 and 20 nm were simply synthesized by solid-state transformation of compound 1 at 700 °C.

  10. Functional disubstituted polyacetylenes: Synthesis, liquid crystallinity, light emission, and fluorescent photopatterning of biphenyl-containing poly(1-phenyl-octyne)s with different functional bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jacky W Y; Qin, Anjun; Dong, Yuping; Lai, Lo Ming; Häussler, Matthias; Dong, Yongqiang; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2006-11-02

    Biphenyl (Biph)-containing 1-phenyl-1-octynes and their polymers are synthesized, and the effects of functional bridge groups on the mesomorphic and optical properties of the polymers are studied. The nonmesomorphic disubstituted acetylene monomers (C6H13)C[triple bond]C(C6H4)O(CH2)12O-Biph-OC7H15 (1), (C6H13)C[triple bond]C(C6H4)O(CH2)11OOC-Biph-OC7H15 (2), and (C6H13)C[triple bond]C(C6H4)CO2(CH2)12OOC-Biph-OC7H15 (3) are prepared by multistep reaction routes and converted into their corresponding polymers P1-P3 by a WCl6-Ph4Sn catalyst. The structures and properties of the polymers are characterized and evaluated by NMR, TGA, DSC, POM, XRD, UV, and PL analyses. The mesogenic pendants have endowed the polymers with high thermal stability (> or =400 degrees C). While P1 exhibits no liquid crystallinity, P2 and P3 form enantiotropic S(A) phase with a monolayer structure. Upon photoexcitation, the polymers emit blue and blue-green lights of 460 and 480 nm, respectively, in THF with quantum efficiencies larger than 30%. UV irradiation of a thin film of P2 through a mask oxidizes and quenches the light emission of the exposed regions, generating a two-dimensional luminescent photoimage.

  11. Synthesis and Molecular Structure of a Novel Compound Containing a Carbonate-Bridged Hexacalcium Cluster Cation Assembled on a Trimeric Trititanium(IV)-Substituted Wells-Dawson Polyoxometalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Takahiro; Isobe, Rina; Kaneko, Takuya; Matsuki, Yusuke; Nomiya, Kenji

    2017-08-21

    A novel compound containing a hexacalcium cluster cation, one carbonate anion, and one calcium cation assembled on a trimeric trititanium(IV)-substituted Wells-Dawson polyoxometalate (POM), [{Ca 6 (CO 3 )(μ 3 -OH)(OH 2 ) 18 }(P 2 W 15 Ti 3 O 61 ) 3 Ca(OH 2 ) 3 ] 19- (Ca 7 Ti 9 Trimer), was obtained as the Na 7 Ca 6 salt (NaCa-Ca 7 Ti 9 Trimer) by the reaction of calcium chloride with the monomeric trititanium(IV)-substituted Wells-Dawson POM species "[P 2 W 15 Ti 3 O 59 (OH) 3 ] 9- " (Ti 3 Monomer). Ti 3 Monomer was generated in situ under basic conditions from the separately prepared tetrameric species with bridging Ti(OH 2 ) 3 groups and an encapsulated Cl - ion, [{P 2 W 15 Ti 3 O 59 (OH) 3 } 4 {μ 3 -Ti(H 2 O) 3 } 4 Cl] 21- (Ti 16 Tetramer). The Na 7 Ca 6 salt of Ca 7 Ti 9 Trimer was characterized by complete elemental analysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA), FTIR, single-crystal X-ray structure analysis, and solution 183 W and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. X-ray crystallography revealed that the [Ca 6 (CO 3 )(μ 3 -OH)(OH 2 ) 18 ] 9+ cluster cation was composed of six calcium cations linked by one μ 6 -carbonato anion and one μ 3 -OH - anion. The cluster cation was assembled, together with one calcium ion, on a trimeric species composed of three tri-Ti(IV)-substituted Wells-Dawson subunits linked by Ti-O-Ti bonds. Ca 7 Ti 9 Trimer is an unprecedented POM species containing an alkaline-earth-metal cluster cation and is the first example of alkaline-earth-metal ions clustered around a titanium(IV)-substituted POM.

  12. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  13. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green ( Actinidia deliciosa L . ) and golden ( Actinidia chinensis L . ) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  14. an oxalate-peroxide complex used in the preparation of doped barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gijp, S.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of homogeneously doped barium titanate, which can be applied in non-linear dielectric elements. Ba and Ti salts are dissolved, mixed with hydrogen peroxide and added to a solution of ammonium oxalate, resulting in the formation of an insoluble peroxo-oxalate

  15. Characterization of oxalate-based 237NpO2 powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, D.T.; Burney, G.A.; Smith, P.K.; Sisson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    238 Pu, a radioisotope heat source, is produced by irradiating reactor targets containing 237 NpO 2 . The neptunium oxide is obtained by precipitating and calcining 237 Np(IV) oxalate. The effects of oxalate precipitation parameters on particle morphology and size distribution of 237 NpO 2 powder were established to provide process controls for fabricating reactor targets

  16. Optimization of the conditions for the precipitation of thorium oxalate. II. Minimization of the product losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, E.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The precipitation of thorium as a poorly soluble oxalate was investigated. An equation relating the concentrations of the metal and nitric acid in the initial solution and the amount of precipitant required to minimize the product losses was derived. A graphical solution of the equation is presented for the case where the precipitant is oxalic acid at a concentration of 0.78 M

  17. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  18. Influencing the solubility of oxalates for the preparation of ceramic powders from mixed precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, C.; Fischer, S.; Fischer, St.; Chebani, M.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    Based on investigations of the solubility of oxalate with 140 Ba, 64 Cu and 59 Fe, techniques for quantitative oxalate coprecipitation were developed. Addition of organic solvents lowers the solubility and leads to a smaller particle size of products. (orig.) [de

  19. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-07

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels.

  20. Aspects of calcium oxalate crystallization: theory, in vitro studies, and in vivo implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A

    1999-11-01

    There are three main approaches to urolithiasis research: theory, basic science, and clinical implementation. Although each approach has yielded meaningful results, there does not appear to be complete synergy between them. This article examines these approaches as they pertain to urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes. Theoretical calculations were performed to examine the role of oxalate concentration on calcium oxalate supersaturation. The effects of magnesium, citrate, and combinations thereof on calcium oxalate crystallization kinetics were examined in a mixed suspension, mixed product removal crystallizer. Finally, male volunteers were given supplements of calcium alone and binary combinations of calcium, magnesium, and citrate to investigate their effects on the urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate. Calculations showed that oxalate is 23 times more potent than calcium in its effect on the supersaturation of calcium oxalate. In the in vitro experiments, magnesium and citrate reduced the growth and nucleation kinetics as well as the supersaturation. In combination, these two components were more effective than the individual components in reducing the growth rate and the supersaturation. All of the supplements favorably altered the kinetic and thermodynamic risk factors. Calcium was the most effective in reducing the urinary excretion of oxalate. Articulation of these three approaches is essential for the meaningful investigation and understanding of urolithiasis.

  1. The effects of copper proximity on oxalate production in Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Jenkins; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green III

    2014-01-01

    Copper remains a key component used in wood preservatives available today. However, the observed tolerance of several critical wood rotting organisms continues to be problematic. Tolerance to copper has been linked to the production and accumulation of oxalate, which precipitates copper into insoluble copper-oxalate crystals, thus inactivating copper ions. The purpose...

  2. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Viscosities; oxalic acid and its salts; water + THF mixtures; structure-breakers. 1. Introduction ... has found its application in the organic syntheses as manifested from ... water. In other words, these results indicate that oxalic acid and its salts mix ...

  3. Determining the biochemical properties of the Oxalate Biosynthetic Component (Obc)1 from Burkholderia mallei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxalic acid is produced by a variety of organisms ranging from simple microbes to complex animals. This acid has been proposed to fulfill various physiological and pathological functions which vary between organisms. In bacteria from the Burkholderia genus, oxalate secretion has been shown to be quo...

  4. The oxalic acid biosynthetic activity of Burkholderia mallei is encoded by a single locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although it is known that oxalic acid provides a selective advantage to the secreting microbe, our understanding of how this acid is biosynthesized remains incomplete. This study reports the identification, cloning, and partial characterization of the oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme from the animal ...

  5. Oxalic acid biosynthesis is encoded by an operon in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the biosynthesis of oxalic acid is known to occur in a number of bacteria, the mechanism(s) regulating its production remains largely unknown. To date, there is no report on the identification of an oxalic acid biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria. In an attempt to identify such a gene...

  6. In vitro selection of rape variants resistant to oxalic acid using haploid stem apexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yifei; Huang Jianhua; Lu Ruiju; Sun Yuefang; Zhou Runmei; Zhou Zhijiang; Xie Zhujie; Liu Chenghong

    2002-01-01

    Mutagenic treatment was made of the haploid stem apexes rape strain '9841' and '9885' with Pingyangmycin. As a result of positive selection with oxalic acid providing selection pressure, variants with significantly higher tolerance to oxalic acid than the original ones were obtained. 3 germplasm with significantly higher resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than cultivar Hu You 12 were selected from field test

  7. Six-flow operations for catalyst development in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Bridging the gap between high-throughput experimentation and extensive product evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartipi, Sina, E-mail: S.Sartipi@tudelft.nl, E-mail: J.Gascon@tudelft.nl; Jansma, Harrie; Bosma, Duco; Boshuizen, Bart; Makkee, Michiel; Gascon, Jorge, E-mail: S.Sartipi@tudelft.nl, E-mail: J.Gascon@tudelft.nl; Kapteijn, Freek [Department of Chemical Engineering, Catalysis Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Design and operation of a “six-flow fixed-bed microreactor” setup for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is described. The unit consists of feed and mixing, flow division, reaction, separation, and analysis sections. The reactor system is made of five heating blocks with individual temperature controllers, assuring an identical isothermal zone of at least 10 cm along six fixed-bed microreactor inserts (4 mm inner diameter). Such a lab-scale setup allows running six experiments in parallel, under equal feed composition, reaction temperature, and conditions of separation and analysis equipment. It permits separate collection of wax and liquid samples (from each flow line), allowing operation with high productivities of C5+ hydrocarbons. The latter is crucial for a complete understanding of FTS product compositions and will represent an advantage over high-throughput setups with more than ten flows where such instrumental considerations lead to elevated equipment volume, cost, and operation complexity. The identical performance (of the six flows) under similar reaction conditions was assured by testing a same catalyst batch, loaded in all microreactors.

  8. Six-flow operations for catalyst development in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Bridging the gap between high-throughput experimentation and extensive product evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartipi, Sina; Jansma, Harrie; Bosma, Duco; Boshuizen, Bart; Makkee, Michiel; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek

    2013-01-01

    Design and operation of a “six-flow fixed-bed microreactor” setup for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is described. The unit consists of feed and mixing, flow division, reaction, separation, and analysis sections. The reactor system is made of five heating blocks with individual temperature controllers, assuring an identical isothermal zone of at least 10 cm along six fixed-bed microreactor inserts (4 mm inner diameter). Such a lab-scale setup allows running six experiments in parallel, under equal feed composition, reaction temperature, and conditions of separation and analysis equipment. It permits separate collection of wax and liquid samples (from each flow line), allowing operation with high productivities of C5+ hydrocarbons. The latter is crucial for a complete understanding of FTS product compositions and will represent an advantage over high-throughput setups with more than ten flows where such instrumental considerations lead to elevated equipment volume, cost, and operation complexity. The identical performance (of the six flows) under similar reaction conditions was assured by testing a same catalyst batch, loaded in all microreactors

  9. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  10. Bridge vehicle impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  11. Bridge Scour Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Scour and flooding are the leading causes of bridge failures in the United States and therefore should be monitored. New applications of tools and technologies are being developed, tested, and implemented to reduce bridge scour risk. The National Coo...

  12. LTBP bridge performance primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    "The performance of bridges is critical to the overall performance of the highway transportation system in the United States. However, many critical aspects of bridge performance are not well understood. The reasons for this include the extreme diver...

  13. Porous aluminum room temperature anodizing process in a fluorinated-oxalic acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhahri, S.; Fazio, E.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-08-01

    Anodizing of aluminum is used for producing porous insulating films suitable for different applications in electronics and microelectronics. Porous-type aluminum films are most simply realized by galvanostatic anodizing in aqueous acidic solutions. The improvement in application of anodizing technique is associated with a substantial reduction of the anodizing voltage at appropriate current densities as well as to the possibility to carry out the synthesis process at room temperature in order to obtain a self-planarizing dielectric material incorporated in array of super-narrow metal lines. In this work, the anodizing of aluminum to obtain porous oxide was carried out, at room temperature, on three different substrates (glass, stainless steel and aluminum), using an oxalic acid-based electrolyte with the addition of a relatively low amount of 0.4 % of HF. Different surface morphologies, from nearly spherical to larger porous nanostructures with smooth edges, were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy. These evidences are explained by considering the formation, transport and adsorption of the fluorine species which react with the Al3+ ions. The behavior is also influenced by the nature of the original substrate.

  14. Sinteractive thoria powders derived through gel-combustion and oxalate deagglomeration - a comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthasivan, K.; Balakrishnan, S.; Anthonysamy, S.; Ganesan, V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Thorium dioxide finds extensive application in the nuclear industry. Pellets of thoria are used in PHWRs for flux flattening and in FBRs as a blanket material. The development of advanced methods for the synthesis and sintering of thoria is relevant to these applications. This paper attempts to compare the properties of sinteractive nanocrystalline thoria (pure and doped with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) synthesized in our laboratory through two different techniques, viz. gel-combustion and oxalate de-agglomeration. In all the investigations cited above the precursors obtained by using both the procedures were calcined in air at 1073 K. The thoria powders thus obtained were characterised for their specific surface area (SSA), X-ray crystallite size (XCS), bulk density, particle size distribution and residual carbon content. These powders were pelletised and sintered at 1473, 1673, and 1873 K. The sinterability of these powders was compared by measuring the density of the sintered pellets. A matrix density as high as 96.8 % TD (gel combustion) or 98.6 % TD (de-agglomeration) could be obtained at 1873 K, with the powders doped with 0.5 mole % calcia. (author)

  15. Highly Water-Stable Lanthanide-Oxalate MOFs with Remarkable Proton Conductivity and Tunable Luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xie, Xiaoji; Li, Hongyu; Gao, Jiaxin; Nie, Li; Pan, Yue; Xie, Juan; Tian, Dan; Liu, Wenlong; Fan, Quli; Su, Haiquan; Huang, Ling; Huang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Although proton conductors derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly anticipated for various applications including solid-state electrolytes, H 2 sensors, and ammonia synthesis, they are facing serious challenges such as poor water stability, fastidious working conditions, and low proton conductivity. Herein, we report two lanthanide-oxalate MOFs that are highly water stable, with so far the highest room-temperature proton conductivity (3.42 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) under 100% relative humidity (RH) among lanthanide-based MOFs and, most importantly, luminescent. Moreover, the simultaneous response of both the proton conductivity and luminescence intensity to RH allows the linkage of proton conductivity with luminescence intensity. This way, the electric signal of proton conductivity variation versus RH will be readily translated to optical signal of luminescence intensity, which can be directly visualized by the naked eye. If proper lanthanide ions or even transition-metal ions are used, the working wavelengths of luminescence emissions can be further extended from visible to near infrared light for even wider-range applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Behaviour of Pu-IV with various ion exchangers in solutions containing nitric acid and oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.; Ali, S.A.

    1982-02-01

    The distribution of Pu-IV on the ion exchangers Dowex 50W-X8, Dowex 1-X8 und Dowex Chelating Resin Al-X8 in the presence of various concentrations of nitric acid and oxalate were investigated. The results indicate that nitric acid and oxalic acid influence each other during complexation of Pu-IV with oxalate ions solutions containing nitric acid it is not possible to neglect the formation of Pu-IV nitrate complexes. The complex Pu(IV) (C 2 O 4 ) 3 2 - only is formed in solutions containing low nitric acid and high oxalic acid concentrations. The separation of Pu-IV in Dowex Chelating Resin from nitric acid solution in the presence of higher oxalate concentrations is possible, provided that the nitric acid concentration is lower than 0.25 molar [fr

  17. Facile fabrication of cobalt oxalate nanostructures with superior specific capacitance and super-long cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhua; Si, Conghui; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wanfeng; Dong, Chaoqun; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Transition metal oxalate materials have shown huge competitive advantages for applications in supercapacitors. Herein, nanostructured cobalt oxalate supported on cobalt foils has been facilely fabricated by anodization, and could directly serve as additive/binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. The as-prepared cobalt oxalate electrodes present superior specific capacitance of 1269 F g-1 at the current density of 6 A g-1 in the galvanostatic charge/discharge test. Moreover, the retained capacitance is as high as 87.2% as the current density increases from 6 A g-1 to 30 A g-1. More importantly, the specific capacitance of cobalt oxalate retains 91.9% even after super-long cycling of 100,000 cycles. In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor assembled with cobalt oxalate (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) demonstrates excellent capacitive performance with high energy density and power density.

  18. Effect of oxalic acid on the optical, thermal, dielectric and mechanical behaviour of ADP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the addition, over a concentration range from 1 to 5 mol%, of oxalic acid on the growth rate, optical transparency, hardness, dielectric behaviour, and SHG efficiency of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals grown by slow evaporation method has been investigated. UV-Vis studies show that the transparency of the oxalic acid added crystals decreased gradually. Thermal studies indicate that the decomposition temperatures of the crystal are decreased in oxalic acid added ADP crystals. It is observed from the dielectric measurements that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increase with increase in temperature for all the crystals. Vicker's microhardness study reveals that the addition of higher concentration of oxalic acid decreases the hardness of the crystal. SHG efficiency of 1 mol% of oxalic acid is higher than the pure ADP.

  19. Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nha K; Nguyen, Ha V H

    2017-09-01

    Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89-17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60-1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16-1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.

  20. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  1. Effect of processing and cooking on total and soluble oxalate content in frozen root vegetables prepared for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LISIEWSKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxalate content of beetroot, carrot, celeriac and parsnip after freezing by traditional and modified methods (the latter resulting in a convenience food product, and after the preparation of frozen products for consumption was evaluated. The highest content of total and soluble oxalates (105 and 82 mg 100 g-1 fresh matter was found in beetroot. The lowest proportion (55% of soluble oxalates was noted in celeriac; this proportion was higher in the remaining vegetables, being broadly similar for each of them. Blanching brought about a significant decrease in total and soluble oxalates in fresh vegetables. Cooking resulted in a higher loss of oxalates. The level of oxalates in products prepared for consumption directly after freezing approximated that before freezing. Compared with the content before freezing, vegetables prepared for consumption by cooking after frozen storage contained less oxalates, except for total oxalates in parsnip and soluble oxalates in beetroot and celeriac. The highest ratio of oxalates to calcium was found in raw beetroot; it was two times lower in raw carrot; five times lower in raw celeriac; and eight times lower in raw parsnip. These ratios were lower after technological and culinary processing. The percentage of oxalate bound calcium depended on the species; this parameter was not significantly affected by the procedures applied. The true retention of oxalates according to Judprasong et al. (2006 was lower than retention calculated taking its content in 100 g fresh matter into account.;

  2. Enzymatic mechanism of oxalate production in the TCA and glyoxylate pathways using various isolates of Antrodia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.M. Jenkins; S.V. Diehl; C.A. Clausen; F. Green

    2011-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi produce oxalate in large amounts; however, levels of accumulation and function vary by species. Copper-tolerant fungi, like Antrodia radiculosa, produce and accumulate high levels of oxalate in response to copper. Oxalate biosynthesis in copper-tolerant fungi has been linked to the glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Within these two cycles...

  3. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  4. Physical simulation of precipitation of radioactive element oxalates by using the harmless neodymium oxalate for studying the agglomeration phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalleman, Sophie; Bertrand, Murielle; Plasari, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic precipitation is usually applied in nuclear industry to process radioactive wastes or to recover actinides from a multicomponent solution.This paper deals with the development of methods adapted to a nuclear environment in order to study the agglomeration phenomena during actinide oxalic precipitation.These methods are previously set up with harmless elements that simulate the actinide behaviour: the lanthanides. A parametric study is carried out to quantify the influence of operating parameters on the agglomeration kernel and to determine a kinetic law for this mechanism. The experimental study is performed in a continuous-MSMPR precipitator at steady-state. The method is based on the resolution of two population balances using the moment approach, one for elementary crystals and the other for agglomerates. Provided that the kinetic rates of nucleation and growth are known, the agglomeration kernel can be obtained from a mathematical treatment of the experimental particle size distributions. Results point out that experimental crystal sizes are consistent with an independent kernel. It appears that the agglomeration kernel is directly proportional to supersaturation, increases with temperature but is limited by ionic strength and shear rate. (authors)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a microporous 6FDA-polyimide made from a novel carbocyclic pseudo Tröger's base diamine: Effect of bicyclic bridge on gas transport properties

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulhamid, Mahmoud A.

    2017-10-12

    A newly designed carbocyclic pseudo Tröger\\'s base diamine (CTB) monomer, 2,8-dimethyl-3,9-diamino-5,6,11,12-tetrahydro-5,11-methanodibenzo[a,e][8]annulene (CTBDA) and its isomeric analogue 2,8-dimethyl-(1,7)(4,10)(3,9)-diamino-5,6,11,12-tetrahydro-5,11-methanodibenzo[a,e][8]annulene (iCTBDA), were designed for the synthesis of microporous 6FDA-based polyimides (6FDA-CTBDA and 6FDA-iCTBDA). Both polyimides were soluble, exhibited excellent thermal stability of ∼490 °C, and had high surface areas of 587 m2 g−1 (6FDA-CTBDA) and 562 m2 g−1 (6FDA-iCTBDA). A 6FDA-based polyimide derived from 4,10-dimethyl-3,9-diamino-6H,12H-5,11-methanodibenzo[b,f][1,5]-diazocine (6FDA-TBDA) was made for comparison to investigate the effects of the basic tertiary nitrogen functionality in the Tröger\\'s base diamine on the polymer properties relative to the carbocyclic 6FDA-CTBDA analogue. 6FDA-TBDA displayed lower gas permeabilities but moderately higher gas-pair permselectivities than 6FDA-CTBDA. The enhanced permselectivity of 6FDA-TBDA resulted exclusively from higher diffusion-based selectivity. Direct gas sorption measurements demonstrated that the basicity in the Tröger\\'s base bridge moiety enhanced the sorption capacity of CO2 only slightly and had no effect on the CO2/CH4 solubility selectivity in 6FDA-TBDA vs. 6FDA-CTBDA.

  6. Turning sunlight into stone: the oxalate-carbonate pathway in a tropical tree ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cailleau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An African oxalogenic tree, the iroko tree (Milicia excelsa, has the property to enhance carbonate precipitation in tropical oxisols, where such accumulations are not expected due to the acidic conditions in these types of soils. This uncommon process is linked to the oxalate-carbonate pathway, which increases soil pH through oxalate oxidation. In order to investigate the oxalate-carbonate pathway in the iroko system, fluxes of matter have been identified, described, and evaluated from field to microscopic scales. In the first centimeters of the soil profile, decaying of the organic matter allows the release of whewellite crystals, mainly due to the action of termites and saprophytic fungi. In addition, a concomitant flux of carbonate formed in wood tissues contributes to the carbonate flux and is identified as a direct consequence of wood feeding by termites. Nevertheless, calcite biomineralization of the tree is not a consequence of in situ oxalate consumption, but rather related to the oxalate oxidation inside the upper part of the soil. The consequence of this oxidation is the presence of carbonate ions in the soil solution pumped through the roots, leading to preferential mineralization of the roots and the trunk base. An ideal scenario for the iroko biomineralization and soil carbonate accumulation starts with oxalatization: as the iroko tree grows, the organic matter flux to the soil constitutes the litter, and an oxalate pool is formed on the forest ground. Then, wood rotting agents (mainly termites, saprophytic fungi, and bacteria release significant amounts of oxalate crystals from decaying plant tissues. In addition, some of these agents are themselves producers of oxalate (e.g. fungi. Both processes contribute to a soil pool of "available" oxalate crystals. Oxalate consumption by oxalotrophic bacteria can then start. Carbonate and calcium ions present in the soil solution represent the end products of the oxalate

  7. Automatic Bridge Control System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Niraimathi; S.Sivakumar; R.Vigneshwaran; R.Vinothkumar; P.Babu

    2012-01-01

    Bridge vibration control is an important issue whose purpose is to extend the structural service life of bridges. Normally, the bridge is modeled as an elastic beam or plate subject to a moving vehicle. However, the moving truck on a bridge is a complicated problem that must still be researched. In this paper, wepropose a new method, to overcome the huge load in the bridge a load cell is used at the entry which will monitor the load continuously at both ends. To escape from the heavy water fl...

  8. Study on the Key Technology of High Purity Strontium Titanate Powder Synthesized from Oxalic Acid Co-sediment Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoguo; Dong, Yingnan; Li, Yingjie; Niu, Wei; Tang, Jian; Ding, Shuang; Li, Meiyang

    2017-09-01

    Oxalate coprecipitation is applied in this paper, high purity titanium tetrachloride, and after the purification of strontium chloride, match with a certain concentration of solution, oxalate and strontium chloride and titanium tetrachloride in 1.005:1.000 make strontium titanium mixture ratio, slowly under 60°C to join in oxalic acid solution, aging around 4 h, get oxygen titanium strontium oxalate (SrTiO(C2O4)2 • 4H2 ) precipitation, after washing, drying and other process made oxygen titanium strontium oxalate powder.

  9. (Di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanaminium hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid (2/1)

    OpenAIRE

    Bialek, Sebastian; Clemens, Rebecca; Reiss, Guido J.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of (di­methyl­phosphor­yl)methanamine (dpma) with oxalic acid in ethanol yielded the title solvated salt, C3H11NOP+·C2HO4 −·0.5C2H2O4. Its asymmetric unit consists of one dpmaH+ cation, one hydrogen oxalate anion and a half-mol­ecule of oxalic acid located around a twofold rotation axis. The H atom of the hydrogen oxalate anion is statistically disordered over two positions that are trans to each other. The hydrogen oxalate monoanion is not planar (bend angle ∼16°) whereas the ox...

  10. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C. Jr.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-01-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny

  11. Optimization of air-sparged plutonium oxalate/hydroxide precipitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderHeyden, W.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Fife, K.W.

    1997-04-01

    The high cost of waste management and experimental work makes numerical modeling an inexpensive and attractive tool for optimizing and understanding complex chemical processes. Multiphase open-quotes bubbleclose quotes columns are used extensively at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility for a variety of different applications. No moving parts and efficient mixing characteristics allow them to be used in glovebox operations. Initially, a bubble column for oxalate precipitations is being modeled to identify the effect of various design parameters such as, draft tube location, air sparge rate and vessel geometry. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric models have been completed and successfully compared to literature data. Also, a preliminary three-dimensional model has been completed. These results are discussed in this report along with future work

  12. Manganese oxalate nanorods as ballistic modifier for composite solid propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Supriya [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India); Chawla, Mohit [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Siril, Prem Felix, E-mail: prem@iitmandi.ac.in [School of Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi 175005, H.P. (India); Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P. (India)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • Manganese oxalate nanorods were prepared using mild thermal precipitation and aging. • The nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for solid propellants. • The nanorods sensitized the thermolysis of ammonium perchlorate. • Controlled thermal decomposition of nanorods yielded manganese oxide nanoparticles. • MnO nanoparticles formed insitu in the condensed phase enhance the burning rates. - Abstract: Rod-shaped nanostructures of manganese oxalate (MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were synthesized via mild thermal precipitation and aging process. Chemical composition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was confirmed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies revealed the crystal structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were employed to study the structural features of the nanorods. The MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods were found to be efficient ballistic modifier for the burning rate enhancement of composite solid propellants (CSPs). Thermal analysis using TGA-DSC showed that MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods sensitized the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the CSPs. Controlled thermal decomposition of the MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods resulted in the formation of managanese oxide nanoparticles with mesoporosity. A plausible mechanism for the burning rate enhancement using MnC{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods was proposed.

  13. Decontamination effectiveness of mixtures of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranzini, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study of the decontamination effectiveness of citric acid, oxalic acid and EDTA mixtures was conducted to assess whether oxalic acid could be removed from decontamination solutions to minimize corrosion. In loop experiments, radioactive specimens from two boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor were suspended in solutions of single acids or in mixtures of reagents at total reagent concentrations of less than 0.1 wt% under conditions similar to those used to decontaminate reactor systems. Rate constants for dissolution of oxides and decontamination factors were measured. Based on the results, it was concluded that under certain conditions, oxalic acid was the most effective reagent for the dissolution of oxides. It was also found, however, that conditions under which effective dissolution occurred in solutions of oxalic acid and/or citric acid were difficult to define and control. EDTA was found to be an effective reagent for dissolution of oxides such that rates of dissolution in EDTA containing solutions at 117 degrees Celsius were comparable to rates in oxalic acid containing solutions. At 90 degrees Celsius, EDTA acted synergistically with oxalic acid such that the rate of dissolution of oxides in citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions was higher than in citric-acid/EDTA solutions. The rates of dissolution of oxides were significantly reduced when 60 mg/kg of ferric ion was added to the citric-acid/oxalic-acid, citric-acid/EDTA and citric-acid/oxalic-acid/EDTA solutions. It was concluded that effective decontaminations of BWR and PWR systems could be achieved with mixtures of citric acid and EDTA

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  15. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  16. Influence of oxalic acid on the dissolution kinetics of manganese oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, E. B.; Artamonova, I. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics and electrochemical processes of the dissolution of manganese oxides with various oxidation states in sulfuric acid solutions containing oxalate ion additives is studied under variable conditions (concentration, pH, temperature). The parameters favoring a higher degree of the dissolution of manganese oxides in acidic media are determined. The optimal conditions are found for the dissolution of manganese oxides in acidic media in the presence of oxalate ions. The mechanism proposed for the dissolution of manganese oxides in sulfuric acid solutions containing oxalic acid is based on the results of kinetic and electrochemical studies. The steps of the dissolution mechanism are discussed.

  17. Complexation of Am(III) by oxalate in NaClO4 media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Chen, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The complexation of Am(III) by oxalate has been investigated in solutions of NaClO 4 up to 9.0 M ionic strength at 25 degrees C. The dissociation constants of oxalic acid were determined by potentiometric titration, while the stability constants of the Am(III)-oxalate complexation were measured by the solvent extraction technique. A thermodynamic model was constructed to predict the apparent equilibrium constants at different ionic strengths by applying the Pitzer equation using parameters for the Na + -HOx - , Na + -Ox - , AmOx + -ClO 4 - , and Na + -Am(Ox) 2 - interactions obtained by fitting the data

  18. Preparation of nuclear purity beryllium oxalate tri-hydrate; Preparation d'oxalate de beryllium trihydrate de purete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, M; Lecocq, A; Rigaud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this report we have gathered the whole of the knowledge acquired by our group during the campaign for preparation of beryllium oxalate we carried out through the first half year of 1962. The reader shall find in the first place information and bibliographic data gathered by Miss OLLIVIER, documentalist of the Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. We then describe the original process perfected in the laboratories, and the production techniques we employed for the semi-large operative units. Finally, we publish the results we obtained on one hand on the chemical aspect, in the industrial meaning of the term, which is to-day concerning the ponderal output, on the other hand on the analytical aspect as you can evidently not dissociate the quantity of substance produced from its purity. (authors) [French] Nous avons reuni dans ce document l'ensemble des connaissances acquises par notre groupe pendant la campagne de preparation d'oxalate de beryllium que nous avons effectuee au cours du 1er semestre 1962. Le lecteur y trouvera en premier lieu les renseignements et donnees bibliographiques rassembles par Mlle OLLIVIER, documentaliste a la Section d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques. Nous decrivons ensuite le procede original mis au point dans les laboratoires et les techniques de fabrication que nous avons utilisees pour des unites operatoires demi-grand. Pour terminer nous publions les resultats obtenus, d'une part sur le plan chimique, au sens industriel du terme, c'est-a-dire du point de vue rendement ponderal, d'autre part sur le plan analytique puisqu'on ne peut evidemment pas dissocier la quantite de produit fabrique, de sa purete. (auteurs)

  19. Bridge over troubled water?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Nannestad, Peter; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2008-01-01

    The problem of integrating non-Western immigrants into Western welfare states is the focus of this paper. To address this issue, we suggest a social capital approach in which we apply the conceptual pair of bridging social capital (BR), which connects an individual to the broader social structure...... relationship between the levels of bridging and bonding capital, suggesting that bonding social capital in the immigrant group does not seem to impede the establishment of the bridging social capital needed for integration....

  20. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  1. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  2. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  3. Timber in Bridge Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Detkin, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this final year project was to study the properties of timber as a structural material and the suitability of wood in load bearing members for bridge structures. For a case study, an existing timber bridge was selected. Due to its condition the bridge should be replaced. The design of a new bridge with steel beams holding a glulam deck was made. During the case study the replacement of steel beams by glulam timber ones was discussed. Some calculations were made in order to ...

  4. Structure and dynamics of solvated hydrogenoxalate and oxalate anions: theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroutil, O.; Minofar, Babak; Kabeláč, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2016), s. 210 ISSN 1610-2940 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ab initio molecular dynamics * oxalic acid anions * Potential energy surface Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2016

  5. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  6. Circular patterns of calcium oxalate monohydrate induced by defective Langmuir-Blodgett film on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jieyu [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ouyang Jianming [Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-01-01

    The defective Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on quartz injured by potassium oxalate (K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was used as a model system to induce growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that circular defective domains with a diameter of 1-200 {mu}m existed in the LB film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed circular patterns of aggregated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystallites were induced by these defective domains. It was ascribed to that the interaction between the negatively-charged oxalate ions and the phosphatidyl groups in DPPC headgroups makes the phospholipid molecules rearranged and exist in an out-of-order state in the LB film, especially at the boundaries of liquid-condensed (LC)/liquid-expanded (LE) phases, which provide much more nucleating sites for COM crystals.

  7. Oxalate content of different drinkable dilutions of tea infusions after different brewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of different brewing times and diluting on oxalate content of loose-packed black teas consumed in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of black teas after brewing for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes was measured in triplicate by enzymatic assay. In order to attain the most acceptable dilution of tea infusions, tea samples which were brewed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes were diluted two (120 ml), three (80 ml) and four (60 ml) times respectively. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentrations associated with increased brewing times (Pbrewing times, respectively. There were significant differences between the mean oxalate content of different dilutions after brewing for 15, 30 and 60 minutes (Pbrewing times and different dilution was below the recommended levels. Therefore, it seems that consumption of black tea several times per day would not pose significant health risk in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

  8. Thermal, FT–IR and dielectric studies of gel grown sodium oxalate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Institute of Diploma Studies, Nirma University of Science and Technology, Ahmedabad 384 481, India. MS received 29 ... dielectric response at various frequencies of applied field. ... 1987). Many oxalates exist in nature, for example, copper.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of a layered-type W-Ti-O mixed metal oxide and its solid acid activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murayama, T.; Nakajima, K.; Hirata, J.; Omata, K.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Ueda, W.

    2017-01-01

    A layered-type W–Ti–O mixed oxide was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis from an aqueous solution of ammonium metatungstate and titanium sulfate. To avoid the formation of titania, oxalic acid was used as a reductant. Optimized synthesis led to rod-like particles comprised of MO6 (M = W, Ti)

  10. Bridge health monitoring metrics : updating the bridge deficiency algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    As part of its bridge management system, the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) must decide how best to spend its bridge replacement funds. In making these decisions, ALDOT managers currently use a deficiency algorithm to rank bridges that ...

  11. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  12. Nephroprotective effect of Corn Silk extract on oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis in rabbit model

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Hassan Al-Jawad; Rafi Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi; Zainab Awaen Al-Ebady; Thulfuqar Abdul Majeed Al-Razzuqi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background : Nephrocalcinosis is a state of deposition of calcium phosphate or oxalate in the renal parenchyma. It may occur in patients with renal tubular acidosis, vitamin D intoxication, and hyperparathyroidism. Corn silk was used in traditional Chinese medicine to relieve renal pains. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Corn silk aqueous extract in reducing calcium deposits from renal parenchyma in oxalic acid-induced nephrocalcinosis model. Materials and methods: Fourteen healthy...

  13. Utilisation of sugarcane trash and other cellulosic wastes for production of oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, J D; Modak, H M; Ramaiah, N A; Jadhav, S J

    1988-01-01

    The nitric acid oxidation process was developed for the production of oxalic acid from sugarcane trash, groundnut shells, corn cobs and rice husks. Good yields of oxalic acid from the above raw materials were obtained under optimum conditions, with sugarcane trash as the preferable raw material. The absorption of waste nitrogen oxide gases in aqueous NaOH to get a valuable by-product, sodium nitrite, was also successful.

  14. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate supernatant using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) from oxalate supernatant was carried out employing varying concentrations of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP). Near quantitative extraction of Pu(IV) from an aqueous solution of 0.2M oxalic acid and 3M HNO 3 was possible employing 0.05M PMBP solution in xylene. Extraction studies at different uranium loading conditions were carried out and conditions for quantitative stripping were arrived at. (author). 2 refs., 4 tabs

  15. In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: a 3-D modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Myriokefalitakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and droplets. Its lifecycle and atmospheric global distribution remain highly uncertain and are the focus of this study. The first global spatial and temporal distribution of oxalate, simulated using a state-of-the-art aqueous-phase chemical scheme embedded within the global 3-dimensional chemistry/transport model TM4-ECPL, is here presented. The model accounts for comprehensive gas-phase chemistry and its coupling with major aerosol constituents (including secondary organic aerosol. Model results are consistent with ambient observations of oxalate at rural and remote locations (slope = 1.16 ± 0.14, r2 = 0.36, N = 114 and suggest that aqueous-phase chemistry contributes significantly to the global atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol. In TM4-ECPL most oxalate is formed in-cloud and less than 5 % is produced in aerosol water. About 62 % of the oxalate is removed via wet deposition, 30 % by in-cloud reaction with hydroxyl radical, 4 % by in-cloud reaction with nitrate radical and 4 % by dry deposition. The in-cloud global oxalate net chemical production is calculated to be about 21–37 Tg yr−1 with almost 79 % originating from biogenic hydrocarbons, mainly isoprene. This condensed phase net source of oxalate in conjunction with a global mean turnover time against deposition of about 5 days, maintain oxalate's global tropospheric burden of 0.2–0.3 Tg, i.e. 0.05–0.1 Tg-C that is about 5–9 % of model-calculated water soluble organic carbon burden.

  16. Evidence of a natural marine source of oxalic acid and a possible link to glyoxal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Decesari, Stefano; Carbone, Claudio; Finessi, Emanuela; Fuzzi, Sandro; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Sciare, Jean; Burrows, John P.; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Ervens, Barbara; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Facchini, Maria Cristina

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents results supporting the existence of a natural source of oxalic acid over the oceans. Oxalate was detected in "clean-sector" marine aerosol samples at Mace Head (Ireland) (53°20'N, 9°54'W) during 2006, and at Amsterdam Island (37°48'S, 77°34'E) from 2003 to 2007, in concentrations ranging from 2.7 to 39 ng m-3 and from 0.31 to 17 ng m-3, respectively. The oxalate concentration showed a clear seasonal trend at both sites, with maxima in spring-summer and minima in fall-winter, being consistent with other marine biogenic aerosol components (e.g., methanesulfonic acid, non-sea-salt sulfate, and aliphatic amines). The observed oxalate was distributed along the whole aerosol size spectrum, with both a submicrometer and a supermicrometer mode, unlike the dominant submicrometer mode encountered in many polluted environments. Given its mass size distribution, the results suggest that over remote oceanic regions oxalate is produced through a combination of different formation processes. It is proposed that the cloud-mediated oxidation of gaseous glyoxal, recently detected over remote oceanic regions, may be an important source of submicrometer oxalate in the marine boundary layer. Supporting this hypothesis, satellite-retrieved glyoxal column concentrations over the two sampling sites exhibited the same seasonal concentration trend of oxalate. Furthermore, chemical box model simulations showed that the observed submicrometer oxalate concentrations were consistent with the in-cloud oxidation of typical marine air glyoxal mixing ratios, as retrieved by satellite measurements, at both sites.

  17. Assembly of an Oxalate Decarboxylase Produced under σK Control into the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Teresa; Steil, Leif; Martins, Lígia O.; Völker, Uwe; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2004-01-01

    Over 30 polypeptides are synthesized at various times during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, and they are assembled at the surface of the developing spore to form a multilayer protein structure called the coat. The coat consists of three main layers, an amorphous undercoat close to the underlying spore cortex peptidoglycan, a lamellar inner layer, and an electron-dense striated outer layer. The product of the B. subtilis oxdD gene was previously shown to have oxalate decarboxylase activity when it was produced in Escherichia coli and to be a spore constituent. In this study, we found that OxdD specifically associates with the spore coat structure, and in this paper we describe regulation of its synthesis and assembly. We found that transcription of oxdD is induced during sporulation as a monocistronic unit under the control of σK and is negatively regulated by GerE. We also found that localization of a functional OxdD-green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the surface of the developing spore depends on the SafA morphogenetic protein, which localizes at the interface between the spore cortex and coat layers. OxdD-GFP localizes around the developing spore in a cotE mutant, which does not assemble the spore outer coat layer, but it does not persist in spores produced by the mutant. Together, the data suggest that OxdD-GFP is targeted to the interior layers of the coat. Additionally, we found that expression of a multicopy allele of oxdD resulted in production of spores with increased levels of OxdD that were able to degrade oxalate but were sensitive to lysozyme. PMID:14973022

  18. Structural features and electrochemical properties of nanostructured ZnCo2O4 synthesized by an oxalate precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Wenpei; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Shaojie; Shen, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    As a Li-ion battery anode, the active substance with a porous nanostructure can be endowed with a high electrochemical performance because of its porosity and remarkable surface area. In this paper, the thermal decomposition of zinc–cobalt binary oxalate precursors, precipitated from a solvothermal medium of ethanol and water (75/25, v/v) at 100 °C, has been performed to synthesize phase-pure ZnCo 2 O 4 spinels, thoroughly giving porous and rod-like configurations with an average length of a few micrometers. Interestingly, each of the as-obtained porous microrods has been well characterized to consist of ∼35.2-nm single-crystalline nanoparticles with polydisperse interspaces. More interestingly, porous ZnCo 2 O 4 microrods can deliver an initial specific discharge capacity of 1,293.7 mAh g −1 with the coulombic efficiency of 76.8 % at 0.2 A g −1 , reaching a value of 937.3 mAh g −1 over 100 discharge–charge cycles. Even at a high current density of 2.0 A g −1 , the porous ZnCo 2 O 4 nanostructures can still possess a reversible discharge capacity of ∼925.0 mAh g −1 , further assigned to the synergistic effect of Zn- and Co-based oxide components. Anyway, the facile oxalate precursor method can realize the controlling synthesis of porous and rod-like ZnCo 2 O 4 nanostructures with a high electrochemical performance

  19. Substituting milk for apple juice does not increase kidney stone risk in most normocalciuric adults who form calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, L K; Kynast-Gales, S A

    1998-03-01

    Increasing intake of dietary calcium from less than 400 mg to 800 mg daily may decrease the absorption of dietary oxalate, which in turn would decrease urinary oxalate excretion. The effect of substituting milk for apple juice on urine composition and risk of calcium oxalate precipitability was studied. Twenty-one normocalciuric adults with a history of at least 1 calcium oxalate stone and urinary oxalate excretion exceeding 275 micromol/day on their self-selected diet. Randomized crossover trial. Each participant consumed two moderate-oxalate (2,011 micromol/day) study diets, which were identical except that one contained 360 mL milk and the other contained 540 mL apple juice as the beverage with meals. Four days free-living then 2 days in the metabolic unit of a university nutrition department. Tiselius risk index for calcium oxalate precipitability calculated from urine composition. Paired t tests. Twenty-four hour urinary oxalate excretion was 18% lower (Pjuice diet: 423 vs 514 micromol, respectively. Calcium excretion was 17% higher (Pjuice diet: 4.7 vs 3.9 mmol, respectively. Urinary magnesium and citrate excretion, volume, and Tiselius risk index did not differ between diets. Substituting 360 mL milk daily for apple juice with meals in a diet containing moderate amounts of dietary oxalate from whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables does not increase the risk index of calcium oxalate precipitability in most normocalciuric adults who form stones.

  20. Urinary oxalate excretion, as determined by isotope dilution and indirect colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenen, J.A.C.; Boer, P.; Leersum, L. van; Oldenburg, S.J.; Endeman, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for the determination of urinary oxalate excretion is described. Urinary oxalate is precipitated with calcium chloride, and the oxalate content of the precipitate is measured by an indirect colorimetric method developed by Neas and Guyon in 1972. For single urine samples, a correction is made for the incompleteness of the precipitation of calcium oxalate by isotope dilution. The range of normal values (5% limits) determined in 52 normal subjects was 0.121-0.325 mmol.24 h - 1 .m - 2 for a 1-day collection period and 0.145-0.301 mmol. 24 h - 1 .m - 2 for a 3-day collection period. The within-assay CV of a control urine with a low oxalate concentration was 9% (n=7) and the between-assay CV for the same control urine was 12% (n=6). When the values obtained for oxalate excretion were normalized to body surface area, there was no significant difference between males and females; the main source of variation was the intra-individual variation. (Auth.)

  1. Inhibition of crystallization of calcium oxalate by the extraction of Tamarix gallica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensatal, Ahmed; Ouahrani, M R

    2008-12-01

    The main objective is to study the inhibitor effect of acid fraction of the extract of Tamarix gallica L on the crystallization of calcium oxalate. The extract of Tamarix gallica L is very rich by acid compounds that are used as an inhibitor of nephrolithiasis (calcium oxalate). Our study of the calcium oxalate crystallization is based on the model of turbidimetry by means of a spectrophotometer. The calcium oxalate formation is induced by the addition of oxalate solutions of sodium and of calcium chloride. The addition of inhibitor with various concentrations enabled us to give information on the percentage of inhibition. The comparison between the turbidimetric slopes with and without inhibitor gives the effectiveness of inhibitor for the acid fraction. By comparing the photographs of with and without inhibitor, we concluded that the extract of Tamarix gallica L acts at the stage of growth. The acid fraction of the extract of Tamarix gallica L gives an activity remarkable in the formation of urinary lithiasis (calcium oxalate); this effectiveness is due to the presence of functions of acid.

  2. Competitive and Cooperative Effects during Nickel Adsorption to Iron Oxides in the Presence of Oxalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Elaine D. [Department of Earth and Planetary; Catalano, Jeffrey G. [Department of Earth and Planetary

    2017-08-09

    Iron oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and play a critical role in the geochemical distribution of trace elements and heavy metals via adsorption and coprecipitation. The presence of organic acids may potentially alter how metals associate with iron oxide minerals through a series of cooperative or competitive processes: solution complexation, ternary surface complexation, and surface site competition. The macroscopic and molecular-scale effects of these processes were investigated for Ni adsorption to hematite and goethite at pH 7 in the presence of oxalate. The addition of this organic acid suppresses Ni uptake on both minerals. Aqueous speciation suggests that this is dominantly the result of oxalate complexing and solubilizing Ni. Comparison of the Ni surface coverage to the concentration of free (uncomplexed) Ni2+ in solution suggests that the oxalate also alters Ni adsorption affinity. EXAFS and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies indicate that these changes in binding affinity are due to the formation of Ni–oxalate ternary surface complexes. These observations demonstrate that competition between dissolved oxalate and the mineral surface for Ni overwhelms the enhancement in adsorption associated with ternary complexation. Oxalate thus largely enhances Ni mobility, thereby increasing micronutrient bioavailability and inhibiting contaminant sequestration.

  3. Determination of Food Oxalates Using Silica–Titania Xerogel Modified with Eriochrome Cyanine R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Morosanova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of silica–titania xerogel with triphenylmethane dyes (pyrocatechol violet, chrome azurol S, eriochrome cyanine R has been investigated to create a new sensor material for solid phase spectrophotometric determination of food oxalates. The complex forming reaction between xerogel incorporated titanium(IV and triphenylmethane dyes has been studied; half-reaction periods, complex composition, equilibrium constants, and xerogel sorption capacity have been calculated for each dye. Eriochrome cyanine R (ECR is characterized by the shortest half-reaction period, the smallest equilibrium constant, and the greatest capacity; it has been chosen for the sensor material construction because titanium(IV-ECR complex is formed faster and can be destroyed easier than other studied complexes. The interaction of this sensor material with oxalates has been described: the presence of oxalates causes sensor material discoloration and the absorbance is used as analytical signal. The analytical range is 35–900 mg/L (LOD 10.5 mg/L, n = 7. High concentrations of interfering inorganic anions, organic acids, and sucrose did not affect oxalate determination. Proposed solid phase spectrophotometric procedure has been successfully applied for the determination of oxalates in food samples (sorrel, spinach, parsley, ginger, and black pepper and the results are in good agreement with HPLC oxalate determination.

  4. Determination of water-soluble forms of oxalic and formic acids in soils by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karicheva, E.; Guseva, N.; Kambalina, M.

    2016-03-01

    Carboxylic acids (CA) play an important role in the chemical composition origin of soils and migration of elements. The content of these acids and their salts is one of the important characteristics for agrochemical, ecological, ameliorative and hygienic assessment of soils. The aim of the article is to determine water-soluble forms of same carboxylic acids — (oxalic and formic acids) in soils by ion chromatography with gradient elution. For the separation and determination of water-soluble carboxylic acids we used reagent-free gradient elution ion-exchange chromatography ICS-2000 (Dionex, USA), the model solutions of oxalate and formate ions, and leachates from soils of the Kola Peninsula. The optimal gradient program was established for separation and detection of oxalate and formate ions in water solutions by ion chromatography. A stability indicating method was developed for the simultaneous determination of water-soluble organic acids in soils. The method has shown high detection limits such as 0.03 mg/L for oxalate ion and 0.02 mg/L for formate ion. High signal reproducibility was achieved in wide range of intensities which correspond to the following ion concentrations: from 0.04 mg/g to 10 mg/L (formate), from 0.1 mg/g to 25 mg/L (oxalate). The concentration of formate and oxalate ions in soil samples is from 0.04 to 0.9 mg/L and 0.45 to 17 mg/L respectively.

  5. Intercomparison of the measurements of oxalic acid in aerosols by gas chromatography and ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Barrie, Leonard A.; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

    2010-12-01

    Oxalate, the anion of oxalic acid, is one of the most abundant measurable organic species in atmospheric aerosols. Traditionally, this bifunctional species has been measured by gas chromatography (GC) after derivatization to butyl ester and by ion chromatography (IC) without derivatization. However, there are few published comparisons of the two techniques. Here, we report the results of an intercomparison study for the measurement of oxalic acid in Arctic aerosols (oxalic acid by GC ranged from 6.5-59.1 ng m -3 (av. 26.0 ng m -3, median 26.2 ng m -3) whereas those by IC ranged from 6.6-52.1 ng m -3 (av. 26.6 ng m -3, median 25.4 ng m -3). They showed a good correlation ( r = 0.84) with a slope of 0.96. Thus, observations of oxalate obtained by GC employing dibutyl esters are almost equal to those by IC. Because the accuracy of oxalic acid by GC method largely depends on the method used, it is important to strictly examine the recovery in each study.

  6. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy.

  7. Investigation on clean-up of Zr and HDBP in PUREX process with UDMH oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Youzhi; Wang Xuanjun; Li Zhengli; Liu Xiangxuan

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the interracial crud formation is related to the complex formation of Zr with degradation products of TBP, such as DBP and MBP, in PUREX process, especially in the first cycle. The crud seriously deteriorates the operation of extraction column and therefore must be properly cleared up. Various clear up methods were studied and those with salt-free washing agents were recently focused. In this paper a new scrubbing agent 1,1- dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) oxalate was proposed, the optimized experimental conditions were described, and the possible mechanism was discussed. The influence of different factors, including reaction temperature, UDMH oxalate concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, and free UDMH concentration, on the decontamination factors were examined with simulated Zr- and/or DBP-loaded solvents. The optical experimental parameters are found as follows: temperature 40-60 degree C, phase ratio V (o) /V (a) =1, concentration of UDMH oxalate solution 0.4-0.6 mol/L. Especialy some UDMH was added into the UDMH oxalate queues solution to make the concentration of free UDMH 0.2-0.3 mol/L. Under these conditions, the decontaminator factor of Zr from the corresponding simulated solvent with UDMH oxalate is up to 143, slightly higher than that with sodium carbonate. The decontamination factor of HDBP from the corresponding simulated solvent with UDMH oxalate is up to 100, similar to sodium carbonate. (authors)

  8. Pathological features of oxalate nephrosis in a population of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, K N; Boardman, W; Breed, W G; Taggart, D A; Woolford, L; Haynes, J I

    2013-03-01

    The wild and captive koala population of the Mt Lofty Ranges in South Australia has a high level of renal dysfunction in which crystals consistent with calcium oxalate have been observed in the kidneys. This study aimed to describe the pathological features of the renal disease in this population, confirm the composition of renal crystals as calcium oxalate, and determine whether any age or sex predispositions exist for this disease. A total of 51 koalas (28 wild rescues, 23 captive) were examined at necropsy, of which 28 (55%) were found to have gross and/or histological evidence of oxalate nephrosis. Histopathological features included intratubular and interstitial inflammation, tubule dilation, glomerular atrophy, tubule loss, and cortical fibrosis. Calcium oxalate crystals were demonstrated using a combination of polarization microscopy, alizarin red S staining, infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis with scanning electron microscopy. Uric acid and phosphate deposits were also shown to be present but were associated with minimal histopathological changes. No significant differences were found between the numbers of affected captive and wild rescued koalas; also, there were no sex or age predispositions identified, but it was found that oxalate nephrosis may affect koalas <2 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that oxalate nephrosis is a leading disease in this koala population. Possible causes of this disease are currently under investigation.

  9. A Study of Biomolecules as Growth Modifiers of Calcium Oxalate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Junha John

    Crystallization processes are ubiquitous in nature, science, and technology. Controlling crystal growth is pivotal in many industries as material properties and functions can be tailored by tuning crystal habits (e.g. size, shape, phase). In biomineralization, organisms exert excellent control over bottom-up synthesis and assembly of inorganic-organic structures (e.g. bones, teeth, exoskeletons). This is made possible by growth modifiers that range from small molecules to macromolecules, such as proteins. Molecular recognition of the mineral phase allows proteins to function as nucleation templates, matrices, and growth inhibitors or promoters. We are interested in taking a biomimetic approach to control crystallization via biomolecular growth modifiers. We investigated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), found in plants and kidney stones, as a model system of crystallization. We studied the effects of four common proteins on COM crystallization: bovine serum albumin (BSA), transferrin, lactoferrin, and lysozyme. Through kinetic studies of COM crystallization, we classified BSA and lysozyme as COM growth inhibitor and promoter respectively. Their inhibition and promotion effects were also evident in the macroscopic crystal habit. Through adsorption and microscopy experiments, we showed that BSA exhibits binding specificity for the apical surfaces of macroscopic COM crystals. Lysozyme, on the other, functions via a non-binding mechanism at the surface to accelerate the growth of the apical surfaces. We also synthesized and studied peptides derived from the protein primary sequences to identify putative domains responsible for these inhibition and promotion effects. Collectively, our study of physiologically relevant biomolecules suggests potential roles of COM modifiers in pathological crystallization and helps to develop guidelines for rational design of biomolecular growth modifiers for applications in crystal engineering.

  10. Gently reduced graphene oxide incorporated into cobalt oxalate rods as bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phihusut, Doungkamon; Ocon, Joey D.; Jeong, Beomgyun; Kim, Jin Won; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Water-oxygen electrochemistry is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies (fuel cells, electrolyzers, and metal-air batteries) due to the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although much effort has been devoted to the development of improved bifunctional electrocatalysts, an inexpensive, highly active oxygen electrocatalyst, however, remains to be a challenge. In this paper, we present a facile and robust method to create gently reduced graphene oxide incorporated into cobalt oxalate microstructures (CoC 2 O 4 /gRGO) and demonstrate its excellent and stable electrocatalytic activity in both OER and ORR, arising from the inherent properties of the components and their physicochemical interaction. Our synthesis technique also explores a single pot method to partially reduce graphene oxide and form CoC 2 O 4 structures while maintaining the solution processability of reduced graphene oxide. While the OER activity of CoC 2 O 4 /gRGO is exclusively due to CoC 2 O 4 , which transformed into OER-active Co species, the combination with gRGO significantly improves OER stability. On the other hand, CoC 2 O 4 /gRGO exhibits synergistic effect towards ORR, via a quasi-four-electron pathway, leading to a slightly higher ORR limiting current than Pt/C. Remarkably, gRGO offers dual functionality, contributing to ORR activity via the N-functional groups and also enhancing OER stability through the gRGO coating around CoC 2 O 4 structures. Our results suggest a new class of metal-carbon composite that has the potential to be alternative bifunctional catalysts for regenerative fuel cells and metal-air batteries

  11. National Bridge Inventory System (NBI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The NBI System is the collection of bridge inspection information and costs associated with bridge replacements of structurally deficient bridges on and off the NHS....

  12. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  13. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  14. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  15. The floating water bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Elmar C; Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Gatterer, Karl; Maier, Eugen; Pecnik, Rene; Holler, Gert; Eisenkoelbl, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled in two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed experimental analysis reveals static and dynamic structures as well as heat and mass transfer through this bridge

  16. Students design composite bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.; Galjaard, J.C.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of recent research on steel-concrete composite bridge design by students of Delft University of Technology doing their master's thesis. Primary objective of this research was to find possibilities for application of steel-concrete composite bridges in the Netherlands,

  17. The thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, Emmanuel; Watkins, Gareth M.; Brown, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    DSC, TG and TG-FT-IR, and XRPD have been used to examine the effects of supposedly inert atmospheres of argon and nitrogen on the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate. The DSC curves in pure argon at 10 deg. C min -1 show a broad endotherm with onset at about 280 deg. C and maximum at about 295 deg. C. In mixtures of argon and nitrogen, as the proportion of argon gas is decreased, the endothermic character of the decomposition decreases until, when nitrogen is the main component, the decomposition exhibits a complex broad exothermic character. XRPD studies showed that, regardless of the proportions of nitrogen and argon, the DSC residues consisted of mainly copper metal with small amounts of copper(I) oxide (cuprite) and, under some conditions, traces of copper(II) oxide (tenorite). Various explanations for this behaviour are discussed and a possible answer lies in the disproportionation of CO 2 (g) to form small quantities of O 2 (g) or monatomic oxygen. The possibility exists that the exothermicity in nitrogen could be explained by reaction of the nitrogen with atomic oxygen to form N 2 O(g), but this product could not be detected using TG-FT-IR

  18. The thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamprecht, Emmanuel [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Watkins, Gareth M. [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Brown, Michael E. [Chemistry Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)]. E-mail: m.brown@ru.ac.za

    2006-07-01

    DSC, TG and TG-FT-IR, and XRPD have been used to examine the effects of supposedly inert atmospheres of argon and nitrogen on the mechanism of the thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate. The DSC curves in pure argon at 10 deg. C min{sup -1} show a broad endotherm with onset at about 280 deg. C and maximum at about 295 deg. C. In mixtures of argon and nitrogen, as the proportion of argon gas is decreased, the endothermic character of the decomposition decreases until, when nitrogen is the main component, the decomposition exhibits a complex broad exothermic character. XRPD studies showed that, regardless of the proportions of nitrogen and argon, the DSC residues consisted of mainly copper metal with small amounts of copper(I) oxide (cuprite) and, under some conditions, traces of copper(II) oxide (tenorite). Various explanations for this behaviour are discussed and a possible answer lies in the disproportionation of CO{sub 2}(g) to form small quantities of O{sub 2}(g) or monatomic oxygen. The possibility exists that the exothermicity in nitrogen could be explained by reaction of the nitrogen with atomic oxygen to form N{sub 2}O(g), but this product could not be detected using TG-FT-IR.

  19. Nanoscale observations of the effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Christine V.

    2016-04-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaC2O4ṡxH2O) minerals are naturally occurring minerals found in fossils, plants, kidney stones and is a by-product in some processes such as paper, food and beverage production [1,2]. In particular, calcium oxalate monohydrate phase (COM) also known as whewellite (CaC2O4ṡH2O), is the most frequently reported mineral phase found in urinary and kidney stones together with phosphates. Organic additives are well known to play a key role in the formation of minerals in both biotic and abiotic systems, either facilitating their precipitation or hindering it. In this regard, recent studies have provided direct evidence demonstrating that citrate species could enhance dissolution of COM and inhibit their precipitation. [3,4] The present work aims at evauate the influence of pH, citrate and oxalic acid concentrations in calcium oxalate precipitation on calcite surfaces (Island Spar, Chihuahua, Mexico) through in-situ nanoscale observation using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, Multimode, Bruker) in flow-through experiments. Changes in calcium oxalate morphologies and precipitated phases were observed, as well as the inhibitory effect of citrate on calcium oxalate precipitation, which also lead to stabilization an the amorphous calcium oxalate phase. [1] K.D. Demadis, M. Öner, Inhibitory effects of "green"additives on the crystal growth of sparingly soluble salts, in: J.T. Pearlman (Ed.), Green Chemistry Research Trends, Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York, 2009, pp. 265-287. [2] M. Masár, M. Zuborová, D. Kaniansky, B. Stanislawski, Determination of oxalate in beer by zone electrophoresis on a chip with conductivity detection, J. Sep. Sci. 26 (2003) 647-652. [3] Chutipongtanate S, Chaiyarit S, Thongboonkerd V. Citrate, not phosphate, can dissolve calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and detach these crystals from renal tubular cells. Eur J Pharmacol 2012;689:219-25. [4] Weaver ML, Qiu SR, Hoyer JR, Casey WH, Nancollas GH, De Yoreo JJ

  20. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  1. Adaptable coordination of U(IV) in the 2D-(4,4) uranium oxalate network: From 8 to 10 coordinations in the uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvieubourg-Garela, L.; Vigier, N.; Abraham, F.; Grandjean, S.

    2008-01-01

    Crystals of uranium (IV) oxalate hydrates, U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O (1) and U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O (2), were obtained by hydrothermal methods using two different U(IV) precursors, U 3 O 8 oxide and nitric U(IV) solution in presence of hydrazine to avoid oxidation of U(IV) into uranyl ion. Growth of crystals of solvated monohydrated uranium (IV) oxalate, U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .H 2 O.(dma) (3), dma=dimethylamine, was achieved by slow diffusion of U(IV) into a gel containing oxalate ions. The three structures are built on a bi-dimensional complex polymer of U(IV) atoms connected through bis-bidentate oxalate ions forming [U(C 2 O 4 )] 4 pseudo-squares. The flexibility of this supramolecular arrangement allows modifications of the coordination number of the U(IV) atom which, starting from 8 in 1 increases to 9 in 3 and, finally increases, to 10 in 2. The coordination polyhedron changes from a distorted cube, formed by eight oxygen atoms of four oxalate ions, in 1, to a mono-capped square anti-prism in 3 and, finally, to a di-capped square anti-prism in 2, resulting from rotation of the oxalate ions and addition of one and two water oxygen atoms in the coordination of U(IV). In 1, the space between the ∞ 2 [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] planar layers is occupied by non-coordinated water molecules; in 2, the space between the staggered ∞ 2 [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O] layers is empty, finally in 3, the solvate molecules occupy the interlayer space between corrugated ∞ 2 [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .H 2 O] sheets. The thermal decomposition of U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O under air and argon atmospheres gives U 3 O 8 and UO 2 , respectively. - Graphical abstract: The adaptable environment of U(IV) in U(IV) oxalates: from eight cubic coordination in U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O (a) completed by water oxygens to nine in [U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .H 2 O](C 2 NH 5 ) (b) and ten coordination in U(C 2 O 4 ) 2 .2H 2 O (c)

  2. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang

    Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  3. Bridge technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. As LANs have proliferated, new technologies and system concepts have come to the fore. One of the key issues is how to interconnect networks. One means of interconnection is to use a 'bridge'. Other competing technologies are repeaters, routers, and gateways. Bridges permit traffic isolation, connect network segments together and operate at the MAC layer. Further, because they operate at the MAC layer, they can handle a variety of protocols such as TCP/IP, SNA, and X.25. This report focuses on the specific technology of bridging two netw

  4. [H3N(CH2)4NH3]2[Al4(C2O4)(H2PO4)2(PO4)4].4[H2O]: A new layered aluminum phosphate-oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Li; Li Jiyang; Yu Jihong; Li Guanghua; Fang Qianrong; Xu Ruren

    2005-01-01

    A new layered inorganic-organic hybrid aluminum phosphate-oxalate [H 3 N(CH 2 ) 4 NH 3 ] 2 [Al 4 (C 2 O 4 )(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 4 ].4[H 2 O](AlPO-CJ25) has been synthesized hydrothermally, by using 1,4-diaminobutane (DAB) as structure-directing agent. The structure has been solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and further characterized by IR, 31 P MAS NMR, TG-DTA as well as compositional analyses. Crystal data: the triclinic space group P-1, a=8.0484(7) A, b=8.8608(8) A, c=13.2224(11) A, α=80.830(6) deg. , β=74.965(5) deg. , γ=78.782(6) deg. , Z=2, R 1[ I >2 σ ( I )] =0.0511 and wR 2(alldata) =0.1423. The alternation of AlO 4 tetrahedra and PO 4 tetrahedra gives rise to the four-membered corner-sharing chains, which are interconnected through AlO 6 octahedra to form the layered structure with 4,6-net sheet. Interestingly, oxalate ions are bis-bidentately bonded by participating in the coordination of AlO 6 , and bridging the adjacent AlO 6 octahedra. The layers are held with each other through strong H-bondings between the terminal oxygens. The organic ammonium cations and water molecules are located in the large cavities between the interlayer regions. -- Graphical abstract: The alternation of AlO 4 tetrahedra and PO 4 tetrahedra gives rise to the four-membered corner-sharing chains, which are interconnected through AlO 6 octahedra to form the layered structure with 4,6-net sheet. Oxalate ions are bis-bidentately boned by participating in the coordination of AlO 6 , and bridging the adjacent AlO 6 octahedra

  5. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: Effectiveness Of The UV Lamp To Decompose Oxalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased

  6. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE UV LAMP TO DECOMPOSE OXALATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E.; Huff, T.; Sudduth, C.

    2010-01-19

    Enhanced Chemical Cleaning is a new process scheduled to begin cleaning Savannah River Site High Level Waste Tanks in 2012. It is an improvement over the current chemical cleaning method, in that it minimizes downstream impacts on the High Level Waste System. It is based on a state of the art scale removal process used on the secondary side of nuclear power plants, with modifications to accommodate the unique constraints created by the tanks. Both Enhanced Chemical Cleaning and the scale removal process are founded on dissolving metal oxides/hydroxides using oxalic acid, with subsequent oxalate decomposition via hydroxylation using ozone or peroxide, and UV light as a catalyst. A divergence Enhanced Chemical Cleaning has from nuclear power scale removal is the significantly increased solids concentration during oxalate decomposition. These solids can limit the ability of the UV light to create hydroxyl radicals, either by limiting the ability of the light to penetrate through the solution, or by increasing the fouling rate on the UV light. Both will decrease the overall catalytic effectiveness, thereby decreasing the concentration of formed hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are the driving force behind the oxalate decomposition. To understand the impact of increased solids, testing was performed using a medium pressure UV light inside an ozone supplied Oxalate Decomposition Reactor. Using a dissolved metal sludge simulant with an initial oxalate concentration greater than 12,000 ppm, and an initial pH of about 2.0, the spent acid solution was recirculated through the reactor, while the UV light was allowed to foul. For the first few hours, the oxalate decomposition rate was about 1,300 ppm/hour. After about 3 hours, enough time for the UV lamp to foul, the oxalate decomposition rate decreased to about 500 ppm/hour. The decomposition rate then remained roughly constant for the next 16 hours. Overall, testing showed that the oxalate destruction rate decreased

  7. Smad signaling pathway in pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the involvement of Smad signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods: Clean SD rats were randomly divided into 3 group, namely the control group, model group and pirfenidone group. Ethylene glycol + αhydroxy vitamin D3 was used as a stone-inducing agent to replicate the renal calcium oxalate stone model. Rats in the pirfenidone group were treated with pirfenidone intragastric administration. The serum Cr, BUN and 24-hour oxalate and calcium in renal tissues were assayed. The expressions of Bax/ Bcl2 protein, Caspase3 protein, TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins were detected by the fluorescent quantitation PCR method. Results: Compared with the rats of the control group, the results showed that the levels of serum BUN, Cr and 24-hour oxalate in rats of the model group were increased greatly, Bax and Caspase3 mRNA also increased while the level of Bcl2 decreased significantly, and the expressions of TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins increased distinctly as well (P<0.01. These abnormal parameters could be normalized effectively by pirfenidone. Conclusions: Activated TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats.

  8. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies on formation of calcium oxalate in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmottaleb, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Plant calcium oxalate crystals occur within cells called crystal idioblasts. Important aspects of this calcification phenomenon have not been characterized. This dissertation examines some of the aspects of this ubiquitous type of calcification including (1) characterization of ultrastructural features of developing crystal idioblasts, (2) determination of the relationship of specialized ultrastructural features of the idioblasts to transport of compounds and mechanisms of crystal deposition, and (3) the biochemical relationship between ascorbic acid metabolism and production of oxalic acid used for crystal formation. Structural and cytochemical studies revealed that crystal idioblasts have dense cytoplasm, modified plastids, enlarged nuclei, extensive endoplasmic reticulum, numerous dictyosomes and vesicles, and a bundle of raphide crystals in their vacuoles. A mechanism for Ca transport and crystal precipitation is proposed, based on these results. There is a strong and dynamic relationship between Ca concentration and oxalic acid produced for crystal formation, where increasing Ca level in the growth medium lead to increased total and insoluble oxalate in the plant. Calmodulin antagonists reduced oxalic acid production

  9. Effects of potassium oxalate on knoop hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S M A; Malacarne-Zanon, J; Carvalho, R M; Alves, M C; De Goes, M F; Anido-Anido, A; Carrilho, M R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the hardness of etch-and-rinse adhesives may be affected by the pretreatment of acid-etched dentin with potassium oxalate desensitizer. Unerupted human third molars were cut into crown segments by removing the occlusal enamel and roots. The pulp chamber of these crown segments was connected to a syringe barrel filled with phosphate-buffered saline so that the moisture of dentin was maintained during the bonding procedures. Three etch-and-rinse adhesives-two two-step systems (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], One-Step [OS]) and one three-step system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [MP])-were applied to acid-etched dentin that had been treated (experimental groups) or not (control groups) with potassium oxalate (BisBlock). The Knoop hardness (KHN) of adhesives was taken at different sites of the outer surface of the adhesive-bonded dentin. The KHN of the three tested adhesives applied to acid-etched dentin treated with potassium oxalate was significantly lower than that exhibited by the respective controls (not treated with oxalate; padhesive, the treatment with potassium oxalate reduced the adhesives' KHN (psystem exhibiting the lowest KHN compared with the MP and SB systems.

  10. Isolation and characterization of mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces from plant rhizosphere and forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin

    2004-10-01

    The present work was aimed at the isolation of additional new pure cultures of oxalate-degrading Streptomyces and its preliminary characterization for further work in the field of oxalate metabolism and taxonomic studies. Mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces were enriched and isolated from plant rhizosphere and forest soil samples. Strains were examined for cultural, morphological (spore chain morphology, spore mass colour, diffusible and melanin pigment production), physiological (antibiosis, growth in the presence of inhibitory compounds, assimilation of organic acids and enzyme substrates) and chemotaxonomic characters (cellular lipid components and diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid). The taxonomic data obtained were analysed by using the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard (SJ) coefficients, clustering was achieved using the UPGMA algorithm. All strains were able to utilize sodium-, potassium-, calcium- and ammonium-oxalate salts. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, isolates were grouped into five cluster groups with a ≥70% SSM similarity level. Streptomyces rochei was the most common of the cluster groups, with a Willcox probability of P>0.8. Streptomyces antibioticus, S. anulatus, S. fulvissimus, S. halstedii and S. violaceusniger are newly reported as oxalate-utilizing Streptomyces.

  11. Morphological control of calcium oxalate particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiaguo; Tang Hua; Cheng Bei; Zhao Xiujian

    2004-01-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) particles exhibiting different shapes and phase structures were fabricated by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with calcium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) as a crystal modifier at room temperature. The as-obtained products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of reaction conditions including pH, [Ca 2+ ]/[C 2 O 4 2- ] ratio and concentration of PSMA and CaC 2 O 4 on the crystal forms and morphologies of the as-obtained calcium oxalate were investigated. The results show that various crystal morphologies of calcium oxalate, such as parallelograms, plates, spheres, bipyramids etc. can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Higher polymer concentration favors formation of the metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. Lower pH is beneficial to the formation of plate-like CaOx crystals. Especially, the monodispersed parallelogram-like CaOx crystals can be produced by PSMA as an additive at pH 2. PSMA may act as a good inhibitor for urolithiasis since it induces the formation of COD and reduces the particle size of CaOx. This research may provide new insight into the morphological control of CaOx particles and the prevention of urolithiasis

  12. Growth and characterization of Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minu Mary C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate decahydrate were synthesized using single diffusion gel technique and the conditions influencing the size, morphology, nucleation density and quality of the crystals were optimized. Highly transparent single crystals of average size 3 mm × 2 mm × 1 mm with well-defined hexagonal morphology were grown during a time period of two weeks. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the grown crystals crystallize in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c as identical with the pure cerium oxalate. The various functional groups of the oxalate ligand and the water of crystallization were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Sm3+ doped cerium oxalate indicated that the Sm3+ ions are optically active in the cerium oxalate matrix. The crystal has a strong and efficient orange red emission with a wavelength peak at 595 nm and hence can be effectively used for optical amplification. Microhardness measurements of the crystal revealed that they belong to the soft material category.

  13. Bridge removal plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    This report provides resources that detail specifications and guidelines related to bridge removal plans across the : United States. We have organized the information into three sections: : ! National Guidance : Includes language from AASHTO specific...

  14. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  15. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  16. VHDL for logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...

  17. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  18. Characterization of metabolic network of oxalic acid biosynthesis through RNA seq data analysis of developing spikes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana): Deciphering the role of key genes involved in oxalate formation in relation to grain calcium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Naved; Gupta, Supriya; Tiwari, Apoorv; Singh, K P; Kumar, Anil

    2018-04-05

    In the present study, we identified seven major genes of oxalic acid biosynthesis pathway (SGAT, GGAT, ICL, GLO, MHAR, APO and OXO) from developing spike transcriptome of finger millet using rice as a reference. Sequence alignment of identified genes showed high similarity with their respective homolog in rice except for OXO and GLO. Transcript abundance (FPKM) reflects the higher accumulation of identified genes in GP-1 (low calcium genotype) as compared to GP-45 (high calcium genotype) which was further confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis, indicating differential oxalate formation in both genotypes. Determination of oxalic acid and tartaric acid content in developing spikes explain that higher oxalic acid content in GP-1 however, tartaric acid content was more in GP-45. Higher calcium content in GP-45 and lower oxalate accumulation may be due to the diversion of more ascorbic acid into tartaric acid and may correspond to less formation of calcium oxalate. Our results suggest that more than one pathway for oxalic acid biosynthesis might be present in finger millet with probable predominance of ascorbate-tartarate pathway rather than glyoxalate-oxalate conversion. Thus, finger millet can be use as an excellent model system for understanding more specific role of nutrients-antinutrients interactions, as evident from the present study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impedance and hydrogen evolution studies on magnesium alloy in oxalic acid solution containing different anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekry, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    The corrosion behavior of AZ31E alloy was investigated in oxalic acid solution using different electrochemical techniques. The effect of concentration was studied, where the corrosion rate was found to increase with increasing oxalic acid concentration and hydrogen evolution. The effect of adding Cl{sup -}, F{sup -} or PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ions on the electrochemical behavior of AZ31E electrode was studied in 0.01 M oxalic acid solution at 298 K. It was found that the corrosion rate increases with increasing Cl{sup -} or F{sup -} ion concentration, however, it decreases with increasing PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ion concentration. Good agreement was observed between the results obtained from electrochemical techniques and confirmed by Scanning electron micrographs. (author)

  20. Oxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zobrist

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5 K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD. Using the ECHAM4 climate model we estimate the global net radiative effect caused by this heterogeneous freezing to result in a cooling as high as −0.3 Wm−2.

  1. Hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates: a new aqueous route towards reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide(IV oxalates (An= Th, U, Pu at temperatures between 95 and 250 °C is shown to lead to the production of highly crystalline, reactive actinide oxide nanocrystals (NCs. This aqueous process proved to be quantitative, reproducible and fast (depending on temperature. The NCs obtained were characterised by X-ray diffraction and TEM showing their size to be smaller than 15 nm. Attempts to extend this general approach towards transition metal or lanthanide oxalates failed in the 95–250 °C temperature range. The hydrothermal decomposition of actinide oxalates is therefore a clean, flexible and powerful approach towards NCs of AnO2 with possible scale-up potential.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of stability in iron removal from kaolin by using oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ocampo-López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The graphical representation of global stability for a system, or Pourbaix diagram, was constructed to perform a thermodynamic study of iron removal from kaolin using oxalic acid as an oxidant. To do this the free energies of formation of the oxalate complex of the system were calculated, and it was found that the more stable specie is Fe(C2O43-3, with a calculated free energy of formation of -3753.88 kcal/mol. Thermodynamic stability functions were estimated for the system as a function of pH and Eh known as potential of oxide reduction. It was built a global stability diagram for the removal system; it showed that the specie trioxalate Fe(C2O43-3 is the only oxalate in equilibrium with other compounds associated with the removal of iron in kaolin.

  3. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ′Averrhoa bilimbi′ fruit juice ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.

  4. Savannah River Site Tank Cleaning: Corrosion Rate For One Versus Eight Percent Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, the use of oxalic acid for chemically cleaning the Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste tanks focused on using concentrated 4 and 8-wt% solutions. Recent testing and research on applicable dissolution mechanisms have concluded that under appropriate conditions, dilute solutions of oxalic acid (i.e., 1-wt%) may be more effective. Based on the need to maximize cleaning effectiveness, coupled with the need to minimize downstream impacts, SRS is now developing plans for using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution. A technology gap associated with using a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution was a dearth of suitable corrosion data. Assuming oxalic acid's passivation of carbon steel was proportional to the free oxalate concentration, the general corrosion rate (CR) from a 1-wt% solution may not be bound by those from 8-wt%. Therefore, after developing the test strategy and plan, the corrosion testing was performed. Starting with the envisioned process specific baseline solvent, a 1-wt% oxalic acid solution, with sludge (limited to Purex type sludge-simulant for this initial effort) at 75 C and agitated, the corrosion rate (CR) was determined from the measured weight loss of the exposed coupon. Environmental variations tested were: (a) Inclusion of sludge in the test vessel or assuming a pure oxalic acid solution; (b) acid solution temperature maintained at 75 or 45 C; and (c) agitation of the acid solution or stagnant. Application of select electrochemical testing (EC) explored the impact of each variation on the passivation mechanisms and confirmed the CR. The 1-wt% results were then compared to those from the 8-wt%. The immersion coupons showed that the maximum time averaged CR for a 1-wt% solution with sludge was less than 25-mils/yr for all conditions. For an agitated 8-wt% solution with sludge, the maximum time averaged CR was about 30-mils/yr at 50 C, and 86-mils/yr at 75 C. Both the 1-wt% and the 8-wt% testing demonstrated that if the sludge was removed from

  5. Trace element studies in urolithiasis; preliminary investigation on mixed calcium oxalate-struvite urinary calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, A.M.; Qadiruddin, M.; Shirin, K.; Manser, W.W.T.

    1999-01-01

    In this study the levels of the trace elements copper , zinc, lead, iron, aluminum, nickel, chromium along with magnesium, sodium and potassium were estimated in fifteen mixed calcium oxalate-struvite (CaOx/STR) urinary stones. The mean values of the combined results were, copper 4.24, zinc 1302, zinc 1302.10, lead 23.25, iron 36.83,nickel 0.69, chromium 1.93, magnesium 4530441, sodium 54.13 and potassium 5.93 ng mg/sup -1/. It was observed that zinc, aluminum and potassium levels were higher than in calcium oxalate(CaOx) calculi 0.05>P>0.02 and potassium levels were higher than in mixed calcium oxalate-hydroxy appetite (CaOx/APA) calculi, P<0.01. A combination of all the results was also compared with similar data from South Africa, Turkey, Austria, India, U.S.A and Japan. (author)

  6. Effect of Surface Precipitate on the Crevice Corrosion in HYBRID and Oxalic Acid Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Jung, J. Y.; Won, H. J.; Kim, S. B.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Park, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of the crevice corrosion for Inconel-600 and 304SS in OA solution according to the change in pH. The evaluation of the crevice corrosion with the chemical thermodynamic analysis identified the effect of the residual chemicals such as iron-oxalate and nickeloxalate to the crevice corrosion behavior. Test results were compared with those of HYBRID (HYdrizine Base Reductive metal Ion Decontamination). The crevice corrosion properties of 304 SS and Inconel-600 in HYBRID and oxalic acid solution were evaluated. In case of oxalic acid solution, the corrosion rate on 304SS was rapidly increased with a pH decrease of around 2, but there was no increase in the corrosion rate on Inconel-600

  7. Crystal structure of a mixed-ligand terbium(III coordination polymer containing oxalate and formate ligands, having a three-dimensional fcu topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chainok Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[(μ3-formato(μ4-oxalatoterbium(III], [Tb(CHO2(C2O4]n, is a three-dimensional coordination polymer, and is isotypic with the LaIII, CeIII and SmIII analogues. The asymmetric unit contains one TbIII ion, one formate anion (CHO2− and half of an oxalate anion (C2O42−, the latter being completed by application of inversion symmetry. The TbIII ion is nine-coordinated in a distorted tricapped trigonal–prismatic manner by two chelating carboxylate groups from two C2O42− ligands, two carboxylate oxygen atoms from another two C2O42− ligands and three oxygen atoms from three CHO2− ligands, with the Tb—O bond lengths and the O—Tb—O bond angles ranging from 2.4165 (19 to 2.478 (3 Å and 64.53 (6 to 144.49 (4°, respectively. The CHO2− and C2O42− anions adopt μ3-bridging and μ4-chelating-bridging coordination modes, respectively, linking adjacent TbIII ions into a three-dimensional 12-connected fcu topology with point symbol (324.436.56. The title compound exhibits thermal stability up to 623 K, and also displays strong green photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature.

  8. Photodegradation of orange I in the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system under UVA irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Jing; Liu Chengshuai; Li Fangbai; Li Xiaomin; Zhou Shungui; Liu Tongxu; Gu Minghua; Wu Qitang

    2006-01-01

    To understand the photodegradation of azo dyes in natural aquatic environment, a novel photo-Fenton-like system, the heterogeneous iron oxide-oxalate complex system was set up with the existence of iron oxides and oxalate. Five iron oxides, including γ-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520, were prepared and their adsorption capacity was investigated in the dark. The results showed that the saturated adsorption amount (Γ max ) was ranked the order of IO-250>IO-320>γ-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-520 and the adsorption equilibrium constant (K a ) followed the order of IO-250>IO-520>γ-FeOOH>IO-420>IO-320. The effect of initial pH value, the initial concentrations of oxalate and orange I on the photodegradation of orange I were also investigated in different iron oxide-oxalate systems. The results showed that the photodegradation of orange I under UVA irradiation could be enhanced greatly in the presence of oxalate. And the optimal oxalate concentrations (C ox 0 ) for γ-FeOOH, IO-250, IO-320, IO-420 and IO-520 were 1.8, 1.6, 3.5, 3.0 and 0.8mM, respectively. The photodegradation of orange I in the presence of optimal C ox 0 was ranked as the order of γ-FeOOH>IO-250>IO-320>IO-420>IO-520. The optimal range of initial pH was at about 3-4. The first-order kinetic constant for the degradation of orange I decreased with the increase in the initial concentration of orange I. Furthermore, the variation of pH, the concentrations of Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ during the photoreaction were also strongly dependent on the C ox 0 and iron oxides

  9. SAFETY EVALUATION OF OXALIC ACID WASTE RETRIEVAL IN SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) 241-C-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the safety evaluation of the process of retrieving sludge waste from single-shell tank 241-C-106 using oxalic acid. The results of the HAZOP, safety evaluation, and control allocation/decision are part of the report. This safety evaluation considers the use of oxalic acid to recover residual waste in single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This is an activity not addressed in the current tank farm safety basis. This evaluation has five specific purposes: (1) Identifying the key configuration and operating assumptions needed to evaluate oxalic acid dissolution in SST 241-C-106. (2) Documenting the hazardous conditions identified during the oxalic acid dissolution hazard and operability study (HAZOP). (3) Documenting the comparison of the HAZOP results to the hazardous conditions and associated analyzed accident currently included in the safety basis, as documented in HNF-SD-WM-TI-764, Hazard Analysis Database Report. (4) Documenting the evaluation of the oxalic acid dissolution activity with respect to: (A) Accident analyses described in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), and (B) Controls specified in HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006, Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (TSR). (5) Documenting the process and results of control decisions as well as the applicability of preventive and/or mitigative controls to each oxalic acid addition hazardous condition. This safety evaluation is not intended to be a request to authorize the activity. Authorization issues are addressed by the unreviewed safety question (USQ) evaluation process. This report constitutes an accident analysis

  10. Effect of dentin pretreatment with potassium oxalate: analysis of microtensile bond strengths and morphologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; De Andrade, Ana Karina Maciel; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Braz, Rodivan

    2012-02-01

    An effective and stable bond is the most desirable characteristic of contemporary adhesive systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of potassium oxalate on dentin/resin bond strength. Dentin on the occlusal surface of human premolars was exposed and etched with 35% phosphoric acid, to receive 3% monohydrated potassium oxalate and the following adhesive systems: Scotchbond Multipurpose (SMO; 3M/ESPE) and Prime & Bond NT (PBO; Dentsply), followed by the application of resin composite (Z250; 3M/ESPE). The control groups (SM and PB) did not receive potassium oxalate application. The prepared teeth were kept in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and 12 months. They were then cut longitudinally into sticks with a bond area of ∼0.8 mm(2) for submission to the microtensile bond strength test. The data were analyzed by two-factor ANOVA, Tamhane's paired comparisons, and the Student t-test (α = 0.05). The hybrid layer formed was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis of the surfaces treated with PB revealed shorter resin tags associated with the application of potassium oxalate, whereas SM showed tags similar to those without potassium oxalate. A significant difference was shown between the two storage times for each of the protocols. There was a significant difference among SMO, SM, and PBO (24 h), as well as among SM, SMO, and PBO, and between PB and PBO (12 months). The application of potassium oxalate before conventional adhesive systems may result in alteration of the bond strength between dentin and resin composite, depending on the material. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakde, Rajendra B; Satone, Dinesh D; Gadapayale, Kamalesh K; Kakde, Megha G

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a validated, specific stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the quantitative determination of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam and their related substances in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of degradation products. Forced degradation studies were performed on the pure drugs of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam, as per the stress conditions prescribed by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) using acid, base, oxidation, thermal stress and photolytic degradation to show the stability-indicating power of the method. Significant degradation was observed during acid and alkaline hydrolysis and no degradation was observed in other stress conditions. The chromatographic method was optimized using the samples generated from forced degradation studies. Good resolution between the peaks corresponded to the active pharmaceutical ingredients, escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam, and degradation products from the analyte were achieved on an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-50 mM phosphate buffer + 10 mM triethylamine (70:30, v/v). The detection was conducted at 268 nm. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation for escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam were established. The stress test solutions were assayed against the qualified working standards of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam, which indicated that the developed LC method was stability-indicating. Validation of the developed LC method was conducted as per ICH requirements. The developed LC method was found to be suitable to check the quality of bulk samples of escitalopram oxalate and clonazepam.

  12. The roles of xylan and lignin in oxalic acid pretreated corncob during separate enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Hyun Joo Kim; In-Gyu Choi; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    High yields of hemicellulosic and cellulosic sugars are critical in obtaining economical conversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. To optimize pretreatment conditions, we evaluated oxalic acid loading rates, treatment temperatures and times in a 23 full factorial design. Response-surface analysis revealed an optimal oxalic acid pretreatment...

  13. Acute kidney injury associated with ingestion of star fruit: Acute oxalate nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Goel, R; Sharma, M; Mahanta, P J

    2016-01-01

    Starfruit ( Averrhoa carambola ) and its juice are popular in the Indian subcontinent as an indigenous medicine. Oxalate concentration in this fruit and it's freshly prepared juice is very high. We present a report of patients presenting with acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy admitted in a single center. All patients had history of ingesting star fruit. Patients became symptomatic after 10-12 h of eating and main symptoms were pain abdomen and decrease in urine output. Three patients needed hemodialysis. All improved with complete renal recovery. Taking star fruit in large amount on an empty stomach and in a dehydrated state is a risk factor for nephrotoxicity.

  14. Characterization of calcium oxalate biominerals in some (non-Cactaceae) succulent plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Paula V; Baran, Enrique J

    2010-01-01

    The water-accumulating leaves of crassulacean acid metabolism plants belonging to five different families were investigated for the presence of biominerals by infrared spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. Spectroscopic results revealed that the mineral present in succulent species of Agavaceae, Aizoaceae, and Asphodelaceae was calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite, CaC2O4 x H2O). Crystals were predominantly found as raphides or solitary crystals of various morphologies. However, representative Crassulaceae members and a succulent species of Asteraceae did not show the presence of biominerals. Overall, these results suggest no correlation between calcium oxalate generation and crassulacean acid metabolism in succulent plants.

  15. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...

  16. Synthesis of CaTiO3 from calcium titanyl oxalate hexahydrate (CTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    2.2 Thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry. (DTG) and differential .... nology for medical processing—A promising option for tomor- row, Mumbai ... E J 1988 in Radioactive waste forms for future (eds) W Lutre and R C Ewing ...

  17. Effect of Copper Nanoparticles Dispersion on Catalytic Performance of Cu/SiO2 Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Dimethyl Oxalate to Ethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu/SiO2 catalysts, for the synthesis of ethylene glycol (EG from hydrogenation of dimethyl oxalate (DMO, were prepared by ammonia-evaporation and sol-gel methods, respectively. The structure, size of copper nanoparticles, copper dispersion, and the surface chemical states were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and N2 adsorption. It is found the structures and catalytic performances of the catalysts were highly affected by the preparation method. The catalyst prepared by sol-gel method had smaller average size of copper nanoparticles (about 3-4 nm, better copper dispersion, higher Cu+/C0 ratio and larger BET surface area, and higher DMO conversion and EG selectivity under the optimized reaction conditions.

  18. Studies on Pu(IV)/(III)-oxalate precipitation from nitric acid containing high concentration of calcium and fluoride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.K.; Pawar, S.M.; Ghadse, D.R.; Joshi, A.R.; Ramakrishna, V.V.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium (IV)/(III) oxalate precipitation from nitric acid solution, containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions was investigated. It was observed that direct precipitation of Pu (IV) oxalate from nitric acid containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions did not give good decontamination of Pu from calcium and fluoride impurities. However, incorporation of hydroxide precipitation using ammonium hydroxide prior to Pu (IV) oxalate precipitation results into PuO 2 with much less calcium and fluoride impurities. Whereas, good decontamination from calcium and fluoride impurities could be obtained by employing Pu (III) oxalate precipitation directly from nitric acid containing large amount of calcium and fluoride ions. A method was also developed to recover Pu from the oxalate waste containing calcium and fluoride ions. (author)

  19. Nonlinearity in oscillating bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gazzola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We first recall several historical oscillating bridges that, in some cases, led to collapses. Some of them are quite recent and show that, nowadays, oscillations in suspension bridges are not yet well understood. Next, we survey some attempts to model bridges with differential equations. Although these equations arise from quite different scientific communities, they display some common features. One of them, which we believe to be incorrect, is the acceptance of the linear Hooke law in elasticity. This law should be used only in presence of small deviations from equilibrium, a situation which does not occur in widely oscillating bridges. Then we discuss a couple of recent models whose solutions exhibit self-excited oscillations, the phenomenon visible in real bridges. This suggests a different point of view in modeling equations and gives a strong hint how to modify the existing models in order to obtain a reliable theory. The purpose of this paper is precisely to highlight the necessity of revisiting the classical models, to introduce reliable models, and to indicate the steps we believe necessary to reach this target.

  20. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aggarwal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as “gokhru” which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  1. Diminution of oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury and inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro by aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A; Tandon, S; Singla, S K; Tandon, C

    2010-01-01

    Recurrence and persistent side effects of present day treatment for urolithiasis restrict their use, so an alternate solution, using phytotherapy is being sought. The present study attempted to evaluate the antilithiatic properties of Tribulus terrestris commonly called as "gokhru" which is often used in ayurveda to treat various urinary diseases including urolithiasis. The activity of Tribulus terrestris was investigated on nucleation and the growth of the calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals as well as on oxalate induced cell injury of NRK 52E renal epithelial cells. Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and the growth of CaOx crystals. When NRK-52E cells were injured by exposure to oxalate for 72 h, Tribulus terrestris extract prevented the injury in a dose-dependent manner. On treatment with the different concentrations of the plant, the cell viability increased and lactate dehydrogenase release decreased in a concentration dependent manner. The current data suggests that Tribulus terrestris extract not only has a potential to inhibit nucleation and the growth of the CaOx crystals but also has a cytoprotective role. Our results indicate that it could be a potential candidate for phytotherapy against urolithiasis.

  2. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the bridge-to-bridge...

  4. The Relationship between Serum Oxalic Acid, Central Hemodynamic Parameters and Colonization by Oxalobacter formigenes in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulhan, Baris; Turkmen, Kultigin; Aydin, Merve; Gunay, Murat; Cıkman, Aytekin; Kara, Murat

    2015-06-01

    Elevated pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central aortic blood pressures are independent predictors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Oxalic acid is a uremic retention molecule that is extensively studied in the pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stones. Oxalobacter formigenes, a member of the colon microbiota, has important roles in oxalate homeostasis. Data regarding the colonization by and the exact role of O. formigenes in the pathogenesis of oxalic acid metabolism in HD patients are scant. Hence, we aimed to determine the relationship between fecal O. formigenes colonization, serum oxalic acid and hemodynamic parameters in HD patients with regard to the colo-reno-cardiac axis. Fifty HD patients were enrolled in this study. PWV and central aortic systolic (cASBP) and diastolic blood pressures (cADBP) were measured with a Mobil-O-Graph (I.E.M. GmbH, Stolberg, Germany). Serum oxalic acid levels were assessed by ELISA, and fecal O. formigenes DNA levels were isolated and measured by real-time PCR. Isolation of fecal O. formigenes was found in only 2 HD patients. One of them had 113,609 copies/ml, the other one had 1,056 copies/ml. Serum oxalic acid levels were found to be positively correlated with PWV (r = 0.29, p = 0.03), cASBP (r = 0.33, p = 0.001) and cADBP (r = 0.42, p = 0.002) and negatively correlated with LDL (r = -0.30, p = 0.03). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PWV was independently predicted by oxalic acid, glucose and triglyceride. This is the first study that demonstrates the absence of O. formigenes as well as a relation between serum oxalic acid and cASBP, cADBP and PWV in HD patients. Replacement of O. formigenes with pre- and probiotics might decrease serum oxalic acid levels and improve cardiovascular outcomes in HD patients.

  5. Evaluation of soluble oxalates content in infusions of different kinds of tea and coffee available on the Polish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinek, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Tea and coffee are the potentially rich source of oxalic acid, which can act as a antinutrient. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the content of soluble oxalates in teas and coffees available on the Polish market. The green, red and black teas, and black natural ground and instant coffees were used for preparing the infusions. The manganometric method was used for the determination of the oxalates in the infusions. The mean oxalates content in the infusions from 3 g of black teas was 115.68 mg/100 cm3 and was higher as compared to red teas (101.91 mg/100 cm3) and green teas (87.64 mg/100 cm3). Disregarding the variety of analyzed teas, the largest oxalates content was in infusions of pure one-component tea--"Sir Roger" (164.82-174.22 mg/100 cm3), while the lowest oxalates content was noted in the tea containing the components from other plants ("Bio-Active" with grapefruit juice--reaching as low level as 39.00 mg/100 cm3). Instant coffees contained larger amount of oxalates than natural ground coffees. Irrespective of the kind of the tested coffees, the lowest oxalates content was found in the infusions from the following coffees: Tchibo Exclusive--19.62 mg/100 cm3, Gala ulubiona--37.32 mg/100 cm3, and Maxwell House--38.40 mg/100 cm3, while the highest oxalates content in instant coffee--Nescafe Espiro 51.80 mg/100 cm3. The results revealed a significant relation between phytochemical composition of analyzed teas and coffees and the level of soluble oxalates in infusions prepared from the tested products.

  6. Oxalate-metabolising genes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens are differentially induced on wood and at high proton concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; de Vries, Ronald P; Timonen, Sari; Hildén, Kristiina; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a prevalent fungal metabolite with versatile roles in growth and nutrition, including degradation of plant biomass. However, the toxicity of oxalic acid makes regulation of its intra- and extracellular concentration crucial. To increase the knowledge of fungal oxalate metabolism, a

  7. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  8. Bridge deterioration models to support Indiana's bridge management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    An effective bridge management system that is equipped with reliable deterioration models enables agency engineers to carry out : monitoring and long-term programming of bridge repair actions. At the project level, deterioration models help the agenc...

  9. Development of bridge girder movement criteria for accelerated bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    End diaphragms connect multiple girders to form a bridge superstructure system for effective resistance to earthquake loads. Concrete : girder bridges that include end diaphragms consistently proved to perform well during previous earthquake events. ...

  10. Synthesis of nanocrystalline materials through reverse micelles: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    precursors were heated to form their respective oxides. Mixture of ... oxychloride and 0⋅1 M zinc nitrate solution for cerium oxalate, zirconium oxalate and zinc oxalate, respectively. The other contained 0⋅1 M solution of ammonium oxalate.

  11. The production of (14C) oxalate during the metabolism of (14C) carbohydrates in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofe, A M; James, H M; Bais, R; Edwards, J B; Conyers, R A

    1980-04-01

    Oxalate (14C) was produced during the metabolism of (U-14C) carbohydrates in hepatocytes isolated from normal rats. At 10 mM, the order of oxalate production was fructose > glycerol > xylitol > sorbitol greater than or equal to glucose in the ratio 10 : 4 : 3 : 1 : 1. This difference between oxalate production from fructose and glucose was reflected in their rates of utilisation, glucose being poorly metabolised in hepatocytes from fasted rats. Fructose was rapidly metabolised, producing glucose, lactate and pyruvate as the major metabolites. Glycerol, xylitol and sorbitol were metabolised at half the rate of fructose, the major metabolites being glucose, lactate and glycerophosphate. The marked similarity in the pattern of intermediary metabolites produced by these polyols was not, however, reflected in the rates of oxalate production. Hepatic polyol metabolism resulted in high levels of cytosolic NADH, as indicated by elevated lactate : pyruvate and glycerophosphate : dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios. The artificial electron acceptor, phenazine methosulphate (PMS) stimulated oxalate production from the polyols, particularly xylitol. In the presence of PMS, the order of oxalate production was fructose greater than or equal to xylitol > glycerol > sorbitol in the ratio 10 : 10 : 6 : 2. The production of glucose, lactate and pyruvate from the polyols was also stimulated by PMS, whereas the general metabolism of fructose, including oxalate production, was little affected. Oxalate (14C) was produced from (1-14C), (2-14C) and (6-14C) but not (3,4-14C) glucose in hepatocytes isolated from non-fasted, pyridoxine-deficient rats. Whilst this labelling pattern is consistent with oxalate being produced by a number of pathways, it is suggested that metabolism via hydroxypyruvate is a major route for oxalate production from various carbohydrates, with perhaps the exception of xylitol, which appears to have an alternative mechanism for oxalate production. The observation that

  12. Oxalic acid complexes: Promising draw solutes for forward osmosis (FO) in protein enrichment

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Qingchun; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    Highly soluble oxalic acid complexes (OACs) were synthesized through a one-pot reaction. The OACs exhibit excellent performance as draw solutes in FO processes with high water fluxes and negligible reverse solute fluxes. Efficient protein enrichment was achieved. The diluted OACs can be recycled via nanofiltration and are promising as draw solutes.

  13. The role of nanoparticulate agglomerates in TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis: degradation of oxalic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Irina [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Technische Chemie (Germany); Mendive, Cecilia B., E-mail: cbmendive@mdp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Química (Argentina); Bahnemann, Detlef [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Technische Chemie (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The simultaneous bimodal study of the photocatalytic oxalic acid degradation by aqueous TiO{sub 2} suspensions revealed that particular systems possess the capacity to protect a certain amount of oxalic acid from oxidation, thus hindering, to some extent, the photocatalytic reaction. While measurements of the oxalic acid concentration in the bulk liquid phase indicated full photocatalytic degradation; in situ pH-stat measurements allowed the quantification of the amount of oxalic acid remaining in the part of the nanoparticulate agglomerates where light could apparently not access. An explanation for this phenomenon takes into account the possibility of the formation of TiO{sub 2} agglomerates in which these molecules are hidden from the effect of the light, thus being protected from photocatalytic degradation. Studies of different TiO{sub 2} materials with different particle sizes allowed a deeper exploration of this phenomenon. In addition, because this property of encapsulating pollutant molecules by photocatalytic systems is found to be a reversible phenomenon, P25 appears to be more convenient and advantageous as compared to the use of large surface area photocatalysts.Graphical AbstractFig.: Deaggregation of TiO{sub 2} particle agglomerates upon UV illumination.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of formic and oxalic acids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The organic acids were commercial products of the highest degree of purity .... reaction is not complete even at high concentration of ZnCl2, and that only the ... activation in the oxidation of oxalic acid suggests the involvement of both the ...

  15. Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tive Powder Diffraction Data Interpretation and Indexing. Program, Version 2.2) was used to calculate 'd' values. Calculated 'd' values matched with reported values. Table. 2 shows calculated unit cell parameters. Table 2. Calculated unit cell parameters. Parameters. Barium oxalate. System. Monoclinic (P) a. 8⋅2426 Å b.

  16. Conductance and bulk vertical detachment energy of hydrated sulphate and oxalate dianions: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arup Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Analytical expressions have been derived for the vertical detachment energy (VDE) for hydrated sulphate (SO2 -4) and oxalate (C2O2 -4) dianions that can be used to calculate the same over a wide range of cluster sizes including the bulk from the knowledge of VDE for a finite number of stable clusters. The calculated bulk detachment energies are found to be very good in agreement (within 5%) with the available experimental results for both the systems. It is observed that two or more water molecules will be essential for the stability of sulphate and oxalate dianions against spontaneous electron loss and this is consistent with the experiment. We have, for the first time, provided a scheme to calculate the radius of the solvent berg for sulphate and oxalate dianions. The calculated conductivity values for the sulphate and oxalate dianions using Stokes-Einstein relation and the radius of solvent berg are found to be very good in agreement (within 4%) with the available experimental results.

  17. In-cloud oxalate formation in the global troposphere: A 3-D modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Tsigaridis, K.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Sciare, J.; Nenes, A.; Kawamura, K.; Segers, A.; Kanakidou, M.

    2011-01-01

    Organic acids attract increasing attention as contributors to atmospheric acidity, secondary organic aerosol mass and aerosol hygroscopicity. Oxalic acid is globally the most abundant dicarboxylic acid, formed via chemical oxidation of gas-phase precursors in the aqueous phase of aerosols and

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of oxalic acid pretreated corncob assessed with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae-Won Lee; Rita C.L.B. Rodrigues; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate optimal time, temperature and oxalic acid concentration for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corncob particles by Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Fifteen different conditions for pretreatment were examined in a 23 full factorial design with six axial points. Temperatures ranged from 132 to 180º...

  19. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Cosentino; Jae-Won Lee; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a perennial, rhizomatous lignocellulosic grass with dilute oxalic acid. The effects of temperature (170-190 ºC), acid loading (2-10% w/w) and reaction time (15-40 min) were handled as a single...

  20. Effect of oxalic acid pretreatment of wood chips on manufacturing medium-density fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) wood chips pretreatment prior to refining, which is done to reduce energy used during the refining process. Selected mechanical and physical performances of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) – internal bonding (IB), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), water absorption (WA)...

  1. Kaleidoscopic Views in the Bone Marrow: Oxalate Crystals in a Patient Presenting with Bicytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Dere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia associated with BM infiltration of different deposits is a rare condition mostly associated with amyloidosis or the accumulation of iron. One of the rarest deposits in the BM is oxalate crystals due to hyperoxaluria [1,2,3]. Primary hyperoxaluria, a genetic disorder due to mutation in the alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase gene, located on chromosome 2q37.3 and resulting in the conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate, is characterized by increased production of oxalic acid because of the specific liver enzyme deficiency and generally presents with renal stones, renal or liver failure, and oxalosis [4]. Calcium oxalate may even be deposited into various tissues such as those of the retina, peripheral nerves, arterial media, and heart [4,5]. The medical history of nephrolithiasis at early ages, characteristic appearance of birefringent crystals forming rosettes in the BM, and the envelope-like forms in the BM aspirates seen in our case supported the diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria, which is best confirmed by genetic studies and treated with liver transplantation because of the location of the abnormal enzymes in the hepatocytes.

  2. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi : time course of oxalic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    The increase in the use of non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives in response to environmental concerns has been accompanied by interest in copper-tolerant decay fungi. Oxalic acid production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Meruliporia, Gloeophyllum,...

  3. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  4. The crystal structure of paramagnetic copper(ii) oxalate (CuC2O4):

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Lebech, Bente; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic copper(ii) oxalate, CuC2O4, was obtained in a precipitation reaction between a copper(ii) solution and an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. The product was identified from its conventional X-ray powder patterns which match that of the copper mineral Moolooite reported to have...... the composition CuC2O4·0.44H2O. Time resolved in situ investigations of the thermal decomposition of copper(ii) oxalate using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction showed that in air the compound converts to Cu2O at 215 °C and oxidizes to CuO at 345 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis performed in an inert Ar....... The crystal structure consists of a random stacking of CuC2O4 micro-crystallites where half the Cu-atoms are placed at (2a) and the other half at (2b) positions with the corresponding oxalate molecules centred around the corresponding (2b) and (2a) site positions, respectively. The diffraction patterns...

  5. Membrane inlet mass spectrometry reveals that Ceriporiopsis subvermispora bicupin oxalate oxidase is inhibited by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Ellen W; Uberto, Richard; Tu, Chingkuang

    2014-07-18

    Membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) uses a semipermeable membrane as an inlet to a mass spectrometer for the measurement of the concentration of small uncharged molecules in solution. We report the use of MIMS to characterize the catalytic properties of oxalate oxidase (E.C. 1.2.3.4) from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx). Oxalate oxidase is a manganese dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. CsOxOx is the first bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. The MIMS method of measuring OxOx activity involves continuous, real-time direct detection of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production from the ion currents of their respective mass peaks. (13)C2-oxalate was used to allow for accurate detection of (13)CO2 (m/z 45) despite the presence of adventitious (12)CO2. Steady-state kinetic constants determined by MIMS are comparable to those obtained by a continuous spectrophotometric assay in which H2O2 production is coupled to the horseradish peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid). Furthermore, we used MIMS to determine that NO inhibits the activity of the CsOxOx with a KI of 0.58±0.06 μM. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemically modified carbon paste electrode for fast screening of oxalic acid levels in soil solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šestáková, Ivana; Jakl, M.; Jaklová Dytrtová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, - (2008), s. 140-140 E-ISSN 1213-7103. [International Conference on Electroanalysis /12./. 16.06.2008-19.06.2008, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : oxalic acid * carbon paste electrodes * soil solutions Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of formic and oxalic acids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The oxidation of formic and oxalic acids by benzyltrimethylammonium dichloroiodate (BTMACI), in the presence of zinc chloride, leads to the formation of carbon dioxide. The reaction is first order with respect to BTMACI, zinc chloride and organic acid. Oxidation of deuteriated formic acid indicates the presence of a kinetic ...

  8. Comparative study of oxalic and malonic acid behaviour in the chemical cleaning of alloy 800 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Damian A.; Bruyere, Vivienne I.E.; Bordoni, Roberto A.; Olmedo, Ana M.; Morando, Pedro J.

    2004-01-01

    This work consisted, in a first stage, on a basic study of the dissolution mechanism of nickel ferrite in aqueous malonic acid. Powdered oxides (Ni x Fe 3-x O 4 ) were synthesized by wet procedures and heated at 750 C degrees. These oxides were characterized by conventional methods and dissolved under different experimental conditions (pH, reagent concentration, temperature, etc.) in order to determine the dissolution rates. Optimal dissolution conditions were explored and compared to the corresponding oxalic acid ones. In a second stage, these conditions were applied to oxides grown on Alloy 800 coupons. Before oxidation, all coupons were ground polished and then were exposed to hydrothermal conditions (350 C degrees, pH 25Cdegrees ≅ 10.4 -LiOH-, 20-22 days) in static autoclaves. Finally, oxidized and unoxidized coupons were treated with chemical solutions containing oxalic or malonic acid at conditions optimized in the first stage. These results were also compared to those obtained on coupons exposed to a commercial formulation, APAC (Alkaline Permanganate Ammonium Citrate), as a reference. The results on coupon descaling using APMAL (AP + Malonic), APOX (AP + oxalic) and the comparison with APAC leads to conclude that malonic acid is a reagent whose chemical behavior is much better than oxalic acid and comparable to commercial formulations. (author) [es

  9. Thermal behaviour of iron (II) oxalate dihydrate in the atmosphere of its conversion gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heřmánek, M.; Zbořil, R.; Mašláň, M.; Machala, L.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 13 (2006), s. 1273-1280 ISSN 0959-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : hydrous ferrous oxalate * oxide nanoparticles * crystal-structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.287, year: 2006

  10. Comparison of the x-ray attenuation properties of breast calcifications, aluminium, hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Mackenzie, A; Dance, D R; Young, K C

    2013-04-07

    Aluminium is often used as a substitute material for calcifications in phantom measurements in mammography. Additionally, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminium are used in simulation studies. This assumes that these materials have similar attenuation properties to calcification, and this assumption is examined in this work. Sliced mastectomy samples containing calcification were imaged at ×5 magnification using a digital specimen cabinet. Images of the individual calcifications were extracted, and the diameter and contrast of each calculated. The thicknesses of aluminium required to achieve the same contrast as each calcification when imaged under the same conditions were calculated using measurements of the contrast of aluminium foils. As hydroxyapatite and calcium oxalate are also used to simulate calcifications, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses of these materials were also calculated using tabulated attenuation coefficients. On average the equivalent aluminium thickness was 0.85 times the calcification diameter. For calcium oxalate and hydroxyapatite, the equivalent aluminium thicknesses were 1.01 and 2.19 times the thickness of these materials respectively. Aluminium and calcium oxalate are suitable substitute materials for calcifications. Hydroxyapatite is much more attenuating than the calcifications and aluminium. Using solid hydroxyapatite as a substitute for calcification of the same size would lead to excessive contrast in the mammographic image.

  11. Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Barium oxalate was grown in agar gel at ambient temperature. The effect of various parameters like gel concentration, gel setting time and concentration of the reactants on the growth of these crystals was studied. Prismatic platy shaped spherulites and dendrites were obtained. The grown crystals were characterized by ...

  12. Crystal forms of the hydrogen oxalate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichiarante, Elena; Curzi, Marco; Giaffreda, Stefano L; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Braga, Dario

    2015-06-01

    To prepare new crystalline forms of the antidepressant o-desmethylvenlafaxine salt as potential new commercial forms and evaluate their physicochemical properties, in particular the dissolution rate. A new hydrogen oxalate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine hydrogen oxalate (ODV-OX) was synthesized, and a polymorph screening was performed using different solvents and crystallization conditions. Crystalline forms were characterized by a combination of solid-state techniques: X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The stability of all crystalline phases was tested under International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) conditions (40°C and 75% Relative Humidity (RH)) for 1 week. Dissolution tests were performed on the hydrogen oxalate salt ODV-OX Form 1 and compared with dissolution test on the commercial form of the succinate salt of o-desmethylvenlafaxine. Five crystalline forms of ODV-OX were isolated, namely three hydrated forms (Form 1, Form 2, Form 3) and two anhydrous forms (Form 4 and Form 5). Comparative solubility tests on ODV-OX Form 1 and o-desmethylvenlafaxine succinate evidenced a significant increase in solubility for the hydrogen oxalate salt (142 g/l) with respect to the succinate salt (70 g/l). © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. BUILDING "BRIDGES" WITH QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The papr describes how, rather than building "bridges" across centuries, quality assurance (QA) personnel have the opportunity to build bridges across technical disciplines, between public and private organizations, and between different QA groups. As reviewers and auditors of a...

  14. Bridge-Vehicle Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Bridges in New York State have been experiencing close to 200 bridge hits a year. These : accidents are attributed to numerous factors including: improperly stored equipment on trucks; : violation of vehicle posting signs; illegal commercial vehicles...

  15. Virginia Bridge Information Systems Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report presents the results of applied data mining of legacy bridge databases, focusing on the Pontis and : National Bridge Inventory databases maintained by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). Data : analysis was performed using a...

  16. Public response to bridge colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    To determine people's reactions to bridges painted in colors as white, yellow, green, blue, red, brown, black, and aluminum, two test bridges were selected in Charlottesville, Virginia. One was painted a different color each month and the other was k...

  17. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  18. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  19. ROLE OF THE MICROFLORA IN DISTAL INTESTINAL TRACT BY MAINTAINING OXALATE HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osolodchenko T.P.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microflora is part of the human body and performs numerous function. Considerable research interest is in the field of probiotics for the prevention of kidney stones, which is one of the most common urological diseases.Urolithiasis is one of the most common urological diseases. This is polyetiological disease congenital and acquired character with complex physical and chemical processes that occur not only in the urinary system, but also the whole body. None of the treatments does not guarantee full recovery of the patient and often leads to relapse. The open methods of removal stones yield news minimally invasive the technologys. Development of stone formation depends on the presence of many factors, metabolic disorders, chronic urinary tract infections, genetic disorders and more. Most have the following metabolic disorders as hypercalciuria, hiperurikuria, hipotsytraturia , hyperoxaluria and hipomahniuria. Among all types of urolithiasis kaltsiyoksalatnyy ranked first in the prevalence rate - about 75.0 - 85.0 % of cases. Dietary restriction by oxalates іs the unreliable method of preventing disease. Although there is evidence for the growth inhibition normobiocenosis representatives, which in turn enhances the absorption of salts of oxalic acid oxalate in the application of sodium , magnesium and cobalt in their intragastric administration. Recently published many papers on the impact on the level of oxalate intestinal microflora. The first publications appeared on the influence of gram-negative obligate anaerobes O. formigenes the concentration of oxalate in the urine. This anaerobic bacteria living in the colon, its prevalence - 46.0 % - 77.0 % of the adult population. O. formigenes reveals the symbiotic interaction with the human body by reducing absorption of oxalate in the intestinal cavity with subsequent decrease in their concentration in plasma and urine. O. formigenes has two key enzymes - oksalyl

  20. Looking Beyond the Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Rosholm, Michael

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the stepping-stone effect of temporary agency employment on unemployed workers. Using the timing-of-events approach, we not only investigate whether agency employment is a bridge into regular employment but also analyze its effect on post-unemployment wages...

  1. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  2. Building a Straw Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Science, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This project is for a team of students (groups of two or three are ideal) to design and construct a model of a single-span bridge, using plastic drinking straws as the building material. All steps of the design, construction, testing and critiquing stages should be recorded by students in a journal. Students may like to include labelled diagrams,…

  3. Bridging the Gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The political context of the conversion of the Historic Tramway Bridge, adjacent to Sandon Point in Bulli (NSW, Australia), and how this was exploited to serve predetermined ends, illustrates that technologies can be designed to have particular social (and political) effects. Through reflection on this relatively small engineering project, this…

  4. Quantum Bidding in Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Sadiq; Tavakoli, Armin; Kurant, Maciej; Pawłowski, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Quantum methods allow us to reduce communication complexity of some computational tasks, with several separated partners, beyond classical constraints. Nevertheless, experimental demonstrations of this have thus far been limited to some abstract problems, far away from real-life tasks. We show here, and demonstrate experimentally, that the power of reduction of communication complexity can be harnessed to gain an advantage in a famous, immensely popular, card game—bridge. The essence of a winning strategy in bridge is efficient communication between the partners. The rules of the game allow only a specific form of communication, of very low complexity (effectively, one has strong limitations on the number of exchanged bits). Surprisingly, our quantum technique does not violate the existing rules of the game (as there is no increase in information flow). We show that our quantum bridge auction corresponds to a biased nonlocal Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game, which is equivalent to a 2→1 quantum random access code. Thus, our experiment is also a realization of such protocols. However, this correspondence is not complete, which enables the bridge players to have efficient strategies regardless of the quality of their detectors.

  5. Bridging the Transition Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    period and provide recommendations to guide future research and policy development. 4 DEFINING THE TRANSITIONAL SECURITY GAP There have been...BRIDGING THE TRANSITION GAP A Monograph by MAJ J.D. Hansen United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army...suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704

  6. Bridging the Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a model water quality monitoring project, Project Bridge, established to train minority girls about to enter eighth grade in scientific procedures followed by hands-on experimentation. Students spent a week monitoring water in an urban stream and analyzing results. (LZ)

  7. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The fixed link between Denmark and Sweden connects two busy cities and a large international airport with many of its travelers and employees. 18,000 vehicles and 160 passenger trains transport each day more than 70,000 people across the combined road and rail Øresund Bridge and through the Øresu...... in its final report to the Danish and Swedish transport authorities while drawing upon experiences from two recent comparable cases of infrastructure disruptions: The Champlain Bridge (2009) and the Forth Road Bridge (2015).......The fixed link between Denmark and Sweden connects two busy cities and a large international airport with many of its travelers and employees. 18,000 vehicles and 160 passenger trains transport each day more than 70,000 people across the combined road and rail Øresund Bridge and through the Øresund...... Tunnel, approximately 25,000 of them critical to the regional work market. Even though the risk analysis states that the likelihood of a long-term closure (100C days) is very low Danish and Swedish transport authorities have demanded that the infrastructure operator conducts a survey of the preparedness...

  8. A novel 3D framework indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Mengmeng; Zhou, Mingdong; Hu, Dianwen; Gao, Fan; Dong, Sijie; Huang, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    A new inorganic–organic hybrid indium phosphite-oxalate, formulated as H[In 5 (HPO 3 ) 6 (H 2 PO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 ) 2 ]·(C 4 N 2 H 11 ) 2 ·H 2 O 1 has been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of piperazine acting as a structure directing agent (SDA). The single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that compound 1 shows three-dimensional open-framework with intersecting 12-ring channels along the [010] and [001] directions, which is constructed from strictly alternating double 6-ring units (D6Rs), [C 2 O 4 ] 2− groups and [H 2 PO 3 ] − pseudo-pyramids. It is noted that the classical D6R SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. The as-synthesized product was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ICP-AES and elemental analyses. - Graphical abstract: A 3D open-framework indium phosphite-oxalate has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. By regarding D6R as the 6-connected nodes, the inorganic–organic hybrid framework is based on a pcu-type topology. - Highlights: • A new indium phosphite-oxalate based on a pcu-type topology has been synthesized. • A classical SBU, D6R, is present in the structure. • The classical SBU is firstly reported in main metal phosphite/phosphite-oxalate.

  9. Effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder on sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul V Takawale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of advances in the present practice of medicine, the formation and growth of calculi continues to trouble mankind, as there is no satisfactory drug to treat kidney stones. In India, many indigenous drugs are in use for the treatment of urinary calculus disease. Objective: The present study was intended to determine anti-urolithiatic effect of Lagenaria siceraria fruit powder (LSFP against sodium oxalate (NaOx induced urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were grouped as Vehicle Group (received vehicle gum acacia 2% w/v 1 mL/kg/p.o., NaOx Group(Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg,i.p., LSFP Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. LSFP suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg, Cystone Group (500 mg/kg, p.o. Cystone suspended in gum acacia 2% + Sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg. Result: The increased severity of microscopic calcium oxalate (CaOx crystals deposition along with increased concentration in the kidney was seen after 7 days of NaOx (70 mg/kg, i.p. pre-treatment. LSFP (500 mg/kg, p.o. and standard marketed formulation Cystone (500 mg/kg, p.o. caused a significant reversal of NaOx-induced changes in ion excretion and urinary CaOx concentration in 7 days treatment. Conclusion: From the results, it was concluded that LSFP showed beneficial effect against urolithiasis by decreasing CaOx excretion and preventing crystal deposition in the kidney tubules.

  10. Effects of reactive Mn(III)-oxalate complexes on structurally intact plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summering, J. A.; Keiluweit, M.; Goni, M. A.; Nico, P. S.; Kleber, M.

    2011-12-01

    Lignin components in the in plant litter are commonly assumed to have longer residence times in soil than many other compounds, which are supposedly, more easily degradable. The supposed resistance of lignin compounds to decomposition is generally attributed to the complex chain of biochemical steps required to create footholds in the non-porous structure of ligno-cellulose in cell walls. Interestingly, Mn(III) complexes have shown the ability to degrade ligno-cellulose. Mn(III) chelated by ligands such as oxalate are soluble oxidizers with a high affinity for lignin structures. Here we determined (i) the formation and decay kinetics of the Mn(III)-oxalate complexes in aqueous solution and (ii) the effects that these complexes have on intact ligno-cellulose. UV/vis spectroscopy and iodometric titrations confirmed the transient nature of Mn(III)-oxalate complexes with decay rates being in the order of hours. Zinnia elegans tracheary elements - a model ligno-cellulose substrate - were treated with Mn(III)-oxalate complexes in a newly developed flow-through reactor. Soluble decomposition products released during the treatment were analyzed by GC/MS and the degree of cell integrity was measured by cell counts, pre- and post-treatment counts indicate a decrease in intact Zinnia elegans as a result of Mn(III)-treatment. GC/MS results showed the release of a multitude of solubilized lignin breakdown products from plant cell walls. We conclude that Mn(III)-oxalate complexes have the ability to lyse intact plant cells and solubilize lignin. Lignin decomposition may thus be seen as resource dependent, with Mn(III) a powerful resource that should be abundant in terrestrial characterized by frequent redox fluctuations.

  11. Recovery of plutonium from oxalate bearing solutions using a mixture of CMPO and TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Rizvi, G.H.; Iyer, R.H.; Badheka, L.P.; Banerji, A.; Michael, K.M.; Kapoor, S.C.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple and efficient procedure has been developed to quantitatively recover Pu from oxalate bearing solutions using a mixture of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and TBP in dodecane. Pu(IV) in the range of 6.9 to 34.6 mg/1 was quantitatively extracted into 0.2 M CMPO+ 1.2 M TBP in dodecane from an aqueous solution containing 3.0 M HNO 3 and 0.1 M H 2 C 2 O 4 . At such low concentrations of Pu, the distribution ratio (D) did not change but the increase in oxalic acid concentration drastically reduced these values. The variation in HNO 3 concentration at a fixed concentration of 0.2 M CMPO + 1.2 M TBP has shown a dramatic increase in the D values, being 0.3 at 1.0 M and > 10 4 at 7.5 M. The extraction was almost quantitative even at the aqueous to organic ratio of 10:1. Plutonium could be quantitatively recovered (i) by stripping with 0.5 M acetic acid and (ii) by coprecipitating it directly from the organic phase with 0.3 M oxalic acid + 0.3 M calcium nitrate + sodium nitrite. ∼ 92% of the Pu was found in the precipitate and ∼7% in the supernatant. Using this procedure Pu, in a concentrated form (∼50 times), could be recovered from the oxalate bearing solutions without recourse to the destruction of oxalate ion. The slope of 2 from the nitrate ion as well as CMPO variation experiments suggest the species in the organic phase to be PuC 2 O 4 (NO 3 ) 2 .2CMPO. The absorption spectral study of Pu(IV) confirmed the above species in the organic phase. (author). 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  13. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Liang; Qiu Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Vacuum pyrolysis as a pretreatment was used to separate cathode material from aluminum foils. ► Cobalt and lithium can be leached using oxalate while cobalt can be directly precipitated as cobalt oxalate. ► Cobalt and lithium can be separated efficiently from each other only in the oxalate leaching process. ► High reaction efficiency of LiCoO 2 was obtained with oxalate. - Abstract: Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO 2 and CoO directly as CoC 2 O 4 ·2H 2 O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L −1 for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO 2 can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  14. synthesis and structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priya Saxena

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... to a single crystal X-ray diffraction study for 1, 2 and 4-7. Keywords. Sterically .... 2.2b Mono-Schiff base 2: A suspension of I (1.00 g,. 2.27 mmol) and ...... bridge Crystallographic Data Centre, CCDC, 12 Union. Road, Cambridge .... H-C 2014 Rational design and synthesis of porous poly- mer networks: ...

  15. Tetrakis(acetonitrilecopper(I hydrogen oxalate–oxalic acid–acetonitrile (1/0.5/0.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timothy Royappa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cu(CH3CN4](C2HO4·0.5C2H2O4·0.5CH3CN, the CuI ion is coordinated by the N atoms of four acetonitrile ligands in a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment. The oxalic acid molecule lies across an inversion center. The acetonitrile solvent molecule is disordered across an inversion center and was refined with half occupancy. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate anions and oxalic acid molecules are linked via O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010].

  16. Simulation of multivariate diffusion bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Finch, Samuel; Sørensen, Michael

    We propose simple methods for multivariate diffusion bridge simulation, which plays a fundamental role in simulation-based likelihood and Bayesian inference for stochastic differential equations. By a novel application of classical coupling methods, the new approach generalizes a previously...... proposed simulation method for one-dimensional bridges to the mulit-variate setting. First a method of simulating approzimate, but often very accurate, diffusion bridges is proposed. These approximate bridges are used as proposal for easily implementable MCMC algorithms that produce exact diffusion bridges...

  17. Integral Abutment and Jointless Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Claudiu Comisu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral bridges, or integral abutment and jointless bridges, as they are more commonly known in the USA, are constructed without any movement joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Typically these bridges have stub-type abutments supported on piles and continuous bridge deck from one embankment to the other. Foundations are usually designed to be small and flexible to facilitate horizontal movement or rocking of the support. Integrally bridges are simple or multiple span ones that have their superstructure cast integrally with their substructure. The jointless bridges cost less to construct and require less maintenance then equivalent bridges with expansion joints. Integral bridges present a challenge for load distribution calculations because the bridge deck, piers, abutments, embankments and soil must all be considered as single compliant system. This paper presents some of the important features of integral abutment and jointless bridge design and some guidelines to achieve improved design. The goal of this paper is to enhance the awareness among the engineering community to use integral abutment and jointless bridges in Romania.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a microporous 6FDA-polyimide made from a novel carbocyclic pseudo Tröger's base diamine: Effect of bicyclic bridge on gas transport properties

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulhamid, Mahmoud A.; Ma, Xiaohua; Miao, Xiaohe; Pinnau, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    ,11-methanodibenzo[a,e][8]annulene (iCTBDA), were designed for the synthesis of microporous 6FDA-based polyimides (6FDA-CTBDA and 6FDA-iCTBDA). Both polyimides were soluble, exhibited excellent thermal stability of ∼490 °C, and had high surface areas of 587 m2 g−1 (6

  19. Fasting urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis and breed-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Patterson, E E; Armstrong, P J; Osborne, C A; Lulich, J P

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria are risk factors for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis, but breed-specific reports of urinary metabolites and their relationship with stone status are lacking. To compare urinary metabolites (calcium and oxalate) and blood ionized calcium (iCa) concentrations between CaOx stone formers and breed-matched stone-free controls for the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. Forty-seven Miniature Schnauzers (23 cases and 24 controls), 27 Bichons Frise (14 cases and 13 controls), and 15 Shih Tzus (7 cases and 8 controls). Prospective study. Fasting spot urinary calcium-to-creatinine and oxalate-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr and UOx/Cr, respectively) and blood iCa concentrations were measured and compared between cases and controls within and across breeds. Regression models were used to test the effect of patient and environmental factors on these variables. UCa/Cr was higher in cases than controls for each of the 3 breeds. In addition to stone status, being on a therapeutic food designed to prevent CaOx stone recurrence was associated with higher UCa/Cr. UOx/Cr did not differ between cases and controls for any of the breeds. Blood iCa was higher in cases than controls in the Miniature Schnauzer and Bichon Frise breeds and had a moderate correlation with UCa/Cr. Hypercalciuria is associated with CaOx stone status in the Miniature Schnauzer, Bichon Frise, and Shih Tzu breeds. UOx/Cr did not correlate with stone status in these 3 breeds. These findings may influence breed-specific stone prevention recommendations. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, X-ray crystal structure and conductometry studying of a number of new Schiff base complexes; a new example of binuclear square pyramidal geometry of Cu(II) complex bridged with an oxo group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbedaghi, Reza; Alavipour, Ehsan

    2015-11-01

    Three new binuclear Cu(II), Mn(II), Co(II) complexes [Cu2(L) (ClO4)](ClO4)2 (1), [Mn2(L) (ClO4)](ClO4)2 (2), and [Co2(L) (ClO4)](ClO4)2 (3), {L = 1,3-bis(2-((Z)-(2-aminopropylimino)methyl)phenoxy)propan-2-ol} have been synthesized. Single crystal X-ray structure analysis of complex 1 showed that the complex is binuclear and all nitrogen and oxygen atoms of ligand (N4O3) are coordinated to two Cu(II) center ions. In addition, the crystal structure studying shows, a perchlorate ion has been bridged to the Cu(II) metal centers. However, two distorted square pyramidal Cu(II) ions are bridged asymmetrically by a perchlorate ion and oxygen of hydroxyl group of Schiff base ligand. In addition, the conductometry behaviors of all complexes were studied in acetonitrile solution.

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and structural properties of [M(3-aminopyridine)2Ni(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n (M(II) = Co and Cu) heteropolynuclear cyano-bridged complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Zeki

    2016-01-01

    Two novel cyano-bridged heteropolynuclear complexes, [Co(3-aminopyridine)2Ni(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n and [Cu(3-aminopyridine)2Ni(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n have been synthesized and characterized by elemental, thermal, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. The structures of complexes have been determined by X-ray powder diffraction. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of complexes have been recorded in the region of 3500-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. General information was acquired about structural properties of these complexes from FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra by considering changes at characteristic peaks of the cyano group and 3AP. The splitting of the ν(Ctbnd N) stretching bands in the FT-IR spectra for complexes indicates the presence of terminal and bridging cyanides. The thermal behaviors of these complexes have been also investigated in the range of 25-950 °C using TG and DTG methods. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were made at room temperature using Gouy-balance.

  2. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K.; Sithambaresan, M.; Aiswarya, N.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2015-03-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ = 0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)sbnd I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the dx2-y2 ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined.

  3. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N⁴-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Sithambaresan, M; Aiswarya, N; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra

    2015-03-15

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ=0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g||>g⊥>2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the d(x2-y2) ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Response of Paraburkholderia terrae Strains to Two Soil Fungi and the Potential Role of Oxalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ul Haq

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungal-associated Paraburkholderia terrae strains in soil have been extensively studied, but their sensing strategies to locate fungi in soil have remained largely elusive. In this study, we investigated the behavior of five mycosphere-isolated P. terrae strains [including the type-3 secretion system negative mutant BS001-ΔsctD and the type strain DSM 17804T] with respect to their fungal-sensing strategies. The putative role of oxalic acid as a signaling molecule in the chemotaxis toward soil fungi, as well as a potential carbon source, was assessed. First, all P. terrae strains, including the type strain, were found to sense, and show a chemotactic response toward, the different levels of oxalic acid (0.1, 0.5, and 0.8% applied at a distance. The chemotactic responses were faster and stronger at lower concentrations (0.1% than at higher ones. We then tested the chemotactic responses of all strains toward exudates of the soil fungi Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten and Trichoderma asperellum 302 used in different dilutions (undiluted, 1:10, 1:100 diluted versus the control. All P. terrae strains showed significant directed chemotactic behavior toward the exudate source, with full-strength exudates inciting the strongest responses. In a separate experiment, strain BS001 was shown to be able to grow on oxalate-amended (0.1 and 0.5% mineral medium M9. Chemical analyses of the fungal secretomes using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, next to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, indeed revealed the presence of oxalic acid (next to glycerol, acetic acid, formic acid, and fumaric acid in the supernatants of both fungi. In addition, citric acid was found in the Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten exudates. Given the fact that, next to oxalic acid, the other compounds can also serve as C and energy sources for P. terrae, the two fungi clearly offer ecological benefits to this bacterium. The oxalic acid released by the two fungi may have

  5. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  6. BALKANS: Building bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At a time when upheaval and political unrest in some Balkan countries gives cause for concern, it is good to know that physics, once again, is building bridges between nations. The new international mobility in the region was marked by a major activity of the Balkan Physical Union - the first Balkan School of Physics, held on the banks of the Bosphorus during the first two weeks of September

  7. The Morse code effect: A crystal-crystal transformation observed in gel-grown lead (II) oxalate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisgarten, J. N.; Marks, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on an unusual crystal-crystal transformation phenomenon, which we have called the Morse Code Effect, based on the change in appearance of lead(II) oxalate crystals grown in agarose gels.

  8. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid containing oxalate and fluoride by a macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid resin (MPBPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal Chetty, K.; Godbole, A.G.; Swarup, R.; Vaidya, V.N.; Venugopal, V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of Pu from nitric acid solutions containing oxalate/fluoride was studied using an indigenously available macroporous bifunctional phosphinic acid (MPBPA) resin. Batch experiments were carried out to obtain the distribution data of Pu(IV) with a view to optimize conditions for its recovery from nitric acid waste solutions containing oxalate or fluoride ions. The measurements showed high distribution ratio (D) values even in the presence of strong complexing ions, like oxalate and fluoride, indicating the possibility of recovery of Pu from these types of waste solution. Column studies were carried out using this resin to recover Pu from the oxalate supernatant waste solution, which showed that up to 99% of Pu could be adsorbed on the resin. Elution of Pu loaded on the resin was studied using different eluting agents. (author)

  9. 1D and 2D Cobalt(II) Coordination Polymers, Co(ox)(en):Synthesis, Structures and Magnetic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jae Un; Lee, Yu Mi; Kim, Seung Joo; Yun, Ho Seop; Do, Jung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Two ethylenediamine cobalt(II) oxalate complexes Co(ox)(en), 1 and Co(ox)(en)·2H 2 O, 2 have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectrum, TG analysis, and magnetic measurements. In 1, Co atoms are coordinated by two bis-bidentate oxalate ions in transconfiguration to form Co(ox) chains, which are further bridged by ethylenediamine molecules to produce 2D grid layers, Co(ox)(en). In 2, Co atoms are coordinated by bridging oxalate ions in cis - configuration to form Co(ox) chains, and the additional chelation of ethylenediamine to Co atoms completes 1D zigzag chain, Co(en)(ox). Two lattice water molecules stabilize the chains through hydrogen bonding. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both complexes exhibit weak antiferromagnetic coupling between cobalt(II) ions with the susceptibility maxima at 23 K for 1 and 20 K for 2, respectively. In 1 and 2, the oxalate ligands afford a much shorter and more effective pathway for the magnetic interaction between cobalt ions compared to the ethylenediamine ligands, so the magnetic behaviors of both complexes could be well described with 1D infinite magnetic chain model

  10. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  11. X-ray fluorescence analysis of neodymium oxide/oxalate for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Mohile, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for the determination of cesium, praseodymium, samarium, europium and gadolinium in pure neodymium oxide and oxalate is described. The oxide sample is converted to oxalate and mixed with a binder (boric acid) to obtain a pressed circular pellet. The amount of sample needed for analysis is reduced by making use of the double layer pellet technique. A tungsten target X-ray tube is employed to irradiate the sample and a Philips PW 1220 semiautomatic X-ray spectrometer with a LiF (200) crystal is used to analyse the fluorescent X-rays. The minimum determination limit is 0.01 percent for all rare earths determined except for europium for which the limit is 0.005 percent. Three sigma detection limits have been calculated. (author)

  12. Studies on the preparation of thorium metal sponge from thorium oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, P.L.; Sehra, J.C.; Sundaram, C.V.; Gurumurthy, K.R.; Raghavan, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    The results of investigations carried out on the production of high purity thorium metal sponge, starting with thorium oxalate are presented. The flow sheet includes chlorination of thorium oxalate, purification of raw thorium tetrachloride, magnesium reduction of anhydrous thorium tetrachloride, slag metal separation, vacuum distillation for removal of residual MgCl 2 and excess magnesium, and consolidation of the metal sponge. Studies have been carried out to investigate the optimum chlorination efficiency and chlorine utilization attainable using different chlorinating agents, and to compare the quality of the sponge obtained with single and double distilled chloride. The overall process efficiency under optimum conditions was 81%. The thorium metal button, prepared from the sponge by arc-melting, analysed : O 2 - 847, N 2 - 20, C - 179, Mg - 100, Fe - 49, Ni<50, Al - 11, Cr - 7 (expressed in parts per million parts of thorium). The button could be further purified by electron beam melting to improve its ductility. (author)

  13. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  14. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  15. The effect of sulfuric acid on pore initiation in anodic alumina formed in oxalic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Hafezi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a tracer study on pore initiation in anodic alumina in oxalic acid was performed. Effects of some experimental parameters such as applied electrical potential, electrolyte composition and heat pretreatment were evaluated. Electrochemical and morphological experiments were performed using potentiostatic anodizing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques, respectively. Effect of electrolyte composition on current density was discussed. In various electrical potentials, electrolyte composition had different effects on current density. Addition of sulfuric acid into oxalic acid increased porosity. Also, distribution of pore size and pore diameter were influenced by presence of sulfuric acid. Effect of electrolyte composition on the morphology of aluminum surface layer depended on the electric potential. Current density and porosity of aluminum surface layer was decreased by heat pretreatment.

  16. Recovery of vanadium (V) from used catalysts in sulfuric acid production units by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulbaki, M.; Shino, O.

    2009-07-01

    Vanadium penta oxide (V 2 O 5 ), is used, in large quantities as a catalyst for the oxidation of SO 2 to SO 3 in sulfuric acid production units, during the oxidation process the level of the oxidation declines with the time because of catalyst poisoning. So the spent catalyst is usually through out in a specified special places by General Fertilizer Company which causes a pollution of the land. The present paper, studies the recovery of vanadium from the spent catalyst by using the oxalic acid. The optimal conditions of spent catalyst leaching have been studied. It has been shown that 2%(w/w) of oxalic acid is the most suitable for leaching process at 70 degree centigrade. The precipitation of vanadium using some alkaline media NH 4 OH has been also studied, it has been shown that ammonium hydroxide was the best at 50 degree centigrade. (author)

  17. Development and characterization of oxalate coatings for the corrosion protection of metallic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.; Ferreira Junior, J.M.; Baker, M.A.; Rossi, J.; Costa, I.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to develop and characterize surface treatments for corrosion protection of zinc. Oxalic acid (OA) was used and the concentration range selected was from 10"-"1 M to 1 M. The chemical composition of the layers formed was evaluated by XPS, and the morphology and thickness, by FIB and EDS, respectively. The corrosion resistance was monitored by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that a zinc oxalate layer had been formed in both concentrations but of different thickness and crystal sizes but similar morphology. The EIS results showed that the layer formed in the lower concentration solution provided corrosion protection for long periods whereas the one obtained at higher concentration did not protect the surface. The results led to conclude that one of the treatments tested is highly indicated for corrosion protection of zinc. (author)

  18. Reevaluation of the plant "gemstones": Calcium oxalate crystals sustain photosynthesis under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooulakou, Georgia; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Orkoula, Malvina G; Kontoyannis, Christos G; Fasseas, Costas; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Klapa, Maria I; Karabourniotis, George

    2016-09-01

    Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere. Abscisic acid, an alarm signal that causes stomatal closure seems to be implicated in this function and for this reason we named this path "alarm photosynthesis." The so-far "enigmatic," but highly conserved and widespread among plant species calcium oxalate crystals seem to play a crucial role in the survival of plants.

  19. Crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate in reaction crystallization using double-jet semi-batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Woon-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Joon-Soo; Ward, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The particle agglomeration of europium oxalate was investigated in a double-jet semi-batch reactor over a wide range of operating variables, including the agitation speed, reactant feed rate, and reactant concentration. The size of the agglomerates was directly dictated by the particle collision and supersaturation promoting agglomeration and the fluid shear force inhibiting agglomeration. Thus, with a longer feeding time and higher feed concentration for the reaction crystallization, the mean particle size increased, while the corresponding total particle population decreased due to the enhanced chance of particle agglomeration, resulting from a longer residence time and higher supersaturation in the reactor. Agitation was found to exhibit a rather complicated influence on particle agglomeration. Although both particle collision and turbulent fluid shear were promoted by an increase in the mixing intensity, the crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate was maximized at around 500 rpm of agitation speed due to an optimized balance between particle aggregation and breakage

  20. Isotopic fractionation of NBS oxalic acid and its influence in the calculated age of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmi, V.A.

    1979-10-01

    The intensity of the isotopic fractionation during the oxidation of NBS oxalic acid to carbon dioxide was checked. 30 reactions of oxidation of NBS oxalic acid with potassium permanganate were made. The resultant isotopic composition of CO 2 has been determined with a mass-spectrometer. A conclusion has been reached that the average of Δ 13 C is - 18.9% o with variation between - 17.7 and - 21.2%o. For values of Δ 13 C equal to - 22.0%o, the calculated age with isotopic correction shows the following deviations in relation to non-corrected age: 4% for materials of 1,000 years and 0.3% for 20,000 years.(Author) [pt