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Sample records for ovine lung show

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus in ovine lung in Brazil - Case report

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    Huber Rizzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Rizzo H., Silva Júnior V., Mota R.A., Rocha L.L.L., Ono M.S.B., Cruz J.A.L. de O., de Torres S.M., Coutinho L.C. de A., Guimarães J.A. & Dantas A.C. [Aspergillus fumigatus in ovine lung in Brazil - Case report.] Aspergillus fumigatus em pulmão de ovino no Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(4:413-419, 2016. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brasil. E-mail: hubervet@gmail.com Its described a case of mycotic pneumonia caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a three months old sheep, that died during the treatment period at the AGA/DMV/UFRPE consequence of skin lesions caused by dog attack. The animal did not respond to antibiotic treatment base on florafenicol, keeping high leukometric values. Macroscopically the lungs showed multifocal areas of cheesy aspect, varing shape and sizes, with yellowish tinge to the center and red at the edges. Microscopically were found granulomatous lesion with extensive dystrophic calcification area, presence of fibrin exudate in the bronchi, inflammatory infiltration of mononuclear diffuse, fibroblast proliferation delimiting a capsule around the inflammatory foci, epiteliodida robe with negative images of hyphae in the lung parenchyma, foamy macrophages, but no giant cells were seen. The blood culture on agar revealed the development of filamentous fungus with grayish color and lots of aerial hyphae, and the culture on Sabouraud media were seen colonies of dark green color with whitish borders both compatible with macromorphology colonies of A. fumigatus . The micromorphology of fungal growth revealed vesicles stick format with sporulation begins in the upper half of the vesicles. The imprints of nodular lesions of the lungs on slides, through panotic dye, showed septate hyphae and branched invading the tissue. Pulmonary infection by A. fumigatus, showed fatal and

  2. No correlation between initial arterial carboxyhemoglobin level and degree of lung injury following ovine burn and smoke inhalation.

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    Lange, Matthias; Cox, Robert A; Traber, Daniel L; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2014-04-01

    Fire victims often suffer from burn injury and concomitant inhalation trauma, the latter significantly contributing to the morbidity and mortality in these patients. Measurement of blood carboxyhemoglobin levels has been proposed as a diagnostic marker to verify and, perhaps, quantify the degree of lung injury following inhalation trauma. However, this correlation has not yet been sufficiently validated. A total of 77 chronically instrumented sheep received sham injury, smoke inhalation injury, or combined burn and inhalation trauma following an established protocol. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentrations were determined directly after injury and correlated to several clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury that were detected 48 hours post-injury. The injury induced severe impairment of pulmonary gas exchange and increases in transvascular fluid flux, lung water content, and airway obstruction scores. No significant correlations were detected between initial carboxyhemoglobin levels and all measured clinical and histopathological determinants of lung injury. In conclusion, the amount of arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentration cannot predict the degree of lung injury at 48 hours after ovine burn and smoke inhalation trauma.

  3. NKp46 defines ovine cells that have characteristics corresponding to NK cells

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    Connelley Timothy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural killer (NK cells are well recognized as playing a key role in innate immune defence through cytokine production and cytotoxic activity; additionally recent studies have identified several novel NK cell functions. The ability to study NK cells in the sheep has been restricted due to a lack of specific reagents. We report the generation of a monoclonal antibody specific for ovine NKp46, a receptor which in a number of mammals is expressed exclusively in NK cells. Ovine NKp46+ cells represent a population that is distinct from CD4+ and γδ+ T-cells, B-cells and cells of the monocytic lineage. The NKp46+ cells are heterogenous with respect to expression of CD2 and CD8 and most, but not all, express CD16 - characteristics consistent with NK cell populations in other species. We demonstrate that in addition to populations in peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid organs, ovine NKp46+ populations are also situated at the mucosal surfaces of the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and non-gravid uterus. Furthermore, we show that purified ovine NKp46+ populations cultured in IL-2 and IL-15 have cytotoxic activity that could be enhanced by ligation of NKp46 in re-directed lysis assays. Therefore we conclude that ovine NKp46+ cells represent a population that by phenotype, tissue distribution and function correspond to NK cells and that NKp46 is an activating receptor in sheep as in other species.

  4. BMP4 and LGL1 are Down Regulated in an Ovine Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

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    Heather eEmmerton-Coughlin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1, are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80 days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in 7 experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136 days (term=145d. Lung weight and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total lung weight was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p<0.05, confirming pulmonary hypoplasia. BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA was significantly reduced in CDH lungs (p<0.05. Wnt2 mRNA was decreased, although not significantly (p<0.06. Conclusions: For the first time, down regulation of BMP4 and Lgl1 are reported in an ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis.

  5. Platelet-activating factor synthesis and receptor-mediated signaling are downregulated in ovine newborn lungs: relevance in postnatal pulmonary adaptation and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

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    Renteria, L S; Cruz, E; Ibe, B O

    2013-12-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with a wide range of biological activities. We studied PAF metabolism and PAF receptor (PAFR) signaling in perinatal ovine lungs to understand PAF's role in transition of the perinatal pulmonary hemodynamics and pathophysiology of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We hypothesized that downregulation of PAF synthesis with upregulation of PAF catabolism by acetylhydrolase (PAF-Ah) in the newborn lung is needed for fetus-to-newborn pulmonary adaptation. Studies were conducted on fetal and newborn lamb pulmonary arteries (PA), veins (PV) and smooth muscle cells (SMC). PAF metabolism, PAFR binding and cell proliferation were studied by cell culture; gene expression was studied by qPCR. Fetal lungs synthesized 60% more PAF than newborn lungs. Compared with the fetal PVs and SMCs, PAF-Ah activity in newborn was 40-60% greater. PAF-Ah mRNA expression in newborn vessels was different from the expression by fetal PA. PAF-Ah gene clone activity confirmed deletion of hypoxia-sensitive site. PAFR mRNA expression by the PVs and SMC-PV of the fetus and newborn was greater than by corresponding PAs and SMC-PA. Q-PCR study of PAFR expression by the SMC-PV of both groups was greater than SMC-PA. Fetal SMCs bound more PAF than the newborn SMCs. PAFR antagonist, CV-3988, inhibited PAFR binding and DNA synthesis by the fetal SMCs, but augmented binding and DNA synthesis by newborn cells. We show different PAF-PAFR mediated effects in perinatal lungs, suggesting both transcriptional and translational regulation of PAF-Ah and PAFR expression in the perinatal lamb lungs. These indicate that the downregulation of PAF-mediated effects postnatally protects against persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  6. Sequence diversity of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in caprine and ovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica.

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    Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

    2013-04-20

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the aetiological agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. The primary virulence factor of the bacterium is a leukotoxin (LktA), which induces apoptosis in susceptible cells via mitochondrial targeting. It has been previously shown that certain lktA alleles are associated either with cattle or sheep. The objective of the present study was to investigate lktA sequence variation among ovine and caprine M haemolytica strains isolated from pneumonic lungs, revealing any potential adaptation for the caprine host, for which there is no available data. Furthermore, we investigated amino acid variation in the N-terminal part of the sequences and its effect on targeting mitochondria. Data analysis showed that the prevalent caprine genotype differed at a single non-synonymous site from a previously described uncommon bovine allele, whereas the ovine sequences represented new, distinct alleles. N-terminal sequence differences did not affect the mitochondrial targeting ability of the isolates; interestingly enough in one case, mitochondrial matrix targeting was indicated rather than membrane association, suggesting an alternative LktA trafficking pattern.

  7. Improving Baking Quality of Weak Gluten Semolina Using Ovine Whey Powder

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    Nicola Secchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of ovine whey powder at 5%, 10%, and 15% on bread quality was studied. Two different types of semolina were used, one being a commercial blend with strong and tenacious gluten (48T and the other coming from one single cultivar, characterized for having weak and sticky gluten (4T. Two different types of typical Mediterranean bread were produced, pan bread and flat bread, and their quality characteristics were measured, together with their shelf life. The volume of 4T pan bread was improved by the addition of 5% ovine whey powder. In the case of 48T, the volume of bread was negatively affected by the addition of ovine whey powder. Moreover, flat bread made with 4T was more extensible after the addition of ovine whey powder and showed lower starch retrogradation over time than the same type of bread made with 48T. Among the different pan bread types, consumers preferred 4T with 5% of substitution, which also showed an improved cell size distribution in the crumb.

  8. Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.

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    Domenica Scumaci

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome.

  9. Quantitation of immunoglobulins in ovine sera and secretions by laser nephelometry. Comparison with the radial immunodiffusion (RID) technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, J.; Verdouw-Chamalaun, C.V.M.; Noordzij, A.

    In twenty-five ovine body fluids (serum, lung fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid), the concentrations of IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA were determined by laser nephelometry and radial immunodiffusion (RID). When nephelometric assays are carried out, antisera free from any turbidity are essential. Methods

  10. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

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    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  11. Radioimmunoassay of ovine alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Highly purified ovine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was used both for radioisotope labelling and as the reference standard in the double antibody radioimmunoassay of ovine AFP. The sensitivity of the assay is 2 ng/ml which is about 8000 times more sensitive than radioimmunodiffusion assay. The assay is of sufficient sensitivity to quantitate AFP in normal adult sheep serum, pregnancy serum, amniotic fluid and fetal lamb serum. (Auth.)

  12. Evaluating the interaction of a tracheobronchial stent in an ovine in-vivo model.

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    McGrath, Donnacha J; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Cornelissen, Christian G; O'Brien, Barry; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Bruzzi, Mark; McHugh, Peter E

    2018-04-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are used to restore patency to stenosed airways. However, these devices are associated with many complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue formation, mucous plugging and stent strut fracture. Of these, granulation tissue formation is the complication that most frequently requires costly secondary interventions. In this study a biomechanical lung modelling framework recently developed by the authors to capture the lung in-vivo stress state under physiological loading is employed in conjunction with ovine pre-clinical stenting results and device experimental data to evaluate the effect of stent interaction on granulation tissue formation. Stenting is simulated using a validated model of a prototype covered laser-cut tracheobronchial stent in a semi-specific biomechanical lung model, and physiological loading is performed. Two computational methods are then used to predict possible granulation tissue formation: the standard method which utilises the increase in maximum principal stress change, and a newly proposed method which compares the change in contact pressure over a respiratory cycle. These computational predictions of granulation tissue formation are then compared to pre-clinical stenting observations after a 6-week implantation period. Experimental results of the pre-clinical stent implantation showed signs of granulation tissue formation both proximally and distally, with a greater proximal reaction. The standard method failed to show a correlation with the experimental results. However, the contact change method showed an apparent correlation with granulation tissue formation. These results suggest that this new method could be used as a tool to improve future device designs.

  13. Endogenous Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus RNA is expressed by different cell types in ovine foetus and placenta

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    E Sanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous retroviruses are inherited elements transmitted trough the germline of most animal species and their biological role is still controversial. Ovine Pulmonary Carcinoma (OPC represents a good model for studying the interactions of endogenous retroviruses with their exogenous counterparts. The type D exogenous retrovirus known as Jaagsiekte Sheep Retro-Virus (JSRV is necessary and sufficient to cause OPC in domestic and wild sheep, but both affected and unaffected animals host in their genome 15 to 20 copies of related endogenous retroviruses named endogenous JSRV (enJSRV. In this study we evaluated the expression of enJSRV gag sequences in ovine foetal and placental tissues. RNA in situ hybridisation was performed on tissue sections of thymi, lymph nodes and lungs from ovine foetuses and related placentas, taken at a late stage of development. Reverse transcriptase- in situ polymerase chain reactions were also carried out on placental samples to better define the involved cells. In foetal tissues, specific signals were observed in the thymus medulla, lymph nodes and, at a lesser extent, in foetal bronchiolar cells. In the placental tissues, positive areas were detected in various cell types in the sincythium-and cyto-trophoblast. These data demonstrate that en JSRV RNA is largely expressed in a broad spectrum of cells including tissues which are critical for the development of the immune system.

  14. Comparison of some peptidic and proteic ovine pineal fractions with a bovine pineal E5 fraction

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    Noteborn, H P; Ebels, I; Salemink, C A [State Univ. of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands). Department of Organic Chemistry; Pevet, P [The Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands).; Reinharz, A C [Hopital Cantonal, Geneva (Switzerland). Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology; Neacsu, C [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology, Bucharest (Romania).

    1982-01-01

    Using rather simple and mild extraction and separation methods, three ovine pineal fractions (XM 300R - PP 7.2, PP 7.2' and PP 7.2S) were obtained, which contain peptidic/proteic substances and which show fluorescence characteristics of indoles. The ovine fractions were compared with the bovine pineal E5-fraction. The ovine fractions are chemically sensitive to normal laboratory light and stable in red light (..lambda.. > 600 nm). Immunologically, these fractions and the bovine E5 fraction are stable. From the results of radioimmunological experiments it was concluded that the bovine pineal E5 fraction as well as the ovine pineal fraction XM 300R - PP 7.2 and PP 7.2S may contain (a) peptide(s) ending by the same carboxy terminal tripeptide Pro-Arg-Gly(NH/sub 2/).

  15. Development and characterization of recombinant ovine coagulation factor VIII.

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    Philip M Zakas

    Full Text Available Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate

  16. The effect of estrus and pregnant sheep serum on in vitro ovine embryo production

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    J Mattimena

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to observe the influence of estrus sheep serum (ESS and pregnant sheep serum (PSS on in vitrous ovine embryo development. The research was carried out in Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran university. Oocyte and ovary of local sheep were collected from slaughter house. Maturation, fertilization and embryo culture media were supplemented with 10, 15 and 20% ESS or PSS respectively. Results show that supplementation of 20% ESS had significantly (P<0.05 better maturation rate than those of 10-20% PSS (79.98% vs 58.89-68.97%. However, increasing ESS into 15-20% did not affect the maturation rate (71.86-74.98%. Therefore, 10% estrus sheep serum (ESS can be used as an alternative serum in the ovine maturation media. The supplementation of ESS or PSS did not significantly increas the fertilization rate and in vitrous ovine embryo development, however, it was suggested to add 10% pregnant sheep serum (PSS at in vitrous ovine embryo culture.

  17. Pressure oscillation delivery to the lung: Computer simulation of neonatal breathing parameters.

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    Al-Jumaily, Ahmed M; Reddy, Prasika I; Bold, Geoff T; Pillow, J Jane

    2011-10-13

    Preterm newborn infants may develop respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) due to functional and structural immaturity. A lack of surfactant promotes collapse of alveolar regions and airways such that newborns with RDS are subject to increased inspiratory effort and non-homogeneous ventilation. Pressure oscillation has been incorporated into one form of RDS treatment; however, how far it reaches various parts of the lung is still questionable. Since in-vivo measurement is very difficult if not impossible, mathematical modeling may be used as one way of assessment. Whereas many models of the respiratory system have been developed for adults, the neonatal lung remains essentially ill-described in mathematical models. A mathematical model is developed, which represents the first few generations of the tracheo-bronchial tree and the 5 lobes that make up the premature ovine lung. The elements of the model are derived using the lumped parameter approach and formulated in Simulink™ within the Matlab™ environment. The respiratory parameters at the airway opening compare well with those measured from experiments. The model demonstrates the ability to predict pressures, flows and volumes in the alveolar regions of a premature ovine lung. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosynthesis of lutropin in ovine pituitary slices: incorporation of [35S]sulfate in carbohydrate units

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    Anumula, K.R.; Bahl, O.P.

    1983-01-01

    Sulfate incorporation into carbohydrate of lutropin (LH) has been studied in sheep pituitary slices using H 2 ( 35 )SO 4 . Labeled ovine LH was purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-100 and carboxymethyl-Sephadex chromatography from both the incubation medium and tissue extract. Autoradiography of the gel showed only two protein bands which comigrated with the alpha and beta subunits of ovine LH in both the purified ovine LH and the immunoprecipitate obtained with LH-specific rabbit antiserum. Furthermore, [ 35 S]sulfate was also incorporated into several other proteins in addition to LH. The location of 35 SO/sub 2-(4)/ in the oligosaccharides of ovine LH was evidenced by its presence in the glycopeptides obtained by exhaustive Pronase digestion. The location and the point of attachment of sulfate in the carbohydrate unit were established by the isolation of 4-O-[ 35 S]sulfo-N-acetylhexosaminyl-glycerols and 4-O-[ 35 S] sulfo-N-acetylglucosaminitol from the Smith degradation products and by the release of 35 SO/sub 2-(4)/ by chondro-4-sulfatase. Thus, the present line of experimentation indicates the presence of sulfate on both the terminal N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine in the oligosaccharide chains of the labeled ovine LH

  19. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

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    2013-11-14

    ... thus has no bearing on this rulemaking. Goat Meat One commenter expressed concern that inspectors may... goats. It is unlikely that a facility would slaughter a goat and present its meat as ovine meat. As.... APHIS-2008-0085] RIN 0579-AD17 Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  20. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of traditional ovine ricotta cheese in modified atmosphere packaging

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    Isabella Mancuso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ricotta cheese is a traditional Sicilian dairy product characterised by high humidity and a short shelf life (2-4 days when refrigerated. The increasing demand for fresh food has prompted manufacturers to develop special packaging techniques, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, that can extend the shelf life and maintain the organoleptic characteristics of ovine ricotta cheese. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of fresh MAP-packed ovine ricotta cheese by monitoring the microbiological, chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Samples of a single batch were packed in MAP or vacuum packed and stored at 4°C for 24 and 7 days, respectively. Water activity, pH, physicochemical parameters and microbiological characteristics were examined. A sensory panel rated the product’s main organoleptic characteristics (colour, odour, flavour and texture. Results showed that MAP controlled the development of any unwanted microflora, but did not affect the development of intrinsic lactic floras or chemical parameters. Sensory analysis revealed that overall the MAP-packed ricotta remained acceptable for up to 15 days of storage. The vacuum-packed ricotta cheese, however, showed a progressive deterioration in organoleptic characteristics from day 5 onward and therefore had a shorter shelf life. In conclusion, the ability of MAP to extend the shelf life of a traditional regional product (such as fresh ovine ricotta cheese guarantees consumers a quality product and provides opportunities for manufacturers to expand their markets beyond national boundaries.

  1. The ovine mammary gland as an experimental model to determine the virulence of animal ureaplasmas.

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    Ball, H. J.; Mackie, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    As an estimate of their virulence, the ability of ovine, bovine, canine, feline and simian ureaplasma strains to cause mastitis in the ovine mammary gland was investigated. Five ovine ureaplasmas produced a clinical mastitis. Broth cultures of seven bovine ureaplasmas were unable to infect the ovine gland, but two of these strains plus one other were able to do so following passage through the bovine udder. One of two canine strains and a feline strain both caused mastitis, but the simian str...

  2. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live... culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma following...

  3. Breast Cancer-Derived Lung Metastases Show Increased Pyruvate Carboxylase-Dependent Anaplerosis

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    Stefan Christen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular proliferation depends on refilling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle to support biomass production (anaplerosis. The two major anaplerotic pathways in cells are pyruvate conversion to oxaloacetate via pyruvate carboxylase (PC and glutamine conversion to α-ketoglutarate. Cancers often show an organ-specific reliance on either pathway. However, it remains unknown whether they adapt their mode of anaplerosis when metastasizing to a distant organ. We measured PC-dependent anaplerosis in breast-cancer-derived lung metastases compared to their primary cancers using in vivo 13C tracer analysis. We discovered that lung metastases have higher PC-dependent anaplerosis compared to primary breast cancers. Based on in vitro analysis and a mathematical model for the determination of compartment-specific metabolite concentrations, we found that mitochondrial pyruvate concentrations can promote PC-dependent anaplerosis via enzyme kinetics. In conclusion, we show that breast cancer cells proliferating as lung metastases activate PC-dependent anaplerosis in response to the lung microenvironment.

  4. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

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    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form

  5. Pathology and polymerase chain reaction detection of ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi) cases in slaughtered sheep in India.

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    Singh, Rahul; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Rajendra; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumari, Swati; Yadav, Jay Prakash; Kashyap, Gayatri; Singh, Karam Pal; Singh, Vidya; Sahoo, Monalisa

    2017-11-01

    The small ruminant lentiviruses are known to cause maedi-visna (MV) and caprine arthritis - encephalitis in sheep and goats, typically affecting joints, udder, lungs, and the central nervous system. The diagnosis usually involves serology, clinical signs, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the present study, the histopathologically positive pneumonia cases of MV were confirmed by PCR in lung tissue probably for the first time in India. A total of 888 lungs of adult sheep, aged between 2 and 5 years, were screened during slaughter, of which 121 were found to have pneumonic lesions. The tissues from each pneumonic lung including associated lymph nodes were collected in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. The frozen tissues of the same were also collected and stored at -20°C for PCR confirmation. Three of 121 cases of pneumonic lungs of sheep revealed gross and histopathological lesions suggestive of maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia infection. These 3 cases were further confirmed by PCR technique that amplified 291-base pair DNA in the long terminal repeat sequence of MV provirus. This study suggests the low occurrence of MV virus (MVV) infection in India in naturally affected sheep based on pathomorphological lesions and using the molecular tool of PCR detection of the virus in tissues. Further, a combination of pathomorphology or/and PCR testing might be optimal for detecting the animals infected with MVV.

  6. Mannheimia Species Associated with Ovine Mastitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Omaleki, Lida; Barber, Stuart R.; Allen, Joanne L.; Browning, Glenn F.

    2010-01-01

    Mannheimia glucosida, M. haemolytica, and M. ruminalis were isolated from cases of acute mastitis in ewes. M. glucosida was found to be a common cause of clinical mastitis in sheep. Selected phenotypic tests in addition to genotyping were needed to definitively identify Mannheimia species causing ovine mastitis.

  7. Peripheral ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels correlate with and predict histological tissue lesion severity in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Noh, Susan M; White, Stephen N; Snekvik, Kevin R; Truscott, Thomas; Knowles, Donald P

    2009-04-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses in serum or OPP provirus levels in peripheral blood associate with the degree of histologically measured tissue lesions in naturally OPPV-infected sheep. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and hematoxylin- and eosin-stained lung, mammary gland, carpal synovial membrane, and brain tissues from 11 OPPV-infected ewes (mean age of 8.6 years) and 5 OPPV-uninfected ewes (mean age of 6 years) were evaluated for lesion severity. Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) provirus levels and anti-OPPV antibody titers in peripheral blood and serum samples, respectively, were measured upon euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia. Both mean peripheral OPP provirus levels and mean serum anti-surface envelope glycoprotein (anti-SU) antibody titers at the time of euthanasia were significantly higher in ewes with moderate to severe histological lesions than in ewes with no to mild histological lesions. However, although mean peripheral blood OPP provirus levels at euthanasia and 3 years prior to euthanasia significantly correlated with the highest histological lesion score for any affected tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.03 and 0.02), mean serum anti-SU antibody titers, anti-capsid antibody titers, and anti-transmembrane 90 antibody titers at euthanasia did not show a significant correlation with the highest histological lesion score for any tissue (two-tailed P values, 0.32, 0.97, and 0.18, respectively). These data are the first to show that OPP provirus levels predict and correlate with the extent of OPPV-related histological lesions in various OPPV-affected tissues. These findings suggest that peripheral OPP provirus levels quantitatively contribute more to the development of histological lesions than the systemic anti-SU antibody host immune response.

  8. Pathology and polymerase chain reaction detection of ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi cases in slaughtered sheep in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The small ruminant lentiviruses are known to cause maedi-visna (MV and caprine arthritis - encephalitis in sheep and goats, typically affecting joints, udder, lungs, and the central nervous system. The diagnosis usually involves serology, clinical signs, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In the present study, the histopathologically positive pneumonia cases of MV were confirmed by PCR in lung tissue probably for the first time in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 888 lungs of adult sheep, aged between 2 and 5 years, were screened during slaughter, of which 121 were found to have pneumonic lesions. The tissues from each pneumonic lung including associated lymph nodes were collected in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. The frozen tissues of the same were also collected and stored at -20°C for PCR confirmation. Results: Three of 121 cases of pneumonic lungs of sheep revealed gross and histopathological lesions suggestive of maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia infection. These 3 cases were further confirmed by PCR technique that amplified 291-base pair DNA in the long terminal repeat sequence of MV provirus. Conclusion: This study suggests the low occurrence of MV virus (MVV infection in India in naturally affected sheep based on pathomorphological lesions and using the molecular tool of PCR detection of the virus in tissues. Further, a combination of pathomorphology or/and PCR testing might be optimal for detecting the animals infected with MVV.

  9. Pathology and polymerase chain reaction detection of ovine progressive pneumonia (maedi) cases in slaughtered sheep in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Rajendra; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumari, Swati; Yadav, Jay Prakash; Kashyap, Gayatri; Singh, Karam Pal; Singh, Vidya; Sahoo, Monalisa

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The small ruminant lentiviruses are known to cause maedi-visna (MV) and caprine arthritis - encephalitis in sheep and goats, typically affecting joints, udder, lungs, and the central nervous system. The diagnosis usually involves serology, clinical signs, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the present study, the histopathologically positive pneumonia cases of MV were confirmed by PCR in lung tissue probably for the first time in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 888 lungs of adult sheep, aged between 2 and 5 years, were screened during slaughter, of which 121 were found to have pneumonic lesions. The tissues from each pneumonic lung including associated lymph nodes were collected in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology. The frozen tissues of the same were also collected and stored at −20°C for PCR confirmation. Results: Three of 121 cases of pneumonic lungs of sheep revealed gross and histopathological lesions suggestive of maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia infection. These 3 cases were further confirmed by PCR technique that amplified 291-base pair DNA in the long terminal repeat sequence of MV provirus. Conclusion: This study suggests the low occurrence of MV virus (MVV) infection in India in naturally affected sheep based on pathomorphological lesions and using the molecular tool of PCR detection of the virus in tissues. Further, a combination of pathomorphology or/and PCR testing might be optimal for detecting the animals infected with MVV. PMID:29263606

  10. Establishment of the optimum two-dimensional electrophoresis system of ovine ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, J L; Zhang, L P; Wu, J P; Wang, J; Ding, Q

    2014-08-26

    Lambing performance of sheep is the most important economic trait and is regarded as a critic factoring affecting the productivity in sheep industry. Ovary plays the most roles in lambing trait. To establish the optimum two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE) of ovine ovarian tissue, the common protein extraction methods of animal tissue (trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation and direct schizolysis methods) were used to extract ovine ovarian protein, and 17-cm nonlinear immobilized PH 3-10 gradient strips were used for 2-DE. The sample handling, loading quantity of the protein sample, and isoelectric focusing (IEF) steps were manipulated and optimized in this study. The results indicate that the direct schizolysis III method, a 200-μg loading quantity of the protein sample, and IEF steps II (20°C active hydration, 14 h→500 V, 1 h→1000 V 1 h→1000-9000 V, 6 h→80,000 VH→500 V 24 h) are optimal for 2-DE analysis of ovine ovarian tissue. Therefore, ovine ovarian tissue proteomics 2-DE was preliminarily established by the optimized conditions in this study; meanwhile, the conditions identified herein could provide a reference for ovarian sample preparation and 2-DE using tissues from other animals.

  11. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A.; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. PMID:27672209

  12. The use of CR1aa for ovine in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulnawati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of CR1aa as a simple medium for maturation, fertilization and culture of ovine embryo in vitro. Oocytes were collected by slicing method in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS supplemented with 5% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS and 100 IU/ml penicillin streptomycin. Oocytes were matured in Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199 as control or CR1aa as treatment medium. Both maturation medium were supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, 10 IU/ml Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH, 10 IU/ml Luteinizing Hormone (LH, 1 μg/ml Estradiol and 100 IU/ml penicillin-streptomycin. Oocytes were incubated in 5% CO2 incubator, 38˚C for 24 h. Matured oocytes were fertilized in BO or CR1aa medium, supplemented with 2.5 mM caffeine benzoate and 20 mg /ml heparin. After 18 h in vitro fertilization, oocytes were cultured in TCM-199 or CR1aa medium, both supplemented with 5% FBS, 5 mg/ml insulin and 100 IU/ml penicillin streptomycin. Results showed that the highest maturation rate was found in TCM-199 medium (73.27% and significantly different (P0.05 between cleavage rate of ovine embryos in TCM-199 and CR1aa medium (39.45% vs 50.94%. In conclusion, optimum result on ovine in vitro embryo production can be achieved from a combination of TCM-199 as maturation medium and CR1aa as fertilization and culture medium.

  13. Genetic relationship between the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts located in lung and liver of hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Mekki, Mongi; Zmantar, Sofien; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of hydatidosis in Northern Africa, Tunisia included. The genetic relationship between lung and liver localization were studied in ovine, bovine and human hydatid cysts in Tunisia. Allozyme variation and single strand conformation polymorphism were used for genetic differentiation. The first cause of genetic differentiation was the host species and the second was the localization (lung or liver). The reticulated genetic relationship between the liver or the lung human isolates and isolates from bovine lung, is indicative of recombination (sexual reproduction) or lateral genetic transfer. The idea of two specialized populations (one for the lung one for the liver) that are more or less successful according to host susceptibility is thus proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reversible Lansoprazole-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease Showing Improvement after Drug Cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Shin, Bong Kyung; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Eun Young

    2008-01-01

    Lansoprazole is an acid proton-pump inhibitor that is similar to omeprazole. It is used to treat duodenal or gastric ulcers, H. pylori infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Common adverse effects of lansoprazole are diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin rash and/or itching. Information from U.S. National Library of Medicine warns that this drug can on rare occasion cause cough or cold-like symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanisms of lansoprazole-related pulmonary symptoms are not yet understood. In particular, there are no known reports regarding lansoprazole-induced interstitial lung diseases. We report here a case of interstitial lung disease (ILD) induced by oral administration of lansoprazole, which showed a pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) as detected from a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. We believe that this is the first report of a case of pathologically proven lansoprazole-induced ILD for which a surgical lung biopsy was performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of DI-ILD caused by lansoprazole. The diagnosis was made by considering the radiological, histopathological and clinical findings, including the close temporal relationship between lansoprazole exposure and symptom severity. Other possible causes were excluded due to a lack of a temporal relationship between the symptoms and work history or prednisolone therapy, and no other history of specific allergen exposure. When there is diffuse interstitial lung disease with an unknown etiology, it is important to remember that drugs can be the cause of pulmonary symptoms and it is crucial to take a careful patient history. If there is a recent history of taking lansoprazole in a patient with clinical and radiological findings of diffuse interstitial lung disease, we recommend stopping the medication to see if there is clinical and radiological improvement. That way, one can avoid using invasive procedures to

  15. Reversible Lansoprazole-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease Showing Improvement after Drug Cessation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyu Won; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Shin, Bong Kyung; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Eun Young [College of Medicine, Korea University, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Lansoprazole is an acid proton-pump inhibitor that is similar to omeprazole. It is used to treat duodenal or gastric ulcers, H. pylori infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Common adverse effects of lansoprazole are diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin rash and/or itching. Information from U.S. National Library of Medicine warns that this drug can on rare occasion cause cough or cold-like symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanisms of lansoprazole-related pulmonary symptoms are not yet understood. In particular, there are no known reports regarding lansoprazole-induced interstitial lung diseases. We report here a case of interstitial lung disease (ILD) induced by oral administration of lansoprazole, which showed a pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) as detected from a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. We believe that this is the first report of a case of pathologically proven lansoprazole-induced ILD for which a surgical lung biopsy was performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of DI-ILD caused by lansoprazole. The diagnosis was made by considering the radiological, histopathological and clinical findings, including the close temporal relationship between lansoprazole exposure and symptom severity. Other possible causes were excluded due to a lack of a temporal relationship between the symptoms and work history or prednisolone therapy, and no other history of specific allergen exposure. When there is diffuse interstitial lung disease with an unknown etiology, it is important to remember that drugs can be the cause of pulmonary symptoms and it is crucial to take a careful patient history. If there is a recent history of taking lansoprazole in a patient with clinical and radiological findings of diffuse interstitial lung disease, we recommend stopping the medication to see if there is clinical and radiological improvement. That way, one can avoid using invasive procedures to

  16. Isolation and characterization of bifidobacteria from ovine cheese

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Musilová, S.; Tomáška, M.; Rada, V.; Kmeť, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 1 (2014), s. 26-30 ISSN 0168-1605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacterium sp. * ovine cheese * cultivation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.082, year: 2014

  17. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Discovery and genomic characterization of a novel ovine partetravirus and a new genotype of bovine partetravirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively. In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

  19. Characterization of the ovine ribosomal protein SA gene and its pseudogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ribosomal protein SA (RPSA, previously named 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor/67-kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR is a multifunctional protein that plays a role in a number of pathological processes, such as cancer and prion diseases. In all investigated species, RPSA is a member of a multicopy gene family consisting of one full length functional gene and several pseudogenes. Therefore, for studies on RPSA related pathways/pathologies, it is important to characterize the whole family and to address the possible function of the other RPSA family members. The present work aims at deciphering the RPSA family in sheep. Results In addition to the full length functional ovine RPSA gene, 11 other members of this multicopy gene family, all processed pseudogenes, were identified. Comparison between the RPSA transcript and these pseudogenes shows a large variety in sequence identities ranging from 99% to 74%. Only one of the 11 pseudogenes, i.e. RPSAP7, shares the same open reading frame (ORF of 295 amino acids with the RPSA gene, differing in only one amino acid. All members of the RPSA family were annotated by comparative mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH localization. Transcription was investigated in the cerebrum, cerebellum, spleen, muscle, lymph node, duodenum and blood, and transcripts were detected for 6 of the 11 pseudogenes in some of these tissues. Conclusions In the present work we have characterized the ovine RPSA family. Our results have revealed the existence of 11 ovine RPSA pseudogenes and provide new data on their structure and sequence. Such information will facilitate molecular studies of the functional RPSA gene taking into account the existence of these pseudogenes in the design of experiments. It remains to be investigated if the transcribed members are functional as regulatory non-coding RNA or as functional proteins.

  20. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Lung Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Isumi, Kyoko; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly recognized as a prevalent problem worldwide, especially in patients with a chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of chronic inflammatory lung disease. Previous clinical studies have shown that COPD leads to low vitamin D levels, which further increase the severity of COPD. Vitamin D homeostasis represents one of the most important factors that potentially determine the severity of COPD. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung tissues are still unclear. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of VDR, we generated transgenic mice that show lung-specific VDR overexpression under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter (TG mice). The TG mice were used to study the expression patterns of proinflammatory cytokines using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The TG mice had lower levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-related cytokines than wild-type (WT) mice did. No significant differences in the expression of Th2 cytokines were observed between TG and WT mice. This study is the first to achieve lung-specific overexpression of VDR in TG mice: an interesting animal model useful for studying the relation between airway cell inflammation and vitamin D signaling. VDR expression is an important factor that influences anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissues. Our results show the crucial role of VDR in anti-inflammatory effects in lungs; these data are potentially useful for the treatment or prevention of COPD.

  1. Performance of blue-yellow screening test for antimicrobial detection in ovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linage, B; Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Asensio, J A; Blanco, M A; De La Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F

    2007-12-01

    Drug residues in milk are important because of public health and industrial implications. The detection limits of 25 antimicrobial agents were determined by the blue-yellow screening method in ovine milk. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested on 20 ovine milk samples from individual ewes in midlactation. Detection limits determined by means of logistic regression were below European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRL) for penicillin G (3 to 4 microg/kg), ceftiofur (96 to 107 microg/kg), framycetin (720 to 781 microg/kg), neomycin (915 to 1,084 microg/kg), and tylosin (44 to 51 microg/kg). Detection limits for ampicillin (5 to 6 microg/kg), cloxacillin (33 to 42 microg/kg), cefoperazone (73 to 82 microg/kg), cefalexin (160 to 202 microg/kg), gentamycin (355 to 382 microg/kg), streptomycin (3,063 to 3,593 microg/kg), tilmicosin (109 to 131 microg/kg), erythromycin (444 to 522 microg/kg), spyramicin (1,106 to 1,346 microg/kg), sulfadimethoxine (101 to 119 microg/kg), sulfathiazole (122 to 151 microg/kg), sulfamethazine (309 to 328 microg/kg), sulfanilamide (1,750 to 2,674 microg/kg), tetracycline (233 to 257 microg/kg), oxytetracycline (398 to 501 microg/kg), doxycycline (323 to 419 microg/kg), chlortetracycline (3,331 to 3,989 microg/kg), danofloxacin (4.7 to 5.5 mg/kg), enrofloxacin (41 to 46 mg/kg), and flumequin (63 to 71 mg/kg) were higher than the EU-MRL. Although the blue-yellow method showed improved sensitivity compared with other tests studied in ovine milk, the performance of screening methods for detecting antimicrobial agents in milk of this species should be improved.

  2. A monoclonal antibody to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mweene, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to defeat antibodies to pestviruses in bovine and ovine sera. Single sera from 211 cattle and 22 sheep from 7 different farms were tested using ELISA and Serum Neutralisation Test (SNT). 17 Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed against P80, gp48 and gp53 were tested for ability to coat ELISA plates and capture the bovine viral diarrhea antigen. 5 mabs(WB 103, WB, 105, WB 112 against P80 kDa protein, WB 210 and WB 214 directed against gp48 and gp 53 kDa protein. Specific antibody to BVDV was detected by rabbit anti-bovine and anti-ovine IgG antisera. The quantitative correlation between two tests was good

  3. Dynamic compression of human and ovine meniscal tissue compared with a potential thermoplastic elastomer hydrogel replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M; Boncella, Katie; Lewis, Jackson T; Bailey, Travis S; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how human meniscal tissue responds to loading regimes mimetic of daily life as well as how it compares to larger animal models is critical in the development of a functionally accurate synthetic surrogate. Seven human and eight ovine cadaveric meniscal specimens were regionally sectioned into cylinders 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick along with 10 polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide block copolymer-based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) hydrogels. Samples were compressed to 12% strain at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles, unloaded for 24 h, and then retested. No differences were found within each group between test one and test two. Human and ovine tissue exhibited no regional dependency (p Human samples relaxed quicker than ovine tissue or the TPE hydrogel with modulus values at cycle 50 not significantly different from cycle 5000. Ovine menisci were found to be similar to human menisci in relaxation profile but had significantly higher modulus values (3.44 MPa instantaneous and 0.61 MPa after 5000 cycles compared with 1.97 and 0.11 MPa found for human tissue) and significantly different power law fit coefficients. The TPE hydrogel had an initial modulus of 0.58 MPa and experienced less than a 20% total relaxation over the 5000. Significant differences in the magnitude of compressive modulus between human and ovine menisci were observed, however the relaxation profiles were similar. Although statistically different than the native tissues, modulus values of the TPE hydrogel material were similar to those of the human and ovine menisci, making it a material worth further investigation for use as a synthetic replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2722-2728, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P ingestive behavior.

  5. Ovine tendon collagen: Extraction, characterisation and fabrication of thin films for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, M.B.; Lokanathan, Y. [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aminuddin, B.S. [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ear, Nose & Throat Consultant Clinic, Ampang Puteri Specialist Hospital, Taman Dato Ahmad Razali, 68000 Ampang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ruszymah, B.H.I. [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physiology, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chowdhury, S.R., E-mail: shiplu@ppukm.ukm.edu.my [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-11-01

    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35 M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain of collagen type I (col I). Further analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of triple helix structure of col I, similar to commercially available rat tail col I. Drying the OTC solution at 37°C resulted in formation of a thin film with randomly orientated collagen fibrils (random collagen film; RCF). Introduction of unidirectional mechanical intervention using a platform rocker prior to drying facilitated the fabrication of a film with aligned orientation of collagen fibril (aligned collagen film; ACF). It was shown that both RCF and ACF significantly enhanced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment and proliferation than that on plastic surface. Moreover, cells were distributed randomly on RCF, but aligned with the direction of mechanical intervention on ACF. In conclusion, ovine tendon could be an alternative source of col I to fabricate scaffold for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Isolated collagen from ovine tendon was characterized as collagen type I. • Collagen film was fabricated via air drying of ovine tendon collagen. • Collagen fibril alignment was realized via unidirectional platform rocker. • Orientation of cells was attained depending on collagen fibril direction in the film. • Collagen films

  6. Oligopeptide-based enzyme immunoassay for ovine lentivirus antibody detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang, J; Torres, J V

    1994-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus which causes a progressive disease in sheep. Immunodominant epitopes have been identified in the envelope gp40 glycoprotein. Synthetic peptides representing these regions are able to detect the presence of OPPV antibodies in 96% of infected sheep.

  7. Vitamin K2 improves developmental competency and cryo-tolerance of in vitro derived ovine blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefid, Fatemeh; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S M; Ghazvini Zadegan, F; Pezhman, M; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin K2 (VK2), acts as an electron carrier in mitochondria and thereby effects reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP production. This study evaluates role of VK2 on in vitro developmental competency and cryo-survival of pre-implantation ovine embryos. Initially the optimal and beneficial concentration of VK2 on compaction and blastocyst formation rates was defined (0.1 μM). Subsequently, it was shown that 0.1 μM VK2, at blastocyst stage, reduces H2O2 production, increase the expression of mitochondrial related gene and improved embryos quality. We further assessed presence VK2 supplementation before and/or after vitrification of in vitro derived blastocysts. Our results reveal that presence of VK2 before and after vitrification improves rates of blastocysts re-expansion (88.19± 3.37% vs 73.68± 1.86%, P < 0.05) and hatching (49.55± 4.37% vs 32.7± 3.32%) compared to control group. These observation were consistent with reduction in H2O2 production and improved in expression of mitochondrial related genes. However, VK2 before or after vitrification, not only had no positive effect on these two parameters, but also significantly reduced these parameters. Therefore, in concordance with pervious report in bovine, we show that VK2 supplementation post genomic activation (Day 3-7) improved developmental competency of ovine in vitro derived embryos. We also showed that presence of VK2 after vitrification improves the cryo-survival of ovine embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. CD154 costimulated ovine primary B cells, a cell culture system that supports productive infection by bovine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeke, A; Cleuter, Y; Beskorwayne, T; Kerkhofs, P; Szynal, M; Bagnis, C; Burny, A; Griebel, P

    2001-02-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is closely associated with the development of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma in cattle. BLV infection has also been studied extensively in an in vivo ovine model that provides a unique system for studying B-cell leukemogenesis. There is no evidence that BLV can directly infect ovine B cells in vitro, and there are no direct data regarding the oncogenic potential of the viral Tax transactivator in B cells. Therefore, we developed ovine B-cell culture systems to study the interaction between BLV and its natural target, the B cell. In this study, we used murine CD154 (CD40 ligand) and gamma-chain-common cytokines to support the growth of B cells isolated from ovine lymphoid tissues. Integrated provirus, extrachromosomal forms, and viral transcripts were detected in BLV-exposed populations of immature, rapidly dividing surface immunoglobulin M-positive B cells from sheep ileal Peyer's patches and also in activated mature B cells isolated from blood. Conclusive evidence of direct B-cell infection by BLV was obtained through the use of cloned B cells derived from sheep jejunal Peyer's patches. Finally, inoculation of sheep with BLV-infected cultures proved that infectious virus was shed from in vitro-infected B cells. Collectively, these data confirm that a variety of ovine B-cell populations can support productive infection by BLV. The development of ovine B-cell cultures permissive for BLV infection provides a controlled system for investigating B-cell leukemogenic processes and the pathogenesis of BLV infection.

  9. Experimental infection of cattle with ovine Dichelobacter nodosus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Jørgensen, Hannah Joan; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2015-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative agent of ovine footrot, and there are strong indications that the bacterium can be transferred to cattle grazing on the same pasture as sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate if benign and virulent D. nodosus strains isolated from sheep can be ...

  10. Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, van der R.; Luttikholt, S.J.; Lievaart-Peterson, K.; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T.; Mars, M.H.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Vellema, P.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25

  11. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4 is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT and Small Tailed Han (STH sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism.

  12. Transcriptomic Study on Ovine Immune Responses to Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is not only responsible for major economic losses in livestock farming, but is also a major food-borne zoonotic agent, with 180 million people being at risk of infection worldwide. This parasite is sophisticated in manipulating the hosts' immune system to benefit its own survival. A better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning this immunomodulation is crucial for the development of control strategies such as vaccines.This in vivo study investigated the global gene expression changes of ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC response to both acute & chronic infection of F. hepatica, and revealed 6490 and 2364 differential expressed genes (DEGS, respectively. Several transcriptional regulators were predicted to be significantly inhibited (e.g. IL12 and IL18 or activated (e.g. miR155-5p in PBMC during infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis highlighted a series of immune-associated pathways involved in the response to infection, including 'Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ signaling', 'Production of Nitric Oxide in Macrophages', 'Toll-like Receptor (TLRs Signaling', 'Death Receptor Signaling' and 'IL17 Signaling'. We hypothesize that activation of pathways relevant to fibrosis in ovine chronic infection, may differ from those seen in cattle. Potential mechanisms behind immunomodulation in F. hepatica infection are a discussed.In conclusion, the present study performed global transcriptomic analysis of ovine PBMC, the primary innate/adaptive immune cells, in response to infection with F. hepatica, using deep-sequencing (RNAseq. This dataset provides novel information pertinent to understanding of the pathological processes in fasciolosis, as well as a base from which to further refine development of vaccines.

  13. The use of snake venom derived fibrin glue in hysterorrhaphy of ovine caesarean surgery

    OpenAIRE

    CHALHOUB, M.; PRESTES, N. C.; LOPES, M. D.; ROCHA, N. S.; THOMAZINI-SANTOS, I. A.; MENDES-GIANNINI, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Fibrin glue has been used on its own or in conjunction with suturing materials to promote hemostasis, reduce adherence, strengthen the wound site, and improve healing. Snake venom derived fibrin glue was evaluated as an alternative to conventional uterine suturing after ovine caesarean surgery. Twenty-eight pregnant ewes of known mating date were used. The animals submitted to conventional caesarean sections showed a better wound healing process. As expected, all the operated animals had reta...

  14. Specific radioimmunoassay for ovine bone gla-protein (osteocalcin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastoureau, P; Merle, B; Delmas, P D

    1988-01-01

    We developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for ovine bone gla-protein (osteocalcin) using a polyclonal rabbit antibody raised against ovine bone gla-protein. Bone from lambs was extracted in 0.5 mol/l EDTA and desalted on Sephadex G-25. Bone gla-protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography over Sephadex G-100 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The protein, subjected to monodimensional electrophoresis migrated as a single spot in SDS PAGE with the same apparent molecular weight of 12 kD as bovine bone gla-protein. The amino acid composition of pufified bone gla-protein was in agreement with a previous publication. The competitive RIA uses /sup 125/I-labelled bone gla-protein as a tracer and a complex of a second antibody and polyethylene glycol to separate free and antibody-bound /sup 125/I-labelled bone gla-protein. The intra- and inter-assay variations are less than 6 and 10%, respectively. There is no reactivity of our antisera with dog sera. The cross-reactivity is only partial with calf and human sera and complete with ovine sera. We measured bone gla-protein levels in serum of 96 normal male sheep of different ages. Serum bone gla-protein rapidly and significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 532 +- 169 ..mu..g/l at birth, to 240 +- 43 ..mu..g/l at 45 days, 152 +- 44 ..mu..g/l at 90 days, and 5.9 +- 0.7 ..mu..g/l at 7 years age. In addition, bone gla-protein levels at birth were higher in normal birth weight than in hypotrophic lambs with low birth weight (535 +- 169 vs 271 +- 156 ..mu..g/l, P<0.0001). Furthermore, lambs raised outside in free conditions tended to have higher serum bone gla-protein levels than lambs raised under shelter (1984 +- 53 vs 137 +- 34 ..mu..g/l), suggesting a role of breeding factors such as diet or relative immobilization on bone gla-protein levels. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Lung cancer induced in mice by the envelope protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV closely resembles lung cancer in sheep infected with JSRV

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    York Denis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV causes a lethal lung cancer in sheep and goats. Expression of the JSRV envelope (Env protein in mouse lung, by using a replication-defective adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6 vector, induces tumors resembling those seen in sheep. However, the mouse and sheep tumors have not been carefully compared to determine if Env expression alone in mice can account for the disease features observed in sheep, or whether additional aspects of virus replication in sheep are important, such as oncogene activation following retrovirus integration into the host cell genome. Results We have generated mouse monoclonal antibodies (Mab against JSRV Env and have used these to study mouse and sheep lung tumor histology. These Mab detect Env expression in tumors in sheep infected with JSRV from around the world with high sensitivity and specificity. Mouse and sheep tumors consisted mainly of well-differentiated adenomatous foci with little histological evidence of anaplasia, but at long times after vector exposure some mouse tumors did have a more malignant appearance typical of adenocarcinoma. In addition to epithelial cell tumors, lungs of three of 29 sheep examined contained fibroblastic cell masses that expressed Env and appeared to be separate neoplasms. The Mab also stained nasal adenocarcinoma tissue from one United States sheep, which we show was due to expression of Env from ovine enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV, a virus closely related to JSRV. Systemic administration of the AAV6 vector encoding JSRV Env to mice produced numerous hepatocellular tumors, and some hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas, showing that the Env protein can induce tumors in multiple cell types. Conclusion Lung cancers induced by JSRV infection in sheep and by JSRV Env expression in mice have similar histologic features and are primarily characterized by adenomatous proliferation of peripheral lung epithelial cells. Thus it is

  16. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  17. The radiographic anatomy of the normal ovine digit, the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jennifer S; Singer, Ellen R; Devaney, Jane; Oultram, Joanne W H; Walby, Anna J; Lester, Bridie R; Williams, Helen J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a detailed, accessible set of reference images of the normal radiographic anatomy of the ovine digit up to and including the metacarpo/metatatarsophalangeal joints. The lower front and hind limbs of 5 Lleyn ewes were radiographed using portable radiography equipment, a digital image processer and standard projections. Twenty images, illustrating the normal radiographic anatomy of the limb were selected, labelled and presented along with a detailed description and corresponding images of the bony skeleton. These images are aimed to be of assistance to veterinary surgeons, veterinary students and veterinary researchers by enabling understanding of the normal anatomy of the ovine lower limb, and allowing comparison with the abnormal.

  18. Biofilm formation and virulence factor analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from ovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azara, E; Longheu, C; Sanna, G; Tola, S

    2017-08-01

    To perform a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 258 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical ovine mastitis and used for the preparation of inactivated autogenous vaccines. The potential for biofilm production was determined by phenotypic test of Congo Red Agar (CRA) and by PCR for the detection of icaA/D genes. Isolates were also screened by PCR for the presence of enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec, sed and see), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst), leukotoxins (lukD-E, lukM and lukPV83), haemolysins (hly-β and hly-γ), autolysin (atlA) genes and encoding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs: clfA, clfB, fnbA, fnbB, bbp, cna, eno, fib, epbs, sdrC, sdrD and SdrE). None of the 258 isolates showed biofilm-forming ability on CRA and harboured icaA/D genes. The most frequent pyrogenic toxin superantigen genes amplified were sec plus tsst-1, which were found strictly in combination with 71·3% of the Staph. aureus isolates tested. None of the isolates harboured the genes encoding sea and see. Of the 258 isolates tested, 159 (61·6%) possessed all lukD-E/lukM/lukPV83 genes, 123 (47·7%) harboured both hly-β/hly-γ genes, whereas almost all (97·3%) were PCR positive for atlA gene. With respect to adhesion determinants, 179 (69·4%) isolates presented simultaneously four genes (fnbA, fib, clfA and clfB) for fibronectin- and fibrinogen-binding proteins. In this search, several putative virulence determinants have been identified in ovine Staph. aureus isolates collected in Sardinia. Some of the putative virulence determinants could be considered as components of a vaccine because of their role in ovine mastitis pathogenesis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Pronuclear formation by ICSI using chemically activated ovine oocytes and zona pellucida bound sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Hernández-Pichardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP binding. Results Experiment 1, 4–20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN. Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively but statistically differents (P  0.05. Conclusions Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU + ZP increased AR/A and AR/D rates in comparison with SU in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. According to this, in terms of fertilization rates, chemical activation after ICSI increased oocyte PN formation compared to mechanical activation. Also, fresh sperm treated with SU and SU + ZP were significantly different than frozen-thawed sperm, but between sperm treatments no significant differences were obtained.

  20. Production of monoclonal antibodies reactive with ovine eosinophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeusen Els NT

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence implicating eosinophils in host defence against parasites as well as allergic disease pathologies. However, a lack of reagents such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs specific for eosinophils has made it difficult to confirm the functional role of eosinophils in such disease conditions. Using an established mammary model of allergic inflammation in sheep, large numbers of inflammatory cells enriched for eosinophils were collected from parasite-stimulated mammary glands and used for the generation of mAbs against ovine eosinophils. Results A panel of mAbs was raised against ovine eosinophils of which two were shown to be highly specific for eosinophils. The reactivity of mAbs 3.252 and 1.2 identified eosinophils from various cell and tissue preparations with no detectable reactivity on cells of myeloid or lymphoid lineage, tissue mast cells, dendritic cells, epithelial cells or other connective tissues. Two other mAbs generated in this study (mAbs 4.4 and 4.10 were found to have reactivity for both eosinophils and neutrophils. Conclusion This study describes the production of new reagents to identify eosinophils (as well as granulocytes in sheep that will be useful in studying the role of eosinophils in disease pathologies in parasite and allergy models.

  1. Ontogeny and nutritional programming of mitochondrial proteins in the ovine kidney, liver and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, D P; Mostyn, A; Hyatt, M A; Kurlak, L O; Budge, H; Stephenson, T; Symonds, M E

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the developmental and nutritional programming of two important mitochondrial proteins, namely voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and cytochrome c, in the sheep kidney, liver and lung. The effect of maternal nutrient restriction between early and mid-gestation (i.e. 28- to 80-day gestation, the period of maximal placental growth) on the abundance of these proteins was also examined in fetal and juvenile offspring. Fetuses were sampled at 80 and 140 days of gestation (term approximately 147 days), and postnatal animals at 1 and 30 days and 6 months of age. The abundance of VDAC peaked at 140 days of gestation in the lung, compared with 1 day after birth in the kidney and liver, whereas cytochrome c abundance was greatest at 140 days of gestation in the liver, 1 day after birth in the kidney and 6 months of age in lungs. This differential ontogeny in mitochondrial protein abundance between tissues was accompanied with very different tissue-specific responses to changes in maternal food intake. In the liver, maternal nutrient restriction only increased mitochondrial protein abundance at 80 days of gestation, compared with no effect in the kidney. In contrast, in the lung mitochondrial protein, abundance was raised near to term, whereas VDAC abundance was decreased by 6 months of age. These findings demonstrate the tissue-specific nature of mitochondrial protein development that reflects differences in functional adaptation after birth. The divergence in mitochondrial response between tissues to maternal nutrient restriction early in pregnancy further reflects these differential ontogenies.

  2. Predictive role of arterial carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in ovine burn and smoke inhalation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Cox, Robert A; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Whorton, Elbert B; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Hamahata, Atsumori; Jonkam, Collette; Esechie, Aimalohi; von Borzyskowski, Sanna; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Daniel L

    2011-05-01

    Inhalation injury frequently occurs in burn patients and contributes to the morbidity and mortality of these injuries. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin has been proposed as an indicator of the severity of inhalation injury; however, the interrelation between arterial carboxyhemoglobin and histological alterations has not yet been investigated. Chronically instrumented sheep were subjected to a third degree burn of 40% of the total body surface area and inhalation of 48 breaths of cotton smoke. Carboxyhemoglobin was measured immediately after injury and correlated to clinical parameters of pulmonary function as well as histopathology scores from lung tissue harvested 24 hours after the injury. The injury was associated with a significant decline in pulmonary oxygenation and increases in pulmonary shunting, lung lymph flow, wet/dry weight ratio, congestion score, edema score, inflammation score, and airway obstruction scores. Carboxyhemoglobin was negatively correlated to pulmonary oxygenation and positively correlated to pulmonary shunting, lung lymph flow, and lung wet/dry weight ratio. No significant correlations could be detected between carboxyhemoglobin and histopathology scores and airway obstruction scores. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin in sheep with combined burn and inhalation injury are correlated with the degree of pulmonary failure and edema formation, but not with certain histological alterations including airway obstruction scores.

  3. Comparison of conventional freezing and vitrification with dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varago, F C; Moutacas, V S; Carvalho, B C; Serapião, R V; Vieira, F; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Brandão, F Z; Camargo, L S; Henry, M; Lagares, M A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re-expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re-expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p conventional freezing, 10.1 ± 8.5, p conventional freezing) and fresh embryos. In conclusion, the dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol used as cryoprotectant to vitrify ovine embryos, in the concentrations and exposition time tested in this work, were not as efficient as the conventional freezing for cryopreservation of ovine embryos Thus, the conventional freezing with ethylene glycol was the most efficient method to cryopreserve ovine embryos in comparison with vitrification. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Specific radioimmunoassay for ovine bone gla-protein (osteocalcin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastoureau, P.; Merle, B.; Delmas, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    We developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for ovine bone gla-protein (osteocalcin) using a polyclonal rabbit antibody raised against ovine bone gla-protein. Bone from lambs was extracted in 0.5 mol/l EDTA and desalted on Sephadex G-25. Bone gla-protein was purified by gel filtration chromatography over Sephadex G-100 and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The protein, subjected to monodimensional electrophoresis migrated as a single spot in SDS PAGE with the same apparent molecular weight of 12 kD as bovine bone gla-protein. The amino acid composition of pufified bone gla-protein was in agreement with a previous publication. The competitive RIA uses 125 I-labelled bone gla-protein as a tracer and a complex of a second antibody and polyethylene glycol to separate free and antibody-bound 125 I-labelled bone gla-protein. The intra- and inter-assay variations are less than 6 and 10%, respectively. There is no reactivity of our antisera with dog sera. The cross-reactivity is only partial with calf and human sera and complete with ovine sera. We measured bone gla-protein levels in serum of 96 normal male sheep of different ages. Serum bone gla-protein rapidly and significantly (P<0.001) decreased from 532 ± 169 μg/l at birth, to 240 ± 43 μg/l at 45 days, 152 ± 44 μg/l at 90 days, and 5.9 ± 0.7 μg/l at 7 years age. In addition, bone gla-protein levels at birth were higher in normal birth weight than in hypotrophic lambs with low birth weight (535 ± 169 vs 271 ± 156 μg/l, P<0.0001). Furthermore, lambs raised outside in free conditions tended to have higher serum bone gla-protein levels than lambs raised under shelter (1984 ± 53 vs 137 ± 34 μg/l), suggesting a role of breeding factors such as diet or relative immobilization on bone gla-protein levels. These results emphasize the interest of a RIA for the bone-specific protein bone gla-protein as a potential tool for experimental studies on skeletal growth and bone remodelling in a

  5. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Jesus Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P<0.05 for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour were significant (P<0.05, by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P<0.05, showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P<0.05 by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior.

  6. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BORJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like recep­tors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune re­sponses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expres­sion was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and domi­nant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis

  7. Lung adenocarcinoma originates from retrovirus infection of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes during pulmonary post-natal development or tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Claudio; Caporale, Marco; Ceesay, Ousman; Di Francesco, Gabriella; Ferri, Nicola; Varasano, Vincenzo; de las Heras, Marcelo; Palmarini, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is a unique oncogenic virus with distinctive biological properties. JSRV is the only virus causing a naturally occurring lung cancer (ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, OPA) and possessing a major structural protein that functions as a dominant oncoprotein. Lung cancer is the major cause of death among cancer patients. OPA can be an extremely useful animal model in order to identify the cells originating lung adenocarcinoma and to study the early events of pulmonary carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that lung adenocarcinoma in sheep originates from infection and transformation of proliferating type 2 pneumocytes (termed here lung alveolar proliferating cells, LAPCs). We excluded that OPA originates from a bronchioalveolar stem cell, or from mature post-mitotic type 2 pneumocytes or from either proliferating or non-proliferating Clara cells. We show that young animals possess abundant LAPCs and are highly susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. On the contrary, healthy adult sheep, which are normally resistant to experimental OPA induction, exhibit a relatively low number of LAPCs and are resistant to JSRV infection of the respiratory epithelium. Importantly, induction of lung injury increased dramatically the number of LAPCs in adult sheep and rendered these animals fully susceptible to JSRV infection and transformation. Furthermore, we show that JSRV preferentially infects actively dividing cell in vitro. Overall, our study provides unique insights into pulmonary biology and carcinogenesis and suggests that JSRV and its host have reached an evolutionary equilibrium in which productive infection (and transformation) can occur only in cells that are scarce for most of the lifespan of the sheep. Our data also indicate that, at least in this model, inflammation can predispose to retroviral infection and cancer.

  8. Ovine recombinant PrP as an inhibitor of ruminant prion propagation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Rob G; Maddison, Ben C; Gough, Kevin C

    2017-07-04

    Prion diseases are fatal and incurable neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. Despite years of research, no therapeutic agents have been developed that can effectively manage or reverse disease progression. Recently it has been identified that recombinant prion proteins (rPrP) expressed in bacteria can act as inhibitors of prion replication within the in vitro prion replication system protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Here, within PMCA reactions amplifying a range of ruminant prions including distinct Prnp genotypes/host species and distinct prion strains, recombinant ovine VRQ PrP displayed consistent inhibition of prion replication and produced IC50 values of 122 and 171 nM for ovine scrapie and bovine BSE replication, respectively. These findings illustrate the therapeutic potential of rPrPs with distinct TSE diseases.

  9. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, V; Pascual, E; Avia, M; Rangel, G; de Molina, A; Alejo, A; Sevilla, N

    2016-01-06

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. Evaluation of hematologic, blood gas, and select biochemical variables in ovine whole blood stored in CPDA-1 bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Rejane S; Barrêto, Raimundo A; Sousa, Isadora K F; Chaves, Dowglish F; Soares, Herbert S; Barros, Isabella O; Minervino, Antonio H H; Ortolani, Enrico L

    2013-03-01

    The economic consequences from mortality of sheep after blood loss can be considerable. To date there are no reports addressing hematologic, blood gas, and biochemical changes in ovine blood stored in CPDA-1 bags. The aim of this study was to investigate hematologic, blood gas, and biochemical alterations resulting from storage of ovine blood in CPDA-1 bags to establish transfusion protocols in sheep. From each of 7 healthy 8-month-old sheep 450 mL of blood were collected into CPDA-1 bags and stored for 35 days in at 3-6°C. Samples were taken from the bags at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 35. Whole blood was used to assess PCV, MCV, RBC count, pH, pO2 , pCO2 , and concentrations of bicarbonate, sodium, and lactate. Plasma was used to measure potassium, hemoglobin, and glucose concentrations. The PCV remained stable throughout the storage period, while plasma hemoglobin and MCV began to increase on days 7 and 21, respectively. The RBC count began to decrease on day 21. Blood pH decreased and pCO2 increased steadily throughout the storage period. Potassium concentration increased from 3.8 to 18.3 mmol/L on day 7 and remained high thereafter. In contrast, sodium concentration began to decrease on day 7. The results show that ovine blood undergoes hematologic, blood gas, and biochemical changes during storage. Further studies are required to establish RBC viability in CPDA-1 bags after a storage period of 35 days. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan Andre Liyanage

    Full Text Available Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap to 1 (complete overlap. For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5-0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0-0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access.

  13. Anatomical surgical arterial segments of the kidneys of Santa Inês ovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Chaves de Assis Neto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was describe the distribution of the renal arteries of the renal parenchyma and the proportional area of the arterial vascular system. The renal arterial vascularization in Santa Ines ovines was analyzed in fifteen pairs of organs of male adult animal, after attainment of vascular models through the techniques of corrosion and arteriography. The renal artery always appeared single, and before reaching the renal hilus, it bifurcated into sectorial dorsal and ventral arteries, giving rise to the segmentary arteries which varied from 6 to 10 in number in the right kidney and 7 to 11 in the left kidney. These vessels vascularized independent areas in each renal sector, the renal arterial segments, separated by non-vascularized planes. Bilateral symmetry of the arterial segmentation was found in 13.33% of cases. In accordance with the arterial characterization, the realization of setoriectomy and segmentectomy on the kidneys of Santa Ines ovines is therefore deemed possible.

  14. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schütz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549 were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6. In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmeť, V; Drugdová, Z

    2012-07-01

    Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum β-lactamases were detected.

  16. A member of the HSP90 family from ovine Babesia in China: molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Gao, Jinliang; Luo, Jianxun; Chauvin, Alain; Yin, Hong; Moreau, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a key component of the molecular chaperone complex essential for activating many signalling proteins involved in the development and progression of pathogenic cellular transformation. A Hsp90 gene (BQHsp90) was cloned and characterized from Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan), an ovine Babesia isolate belonging to Babesia motasi-like group, by screening a cDNA expression library and performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of BQHsp90 is 2399 bp with an open reading frame of 2154 bp encoding a predicted 83 kDa polypeptide with 717 amino acid residues. It shows significant homology and similar structural characteristics to Hsp90 of other apicomplex organisms. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the HSP90 amino acid sequences, showed that the Babesia genus is clearly separated from other apicomplexa genera. Five Chinese ovine Babesia isolates were divided into 2 phylogenetic clusters, namely Babesia sp. Xinjiang (previously designated a new species) cluster and B. motasi-like cluster which could be further divided into 2 subclusters (Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan)/Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. BQ1 (Ningxian)/Babesia sp. Hebei). Finally, the antigenicity of rBQHSP90 protein from prokaryotic expression was also evaluated using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  17. Human small-cell lung cancers show amplification and expression of the N-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, M.M.; Brooks, B.J. Jr.; Carney, D.N.; Gazdar, A.F.; Battey, J.F.; Sausville, E.A.; Minna, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found that 6 of 31 independently derived human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines have 5- to 170-fold amplified N-myc gene sequences. The amplification is seen with probes from two separate exons of N-myc, which are homologous to either the second or the third exon of the c-myc gene. Amplified N-myc sequences were found in a tumor cell line started prior to chemotherapy, in SCLC tumor samples harvested directly from tumor metastases at autopsy, and from a resected primary lung cancer. Several N-myc-amplified tumor cell lines also exhibited N-myc hybridizing fragments not in the germ-line position. In one patient's tumor, an additional amplitifed N-myc DNA fragment was observed and this fragment was heterogeneously distributed in liver metastases. In contrast to SCLC with neuroendocrine properties, no non-small-cell lung cancer lines examined were found to have N-myc amplification. Fragments encoding two N-myc exons also detect increased amounts of a 3.1-kilobase N-myc mRNA in N-myc-amplified SCLC lines and in one cell line that does not show N-myc gene amplification. Both DNA and RNA hybridization experiments, using a 32 P-labelled restriction probe, show that in any one SCLC cell line, only one myc-related gene is amplified and expressed. They conclude that N-myc amplification is both common and potentially significant in the tumorigenesis or tumor progression of SCLC

  18. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. R...

  19. Latex agglutination using the periplasmic proteins antigen of Brucella melitensis is a successful, rapid, and specific serodiagnostic test for ovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Alaa Bassuny; Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Mostafa, Salama A-H; Alhumiany, Abdel-Rahman A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis, especially caused by Brucella melitensis, is considered the most-widespread zoonosis in the world, particularly in developing countries. This study was planned to develop an accurate test for diagnosis of ovine brucellosis using a specific hot saline extracted soluble Brucella melitensis periplasmic proteins (SBPPs). The efficacy of the latex agglutination test (LAT) using SBPPs compared to the Rose Bengal test (RBT), buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT), serum agglutination test (SAT), and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) was evaluated in the field diagnosis of ovine brucellosis. The test performance was evaluated by estimating sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), disease prevalence (DP), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) using test agreement and bacteriological culture in 1777 samples. The false-positive result was significantly (P ⩽0.05) lower in LAT than RBT, BPAT, SAT, and i-ELISA. With reference to test agreement, the Se, Sp, PPV, and PLR were highest (P ⩽0.05) in LAT 99.33%, 99.88%, 98.68%, and 827.25%, respectively. With reference to bacteriological culture, the LAT and i-ELISA tests showed a significant difference in Se with SAT. However, no significant difference in specificity was detected. The DP was 8.44% in the five tests. In conclusion, LAT using SBPPs of B. melitensis could be a suitable serodiagnostic field test for ovine brucellosis, with high sensitivity and specificity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Evaluation of the OvineSNP50 chip for use in four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively rapid and cost-effective genotyping using the OvineSNP50 chip holds great promise for the South African sheep industry and research partners. However, SNP ascertainment bias may influence inferences from the genotyping results of South African sheep breeds. Therefore, samples from Dorper, Namaqua ...

  1. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in ovine fetuses and sheep cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Mathias

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the cloned sheep "Dolly" and nine other ovine clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT was reported to consist only of recipient oocyte mtDNA without any detectable mtDNA contribution from the nucleus donor cell. In cattle, mouse and pig several or most of the clones showed transmission of nuclear donor mtDNA resulting in mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To clarify the discrepant transmission pattern of donor mtDNA in sheep clones we analysed the mtDNA composition of seven fetuses and five lambs cloned from fetal fibroblasts. Results The three fetal fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT harboured low mtDNA copy numbers per cell (A: 753 ± 54, B: 292 ± 33 and C: 561 ± 88. The ratio of donor to recipient oocyte mtDNAs was determined using a quantitative amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS PCR (i.e. ARMS-qPCR. For quantification of SNP variants with frequencies below 0.1% we developed a restriction endonuclease-mediated selective quantitative PCR (REMS-qPCR. We report the first cases (n = 4 fetuses, n = 3 lambs of recipient oocyte/nuclear donor mtDNA heteroplasmy in SCNT-derived ovine clones demonstrating that there is no species-effect hindering ovine nucleus-donor mtDNA from being transmitted to the somatic clonal offspring. Most of the heteroplasmic clones exhibited low-level heteroplasmy (0.1% to 0.9%, n = 6 indicating neutral transmission of parental mtDNAs. High-level heteroplasmy (6.8% to 46.5% was observed in one case. This clone possessed a divergent recipient oocyte-derived mtDNA genotype with three rare amino acid changes compared to the donor including one substitution at an evolutionary conserved site. Conclusion Our study using state-of-the-art techniques for mtDNA quantification, like ARMS-qPCR and the novel REMS-qPCR, documents for the first time the transmission of donor mtDNA into somatic sheep clones. MtDNA heteroplasmy was detected in seven of 12 clones

  2. Cardioscopic tricuspid valve repair in a beating ovine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Ramanan; Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind T; Lee, Lawrence S; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Bolman, Ralph M; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2009-04-01

    Open heart surgery is commonly associated with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. The attendant risks of cardiopulmonary bypass may be prohibitive in high-risk patients. We present a novel endoscopic technique of performing tricuspid valve repair without cardiopulmonary bypass in a beating ovine heart. Six sheep underwent sternotomy and creation of a right heart shunt to eliminate right atrial and right ventricular blood for clear visualization. The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery, and coronary sinus were cannulated, and the blood flow from these vessels was shunted into the pulmonary artery via a roller pump. The posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve was partially excised to create tricuspid regurgitation, which was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. A 7.0-mm fiberoptic videoscope was inserted into the right atrium to visualize the tricuspid valve. Under cardioscopic vision, an endoscopic needle driver was inserted into the right atrium, and a concentric stitch was placed along the posterior annulus to bicuspidize the tricuspid valve. Doppler echocardiography confirmed reduction of tricuspid regurgitation. All animals successfully underwent and tolerated the surgical procedure. The right heart shunt generated a bloodless field, facilitating cardioscopic tricuspid valve visualization. The endoscopic stitch resulted in annular plication and functional tricuspid valve bicuspidization, significantly reducing the degree of tricuspid regurgitation. Cardioscopy enables less invasive, beating-heart tricuspid valve surgery in an ovine model. This technique may be useful in performing right heart surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass in high-risk patients.

  3. A distinct bacterial dysbiosis associated skin inflammation in ovine footrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Blanchard, Adam; Frosth, Sara; Stewart, Ceri; Emes, Richard; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Ovine footrot is a highly prevalent bacterial disease caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and characterised by the separation of the hoof horn from the underlying skin. The role of innate immune molecules and other bacterial communities in the development of footrot lesions remains unclear. This study shows a significant association between the high expression of IL1β and high D. nodosus load in footrot samples. Investigation of the microbial population identified distinct bacterial populations in the different disease stages and also depending on the level of inflammation. Treponema (34%), Mycoplasma (29%) and Porphyromonas (15%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in footrot. In contrast, Acinetobacter (25%), Corynebacteria (17%) and Flavobacterium (17%) were the most abundant genera associated with high levels of inflammation in healthy feet. This demonstrates for the first time there is a distinct microbial community associated with footrot and high cytokine expression.

  4. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida associated with ovine pneumonia using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence-associated gene profile analysis and comparison with porcine isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Andrés; Vela, Ana Isabel; San Martín, Elvira; Chaves, Fernando; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco; Lucas, Domínguez; Cid, Dolores

    2017-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogen causing disease in a wide range of hosts including sheep and pigs. Isolates from ovine pneumonia were characterized by MLST (Multi-host and RIRDC databases) and virulence-associated gene (VAG) typing and compared with porcine isolates. Ovine and porcine isolates did not share any STs as determined by both schemes and exhibited different VAG profiles. With the Multi-host database, sixteen STs were identified among 43 sheep isolates with two STs (ST50 and ST19) comprising 53.5% of the isolates, and seven MLST genotypes (ST3, ST11 and ST62 included 75% of the isolates) among the 48 pig isolates. The most frequent VAG profile among sheep isolates was tbpA+/toxA+ (69.8% of isolates) and pfhA+ (62.5%) and hgbB+ (33.3%) among pig isolates. Representative ovine and porcine isolates of those STs identified by the Multi-host scheme were further typed using the RIRDC scheme. Seven STs were identified among the ovine isolates (ST95 RIRDC , ST131 RIRDC , ST203 RIRDC , ST320 RIRDC , ST324 RIRDC , ST321 RIRDC , and ST323 RIRDC ), with the latter four sequence types being new STs identified in this study, and six STs (ST9 RIRDC , ST13 RIRDC , ST27 RIRDC , ST50 RIRDC , and ST74 RIRDC and a new sequence type ST322 RIRDC ) among the porcine isolates. STs identified among ovine isolates have been detected exclusively in small ruminants, suggesting an adaptation to these hosts, while the genotypes identified among pig isolates have been previously identified in multiple hosts and therefore they are not restricted to pigs. The differences in genotypes and VAG profiles between ovine and pig isolates suggest they could represent different subpopulations of P. multocida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine...

  6. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Isachenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n=13 and n=23 were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min. It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo.

  7. Measurement of fat in the ovine milk: comparative study of the results acquired by official methodology and by electr onic equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Pellegrini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform a comparative study between the official method recommended by Brazilian laws and the electronic equipment of photometric measurement and ultrasound spectroscopy equipment for the quantification of total lipids of the ovine milk in order to check which equipment establishes the lipids level better. The experiment took place at Technology of Food Department in Santa Maria Federal University together with School Plant of Dairy products and Ovine culture Section of Zoo Technical Department. It was used twelve sheeps half Lacaune Lait blood, milked individually from the first to the tenth week of lactation. The milking was performed manually and the analyses took place after the refrigeration of the samples. Before executing the analyses, the samples were homogenized and soon after evaluated in terms of fat amount by three distinct methodologies: official Brazilian methodology through Gerber’s butyrometer (GB, electronic equipment of photometric measurement Milko-Tester® (MT and ultrasound spectroscopic equipment Lactoscan 90® (LS, which all analyses were performed in triple. The reproducibility of LS equipment was 100% for the analyzed samples, while MT equipment showed variability in most of the analyzed samples obtaining reproducibility of the results in just 22,5% of the samples. For the others samples the latter equipment obtained 50% of overrated values and 27,5% underrated values. Therefore, the results of this study let us to settle that the analysis of ovine Milk by ultrasound spectroscopy is efficient for the fat parameter when compared to the official Brazilian methodology.

  8. Electrode-Skin contact impedance: In vivo measurements on an ovine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D T; Kosobrodov, R; Jin, C; McEwan, A; Barry, M A; Chik, W; Thiagalingam, A; Oh, T I

    2013-01-01

    The problem of electrical impedance between the skin and the electrode is an on-going challenge in bio-electronics. This is particularly true in the case of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), which uses a large number of skin-contact electrodes and is very sensitive to noise. In the present article, contact impedance is measured and compared for a range of electrodes placed on the thorax of an ovine model. The study has been approved by the Westmead Hospital Animal Ethics Committee. The electrode models that were employed in the research are Ag/AgCl electrodes (E1), commonly used for ECG and EIT measurements in both humans and animal models, stainless steel crocodile clips (E2), typically used on animal models, and novel multi-point dry electrodes in two modifications: bronze plated (E3) and nickel plated (E4). Further, since the contact impedance is mostly attributed to the acellular outer layer of the skin, in our experiment, we attempted to study the effect of this layer by comparing the results when the skin is intact and when electrodes are introduced underneath the skin through small cuts. This boundary effect was assessed by comparison of measurements obtained during E2 skin surface contact, and sub-cutaneous contact (E5). Twelve gauge intradermal needles were also tested as an electrode (E6). The full impedance spectrum, from 500 Hz to 300 kHz, was recorded, analysed and compared. As expected, the contact impedance in the more invasive cases, i.e the electrodes under the skin, is significantly lower than in the non-invasive cases. At the frequency of 50 kHz which is commonly used in lung EIT acquisition, electrodes E3, E4 and E6 demonstrated contact impedance of less than 200 Ω, compared to more than 400 Ω measured for electrodes E1, E2 and E5. In conclusion, the novel multipoint electrodes proved to be best suited for EIT purposes, because they are non-invasive and have lower contact impedance than Ag/AgCl and crocodile clips, in both invasive and

  9. RhoA–Rho kinase and Platelet Activating Factor Stimulation of Ovine Fetal Pulmonary Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Lissette S.; Austin, Monique; Lazaro, Mariecon; Andrews, Mari Ashley; Lustina, Jennessee; Raj, J. Usha; Ibe, Basil O.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle Cells (PVSMC). We studied effect of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand a role for RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine fetal pulmonary vascular remodeling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signaling, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) growth in the hypoxic lung environment of the fetus in utero. Materials and methods Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell growth and PAFR expression were studied by DNA synthesis, Western and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation was also studied. Results Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and the Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly down-regulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077 with comparable profiles. Also cells treated with Y-27632 showed less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of the cell morphology. Conclusions Our results show that Rho kinase nonspecifically modulates PAFR-mediated responses via a translational modification of PAFR protein and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be one other pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC growth. PMID:24033386

  10. Effects of cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammatory activation in ex vivo human and ovine fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Lisa F; Ireland, Demelza J; Kemp, Matthew W; Payne, Matthew S; Stock, Sarah J; Newnham, John P; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Intrauterine infection and inflammation are responsible for the majority of early (PTBs). Anti-inflammatory agents, delivered intra-amniotically together with antibiotics, may be an effective strategy for preventing PTB. In this study, the effects of four cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), SB239063, TPCA-1 and NEMO binding domain inhibitor (NBDI)) were assessed on human and ovine gestational membrane inflammation. Full-thickness membranes were collected from healthy, term, human placentas delivered by Caesarean section (n=5). Using a Transwell model, they were stimulated ex vivo with γ-irradiation-killed Escherichia coli applied to the amniotic face. Membranes from near-term, ovine placentas were stimulated in utero with lipopolysaccharide, Ureaplasma parvum or saline control and subjected to explant culture. The effects of treatment with CSAIDs or vehicle (1% DMSO) on accumulation of PGE2 and cytokines (human interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10 and TNFα; ovine IL8 (oIL8)) were assessed in conditioned media at various time points (3-20  h). In human membranes, the IKKβ inhibitor TPCA-1 (7  μM) and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063 (20  μM) administered to the amniotic compartment were the most effective in inhibiting accumulation of cytokines and PGE2 in the fetal compartment. NAC (10  mM) inhibited accumulation of PGE2 and IL10 only; NBDI (10  μM) had no significant effect. In addition to the fetal compartment, SB239063 also exerted consistent and significant inhibitory effects in the maternal compartment. TPCA-1 and SB239063 suppressed oIL8 production, while all CSAIDs tested suppressed ovine PGE2 production. These results support the further investigation of intra-amniotically delivered CSAIDs for the prevention of inflammation-mediated PTB.

  11. Myofibroblasts in interstitial lung diseases show diverse electron microscopic and invasive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Henna M; Lehtonen, Siri T; Sormunen, Raija T; Harju, Terttu H; Lappi-Blanco, Elisa; Bloigu, Risto S; Kaarteenaho, Riitta L

    2012-09-01

    The characteristic features of myofibroblasts in various lung disorders are poorly understood. We have evaluated the ultrastructure and invasive capacities of myofibroblasts cultured from small volumes of diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from patients with different types of lung diseases. Cells were cultured from samples of BAL fluid collected from 51 patients that had undergone bronchoscopy and BAL for diagnostic purposes. The cells were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy to achieve ultrastructural localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin. The levels of α-SMA protein and mRNA and fibronectin mRNA were measured by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The invasive capacities of the cells were evaluated. The cultured cells were either fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. The structure of the fibronexus, and the amounts of intracellular actin, extracellular fibronectin and cell junctions of myofibroblasts varied in different diseases. In electron and immunoelectron microscopy, cells cultured from interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) expressed more actin filaments and α-SMA than normal lung. The invasive capacity of the cells obtained from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was higher than that from patients with other type of ILDs. Cells expressing more actin filaments had a higher invasion capacity. It is concluded that electron and immunoelectron microscopic studies of myofibroblasts can reveal differential features in various diseases. An analysis of myofibroblasts cultured from diagnostic BAL fluid samples may represent a new kind of tool for diagnostics and research into lung diseases.

  12. Comparison of swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation versus total laryngectomy in a validated ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, N N; Johnson, C M; Siddiqui, M T; Cates, D J; Kuhn, M A; Postma, G N; Belafsky, P C

    2017-04-01

    To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy. Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model. Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001). The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.

  13. Biomechanical comparison of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and PTFE interpositional patches and direct tendon-to-bone repair for massive rotator cuff tears in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Andrew Dj; Beattie, Rebekah F; Murrell, George Ac; Lam, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    Massive irreparable rotator cuff tears are a difficult problem. Modalities such as irrigation and debridement, partial repair, tendon transfer and grafts have been utilized with high failure rates and mixed results. Synthetic interpositional patch repairs are a novel and increasingly used approach. The present study aimed to examine the biomechanical properties of common synthetic materials for interpositional repairs in contrast to native tendon. Six ovine tendons, six polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt sections and six expanded PTFE (ePTFE) patch sections were pulled-to-failure to analyze their biomechanical and material properties. Six direct tendon-to-bone surgical method repairs, six interpositional PTFE felt patch repairs and six interpositional ePTFE patch repairs were also constructed in ovine shoulders and pulled-to-failure to examine the biomechanical properties of each repair construct. Ovine tendon had higher load-to-failure (591 N) and had greater stiffness (108 N/mm) than either PTFE felt (296 N, 28 N/mm) or ePTFE patch sections (323 N, 34 N/mm). Both PTFE felt and ePTFE repair techniques required greater load-to-failure (225 N and 177 N, respectively) than direct tendon-to-bone surgical repairs (147 N) in ovine models. Synthetic materials lacked several biomechanical properties, including strength and stiffness, compared to ovine tendon. Interpositional surgical repair models with these materials were significantly stronger than direct tendon-to-bone model repairs.

  14. Relationship between thoracic auscultation and lung pathology detected by ultrasonography in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Phil; Collie, Dave; McGorum, Bruce; Sargison, Neil

    2010-10-01

    The utility of routine auscultation to detect and characterise the nature of a range of superficial lung and pleural pathologies in domestic sheep was assessed using ultrasonographic examination to indicate and localise pathologies pre-mortem. Necropsy examination was then used to fully characterise the nature and extent of the lesions. Auscultation recordings were made from 10 normal sheep with no clinical evidence of respiratory disease and with absence of significant superficial lung pathology, which was confirmed initially by ultrasound examination and subsequently at necropsy examination. A further two sheep with endotoxaemia and 30 sheep with well-defined lung lesions were also examined. Increased audibility of normal lung sounds in 4/10 normal sheep was associated with tachypnoea as a consequence of handling and transport during hot weather and was also observed in the two sheep with endotoxaemia. Moderate to severe coarse crackles detected in all advanced cases of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (n=16) were audible over an area larger than the lesion distribution identified during ultrasound examination, and confirmed later at necropsy. Auscultation did not detect abnormal sounds in any of the five sheep with focal pleural abscesses (up to 10 cm diameter). Unilateral pyothorax caused attenuation of sounds relative to the contra-lateral normal lung in all three sheep with this condition. Marked fibrinous pleurisy caused attenuation of sounds relative to normal areas of lung in six sheep. No sounds resembling the description of pleural frictions rubs were heard in the sheep with marked fibrinous pleurisy (n=6) or associated with focal pleural abscesses (n=5). Routine interpretation of auscultated sound did not allow the presence of superficial lung pathology or its distribution to be accurately defined in the respiratory diseases represented in this study. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolakis, A; Berri, M; Héchard, C; Caudron, C; Souriau, A; Bodier, C C; Blanchard, B; Camuset, P; Devillechaise, P; Natorp, J C; Vadet, J P; Arricau-Bouvery, N

    2007-12-01

    The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk samples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding of C. burnetii in vaginal mucus and feces was checked at the beginning of the experiment and 2 mo later. The clinical signs in the selected herds as well as the duration and the shedding routes differed among the 3 species. The cows were asymptomatic and shed C. burnetii almost exclusively in milk. In one of the caprine herds, abortions due to C. burnetii were reported. The goats excreted the bacteria mainly in milk. In contrast, the ewes, which came from flocks with abortions due to Q fever (C. burnetii infection), shed the bacteria mostly in feces and in vaginal mucus. This could explain why human outbreaks of Q fever are more often related to ovine flocks than to bovine herds. These excretions did not seem more frequent when the samples were taken close to parturition. The samples were taken from 0 to 421 d after parturition in bovine herds and from 5 to 119 d and 11 to 238 d after parturition in the caprine and ovine herds, respectively. The shedding in milk was sometimes intermittent, and several animals shed the bacteria but were negative by ELISA: 80% of the ewes were seronegative, underscoring the lack of sensitivity of the ELISA tests available for veterinary diagnosis. The detection of antibodies in milk seems more sensitive than it is in serum.

  16. Single-reagent one-step procedures for the purification of ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab antivenoms by caprylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Casewell, Nicholas R; Landon, John

    2014-01-15

    Antivenoms are typically produced in horses or sheep and often purified using salt precipitation of immunoglobulins or F(ab')2 fragments. Caprylic (octanoic) acid fractionation of antiserum has the advantage of not precipitating the desired antibodies, thereby avoiding potential degradation that can lead to the formation of aggregates, which may be the cause of some adverse reactions to antivenoms. Here we report that when optimising the purification of immunoglobulins from ovine antiserum raised against snake venom, caprylic acid was found to have no effect on the activity of the enzymes pepsin and papain, which are employed in antivenom manufacturing to digest immunoglobulins to obtain F(ab')2 and Fab fragments, respectively. A "single-reagent" method was developed for the production of F(ab')2 antivenom whereby whole ovine antiserum was mixed with both caprylic acid and pepsin and incubated for 4h at 37°C. For ovine Fab antivenom production from whole antiserum, the "single reagent" comprised of caprylic acid, papain and l-cysteine; after incubation at 37°C for 18-20h, iodoacetamide was added to stop the reaction. Caprylic acid facilitated the precipitation of albumin, resulting in a reduced protein load presented to the digestion enzymes, culminating in substantial reductions in processing time. The ovine IgG, F(ab')2 and Fab products obtained using these novel caprylic acid methods were comparable in terms of yield, purity and specific activity to those obtained by multi-step conventional salt fractionation with sodium sulphate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Leg ulcer treatment outcomes with new ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressing: a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Gregory A; Gass, Kimberly

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the rate of closure observed in venous leg ulcers during treatment with ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressings and compression. Fourteen patients with 23 wounds were retrospectively evaluated with respect to healing rates, time to closure, and weekly facility charge fees.

  18. Genetic variants affecting cross-sectional lung function in adults show little or no effect on longitudinal lung function decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Catherine; Soler Artigas, María; Hui, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous genetic regions that influence cross-sectional lung function. Longitudinal decline in lung function also includes a heritable component but the genetic determinants have yet to be defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether...... regions associated with cross-sectional lung function were also associated with longitudinal decline and to seek novel variants which influence decline. METHODS: We analysed genome-wide data from 4167 individuals from the Busselton Health Study cohort, who had undergone spirometry (12 695 observations...... across eight time points). A mixed model was fitted and weighted risk scores were calculated for the joint effect of 26 known regions on baseline and longitudinal changes in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Potential additional regions of interest were identified and followed up in two independent cohorts. RESULTS...

  19. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Brooking, Angela; Cunha, Cristina W; Highland, Margaret A; O'Toole, Donal; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S

    2012-10-12

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease primarily of ruminant species, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental induction of MCF by aerosolization of the virus in nasal secretions collected from infected sheep has been successful in bison, cattle and rabbits. The goals of this study were to determine the susceptibility of pigs to MCF following experimental intranasal inoculation of OvHV-2, and to characterize the disease. Twelve pigs in four groups were nebulized with 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), or 10(8) DNA copies of OvHV-2 from sheep nasal secretions. Three control pigs were nebulized with nasal secretions from uninfected sheep. Three additional pigs were inoculated intravenously with 10(7) DNA copies of OvHV-2 to evaluate this route of infection with cell-free virus. Seven of twelve intranasally challenged pigs became infected with OvHV-2. Five of these seven, all in higher dose groups, developed MCF. Lesions resembled those reported in natural cases of porcine MCF. The most striking and consistent histological lesions were in trachea, lung, kidney and brain. These comprised mucopurulent tracheitis, interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing arteritis-periarteritis, and nonpurulent meningoencephalitis. No infection was established in the intravenously challenged or control groups. The study showed that MCF can be experimentally induced in pigs by aerosol challenge using sheep nasal secretions containing OvHV-2. Domestic pigs are a natural clinically susceptible host for sheep-associated MCF. They represent a useful, cost-effective model for MCF research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Renal responses to prolonged (48 h) hypoxemia without acidemia in the late-gestation ovine fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassel, ACM; Aarnoudse, JG

    The effect of sustained moderate hypoxia on renal blood flow and renal function was studied in the ovine fetus (123-129 days). The experiments consisted of 48 h of isocapnic hypoxia, not resulting in acidemia, but sufficient to produce redistribution of blood flow in favor of the brain at the

  1. Functional development of the adult ovine mammary gland--insights from gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, Amy M; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Pain, Sarah J; Peterson, Sam W; Kenyon, Paul R; Blair, Hugh T; Dearden, Peter K

    2015-10-05

    The mammary gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes dramatic physiological adaptations during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation. Investigation of the molecular basis of mammary development and function will provide fundamental insights into tissue remodelling as well as a better understanding of milk production and mammary disease. This is important to livestock production systems and human health. Here we use RNA-seq to identify differences in gene expression in the ovine mammary gland between late pregnancy and lactation. Between late pregnancy (135 days of gestation ± 2.4 SD) and lactation (15 days post partum ± 1.27 SD) 13 % of genes in the sheep genome were differentially expressed in the ovine mammary gland. In late pregnancy, cell proliferation, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and translation were identified as key biological processes. During lactation, high levels of milk fat synthesis were mirrored by enrichment of genes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, transport and lipogenesis. Protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum was enriched during lactation, likely in support of active milk protein synthesis. Hormone and growth factor signalling and activation of signal transduction pathways, including the JAK-STAT and PPAR pathways, were also differently regulated, indicating key roles for these pathways in functional development of the ovine mammary gland. Changes in the expression of epigenetic regulators, particularly chromatin remodellers, indicate a possible role in coordinating the large-scale transcriptional changes that appear to be required to switch mammary processes from growth and development during late pregnancy to synthesis and secretion of milk during lactation. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of large numbers of genes is required to switch between mammary tissue establishment during late pregnancy, and activation and maintenance of milk production during lactation. Our findings indicate the remarkable

  2. A dehydration process for ovine hide to obtain a new collagenous material

    OpenAIRE

    Ollé Otero, Lluís; Sorolla, Silvia; Casas Solé, Concepció; Bacardit Dalmases, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop a dehydration process for ovine hide to obtain a new collagenous material for use in the leather industry. What is obtained through this new process is a dry and very porous collagenous substrate which allows the application of tanning chemicals by immersion in aqueous solutions. When compared to existing, traditional processes, economic and environmental advantages are obtained from the use of this new material. More specifically, the new process ...

  3. Study on immobilizations of ovine anti-human IgG and MCAb against EHF on radiation-modified silicone films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jinhui; Ha Hongfei; Zhang Yuhua

    1990-01-01

    Films of silicone (silastic) were grafted by monomer acrylamide vis γ-radiation technology and then the ovine anti-human IgG, Epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF)-MCAb were immobilized on the silastic-AAM films with different grafting yields passthrough associate reactions. Measruements of relationships between grafting yields. Contents of immobilized antibodies and immunoactivities for immobilized silastic-AAM films were performed by using 125 I method ELISA method was used to measure the immunoactivities for the immobilized monoantibody. The results showed that the antibodies used can be immobilized on radiation-grafted silicone films and this immobilization method has its potential significance in clinical practice

  4. Study on immobilizations of ovine anti-human IgG and MCAb against EHF on radiation-modified silicone films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinhui, Guo; Hongfei, Ha; Yuhua, Zhang [Beijing Univ., BJ (China). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1990-08-01

    Films of silicone (silastic) were grafted by monomer acrylamide vis {gamma}-radiation technology and then the ovine anti-human IgG, Epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF)-MCAb were immobilized on the silastic-AAM films with different grafting yields passthrough associate reactions. Measruements of relationships between grafting yields. Contents of immobilized antibodies and immunoactivities for immobilized silastic-AAM films were performed by using {sup 125}I method ELISA method was used to measure the immunoactivities for the immobilized monoantibody. The results showed that the antibodies used can be immobilized on radiation-grafted silicone films and this immobilization method has its potential significance in clinical practice.

  5. Application of ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) radioimmunoassay in the quantitation of LH in different mammalian species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, R.P.; Aehnelt, C.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring luteinizing hormone (LH) in various African mammalian species, using rabbit anti-ovine LH serum (GDN 15) and radioiodinated rat LH or ovine LH. Serum and pituitary homogenates from some African mammals (hyrax, reedbuck, sable, impala, tsessebe, thar, spring-hare, ground squirrel and cheetah, as well as the domestic sheep, cow and horse and laboratory rat and hamster) produced displacement curves parallel to that of the ovine LH standards. The specificity of the assay was examined in detail for one species, the rock hyrax. Radioimmunoassay and bioassay estimates of LH in hyrax pituitaries containing widely differing quantities of pituitary hormones were similar. In sexually active male hyrax mean plasma LH was 12.1 ng/ml and pituitary LH 194 μg/gland, but in sexually quiescent hyrax mean plasma LH was 2.4 ng/ml and mean pituitary LH 76 μg/gland. Intravenous injection of 10 μg of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone increased mean LH levels in hyrax from 0.9 ng/ml to 23.2 ng/ml by 30 min. Conversely, im injection of 250 μg testosterone induced a fall in LH levels in male hyrax from 1.7 ng/ml to 0.7 ng/ml 6 h after administration. Although the specificity of the assay for quantitating plasma LH in other species was not categorically established, there was a good correlation between plasma LH concentration and reproductive state in the bontebok, impala, spring-hare, thar, cheetah, domestic horse and laboratory rat, suggesting the potential use of the antiserum in quantitating LH in a variety of mammalian species

  6. MOLECULAR CLONING OF OVINE cDNA LEPTIN GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA TEREZIA SOCOL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient bacterial transformation system suitable for cloning the coding sequence of the ovine leptin gene in E. coli DH5α host cells using the pGEMT easy vector it is described in this paper. The necessity of producing leptin is based on the fact that the role of this molecule in the animal and human organism is still unknown, leptin not existing as commercial product on the Romanian market. The results obtained in the bacterial transformation, cloning, recombinant clones selection, control of the insertion experiments and DNA computational analysis represent the first steps in further genetic engineering experiments such as production of DNA libraries, DNA sequencing, protein expression, etc., for a further contribution in elucidating the role of leptin in the animal and human organism.

  7. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2 in ovine endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazer Fuller W

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2α (PGF on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL. These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1 and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFNτ, produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor α (ERα (directly and OTR (indirectly genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFNτ increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFNτ in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFNτ has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFNτ are to inhibit ERα and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus.

  8. RhoA-Rho kinase and platelet-activating factor stimulation of ovine foetal pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, L S; Austin, M; Lazaro, M; Andrews, M A; Lustina, J; Raj, J U; Ibe, B O

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMC). We studied effects of Rho kinase on PAF stimulation of PVSMC proliferation in an attempt to understand the role of RhoA/Rho kinase on PAF-induced ovine foetal pulmonary vascular remodelling. Our hypothesis is that PAF acts through Rho kinase, as one of its downstream signals, to induce arterial (SMC-PA) and venous (SMC-PV) cell proliferation in the hypoxic lung environment of the foetus, in utero. Rho kinase and MAPK effects on PAF receptor (PAFR)-mediated cell population expansion, and PAFR expression, were studied by DNA synthesis, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Effects of constructs T19N and G14V on PAF-induced cell proliferation were also investigated. Hypoxia increased PVSMC proliferation and Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 and Fasudil (HA-1077) as well as MAPK inhibitors PD 98059 and SB 203580 attenuated PAF stimulation of cell proliferation. RhoA T19N and G14V stimulated cell proliferation, but co-incubation with PAF did not affect proliferative effects of the constructs. PAFR protein expression was significantly downregulated in both cell types by both Y-27632 and HA-1077, with comparable profiles. Also, cells treated with Y-27632 had less PAF receptor fluorescence with significant disruption of cell morphology. Our results show that Rho kinase non-specifically modulated PAFR-mediated responses by a translational modification of PAFR protein, and suggest that, in vivo, activation of Rho kinase by PAF may be a further pathway to sustain PAFR-mediated PVSMC proliferation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods: From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results: Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3% were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%, followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%, raw ovine milk (7.1%, and raw caprine milk (4.2% samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%; the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%, Listeria ivanovii (0.08% and Listeria seeligari (0.04%. The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions: The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  10. The Effects of Ovine Whey Powders on Durum Wheat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Secchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of ovine whey powder, with different protein content, were added at increasing substitution rates to two types of semolina, one with strong and tenacious gluten and the other with weak and sticky gluten. For each dough the optimum mixing time and hydration level were calculated using the consistograph. The whey powder negatively affected the leavening volume of all doughs, at all percentages except the lowest one (5%, mainly because of its effects on the elastic component of gluten as measured with a stress relaxation test. Differences of the secondary structure of gluten proteins among samples were investigated by analyzing the amide I band in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the dough. Weak and strong semolina showed a different relative percentage of α-helix, random coil, and β-sheet structures. The longer mixing times for dough formation when using semolina with strong gluten led to an increase in α-helices and random coils, which caused a worse leavening performance than the weak-gluten semolina.

  11. An actuarial analysis shows that offering lung cancer screening as an insurance benefit would save lives at relatively low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L

    2012-04-01

    Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.

  12. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  13. High copy number of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA associated with malignant catarrhal fever-like syndrome in a lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic and wild sheep are the natural reservoirs for ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF). Virtually all domestic sheep are infected with OvHV-2 and infection is normally subclinical. MCF-like clinical signs and typical histo...

  14. Meiotic maturation and developmental capability of ovine oocytes at germinal vesicle stage following vitrification using different cryodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guo Bo; Wu, Guo Quan; Wang, Ya Jing; Ma, Yuan; Lv, Chun Rong; Hong, Qiong Hua

    2016-02-01

    In order to assess effects of vitrification on ovine oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, the conventional plastic straw (CS), the open-pulled straw (OPS), and Cryoloop were used to vitrify ovine oocytes. Oocytes were randomly divided into five groups: (1) Control; (2) Oocytes exposed to vitrification and dilution solutions without any cryopreservation (toxicity); (3) Oocytes vitrified using CS (CS); (4) Oocytes vitrified using OPS (OPS), and (5) Oocytes vitrified using Cryoloop (Cryoloop). The viability, cumulus cell expansion, nuclear maturation after in vitro maturation (IVM), and developmental capability of vitrified oocytes following parthenogenetic activation (PA) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) were assessed. The pretreatment in the vitrification and dilution solutions without any freezing or thawing did not adversely influence oocytes. The viability of vitrified oocytes were significantly declined compared to unfrozen oocytes (P straws or Cryoloop was significantly higher than that in the CS group (P plastic straws was significantly less than those of the other freezing groups (P straws. However, the cleavage rate of vitrified oocytes in the CS group was significantly less than that in the OPS or Cryoloop group (P plastic straw developed to the blastocyst stage following IVF. There was no significant difference existing between OPS and Cryoloop with respect to the blastocyst rate. After staining with cFDA and PI, cumulus cells surrounding oocytes were partly damaged by vitrification and thawing while the membrane of vitrified oocyte still remained intact. In conclusion, vitrification can seriously damage ovine immature oocytes and cumulus cells surrounding oocytes, which may subsequently affect their developmental capability. Finally, this study further proves that increasing the freezing and thawing velocity benefits survival of vitrified immature oocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Ovine Cerebral Venous System: Comparative Anatomy, Visualization, and Implications for Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Björn; Lobsien, Donald; Seeger, Johannes; Schneider, Holm; Boltze, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an ‘anterior condylar confluent’ as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging) versus ex vivo (corrosion cast) visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research. PMID:24736654

  16. Search for phosphopeptides in the feces of axenic rats fed radioactive ovine casein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelissier, J.P.; Dubos, F.; Daburon, F.

    1981-01-01

    Radioactive ovine casein was obtained by injecting 100 μCi of 14 C-Ser into the jugular vein of an ewe. The milk collected 17 and 24 h after this injection contained 12% of the radioactivity injected in protein form. The seryl residues were specificially labelled. This casein was used as the only protein source fed to axenic rats; 0.30% of the tracer ingested was found in the feces of those rats. Since phosphoserine represented 25% of the total casein seryl residues, the phosphopeptides may not be selectively unabsorbable [fr

  17. Analyse des mortalités chez les ovins à Nioka (Ituri, Haut-Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibanzilua, M.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortalities Analyses by the Ovines in Nioka (Ituri-Zaire. An analysis of the deaths of "fatty-tailed sheep" bred at the Nioka Research Centre has shown that the deaths of animals between January 89 and 31 st December 1993, were due to the wormy diarrhoea (43.8 %, the new-born deaths (19.4 % and to unknown causes (14.28 %. The authors recommend a means to fight and to bring under control.

  18. Intra-amniotic pharmacological blockade of inflammatory signalling pathways in an ovine chorioamnionitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, D J; Kemp, M W; Miura, Y; Saito, M; Newnham, J P; Keelan, J A

    2015-05-01

    Intrauterine inflammation (IUI) associated with infection is the major cause of preterm birth (PTB) at PTBs. Pharmacological strategies to prevent PTB and improve fetal outcomes will likely require both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapies. Here we investigated the effects of two cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs), compounds that specifically target inflammatory signalling pathways, in an ovine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis. Chronically catheterized ewes at 116 days gestation (n = 7/group) received an intra-amniotic (IA) bolus of LPS (10 mg) plus vehicle or CSAIDS: TPCA-1 (1.2 mg/kg fetal weight) or 5z-7-oxozeaenol (OxZnl; 0.4 mg/kg fetal weight); controls received vehicle (dimethylsulphoxide). Amniotic fluid (AF), fetal and maternal blood samples were taken 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later; tissues were taken at autopsy (48 h). Administration of TPCA-1 or OxZnl abrogated the stimulatory effects of LPS (P < 0.01 versus vehicle control) on production of PGE2 in AF, with lesser (non-significant) effects on IL-6 production. Fetal membrane polymorphonuclear cell infiltration score was significantly higher in LPS versus vehicle control animals (P < 0.01), and this difference was absent with TPCA-1 and OxZnl treatment. LPS-induced systemic fetal inflammation was highly variable, with no significant effects of CSAIDs observed. Lung inflammation was evident with LPS exposure, but unaffected by CSAID treatment. We have shown in a large animal model that IA administration of a single dose of CSAIDs can suppress LPS-induced IA inflammatory responses, while fetal effects were minimal. Further development and investigation of these compounds in infectious models is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn eNitzsche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams were acquired on a 1.5T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight, age and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM and white (WM matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and body weight explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species.

  20. Development of nonfibrotic left ventricular hypertrophy in an ANG II-induced chronic ovine hypertension model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klatt, Niklas; Scherschel, Katharina; Schad, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a minimally invasive ovine hypertension model using chronic angiotensin II (ANG II) treatment and to characterize its effects on cardiac remodeling after 8 weeks. Sheep were implanted with osmotic minipumps filled with either vehicle control (n...... = 7) or ANG II (n = 9) for 8 weeks. Mean arterial blood pressure in the ANG II-treated group increased from 87.4 ± 5.3 to 111.8 ± 6.9 mmHg (P = 0.00013). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging showed an increase in left ventricular mass from 112 ± 12.6 g to 131 ± 18.7 g after 7 weeks (P = 0...... any differences in epicardial conduction velocity and heterogeneity. These data demonstrate that chronic ANG II treatment using osmotic minipumps presents a reliable, minimally invasive approach to establish hypertension and nonfibrotic LVH in sheep....

  1. Tezosentan reduces the microvascular filtration coefficient in isolated lungs from rats subjected to cecum ligation and puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, Vladimir; Sovershaev, Mikhail; Andreasen, Thomas; Skogen, Vegard; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Bjertnaes, Lars

    2005-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the non-selective endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor blocker tezosentan antagonizes ovine acute lung injury (ALI) following infusion of endotoxin or ET-1 by reducing the enhanced lung microvascular pressure, although we could not exclude the possibility of a simultaneous decline in microvascular permeability. In the present study, our aim was to find out if tezosentan reverses the rise in microvascular filtration coefficient (Kfc) in rat lungs that have been isolated and perfused 12 h after cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) or infusion of ET-1. Wistar rats (n = 42) were subjected to CLP. Postoperatively, rats were randomized to a CLP group (n = 7) and a CLP + tezosentan group (n = 7); the latter received tezosentan 30 mg/kg. A sham-operated group (n = 5) underwent laparotomy without CLP. Twelve hours postoperatively, the lungs were isolated and perfused with blood from similarly treated rats that also were used to assess plasma concentration of ET-1 and protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) in lung tissue. Additionally, isolated blood perfused lungs from healthy rats were randomized to a control group (n = 8), an ET-1 group (n = 7) subjected to pulmonary arterial injection of ET-1 10 nM, and an ET-1 + tezosentan group (n = 7) that received tezosentan 30 mg/kg. All lung preparations received papaverine 0.1 microg/kg added to the perfusate for vasoplegia. Pulmonary hemodynamic variables, Kfc and lung compliance (CL) were assessed. After CLP, the plasma concentration of ET-1 increased. Papaverine abolished the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 and the pulmonary vascular pressures remained close to baseline throughout the experiments. Both CLP and injection of ET-1 caused significant changes in Kfc and CL that were prevented in tezosentan-treated rats. Compared to sham-operated animals, CLP increased the content of PKCalpha by 50% and 70% in the cytosolic and the membrane fractions of lung tissue homogenates, respectively. Tezosentan prevented the

  2. Decellularized ovine arteries as small-diameter vascular grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancuso, L; Cao, G; Gualerzi, A; Boschetti, F; Loy, F

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its complications still represent the leading cause of death in the developed countries. While autologous blood vessels may be regarded as the best solution for peripheral and coronary bypass, they are unavailable in most patients. Even though tissue engineering techniques are often applied to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts, limiting factors of this approach are represented by the lack of essential extracellular matrix proteins and/or poor biomechanical properties of the scaffolds used. Along these lines, the aim of this study was to develop a decellularization protocol for ovine carotids to be used as suitable small-diameter vascular grafts. Samples were treated either with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or with Trypsin and Triton X-100; a final nuclease digestion was performed for both protocols. Morphological analyses demonstrate complete removal of nuclei and cellular components in treated vessels, also confirmed by significant reduction in wall thickness and DNA content. Essential extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin are well preserved after decellularization. From a mechanical point of view, Trypsin and Triton X-100 treated arteries show elastic modules and compliance comparable to native carotids, whereas the use of SDS makes samples stiffer, with a significant decrease in the compliance mean value and an increase in longitudinal and circumferential Young’s modules. It is demonstrated that the treatment where Trypsin and Triton X-100 are combined guarantees complete decellularization of carotids, with no significant alteration of biomechanical and structural properties, thus preserving a suitable environment for adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells. (paper)

  3. Primary transmission of chronic wasting disease versus scrapie prions from small ruminants to transgenic mice expressing ovine and cervid prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) reservoirs that could lead to disease re-emergence is imperative to U.S. scrapie eradication efforts. Transgenic mice expressing the cervid (TgElk) or ovine (Tg338) prion protein have aided characterization of chronic wasting disease (CWD) an...

  4. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus genotypes recovered from cases of bovine, ovine, and caprine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, T; Tollersrud, T; Kvitle, B; Jørgensen, H J; Waage, S

    2005-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in domestic ruminants. The main objective of this study was to determine the similarity of epidemiologically unrelated S. aureus isolates from bovine, ovine, and caprine mastitis. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, 160 different pulsotypes (PTs) were identified among 905 isolates recovered from 588 herds in 12 counties in Norway. Based on estimates of similarity, using an 80% cluster cutoff, the isolates were assigned to 47 clusters. One cluster included 62% of all the isolates and more than 45% of the isolates from each host species. Twenty-three PTs included isolates from more than one host species; these 23 PTs represented 72% of all the isolates. The six most prevalent PTs included isolates from all host species and contained 45% of the bovine isolates, 54% of the ovine isolates, and 37% of the caprine isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 373 of the isolates revealed resistance to penicillin in 2.9% and to streptomycin in 2.4%; only 1.9% were resistant to 1 of the other 11 antimicrobials tested. The results of this study suggest that a small number of closely related genotypes are responsible for a great proportion of S. aureus mastitis cases in cows, ewes, and goats in Norway and that these genotypes exhibit little or no host preference among these species. Selection due to antimicrobial resistance appears not to have contributed to the predominance of these genotypes.

  5. Brain Metastases from Lung Cancer Show Increased Expression of DVL1, DVL3 and Beta-Catenin and Down-Regulation of E-Cadherin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kafka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of brain to secondary formation from lung cancer primaries is a well-known phenomenon. In contrast, the molecular basis for invasion and metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. In the present study, 31 brain metastases that originated from primary lung carcinomas were analyzed regarding over expression of Dishevelled-1 (DVL1, Dishevelled-3 (DVL3, E-cadherin (CDH1 and beta-catenin (CTNNB1. Protein expressions and localizations were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Genetic alterations of E-cadherin were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR/loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Heteroduplex was used to investigate mutations in beta-catenin. DVL1 and DVL3 showed over expression in brain metastasis in 87.1% and 90.3% of samples respectively. Nuclear staining was observed in 54.8% of cases for DVL1 and 53.3% for DVL3. The main effector of the Wnt signaling, beta-catenin, was up-regulated in 56%, and transferred to the nucleus in 36% of metastases. When DVL1 and DVL3 were up-regulated the number of cases with nuclear beta-catenin significantly increased (p = 0.0001. Down-regulation of E-cadherin was observed in 80% of samples. Genetic analysis showed 36% of samples with LOH of the CDH1. In comparison to other lung cancer pathologies, the diagnoses adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer (SCLC were significantly associated to CDH1 LOH (p = 0.001. Microsatellite instability was detected in one metastasis from adenocarcinoma. Exon 3 of beta-catenin was not targeted. Altered expression of Dishevelled-1, Dishevelled-3, E-cadherin and beta-catenin were present in brain metastases which indicates that Wnt signaling is important and may contribute to better understanding of genetic profile conditioning lung cancer metastasis to the brain.

  6. Expression of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-Activated protein kinase (AMPK) in ovine testis (Ovis aries): In vivo regulation by nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, N; Dupont, J; Bouguermouh, Z; Froment, P; Ramé, C; Anane, A; Amirat, Z; Khammar, F

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we identified AMPK and investigated its potential role in steroidogenesis in vivo in the ovine testis in response to variation in nutritional status (fed control vs. restricted). We performed immunoblotting to show that both active and non-active forms of AMPK exist in ovine testis and liver. In testis, we confirmed these results by immunohistochemistry. We found a correlation between ATP (Adenosine-Triphosphate) levels and the expression of AMPK in liver. Also, low and high caloric diets induce isoform-dependent AMPK expression, with an increase in α2, ß1ß2 and γ1 activity levels. Although the restricted group exhibited an increase in lipid balance, only the triglyceride and HC-VLDL (Cholesterol-Very low density lipoprotein) fractions showed significant differences between groups, suggesting an adaptive mechanism. Moreover, the relatively low rate of non-esterified fatty acid released into the circulation implies re-esterification to compensate for the physiological need. In the fed control group, AMPK activates the production of testosterone in Leydig cells; this is, in turn, associated with an increase in the expression of 3ß-HSD (3 beta hydroxy steroid deshydrogenase), p450scc (Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme) and StAR (Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) proteins induced by decreased MAPK ERK½ (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase -Mitogen-activated protein kinase) phosphorylation. In contrast, in the restricted group, testosterone secretion was reduced but intracellular cholesterol concentration was not. Furthermore, the combination of high levels of lipoproteins and emergence of the p38 MAP kinase pathway suggest the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as confirmed by transcriptional repression of the StAR protein. Taken together, these results suggest that AMPK expression is tissue dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adjustable, physiological ventricular restraint improves left ventricular mechanics and reduces dilatation in an ovine model of chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Lee, Lawrence; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Bolman, R Morton; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-03-13

    Ventricular restraint is a nontransplantation surgical treatment for heart failure. The effect of varying restraint level on left ventricular (LV) mechanics and remodeling is not known. We hypothesized that restraint level may affect therapy efficacy. We studied the immediate effect of varying restraint levels in an ovine heart failure model. We then studied the long-term effect of restraint applied over a 2-month period. Restraint level was quantified by use of fluid-filled epicardial balloons placed around the ventricles and measurement of balloon luminal pressure at end diastole. At 4 different restraint levels (0, 3, 5, and 8 mm Hg), transmural myocardial pressure (P(tm)) and indices of myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were determined in control (n=5) and ovine heart failure (n=5). Ventricular restraint therapy decreased P(tm) and MVO2, and improved mechanical efficiency. An optimal physiological restraint level of 3 mm Hg was identified to maximize improvement without an adverse affect on systemic hemodynamics. At this optimal level, end-diastolic P(tm) and MVO2 indices decreased by 27% and 20%, respectively. The serial longitudinal effects of optimized ventricular restraint were then evaluated in ovine heart failure with (n=3) and without (n=3) restraint over 2 months. Optimized ventricular restraint prevented and reversed pathological LV dilatation (130+/-22 mL to 91+/-18 mL) and improved LV ejection fraction (27+/-3% to 43+/-5%). Measured restraint level decreased over time as the LV became smaller, and reverse remodeling slowed. Ventricular restraint level affects the degree of decrease in P(tm), the degree of decrease in MVO2, and the rate of LV reverse remodeling. Periodic physiological adjustments of restraint level may be required for optimal restraint therapy efficacy.

  8. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Kohki; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disorder characterized by acute respiratory failure, resulting from severe, destructive lung inflammation and irreversible lung fibrosis. We evaluated the use of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) or SHED-derived serum-free conditioned medium (SHED-CM) as treatments for bleomycin (BLM)-induced mice acute lung injury (ALI), exhibiting several pathogenic features associated with the human disease ARDS. Mice with BLM-induced ALI with or without SHED or SHED-CM treatment were examined for weight loss and survival. The lung tissue was characterized by histological and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effects of SHED-CM on macrophage differentiation in vitro were also assessed. A single intravenous administration of either SHEDs or SHED-CM attenuated the lung injury and weight loss in BLM-treated mice and improved their survival rate. Similar recovery levels were seen in the SHEDs and SHED-CM treatment groups, suggesting that SHED improves ALI by paracrine mechanisms. SHED-CM contained multiple therapeutic factors involved in lung-regenerative mechanisms. Importantly, SHED-CM attenuated the BLM-induced pro-inflammatory response and generated an anti-inflammatory/tissue-regenerating environment, accompanied by the induction of anti-inflammatory M2-like lung macrophages. Furthermore, SHED-CM promoted the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages into M2-like cells, which expressed high levels of Arginase1, CD206 and Ym-1. Our results suggest that SHED-secreted factors provide multifaceted therapeutic effects, including a strong M2-inducing activity, for treating BLM-induced ALI. This work may open new avenues for research on stem cell-based ARDS therapies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Murine Lung Microbiome Changes During Lung Inflammation and Intranasal Vancomycin Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Vrankx, Katleen; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Larsen, Søren Thor; Ouwenhand, Arthur C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2015-01-01

    Most microbiome research related to airway diseases has focused on the gut microbiome. This is despite advances in culture independent microbial identification techniques revealing that even healthy lungs possess a unique dynamic microbiome. This conceptual change raises the question; if lung diseases could be causally linked to local dysbiosis of the local lung microbiota. Here, we manipulate the murine lung and gut microbiome, in order to show that the lung microbiota can be changed experimentally. We have used four different approaches: lung inflammation by exposure to carbon nano-tube particles, oral probiotics and oral or intranasal exposure to the antibiotic vancomycin. Bacterial DNA was extracted from broncho-alveolar and nasal lavage fluids, caecum samples and compared by DGGE. Our results show that: the lung microbiota is sex dependent and not just a reflection of the gut microbiota, and that induced inflammation can change lung microbiota. This change is not transferred to offspring. Oral probiotics in adult mice do not change lung microbiome detectible by DGGE. Nasal vancomycin can change the lung microbiome preferentially, while oral exposure does not. These observations should be considered in future studies of the causal relationship between lung microbiota and lung diseases. PMID:26668669

  10. Indomethacin inhibits the uptake of 22sodium by ovine trophoblastic tissue in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Blastocysts from several species synthesize prostaglandins in vitro, but the exact functions of the prostaglandins are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, would inhibit the uptake of 22sodium ([22Na]) by ovine trophoblastic tissue. To determine the concentration of indomethacin that would inhibit the synthesis of PGF2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by blastocysts, blastocysts were collected from ewes 16 days after mating, sliced into pieces approximately 2 mm in length and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in 2 ml of medium containing either 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 mM of indomethacin. Concentrations of indomethacin greater than or equal to 0.2 mM reduced (P less than .01) trophoblastic release (ng/micrograms DNA) of PGF2 alpha from 205 +/- 71.2 to less than or equal to 3.3 +/- 0.2, reduced PGFM from 0.7 +/- 0.1 to less than or equal to 0.17 +/- 0.01, and inhibited formation of trophoblastic vesicles. In a second experiment, blastocysts were recovered from ewes 16 days after mating and pieces of trophoblast were incubated with [22Na] and either 0 or 0.4 mM of indomethacin. Indomethacin reduced the uptake of [22Na], which is an indirect measure of the transport of water across epithelia, from 3680 +/- 1118 to 934 +/- 248 cpm/micrograms DNA (P less than .03) and prevented formation of trophoblastic vesicles. Prostaglandins produced by ovine blastocysts might be involved in controlling uptake of water, which is essential for expansion of blastocysts

  11. Application of ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) radioimmunoassay in the quantitation of LH in different mammalian species. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, R.P.; Aehnelt, C.

    1977-09-01

    A sensitive double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring luteinizing hormone (LH) in various African mammalian species, using rabbit anti-ovine LH serum (GDN 15) and radioiodinated rat LH or ovine LH. Serum and pituitary homogenates from some African mammals (hyrax, reedbuck, sable, impala, tsessebe, thar, spring-hare, ground squirrel and cheetah, as well as the domestic sheep, cow and horse and laboratory rat and hamster) produced displacement curves parallel to that of the ovine LH standards. The specificity of the assay was examined in detail for one species, the rock hyrax. Radioimmunoassay and bioassay estimates of LH in hyrax pituitaries containing widely differing quantities of pituitary hormones were similar. In sexually active male hyrax mean plasma LH was 12.1 ng/ml and pituitary LH 194 ..mu..g/gland, but in sexually quiescent hyrax mean plasma LH was 2.4 ng/ml and mean pituitary LH 76 ..mu..g/gland. Intravenous injection of 10 ..mu..g of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone increased mean LH levels in hyrax from 0.9 ng/ml to 23.2 ng/ml by 30 min. Conversely, im injection of 250 ..mu..g testosterone induced a fall in LH levels in male hyrax from 1.7 ng/ml to 0.7 ng/ml 6 h after administration. Although the specificity of the assay for quantitating plasma LH in other species was not categorically established, there was a good correlation between plasma LH concentration and reproductive state in the bontebok, impala, spring-hare, thar, cheetah, domestic horse and laboratory rat, suggesting the potential use of the antiserum in quantitating LH in a variety of mammalian species.

  12. Safety results of two phase III trials of an intravitreous injection of highly purified ovine hyaluronidase (Vitrase) for the management of vitreous hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Thomas, Edgar L.; de Smet, Marc D.; Grillone, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of intravitreous ovine hyaluronidase for the management of vitreous hemorrhage. DESIGN: Two prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked studies. Pooled efficacy data are presented in a companion article in this issue of The Journal. METHODS: Subjects

  13. Mutated but Not Deleted Ovine PrP(C) N-Terminal Polybasic Region Strongly Interferes with Prion Propagation in Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifé, Manal; Reine, Fabienne; Paquet-Fifield, Sophie; Castille, Johan; Herzog, Laetitia; Vilotte, Marthe; Moudjou, Mohammed; Moazami-Goudarzi, Katayoun; Makhzami, Samira; Passet, Bruno; Andréoletti, Olivier; Vilette, Didier; Laude, Hubert; Béringue, Vincent; Vilotte, Jean-Luc

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian prions are proteinaceous infectious agents composed of misfolded assemblies of the host-encoded, cellular prion protein (PrP). Physiologically, the N-terminal polybasic region of residues 23 to 31 of PrP has been shown to be involved in its endocytic trafficking and interactions with glycosaminoglycans or putative ectodomains of membrane-associated proteins. Several recent reports also describe this PrP region as important for the toxicity of mutant prion proteins and the efficiency of prion propagation, both in vitro and in vivo. The question remains as to whether the latter observations made with mouse PrP and mouse prions would be relevant to other PrP species/prion strain combinations given the dramatic impact on prion susceptibility of minimal amino acid substitutions and structural variations in PrP. Here, we report that transgenic mouse lines expressing ovine PrP with a deletion of residues 23 to 26 (KKRP) or mutated in this N-terminal region (KQHPH instead of KKRPK) exhibited a variable, strain-dependent susceptibility to prion infection with regard to the proportion of affected mice and disease tempo relative to findings in their wild-type counterparts. Deletion has no major effect on 127S scrapie prion pathogenesis, whereas mutation increased by almost 3-fold the survival time of the mice. Deletion marginally affected the incubation time of scrapie LA19K and ovine bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions, whereas mutation caused apparent resistance to disease. Recent reports suggested that the N-terminal polybasic region of the prion protein could be a therapeutic target to prevent prion propagation or toxic signaling associated with more common neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Mutating or deleting this region in ovine PrP completes the data previously obtained with the mouse protein by identifying the key amino acid residues involved. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; Luttikholt, S J M; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Peperkamp, N H M T; Mars, M H; van der Poel, W H M; Vellema, P

    2012-02-01

    Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight

  15. [Partial nucleotomy of the ovine disc as an in vivo model for disc degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guder, E; Hill, S; Kandziora, F; Schnake, K J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a suitable animal model for the clinical situation of progressive disc degeneration after microsurgical nucleotomy. Twenty sheep underwent standardised partial anterolateral nucleotomy at lumbar segment 3/4. After randomisation, 10 animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks (group 1). The remainder was sacrificed after 48 weeks (group 2). For radiological examination X-rays, MRI and post-mortem CT scans were performed. Lumbar discs L 3/4 with adjacent subchondral trabecular bone were harvested and analysed macroscopically and histologically. An image-analysing computer program was used to measure histomorphometric indices of bone structure. 17 segments could be evaluated. After 12 weeks (group 1) histological and radiological degenerative disc changes were noted. After 48 weeks (group 2), radiological signs in MRI reached statistical significance. Furthermore, group 2 showed significantly more osteophyte formations in CT scans. Histomorphometric changes of the disc and the adjacent vertebral bone structure suggest a significant progressive degenerative remodelling. The facet joints did not show any osteoarthrosis after 48 weeks. Partial nucleotomy of the ovine lumbar disc leads to radiological and histological signs of disc degeneration similar to those seen in humans after microsurgical nucleotomy. The presented in vivo model may be useful to evaluate new orthopaedic treatment strategies.

  16. Managing control programs for ovine caseous lymphadenitis and paratuberculosis in Australia, and the need for persistent vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windsor PA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter Andrew WindsorFaculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Ovine caseous lymphadenitis (CLA and ovine Johne's disease (OJD or paratuberculosis have been serious diseases in the Australian sheep industry, mainly causing losses from abattoir condemnations from CLA or mortalities on the farm from OJD. CLA is now a disease of minimal concern, with clinical cases reported rarely. Although OJD continues to spread through parts of the sheep population, the catastrophic losses in flocks occurring prior to the introduction of vaccination are now uncommon. Change-management factors relevant to the improvements in both prevalence and producer concerns for CLA and OJD were examined, including drivers and motivation for change, resistance to change, knowledge management, farming system dimensions and leadership. Although extension programs addressing disease risk factors are likely to be of relevance to improved knowledge and attitudes towards disease risk management of producers, improvements in disease-control practices were considered largely attributable to the introduction of vaccination programs for CLA in 1983 and OJD in 2002. Inclusion of the CLA antigen within clostridial vaccines (“6 in 1” vaccine enabled routine annual CLA vaccination to occur in an increasing proportion of the national flock, with estimates of CLA prevalence suggesting a decline from 26% in 1995 to 5.2% in 2009. Encouraging the routine vaccination of lambs for OJD (Gudair vaccine in infected flocks to reduce or avoid losses significantly reduced the within-flock prevaccination–postvaccination median prevalence from 2.72% to 0.72%, based on estimated shedding rates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis determined by pooled fecal culture in 37 infected flocks vaccinating for at least 5 years. Although persistent use of CLA vaccine is a convenient intervention for producers, promoting the persistent use of OJD vaccination

  17. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  18. Estimation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine lung uptake in heart and lung diseases. With reference to lung uptake ratio and decrease of lung uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Sekiguchi, Morie; Gomi, Tsutomu; Yano, Kesato; Itoh, Atsuko.

    1997-01-01

    123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 64 patients with heart and lung diseases. Distribution of MIBG in the chest was evaluated by planar images, using counts ratios of the heart to the mediastinum (H/M) and the unilateral lung to the mediastinum (Lu/M). Most of patients with heart diseases showed obvious lung uptake of MIBG. The ratios of H/M were 1.75±0.20 in the group without heart failure and 1.55±0.19 in the group with heart failure. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung were 1.56±0.16 and 1.28±0.16 in the group without heart failure. And those were 1.45±0.16 and 1.19±0.15 in the group with heart failure. But 3 patients complicated with chronic pulmonary emphysema and one patient with interstitial pneumonia due to dermatomyositis showed markedly decreased lung uptake. The ratios of Lu/M in the right and left lung of these patients were 1.20, 1.17; 1.17, 1.13; 1.01, 0.97 and 1.27, 0.94, respectively. These results suggest that the lung uptake of MIBG may reflect the state of pulmonary endothelial cell function in clinical situations, considering that it has been demonstrated that MIBG may be useful as a marker of pulmonary endothelial cell function in the isolated rat lung. (author)

  19. Fab fragments of ovine antibody to colchicine enhance its clearance in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Philip W; Pianta, Timothy J; Succar, Lena; Fernando, Mangalee; Buckley, Nicholas A; Endre, Zoltan H

    2015-06-01

    Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory alkaloid used for the treatment of acute gout, but has a narrow therapeutic index. Colchicine overdoses are relatively rare, but have high mortality requiring rapid treatment. To evaluate the ability of a newly available ovine fragment antigen-binding (Fab) antibody to colchicine (ColchiFab(™)) to protect rats against renal and other injury 24 h after colchicine ingestion. Rats were gavaged with colchicine (5 mg/kg), then 2 h later injected intraperitoneally with 5 ml of sterile saline, or Fab anti-colchicine, a newly available ovine antibody to colchicine. Samples of blood were taken at 1, 2, 5 and 24 h after gavage, and urine was collected from 5 to 24 h after gavage. Concentrations of colchicine in tissue, blood and urine were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, concentrations of Fab anti-colchicine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 or KIM-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or ELISA, while concentrations of creatine kinase and creatinine (Cr) were measured enzymatically. Colchicine equilibrated rapidly throughout the body and increased serum creatine kinase. Fab anti-colchicine also rapidly redistributed to the blood and remained at high concentrations over 24 h. Fab anti-colchicine caused a rapid 7.1-fold increase in serum colchicine level, followed by excretion of both colchicine and Fab anti-colchicine through the urine. This was associated with the accumulation of colchicine in the kidney, a reversal of colchicine-induced diarrhoea, and increasing urinary NGAL level; from 168 ± 48 to 477 ± 255 ng/mmol Cr [mean ± standard deviation or SD]. Fab anti-colchicine greatly increased the clearance of colchicine, although increasing NGAL level suggested the presence of mild kidney damage. These data suggest clinical utility for Fab anti-colchicine in the treatment of colchicine overdose.

  20. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  1. Toward a clinical application of ex situ boron neutron capture therapy for lung tumors at the RA-3 reactor in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farías, R. O.; Trivillin, V. A.; Portu, A. M.; Schwint, A. E.; González, S. J., E-mail: srgonzal@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650, Argentina and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1033 (Argentina); Garabalino, M. A.; Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E. C. C.; Thorp, S. I.; Curotto, P.; Miller, M. E.; Santa Cruz, G. A.; Saint Martin, G. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), San Martín 1650 (Argentina); Ferraris, S.; Santa María, J.; Rovati, O.; Lange, F. [CIDME, Universidad Maimónides, Buenos Aires 1405 (Argentina); Bortolussi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100 (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia 27100, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pavia, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Many types of lung tumors have a very poor prognosis due to their spread in the whole organ volume. The fact that boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) would allow for selective targeting of all the nodules regardless of their position, prompted a preclinical feasibility study of ex situ BNCT at the thermal neutron facility of RA-3 reactor in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. (L)-4p-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) biodistribution studies in an adult sheep model and computational dosimetry for a human explanted lung were performed to evaluate the feasibility and the therapeutic potential of ex situ BNCT. Methods: Two kinds of boron biodistribution studies were carried out in the healthy sheep: a set of pharmacokinetic studies without lung excision, and a set that consisted of evaluation of boron concentration in the explanted and perfused lung. In order to assess the feasibility of the clinical application of ex situ BNCT at RA-3, a case of multiple lung metastases was analyzed. A detailed computational representation of the geometry of the lung was built based on a real collapsed human lung. Dosimetric calculations and dose limiting considerations were based on the experimental results from the adult sheep, and on the most suitable information published in the literature. In addition, a workable treatment plan was considered to assess the clinical application in a realistic scenario. Results: Concentration-time profiles for the normal sheep showed that the boron kinetics in blood, lung, and skin would adequately represent the boron behavior and absolute uptake expected in human tissues. Results strongly suggest that the distribution of the boron compound is spatially homogeneous in the lung. A constant lung-to-blood ratio of 1.3 ± 0.1 was observed from 80 min after the end of BPA-F infusion. The fact that this ratio remains constant during time would allow the blood boron concentration to be used as a surrogate and indirect

  2. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Joseph W.; Clegg, Simon R.; Sullivan, Leigh E.; Duncan, Jennifer S.; Grove?White, Dai H.; Carter, Stuart D.; Evans, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the ...

  3. X-ray microprobe analysis of the retina and RPE in sheep with ovine ceroid-lipofuscinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, D.A.; Armstrong, D.; Jolly, R.

    1990-01-01

    Ovine ceroid-lipofuscinosis (OCL) is one animal model for the human condition, and because autofluorescent lipopigments are prominent in the brain and eye, it may also prove useful as a model for aging. For example, a progressive decline in electrical recording from brain and retina are observed in both aging and OCL. Samples of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tissues were obtained from a young control. 2 animals with OCL and a normal aged sheep. Specimens were cryo-fractured and examined by scanning electron microscopy/x-ray microanalysis. Measurements made of 6 individual cells in the ganglion layer of OCL specimens, the remainder of the retina, and RPE showed age-related changes in zinc, iron, and copper which were associated with lipopigment accumulation in the RPE. There was marked decrease in phosphate, sulfur, and manganese levels, as photoreceptor cells and their outer segments are lost in the disease process. This is the first report of metal analysis in the retina and RPE in a disease entity, and as a function of normal aging

  4. Systemic toxicity of ropivacaine during ovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Arthur, G R; Pedersen, H; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Covino, B G

    1991-07-01

    Ropivacaine is a new amide local anesthetic structurally related to bupivacaine and mepivacaine. Its potency and duration of action are similar to those of bupivacaine but its therapeutic index may be greater. Since pregnancy enhances the cardiotoxicity of bupivacaine, the current study was devised to compare the toxicity of ropivacaine in chronically instrumented nonpregnant and pregnant ewes during continuous intravenous infusion of the drug at the rate of 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1. In all animals, symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity occurred in the usual order--convulsions, hypotension, apnea, and circulatory collapse. There were no significant differences between the two groups of animals in the doses and plasma concentrations of ropivacaine associated with each toxic manifestations. For example, circulatory collapse occurred at a mean dose of 11.3 +/- 1.1 mg.kg-1 in nonpregnant and 12.4 +/- 0.9 mg.kg-1 in pregnant animals, with corresponding plasma concentrations of 7.3 +/- 0.3 and 9.6 +/- 2.1 micrograms.ml-1 (P = not significant). Protein binding of ropivacaine in the concentration range associated with toxic manifestations was similar in sera obtained from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes. In conclusion, ovine pregnancy does not enhance the systemic toxicity of ropivacaine, possibly because of an absence of gestation-related increase in the availability of free drug.

  5. Polyphemus, Odysseus and the ovine milk proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Di Francesco, Antonella; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2017-01-30

    In the last years the amount of ovine milk production, mainly used to formulate a wide range of different and exclusive dairy products often categorized as gourmet food, has been progressively increasing. Taking also into account that sheep milk (SM) also appears to be potentially less allergenic than cow's one, an in-depth information about its protein composition is essential to improve the comprehension of its potential benefits for human consumption. The present work reports the results of an in-depth characterization of SM whey proteome, carried out by coupling the CPLL technology with SDS-PAGE and high resolution UPLC-nESI MS/MS analysis. This approach allowed the identification of 718 different protein components, 644 of which are from unique genes. Particularly, this identification has expanded literature data about sheep whey proteome by 193 novel proteins previously undetected, many of which are involved in the defence/immunity mechanisms or in the nutrient delivery system. A comparative analysis of SM proteome known to date with cow's milk proteome, evidenced that while about 29% of SM proteins are also present in CM, 71% of the identified components appear to be unique of SM proteome and include a heterogeneous group of components which seem to have health-promoting benefits. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with 125 I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  7. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Urine production rate and renal blood flow in the near-term ovine fetus are not related to high and low voltage electrocortical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J; Dassel, ACM; Aarnoudse, JG

    Studies in both the human and ovine near-term fetus have identified the clustering of physiologic and behavioral parameters into states. In a recent study in the human fetus a considerable decrease was found in fetal urine production during nonrapid eye movement (non-REM) compared with REM sleep.

  9. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)); Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki

    1992-05-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author).

  10. Two cases with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Inui, Hiroyuki; Yukawa, Susumu; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Minakata, Yoshiaki; Yamagata, Toshiyuki.

    1992-01-01

    Two patients with giant lung abscess originating in the irradiated lung field are reported. Lung abscesses occurred during the term of leukopenia following the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy of lung cancer. Both patients were diagnosed as small cell lung cancer, and were treated concurrently with chemotherapy (Cisplatin + Etoposide) and radiotherapy (total 40-50 Gy). Case 1 was a 59 years old male. Seven weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) originated in the lung field with radiation pneumonitis, and giant bronchial fistula was formed, that showed the specific bronchofiberscopic findings. Case 2 was a 67 years old male. Twelve weeks after the first irradiation, a giant lung abscess was caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa originated in the irradiated lung field following the formation of a pneumatocele. MRSA and pseudomonas aeruginosa are important as cause of hospital infection, and both can cause lung abscess. However, in our cases, lung abscess were formed just in the irradiated lung field and rapidly enlarged. These clinical findings suggested that myelosuppression and radiation injury of lung tissue might cause such giant lung abscess. (author)

  11. Economic Cost of Ovine Johne’s Disease in Clinically Affected New Zealand Flocks and Benefit-Cost of Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Milan; Anderson, Peter; Ridler, Anne; Wilson, Peter; Heuer, Cord

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the on-fam economic cost of ovine Johne’s disease (OJD) based on collected incidence and mortality data, and the benefit-cost of OJD vaccination in typical OJD affected flocks in New Zealand after having vaccinated for a number of years. Owners of 20 sheep breeding and finishing farms known to be clinically affected by ovine Johne’s disease in New Zealand participated in the study and were monitored for up to two years. Farms were categorized as fine-wool (Merino, Half-Bred, Corriedale, n = 15), and other breeds (Romney, composite breeds, n = 5). Ovine JD was confirmed by gross- and histo-pathology in 358 ewes culled due to chronic progressive wasting. An additional 228 ewes with low body condition score (BCS), but not targeted for culling, were tested with ELISA to estimate the proportion of OJD in ewes in the lower 5% BCS of the flock. Calculations were done separately for fine-wool and other breeds. Based on the data, mortality due to OJD, its associated cost and the benefit-cost of vaccination were evaluated for a hypothetical farm with 2000 ewes by stochastic simulation. Total ewe mortality was similar in fine-wool and other breeds, but the estimated mortality due to OJD was 2.7 times as high in fine-wool (median 1.8%, interquartile range IQR 1.2–2.7%) than other breeds (median 0.69%, IQR 0.3–1.2%), but with large variation between farms. ELISA results demonstrated fine-wool sheep had a higher seroprevalence than other breeds (39%, 95% CI 18–61% vs. 9%, 95% CI 0–22%). Stochastic modelling indicated that the average annual cost of mortality due to OJD in a flock of 2000 ewes was NZD 13,100 (IQR 8900–18,600) in fine-wool and NZD 4300 (IQR 2200–7600) in other breeds. Vaccinating replacement lambs against OJD may be cost-effective in most flocks when the pre-vaccination annual ewe mortality due to OJD is >1%. To make the best-informed decision about vaccination it is therefore essential for farmers to

  12. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. Pereira; Olga Díaz; Angel Cobos

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho) on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão) have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 ...

  13. SARS – Lung Pathology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dry nonproductive cough – may show minimal lung infiltration. Recovery; * Lungs get fluid in bronchi- droplets infective and +ve for virus in culture and PCR. May also have co-infection with chlamydia/metapneumoviruses. Recovery; * Lung tissue destroyed due to ? immunological/cytokine mediated damage-Recovery ...

  14. Proteomic Analysis Shows Constitutive Secretion of MIF and p53-associated Activity of COX-2−/− Lung Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandar Dave

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differential expression of two closelyassociated cyclooxygenase isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, exhibited functions beyond eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that COX-1 or COX-2 knockout lung fibroblasts may display altered protein profiles which may allow us to further differentiate the functional roles of these isozymes at the molecular level. Proteomic analysis shows constitutive production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in lung fibroblasts derived from COX-2−/− but not wild-type (WT or COX-1−/− mice. MIF was spontaneously released in high levels into the extracellular milieu of COX2−/− fibroblasts seemingly from the preformed intracellular stores, with no change in the basal gene expression of MIF. The secretion and regulation of MIF in COX-2−/− was “prostaglandin-independent.” GO analysis showed that concurrent with upregulation of MIF, there is a significant surge in expression of genes related to fibroblast growth, FK506 binding proteins, and isomerase activity in COX-2−/− cells. Furthermore, COX-2−/− fibroblasts also exhibit a significant increase in transcriptional activity of various regulators, antagonists, and co-modulators of p53, as well as in the expression of oncogenes and related transcripts. Integrative Oncogenomics Cancer Browser (IntroGen analysis shows downregulation of COX-2 and amplification of MIF and/or p53 activity during development of glioblastomas, ependymoma, and colon adenomas. These data indicate the functional role of the MIF-COX-p53 axis in inflammation and cancer at the genomic and proteomic levels in COX-2-ablated cells. This systematic analysis not only shows the proinflammatory state but also unveils a molecular signature of a pro-oncogenic state of COX-1 in COX-2 ablated cells.

  15. [Lung abscess which needed to be distinguished from lung cancer; report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazunori; Yoshizu, Akira; Misumi, Yuki; Hida, Naoya; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Sachiko

    2011-12-01

    Differential diagnosis of lung abscess from lung cancer is sometimes difficult. In February 2009, a 57-year-old man consulted our hospital complaining of bloody sputum. Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a 2.5 cm nodule with pleural indentation, spicula and vascular involvement in the right S(3). Bronchofiberscope could not establish a definitive diagnosis. Blood test showed no abnormality. Three months later, progression of the nodule to the adjacent middle lobe was demonstrated by follow-up CT, and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed isotope accumulation in the nodule and hilar lymph node. A diagnosis of lung cancer was suspected and surgery was performed. The diagnosis of possible lung cancer was made by needle biopsy, and the patient underwent right upper lobectomy and partial resection of middle lobe with standard nodal dissection. The final pathological diagnosis was lung abscess. Lung abscess must be kept in mind as a possible differential diagnosis when abnormal shadow suspected of lung cancer is observed.

  16. Biological, biochemical and biomechanical characterisation of articular cartilage from the porcine, bovine and ovine hip and knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermor, H L; McLure, S W D; Taylor, S D; Russell, S L; Williams, S; Fisher, J; Ingham, E

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal starting material for the development of an acellular osteochondral graft. Osteochondral tissues from three different species were characterised; pig (6 months), cow (18 months) and two ages of sheep (8-12 months and >4 year old). Tissues from the acetabulum and femoral head of the hip, and the groove, medial and lateral condyles and tibial plateau of the knee were assessed. Histological analysis of each tissue allowed for qualification of cartilage histoarchitecture, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution, assessment of cellularity and cartilage thickness. Collagen and GAG content were quantified and cartilage water content was defined. Following biomechanical testing, the percentage deformation, permeability and equilibrium elastic modulus was determined. Results showed that porcine cartilage had the highest concentration of sulphated proteoglycans and that the condyles and groove of the knee showed higher GAG content than other joint areas. Cartilage from younger tissues (porcine and young ovine) had higher cell content and was thicker, reflecting the effects of age on cartilage structure. Cartilage from older sheep had a much higher elastic modulus and was less permeable than other species.

  17. An ovine model of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Saul; Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley O; Miller, John W; Reddy, Chandan G; Safayi, Sina; Fredericks, Douglas C; Jeffery, Nicholas D; DeVries-Watson, Nicole A; Shivapour, Sara K; Viljoen, Stephanus; Dalm, Brian D; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N; Johnson, Michael D; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2017-05-01

    To develop a large animal model of spinal cord injury (SCI), for use in translational studies of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in the treatment of spasticity. We seek to establish thresholds for the SCS parameters associated with reduction of post-SCI spasticity in the pelvic limbs, with implications for patients. The weight-drop method was used to create a moderate SCI in adult sheep, leading to mild spasticity in the pelvic limbs. Electrodes for electromyography (EMG) and an epidural spinal cord stimulator were then implanted. Behavioral and electrophysiological data were taken during treadmill ambulation in six animals, and in one animal with and without SCS at 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9 V. All surgical procedures were carried out at the University of Iowa. The gait measurements were made at Iowa State University. Nine adult female sheep were used in these institutionally approved protocols. Six of them were trained in treadmill ambulation prior to SCI surgeries, and underwent gait analysis pre- and post-SCI. Stretch reflex and H-reflex measurements were also made in conscious animals. Gait analysis revealed repeatable quantitative differences in 20% of the key kinematic parameters of the sheep, pre- and post-SCI. Hock joint angular velocity increased toward the normal pre-injury baseline in the animal with SCS at 0.9 V. The ovine model is workable as a large animal surrogate suitable for translational studies of novel SCS therapies aimed at relieving spasticity in patients with SCI.

  18. CT evaluation of cavitary lung lesions: focused on lung cancer, tuberculosis and abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rahn; Kim, Myung Gyu; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1992-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions is frequently problematic. We studied 35 patients with cavitary lung lesions, consisting of lung cancer (17 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (11 patients), and lung abscess (7 patients). We analysed CT scans in terms of irregularities of the cavity wall, maximum wall thickness, the presence of air-fluid level, location of the cavity within the mass, number of cavities within the mass, size of the cavity and the presence of calcification within the mass. Cancer cavity showed irregular inner (100%) and outer margins (100%), and thick wall (mean, 1.94 cm), eccentrical location (94%) and multiplicity within a mass (38%). Tuberculous cavity showed smooth inner (56%) and irregular outer margins (75%), thin wall (mean 0.96 cm), central location (62%), and multiplicity in one patient (36%). Abscess cavity showed irregular inner (57%) and outer margins (91%), relatively thin wall (mean 1.0 cm), central location (57%), and air-fluid level (86%). CT scan could differentiate malignant lesions from benign condition such as tuberculosis and lung abscess by observing characteristics of the cavities

  19. CT evaluation of cavitary lung lesions: focused on lung cancer, tuberculosis and abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rahn; Kim, Myung Gyu; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions is frequently problematic. We studied 35 patients with cavitary lung lesions, consisting of lung cancer (17 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (11 patients), and lung abscess (7 patients). We analysed CT scans in terms of irregularities of the cavity wall, maximum wall thickness, the presence of air-fluid level, location of the cavity within the mass, number of cavities within the mass, size of the cavity and the presence of calcification within the mass. Cancer cavity showed irregular inner (100%) and outer margins (100%), and thick wall (mean, 1.94 cm), eccentrical location (94%) and multiplicity within a mass (38%). Tuberculous cavity showed smooth inner (56%) and irregular outer margins (75%), thin wall (mean 0.96 cm), central location (62%), and multiplicity in one patient (36%). Abscess cavity showed irregular inner (57%) and outer margins (91%), relatively thin wall (mean 1.0 cm), central location (57%), and air-fluid level (86%). CT scan could differentiate malignant lesions from benign condition such as tuberculosis and lung abscess by observing characteristics of the cavities.

  20. Monitoring Conformational Landscape of Ovine Prion Protein Monomer Using Ion Mobility Coupled to Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Rest, Guillaume; Rezaei, Human; Halgand, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Prion protein is involved in deadly neurodegenerative diseases. Its pathogenicity is linked to its structural conversion (α-helix to β-strand transition). However, recent studies suggest that prion protein can follow a plurality of conversion pathways, which hints towards different conformers that might coexist in solution. To gain insights on the plasticity of the ovine prion protein (PrP) monomer, wild type (A136, R154, Q171), mutants and deletions of ARQ were studied by traveling wave ion mobility experiments coupled to mass spectrometry. In order to perform the analysis of a large body of data sets, we designed and evaluated the performance of a processing pipeline based on Driftscope peak detection and a homemade script for automated peak assignment, annotation, and quantification on specific multiply charged protein data. Using this approach, we showed that in the gas phase, PrPs are represented by at least three conformer families differing in both charge state distribution and collisional cross-section, in agreement with the work of Hilton et al. (2010). We also showed that this plasticity is borne both by the N- and C-terminal domains. Effect of protein concentration, pH and temperature were also assessed, showing that (1) pH does not affect conformer distributions, (2) protein concentration modifies the conformational landscape of one mutant (I208M) only, and (3) heating leads to other unfolded species and to a modification of the conformer intensity ratios.

  1. Replacement of glycoprotein B in alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 by its ovine herpesvirus 2 homolog: Implications in vaccine development for sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress towards this objective has been hindered by the absence of methods to attenuate or modify the virus, since it cannot be pr...

  2. Discrimination between ovine Babesia and Theileria species in China based on the ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhancheng; Liu, Guangyuan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jin; Xie, Junren; Zheng, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiaosong; Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Hui; Tian, Meiyuan

    2013-10-18

    Ovine babesiosis and theileriosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a reliable molecular diagnostic tool for discriminating Theileria or Babesia species in the same host. In this study, the DNA sequences of a ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene from four species of piroplasms in China were used to develop a species-specific PCR-RFLP diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was 0.1 pg DNA for B. motasi and 1 pg DNA for T. uilenbergi and 10 pg DNA for Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and T. luwenshuni. The clear size difference of the PCR products allowed for a direct discrimination for B. motasi, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and ovine Theileria species (T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni), except that the mixed infection between T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni may be difficult to distinguish, simply after the electrophoretic separation of the amplification products. Further T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni diagnoses were made by digesting the PCR product with SacI. The established method could be applicable for the survey of parasite dynamics, and epidemiological studies as well as prevention and control of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninaber, Maarten K., E-mail: m.k.ninaber@lumc.nl [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J. [Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Kroft, Lucia J.M. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Els Bakker, M. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A. [Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands); Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C. [Division of Image Processing, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  4. Lung structure and function relation in systemic sclerosis: Application of lung densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninaber, Maarten K.; Stolk, Jan; Smit, Jasper; Le Roy, Ernest J.; Kroft, Lucia J.M.; Els Bakker, M.; Vries Bouwstra, Jeska K. de; Schouffoer, Anne A.; Staring, Marius; Stoel, Berend C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A quantitative CT parameter of lung parenchyma in systemic sclerosis is presented. • We examine the optimal percentage threshold for the percentile density. • The 85th percentile density threshold correlated significantly with lung function. • A lung structure–function relation is confirmed. • We report applicability of Perc85 in progression mapping of interstitial lung disease. - Abstract: Introduction: Interstitial lung disease occurs frequently in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry using the percentile density method may provide a sensitive assessment of lung structure for monitoring parenchymal damage. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the optimal percentile density score in SSc by quantitative CT densitometry, against pulmonary function. Material and methods: We investigated 41 SSc patients by chest CT scan, spirometry and gas transfer tests. Lung volumes and the nth percentile density (between 1 and 99%) of the entire lungs were calculated from CT histograms. The nth percentile density is defined as the threshold value of densities expressed in Hounsfield units. A prerequisite for an optimal percentage was its correlation with baseline DLCO %predicted. Two patients showed distinct changes in lung function 2 years after baseline. We obtained CT scans from these patients and performed progression analysis. Results: Regression analysis for the relation between DLCO %predicted and the nth percentile density was optimal at 85% (Perc85). There was significant agreement between Perc85 and DLCO %predicted (R = −0.49, P = 0.001) and FVC %predicted (R = −0.64, P < 0.001). Two patients showed a marked change in Perc85 over a 2 year period, but the localization of change differed clearly. Conclusions: We identified Perc85 as optimal lung density parameter, which correlated significantly with DLCO and FVC, confirming a lung parenchymal structure–function relation in SSc. This provides

  5. Antenatal maternal long-term hypoxia: acclimatization responses with altered gene expression in ovine fetal carotid arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In humans and other species, long-term hypoxia (LTH during pregnancy can lead to intrauterine growth restriction with reduced body/brain weight, dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF, and other problems. To identify the signal transduction pathways and critical molecules, which may be involved in acclimatization to high altitude LTH, we conducted microarray with advanced bioinformatic analysis on carotid arteries (CA from the normoxic near-term ovine fetus at sea-level and those acclimatized to high altitude for 110+ days during gestation. In response to LTH acclimatization, in fetal CA we identified mRNA from 38 genes upregulated >2 fold (P2-fold (P<0.05. The major genes with upregulated mRNA were SLC1A3, Insulin-like growth factor (IGF binding protein 3, IGF type 2 receptor, transforming growth factor (TGF Beta-3, and genes involved in the AKT and BCL2 signal transduction networks. Most genes with upregulated mRNA have a common motif for Pbx/Knotted homeobox in the promoter region, and Sox family binding sites in the 3' un translated region (UTR. Genes with downregulated mRNA included those involved in the P53 pathway and 5-lipoxygenase activating proteins. The promoter region of all genes with downregulated mRNA, had a common 49 bp region with a binding site for DOT6 and TOD6, components of the RPD3 histone deacetylase complex RPD3C(L. We also identified miRNA complementary to a number of the altered genes. Thus, the present study identified molecules in the ovine fetus, which may play a role in the acclimatization response to high-altitude associated LTH.

  6. Attachment, Proliferation, and Morphological Properties of Human Dermal Fibroblasts on Ovine Tendon Collagen Scaffolds: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busra, Fauzi Mh; Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Nadzir, Masrina Mohd; Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy

    2017-03-01

    Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds. This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions. The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions. OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

  7. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  8. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  9. Hypothyroidism in utero stimulates pancreatic beta cell proliferation and hyperinsulinaemia in the ovine fetus during late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shelley E; De Blasio, Miles J; Davis, Melissa A; Kelly, Amy C; Davenport, Hailey M; Wooding, F B Peter; Blache, Dominique; Meredith, David; Anderson, Miranda; Fowden, Abigail L; Limesand, Sean W; Forhead, Alison J

    2017-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of growth and maturation before birth, although the extent to which their actions are mediated by insulin and the development of pancreatic beta cell mass is unknown. Hypothyroidism in fetal sheep induced by removal of the thyroid gland caused asymmetric organ growth, increased pancreatic beta cell mass and proliferation, and was associated with increased circulating concentrations of insulin and leptin. In isolated fetal sheep islets studied in vitro, thyroid hormones inhibited beta cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, while high concentrations of insulin and leptin stimulated proliferation. The developing pancreatic beta cell is therefore sensitive to thyroid hormone, insulin and leptin before birth, with possible consequences for pancreatic function in fetal and later life. The findings of this study highlight the importance of thyroid hormones during pregnancy for normal development of the fetal pancreas. Development of pancreatic beta cell mass before birth is essential for normal growth of the fetus and for long-term control of carbohydrate metabolism in postnatal life. Thyroid hormones are also important regulators of fetal growth, and the present study tested the hypotheses that thyroid hormones promote beta cell proliferation in the fetal ovine pancreatic islets, and that growth retardation in hypothyroid fetal sheep is associated with reductions in pancreatic beta cell mass and circulating insulin concentration in utero. Organ growth and pancreatic islet cell proliferation and mass were examined in sheep fetuses following removal of the thyroid gland in utero. The effects of triiodothyronine (T 3 ), insulin and leptin on beta cell proliferation rates were determined in isolated fetal ovine pancreatic islets in vitro. Hypothyroidism in the sheep fetus resulted in an asymmetric pattern of organ growth, pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia, and elevated plasma insulin and leptin concentrations. In pancreatic

  10. Low frequency of the scrapile resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Sbaiz, L.; Verburg, F.J.; Riina, M.V.; Ru, G.; Moda, G.; Caramelli, M.; Bossers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Frequencies of polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene were studied in 1207 pure-bred and cross-bred Italian Biellese rams, a small ovine breed of about 65 000 head in Italy. Aside from the five most common alleles (VRQ, ARQ, ARR, AHQ and ARH), the rare ARK allele

  11. Comparison of airway responses in sheep of different age in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena A Lambermont

    Full Text Available Animal models should display important characteristics of the human disease. Sheep have been considered particularly useful to study allergic airway responses to common natural antigens causing human asthma. A rationale of this study was to establish a model of ovine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS for the in vitro measurement of airway responses in newborn and adult animals. We hypothesized that differences in airway reactivity in sheep are present at different ages.Lambs were delivered spontaneously at term (147d and adult sheep lived till 18 months. Viability of PCLS was confirmed by the MTT-test. To study airway provocations cumulative concentration-response curves were performed with different allergic response mediators and biogenic amines. In addition, electric field stimulation, passive sensitization with house dust mite (HDM and mast cells staining were evaluated.PCLS from sheep were viable for at least three days. PCLS of newborn and adult sheep responded equally strong to methacholine and endothelin-1. The responses to serotonin, leukotriene D4 and U46619 differed with age. No airway contraction was evoked by histamine, except after cimetidine pretreatment. In response to EFS, airways in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep strongly contracted and these contractions were atropine sensitive. Passive sensitization with HDM evoked a weak early allergic response in PCLS from adult and newborn sheep, which notably was prolonged in airways from adult sheep. Only few mast cells were found in the lungs of non-sensitized sheep at both ages.PCLS from sheep lungs represent a useful tool to study pharmacological airway responses for at least three days. Sheep seem well suited to study mechanisms of cholinergic airway contraction. The notable differences between newborn and adult sheep demonstrate the importance of age in such studies.

  12. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  13. Pseudo tumors of the lung after lung volume reduction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oey, Inger F; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam; Entwisle, James J; Waller, David A

    2004-03-01

    We describe 2 patients who underwent lung volume reduction surgery, who postoperatively had computed tomographic scans that showed symptomatic mass lesions suggestive of malignancy and an inhaled foreign body. Investigations excluded these conditions with the remaining likely diagnosis of pseudotumor secondary to buttressing material. These potential sequelae of lung volume reduction surgery should be recognized in follow-up investigations.

  14. Lung uptake on I-131 therapy and short-term outcome in patients with lung metastasis from differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Manabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Tamaki, Nagara

    2014-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to assess I-131 lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy because of strong artifacts from I-131 uptake in the thyroid bed. The aim of this study was to analyze the lung uptake at the second I-131 therapy for lung metastasis in patients who did not have lung uptake at the initial therapy from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Then, we also analyzed the relationship between the initial lung uptake and short-term outcome after I-131 therapies. This study included 62 DTC patients with lung metastasis. The patients were classified into 2 groups according to the lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy such as patients with lung uptake (positive uptake group n=31) and those without lung uptake (negative uptake group n=31). The lung uptake was analyzed at the second therapy in both groups. The short-term outcome was also analyzed based on the CT findings of lung metastasis size and serum thyroglobulin level between the two groups. The positive uptake group showed positive lung uptake at the second therapy in 23 patients (74%), whereas none of negative uptake group showed any lung uptake at the second therapy (P < 0.01). The positive uptake group significantly decreased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (20.0 ± 11.7 to 16.6 ± 9.6 mm, P < 0.01) with further decrease after the second therapy (P < 0.05). The serum thyroglobulin level was also significantly decreased from the initial therapy to the second therapy (4348 ± 7011 to 2931 ± 4484 ng/ml, P < 0.05). In contrast, the negative uptake group significantly increased in the size of lung metastasis from the initial therapy to the second therapy (17.3 ± 12.2 to 19.9 ± 14.3 mm, P < 0.01) with further increase after the second therapy (P < 0.01). No patients without lung uptake at the initial I-131 therapy showed lung uptake at the second therapy, or showed treatment effect. Therefore, second I-131 therapy for these patients with initially

  15. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Ultrasound-guided plasma rich in growth factors injections and scaffolds hasten motor nerve functional recovery in an ovine model of nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mikel; Anitua, E; Delgado, D; Prado, R; Sánchez, P; Fiz, N; Guadilla, J; Azofra, J; Pompei, O; Orive, G; Ortega, M; Yoshioka, T; Padilla, S

    2017-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the motor recovery process of peripheral nerve injury (PNI), based on electrophysiological and histomorphometric criteria, after treatment with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) injections and scaffolds in an ovine model. Three groups of sheep underwent a nerve crush lesion: the first group (n = 3) was left to recover spontaneously (SR); the second group was administered saline injections (SI; n = 5) and a third group (n = 6) received PRGF injections and scaffolds immediately after the crush injury. At post-intervention week 8, 70% of sheep in the PRGF group were CMAP-positive, with no electrophysiological response in the rest of the groups. Histomorphometric analysis 12 weeks after the surgical intervention revealed that the average axonal density of the SR (1184 ± 864 axons/µm 2 ) and SI (3109 ± 2450 axons/µm 2 ) groups was significantly inferior to the control (8427 ± 2433 axons/µm 2 ) and also inferior to the PRGF group (5276 ± 4148 axons/µm 2 ), showing no significant differences between the control and PRGF groups. The axonal size of the SR and SI groups was significantly smaller compared with the control group (18 ± 4 µm 2 ), whereas the axonal size of the PRGF group (6 ± 5 µm 2 ) did not show statistical differences from the control. Morphometry of the target muscles indicated that the PRGF group had the lowest percentage volume reduction 12 weeks after the crush injury. The PRGF group had larger muscle fibre areas than the SI and SR groups, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Overall, these data suggest that the PRGF injections and scaffolds hastened functional axon recovery and dampened atrophy of the target muscles in an ovine model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Unevenness on aerosol inhalation lung images and lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Takeo; Isawa, Toyoharu; Hirano, Tomio; Ebina, Akio; Shiraishi, Koichiro; Konno, Kiyoshi

    1985-01-01

    The unevenness or inhomogeneity of aerosol deposition patterns on radioaerosol inhalation lung images has been interpreted rather qualitatively in the clinical practice. We have reported our approach to quantitatively analyze the radioactive count distribution on radioaerosol inhalation lung images in relation to the actual lung function data. We have defined multiple indexes to express the shape and the unevenness of the count distribution of the lung images. To reduce as much as possible the number of indexes to be used in the regression functions, the method of selection of variables was introduced to the multiple regression analysis. Because some variables showed greater coefficients of simple correlation, while others did not, multicollinearity of variables had to be taken into consideration. For this reason, we chose a principal components regression analysis. The multiple regression function for each item of pulmonary function data thus established from analysis of 67 subjects appeared usable as a predictor of the actual lung function: for example, % VC (vital capacity) could be estimated by using four indexes out of the multiple ones with a coefficient of multiple correlation (R) of 0.753, and FEVsub(1.0) % (forced expiratory volume in one second divided by forced expiratory volume), by 7 indexes with R = 0.921. Pulmonary function data regarding lung volumes and lung mechanics were estimated more accurately with greater R's than those for lung diffusion, but even in the latter the prediction was still statistically significant at p less than 0.01. We believe the multiple regression functions thus obtained are useful for estimating not only the overall but also the regional function of the lungs. (author)

  18. Lung abscess mimicking lung cancer developed around staples in a patient with permanent tracheostoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yui; Aoki, Masaya; Suzuki, Soichi; Umehara, Tadashi; Harada, Aya; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old male with a tracheostoma due to hypopharyngeal cancer was admitted because his chest computed tomography (CT) showed a small nodule in the right middle lobe. Following a partial resection of the right middle lobe, histopathological diagnosis of the resected sample was that of organizing pneumonia. Eleven months later, chest CT showed a mass with pleural indentation and spiculation in the right middle lobe. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed significant accumulation in the middle lobe tumor mass shadow. The abnormal chest shadow that had developed around surgical staples suggested inadequate resection and tumor recurrence. As the abnormal radiological shadow was enlarging, middle lobectomy was carried out. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was a lung abscess without malignant features. This is a unique case of lung abscess mimicking lung cancer which developed around staples used during partial resection of the lung.

  19. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Connolly

    Full Text Available In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12 were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4 one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4 and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4 after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05 and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05. There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01 but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05 but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05 and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05 both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05. In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  20. Analysis of the kinetics of ovine follitropin agonist-antagonist interactions with pig ovarian membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebok, K.; De Lean, A.; Sairam, M.R.

    1987-06-16

    The binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ovine follitropin (oFSH) and /sup 125/I-labeled deglycosylated ovine follitropin (DG-oFSH) to porcine granulosa cell membranes was studied at equilibrium and nonequilibrium binding conditions and statically analyzed. Saturation and competition binding experiments revealed homogeneity in the population of binding sites labeled with /sup 125/I-oFSH, having a pK estimation of approx.10. /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH similarly interacts with a single uniform class of receptors of equal affinity (pK approx. 10) and binding capacity as oFSH. In contrast, displacement experiments using /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH as tracer and unlabeled oFSH as competing ligand demonstrate slope factors less than unity, suggesting apparent heterogeneity of sites not observed with /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH vs. DG-oFSH competition experiments. Under these conditions, it appears that FSH binds to two sites in near equal proportion but of unequal affinities. The total specific binding capacities of these sites equal those observed in /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH/unlabeled DG-oFSH competition experiments. Analysis of oFSH association kinetics at 37 /sup 0/C by curve-fitting methods is best explained by a biexponential rate equation describing a fast and a slow association component that are equally distributed. DG-oFSH demonstrates a disproportionately greater amount of fast vs. slow binding component. Dissociation, promoted by the same unlabeled hormone, of bound /sup 125/I-DG-oFSH and /sup 125/I-oFSH induces biphasic kinetics consisting of a fast and a slow dissociable pool of prebound tracer. Computer analysis reveals that both tracers dissociate with similar fast t/sub 1/2/ times; however, DG-oFSH exhibited a t/sub 1/2/ approximately 2 times slower for the component vs. oFSH. From this study, it is concluded that oFSH and DG-oFSH bind to the receptor(s) in a complex reaction scheme, more so for oFSH than DG-oFSH.

  1. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie.

    1996-01-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  2. Study of the ventilatory lung motion imaging in primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Shool of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yosikazu; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Morie

    1996-12-01

    Using perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99m macroaggregated alubumin at maximal inspiration (I) and expiration (E), images of the ventilatory lung motion, which was calculated and delineated by an expression as (E-I)/I, were obtained in 84 cases with primary lung cancer, and its clinical significance in the diagnosis of primary lung cancer was studied. The image of (E-I)/I consisted of positive and negative components. The former visualized the motion of the regional intrapulmonary areas and the latter showed the motion of the lung border. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in the lung with the primary lesion which was lower than that in the contralateral lung, was significantly low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion and TNM classification of T3+T4. The sum of positive (E-I)/I in both lungs and vital capacity was relatively low in cases with hilar mass, pleural effusion, TNM classification of T3+T4 and M1. The distribution pattern of pulmonary perfusion and positive (E-I)/I was fairly matched in 48 cases, but mismatch was observed in 36 cases. In the image of negative (E-I)/I, decreased motion of the lung border including the diaphragm was shown in cases with pleural adhesion and thickening, pleural effusion, phrenic nerve palsy and other conditions with hypoventilation. This technique seems to be useful for the estimation of regional pulmonary function of pulmonary perfusion and lung motion, the extent and pathophysiology of primary lung cancer. (author)

  3. Identification of reference genes for RT-qPCR in ovine mammary tissue during late pregnancy and lactation and in response to maternal nutritional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paten, A M; Pain, S J; Peterson, S W; Blair, H T; Kenyon, P R; Dearden, P K; Duncan, E J

    2014-08-01

    The mammary gland is a complex tissue consisting of multiple cell types which, over the lifetime of an animal, go through repeated cycles of development associated with pregnancy, lactation and involution. The mammary gland is also known to be sensitive to maternal programming by environmental stimuli such as nutrition. The molecular basis of these adaptations is of significant interest, but requires robust methods to measure gene expression. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is commonly used to measure gene expression, and is currently the method of choice for validating genome-wide expression studies. RT-qPCR requires the selection of reference genes that are stably expressed over physiological states and treatments. In this study we identify suitable reference genes to normalize RT-qPCR data for the ovine mammary gland in two physiological states; late pregnancy and lactation. Biopsies were collected from offspring of ewes that had been subjected to different nutritional paradigms during pregnancy to examine effects of maternal programming on the mammary gland of the offspring. We evaluated eight candidate reference genes and found that two reference genes (PRPF3 and CUL1) are required for normalising RT-qPCR data from pooled RNA samples, but five reference genes are required for analyzing gene expression in individual animals (SENP2, EIF6, MRPL39, ATP1A1, CUL1). Using these stable reference genes, we showed that TET1, a key regulator of DNA methylation, is responsive to maternal programming and physiological state. The identification of these novel reference genes will be of utility to future studies of gene expression in the ovine mammary gland. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of ovarian tissue storage in Morus nigra extract on the morphology and DNA fragmentation of ovine preantral follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Yasmin Pitombeira Cavalcante

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the effect of Morus nigra leaf extract during ovine ovarian tissue transportation on the survival and apoptosis of preantral follicles in vitro. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the crude ethanolic extract. Four pairs of ovaries from four sheep were collected. The ovarian cortex was fragmented and one fragment was fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and processed for histological and TUNEL analysis (fresh control. The other fragments were placed in Minimal Essential Medium (MEM – control medium or M. nigra extract (0.025; 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL and stored (simulating transport at 4ºC for 6, 12 or 24 h. Preserved fragments (6 h were also destined to histological and TUNEL analysis. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of antioxidant compounds (rutin, isoquercetin e kaempferitrin in the extract. There was a decrease (P 0.05 to 0.1 mg/mL of the extract. Apoptosis increased (P < 0.05 after conservation for 6 h in all treatments compared to the fresh control. Moreover, TUNEL positive cells decreased (P < 0.05 after preservation in 0.05 or 0.1 mg/mL M. nigra compared to MEM or 0.025 mg/mL M. nigra. In conclusion, 0.05 mg/mL M. nigra extract can be used as a preservation medium for ovine ovarian tissue at 4°C for up to 6 h.

  5. Molecular confirmation of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever lesions in cattle from Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn A. Headley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular findings that confirmed the participation of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 in the lesions that were consistent with those observed in malignant catarrhal fever of cattle are described. Three mixed-breed cattle from Rio Grande do Norte state demonstrated clinical manifestations that included mucopurulent nasal discharge, corneal opacity and motor incoordination. Routine necropsy examination demonstrated ulcerations and hemorrhage of the oral cavity, corneal opacity, and lymph node enlargement. Significant histopathological findings included widespread necrotizing vasculitis, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis, lymphocytic interstitial nephritis and hepatitis, and thrombosis. PCR assay performed on DNA extracted from kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one animal amplified a product of 423 base pairs corresponding to a target sequence within the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Direct sequencing of the PCR products, from extracted DNA of the kidney and mesenteric lymph node of one cow, amplified the partial nucleotide sequences (423 base pairs of OVH-2 tegument protein gene. Blast analysis confirmed that these sequences have 98-100% identity with similar OVH-2 sequences deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the deduced amino acid sequences, demonstrated that the strain of OVH-2 circulating in ruminants from the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte and Minas Gerais are similar to that identified in other geographical locations. These findings confirmed the active participation of OVH-2 in the classical manifestations of sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever.

  6. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  7. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  8. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple sheep flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S N; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P

    2014-01-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple animal sets. Proviral concentration is a live-animal diagnostic measure of OvLV control post-infection related to severity of OvLV-induced lesions. A recent genome-wide association study identified a region including four zinc finger genes associated with proviral concentration in one Rambouillet flock. To refine this region, we tested additional variants and identified a small insertion/deletion variant near ZNF389 that showed consistent association with proviral concentration in three animal sets (P sheep from multiple locations and management conditions. Strikingly, one flock had exceptionally high prevalence (>87%, including yearlings) and mean proviral concentration (>950 copies/μg), possibly due to needle sharing. The best estimate of proviral concentration by genotype, obtained from all 1310 OvLV-positive animals tested, showed insertion homozygotes had less than half the proviral concentration of other genotypes (P sheep flocks. PMID:24303974

  9. Elimination of [14C]heptachlor from body stores of lactating ewes treated with ovine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, D.W.; Smith, G.S.; Khan, M.F.; Hallford, D.M.; Rozman, K.

    1988-01-01

    Elimination of [14C]heptachlor from body burdens of sheep was measured using mature ewes nursing single offspring, and the influence of exogenous ovine growth hormone (oGH) on elimination was studied. Six ewes (62 +/- 2.5 kg BW) were dosed (i.p.) once with [14C]heptachlor (2.04 mg/kg Bw; .88 microCi/mg heptachlor) and three were treated additionally with oGH (oGH; 5 mg/d) for 21 d. Three additional ewes served as controls. Excreta were collected each day for 21 d. Milk and blood were collected every 3rd d until ewes were euthanized at d 21. 14C activity was measured in excreta, milk, blood and tissues. Total cumulative activity of [14C]heptachlor and(or) metabolites in excreta (21 d) did not differ (P greater than .20) in ewes given oGH (25 +/- 2%) vs none (23 +/- 2%). Milk yield and protein content were unaffected (P greater than .10) by oGH. Ewes given oGH eliminated 2.2 +/- 2% of total 14C dosage into milk during 21 d, whereas ewes untreated with oGH eliminated 1.3 +/- .2% (P less than .10); total 14C activity eliminated into milk plus excreta was similar for ewes given oGH or none (P greater than .10). For all six ewes, half-times (T1/2) for distribution and elimination of 14C activity (heptachlor and metabolites) were 1.5 d and 11.7 d, respectively. Blood concentrations of 14C activity during 21 d yielded elimination half-time as 23 d. Unlike bovines, which eliminate heptachlor slowly (T1/2 approximately 70 to 80 d) and mainly into milk fat, lactating ovines eliminated heptachlor and(or) metabolites mainly into excreta and about sixfold faster than bovines

  10. Emergence of two prion subtypes in ovine PrP transgenic mice infected with human MM2-cortical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Jérôme; Moudjou, Mohammed; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Chapuis, Céline; Quadrio, Isabelle; Boulliat, Jacques; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Dron, Michel; Laude, Hubert; Rezaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent

    2016-02-05

    Mammalian prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for a broad range of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. These diseases can occur spontaneously, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, or be acquired or inherited. Prions are primarily formed of macromolecular assemblies of the disease-associated prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded isoform of the host-encoded prion protein PrP(C). Within defined host-species, prions can exist as conformational variants or strains. Based on both the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of PrP and the electrophoretic signature of PrP(Sc) in the brain, sporadic CJD is classified in different subtypes, which may encode different strains. A transmission barrier, the mechanism of which remains unknown, limits prion cross-species propagation. To adapt to the new host, prions have the capacity to 'mutate' conformationally, leading to the emergence of a variant with new biological properties. Here, we transmitted experimentally one rare subtype of human CJD, designated cortical MM2 (129 MM with type 2 PrP(Sc)), to transgenic mice overexpressing either human or the VRQ allele of ovine PrP(C). In marked contrast with the reported absence of transmission to knock-in mice expressing physiological levels of human PrP, this subtype transmitted faithfully to mice overexpressing human PrP, and exhibited unique strain features. Onto the ovine PrP sequence, the cortical MM2 subtype abruptly evolved on second passage, thereby allowing emergence of a pair of strain variants with distinct PrP(Sc) biochemical characteristics and differing tropism for the central and lymphoid tissues. These two strain components exhibited remarkably distinct replicative properties in cell-free amplification assay, allowing the 'physical' cloning of the minor, lymphotropic component, and subsequent isolation in ovine PrP mice and RK13 cells. Here, we provide in-depth assessment of the transmissibility and evolution of one rare subtype of

  11. Effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Amini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Linoleic acid (LA is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in high concentrations in follicular fluid, when added to maturation culture media, it affects oocyte competence. Objective: In the present study, we investigated effect of linoleic acid supplementation on in vitro maturation, embryo development and apoptotic related gene expression in ovine Materials and Methods: The experiments conducted on 450 ovine Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs with homogenous ooplasm and more than two compact layers of cumulus cells. For in vitro maturation COCs were randomly allocated into four treatment groups for 24 hr period. Treatment groups were as follow: control maturation media, 0 μM LA, 50 μM LA, 100 μM LA and 200 μM LA. The cumulus cell expansion and blastocysts rates were recorded. Total RNA was isolated from embryo pools, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and subjected to apoptotic gene expression by real-time PCR. Results: Highest concentration (200 μM/mL of LA significantly decreased the rate of fully expanded cumulus cells 24 hr after in vitro maturation (IVM and the percentage of blastocyste rate compared with the control (p<0.05. These inhibitory effects were associated with an increased in relative mRNA expression of Bax (Bcl-2- associated X gene compared with controls. Conclusion: Data obtained in present study suggest that low concentration of LA used for maturation had no deleterious effect on subsequent embryonic development compared to high concentration of LA. Relative expression of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2 and Bax in embryos seems to be associated with LA concentration.

  12. Feasibility of perflutren microsphere contrast transthoracic echocardiography in the visualization of ventricular endocardium during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a validated ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, David G; Diab, Sara; Dunster, Kimble R; Shekar, Kiran; Burstow, Darryl J; Sim, Beatrice; Tunbridge, Matthew; McDonald, Charles; Chemonges, Saul; Chan, Jonathan; Fraser, John F

    2015-03-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) during extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is important but can be technically challenging. Contrast-specific TTE can improve imaging in suboptimal studies. These contrast microspheres are hydrodynamically labile structures. This study assessed the feasibility of contrast echocardiography (CE) during venovenous (VV) ECMO in a validated ovine model. Twenty-four sheep were commenced on VV ECMO. Parasternal long-axis (Plax) and short-axis (Psax) views were obtained pre- and postcontrast while on VV ECMO. Endocardial definition scores (EDS) per segment were graded: 1 = good, 2 = suboptimal 3 = not seen. Endocardial border definition score index (EBDSI) was calculated for each view. Endocardial length (EL) in the Plax view for the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) was measured. Summation EDS data for the LV and RV for unenhanced TTE (UE) versus CE TTE imaging: EDS 1 = 289 versus 346, EDS 2 = 38 versus 10, EDS 3 = 33 versus 4, respectively. Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank-sign tests showed a significant ranking difference (improvement) pre- and postcontrast for the LV (P < 0.0001), RV (P < 0.0001) and combined ventricular data (P < 0.0001). EBDSI for CE TTE was significantly lower than UE TTE for the LV (1.05 ± 0.17 vs. 1.22 ± 0.38, P = 0.0004) and RV (1.06 ± 0.22 vs. 1.42 ± 0.47, P = 0.0.0006) respectively. Visualized EL was significantly longer in CE versus UE for both the LV (58.6 ± 11.0 mm vs. 47.4 ± 11.7 mm, P < 0.0001) and the RV (52.3 ± 8.6 mm vs. 36.0 ± 13.1 mm, P < 0.0001), respectively. Despite exposure to destructive hydrodynamic forces, CE is a feasible technique in an ovine ECMO model. CE results in significantly improved EDS and increased EL. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NV< IrV). There was no significant difference (p<5%) for biochemical tests, complete blood count, and animals weight between the three groups tested. The group immunized with irradiated venom showed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  14. Comparison of humoral immune response, neutralization capacity of anticrotalic serum in young ovines, clinical and weight evaluation between animals inoculated with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, natural or Cobalt-60-irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, R.S. E-mail: rseabra@cevap.org.br

    2005-07-01

    The Elisa technique was used to evaluate and compare the humoral immune response of young ovine to anticrotalic serum production. During serum production, the clinical and weight evaluation of the animals was performed. The parameters utilized were complete blood count, and dosage of urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin and globulin. The animals weight was verified fortnightly during the experiment. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus natural (NV) and Cobalt-60-irradiated venom (IrV) was evaluated by in vitro challenges. One group of six animals received natural venom, the second group received irradiated venom, and the third was the control group. The animals received six immunizations during 84 days with an interval of 14 days. There was a significant difference (p<5%) in the ELISA test for the profile of the antibodies produced by the experimental groups (NVshowed antibodies profile higher than the group immunized with natural venom. The neutralization capacity of the serum produced from the IrV was fivefold higher when compared to the serum produced with NV. The clinical and weight evaluation showed that the o vines in post-weaning phase did not have their physiological profiles altered, and showed an excellent increase in weight during the experimental period. These results indicate a new perspective for the utilization of o vines, aiming the commercial production of anticrotalic serum, which may be applied in the treatment of human and animal envenomation. The cost for its production may be reduced by the posterior utilization of hyperimmunized ovine in human feeding. (author)

  15. Dosimetric verification of small fields in the lung using lung-equivalent polymer gel and Monte Carlo simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahideh Gharehaghaji

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that the dose reduction with small fields in the lung was very high. Thus, inaccurate prediction of absorbed dose inside the lung and also lung/soft-tissue interfaces with small photon beams may lead to critical consequences for treatment outcome.

  16. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  17. Pneumonia in slaughtered sheep in south-western Iran: pathological characteristics and aerobic bacterial aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shahrzad; Korani, Farzad Shahrani; Oryan, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the lungs of 1,000 sheep carcasses were subjected to gross examination and those suspected to be infected with pneumonia were studied at histopathological level as well as examined for presence of bacteria. Pneumonia was detected in 42 (4.2%) carcasses. Based on histopathological lesions, 45.24% were affected with suppurative bronchopneumonia, 20.93% with interstitial pneumonia, 11.9% bronchointerstitial pneumonia, 7.14% with fibrinous bronchopneumonia and 2.38% with embolic pneumonia. In addition, 11.9% of the lungs showed lung abscesses and 2.33% were affected with pleuritis without involving pulmonary parenchyma. Bacteriological examination revealed presence of ovine pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida (24.53%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.75%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.09%), Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (7.55%) and Actinomyces pyogenes (1.89%). The most common form of pneumonia was suppurative bronchopneumonia with moderate amounts of fibrin deposits on the pleural surface and inside the bronchioles and alveoli.

  18. Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

    2011-08-01

    We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6α, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation for emphysema using three-dimensional computed tomography volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, H; Chen, F; Ohsumi, A; Hijiya, K; Takahashi, M; Ohata, K; Yamada, T; Sato, M; Aoyama, A; Bando, T; Date, H

    2014-04-01

    Although double lung transplantation is performed more frequently for emphysema, single lung transplantation (SLT) continues to be performed owing to limited donor organ availability. Native lung hyperinflation (NLH) is a unique complication following SLT for emphysema. Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) volumetry has been introduced into the field of lung transplantation, which we used to assess NLH in emphysema patients undergoing SLT. The primary purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of 3D-CT volumetry in the evaluation of NLH following SLT for emphysema. In 5 emphysema patients undergoing SLT at Kyoto University Hospital, 3D-CT volumetry data, pulmonary function test results, and clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively evaluated. Three patients did not develop a significant mediastinal shift, whereas the other 2 patients developed a mediastinal shift. In the 3 patients without a mediastinal shift, 3D-CT volumetry did not show a significant increase in native lung volume. These patients had a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation and firm adhesion on the mediastinal side was detected during lung transplantation. One of 2 patients with a mediastinal shift developed severe dyspnea with significantly decreased pulmonary function, and 3D-CT volumetry showed a significant increase in the native lung volume. However, the other patient did not show any dyspnea and his native lung volume decreased postoperatively (preoperatively to 6 months postoperatively: +981 mL and -348 mL, respectively). Although bilateral lung transplantation has become preferable for emphysema patients owing to postoperative NLH with SLT, patients with a history of sternotomy prior to lung transplantation might be good candidates for SLT. 3D-CT volumetry may be a useful method for detection of NLH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Computed tomography in opportunistic lung infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartelius, H.

    1988-01-01

    Chest radiography in two teenage boys, one with Wiscott-Aldrich's syndrome and one with acute lymphatic leucemia in remission showed increased interstitial pattern. In both computed tomography (CT) of the lungs showed heavy interstitial pneumonia, rather different in appearance but in both cases equal to the CT findings in opportunistic lung infections known from immunoincompetent patients with for instance pneumocystis carinii and/or cytomegalo virus infections. In both patients the CT findings led to lung biopsy establishing the etiologic agent. (orig.)

  1. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [ 3 H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide detection of CNVs in Chinese indigenous sheep with different types of tails using ovine high-density 600K SNP arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Caiye; Fan, Hongying; Yuan, Zehu; Hu, Shijin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Xuan, Junli; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Wei, Caihong; Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Fuping; Du, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese indigenous sheep can be classified into three types based on tail morphology: fat-tailed, fat-rumped, and thin-tailed sheep, of which the typical breeds are large-tailed Han sheep, Altay sheep, and Tibetan sheep, respectively. To unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences among Chinese indigenous sheep with tails of three different types, we used ovine high-density 600K SNP arrays to detect genome-wide copy number variation (CNV). In large-tailed Han sheep, A...

  3. Les schémas de sélection ovins laitiers en France : utilisation et importance des techniques modernes de reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Astruc, J.M.; Lagriffoul, G.; Belloc, J.P.; Briois, M.; Cachenaut, J.B.; Horent, M.H.; Teinturier, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    La mise en oeuvre de programmes de sélection laitière, à l’échelle de toute une population ovine, suppose de développer un travail de sélection entre éleveurs, fondé sur l’organisation et la valorisation de liens génétiques entre troupeaux, essentiellement grâce à l’utilisation de l’IA. La situation en France est à cet égard révélatrice des différents niveaux d’organisation des schémas de sélection.

  4. Genome-Wide Search for Host Association Factors during Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Thompson

    Full Text Available Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV is an important virus that causes serious diseases in sheep and goats with a prevalence of 36% in the USA. Although OPPV was discovered more than half of a century ago, little is known about the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. In this report, we used RNA-seq technology to conduct a genome-wide probe for cellular factors that are associated with OPPV infection. A total of approximately 22,000 goat host genes were detected of which 657 were found to have been significantly up-regulated and 889 down-regulated at 12 hours post-infection. In addition to previously known restriction factors from other viral infections, a number of factors which may be specific for OPPV infection were uncovered. The data from this RNA-seq study will be helpful in our understanding of OPPV infection, and also for further study in the prevention and intervention of this viral disease.

  5. The biomechanical effects of polytetrafluoroethylene suture augmentations in lateral-row rotator cuff repairs in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beimers, Lijkele; Lam, Patrick H; Murrell, George A C

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the biomechanical effects of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) suture augmentation patches in rotator cuff repair constructs. The infraspinatus tendon in 24 cadaveric ovine shoulders was repaired using an inverted horizontal mattress suture with 2 knotless bone anchors (ArthroCare, Austin, TX, USA) in a lateral-row configuration. Four different repair groups (6 per group) were created: (1) standard repair using inverted horizontal mattress sutures, (2) repair with ePTFE suture augmentations on the bursal side of the tendon, (3) repair with ePTFE suture augmentations on the articular side, and, (4) repair with ePTFE suture augmentations on both sides of the tendon. Footprint contact pressure, stiffness, and the load to failure of the repair constructs were measured. Repairs with ePTFE suture augmentations on the bursal side exerted significantly more footprint contact pressure (0.40 ± 0.01 MPa) than those on the articular side (0.34 ± 0.02 MPa, P = .04) and those on both sides (0.33 ± 0.02 MPa, P = .01). At 15 degrees of abduction, ePTFE-augmented repairs on the bursal side had higher footprint contact pressure (0.26 ± 0.03 MPa) compared with standard repairs (0.15 ± 0.02 MPa, P = .01) and with ePTFE-augmented repairs on the articular side (0.18 ± 0.02 MPa, P = .03). The ePTFE-augmented repairs on the bursal side demonstrated significantly higher failure loads (178 ± 18 N) than standard repairs (120 ± 17 N, P = .04). Inverted horizontal mattress sutures augmented with ePTFE patches on the bursal side of the tendon enhanced footprint contact pressures and the ultimate load to failure of lateral-row rotator cuff repairs in an ovine model. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation pneumonitis: generalised lung changes detected by radionuclide imaging following focal lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Sephton, R.; Irving, L.; Crennan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear imaging technique as a means of detecting radiation-induced lung injury is examined. The technique involves the patient inhaling modified technegas TM , a gas-like radiotracer which is an ultra fine particulate dispersion. This crosses the alveolar-capillary membrane and the clearance rate of the tracer from the lungs is presumed to reflect membrane permeability. A case of a patient who, after receiving localised radiotherapy and chemotherapy for lung cancer, developed symptoms and signs of radiation pneumonitis is reported. Pre- and post-radiotherapy investigations using the nuclear technique showed acceleration of rates of tracer clearance from both lungs, consistent with generalised changes in alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. It is suggested that the symptoms of radiation pneumonitis may in part result from pathophysiologic changes in nonirradiated lung which may appear radiologically normal. 4 refs., 2 figs

  7. Normal expiratory flow rate and lung volumes in patients with combined emphysema and interstitial lung disease: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Karen L; Cockcroft, Donald W; Fladeland, Derek A; Fenton, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern including small lung volumes and increased expiratory flow rates resulting from a reduction in pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. When the diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated, and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. The present report describes 10 patients with progressive breathlessness, three of whom experienced severe limitation in their quality of life. All patients showed lung interstitial involvement and emphysema on computed tomography scan of the chest. The 10 patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange. Normal lung volumes do not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  8. Histochemical alterations in one lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kingsley; Gribbin, Elizabeth; Emanuel, Steven; Orndorff, Rebecca; Walker, Jean; Weese, James; Fallahnejad, Manucher

    2007-01-01

    One lung ventilation is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Although there have been several reports showing that one-lung ventilation can cause pathophysiological alterations such as pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction and intrapulmonary shunting, there have been virtually no reports on the effects of one-lung ventilation on lung histology. Yorkshire pigs (11-17 kg) were anesthetized, a tracheotomy performed and a tracheal tube inserted. The chest was opened and one lung ventilation (OLV), was induced by clamping of the right main bronchus. OLV was continued for 60 min before the clamp was removed and two lung ventilation (TLV) started. TLV was continued for 30 to 60 min. Blood and lung biopsies were taken immediately before OLV, 30 min and 60 min of OLV and after restoration of TLV. Histological analyses revealed that the non-ventilated lung was totally collapsed during OLV. On reventilation, there was clear evidence of vascular congestion and alveolar wall thickening at 30 min after TLV. At 60 min of TLV, there was still vascular congestion. Serum nitrite levels (as an index of nitric oxide production) showed steady decline over the course of the experimental period, reaching a significantly low level on reventilation (compared with baseline levels before OLV). Lung MPO activity (marker of neutrophil sequestration) and serum TNFalpha levels were not raised during the entire experimental period. These results suggest that there was lung vascular injury after OLV, which was associated with reduced levels of nitric oxide production and not associated with an inflammatory response.

  9. Cross-sectional changes in lung volume measured by electrical impedance tomography are representative for the whole lung in ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Pauline S.; Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography measures lung volume in a cross-sectional slice of the lung. Whether these cross-sectional volume changes are representative of the whole lung has only been investigated in adults, showing conflicting results. This study aimed to compare cross-sectional and whole lung

  10. Overcoming drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations showing AXL activation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition is critical in conquering ALK-positive lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Shinji; Seike, Masahiro; Miyanaga, Akihiko; Chiba, Mika; Zou, Fenfei; Takahashi, Akiko; Ishikawa, Arimi; Kunugi, Shinobu; Noro, Rintaro; Kubota, Kaoru; Gemma, Akihiko

    2018-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors (ALK-TKIs) induce a dramatic response in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with the ALK fusion gene. However, acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs remains an inevitable problem. In this study, we aimed to discover novel therapeutic targets to conquer ALK-positive lung cancer. We established three types of ALK-TKI (crizotinib, alectinib and ceritinib)-resistant H2228 NSCLC cell lines by high exposure and stepwise methods. We found these cells showed a loss of ALK signaling, overexpressed AXL with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and had cancer stem cell-like (CSC) properties, suggesting drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations. Similarly, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 treated H2228 cells also showed AXL overexpression with EMT features and ALK-TKI resistance. The AXL inhibitor, R428, or HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, were effective in reversing ALK-TKI resistance and EMT changes in both ALK-TKI-resistant and TGF-β1-exposed H2228 cells. Tumor volumes of xenograft mice implanted with established H2228-ceritinib-resistant (H2228-CER) cells were significantly reduced after treatment with ganetespib, or ganetespib in combination with ceritinib. Some ALK-positive NSCLC patients with AXL overexpression showed a poorer response to crizotinib therapy than patients with a low expression of AXL. ALK signaling-independent AXL overexpressed in drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations with EMT and CSC features may be commonly involved commonly involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to ALK-TKIs. This suggests AXL and HSP90 inhibitors may be promising therapeutic drugs to overcome drug-tolerant cancer cell subpopulations in ALK-positive NSCLC patients for the reason that ALK-positive NSCLC cells do not live through ALK-TKI therapy. PMID:29930762

  11. Positron emission tomography of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollmer, P.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography enables the distribution of positron emitting isotopes to be imaged in a transverse plane through the body and the regional concentration of the isotope to be measured quantitatively. This thesis reports some applications of positron emission tomography to studies of pulmonary pathophysiology. Measurements in lung phantoms showed that regional lung density could be measured from a transmission tomogram obtained with an external source of positron emitting isotope. The regional, fractional blood volume was measured after labelling the blood with carbon-11-monoxide. Regional extravascular lung density (lung tissue and interstitial water per unit thoracic volume) was obtained by subtracting fractional blood volume from lung density. Measurements in normal subjects revealed large regional variations in lung density and fractional blood volume in the supine posture. Extravascular lung density showed a more uniform distribution. The technique has been used to study patients with chronic interstitial pulmonary oedema, pulmonary sarcoidosis and fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension and patients with intracardiac, left-to-right shunt. Tomographic measurements of pulmonary tissue concentration of radionuclides are difficult, since corrections for the blood content and the inflation of the lung must be applied. A simultaneous measurement of lung density and fractional blood volume allows such corrections to be made and the extravascular tracer concentration to be calculated. This has been applied to measurements of the tissue penetration of carbon-11-labelled erythromycin in patients with lobar pneumonia. (author)

  12. Whole lung lavage with intermittent double lung ventilation. A modified technique for managing pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Raees; Iqbal, Mobeen; Kashef, Sayed H.; Almomatten, Mohammed I.

    2005-01-01

    Whole lung lavage is still the most effective treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. We report a 21-year-old male diagnosed with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by open lung biopsy and who underwent whole lung lavage with a modified technique. He showed significant improvement in clinical and functional parameters. The technique of intermittent double lung ventilation during lavage procedure keeps the oxygen saturation in acceptable limits in patients at risk for severe hypoxemia and allows the procedure to be completed in a single setting. (author)

  13. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Yuka; Kamada, Satoe; Matsumoto, Shoji; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Kitazawa, Riko; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  14. Medical image of the week: lung entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natt B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 74-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer 10 years ago treated with lumpectomy and radiation presented for evaluation of shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with left sided pleural effusion which was recurrent requiring multiple thoracenteses. There was increased pleural fludeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on PET-CT indicative of recurrent metastatic disease. She underwent a medical pleuroscopy since the pleural effusion analysis did not reveal malignant cells although the suspicion was high and tunneled pleural catheter placement as adjuvant chemotherapy was initiated. Figure 1 shows a pleurscopic view of the collapsed left lung and the effusion in the left hemi thorax. Figure 2 shows extensive involvement of the visceral pleura with metastatic disease preventing complete lung inflation. Figure 3 shows persistent pneumothorax-ex-vacuo despite pleural catheter placement confirming the diagnosis of entrapment. Incomplete lung inflation can be due to pleural disease, endobronchial lesions or chronic telecasts. Lung entrapment and trapped lung ...

  15. An ovine in vivo framework for tracheobronchial stent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Donnacha J; Thiebes, Anja Lena; Cornelissen, Christian G; O'Shea, Mary B; O'Brien, Barry; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Bruzzi, Mark; McHugh, Peter E

    2017-10-01

    Tracheobronchial stents are most commonly used to restore patency to airways stenosed by tumour growth. Currently all tracheobronchial stents are associated with complications such as stent migration, granulation tissue formation, mucous plugging and stent strut fracture. The present work develops a computational framework to evaluate tracheobronchial stent designs in vivo. Pressurised computed tomography is used to create a biomechanical lung model which takes into account the in vivo stress state, global lung deformation and local loading from pressure variation. Stent interaction with the airway is then evaluated for a number of loading conditions including normal breathing, coughing and ventilation. Results of the analysis indicate that three of the major complications associated with tracheobronchial stents can potentially be analysed with this framework, which can be readily applied to the human case. Airway deformation caused by lung motion is shown to have a significant effect on stent mechanical performance, including implications for stent migration, granulation formation and stent fracture.

  16. Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using SPECT and prediction of postoperative respiratory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andou, Akio; Shimizu, Nobuyosi; Maruyama, Shuichiro

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of lung volume by lung perfusion scanning using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and its usefulness for the prediction of respiratory function after lung resection were investigated. The lung volumes calculated in 5 patients by SPECT (threshold level 20%) using 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA), related very closely to the actually measured lung volumes. This results prompted us to calculate the total lung volume and the volume of the lobe to be resected in 18 patients with lung cancer by SPECT. Based on the data obtained, postoperative respiratory function was predicted. The predicted values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV 1.0 ), and maximum vital volume (MVV) showed closer correlations with the actually measured postoperative values (FVC, FEV 1.0 , MVV : r=0.944, r=0.917, r=0.795 respectively), than the values predicted by the ordinary lung perfusion scanning. This method facilitates more detailed evaluation of local lung function on a lobe-by-lobe basis, and can be applied clinically to predict postoperative respiratory function. (author)

  17. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  18. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  19. Lung adenocarcinoma mimicking pulmonary fibrosis-a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehić, Bakir; Duranović Rayan, Lina; Bilalović, Nurija; Dohranović Tafro, Danina; Pilav, Ilijaz

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is usually presented with cough, dyspnea, pain and weight loss, which is overlapping with symptoms of other lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis shows characteristic reticular and nodular pattern, while lung cancers are mostly presented with infiltrative mass, thick-walled cavitations or a solitary nodule with spiculated borders. If the diagnosis is established based on clinical symptoms and CT findings, it would be a misapprehension. We report a case of lung adenocarcinoma whose symptoms as well as clinical images overlapped strongly with pulmonary fibrosis. The patient’s non-productive cough, progressive dyspnea, restrictive pattern of pulmonary function test and CT scans (showing reticular interstitial opacities) were all indicative of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent a treatment consisting of corticosteroids and antibiotics, to no avail. Histopathology of the lung showed that the patient suffered from mucinous adenocarcinoma. Albeit the immunohistochemical staining was not consistent with lung adenocarcinoma, tumor’s morphological characteristics were consistent, and were used to make the definitive diagnosis. Given the fact that radiography cannot always make a clear-cut difference between pulmonary fibrosis and lung adenocarcinomas, and that clinical symptoms often overlap, histological examination should be considered as gold standard for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

  20. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A C; Calegaro, J U.M. [Fundacao Hospitalar do Distrito Federal, Distrito Federal (Brazil). Unidade de Medicina Nuclear

    1982-07-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized.

  1. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A.C.; Calegaro, J.U.M.

    1982-01-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized. (author) [es

  2. Postoperative complications do not influence the pattern of early lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer in patients at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, Maja; Subotic, Dragan; Zugic, Vladimir; Jakovic, Radoslav; Moskovljevic, Dejan; Bascarevic, Slavisa; Mujovic, Natasa

    2014-05-19

    The pattern and factors influencing the lung function recovery in the first postoperative days are still not fully elucidated, especially in patients at increased risk. Prospective study on 60 patients at increased risk, who underwent a lung resection for primary lung cancer. complete resection and one or more known risk factors in form of COPD, cardiovascular disorders, advanced age or other comorbidities. Previous myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization or stenting, cardiac rhythm disorders, arterial hypertension and myocardiopathy determined the increased cardiac risk. The severity of COPD was graded according to GOLD criteria. The trend of the postoperative lung function recovery was assessed by performing spirometry with a portable spirometer. Cardiac comorbidity existed in 55%, mild and moderate COPD in 20% and 35% of patients respectively. Measured values of FVC% and FEV1% on postoperative days one, three and seven, showed continuous improvement, with significant difference between the days of measurement, especially between days three and seven. There was no difference in the trend of the lung function recovery between patients with and without postoperative complications. Whilst pO2 was decreasing during the first three days in a roughly parallel fashion in patients with respiratory, surgical complications and in patients without complications, a slight hypercapnia registered on the first postoperative day was gradually abolished in all groups except in patients with cardiac complications. Extent of the lung resection and postoperative complications do not significantly influence the trend of the lung function recovery after lung resection for lung cancer.

  3. Lung cancer after internal alpha-exposure of the lung from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies among workers of first Russian nuclear complex Mayak which produced weapon-grade plutonium showed significant increase of lung cancer mortality. The estimated shape of the dose-response was linear with both alpha and gamma dose but risk coefficients for gamma-exposure are on the edge of the significance level. This study was performed in the cohort of male Mayak nuclear workers initially hired in 1948-1958 with known levels of plutonium exposure. Number of observed lung cancer cases available for analyses in this cohort was 217. The relative risk of death from lung cancer among smokers was 10.7 (5.5-25.2) comparatively to non-smokers. This is in good correspondence with results of other studies. The excess relative risk per one Gray was 63. (4.1-9.7) for internal alpha-exposure and 0.18 (0.01-0.5) for external gamma-exposure. According to a model this gives 16:112:60:29 cases of lung cancer attributed to background, smoking, internal alpha-and external gamma-exposure, correspondingly. The relative risks of death from lung cancer were also estimated in a nested case-control study with lung cancer deaths as cases. Controls were selected from the cohort and matched for birth year to account for trend in lung cancer mortality with time. The analyses with nested case-control approach gave relative risks for smoking 14.7 (6.8-38.9). Relative risk of lung cancer among non-smokers after accumulating 0.34 Gy of alpha-exposure to lung was 3.7 (1.7-9.0). It should be emphasized that in fact after accumulation 0.3-0.4 Gy of absorbed dose 3-4 fold increase in lung cancer mortality was observed. This dose is very close to the dose which would be produced after intake of plutonium in quantities which are permissible today. (Author)

  4. Modeling serotonin uptake in the lung shows endothelial transporters dominate over cleft permeation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2013-01-01

    A four-region (capillary plasma, endothelium, interstitial fluid, cell) multipath model was configured to describe the kinetics of blood-tissue exchange for small solutes in the lung, accounting for regional flow heterogeneity, permeation of cell membranes and through interendothelial clefts, and intracellular reactions. Serotonin uptake data from the Multiple indicator dilution “bolus sweep” experiments of Rickaby and coworkers (Rickaby DA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA. J Appl Physiol 51: 405–414, 1981; Rickaby DA, Dawson CA, and Linehan JH. J Appl Physiol 56: 1170–1177, 1984) and Malcorps et al. (Malcorps CM, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Rickaby DA, Herman AG, Will JA. J Appl Physiol 57: 720–730, 1984) were analyzed to distinguish facilitated transport into the endothelial cells (EC) and the inhibition of tracer transport by nontracer serotonin in the bolus of injectate from the free uninhibited permeation through the clefts into the interstitial fluid space. The permeability-surface area products (PS) for serotonin via the inter-EC clefts were ∼0.3 ml·g−1·min−1, low compared with the transporter-mediated maximum PS of 13 ml·g−1·min−1 (with Km = ∼0.3 μM and Vmax = ∼4 nmol·g−1·min−1). The estimates of serotonin PS values for EC transporters from their multiple data sets were similar and were influenced only modestly by accounting for the cleft permeability in parallel. The cleft PS estimates in these Ringer-perfused lungs are less than half of those for anesthetized dogs (Yipintsoi T. Circ Res 39: 523–531, 1976) with normal hematocrits, but are compatible with passive noncarrier-mediated transport observed later in the same laboratory (Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Rickaby DA, Bronikowski TA. Ann Biomed Eng 15: 217–227, 1987; Peeters FAM, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bult H, Herman AG. J Appl Physiol 66: 2328–2337, 1989) The identification and quantitation of the cleft pathway conductance from these

  5. Spleen-lung interface as diagnostic information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLuca, S.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    Left anterior, lateral, and posterior views on 50 consecutive /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung scans were examined. Normal patients had continuity of activity between the left lung and the spleen on all three views. Patients with subphrenic abscess or large left pleural effusions showed no continuity between lung and spleen activity on any view, while other abnormalities, most commonly cardiomegaly, accounted for lack of lung-spleen continuity on the anterior view only. It is suggested that in all combined /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid lung studies, the left side be examined as well as the right for abnormalities adjacent to the left diaphragm. (auth)

  6. Normal Expiratory Flow Rate and Lung Volumes in Patients with Combined Emphysema and Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Heathcote

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function tests in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern including small lung volumes and increased expiratory flow rates resulting from a reduction in pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. When the diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated, and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. The present report describes 10 patients with progressive breathlessness, three of whom experienced severe limitation in their quality of life. All patients showed lung interstitial involvement and emphysema on computed tomography scan of the chest. The 10 patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange. Normal lung volumes do not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  7. Pneumonia in slaughtered sheep in south-western Iran: pathological characteristics and aerobic bacterial aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the lungs of 1,000 sheep carcasses were subjected to gross examination and those suspected to be infected with pneumonia were studied at histopathological level as well as examined for presence of bacteria. Pneumonia was detected in 42 (4.2% carcasses. Based on histopathological lesions, 45.24% were affected with suppurative bronchopneumonia, 20.93% with interstitial pneumonia, 11.9% bronchointerstitial pneumonia, 7.14% with fibrinous bronchopneumonia and 2.38% with embolic pneumonia. In addition, 11.9% of the lungs showed lung abscesses and 2.33% were affected with pleuritis without involving pulmonary parenchyma. Bacteriological examination revealed presence of ovine pathogens, such as Pasteurella multocida (24.53%, Staphylococcus aureus (20.75%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.09%, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (7.55% and Actinomyces pyogenes (1.89%. The most common form of pneumonia was suppurative bronchopneumonia with moderate amounts of fibrin deposits on the pleural surface and inside the bronchioles and alveoli.

  8. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-induced gene expression in the mouse lung: Association with lung pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacurari, M.; Qian, Y.; Porter, D.W.; Wolfarth, M.; Wan, Y.; Luo, D.; Ding, M.; Castranova, V.; Guo, N.L.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the fibrous shape and durability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), concerns regarding their potential for producing environmental and human health risks, including carcinogenesis, have been raised. This study sought to investigate how previously identified lung cancer prognostic biomarkers and the related cancer signaling pathways are affected in the mouse lung following pharyngeal aspiration of well-dispersed MWCNT. A total of 63 identified lung cancer prognostic biomarker genes and major signaling biomarker genes were analyzed in mouse lungs (n = 80) exposed to 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg of MWCNT by pharyngeal aspiration at 7 and 56 days post-exposure using quantitative PCR assays. At 7 and 56 days post-exposure, a set of 7 genes and a set of 11 genes, respectively, showed differential expression in the lungs of mice exposed to MWCNT vs. the control group. Additionally, these significant genes could separate the control group from the treated group over the time series in a hierarchical gene clustering analysis. Furthermore, 4 genes from these two sets of significant genes, coiled-coil domain containing-99 (Ccdc99), muscle segment homeobox gene-2 (Msx2), nitric oxide synthase-2 (Nos2), and wingless-type inhibitory factor-1 (Wif1), showed significant mRNA expression perturbations at both time points. It was also found that the expression changes of these 4 overlapping genes at 7 days post-exposure were attenuated at 56 days post-exposure. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) found that several carcinogenic-related signaling pathways and carcinogenesis itself were associated with both the 7 and 11 gene signatures. Taken together, this study identifies that MWCNT exposure affects a subset of lung cancer biomarkers in mouse lungs. - Research highlights: → Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes affect lung cancer biomarkers in mouse lungs. → The results suggest potentially harmful effects of MWCNT exposure on human lungs. → The results could potentially be used

  9. Genotyping of Pasteurella multocida ovine and bovine isolates from Iran based on PCR-RFLP of ompH gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida, A Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacterium, is a causative animal pathogen in porcine atrophic rhinitis and avian fowl cholera. The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains of many different protein in very high copy numbers. One of the major outer membrane, the H proteins have functional as high immunogenicity and antigenicity. In this study to increase information about epidemiology of ovine and bovine P. multocida, the 24 isolates from sheep and nine isolates from cattle were investigated by PCR-RFLP analysis of the ompH gene. In all 33 isolates, digestion of the amplified fragment of ompH gene by using EcoRI, cfoI and HindIII produced 3, 5 and 3 different restriction patterns respectively. Sixteen RFLP patterns were found among 33 investigated P.multocida isolates. This study showed that, the PCR RFLP based on ompH gene is potentially a useful method for typing of P. multocida isolates from sheep and cattle. The RFLP patterns of this gene exhibited extensive restriction site heterogeneity, which may be particularly suitable for fingerprinting of P. multocida isolates.Considering ompH protein as a protective immunogenic moiety of P.ultocida, the results of this study showed a heterogenic bacteria and this means the possibility to produce a multivalent vaccine to be protective against diseases caused by this organism in sheep and cattle in Iran.

  10. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  11. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO 2 > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure

  12. The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. Bremer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

  13. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Csapo, Bence; Bammer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 ± 0.44 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the apex, 1.99 ± 0.42 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 ± 0.41 μm 2 /ms (mean ± SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  15. Morphological characterization of pre- and peri-implantation in vitro cultured, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vivo derived ovine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Peura, T.T.; Hartwich, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    The processes of cellular differentiation were studied in somatic cell nuvlear transfer (SCNT), in vitro cultured (IVC) and in vivo developed (in vivo) ovine embryos on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 17 and 19. SCNT embryos were constructed from in vitro matured oocytes and granulosa cells, and IVC embryos...... were produced by in vitro culture of in vivo fertilized zygotes. Most SCNT and IVC embryos were transferred to recipients on day 6 while some remained in culture for day 7 processing. In vivo embryos were collected as zygotes, transferred to intermediate recipients and retransferred to final recipients...

  16. Comparison of lung protective ventilation strategies in a rabbit model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, A T; Gunnarsson, B; Fuhrman, B P; Hernan, L J; Steinhorn, D M

    2001-11-01

    To determine the impact of different protective and nonprotective mechanical ventilation strategies on the degree of pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and hemodynamic stability in a saline lavage model of acute lung injury. A prospective, randomized, controlled, in vivo animal laboratory study. Animal research facility of a health sciences university. Forty-six New Zealand White rabbits. Mature rabbits were instrumented with a tracheostomy and vascular catheters. Lavage-injured rabbits were randomized to receive conventional ventilation with either a) low peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 2 cm H2O); b) high PEEP (tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, PEEP of 10 cm H2O); c) low tidal volume with PEEP above Pflex (open lung strategy, tidal volume of 6 mL/kg, PEEP set 2 cm H2O > Pflex); or d) high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Animals were ventilated for 4 hrs. Lung lavage fluid and tissue samples were obtained immediately after animals were killed. Lung lavage fluid was assayed for measurements of total protein, elastase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and malondialdehyde. Lung tissue homogenates were assayed for measurements of myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde. The need for inotropic support was recorded. Animals that received a lung protective strategy (open lung or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation) exhibited more favorable oxygenation and lung mechanics compared with the low PEEP and high PEEP groups. Animals ventilated by a lung protective strategy also showed attenuation of inflammation (reduced tracheal fluid protein, tracheal fluid elastase, tracheal fluid tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and pulmonary leukostasis). Animals treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation had attenuated oxidative injury to the lung and greater hemodynamic stability compared with the other experimental groups. Both lung protective strategies were associated with improved oxygenation, attenuated inflammation, and

  17. Regional assessment of treatment in lung cancer using lung perfusion and ventilation images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Masaki; Teshima, Takeo; Yanagimachi, Tomohiro; Ogata, Yuuko; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    In 30 patients with lung cancer undergoing non-surgical treatment, we performed perfusion lung imaging using 99m Tc-MAA and inhalation lung studies using Technegas before and after treatment and evaluated regional perfusion and ventilation status in the lung regions where bronchogenic carcinoma was located. Regional ventilation status was preserved rather than perfusion counterpart (V>P) in 18 patients (18/30=60.0%) before treatment, while the former was better than the latter in 27 patients (27/30=90.0%) after treatment, indicating that regional ventilation status improved more significantly than regional perfusion counterpart after treatment (P=0.005). We also classified the therapeutic effect for regional perfusion and ventilation status as improved, unchanged, or worsened, respectively; improvement in regional perfusion status was observed in 17 patients (56.7%) and that in regional ventilation status in 24 patients (80.0%). There was a statistically significant correlation between improved regional perfusion and ventilation status (P=0.0018) when therapeutic effect was recognized. The patients who showed improvement in regional perfusion status after treatment always showed improved regional ventilation status, but 7 patients showed either unchanged or worsened regional perfusion status after treatment, although regional ventilation status was improved. In conclusion the pulmonary vascular beds seem more vulnerable to bronchogenic carcinoma and improvement in regional perfusion status was revealed to be more difficult than that in regional ventilation status after treatment. (author)

  18. Study of late effects of lung irradiation with telecobalt on lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkewitz, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of patients, one with malignant chest tumors before radiation and one more than nine months after radiation treatment of their tumors, are examined by assessment of different lung function parameters. In addition, four patients can be examined both before and more than nine months after radiation treatment for chest tumors. It is seen that the patients whose X-rays show signs of localized radiation fibrosis do not have the typical lung function problems noted in diffuse radiation fibroses. In patients with radiographic signs of localized radiation fibrosis, combined ventilation disturbances of obstruction and restriction type are more frequent and accompanied by a slight increase in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure. These modifications of the lung function cannot solely be attributed to the radiation treatment, as the lung function is also influenced by concomitant pulmonary affections such as chronic bronchitis or renewed growth of the irradiated tumor. (orig.) [de

  19. Host lung immunity is severely compromised during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia: role of lung eosinophils and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Aditi; Vishwakarma, Achchhe Lal; Agnihotri, Promod Kumar; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Mrigank

    2016-04-01

    Eosinophils play a central role in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, a rare, but fatal, manifestation of filariasis. However, no exhaustive study has been done to identify the genes and proteins of eosinophils involved in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. In the present study, we established a mouse model of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia that mimicked filarial manifestations of human tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis and used flow cytometry-assisted cell sorting and real-time RT-PCR to study the gene expression profile of flow-sorted, lung eosinophils and lung macrophages during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia pathogenesis. Our results show that tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice exhibited increased levels of IL-4, IL-5, CCL5, and CCL11 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung parenchyma along with elevated titers of IgE and IgG subtypes in the serum. Alveolar macrophages from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice displayed decreased phagocytosis, attenuated nitric oxide production, and reduced T-cell proliferation capacity, and FACS-sorted lung eosinophils from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia mice upregulated transcript levels of ficolin A and anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2,but proapoptotic genes Bim and Bax were downregulated. Similarly, flow-sorted lung macrophages upregulated transcript levels of TLR-2, TLR-6, arginase-1, Ym-1, and FIZZ-1 but downregulated nitric oxide synthase-2 levels, signifying their alternative activation. Taken together, we show that the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia is marked by functional impairment of alveolar macrophages, alternative activation of lung macrophages, and upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes by eosinophils. These events combine together to cause severe lung inflammation and compromised lung immunity. Therapeutic interventions that can boost host immune response in the lungs might thus provide relief to patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  20. Microbiome overview in swine lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Maboni Siqueira

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiologic agent of swine enzootic pneumonia. However other mycoplasma species and secondary bacteria are found as inhabitants of the swine respiratory tract, which can be also related to disease. In the present study we have performed a total DNA metagenomic analysis from the lungs of pigs kept in a field condition, with suggestive signals of enzootic pneumonia and without any infection signals to evaluate the bacteria variability of the lungs microbiota. Libraries from metagenomic DNA were prepared and sequenced using total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. The metagenomic distribution showed a great abundance of bacteria. The most common microbial families identified from pneumonic swine's lungs were Mycoplasmataceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Pasteurellaceae, whereas in the carrier swine's lungs the most common families were Mycoplasmataceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Analysis of community composition in both samples confirmed the high prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae. Moreover, the carrier lungs had more diverse family population, which should be related to the lungs normal flora. In summary, we provide a wide view of the bacterial population from lungs with signals of enzootic pneumonia and lungs without signals of enzootic pneumonia in a field situation. These bacteria patterns provide information that may be important for the establishment of disease control measures and to give insights for further studies.

  1. Emphysema Is Common in Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplantation Patients: A Histopathological and Computed Tomography Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onno M Mets

    Full Text Available Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF involves excessive inflammation, repetitive infections and development of bronchiectasis. Recently, literature on emphysema in CF has emerged, which might become an increasingly important disease component due to the increased life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence and extent of emphysema in endstage CF lungs.In explanted lungs of 20 CF patients emphysema was semi-quantitatively assessed on histology specimens. Also, emphysema was automatically quantified on pre-transplantation computed tomography (CT using the percentage of voxels below -950 Houndfield Units and was visually scored on CT. The relation between emphysema extent, pre-transplantation lung function and age was determined.All CF patients showed emphysema on histological examination: 3/20 (15% showed mild, 15/20 (75% moderate and 2/20 (10% severe emphysema, defined as 0-20% emphysema, 20-50% emphysema and >50% emphysema in residual lung tissue, respectively. Visually upper lobe bullous emphysema was identified in 13/20 and more diffuse non-bullous emphysema in 18/20. Histology showed a significant correlation to quantified CT emphysema (p = 0.03 and visual emphysema score (p = 0.001. CT and visual emphysema extent were positively correlated with age (p = 0.045 and p = 0.04, respectively.In conclusion, this study both pathologically and radiologically confirms that emphysema is common in end-stage CF lungs, and is age related. Emphysema might become an increasingly important disease component in the aging CF population.

  2. Extravascular Lung Water and Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Maharaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury carries a high burden of morbidity and mortality and is characterised by nonhydrostatic pulmonary oedema. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of accurate quantification of extravascular lung water in diagnosis, management, and prognosis in “acute lung injury” and “acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Several studies have verified the accuracy of both the single and the double transpulmonary thermal indicator techniques. Both experimental and clinical studies were searched in PUBMED using the term “extravascular lung water” and “acute lung injury”. Extravascular lung water measurement offers information not otherwise available by other methods such as chest radiography, arterial blood gas, and chest auscultation at the bedside. Recent data have highlighted the role of extravascular lung water in response to treatment to guide fluid therapy and ventilator strategies. The quantification of extravascular lung water may predict mortality and multiorgan dysfunction. The limitations of the dilution method are also discussed.

  3. Lung release of HIPDM: A new index of lung dysfunction for clinical and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Ghelarducci, L.

    1985-01-01

    Lung uptake, metabolism and release of amines has been experimentally documented. The authors studied in rabbit and man the lung kinetics of radioiodinated N-N-N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1, 3-propanediamine (HIPDM). In rabbits, after i.v. injection, 95% of HIPDM is kept within the lungs and is then released with a mean time (t-bar) of several hours as assessed both in vivo, by gamma camera external counting (n=5; t-bar=7.0 hrs), and in vitro by measuring activity in lung homogenates at various times after injection (n=56; t-bar=7.6 hrs). In 10 healthy non smoking subjects t-bar was 6.4 +- 1 hrs, whereas it was 12.1 +- 2 hrs in 10 asymptomatic smokers with normal pulmonary function tests. Preliminary clinical studies showed that HIPDM lung release is delayed in non smoking patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (n=4; t-bar=11.5 +- 2 hrs) and to a greater extent in adult respiratory distress syndrome (n=4; t-bar=25.8 +- 5hrs), whereas it was not significantly affected in cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=4; t-bar=8.8 +- 2 hrs). Hence, both smoke exposure and injury to the lung microcirculation may impair HIPDM lung kinetics. HIPDM external counting may therefore provide a new index of lung dysfunction in man. Rabbit can be used as a model to evaluate HIPDM lung kinetics in experimentally induced lung injury

  4. Utility of lung ultrasound in near-drowning victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Christian B; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2012-06-21

    Drowning and near-drowning are common causes of accidental death worldwide and respiratory complications such as non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia are often seen. In other settings lung ultrasound can accurately diagnose these conditions; hence lung ultrasound may have a potential role in the evaluation of drowning or near-drowning victims. In this case report the authors describe a 71-year-old man who was brought to hospital with acute respiratory failure after a near-drowning accident. Lung ultrasound showed multiple B-lines on the anterior and lateral surfaces of both lungs, consistent with pulmonary oedema. Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography showed no pericardial effusion and a normal global left ventricular function. Based on these findings the patient was diagnosed as having non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Subsequent chest x-ray showed bilateral infiltrates consistent with pulmonary oedema. The case report emphasises the clinical value of lung ultrasound in the evaluation of a near-drowning victim.

  5. First Danish experience with ex vivo lung perfusion of donor lungs before transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ian Sune Iversen; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Christian Holdfold; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Nilsson, Jens Christian; Seidelin, Casper Tobias; Perch, Michael; Iversen, Martin; Steinbrüchel, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The number of lung transplantations is limited by a general lack of donor organs. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel method to optimise and evaluate marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. We describe our experiences with EVLP in Denmark during the first year after its introduction. The study was conducted by prospective registration of donor offers and lung transplantations in Denmark from 1 May 2012 to 30 April 2013. Donor lungs without any contraindications were transplanted in the traditional manner. Taken for EVLP were donor lungs that were otherwise considered transplantable, but failed to meet the usual criteria due to possible contusions or because they were from donors with sepsis or unable to pass the oxygenation test. In the study period, seven of 33 Danish lung transplantations were made possible due to EVLP. One patient died of non-EVLP-related causes, but all other recipients were alive with normal graft function at the end of our registration period. All lungs showed an improved PaO2/FiO2 ratio from a median 23.1 kPa (8.8-38.9) within the donor to 58.8 kPa (34.9-76.5) (FiO2 = 1.0) after EVLP, which corresponds to a 155% improved oxygenation. The median time to extubation, time in intensive care unit and the admission period were 1, 7 and 39 days, respectively. In the first year after the introduction of EVLP in Denmark, seven pairs of donor lungs that previously would have been rejected have been transplanted as a result of their improved function. EVLP seems to be a safe way to increase the use of marginal donor lungs. no funding was granted for the present paper. not relevant.

  6. Current lung water measurement methods in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, G.; Moreau, F.; Marsac, J.; Capitini, R.; Botter, F.

    1979-01-01

    Two kinds of tracer method are used to estimate the lung water pools differing by the tracer intake and the sector observed. Airborne intake gives an estimate of the tissues irrigated by the lung and bronchial circulation, whereas vascular intake only shows the sectors perfused by the lung flow. Either of these methods is suitable for a general or regional analysis. In general methods the tracer is followed at the lung exit on expired air for the first method, on peripheral arterial blood for the second. Regional methods imply partial or whole-lung external detection systems [fr

  7. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  8. Flock worker's lung: chronic interstitial lung disease in the nylon flocking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D G; Crausman, R S; Durand, K T; Nayer, A; Kuhn, C

    1998-08-15

    Two young men working at a nylon flocking plant in Rhode Island developed interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Similar clusters at the same company's Canadian plant were reported previously. To define the extent, clinicopathologic features, and potential causes of the apparent disease outbreak. Case-finding survey and retrospective cohort study. Academic occupational medicine program. All workers employed at the Rhode Island plant on or after 15 June 1990. Symptomatic employees had chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, and serologic testing. Those with unexplained radiographic or pulmonary function abnormalities underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, or both. The case definition of "flock worker's lung" required histologic evidence of interstitial lung disease (or lavage evidence of lung inflammation) not explained by another condition. Eight cases of flock worker's lung were identified at the Rhode Island plant. Three cases were characterized by a high proportion of eosinophils (25% to 40%) in lavage fluid. Six of the seven patients who had biopsy had histologic findings of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and the seventh had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. All seven of these patients had peribronchovascular interstitial lymphoid nodules, usually with germinal centers, and most had lymphocytic bronchiolitis and interstitial fibrosis. All improved after leaving work. Review of the Canadian tissue specimens showed many similar histologic findings. Among the 165-member study cohort, a 48-fold or greater increase was seen in the sex-adjusted incidence rate of all interstitial lung disease. Work in the nylon flocking industry poses substantial risk for a previously unrecognized occupational interstitial lung disease. Nylon fiber is the suspected cause of this condition.

  9. [Nocardia farcinica lung infection in a patient with cystic fibrosis and a lung transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, C F; Vicente, R; Ramos, F; Porta, J; Lopez Maldonado, A; Ansotegui, E

    2015-03-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis have a higher risk of developing chronic respiratory infectious diseases. The Nocardia farcinica lung infection is rare in this group of patients, and there are limited publications about this topic. Its diagnosis is complex, due to the clinical and the radiology signs being non-specific. Identification of the agent responsible in the sputum culture is occasionally negative. It is a slow growing organism and for this reason treatment is delayed, which can lead to an increase in complications, hospitable stays, and mortality. A case is reported on a 26 year-old woman with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung colonization by Nocardia farcinica and Aspergillus fumigatus, on long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and posaconazole, who was admitted to ICU after bilateral lung transplantation. The initial post-operative progress was satisfactory. After discharge, the patient showed a gradual respiratory insufficiency with new chest X-ray showing diffuse infiltrates. Initially, the agent was not seen in the sputum culture. Prompt and aggressive measures were taken, due to the high clinical suspicion of a Nocardia farcinica lung infection. Treatment with a combination of amikacin and meropenem, and later combined with linezolid, led to the disappearance of the lung infiltrates and a clinical improvement. In our case, we confirm the rapid introduction of Nocardia farcinica in the new lungs. The complex identification and the delay in treatment increased the morbimortality. There is a special need for its eradication in patients with lung transplant, due to the strong immunosuppressive treatment. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between radiation dose and lung function in patients with lung cancer receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsaker, V.; Dale, E.; Bruland, O.S.; Olsen, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice. The dose is limited by consequential pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Hence, a better understanding of the relationship between the dose-volume distributions and normal tissue side effects is needed. CT is a non-invasive method to monitor the development of fibrosis and pneumonitis, and spirometry is an established tool to measure lung function. NSCLC patients were included in a multicenter trial and treated with megavoltage conformal radiotherapy. In a subgroup comprising 16 patients, a total dose of 59-63 Gy with 1.8-1.9 Gy per fraction was given. Dose-volume histograms were calculated and corrected according to the linear-quadratic formula using alpha/beta=3 Gy. The patients underwent repetitive CT examinations (mean follow-up, 133 days) following radiotherapy, and pre and post treatment spirometry (mean follow-up, 240 days). A significant correlation was demonstrated between local lung dose and changes in CT numbers >30 days after treatment (p 40 Gy Gy there was a sudden increase in CT numbers at 70-90 days. Somewhat unexpectedly, the highest mean lung doses were found in patients with the least reductions in lung function (peak expiratory flow; p<0.001). The correlation between CT numbers, radiation dose and time after treatment show that CT may be used to monitor development of lung fibrosis/pneumonitis after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Paradoxically, the patients with the highest mean lung doses experienced the minimum deterioration of lung function. This may be explained by reduction in the volume of existing tumour masses obstructing the airways, leading to relief of symptoms. This finding stresses the role of radiotherapy for lung cancer, especially where the treatment aim is palliative

  11. Cross-sectional changes in lung volume measured by electrical impedance tomography are representative for the whole lung in ventilated preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Pauline S.; Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Electrical impedance tomography measures lung volume in a cross-sectional slice of the lung. Whether these cross-sectional volume changes are representative of the whole lung has only been investigated in adults, showing conflicting results. This study aimed to compare cross-sectional and

  12. Micromechanical model of lung parenchyma hyperelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Felipe; Sarabia-Vallejos, Mauricio; Hurtado, Daniel E.

    2018-03-01

    Mechanics plays a key role in respiratory physiology, as lung tissue cyclically deforms to bring air in and out the lung, a life-long process necessary for respiration. The study of regional mechanisms of deformation in lung parenchyma has received great attention to date due to its clinical relevance, as local overstretching and stress concentration in lung tissue is currently associated to pathological conditions such as lung injury during mechanical ventilation therapy. This mechanical approach to lung physiology has motivated the development of constitutive models to better understand the relation between stress and deformation in the lung. While material models proposed to date have been key in the development of whole-lung simulations, either they do not directly relate microstructural properties of alveolar tissue with coarse-scale behavior, or they require a high computational effort when based on real alveolar geometries. Furthermore, most models proposed to date have not been thoroughly validated for anisotropic deformation states, which are commonly found in normal lungs in-vivo. In this work, we develop a novel micromechanical model of lung parenchyma hyperelasticity using the framework of finite-deformation homogenization. To this end, we consider a tetrakaidecahedron unit cell with incompressible Neo-Hookean structural elements that account for the alveolar wall tissue responsible for the elastic response, and derive expressions for its effective coarse-scale behavior that directly depend on the alveolar wall elasticity, reference porosity, and two other geometrical coefficients. To validate the proposed model, we simulate the non-linear elastic response of twelve representative volume elements (RVEs) of lung parenchyma with micrometric dimensions, whose geometry is obtained from micrometric computed-tomography reconstructions of murine lungs. We show that the proposed micromechanical model accurately captures the RVEs response not only for isotropic

  13. Pathogenic mechanism in lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.; Haschek, W.M.; Meyer, K.R.; Ullrich, R.L.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether an interaction between two agents causing alveolar epithelial damage would produce lung fibrosis. In mouse lung, intraperitoneal injection of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene causes diffuse alveolar type I cell necrosis, followed by proliferation of type II alveolar cells. In animals exposed to 70% O 2 or 100-200 rad x rays during the phase of type II cell proliferation following BHT, diffuse interstitial lung fibrosis developed within 2 weeks. Quantitative analysis of the lungs for hydroxyproline showed that the interaction between BHT and O 2 or x rays was synergistic. If exposure to O 2 or x rays was delayed until epithelial recovery was complete, no fibrosis was seen. Abnormally high levels of lung collagen persisted up to 6 months after one single treatment with BHT and 100 rad x rays. A commonly seen form of chronic lung damage may thus be caused by an acute interaction between a bloodborne agent which damages the alveolar cell and a toxic inhalant or x rays, provided a critically ordered sequence of exposure is observed

  14. Induction of Lipocalin2 in a Rat Model of Lung Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Sultan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we showed that lipocalin2 (LCN2 serum levels increased after liver irradiation and during acute-phase conditions. Here, we evaluate LCN2 expression and serum levels after single-dose lung irradiation with 25 Gy, percutaneously administered to the lung of randomly-paired male Wistar rats. Due to the concave anatomy of the lung recesses, the irradiation field included the upper part of the liver. No rat died due to irradiation. In control tissue, lung immunohistochemistry showed a high constitutive expression of LCN2+ granulocytes. LCN2 mRNA levels in lung tissue increased up to 24 h (9 ± 2.3-fold after irradiation. However, serum LCN2 levels remained undetectable after lung irradiation. LCN2 expression in the upper part of the liver increased up to 4.2-fold after lung irradiation, but the lower liver showed an early decrease. Acute-phase cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α showed a significant increase on transcript level in both lung and upper liver, whilst the lower liver did not show any considerable increase. In conclusion, constitutive expression of LCN2 in local immune cells demonstrates its local role during stress conditions in the lung. The absence of LCN2 in the serum strengthens our previous findings that the liver is the key player in secreting LCN2 during stress conditions with liver involvement.

  15. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellane R Cleys

    Full Text Available Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR. Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders.

  16. Osteogenic capacity of nanocrystalline bone cement in a weight-bearing defect at the ovine tibial metaphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Christoph; Helms, Kai; Taschner, Tibor; Stratos, Ioannis; Ignatius, Anita; Gerber, Thomas; Lenz, Solvig; Rammelt, Stefan; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic material Nanobone(®) (hydroxyapatite nanocrystallines embedded in a porous silica gel matrix) was examined in vivo using a standardized bone defect model in the ovine tibial metaphysis. A standardized 6 × 12 × 24-mm bone defect was created below the articular surface of the medial tibia condyles on both hind legs of 18 adult sheep. The defect on the right side was filled with Nanobone(®), while the defect on the contralateral side was left empty. The tibial heads of six sheep were analyzed after 6, 12, and 26 weeks each. The histological and radiological analysis of the defect on the control side did not reveal any bone formation after the total of 26 weeks. In contrast, the microcomputed tomography analysis of the defect filled with Nanobone(®) showed a 55%, 72%, and 74% volume fraction of structures with bone density after 6, 12, and 26 weeks, respectively. Quantitative histomorphological analysis after 6, and 12 weeks revealed an osteoneogenesis of 22%, and 36%, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin sections demonstrated multinucleated giant cells on the surface of the biomaterial and resorption lacunae, indicating osteoclastic resorptive activity. Nanobone(®) appears to be a highly potent bone substitute material with osteoconductive properties in a loaded large animal defect model, supporting the potential use of Nanobone(®) also in humans.

  17. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Intercomparison of JAERI Torso Phantom lung sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Gary H.; Hauck, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    During the course of an IAEA sponsored In Vivo intercomparison using the JAERI phantom the Human Monitoring Laboratory was able to intercompare thirteen lung sets made by three suppliers. One set consisted of sliced lungs with planar inserts containing different radionuclides. The others consisted of whole lung sets with the activity homogeneously distributed throughout the tissue substitute material. Radionuclides in the study were: natural uranium, 3% enriched uranium, 241 Am, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 152 Eu, and 232 Th Except for the 241 Am (59.5 keV) and occasionally one of the 232 Th (209 keV) photopeaks, the lung sets that had radioactivity homogeneously distributed throughout the tissue equivalent lung tissue material showed good agreement. The 241 Am lung set gave a counting efficiency that appeared 25% too high for all overlay plate configurations. This was observed by other participants. It exemplifies that the manufacture of tissue substitute lung sets is still something of a black art. Despite all precautions, this lung set is either inhomogeneous or has had the wrong activity added. Heterogeneity can lead to an error in the activity estimate of a factor of three if the activity was severely localised due to improper mixing. A factor of 1.25, which appears to be the discrepancy, could easily be explained in this way. It will not be known for some time, however, what the true reason is as the participants are still waiting for the destructive analysis of this lung set to determine the 'true' activity. The sliced lungs ( 241 Am, 152 Eu, and U-nat) manufactured by the Human Monitoring Laboratory are in excellent agreement with the other lung sets. The advantages of sliced lung sets and planar sources are manifold. Activity can be distributed in a known and reproducible manner to mimic either a homogeneous or heterogeneous distribution in the lung. Short lived radionuclides can be used. Cost is much less than purchasing or manufacturing lung sets that have the

  19. Identification of transcripts involved in meiosis and follicle formation during ovine ovary development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poumerol Elodie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The key steps in germ cell survival during ovarian development are the entry into meiosis of oogonies and the formation of primordial follicles, which then determine the reproductive lifespan of the ovary. In sheep, these steps occur during fetal life, between 55 and 80 days of gestation, respectively. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian genes during prophase I meiosis and early folliculogenesis in sheep. Results In order to elucidate the molecular events associated with early ovarian differentiation, we generated two ovary stage-specific subtracted cDNA libraries using SSH. Large-scale sequencing of these SSH libraries identified 6,080 ESTs representing 2,535 contigs. Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 2,101 unique sequences depicted in 1,305 singleton (62.11% and 796 contigs (37.9% ESTs (clusters. BLASTX evaluation indicated that 99% of the ESTs were homologous to various known genes/proteins in a broad range of organisms, especially ovine, bovine and human species. The remaining 1% which exhibited any homology to known gene sequences was considered as novel. Detailed study of the expression patterns of some of these genes using RT-PCR revealed new promising candidates for ovary differentiation genes in sheep. Conclusion We showed that the SSH approach was relevant to determining new mammalian genes which might be involved in oogenesis and early follicle development, and enabled the discovery of new potential oocyte and granulosa cell markers for future studies. These genes may have significant implications regarding our understanding of ovarian function in molecular terms, and for the development of innovative strategies to both promote and control fertility.

  20. Identification of transcripts involved in meiosis and follicle formation during ovine ovary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillet, Adrienne; Mandon-Pépin, Béatrice; Cabau, Cédric; Poumerol, Elodie; Pailhoux, Eric; Cotinot, Corinne

    2008-09-23

    The key steps in germ cell survival during ovarian development are the entry into meiosis of oogonies and the formation of primordial follicles, which then determine the reproductive lifespan of the ovary. In sheep, these steps occur during fetal life, between 55 and 80 days of gestation, respectively. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed ovarian genes during prophase I meiosis and early folliculogenesis in sheep. In order to elucidate the molecular events associated with early ovarian differentiation, we generated two ovary stage-specific subtracted cDNA libraries using SSH. Large-scale sequencing of these SSH libraries identified 6,080 ESTs representing 2,535 contigs. Clustering and assembly of these ESTs resulted in a total of 2,101 unique sequences depicted in 1,305 singleton (62.11%) and 796 contigs (37.9%) ESTs (clusters). BLASTX evaluation indicated that 99% of the ESTs were homologous to various known genes/proteins in a broad range of organisms, especially ovine, bovine and human species. The remaining 1% which exhibited any homology to known gene sequences was considered as novel. Detailed study of the expression patterns of some of these genes using RT-PCR revealed new promising candidates for ovary differentiation genes in sheep. We showed that the SSH approach was relevant to determining new mammalian genes which might be involved in oogenesis and early follicle development, and enabled the discovery of new potential oocyte and granulosa cell markers for future studies. These genes may have significant implications regarding our understanding of ovarian function in molecular terms, and for the development of innovative strategies to both promote and control fertility.

  1. Unilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Improvements in immunosuppression and surgical techniques have made unilateral lung transplantation feasible in selected patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease. We report two cases of successful unilateral lung transplantation for end-stage respiratory failure due to pulmonary fibrosis. The patients, both oxygen-dependent, had progressive disease refractory to all treatment, with an anticipated life expectancy of less than one year on the basis of the rate of progression of the disease. Both patients were discharged six weeks after transplantation and returned to normal life. They are alive and well at 26 months and 14 months after the procedure. Pulmonary-function studies have shown substantial improvement in their lung volumes and diffusing capacities. For both patients, arterial oxygen tension is now normal and there is no arterial oxygen desaturation with exercise. This experience shows that unilateral lung transplantation, for selected patients with end-stage interstitial lung disease, provides a good functional result. Moreover, it avoids the necessity for cardiac transplantation, as required by the combined heart-lung procedure, and permits the use of the donor heart for another recipient.

  2. Ischemia and reperfusion of the lung tissues induced increase of lung permeability and lung edema is attenuated by dimethylthiourea (PP69).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K H; Chao, D; Liu, C F; Chen, C F; Wang, D

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether oxygen radical scavengers of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), superoxide dismutase (SOD), or catalase (CAT) pretreatment attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced lung injury. After isolation from a Sprague-Dawley rat, the lungs were perfused through the pulmonary artery cannula with rat whole blood diluted 1:1 with a physiological salt solution. An acute lung injury was induced by 10 minutes of hypoxia with 5% CO2-95% N2 followed by 65 minutes of ischemia and then 65 minutes of reperfusion. I/R significantly increased microvascular permeability as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW), and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). DMTU pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute lung injury. The capillary filtration coefficient (P<.01), LW/BW (P<.01) and PCBAL (P<.05) were significantly lower among the DMTU-treated rats than hosts pretreated with SOD or CAT. The possible mechanisms of the protective effect of DMTU in I/R-induced lung injury may relate to the permeability of the agent allowing it to scavenge intracellular hydroxyl radicals. However, whether superoxide dismutase or catalase antioxidants showed protective effects possibly due to their impermeability of the cell membrane not allowing scavenging of intracellular oxygen radicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  4. Post-cancer Treatment with Condurango 30C Shows Amelioration of Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer in Rats Through the Molecular Pathway of Caspa- se-3-mediated Apoptosis Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikdar Sourav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present investigation aimed at examining if post-cancer treatment with a potentized homeopathic drug, Condurango 30C, which is generally used to treat oesophageal cancer, could also show an ameliorating effect through apoptosis induction on lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP in white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Methods: Lung cancer was induced after four months by chronic feeding of BaP to rats through gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for one month. After four months, the lung-cancer-bearing rats were treated with Condurango 30C for the next one (5th, two (5th-6th and three (5th-7th months, respectively, and were sacrificed at the corresponding time- points. The ameliorating effect, if any, after Condurango 30C treatment for the various periods was evaluated by using protocols such as histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, annexinV-FITC/PI assay, flow cytometry of the apoptosis marker, DNA fragmentation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses of lung tissue samples. Results: Striking recovery of lung tissue to a near normal status was noticed after post-cancerous drug treatment, as evidenced by SEM and histology, especially after one and two months of drug treatment. Data from the annexinV-FITC/PI and DNA fragmentation assays revealed that Condurango 30C could induce apoptosis in cancer cells after post-cancer treatment. A critical analysis of signalling cascade, evidenced through a RT-PCR study, demonstrated up-regulation and down-regulation of different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, related to a caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was especially discernible after one-month and two- month drug treatments. Correspondingly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the ameliorative potential of Condurango 30C by its ability to down-regulate the elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression, a

  5. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ming An

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5 of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2 were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3 and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5 and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg. In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits.

  6. Postural lung recruitment assessed by lung ultrasound in mechanically ventilated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusman, Gerardo; Acosta, Cecilia M; Böhm, Stephan H; Waldmann, Andreas D; Ferrando, Carlos; Marquez, Manuel Perez; Sipmann, Fernando Suarez

    2017-10-13

    Atelectasis is a common finding in mechanically ventilated children with healthy lungs. This lung collapse cannot be overcome using standard levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and thus for only individualized lung recruitment maneuvers lead to satisfactory therapeutic results. In this short communication, we demonstrate by lung ultrasound images (LUS) the effect of a postural recruitment maneuver (P-RM, i.e., a ventilatory strategy aimed at reaerating atelectasis by changing body position under constant ventilation). Data was collected in the operating room of the Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina. Three anesthetized children undergoing mechanical ventilation at constant settings were sequentially subjected to the following two maneuvers: (1) PEEP trial in the supine position PEEP was increased to 10 cmH 2 O for 3 min and then decreased to back to baseline. (2) P-RM patient position was changed from supine to the left and then to the right lateral position for 90 s each before returning to supine. The total P-RM procedure took approximately 3 min. LUS in the supine position showed similar atelectasis before and after the PEEP trial. Contrarily, atelectasis disappeared in the non-dependent lung when patients were placed in the lateral positions. Both lungs remained atelectasis free even after returning to the supine position. We provide LUS images that illustrate the concept and effects of postural recruitment in children. This maneuver has the advantage of achieving recruitment effects without the need to elevate airways pressures.

  7. La gale sarcoptique ovine dans le Nord-est algérien: Incidence, aspects lésionnels et cliniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athamna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep's Sarcoptic Mange in North-eastern Algeria: Prevalence, Lesion and Clinical Aspects. Sarcoptic mange is the most common form of ovine mange in North-Eastern Algeria. It is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis. An investigation was carried out to determine the prevalence and the seasonal profile of of the disease in sheep. During a period of one year, various aspects of sheep scabies were studied in different localities parts of North-Eastern Algeria. The average rate of infestation was 12.02% as judged by visiting livestock markets in Souk-Ahras, Guelma and Tebessa. The prevalence of the disease is high from December to March and low or zero during the remaining of the year. Sixty percent of flocks of the region of El-Tarf were found infested and 49.5% of animals were positive. The disease affected animals at any age. It occurred in ewes lambs and rams with prevalence of 50.5%, 37% and 22.3% respectively. The study of lesion and clinical aspects of affected sheep in El-Tarf revealed that 55% of individuals had lesions on the muzzle, 30% showed an extension of crust up to the chamfer, the basis of the ears and the lip,10% had their head completely covered by scabs; only 5% showed extension of the lesions to the legs. It seems that the parasitic burden is in strong correlation with the extent of the lesions.

  8. LungMAP: The Molecular Atlas of Lung Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardini-Poleske, Maryanne E; Clark, Robert F; Ansong, Charles; Carson, James P; Corley, Richard A; Deutsch, Gail H; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Mariani, Thomas J; Potter, Steven S; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Warburton, David; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Palmer, Scott M; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2017-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is funding an effort to create a molecular atlas of the developing lung (LungMAP) to serve as a research resource and public education tool. The lung is a complex organ with lengthy development time driven by interactive gene networks and dynamic cross talk among multiple cell types to control and coordinate lineage specification, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, morphogenesis, and injury repair. A better understanding of the processes that regulate lung development, particularly alveologenesis, will have a significant impact on survival rates for premature infants born with incomplete lung development and will facilitate lung injury repair and regeneration in adults. A consortium of four research centers, a data coordinating center, and a human tissue repository provides high-quality molecular data of developing human and mouse lungs. LungMAP includes mouse and human data for cross correlation of developmental processes across species. LungMAP is generating foundational data and analysis, creating a web portal for presentation of results and public sharing of data sets, establishing a repository of young human lung tissues obtained through organ donor organizations, and developing a comprehensive lung ontology that incorporates the latest findings of the consortium. The LungMAP website (www.lungmap.net) currently contains more than 6,000 high-resolution lung images and transcriptomic, proteomic, and lipidomic human and mouse data and provides scientific information to stimulate interest in research careers for young audiences. This paper presents a brief description of research conducted by the consortium, database, and portal development and upcoming features that will enhance the LungMAP experience for a community of users. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert D; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; White, Stephen N; O'Rourke, Katherine I; Knowles, Donald P

    2009-01-22

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to classical scrapie. However, other effects of 171R selection are uncertain. Ovine progressive pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) may infect up to 66% of a flock thus any affect of 171R selection on OPPV susceptibility or disease progression could have major impact on the sheep industry. Hypotheses that the PRNP 171R allele is 1) associated with the presence of OPPV provirus and 2) associated with higher provirus levels were tested in an Idaho ewe flock. OPPV provirus was found in 226 of 358 ewes by quantitative PCR. The frequency of ewes with detectable provirus did not differ significantly among the 171QQ, 171QR, and 171RR genotypes (p > 0.05). Also, OPPV provirus levels in infected ewes were not significantly different among codon 171 genotypes (p > 0.05). These results show that, in the flock examined, the presence of OPPV provirus and provirus levels are not related to the PRNP 171R allele. Therefore, a genetic approach to scrapie control is not expected to increase or decrease the number of OPPV infected sheep or the progression of disease. This study provides further support to the adoption of PRNP 171R selection as a scrapie control measure.

  10. A decade of lung expansion. A review of ventilation-weighted 1H lung MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Fiehler, Jens; Sedlacik, Jan; Regier, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, a novel method for extracting functional ventilation-weighted lung images using MRI was published. The method exploited the naturally occurring density changes in the lung during breathing and the resulting images showed a clear clinical potential. A decade later, the method has been adapted and further developed by several research groups and has led to many encouraging pre-clinical studies, both in animals and in humans. In this paper we show the development of the method and summarize the current state-of-the-art, aiming to both inform and motivate students and researchers with an interest in this exciting field.

  11. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  12. Shrinking lung syndrome complicating pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Natalie S. [University of Washington Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Stevens, Anne M. [Seattle Children' s Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle, WA (United States); Iyer, Ramesh S. [University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) can affect the lungs and pleura, usually manifesting with pleural effusions or diffuse parenchymal disease. A rare manifestation of SLE is shrinking lung syndrome, a severe restrictive respiratory disorder. While pleuropulmonary complications of pediatric SLE are common, shrinking lung syndrome is exceedingly rare in children. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl previously diagnosed with lupus, who developed severe dyspnea on exertion and restrictive pulmonary physiology. Her chest radiographs on presentation demonstrated low lung volumes, and CT showed neither pleural nor parenchymal disease. Fluoroscopy demonstrated poor diaphragmatic excursion. While shrinking lung syndrome is described and studied in adults, there is only sparse reference to shrinking lung syndrome in children. (orig.)

  13. Shrinking lung syndrome complicating pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Natalie S.; Stevens, Anne M.; Iyer, Ramesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) can affect the lungs and pleura, usually manifesting with pleural effusions or diffuse parenchymal disease. A rare manifestation of SLE is shrinking lung syndrome, a severe restrictive respiratory disorder. While pleuropulmonary complications of pediatric SLE are common, shrinking lung syndrome is exceedingly rare in children. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl previously diagnosed with lupus, who developed severe dyspnea on exertion and restrictive pulmonary physiology. Her chest radiographs on presentation demonstrated low lung volumes, and CT showed neither pleural nor parenchymal disease. Fluoroscopy demonstrated poor diaphragmatic excursion. While shrinking lung syndrome is described and studied in adults, there is only sparse reference to shrinking lung syndrome in children. (orig.)

  14. Construct validity of the ovine model in endoscopic sinus surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Zaid; Taghi, Ali; Sethukumar, Priya; Tolley, Neil S

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate construct validity of the ovine model as a tool for training in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Prospective, cross-sectional evaluation study. Over 18 consecutive months, trainees and experts were evaluated in their ability to perform a range of tasks (based on previous face validation and descriptive studies conducted by the same group) relating to ESS on the sheep-head model. Anonymized randomized video recordings of the above were assessed by two independent and blinded assessors. A validated assessment tool utilizing a five-point Likert scale was employed. Construct validity was calculated by comparing scores across training levels and experts using mean and interquartile range of global and task-specific scores. Subgroup analysis of the intermediate group ascertained previous experience. Nonparametric descriptive statistics were used, and analysis was carried out using SPSS version 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Reliability of the assessment tool was confirmed. The model discriminated well between different levels of expertise in global and task-specific scores. A positive correlation was noted between year in training and both global and task-specific scores (P variable, and the number of ESS procedures performed under supervision had the highest impact on performance. This study describes an alternative model for ESS training and assessment. It is also the first to demonstrate construct validity of the sheep-head model for ESS training. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. New estimates for human lung dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Sidavasan, Sivalal; Kramer, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The currently used lung dimensions in dosimetry were originally estimated in the 1940s from Army recruits. This study provides new estimates of lung dimensions based on images acquired from a sample from the general population (varying age and sex). Building accurate models, called phantoms, of the human lung requires that the spatial dimensions (length, width, and depth) be quantified, in addition to volume. Errors in dose estimates may result from improperly sized lungs as the counting efficiency of externally mounted detectors (e.g., in a lung counter) is dependent on the position of internally deposited radioactive material (i.e., the size of the lung). This study investigates the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Lung phantoms have previously been made in one of two sizes. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Torso Phantom (LLNL) has deep, short lungs whose dimensions do not comply well with the data published in Report 23 (Reference Man) issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute Torso Phantom(JAERI), has longer, shallower lungs that also deviate from the ICRP values. However, careful examination of the ICRP recommended values shows that they are soft. In fact, they have been dropped from the ICRP's Report 89 which updates Report 23. Literature surveys have revealed a wealth of information on lung volume, but very little data on the spatial dimensions of human lungs. Better lung phantoms need to be constructed to more accurately represent a person so that dose estimates may be quantified more accurately in view of the new, lower, dose limits for occupationally exposed workers and the general public. Retrospective chest images of 60 patients who underwent imaging of the chest- lungs as part of their healthy persons occupational screening for lung disease were chosen. The chosen normal lung images represent the general population). Ages, gender and weight of the

  16. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  17. Lung transplantation: overall approach regarding its major aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Priscila Cilene León Bueno; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Campos, Silvia Vidal; Afonso, José Eduardo; Costa, André Nathan; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for patients with advanced lung disease. The evaluation of a candidate for transplantation is a complex task and involves a multidisciplinary team that follows the patient beyond the postoperative period. Currently, the mean time on the waiting list for lung transplantation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is approximately 18 months. For Brazil as a whole, data from the Brazilian Organ Transplant Association show that, in 2014, there were 67 lung transplants and 204 patients on the waiting list for lung transplantation. Lung transplantation is most often indicated in cases of COPD, cystic fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, and pulmonary hypertension. This comprehensive review aimed to address the major aspects of lung transplantation: indications, contraindications, evaluation of transplant candidates, evaluation of donor candidates, management of transplant recipients, and major complications. To that end, we based our research on the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines and on the protocols used by our Lung Transplant Group in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26785965

  18. Lung tissue mechanics as an emergent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Béla; Bates, Jason H T

    2011-04-01

    The mechanical properties of lung parenchymal tissue are both elastic and dissipative, as well as being highly nonlinear. These properties cannot be fully understood, however, in terms of the individual constituents of the tissue. Rather, the mechanical behavior of lung tissue emerges as a macroscopic phenomenon from the interactions of its microscopic components in a way that is neither intuitive nor easily understood. In this review, we first consider the quasi-static mechanical behavior of lung tissue and discuss computational models that show how smooth nonlinear stress-strain behavior can arise through a percolation-like process in which the sequential recruitment of collagen fibers with increasing strain causes them to progressively take over the load-bearing role from elastin. We also show how the concept of percolation can be used to link the pathologic progression of parenchymal disease at the micro scale to physiological symptoms at the macro scale. We then examine the dynamic mechanical behavior of lung tissue, which invokes the notion of tissue resistance. Although usually modeled phenomenologically in terms of collections of springs and dashpots, lung tissue viscoelasticity again can be seen to reflect various types of complex dynamic interactions at the molecular level. Finally, we discuss the inevitability of why lung tissue mechanics need to be complex.

  19. Alpinetin inhibits lung cancer progression and elevates sensitization drug-resistant lung cancer cells to cis-diammined dichloridoplatium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lin Wu, Wei Yang, Su-ning Zhang, Ji-bin Lu Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sheng Jing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Alpinetin is a novel flavonoid that has demonstrated potent antitumor activity in previous studies. However, the efficacy and mechanism of alpinetin in treating lung cancer have not been determined. Methods: We evaluated the impact of different doses and durations of alpinetin treatment on the cell proliferation, the apoptosis of lung cancer cells, as well as the drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Results: This study showed that the alpinetin inhibited the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, and inhibited the PI3K/Akt signaling in lung cancer cells. Moreover, alpinetin significantly increased the sensitivity of drug-resistant lung cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic effect of cis-diammined dichloridoplatium. Taken together, this study demonstrated that alpinetin significantly suppressed the development of human lung cancer possibly by influencing mitochondria and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and sensitized drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Conclusion: Alpinetin may be used as a potential compound for combinatorial therapy or as a complement to other chemotherapeutic agents when multiple lines of treatments have failed to reduce lung cancer. Keywords: alpinetin, cell proliferation and apoptosis, drug resistance reversal, PI3K/Akt, lung cancer

  20. Cloning and expression of SOLD1 in ovine and caprine placenta, and their expected roles during the development of placentomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizaki Keiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ly-6 (Ly-6/uPAR superfamily members share the Ly-6 domain defined by distinct disulfide bonding patterns between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. They comprise membrane- and secretory-type proteins. We recently reported the gene and protein characterization of the bovine secreted protein of Ly-6 domain 1 (SOLD1. Bovine SOLD1 is expressed in trophoblast mononucleate cells (TMCs and is localized in the cotyledonary mesenchyme. Here, we compared the expression and functionality of SOLD1 among the ruminants. We examined mRNA expression by chorionic fibroblasts as a measure of one of the SOLD1 functions. Results Ovine and caprine SOLD1 mRNAs have 303 bp open reading frames and encode for deduced SOLD1 proteins with 100 amino acids, including a 22-aa-long signal peptide at the N-terminal. Both of the SOLD1 amino acid sequences have high similarities with the bovine sequence. Both SOLD1 mRNAs were also expressed in TMCs of cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. The mature SOLD1 proteins were localized in the mesenchymal villi of cotyledons after secretion. Bovine, ovine and caprine SOLD1 affected gene expression in mesenchymal fibroblasts in vitro; nucleoredoxin expression was upregulated and BCL2-like 13 was downregulated. Thus, we suggest that SOLD1 acts as a modulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Conclusion Expressing cells and protein localization of SOLD1 coincided among the three ruminants. SOLD1 participated in regulating nucleoredoxin and BCL2-like 13 expression in chorionic fibroblasts. SOLD1 is produced specifically in the cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes in ruminants and appears to be involved in the construction of the ruminant placenta.

  1. Caprine and ovine Greek dairy products: The official German method generates false-positive results due to κ-casein gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsianidou, V; Triantafillidou, D; Karaiskou, N; Tarantili, P; Triantafillidis, G; Georgakis, E; Triantafyllidis, A

    2017-05-01

    Caseins are widely used for species identification of dairy products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of para-κ-casein peptide is used as the official German method for the differentiation between caprine (isoform A) and ovine (isoform B) dairy products, based on their different isoelectric points. The discrimination between Greek goat and ewe dairy products using IEF has, however, been shown to be problematic because of the existence of the ewe isoform in milk from Greek indigenous dairy goats. This could be due to nucleotide polymorphisms within the goat κ-casein gene of Greek indigenous breeds, which alter the isoelectric point of the para-κ-casein peptide and lead to false positive results. Previous DNA analysis of the goat κ-casein gene has shown high levels of polymorphism; however, no such information is available for Greek indigenous dairy goats. Therefore, 87 indigenous dairy goats were sequenced at exon IV of κ-casein gene. In total, 9 polymorphic sites were detected. Three nonsynonymous point mutations were identified, which change the isoelectric point of the goat para-κ-casein peptide so that it appears identical to that of the ewe peptide. Ten composite genotypes were reconstructed and 6 of them included the problematic point mutations. For the verification of genetic results, IEF was carried out. Both goat and ewe patterns appeared in the problematic genotypes. The frequency of these genotypes could be characterized as moderate (0.23) to high (0.60) within Greek indigenous breeds. However, this is not an issue restricted to Greece, as such genotypes have been detected in various non-Greek goat breeds. In conclusion, IEF based on the official German method is certainly inappropriate for ovine and caprine discrimination concerning Greek dairy goat products, and consequently a new method should be established. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetics of badminton lunges in four directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youlian; Wang, Shao Jun; Lam, Wing Kai; Cheung, Jason Tak Man

    2014-02-01

    The lunge is the most fundamental skill in badminton competitions. Fifteen university-level male badminton players performed lunge maneuvers in four directions, namely, right-forward, left-forward, right-backward, and left-backward, while wearing two different brands of badminton shoes. The test compared the kinetics of badminton shoes in performing typical lunge maneuvers. A force plate and an insole measurement system measured the ground reaction forces and plantar pressures. These measurements were compared across all lunge maneuvers. The left-forward lunge generated significantly higher first vertical impact force (2.34 ± 0.52 BW) than that of the right-backward (2.06 ± 0.60 BW) and left-backward lunges (1.78 ± 0.44 BW); higher second vertical impact force (2.44 ± 0.51 BW) than that of the left-backward lunge (2.07 ± 0.38 BW); and higher maximum anterior-posterior shear force (1.48 ± 0.36 BW) than that of the left-backward lunge (1.18 ± 0.38 BW). Compared with other lunge directions, the left-forward lunge showed higher mean maximum vertical impact anterior-posterior shear forces and their respective maximum loading rates, and the plantar pressure at the total foot and heel regions. Therefore, the left-forward lunge is a critical maneuver for badminton biomechanics and related footwear research because of the high loading magnitude generated during heel impact.

  3. Bambuterol: uptake and metabolism in guinea pig isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryrfeldt, A.; Nilsson, E.; Tunek, A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lung uptake and biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol, a prodrug to terbutaline, were studied using isolated perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs. 14 C-Sucrose was used as an extracellular marker. The lung uptake of bambuterol was significantly (0.05 greater than or equal to P greater than or equal to 0.001) higher than that found for sucrose in single-pass perfusion experiments. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that 95.6 +/- 3.6% of the effluent 3 H radioactivity was attributable to bambuterol. In recirculating experiments (120 min) the lung biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol (8.5 pmol/ml) was studied. Both oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism took place. The dominating metabolites were hydroxylated bambuterol and the monocarbamate derivative which is a product of hydrolysis of bambuterol. Traces of terbutaline were also formed. The results show that bambuterol has a certain affinity to lung tissue and that the drug is, to some extent, biotransformed in the guinea pig lung

  4. Negative Outcomes of Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds in an Ovine Total Meniscus Replacement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay M; Merriam, Aaron R; Kohn, Joachim; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to test the efficacy of collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds reinforced with poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers in an ovine total meniscus replacement model. Scaffolds were implanted into 9 sheep (n = 1 at 8 weeks, n = 2 at 16 weeks, n = 3 at both 24, 32 weeks) following total medial meniscectomy. From 16 weeks on, explants were characterized by confined compression creep, histological, and biochemical analyses. Articular surfaces were observed macroscopically and damage was ranked histologically using the Mankin score. At sacrifice, three of the nine PLLA scaffolds had completely ruptured, and the intact scaffolds experienced progressive shape changes and severe narrowing in the body region at 16, 24, and 32 weeks. Aggregate compressive modulus and permeability did not improve with time. Histological and biochemical analyses showed significantly less extracellular matrix and less matrix organization compared to native tissue. Osteophytes, bone erosion, and cartilage damage were observed, increasing with time postimplantation. A buildup of lactic acid and/or the rapid loss of scaffold mechanical integrity due to PLLA degradation are probable causes for the joint abnormalities observed in this study. These results are in sharp contrast to those of our previous successful total meniscus replacement studies using polyarylate [p(DTD DD)] fiber-reinforced scaffolds. This suggests that PLLA fiber as produced in this study cannot be used as reinforcement for a meniscus replacement scaffold.

  5. Assessing Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty for transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection into bovine and ovine zygotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R. J.; Fernandez-Martin, R.; Canel, N. G.; Gibbons, A.; Texeira, D.; Lange, F.; Vans Landschoot, G.; Savy, V.; Briski, O.; Hiriart, M. I.; Grueso, E.; Ivics, Z.; Taboga, O.; Kues, W. A.; Ferraris, S.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic domestic animals represent an alternative to bioreactors for large-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and could also provide more accurate biomedical models than rodents. However, their generation remains inefficient. Recently, DNA transposons allowed improved transgenesis efficiencies in mice and pigs. In this work, Tn5 and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon systems were evaluated for transgenesis by simple cytoplasmic injection in livestock zygotes. In the case of Tn5, the transposome complex of transposon nucleic acid and Tn5 protein was injected. In the case of SB, the supercoiled plasmids encoding a transposon and the SB transposase were co-injected. In vitro produced bovine zygotes were used to establish the cytoplasmic injection conditions. The in vitro cultured blastocysts were evaluated for reporter gene expression and genotyped. Subsequently, both transposon systems were injected in seasonally available ovine zygotes, employing transposons carrying the recombinant human factor IX driven by the beta-lactoglobulin promoter. The Tn5 approach did not result in transgenic lambs. In contrast, the Sleeping Beauty injection resulted in 2 lambs (29%) carrying the transgene. Both animals exhibited cellular mosaicism of the transgene. The extraembryonic tissues (placenta or umbilical cord) of three additional animals were also transgenic. These results show that transpositional transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of SB transposon components can be applied for the production of transgenic lambs of pharmaceutical interest. PMID:28301581

  6. Follistatin is a novel biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    Full Text Available Follistatin (FST, a single chain glycoprotein, is originally isolated from follicular fluid of ovary. Previous studies have revealed that serum FST served as a biomarker for pregnancy and ovarian mucinous tumor. However, whether FST can serve as a biomarker for diagnosis in lung adenocarcinoma of humans remains unclear.The study population consisted of 80 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma and 80 healthy subjects. Serum FST levels in patients and healthy subjects were measured using ELISA. The results showed that the positive ratio of serum FST levels was 51.3% (41/80, which was comparable to the sensitivity of FST in 40 patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma (60%, 24/40 using the 95th confidence interval for the healthy subject group as the cut-off value. FST expressions in lung adenocarcinoma were examined by immunohistochemical staining, we found that lung adenocarcinoma could produce FST and there was positive correlation between the level of FST expression and the differential degree of lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the results showed that primary cultured lung adenocarcinoma cells could secrete FST, while cells derived from non-tumor lung tissues almost did not produce FST. In addition, the results of CCK8 assay and flow cytometry showed that using anti-FST monoclonal antibody to neutralize endogenous FST significantly augmented activin A-induced lung adenocarcinoma cells apoptosis.These data indicate that lung adenocarcinoma cells can secret FST into serum, which may be beneficial to the survival of adenocarcinoma cells by neutralizing activin A action. Thus, FST can serve as a promising biomarker for diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma and a useful biotherapy target for lung adenocarcinoma.

  7. Planimetric determination of lung volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, M.; Maurer, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The total volume of the lungs was determined by digital planimetry in 102 patients with emphysema and 33 normal controls aged between 30 and 79 years. The results were compared with the findings obtained from spirometric measurements. Mean values showed a significant relationship to age, body size and body surface. Planimetrically determined lung volume did not show a linear relationship with age, but increased after 60 years. Beyong 60 years, spirometric findings were lower because of an increase in the number of patients with emphysema. The results have shown that digital planimetry is a useful addition to spirometry. (orig.) [de

  8. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  9. Influence of quartz exposure on lung cancer types in cases of lymph node-only silicosis and lung silicosis in German uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Stefan; Taeger, Dirk; Weitmann, Kerstin; Brüning, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2018-05-04

    Inhaled crystalline quartz is a carcinogen. Analyses show differences in the distribution of lung cancer types depending on the status of silicosis. Using 2,524 lung tumor cases from the WISMUT autopsy repository database, silicosis was differentiated into cases without silicosis in lung parenchyma and its lymph nodes, with lymph node-only silicosis, or with lung silicosis including lymph node silicosis. The proportions of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small-cell lung carcinoma mortality for increasing quartz exposures were estimated in a multinomial logistic regression model. The relative proportions of the lung cancer subtypes in lymph node-only silicosis were more similar to lung silicosis than without any silicosis. The results support the hypothesis that quartz-related carcinogenesis in case of lymph node-only silicosis is more similar to that in lung silicosis than in without silicosis.

  10. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  11. Utility of Lung Ultrasound in Near-Drowning Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Christian Borbjerg; Rømhild Davidsen, Jesper; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    ultrasound may have a potential role in the evaluation of drowning or near-drowning victims. In this case report the authors describe a 71-year-old man who was brought to hospital with acute respiratory failure after a near-drowning accident. Lung ultrasound showed multiple B-lines on the anterior......Drowning and near-drowning are common causes of accidental death worldwide and respiratory complications such as non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia are often seen. In other settings lung ultrasound can accurately diagnose these conditions; hence lung...... and lateral surfaces of both lungs, consistent with pulmonary oedema. Focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography showed no pericardial effusion and a normal global left ventricular function. Based on these fi ndings the patient was diagnosed as having non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. Subsequent chest x...

  12. A decade of lung expansion. A review of ventilation-weighted {sup 1}H lung MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Fiehler, Jens; Sedlacik, Jan [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Regier, Marc [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2017-10-01

    In 2006, a novel method for extracting functional ventilation-weighted lung images using MRI was published. The method exploited the naturally occurring density changes in the lung during breathing and the resulting images showed a clear clinical potential. A decade later, the method has been adapted and further developed by several research groups and has led to many encouraging pre-clinical studies, both in animals and in humans. In this paper we show the development of the method and summarize the current state-of-the-art, aiming to both inform and motivate students and researchers with an interest in this exciting field.

  13. Teaching basic lung isolation skills on human anatomy simulator: attainment and retention of lung isolation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rana K; VanHorne, Edgar M; Kandadai, Sunitha Kanchi; Bautista, Alexander F; Neamtu, Aurel; Wadhwa, Anupama; Carter, Mary B; Ziegler, Craig H; Memon, Mohammed Faisal; Akça, Ozan

    2016-01-20

    Lung isolation skills, such as correct insertion of double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker, are essential in anesthesia training; however, how to teach novices these skills is underexplored. Our aims were to determine (1) if novices can be trained to a basic proficiency level of lung isolation skills, (2) whether video-didactic and simulation-based trainings are comparable in teaching lung isolation basic skills, and (3) whether novice learners' lung isolation skills decay over time without practice. First, five board certified anesthesiologist with experience of more than 100 successful lung isolations were tested on Human Airway Anatomy Simulator (HAAS) to establish Expert proficiency skill level. Thirty senior medical students, who were naive to bronchoscopy and lung isolation techniques (Novice) were randomized to video-didactic and simulation-based trainings to learn lung isolation skills. Before and after training, Novices' performances were scored for correct placement using pass/fail scoring and a 5-point Global Rating Scale (GRS); and time of insertion was recorded. Fourteen novices were retested 2 months later to assess skill decay. Experts' and novices' double lumen endobronchial tube and bronchial blocker passing rates showed similar success rates after training (P >0.99). There were no differences between the video-didactic and simulation-based methods. Novices' time of insertion decayed within 2 months without practice. Novices could be trained to basic skill proficiency level of lung isolation. Video-didactic and simulation-based methods we utilized were found equally successful in training novices for lung isolation skills. Acquired skills partially decayed without practice.

  14. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  15. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  16. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  17. Validation of an elastic registration technique to estimate anatomical lung modification in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggiano, Elena; Cattaneo, Giovanni M; Ciavarro, Cristina; Dell'Oca, Italo; Persano, Diego; Calandrino, Riccardo; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    The study of lung parenchyma anatomical modification is useful to estimate dose discrepancies during the radiation treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. We propose and validate a method, based on free-form deformation and mutual information, to elastically register planning kVCT with daily MVCT images, to estimate lung parenchyma modification during Tomotherapy. We analyzed 15 registrations between the planning kVCT and 3 MVCT images for each of the 5 NSCLC patients. Image registration accuracy was evaluated by visual inspection and, quantitatively, by Correlation Coefficients (CC) and Target Registration Errors (TRE). Finally, a lung volume correspondence analysis was performed to specifically evaluate registration accuracy in lungs. Results showed that elastic registration was always satisfactory, both qualitatively and quantitatively: TRE after elastic registration (average value of 3.6 mm) remained comparable and often smaller than voxel resolution. Lung volume variations were well estimated by elastic registration (average volume and centroid errors of 1.78% and 0.87 mm, respectively). Our results demonstrate that this method is able to estimate lung deformations in thorax MVCT, with an accuracy within 3.6 mm comparable or smaller than the voxel dimension of the kVCT and MVCT images. It could be used to estimate lung parenchyma dose variations in thoracic Tomotherapy

  18. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  19. Lung scan abnormalities in asthma and their correlation with lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, P.; Burton, G.H.; Seed, W.A.; Charing Cross Hospital, London

    1986-01-01

    We have used asthma as a model of airways disease to test how well an automated, quantitative method of analysis of lung scans correlates with physiological measurements of disturbed lung function and gas exchange. We studies 25 asthmatics (age 16-73) of widely differing severity (forced expiratory volume in 1-s FEV 1 22%-123% of predicted value), who had airways tests, arterial blood gas analysis, and krypton-technetium lung scans within a short time of each other. In all patients with airways obstruction and in some with normal function during remission, scans showed the typical appearances of multiple defects of ventilation and perfusion. The severity of ventilation defects was assessed from the posterior view of the krypton scan compared to an age- and sex-matched normal range to yield an underventilation score. This correlated closely with the severity of airways obstruction as measured by forced expiratory manouevres. Ventilation and perfusion defects were usually imperfectly matched; the severity of this was computed using a subtraction method applied to the counts on the posterior krypton and technetium scans. The degree of mismatch was inversely related to the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (r=-0.86). The results suggest that computer scan analysis can provide usual functional information about the lung in airways disease. (orig.)

  20. Comparative physical, chemical and biological assessment of simple and titanium-doped ovine dentine-derived hydroxyapatite coatings fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, L.; Mihailescu, N.; Popescu, A. C.; Luculescu, C. R.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Çetin, G.; Gunduz, O.; Oktar, F. N.; Popa, A. C.; Kuncser, A.; Besleaga, C.; Stan, G. E.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the synthesis by Pulsed Laser Deposition of simple and Ti doped hydroxyapatite thin films of biological (ovine dentine) origin. Detailed physical, chemical, mechanical and biological investigations were performed. Morphological examination of films showed a surface composed of spheroidal particulates, of micronic size. Compositional analyses pointed to the presence of typical natural doping elements of bone, along with a slight non-stoichiometry of the deposited films. Structural investigations proved the monophasic hydroxyapatite nature of both simple and Ti doped films. Ti doping of biological hydroxyapatite induced an overall downgrade of the films crystallinity together with an increase of the films roughness. It is to be emphasized that bonding strength values measured at film/Ti substrate interface were superior to the minimum value imposed by International Standards regulating the load-bearing implant coatings. In vitro tests on Ti doped structures, compared to simple ones, revealed excellent biocompatibility in human mesenchymal stem cell cultures, a higher proliferation rate and a good cytocompatibility. The obtained results aim to elucidate the overall positive role of Ti doping on the hydroxyapatite films performance, and demonstrate the possibility to use this novel type of coatings as feasible materials for future implantology applications.

  1. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-Lung Ventilation with Contralateral Lung Deflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallan, Luís Alberto O.; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto F.; Platania, Fernando; Oliveira, Sérgio A.; Stolf, Noedir A.

    2007-01-01

    There are many new alternative methods of minimally invasive myocardial revascularization that can be applied in selected patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease. However, these techniques often require new and expensive equipment. Most multivessel myocardial revascularization is performed via median sternotomy and involves the use of a conventional endotracheal tube. Both lungs are ventilated, and frequently the left pleural cavity is opened. In contrast, single-lung deflation naturally moves the mediastinum within the thorax toward the collapsed lung, without the need to open the pleural cavities. Herein, we describe a simple alternative procedure that facilitates off-pump multivessel coronary artery bypass grafting via complete median sternotomy: single-lung ventilation with contralateral lung deflation. This technique better exposes the more distal right and circumflex coronary artery branches with or without the opening of the pleural cavities. PMID:17622364

  3. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  4. Dosimetric verification of small fields in the lung using lung-equivalent polymer gel and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Dadgar, Habib Alah

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was evaluate a polymer-gel-dosimeter (PGD) for three-dimensional verification of dose distributions in the lung that is called lung-equivalent gel (LEG) and then to compare its result with Monte Carlo (MC) method. In the present study, to achieve a lung density for PGD, gel is beaten until foam is obtained, and then sodium dodecyl sulfate is added as a surfactant to increase the surface tension of the gel. The foam gel was irradiated with 1 cm × 1 cm field size in the 6 MV photon beams of ONCOR SIEMENS LINAC, along the central axis of the gel. The LEG was then scanned on a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner after irradiation using a multiple-spin echo sequence. Least-square fitting the pixel values from 32 consecutive images using a single exponential decay function derived the R2 relaxation rates. Moreover, 6 and 18 MV photon beams of ONCOR SIEMENS LINAC are simulated using MCNPX MC Code. The MC model is used to calculate the depth dose water and low-density water resembling the soft tissue and lung, respectively. Percentages of dose reduction in the lung region relative to homogeneous phantom for 6 MV photon beam were 44.6%, 39%, 13%, and 7% for 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm, 1 cm × 1 cm, 2 cm × 2 cm, and 3 cm × 3 cm fields, respectively. For 18 MV photon beam, the results were found to be 82%, 69%, 46%, and 25.8% for the same field sizes, respectively. Preliminary results show good agreement between depth dose measured with the LEG and the depth dose calculated using MCNP code. Our study showed that the dose reduction with small fields in the lung was very high. Thus, inaccurate prediction of absorbed dose inside the lung and also lung/soft-tissue interfaces with small photon beams may lead to critical consequences for treatment outcome.

  5. A recently identified ovine Babesia in China: serology and sero-epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Ren, Qiaoyun; Wang, Jinming; Yang, Jifei; Li, Anyan; Liu, Zhijie; Du, Pengfei; Li, Youquan; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Hai; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2012-12-01

    Babesia sp. in Xinjiang, transmitted by Hyalomma, is a large Babesia that is infective for small ruminants, but it has almost no pathogenicity in healthy sheep. On the basis of the sequences of the 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes, morphological characteristics, vector tick species and pathogenicity it was identified recently as a novel Babesia species. In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using soluble merozoite antigens of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang (BXJMA) derived from in vitro culture. When the positive threshold was chosen as 24.65% of the specific mean antibody rate, the specificity and sensitivity were both 97.3%. There was no cross-reaction between BXJMA and positive sera from sheep infected with other Chinese ovine piroplasms or Anaplasma ovis in the ELISA and western blotting. Specific antibodies against Babesia sp. in Xinjiang could be detected 2 weeks post infection and a high level of antibodies persisted for more than 12 weeks in experimentally infected sheep. The ELISA was tested on 3857 sera collected from small ruminants in 50 prefectures of 22 provinces to evaluate the sero-epidemiology of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang infection, and the average positive rate was 31.66%. These data provide that the developed ELISA is a powerful tool for the sero-diagnosis of Babesia sp. in Xinjiang and confirm that it is a novel species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Technology and outcomes assessment in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusen, Roger D

    2009-01-15

    Lung transplantation offers the hope of prolonged survival and significant improvement in quality of life to patients that have advanced lung diseases. However, the medical literature lacks strong positive evidence and shows conflicting information regarding survival and quality of life outcomes related to lung transplantation. Decisions about the use of lung transplantation require an assessment of trade-offs: do the potential health and quality of life benefits outweigh the potential risks and harms? No amount of theoretical reasoning can resolve this question; empiric data are needed. Rational analyses of these trade-offs require valid measurements of the benefits and harms to the patients in all relevant domains that affect survival and quality of life. Lung transplant systems and registries mainly focus outcomes assessment on patient survival on the waiting list and after transplantation. Improved analytic approaches allow comparisons of the survival effects of lung transplantation versus continued waiting. Lung transplant entities do not routinely collect quality of life data. However, the medical community and the public want to know how lung transplantation affects quality of life. Given the huge stakes for the patients, the providers, and the healthcare systems, key stakeholders need to further support quality of life assessment in patients with advanced lung disease that enter into the lung transplant systems. Studies of lung transplantation and its related technologies should assess patients with tools that integrate both survival and quality of life information. Higher quality information obtained will lead to improved knowledge and more informed decision making.

  7. Bone repair by cell-seeded 3D-bioplotted composite scaffolds made of collagen treated tricalciumphosphate or tricalciumphosphate-chitosan-collagen hydrogel or PLGA in ovine critical-sized calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberstroh, Kathrin; Ritter, Kathrin; Kuschnierz, Jens; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kaps, Christian; Carvalho, Carlos; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Sittinger, Michael; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effect of three different cell-seeded 3D-bioplotted scaffolds in a ovine calvarial critical-size defect model. The choice of scaffold-materials was based on their applicability for 3D-bioplotting and respective possibility to produce tailor-made scaffolds for the use in cranio-facial surgery for the replacement of complex shaped boneparts. Scaffold raw-materials are known to be osteoinductive when being cell-seeded [poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)] or having components with osteoinductive properties as tricalciumphosphate (TCP) or collagen (Col) or chitosan. The scaffold-materials PLGA, TCP/Col, and HYDR (TCP/Col/chitosan) were cell-seeded with osteoblast-like cells whether gained from bone (OLB) or from periost (OLP). In a prospective and randomized design nine sheep underwent osteotomy to create four critical-sized calvarial defects. Three animals each were assigned to the HYDR-, the TCP/Col-, or the PLGA-group. In each animal, one defect was treated with a cell-free, an OLB- or OLP-seeded group-specific scaffold, respectively. The fourth defect remained untreated as control (UD). Fourteen weeks later, animals were euthanized for histo-morphometrical analysis of the defect healing. OLB- and OLP-seeded HYDR and OLB-seeded TCP/Col scaffolds significantly increased the amount of newly formed bone (NFB) at the defect bottom and OLP-seeded HYDR also within the scaffold area, whereas PLGA-scaffolds showed lower rates. The relative density of NFB was markedly higher in the HYDR/OLB group compared to the corresponding PLGA group. TCP/Col had good stiffness to prepare complex structures by bioplotting but HYDR and PLGA were very soft. HYDR showed appropriate biodegradation, TCP/Col and PLGA seemed to be nearly undegraded after 14 weeks. 3D-bioplotted, cell-seeded HYDR and TCP/Col scaffolds increased the amount of NFB within ovine critical-size calvarial defects, but stiffness, respectively, biodegradation of

  8. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann-Hoesing Lynn M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R at prion gene (PRNP codon 171 confers resistance to classical scrapie. However, other effects of 171R selection are uncertain. Ovine progressive pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV may infect up to 66% of a flock thus any affect of 171R selection on OPPV susceptibility or disease progression could have major impact on the sheep industry. Hypotheses that the PRNP 171R allele is 1 associated with the presence of OPPV provirus and 2 associated with higher provirus levels were tested in an Idaho ewe flock. OPPV provirus was found in 226 of 358 ewes by quantitative PCR. The frequency of ewes with detectable provirus did not differ significantly among the 171QQ, 171QR, and 171RR genotypes (p > 0.05. Also, OPPV provirus levels in infected ewes were not significantly different among codon 171 genotypes (p > 0.05. These results show that, in the flock examined, the presence of OPPV provirus and provirus levels are not related to the PRNP 171R allele. Therefore, a genetic approach to scrapie control is not expected to increase or decrease the number of OPPV infected sheep or the progression of disease. This study provides further support to the adoption of PRNP 171R selection as a scrapie control measure.

  9. The interaction of host genetics and disease processes in chronic livestock disease: a simulation model of ovine footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, V N L; Green, L E; Bishop, S C; Medley, G F

    2013-03-01

    A stochastic, individual-based, simulation model of footrot in a flock of 200 ewes was developed that included flock demography, disease processes, host genetic variation for traits influencing infection and disease processes, and bacterial contamination of the environment. Sensitivity analyses were performed using ANOVA to examine the contribution of unknown parameters to outcome variation. The infection rate and bacterial death rate were the most significant factors determining the observed prevalence of footrot, as well as the heritability of resistance. The dominance of infection parameters in determining outcomes implies that observational data cannot be used to accurately estimate the strength of genetic control of underlying traits describing the infection process, i.e. resistance. Further work will allow us to address the potential for genetic selection to control ovine footrot. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Christina S.; Eaton, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy

  11. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  12. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia complicated by lung cancer, caused by treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Okano, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Akinobu

    1999-01-01

    In 64 patients with lung cancer complicated by idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), we retrospectively studied the outcome of the treatment for lung cancer and clinical features of acute exacerbation of IIP after treatment for lung cancer. The incidence of acute exacerbation of IIP was 8.7% (2 of 23 patients) after anticancer chemotherapy, 14.3% (2 of 14 patients) after operation, and 25% (2 of 8 patients) after radiation therapy. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in the patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP than in those who did not (CRP=5.12±2.27, 2.26±2.29, respectively). On the contrary, there were no differences in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PaO 2 , and %VC between the two groups. Pathologic presentations of surgically resected lungs did not show significant differences in the activity of IIP between the two groups. Five of 6 patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP died within 3 months after the treatment for lung cancer. We conclude that we should evaluate the activity of IIP more precisely using new markers for activity of IIP and on that basis select patients to be treated for lung cancer. (author)

  13. IgG4-related lung disease presenting as interstitial lung disease with bronchiolitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Fan; Chu, Kuo-An; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Wu, Chang-Che; Lai, Ruay-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    IgG4-related disease is a rare and novel disease entity that tends to involve multiple organs. The pulmonary manifestation of this disease is highly variable and may mimic lung cancer, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease (ILD), sarcoidosis, and so forth. Small airway disease is rarely reported in IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD). In the current study, we describe a rare case of IgG4-RLD with patterns of ILD and bronchiolitis. A 43-year-old man had chronic cough and dyspnea on exertion for 4 years. Initial chest radiography showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Follow-up chest computed tomography 4 years later revealed bilateral diffuse centrilobular nodules with tree-in-bud pattern, bronchial wall thickening, and mediastinal lymph nodes. Bilateral diffuse multifocal ground-glass opacities and mosaic attenuation were also observed. Pulmonary function test revealed mixed restrictive and obstructive ventilatory impairment. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Serum IgG4 level also showed remarkable elevation. Therefore, IgG4-RLD is confirmed. VATS wedge resection of right upper lobe and mediastinal lymph node. The patient responded well to steroid and immunosuppression therapy, and was regular followed-up in outpatient clinic. IgG4-RLD should be considered not only in ILD, but also in small airway disease. Serum IgG4 level may be a useful tool for screening.

  14. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  15. [Normal lung volumes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Juan Pablo; Abbona, Horacio; Robles, Adriana; López, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Pulmonary function tests in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis characteristically show a restrictive pattern, resulting from reduction of pulmonary compliance due to diffuse fibrosis. Conversely, an obstructive pattern with hyperinflation results in emphysema by loss of elastic recoil, expiratory collapse of the peripheral airways and air trapping. Previous reports suggest that when both diseases coexist, pulmonary volumes are compensated and a smaller than expected reduction or even normal lung volumes can be found. We report 4 male patients of 64, 60, 73 and 70 years, all with heavy cigarette smoking history and progressive breathlessness. Three of them had severe limitation in their quality of life. All four showed advanced lung interstitial involvement, at high resolution CT scan, fibrotic changes predominantly in the subpleural areas of lower lung fields and concomitant emphysema in the upper lobes. Emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis was confirmed by open lung biopsy in one patient. The four patients showed normal spirometry and lung volumes with severe compromise of gas exchange and poor exercise tolerance evaluated by 6 minute walk test. Severe pulmonary arterial hypertension was also confirmed in three patients. Normal lung volumes does not exclude diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in patients with concomitant emphysema. The relatively preserved lung volumes may underestimate the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and attenuate its effects on lung function parameters.

  16. Severe adverse drug reaction following Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) administration for copperhead snakebite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Maryjoy R; Bochenek, Samantha H; Bush, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    To present the case of a severe anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction to Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) in a patient bitten by a copperhead snake. A 68-year-old man presented with progressive envenomation after receiving a copperhead snakebite on each hand. Crotalinae Fab antivenom was administered. While the initial and only dose was partially infusing, the patient developed an adverse drug reaction (ADR) of urticaria and hypotension, which resolved with cessation of the infusion, recurred with resumption of the infusion, and ultimately was completed with supportive care. An additional episode of hypotension, urticaria, and angioedema occurred shortly after antivenom therapy completion. Epinephrine was administered, resolving the reaction with complete patient recovery. The event received a Naranjo score of 10, indicating a definite ADR. Treating copperhead snakebites with antivenom is a matter of debate. Concern over adverse events and cost induce some physicians to manage copperhead bites without antivenom because they are generally milder in severity. As demonstrated in this case, severe ADR can occur with Crotalinae Fab antivenom, and its efficacy for copperhead envenoming needs to be better established via placebo-controlled, randomized trials. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. A novel method for isolation of epithelial cells from ovine esophagus for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheiner, Tanja; Kuess, Anna; Dye, Julian; Saxena, Amulya K

    2014-01-01

    The yield of a critical number of basal epithelial cells with high mitotic rates from native tissue is a challenge in the field of tissue engineering. There are many protocols that use enzymatic methods for isolation of epithelial cells with unsatisfactory results for tissue engineering. This study aimed to develop a protocol for isolating a sufficient number of epithelial cells with a high Proliferating Index from ovine esophagus for tissue engineering applications. Esophageal mucosa was pretreated with dispase-collagenase solution and plated on collagen-coated culture dishes. Distinction of the various types of epithelial cells and developmental stages was done with specific primary antibodies to Cytokeratins and to Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). Up to approximately 8100 epithelial cells/mm2 of mucosa tissue were found after one week of migration. Cytokeratin 14 (CK 14) was positive identified in cells even after 83 days. At the same time the Proliferating Index was 71%. Our protocol for isolation of basal epithelial cells was successful to yield sufficient numbers of cells predominantly with proliferative character and without noteworthy negative enzymatic affection. The results at this study offer the possibility of generation critical cell numbers for tissue engineering applications.

  18. The First Korean Case of Cutaneous Lung Tissue Heterotopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ga Won; Han, Seong Woo; Jung, Ji Mi; Kang, Mi Seon

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia is a very rare disorder where mature lung tissues develop in the skin. This is only the second known report of cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, with the first by Singer et al. in 1998. A newborn infant had a hemangioma-like, freely movable mass connected to the anterior aspect of the sternal manubrium. Pathologic findings showed mature lung tissues with bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli through the dermis and subcutis, and it was diagnosed as cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia. Cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia is hypervascular, so grossly it looks like a hemangioma. It can be differentiated from pulmonary sequestration, teratoma, bronchogenic cyst, and branchial cleft cyst by histology and the location of the mass. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, the first reported in Korea. PMID:20808688

  19. A hybrid approach for fusing 4D-MRI temporal information with 3D-CT for the study of lung and lung tumor motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y X; Teo, S-K; Van Reeth, E; Tan, C H; Tham, I W K; Poh, C L

    2015-08-01

    Accurate visualization of lung motion is important in many clinical applications, such as radiotherapy of lung cancer. Advancement in imaging modalities [e.g., computed tomography (CT) and MRI] has allowed dynamic imaging of lung and lung tumor motion. However, each imaging modality has its advantages and disadvantages. The study presented in this paper aims at generating synthetic 4D-CT dataset for lung cancer patients by combining both continuous three-dimensional (3D) motion captured by 4D-MRI and the high spatial resolution captured by CT using the authors' proposed approach. A novel hybrid approach based on deformable image registration (DIR) and finite element method simulation was developed to fuse a static 3D-CT volume (acquired under breath-hold) and the 3D motion information extracted from 4D-MRI dataset, creating a synthetic 4D-CT dataset. The study focuses on imaging of lung and lung tumor. Comparing the synthetic 4D-CT dataset with the acquired 4D-CT dataset of six lung cancer patients based on 420 landmarks, accurate results (average error lung details, and is able to show movement of lung and lung tumor over multiple breathing cycles.

  20. Lung Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer. Start here to find information on lung cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics on lung cancer.

  1. RNA-seq analysis of overexpressing ovine AANAT gene of melatonin biosynthesis in switchgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin serves important functions in the promotion of growth and anti-stress regulation by efficient radical scavenging and regulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in various plants. To investigate its regulatory roles and metabolism pathways, the transcriptomic profile of overexpressing the ovine arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (oAANAT gene, encoding the penultimate enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, was compared with empty vector (EV control using RNA-seq in switchgrass, a model plant of cellulosic ethanol conversion. The 85.22 million high quality reads that were assembled into 135,684 unigenes were generated by Illumina sequencing for transgenic oAANAT switchgrass with an average sequence length of 716 bp. A total of 946 differential expression genes (DEGs in transgenic line comparing to control switchgrass, including 737 up-regulated and 209 down-regulated genes, were mainly enriched with two main functional patterns of melatonin identifying by gene ontology analysis: the growth regulator and stress tolerance. Furthermore, KEGG maps indicated that the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolite (phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, steroids, stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol and signaling pathways (MAPK signaling pathway, estrogen signaling pathway were involved in melatonin metabolism. This study substantially expands the transcriptome information for switchgrass and provides valuable clues for identifying candidate genes involved in melatonin biosynthesis and elucidating the mechanism of melatonin metabolism.

  2. Prolactin receptors in liver, kidney, and gill of the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): Characterization and effect of salinity on specific binding of iodinated ovine prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauder, S.; Young, G.; Hass, L.; Bern, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Specific binding of 125 I-ovine prolactin (oPRL) to microsomal fractions from gill, kidney, and liver of adult tilapia was determined. Specific binding varied among tissues, the highest values being displayed by kidney membranes. In the liver, the binding of oPRL was not strongly displaced by tilapia prolactins (tPRL177 and tPRL188), although tPRL177 was six times more potent than tPRL188. On the other hand, in kidney and gill membranes, the two tPRLs were equipotent. Tilapia PRLs showed low potency in competing for oPRL-binding sites when pregnant rat liver membranes were utilized. Tilapia growth hormone (tGH) and human growth hormone (hGH) displaced 125 I-oPRL from liver as well as did tPRL177 but were not recognized well by renal or branchial receptors. Two 125 I-oPRL-binding sites were detected in every tissue tested. These binding sites are subject to physiological regulation since adaptation to seawater resulted in a significant decrease in specific binding

  3. Enhanced tumor growth in the remaining lung after major lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Fumiho; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Junichi; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-05-01

    Pneumonectomy induces active growth of the remaining lung in order to compensate for lost lung tissue. We hypothesized that tumor progression is enhanced in the activated local environment. We examined the effects of mechanical strain on the activation of lung growth and tumor progression in mice. The mechanical strain imposed on the right lung after left pneumonectomy was neutralized by filling the empty space that remained after pneumonectomy with a polypropylene prosthesis. The neutralization of the strain prevented active lung growth. According to an angiogenesis array, stronger monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression was found in the strain-induced growing lung. The neutralization of the strain attenuated the release of MCP-1 from the lung cells. The intravenous injection of Lewis lung cancer cells resulted in the enhanced development of metastatic foci in the strain-induced growing lung, but the enhanced development was canceled by the neutralization of the strain. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages in tumors arising in the strain-induced growing lung, and that there was a relationship between the accumulation and the MCP-1 expression status. Our results suggested that mechanical lung strain, induced by pulmonary resection, triggers active lung growth, thereby creating a tumor-friendly environment. The modification of that environment, as well as the minimizing of surgical stress, may be a meaningful strategy to improve the therapeutic outcome after lung cancer surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  5. Abscess in the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Lung and Airway Disorders Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Resources ... here for the Professional Version Abscess in the Lungs Abscess in the Lungs A lung abscess is a ...

  6. Effects of agmatine on secretion of interferon tau and catecholamines and expression of genes related to production of polyamines by ovine trophectoderm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenis, Yasser Y; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Tang, Wanjin; Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W

    2016-10-01

    Embryonic survival requires histotrophic nutrition, including molecules secreted or transported into the uterine lumen by uterine epithelia. L-Arginine (Arg) is a common substrate for synthesis of nitric oxide, ornithine, proline, glutamate, creatinine, urea, polyamines and agmatine. Agmatine (Agm) is a product of arginine decarboxylation and it is a substrate for agmatinase for synthesis of putrescine and other polyamines in the ovine conceptus. Polyamines are essential for conceptus development. Therefore, this study compared effects of Arg and Agm on the behavior of ovine trophectoderm (oTr1) cells cultured in vitro. Arg, but not Agm, increased proliferation and migration of oTr1 cells, but neither Arg nor Agm affected cell adhesion. The total amount of IFNT in culture medium of oTr1 cells was increased by Arg, but Agm increased the IFNT production per oTr1 cell. Arg and Agm plus Arg decreased secretion of dopamine and norepinephrine by oTr1 cells. Agm upregulates expression of mRNAs SLC7A1, agmatinase and OAZ2 while the combination of Arg and Agm decreased expression of mRNAs for ODC1, SLC7A1, OAZ1 and OAZ3 by oTr1 cells. Although Agm does not stimulate proliferation, migration or adhesion of oTr1 cells or their secretion of catecholamines, Agm did increase transcription of SLC7A1, agmatinase and OAZ2 genes which would increase the capacity of oTr1 cells to produce polyamines. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for Arg and Agm in the regulation of transport of basic amino acids (including Arg), polyamine synthesis, and secretion of catecholamines by oTr1 cells.

  7. Lung nodules after whole lung radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Mirkin, D.L.; Provisor, A.; Hornback, N.B.; Smith, J.A.; Slabaugh, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    It is essential to recognize radiation pneumonitis after whole lung irradiation, or nodular changes in response to chemotherapy, so that such conditions are not mistaken for tumor metastases, causing grave error in patient management and the possibility of further lung damage

  8. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  9. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  10. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  11. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - open lung ... An open lung biopsy is done in the hospital using general anesthesia . This means you will be asleep and ... The open lung biopsy is done to evaluate lung problems seen on x-ray or CT scan .

  12. Organotypic lung culture: A new model for studying ischemia and ex vivo perfusion in lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Jean-Marc; Gay, Arnaud; Smail, Hassiba; Noël, Romain; Bubenheim, Michael; Begueret, Hugues; Morin, Jean-Paul; Litzler, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Donors after cardiac death (DCD) in lung transplantation is considered as a solution for organ shortage. However, it is characterized by warm ischemic period, which could be involved in severe Ischemia-Reperfusion lesion (IR) with early graft dysfunction. We describe a new hybrid model combining in vivo ischemia followed by in vitro reoxygenation using organ-specific culture. A hybrid model using in vivo ischemic period followed by in vitro lung slice reoxygenation was set up in rat to mimic DCD in lung transplantation with in vitro perfusion. Different markers (bioenergetics, oxidant stress assays, and histology) were measured to evaluate the viability of lung tissue after different ischemic times (I-0, I-1, I-2, I-4, I-15 hours) and reoxygenation times (R-0, R-1, R-4, R-24 hours). No differences were found in cell viability, ATP concentrations, extracellular LDH assays or histology, demonstrating extensive viability of up to 4 hours in lung tissue warm ischemia. We found oxidative stress mainly during the ischemic period with no burst at reoxygenation. Cytosolic anti-oxidant system was involved first (I-0,I-1,I-2) followed by mitochondrial anti-oxidant system for extensive ischemia (I-4). Histological features showed differences in this model of ischemia-reoxygenation between bronchial epithelium and lung parenchymal cells, with epithelium regeneration after 2 hours of warm ischemia and 24 hours of perfusion. The results of our hybrid model experiment suggest extensive lung viability of up to 4 hours ischemia. Our model could be an interesting tool to evaluate ex vivo reconditioning techniques after different in vivo lung insults.

  13. Identification of a panel of sensitive and specific DNA methylation markers for lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Jeffrey A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of both men and women in the United States. Three quarters of lung cancer patients are diagnosed with regionally or distantly disseminated disease; their 5-year survival is only 15%. DNA hypermethylation at promoter CpG islands shows great promise as a cancer-specific marker that would complement visual lung cancer screening tools such as spiral CT, improving early detection. In lung cancer patients, such hypermethylation is detectable in a variety of samples ranging from tumor material to blood and sputum. To date the penetrance of DNA methylation at any single locus has been too low to provide great clinical sensitivity. We used the real-time PCR-based method MethyLight to examine DNA methylation quantitatively at twenty-eight loci in 51 primary human lung adenocarcinomas, 38 adjacent non-tumor lung samples, and 11 lung samples from non-lung cancer patients. Results We identified thirteen loci showing significant differential DNA methylation levels between tumor and non-tumor lung; eight of these show highly significant hypermethylation in adenocarcinoma: CDH13, CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1, OPCML, RASSF1, SFPR1, and TWIST1 (p-value Conclusion The identification of eight CpG island loci showing highly significant hypermethylation in lung adenocarcinoma provides strong candidates for evaluation in patient remote media such as plasma and sputum. The four most highly ranked loci, CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1 and OPCML, which show significant DNA methylation even in stage IA tumor samples, merit further investigation as some of the most promising lung adenocarcinoma markers identified to date.

  14. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  15. Genome sequencing of ovine isolates of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis offers insights into host association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannantine John P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP is remarkably homogeneous among the genomes of bovine, human and wildlife isolates. However, previous work in our laboratories with the bovine K-10 strain has revealed substantial differences compared to sheep isolates. To systematically characterize all genomic differences that may be associated with the specific hosts, we sequenced the genomes of three U.S. sheep isolates and also obtained an optical map. Results Our analysis of one of the isolates, MAP S397, revealed a genome 4.8 Mb in size with 4,700 open reading frames (ORFs. Comparative analysis of the MAP S397 isolate showed it acquired approximately 10 large sequence regions that are shared with the human M. avium subsp. hominissuis strain 104 and lost 2 large regions that are present in the bovine strain. In addition, optical mapping defined the presence of 7 large inversions between the bovine and ovine genomes (~ 2.36 Mb. Whole-genome sequencing of 2 additional sheep strains of MAP (JTC1074 and JTC7565 further confirmed genomic homogeneity of the sheep isolates despite the presence of polymorphisms on the nucleotide level. Conclusions Comparative sequence analysis employed here provided a better understanding of the host association, evolution of members of the M. avium complex and could help in deciphering the phenotypic differences observed among sheep and cattle strains of MAP. A similar approach based on whole-genome sequencing combined with optical mapping could be employed to examine closely related pathogens. We propose an evolutionary scenario for M. avium complex strains based on these genome sequences.

  16. Comparison of bacteriological culture and PCR for detection of bacteria in ovine milk--sheep are not small cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadoks, Ruth N; Tassi, Riccardo; Martin, Elena; Holopainen, Jani; McCallum, Sarah; Gibbons, James; Ballingall, Keith T

    2014-10-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is an important cause of disease, mortality, and production losses in dairy and meat sheep. Mastitis is commonly caused by intramammary infection with bacteria, which can be detected by bacterial culture or PCR. PathoProof (Thermo Fisher Scientific Ltd., Vantaa, Finland) is a commercially available real-time PCR system for the detection of bovine mastitis pathogens. Sheep differ from cattle in the bacterial species or bacterial strains that cause mastitis, as well as in the composition of their milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the PathoProof system was suitable for detection of mastitis pathogens in sheep milk. Milk samples were collected aseptically from 219 udder halves of 113 clinically healthy ewes in a single flock. Aliquots were used for bacteriological culture and real-time PCR-based detection of bacteria. For species identified by culture, the diagnosis was confirmed by species-specific conventional PCR or by sequencing of a housekeeping gene. The majority of samples were negative by culture (74.4% of 219 samples) and real-time PCR (82.3% of 192 samples). Agreement was observed for 138 of 192 samples. Thirty-four samples were positive by culture only, mostly due to presence of species that are not covered by primers in the PCR system (e.g., Mannheimia spp.). Two samples were positive for Streptococcus uberis by culture but not by PCR directly from the milk samples. This was not due to inability of the PCR primers to amplify ovine Streptococcus uberis, as diluted DNA extracts from the same samples and DNA extracts from the bacterial isolates were positive by real-time PCR. For samples containing Staphylococcus spp., 11 samples were positive by culture and PCR, 9 by culture only, and 20 by PCR only. Samples that were negative by either method had lower bacterial load than samples that were positive for both methods, whereas no clear relation with species identity was observed. This study provides

  17. INVASIVE SALMONELLOSIS PRESENTING AS A LUNG ABSCESS: A CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songkhla, Munjit Na; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella spp are an uncommon cause of lung abscess. A 59 year old man presented to our hospital with a 1 month history of cough and low grade fever progressing to high grade fever for 1 week. He had a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus type 2 and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis for which he was receiving prednisolone, initially at 60 mg daily tapering to 20 mg daily. On presentation he was febrile and had decreased breath sounds and dullness to percussion over the right lower lung field. A chest X-ray showed a cavitary lesion with an air-fluid level in the right lung. Computed tomography of the lung revealed 2 cavitary lesions in the right upper and lower lungs. Sputum culture revealed Salmonella spp group B. He was treated successfully with ceftriaxone intravenously for 1 month followed by oral cefdinir. A chest X-ray at 1 month showed significant improvement; he was treated conservatively without surgical drainage. Salmonella can cause lung abscesses, especially in the immune suppressed.

  18. Mast cells in the human lung at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Donald

    1992-12-01

    Mast cell densities in the lung were measured in five native highlanders of La Paz (3600 m) and in one lowlander dying from high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) at 3440 m. Two of the highlanders were mestizos with normal pulmonary arteries and the others were Aymara Indians with muscular remodelling of their pulmonary vasculature. The aim of the investigation was to determine if accumulation of mast cells in the lung at high altitude (HA) is related to alveolar hypoxia alone, to a combination of hypoxia and muscularization of the pulmonary arterial tree, or to oedema of the lung. The lungs of four lowlanders were used as normoxic controls. The results showed that the mast cell density of the two Mestizos was in the normal range of lowlanders (0.6-8.8 cells/mm2). In the Aymara Indians the mast cell counts were raised (25.6-26.0 cells/mm2). In the lowlander dying from HAPO the mast cell count was greatly raised to 70.1 cells/mm2 lung tissue. The results show that in native highlanders an accumulation of mast cells in the lung is not related to hypoxia alone but to a combination of hypoxia and muscular remodelling of the pulmonary arteries. However, the most potent cause of increased mast cell density in the lung at high altitude appears to be high-altitude pulmonary oedema.

  19. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have certain lung diseases such as emphysema. Usually, a collapsed lung after a biopsy does not need treatment. But ... any type Bullae (enlarged alveoli that occur with emphysema) Cor pulmonale (condition ... of the lung High blood pressure in the lung arteries Severe ...

  20. SPECT/CT of lung nodules using 111In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) in a mouse lung carcinogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Takuya; Mutoh, Michihiro; Imai, Toshio; Tsuta, Koji; Yanaka, Akinori; Fujii, Hirofumi; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-08-01

    small lung tumors using (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK), SPECT with (111)In-DOTA-c(RGDfK) might be a useful non-invasive imaging approach for evaluating the characteristics of lung tumors in mice, thus showing potential for use in humans.

  1. Lung Regeneration: Endogenous and Exogenous Stem Cell Mediated Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Khondoker M; Patel, Neil; Spiteri, Monica A; Forsyth, Nicholas R

    2016-01-19

    The tissue turnover of unperturbed adult lung is remarkably slow. However, after injury or insult, a specialised group of facultative lung progenitors become activated to replenish damaged tissue through a reparative process called regeneration. Disruption in this process results in healing by fibrosis causing aberrant lung remodelling and organ dysfunction. Post-insult failure of regeneration leads to various incurable lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, identification of true endogenous lung progenitors/stem cells, and their regenerative pathway are crucial for next-generation therapeutic development. Recent studies provide exciting and novel insights into postnatal lung development and post-injury lung regeneration by native lung progenitors. Furthermore, exogenous application of bone marrow stem cells, embryonic stem cells and inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) show evidences of their regenerative capacity in the repair of injured and diseased lungs. With the advent of modern tissue engineering techniques, whole lung regeneration in the lab using de-cellularised tissue scaffold and stem cells is now becoming reality. In this review, we will highlight the advancement of our understanding in lung regeneration and development of stem cell mediated therapeutic strategies in combating incurable lung diseases.

  2. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs Evaluación de vacunas experimentales para la diarrea viral bovina en bovinos, ovinos y cobayos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines.El control del virus de la diarrea viral bovina (VDVB se basa en la eliminación de animales persistentemente infectados, y la inmunización de hembras para prevenir infecciones fetales. La eficiencia de estas vacunas es variable por su baja inmunogenicidad. Se evaluó la respuesta inmune humoral contra virus homólogos y heterólogos de 7 vacunas experimentales inactivadas del VDVB en bovinos y en dos modelos experimentales (ovinos y cobayos. Las vacunas conteniendo VDVB Singer, Oregon, NADL y polivalentes indujeron seroconversión en

  3. Summing coincidence errors using Eu-152 lungs to calibrate a lung-counting system: are they significant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Gary H.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Lopez, Maria A.; Hauck, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The use of a lung phantom containing 152Eu/241Am activity can provide a sufficient number of energy lines to generate an efficiency calibration for the in vivo measurements of radioactive materials in the lungs. However, due to the number of energy lines associated with 152Eu, coincidence summing occurs and can present a problem when using such a phantom for calibrating lung-counting systems. A Summing Peak Effect Study was conducted at three laboratories to determine the effect of using an efficiency calibration based on a 152Eu/241Am lung phantom. The measurement data at all three laboratories showed the presence of sum peaks. However, two of the three laboratories found only small biases (<5%) when using the 152Eu/241Am calibration. The third facility noted a 25% to 30% positive bias in the 140-keV to 190-keV energy range that prevents the use of the 152Eu/241Am lung phantom for routine calibrations. Although manufactured by different vendors, the three facilities use similar types of detectors (38 cm2 by 25 mm thick or 38 cm2 by 30 mm thick) for counting. These study results underscore the need to evaluate the coincidence summing effect when using a nuclide such as 152Eu for the calibration of low energy lung counting systems

  4. [Primitive lung abscess: an unusual situation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyahia, O; Jlidi, S; Sammoud, A

    2014-12-01

    Lung abscess is a localized area of non tuberculosis suppurative necrosis of the parenchyma lung, resulting in formation of a cavity containing purulent material. This pathology is uncommon in childhood. A 3-year-6 month-old boy was admitted with prolonged fever and dyspnea. Chest X-ray showed a non systemized, well limited, thick walled, hydric, and excavated opacity containing an air-fluid level. Chest ultrasound examination showed a collection of 6. 8 cm of diameter in the right pulmonary field with an air-fluid level. Hemoculture showed Staphylococcus aureus. The patient received large spectrum antibiotherapy. Three days after, he presented a septic shock and surgical drainage was indicated. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of lung abscess. Any underlying condition such as inoculation site, local cause or immune deficiency, was noted and diagnosis of primary abscess was made. The patient demonstrated complete recovery. He is asymptomatic with normal chest X-ray and pulmonary function after 3 years of evolution. Lung abscess represent a rare cause of prolonged fever in childhood. An underlying condition must be excluded to eliminate secondary abscess. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banas, D.; Majewska, U.; Gozdz, S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described

  6. SU-F-R-31: Identification of Robust Normal Lung CT Texture Features for the Prediction of Radiation-Induced Lung Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W; Riyahi, S; Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Normal lung CT texture features have been used for the prediction of radiation-induced lung disease (radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis). For these features to be clinically useful, they need to be relatively invariant (robust) to tumor size and not correlated with normal lung volume. Methods: The free-breathing CTs of 14 lung SBRT patients were studied. Different sizes of GTVs were simulated with spheres placed at the upper lobe and lower lobe respectively in the normal lung (contralateral to tumor). 27 texture features (9 from intensity histogram, 8 from grey-level co-occurrence matrix [GLCM] and 10 from grey-level run-length matrix [GLRM]) were extracted from [normal lung-GTV]. To measure the variability of a feature F, the relative difference D=|Fref -Fsim|/Fref*100% was calculated, where Fref was for the entire normal lung and Fsim was for [normal lung-GTV]. A feature was considered as robust if the largest non-outlier (Q3+1.5*IQR) D was less than 5%, and considered as not correlated with normal lung volume when their Pearson correlation was lower than 0.50. Results: Only 11 features were robust. All first-order intensity-histogram features (mean, max, etc.) were robust, while most higher-order features (skewness, kurtosis, etc.) were unrobust. Only two of the GLCM and four of the GLRM features were robust. Larger GTV resulted greater feature variation, this was particularly true for unrobust features. All robust features were not correlated with normal lung volume while three unrobust features showed high correlation. Excessive variations were observed in two low grey-level run features and were later identified to be from one patient with local lung diseases (atelectasis) in the normal lung. There was no dependence on GTV location. Conclusion: We identified 11 robust normal lung CT texture features that can be further examined for the prediction of radiation-induced lung disease. Interestingly, low grey-level run features identified normal

  7. Effects of peep on lung injury, pulmonary function, systemic circulation and mortality in animals with uninjured lungs-a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, Anna Geke; Pisani, Luigi; Chaves, Renato Carneiro de Freitas; Amorim, Thiago Chaves; Cherpanath, Thomas; Determann, Rogier; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Paulus, Frederique; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Pelosi, Paolo; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Schultz, Marcus J.; Serpa Neto, Ary

    2018-01-01

    2O, in the 'high PEEP' or 'PEEP' arms, and in the 'low PEEP' or 'no PEEP' arms, respectively. Definitions used for lung injury were quite diverse, as were other outcome measures. The effects of PEEP, at any level, on lung injury was not straightforward, with some trials showing less injury with

  8. Ceramide synthases expression and role of ceramide synthase-2 in the lung: insight from human lung cells and mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Petrache

    Full Text Available Increases in ceramide levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both acute or chronic lung injury models. However, the role of individual ceramide species, or of the enzymes that are responsible for their synthesis, in lung health and disease has not been clarified. We now show that C24- and C16-ceramides are the most abundant lung ceramide species, paralleled by high expression of their synthetic enzymes, ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2 and CerS5, respectively. Furthermore, the ceramide species synthesis in the lung is homeostatically regulated, since mice lacking very long acyl chain C24-ceramides due to genetic deficiency of CerS2 displayed a ten-fold increase in C16-ceramides and C16-dihydroceramides along with elevation of acid sphingomyelinase and CerS5 activities. Despite relatively preserved total lung ceramide levels, inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis at the level of CerS2 was associated with significant airflow obstruction, airway inflammation, and increased lung volumes. Our results suggest that ceramide species homeostasis is crucial for lung health and that CerS2 dysfunction may predispose to inflammatory airway and airspace diseases.

  9. 'Dancing eyes, dancing feet syndrome' in small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandramohan; Acharya, Mihir; Kumawat, Bansi Lal; Kochar, Abhishek

    2014-04-23

    A 60-year-old man presented with a 25-day history of acute onset instability of gait, tremulousness of limbs and involuntary eye movements. Examination revealed presence of opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia, without any loss of motor power in the limbs. Prompt investigations were directed towards identifying an underlying malignancy which is often associated with this type of clinical scenario. CT of the brain was normal and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. A cavitatory lesion was found in the right lung base on the high-resolution CT of the chest and histopathological examination of this lung mass showed small cell lung carcinoma. The patient was managed symptomatically with levetiracetam and baclofen and referred to oncology department for resection of the lung mass.

  10. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  11. Identification of Gene Biomarkers for Distinguishing Small-Cell Lung Cancer from Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using a Network-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer consists of two main subtypes: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC that are classified according to their physiological phenotypes. In this study, we have developed a network-based approach to identify molecular biomarkers that can distinguish SCLC from NSCLC. By identifying positive and negative coexpression gene pairs in normal lung tissues, SCLC, or NSCLC samples and using functional association information from the STRING network, we first construct a lung cancer-specific gene association network. From the network, we obtain gene modules in which genes are highly functionally associated with each other and are either positively or negatively coexpressed in the three conditions. Then, we identify gene modules that not only are differentially expressed between cancer and normal samples, but also show distinctive expression patterns between SCLC and NSCLC. Finally, we select genes inside those modules with discriminating coexpression patterns between the two lung cancer subtypes and predict them as candidate biomarkers that are of diagnostic use.

  12. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  13. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  14. Uniform background assumption produces misleading lung EIT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of conductivity change within a body from stimulation and measurement at body surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT for imaging the thorax, as a monitoring tool for lung ventilation. To be useful in this application, we require an understanding of if and when EIT images can produce inaccurate images. In this paper, we study the consequences of the homogeneous background assumption, frequently made in linear image reconstruction, which introduces a mismatch between the reference measurement and the linearization point. We show in simulation and experimental data that the resulting images may contain large and clinically significant errors. A 3D finite element model of thorax conductivity is used to simulate EIT measurements for different heart and lung conductivity, size and position, as well as different amounts of gravitational collapse and ventilation-associated conductivity change. Three common linear EIT reconstruction algorithms are studied. We find that the asymmetric position of the heart can cause EIT images of ventilation to show up to 60% undue bias towards the left lung and that the effect is particularly strong for a ventilation distribution typical of mechanically ventilated patients. The conductivity gradient associated with gravitational lung collapse causes conductivity changes in non-dependent lung to be overestimated by up to 100% with respect to the dependent lung. Eliminating the mismatch by using a realistic conductivity distribution in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm strongly reduces these undesirable effects. We conclude that subject-specific anatomically accurate forward models should be used in lung EIT and extra care is required when analysing EIT images of subjects whose background conductivity distribution in the lungs is known to be heterogeneous or exhibiting large changes.

  15. Uniform background assumption produces misleading lung EIT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of conductivity change within a body from stimulation and measurement at body surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT for imaging the thorax, as a monitoring tool for lung ventilation. To be useful in this application, we require an understanding of if and when EIT images can produce inaccurate images. In this paper, we study the consequences of the homogeneous background assumption, frequently made in linear image reconstruction, which introduces a mismatch between the reference measurement and the linearization point. We show in simulation and experimental data that the resulting images may contain large and clinically significant errors. A 3D finite element model of thorax conductivity is used to simulate EIT measurements for different heart and lung conductivity, size and position, as well as different amounts of gravitational collapse and ventilation-associated conductivity change. Three common linear EIT reconstruction algorithms are studied. We find that the asymmetric position of the heart can cause EIT images of ventilation to show up to 60% undue bias towards the left lung and that the effect is particularly strong for a ventilation distribution typical of mechanically ventilated patients. The conductivity gradient associated with gravitational lung collapse causes conductivity changes in non-dependent lung to be overestimated by up to 100% with respect to the dependent lung. Eliminating the mismatch by using a realistic conductivity distribution in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm strongly reduces these undesirable effects. We conclude that subject-specific anatomically accurate forward models should be used in lung EIT and extra care is required when analysing EIT images of subjects whose background conductivity distribution in the lungs is known to be heterogeneous or exhibiting large changes. (paper)

  16. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aquila, M. E.; Bogliolo, L.; Russo, R.; Martino, N. A.; Filioli Uranio, M.; Ariu, F.; Amati, F.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Linsalata, V.; Ferruzzi, M. G.; Cardinali, A.; Minervini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. PMID:24719893

  17. Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dell'Aquila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbascoside (VB is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs.

  18. Effect of ghrelin on inflammatory response in lung contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrak Guven

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ghrelin on inflammatory response and tissue damage following trauma-induced acute lung injury. Thirty male wistar albino rats (300–400 g were randomly assigned into three groups: control group (n = 6, lung contusion plus saline (saline-treated, n = 12, and lung contusion plus ghrelin (ghrelin-treated, n = 12. Saline- or ghrelin-treated traumatic rats were sacrificed at two time points (24 and 72 hours after lung contusion. Blood was collected for the analysis of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA. Tissue transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histopathological examination was performed on the lung tissue samples. Our results indicated that ghrelin significantly reduced morphologic damages. Serum ADA activities were significantly decreased after lung contusion and this decline started early with ghrelin treatment. TGF-β1 and MMP-2 levels in lung tissue were elevated at 72 hours after lung contusion and treatment with ghrelin significantly increased TGF-β1 level and reduced MMP-2 level. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that acute lung injury initiated proinflammatory responses and ghrelin administration showed an anti-inflammatory effect in lung contusion.

  19. Surgical membranes as directional delivery devices to generate tissue: testing in an ovine critical sized defect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Knothe Tate

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells residing in the periosteum, a bi-layered membrane enveloping all bones, exhibit a remarkable regenerative capacity to fill in critical sized defects of the ovine femur within two weeks of treatment. Harnessing the regenerative power of the periosteum appears to be limited only by the amount of healthy periosteum available. Here we use a substitute periosteum, a delivery device cum implant, to test the hypothesis that directional delivery of endogenous periosteal factors enhances bone defect healing.Newly adapted surgical protocols were used to create critical sized, middiaphyseal femur defects in four groups of five skeletally mature Swiss alpine sheep. Each group was treated using a periosteum substitute for the controlled addition of periosteal factors including the presence of collagen in the periosteum (Group 1, periosteum derived cells (Group 2, and autogenic periosteal strips (Group 3. Control group animals were treated with an isotropic elastomer membrane alone. We hypothesized that periosteal substitute membranes incorporating the most periosteal factors would show superior defect infilling compared to substitute membranes integrating fewer factors (i.e. Group 3>Group 2>Group 1>Control.Based on micro-computed tomography data, bone defects enveloped by substitute periosteum enabling directional delivery of periosteal factors exhibit superior bony bridging compared to those sheathed with isotropic membrane controls (Group 3>Group 2>Group 1, Control. Quantitative histological analysis shows significantly increased de novo tissue generation with delivery of periosteal factors, compared to the substitute periosteum containing a collagen membrane alone (Group 1 as well as compared to the isotropic control membrane. Greatest tissue generation and maximal defect bridging was observed when autologous periosteal transplant strips were included in the periosteum substitute.Periosteum-derived cells as well as other factors

  20. Prediction of postoperative lung function after pulmonary resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Koichi

    1988-01-01

    Lung scintigraphy and ordinary lung function test as well as split lung function test by using bronchospirometry was performed in 78 patients with primary lung cancer and clinical significance of ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy was evaluated. Results obtained from this study are as follows. 1) The ratio of right VC to total VC obtained by preoperative bronchospirometry was well correlated to the ratio of right lung count to the total lung count obtained by ventiration and/or perfusion scintigraphy (r = 0.84, r = 0.69). 2) Evaluation of the data obtained from the patients undergoing pneumonectomy indicated that the right and left VC obtained preoperatively by bronchospirometry have their clinical significance only in the form of left to right ratio not in the form their absolure value. 3) As to the reliability of predicting the residual vital capacity after pneumonectomy on the basis of left-to-right of lung scintigraphy, ventilation scintigraphy is more reliable than perfusion scintigraphy. 4) Irrespective of using ventilation scintigraphy or perfusion scintigraphy, Ali's formular showed high reliability in predicting the residual vital capacity as well as FEV 1.0 after lobectomy. 5) Reduction of the perfusion rate in the operated side of the lung is more marked than of the ventilation rate, resulting in a significant elevation of ventilation/perfusion ratio of the operated side of the lung. From the results descrived above, it can be said that lung ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy are very useful method to predict the residual lung function as well as the change of ventilation/perfusion ratio after pulmonary resection. (author)

  1. Effect of farm characteristics and practices on hygienic quality of ovine raw milk used for artisan cheese production in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carloni, Elisa; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio; Caverni, Francesco; Mangili, Piermario; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-04-01

    A survey on ovine dairy farms directly transforming own-produced milk, in the Italian Marche region, was carried out to assess flock and milking practices that may influence milk hygienic-sanitary conditions. A census survey established that 24 dairy farms were located in this region. Bulk milk samples were collected throughout the milking period in each dairy farm in 2013. Analyzed variables were: (i) chemical parameters such as fat, protein and lactose content, dry matter and pH; and (ii) total bacterial (TBC) and somatic cell counts (SCC). Chemical parameter values were in agreement with published data while, geometric mean (GM) log10 SCC was 5.91 and TBC GM was 57 978 colony forming units/mL, in compliance with Eropean Union criteria. A positive correlation was found between SCC and TBC when GMs of all farm data were considered (Spearman's rho = 0.7925; P = 0.0001). Statistical analysis did not show significant correlation between SCC or TBC GM and dairy farm principal characteristics. Although SCC levels detected in the present study should suggest the need to implement mastitis control programs, Marche's dairy sheep flocks revealed a good hygienic condition level. This is an important aspect in implementing safety for end users of the final product. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA: a comparison of antibody responses in vaccinated and naturally-infected swiss sheep over a two year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Dieter R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and control of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA can be achieved by application of a live vaccine. In this study, five sheep flocks with different vaccination and infection status were serologically tested using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA specific for Chlamydophila (Cp. abortus over a two-year time period. Results Sheep in Flock A with recent OEA history had high antibody values after vaccination similar to Flock C with natural Cp. abortus infections. In contrast, OEA serology negative sheep (Flock E showed individual animal-specific immunoreactions after vaccination. Antibody levels of vaccinated ewes in Flock B ranged from negative to positive two and three years after vaccination, respectively. Positive antibody values in the negative control Flock D (without OEA or vaccination are probably due to asymptomatic intestinal infections with Cp. abortus. Excretion of the attenuated strain of Cp. abortus used in the live vaccine through the eye was not observed in vaccinated animals of Flock E. Conclusion The findings of our study indicate that, using serology, no distinction can be made between vaccinated and naturally infected sheep. As a result, confirmation of a negative OEA status in vaccinated animals by serology cannot be determined.

  3. Lung perfusion scintigraphy by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takanobu

    1990-01-01

    The initial study reports the characteristic performance using lung segmental phantom filled in Tc-99m pertechnetate. To evaluate the segmental defect in lung perfusion scintigraphy, we applied Bull's-eye analysis in addition to planar image set. Bull's-eye analysis especially facilitated the interpretation in both middle and lower lobes. Subsequently, to evolute the clinical application of Bull's-eye analysis, pulmonary scintigraphy was performed on 10 normal subjects and 60 patients with several pulmonary diseases. Of interest, Bull's-eye analysis, however, encouraged the interpretation in both lower lobes. To calculate the extention and severity of perfusion defect, the present study describes Bull's-eye analysis. Quantitative scoring showed higher in patients with lung cancer than those with pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study focus that Bull's-eye analysis can be useful for evaluating perfusion in patients with a couple of pulmonary diseases. (author)

  4. Qualidade do leite cru ovino armazenado sob refrigeração | Quality of ovine raw milk stored under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Roman Munieweg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A industrialização de lácteos ovinos é recente no Brasil e a produção é concentrada em regiões de serra, como a Gaúcha. O leite ovino possui alto conteúdo de sólidos comparado ao bovino, com maior rendimento na produção de queijo. A produção deste leite sofre variações sazonais e poderia ser estocado até obter uma quantidade suficiente para processamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros microbiológicos e físico-químicos no leite proveniente de seis produtores sob armazenamento refrigerado. O leite foi analisado durante sete dias, incluindo contagem padrão em placas (CPP, psicrotróficos, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, Staphylococcus sp. e Staphylococcus aureus, acidez titulável, pH, atividade de água e proteína. Os resultados demonstraram altas contagens microbianas e CPP acima dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação para a maioria das amostras. Contagens de psicrotróficos, coliformes totais e fecais foram elevadas durante este período. A acidez titulável aumentou ao longo dos dias e o conteúdo de proteína diminuiu. As amostras do produtor B apresentaram menores contagens microbianas dentre todas testadas. A estocagem a frio torna-se uma alternativa, a curto prazo, quando há diminuição na produção de leite ovino para beneficiamento a derivados. No entanto, o período de armazenamento refrigerado não deve ultrapassar dois dias, devido à deterioração. ==================================================== The dairy sheep industry is recent in Brazil and the production is concentrated in mountainous regions, such as Serra Gaúcha. Ovine milk has a higher solids content compared to bovine milk, thus with higher yield in cheese production. Sheep milk production undergoes seasonal variations and it could be stored until a sufficient quantity is available for processing. The objective of this study was to evaluate microbiological and physicochemical parameters in ovine milk from six

  5. Feasibility of using 'lung density' values estimated from EIT images for clinical diagnosis of lung abnormalities in mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebuya, Satoru; Koike, Tomotaka; Imai, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Yoshiaki; Brown, Brian H; Soma, Kazui

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study which compares lung density values obtained from electrical impedance tomography (EIT), clinical diagnosis and CT values (HU) within a region of interest in the lung. The purpose was to assess the clinical use of lung density estimation using EIT data. In 11 patients supported by a mechanical ventilator, the consistency of regional lung density measurements as estimated by EIT was validated to assess the feasibility of its use in intensive care medicine. There were significant differences in regional lung densities recorded in the supine position between normal lungs and diseased lungs associated with pneumonia, atelectasis and pleural effusion (normal; 240 ± 71.7 kg m(-3), pneumonia; 306 ± 38.6 kg m(-3), atelectasis; 497 ± 130 kg m(-3), pleural effusion; 467 ± 113 kg m(-3): Steel-Dwass test, p EIT images. The results of CT and EIT images from five patients in an intensive care unit showed a correlation coefficient of 0.66 ± 0.13 between the CT values (HU) and the lung density values (kg m(-3)) obtained from EIT. These results indicate that it may be possible to obtain a quantitative value for regional lung density using EIT.

  6. Tumor Seeding Following Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Akeboshi, Masao; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Takao, Motoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroyasu; Taguchi, Osamu; Takeda, Kan

    2005-01-01

    Lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed for the treatment of a primary lung cancer measuring 2.5 cm in maximum diameter in a 78-year-old man. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) study performed 3 months after RF ablation showed incomplete ablation of the lung tumor and the appearance of a chest wall tumor 4.0 cm in maximum diameter that was considered to be the result of needle-tract seeding. RF ablation was performed for the treatment of both the lung and the chest wall tumors. Although tumor enhancement was eradicated in both of the treated tumors, follow-up CT studies revealed diffuse intra-pulmonary metastases in both lungs 2 months after the second RF session. He is currently receiving systemic chemotherapy

  7. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  8. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  9. Association of well-characterized lung cancer lncRNA polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei-Jing; Yin, Ji-Ye; Li, Xiang-Ping; Fang, Chao; Xiao, Di; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Li, Xi; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2016-06-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis and drug efficacy. Platinum-based chemotherapy is first-line treatment for lung cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of well-characterized lung cancer lncRNA genetic polymorphisms with the lung cancer susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response. A total of 498 lung cancer patients and 213 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Among them, 467 patients received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Thirteen polymorphisms in HOXA distal transcript antisense RNA (HOTTIP), HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), H19, CDKN2B antisense RNA 1 (ANRIL), colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), and maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) genes were genotyped by allele-specific MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We found that patients with HOTTIP rs5883064 C allele or rs1859168 A allele had increased lung cancer risk (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, respectively). CCAT2 rs6983267 (P = 0.02, adenocarcinoma) and H19 rs2107425 (P = 0.02, age under 50 years) showed strong relationship with lung cancer susceptibility. CCAT2 rs6983267, H19 rs2839698, MALAT1 rs619586, and HOTAIR rs7958904 were associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response in dominant model ((P = 0.02, P = 0.04, P = 0.04, P = 0.01, respectively). ANRIL rs10120688 (P = 0.02, adenocarcinoma) and rs1333049 (P = 0.04, small-cell lung cancer), H19 rs2107425 (P = 0.02, small-cell lung cancer) and HOTAIR rs1899663 (P = 0.03, male; P = 0.03, smoker) were associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy. HOTTIP, CCAT2, H19, HOTAIR, MALATI, ANRIL genetic polymorphisms were significantly associated with lung cancer susceptibility or platinum-based chemotherapy response. They may be potential clinical biomarkers to predict lung cancer risk and platinum

  10. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D. Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 μm pore size. Next, the liophilization of the corresponding retentates was carried out. Each powder was added in three different mass ratios: 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %. The addition of the powders caused higher yields of the whey cheese – mainly the one with the additional whey powder – but it did not affect the strength of the products. The retention of water and other components of whey and milk in the whey cheese was influenced by the protein composition of the powders. In relation to colour parameters, the whey cheese manufactured with ultrafiltration and microfiltration retentate powders showed lower values of ligthness than the control whey cheese – mainly the whey cheese with 1.5 % of added powders. The microstructure constituted of small aggregates in the whey cheese manufactured with ultrafiltration and 0.20-μm microfiltration retentate powders and also by large, smooth structures in the other whey cheeses, especially in batches with added Sorelho powders.

  11. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S.; Wong, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5±13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively

  12. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel L. Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. METHOD: Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex®was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. RESULTS: After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98. The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p =0.035. The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H20 in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H20 in Group 2 (p =0.816. The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p=0.87. The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0, and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm² and 137.50/mm², respectively (p=0.71. CONCLUSION: The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation.

  13. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of emphysematous changes in the lung by computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Yoshinari; Hirayama, Takanobu; Hiratsuka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Yasushi; Takamoto, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Tsuneo; Shinoda, Atsushi

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were undertaken to quantitatively evaluate emphysematous changes in the lung by CT scan. CT scans were made at inspiration and expiration at three levels (base, mid thorax and apex). Low density lesion ratio (LL %) was measured as the proportion of the area under -950 Housfield Unit in each lung field at expiration. Each value of LL % was determined in 6 lung fields (both lung fields at three levels). The LL % was calculated from the mean of these six values. The results suggest that LL % of the emphysematous lungs shows significant elevation of the values compared with those of normal lungs and lungs with bronchial asthma. (author)

  15. [Effects of lung protective ventilation strategy combined with lung recruitment maneuver on patients with severe burn complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xiaomin; Deng, Zhongyuan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Wenbin; Chen, Bib; Liu, Changling; Cao, Wenjuan

    2014-08-01

    0. 01); levels of pH and PaCO2 showed no obvious changes (with F values respectively 0.35 and 3.13, P values above 0.05). (2) Levels of heart rate, MAP, CVP of all patients and CO of 4 patients who received PiCCO monitoring showed no significant changes at different time points (with F values from 0. 13 to 4. 26, P values above 0.05). Before combining lung recruitment maneuver, 24 h after combining lung recruitment maneuver, and at the end of combining lung recruitment maneuver, the EVLWI values of 4 patients who received PiCCO monitoring were respectively (13.5 ± 1.3), (10.2 ± 1.0), (7.0 ± 0.8) mL/kg ( F =117.00, P mechanical ventilation at 2 to 72 h after burn, lasting for 14-32 (21 ± 13) d. At post injury day 3-14 (7 ± 5) d, lung recruitment maneuver was applied for 2-5 (3.0 ± 2.0) d. All 15 patients recovered without other complications. Lung protective ventilation strategy combining lung recruitment maneuver can significantly improve the oxygenation in patients with severe burn complicated with ARDS and may therefore improve the prognosis.

  16. Change in lung function in never-smokers with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Kobayashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Never-smokers account for a large proportion of subjects in general population studies on nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease (NTM-LD. However, the influence of NTM infection on the lung function of never-smokers has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine how NTM-LD impairs the lung function in never-smokers, and whether there are an association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers with NTM-LD or not. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients (1 who have never smoked during their lifetime; (2 with at least two respiratory specimens from sputum, one bronchial washing sample, or one lung tissue that were culture positive for the same NTM species; and (3 who underwent at least two pulmonary function tests. We enrolled healthy never-smokers as the control group. Results: In 22 never-smokers with NTM-LD, the median forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC at baseline was lower than those in 9 healthy never-smokers [1800 vs 2080 ml (p = 0.23 and 2230 vs 2620 ml (p = 0.06], respectively. The median change in FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was lower than that in healthy never-smokers [−70 vs 20 ml per year (p = 0.07, respectively]. On univariate analysis, baseline %-predicted FEV1 in never-smokers with NTM-LD was associated with changes in FVC (p = 0.026 and FEV1 (p = 0.013. Anti-NTM treatment was administered for at least 1 year in 19 patients (86.4%. The relationship between worsening chest CT findings and rapid progressive decline in both FVC (p = 0.66 and FEV1 (p = 0.23 were not significant. Conclusion: Never-smokers with NTM-LD showed lung function decline. There was no association between successful NTM-LD treatment in radiologic outcomes and improvement in lung function of never-smokers. Keywords: Lung function, Never-smoker, Nontuberculous mycobacterial

  17. Frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets (B-lines) using a regionally based lung ultrasound examination named vet BLUE (veterinary bedside lung ultrasound exam) in dogs with radiographically normal lung findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Gregory R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Fulton, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Lung ultrasound is superior to lung auscultation and supine chest radiography for many respiratory conditions in human patients. Ultrasound diagnoses are based on easily learned patterns of sonographic findings and artifacts in standardized images. By applying the wet lung (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines, representing interstitial edema) versus dry lung (A-lines with a glide sign) concept many respiratory conditions can be diagnosed or excluded. The ultrasound probe can be used as a visual stethoscope for the evaluation of human lungs because dry artifacts (A-lines with a glide sign) predominate over wet artifacts (ultrasound lung rockets or B-lines). However, the frequency and number of wet lung ultrasound artifacts in dogs with radiographically normal lungs is unknown. Thus, the primary objective was to determine the baseline frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets in dogs without clinical signs of respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lung findings using an 8-view novel regionally based lung ultrasound examination called Vet BLUE. Frequency of ultrasound lung rockets were statistically compared based on signalment, body condition score, investigator, and reasons for radiography. Ten left-sided heart failure dogs were similarly enrolled. Overall frequency of ultrasound lung rockets was 11% (95% confidence interval, 6-19%) in dogs without respiratory disease versus 100% (95% confidence interval, 74-100%) in those with left-sided heart failure. The low frequency and number of ultrasound lung rockets observed in dogs without respiratory disease and with radiographically normal lungs suggests that Vet BLUE will be clinically useful for the identification of canine respiratory conditions. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Antiviral activity of ovine interferon tau 4 against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, Jayaramaiah; Park, Sun Young; Cho, Eun-Ju; Kim, Chungsu; Ko, Young-Joon; Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Hyang-Sim

    2017-07-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease in most parts of the world and new therapeutic agents are needed to protect the animals before vaccination can trigger the host immune response. Although several interferons have been used for their antiviral activities against Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), ovine interferon tau 4 (OvIFN-τ4), with a broad-spectrum of action, cross-species antiviral activity, and lower incidence of toxicity in comparison to other type І interferons, has not yet been evaluated for this indication. This is the first study to evaluate the antiviral activity of OvIFN-τ4 against various strains of FMDV. The effective anti-cytopathic concentration of OvIFN-τ4 and its effectiveness pre- and post-infection with FMDV were tested in vitro in LFBK cells. In vivo activity of OvIFN-τ4 was then confirmed in a mouse model of infection. OvIFN-τ4 at a concentration of 500 ng, protected mice until 5days post-FMDV challenge and provided 90% protection for 10 days following FMDV challenge. These results suggest that OvIFN-τ4 could be used as an alternative to other interferons or antiviral agents at the time of FMD outbreak. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Henoch-Schönlein Purpura with lung abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Junji; Watanabe, Atsushi; Nakajima, Tomohiro; Mishina, Taijiro; Miyajima, Masahiro; Higami, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    A 72-year-old man had underwent left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma in our hospital in 2008. Postoperative stage was I A (T1N0M0). In 2010, follow-up chest computed tomography (CT) images showed similar cavitary nodules in segments 2 and 8 of the right lung with positive uptake on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images. Physical examination, blood tests, and levels of serum tumor markers showed no abnormality. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed the absence of malignant cells. Segment 8 of the right lower lobe with the nodule was partially resected, and pathological examination demonstrated lung abscess. He was discharged but was hospitalized in another hospital for purpuric rash, fever, and arthralgia. Microscopic albuminuria was noted, and renal biopsy revealed nephritis with immunoglobulin A( IgA)deposition. He was made a diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Oral steroid therapy( prednisolone 60 mg/d) was initiated, resulting in the improvement of symptoms and disapearance of the cavitary nodule in the right lung segment 2.

  20. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Ruddy, Bari H; Neelakkantan, Harini; Meeks, Sanford L; Kupelian, Patrick A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  1. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Ruddy, Bari H [University of Central Florida, FL (United States); Neelakkantan, Harini; Meeks, Sanford L [M D Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, FL (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A, E-mail: anand.santhanam@orlandohealth.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-07

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  2. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Neelakkantan, Harini; Ruddy, Bari H; Meeks, Sanford L; Kupelian, Patrick A

    2010-09-07

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  3. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  4. Region of interest-based versus whole-lung segmentation-based approach for MR lung perfusion quantification in 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.; Sommer, V.; Hagelstein, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Neff, K.W.; Zoellner, F.G.; Zahn, K.; Schaible, T.

    2016-01-01

    With a region of interest (ROI)-based approach 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show reduced MR lung perfusion values on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral. This study evaluates whether results can be reproduced by segmentation of whole-lung and whether there are differences between the ROI-based and whole-lung measurements. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantified in 30 children after CDH repair. Quantification results of an ROI-based (six cylindrical ROIs generated of five adjacent slices per lung-side) and a whole-lung segmentation approach were compared. In both approaches PBF and PBV were significantly reduced on the ipsilateral side (p always <0.0001). In ipsilateral lungs, PBF of the ROI-based and the whole-lung segmentation-based approach was equal (p=0.50). In contralateral lungs, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimated PBF in comparison to the whole-lung segmentation approach by approximately 9.5 % (p=0.0013). MR lung perfusion in 2-year-old children after CDH is significantly reduced ipsilaterally. In the contralateral lung, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimates perfusion, which can be explained by exclusion of the most ventral parts of the lung. Therefore whole-lung segmentation should be preferred. (orig.)

  5. Region of interest-based versus whole-lung segmentation-based approach for MR lung perfusion quantification in 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, M.; Sommer, V.; Hagelstein, C.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Neff, K.W. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zoellner, F.G. [Heidelberg University, Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Zahn, K. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Paediatric Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Schaible, T. [Heidelberg University, Department of Paediatrics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    With a region of interest (ROI)-based approach 2-year-old children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) show reduced MR lung perfusion values on the ipsilateral side compared to the contralateral. This study evaluates whether results can be reproduced by segmentation of whole-lung and whether there are differences between the ROI-based and whole-lung measurements. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantified in 30 children after CDH repair. Quantification results of an ROI-based (six cylindrical ROIs generated of five adjacent slices per lung-side) and a whole-lung segmentation approach were compared. In both approaches PBF and PBV were significantly reduced on the ipsilateral side (p always <0.0001). In ipsilateral lungs, PBF of the ROI-based and the whole-lung segmentation-based approach was equal (p=0.50). In contralateral lungs, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimated PBF in comparison to the whole-lung segmentation approach by approximately 9.5 % (p=0.0013). MR lung perfusion in 2-year-old children after CDH is significantly reduced ipsilaterally. In the contralateral lung, the ROI-based approach significantly overestimates perfusion, which can be explained by exclusion of the most ventral parts of the lung. Therefore whole-lung segmentation should be preferred. (orig.)

  6. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ"2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ"2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ"2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  7. Change from lung adenocarcinoma to small cell lung cancer as a mechanism of resistance to afatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Paolo; Russano, Marco; Pantano, Francesco; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele

    2017-08-29

    We report the case of a patient affected by advanced EGFR mutation-positive lung who experienced resistance to therapy during treatment with Afatinib through the occurrence of a switch of tumor histotype to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with features of a G3 neuroendocrine carcinoma. Unexpectedly, the switch to SCLC histotype occurred in the only site not responsive to afatinib and subsequently the most responsive to chemotherapy. Our case shows that occurrence of switch to SCLC is a possible mechanism of resistance during treatment with Afatinib.

  8. A multiplex PCR-based method to identify strongylid parasite larvae recovered from ovine faecal cultures and/or pasture samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, S A; Knight, J S; Bouchet, C L G

    2014-02-24

    A multiplex PCR-based method was developed to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination as a means of identifying individual infective larvae from the wide range of strongylid parasite species commonly encountered in sheep in mixed sheep-cattle grazing situations in New Zealand. The strategy employed targets unique species-specific sequence markers in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) region of ribosomal DNA of the nematodes and utilises individual larval lysates as reaction templates. The basic assay involves two sets of reactions designed to target the ten strongylid species most often encountered in ovine faecal cultures under New Zealand conditions (viz. Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia oncophora, Nematodirus spathiger, Chabertia ovina, and Oesophagostomum venulosum). Five species-specific primers, together with a pair of "generic" (conserved) primers, are used in each of the reactions. Two products are generally amplified, one by the generic primer pair regardless of species (providing a positive PCR control) and the other (whose size is indicative of the species present) by the appropriate species-specific primer in combination with one or other of the generic primers. If necessary, any larvae not identified by these reactions can subsequently be tested using primers designed specifically to detect those species less frequently encountered in ovine faecal cultures (viz. Ostertagia ostertagi, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Cooperia punctata, Nematodirus filicollis, and Bunostomum trigonocephalum). Results of assays undertaken on >5500 nematode larvae cultured from lambs on 16 different farms distributed throughout New Zealand indicated that positive identifications were initially obtained for 92.8% of them, while a further 4.4% of reactions gave a generic but no visible specific product and 2.8% gave no discernible

  9. Relation between the degree of lung pollution by air pollution and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, H; Endo, R; Takemoto, K

    1975-04-01

    Human and dog lungs were analyzed for 13 kinds of heavy metals. The human lungs (all of Tokyo citizens) showed a broad range of dust sedimentation, some correlation between the degree of pollution and the amount of cadmium, nickel, and chromium only, and conspicuous individual differences seemingly due to occupation. No correlation was found between the amount of pulmonary metals, and age, or sex. In dog lungs there was no correlation between the local pollution and the amount of iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, and cadmium. Cadmium, nickel, lead, and chromium showed a correlation between local air pollution in human lungs. In dogs obtained in Korea, Ni and Cr were higher than in dog lungs obtained in Jinsen.

  10. Structural and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaxopoulou, Christina; Gnannt, Ralph; Kellenberger, Christian J.; Higashigaito, Kai; Jung, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Because of its absence of ionising radiation and possibility for obtaining functional information, MRI is promising for assessing lung disease in children who require repetitive imaging for long-term follow-up. To describe MRI findings in children with cystic fibrosis and evaluate semi-quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced lung perfusion. We retrospectively compared lung MRI in 25 children and young adults with cystic fibrosis (median age 3.7 years) to 12 children (median age 2 years) imaged for other pathologies. MRI at 1.5 T included respiratory-gated sequences and contrast-enhanced lung perfusion imaging. We described and graded any morphologic change. Signal enhancement and time to peak values of perfusion abnormalities were compared to those of normally enhancing lung parenchyma. Frequent findings in patients with cystic fibrosis were bronchial wall thickening (24/25, 96%), areas of consolidation (22/25, 88%), enlarged lymph nodes (20/25, 80%), bronchiectasis (5/25, 20%) and mucus plugging (3/25, 12%). Compared to normally enhancing lung, perfusion defects (21/25, 84%), characterised by decreased enhancement, showed prolonged time to peak. Areas of consolidation showed increased enhancement. While time to peak of procedure-related atelectasis was not significantly different from that of normal lung, disease-related consolidation showed prolonged time to peak (P=0.01). Lung MRI demonstrates structural and perfusion abnormalities in children and young people with cystic fibrosis. Semi-quantitative assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging might allow differentiation between procedure-related atelectasis and disease-related consolidation. (orig.)

  11. Structural and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaxopoulou, Christina; Gnannt, Ralph; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zuerich, CH (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Children' s Research Center, Zuerich (Switzerland); Higashigaito, Kai [University Hospital Zuerich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jung, Andreas [University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Children' s Research Center, Zuerich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zuerich, Division of Pneumology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    Because of its absence of ionising radiation and possibility for obtaining functional information, MRI is promising for assessing lung disease in children who require repetitive imaging for long-term follow-up. To describe MRI findings in children with cystic fibrosis and evaluate semi-quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced lung perfusion. We retrospectively compared lung MRI in 25 children and young adults with cystic fibrosis (median age 3.7 years) to 12 children (median age 2 years) imaged for other pathologies. MRI at 1.5 T included respiratory-gated sequences and contrast-enhanced lung perfusion imaging. We described and graded any morphologic change. Signal enhancement and time to peak values of perfusion abnormalities were compared to those of normally enhancing lung parenchyma. Frequent findings in patients with cystic fibrosis were bronchial wall thickening (24/25, 96%), areas of consolidation (22/25, 88%), enlarged lymph nodes (20/25, 80%), bronchiectasis (5/25, 20%) and mucus plugging (3/25, 12%). Compared to normally enhancing lung, perfusion defects (21/25, 84%), characterised by decreased enhancement, showed prolonged time to peak. Areas of consolidation showed increased enhancement. While time to peak of procedure-related atelectasis was not significantly different from that of normal lung, disease-related consolidation showed prolonged time to peak (P=0.01). Lung MRI demonstrates structural and perfusion abnormalities in children and young people with cystic fibrosis. Semi-quantitative assessment of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging might allow differentiation between procedure-related atelectasis and disease-related consolidation. (orig.)

  12. Lung growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suchita; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2007-12-01

    Human lung growth starts as a primitive lung bud in early embryonic life and undergoes several morphological stages which continue into postnatal life. Each stage of lung growth is a result of complex and tightly regulated events governed by physical, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors. Fetal lung liquid and fetal breathing movements are by far the most important determinants of lung growth. Although timing of the stages of lung growth in animals do not mimic that of human, numerous animal studies, mainly on sheep and rat, have given us a better understanding of the regulators of lung growth. Insight into the genetic basis of lung growth has helped us understand and improve management of complex life threatening congenital abnormalities such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypoplasia. Although advances in perinatal medicine have improved survival of preterm infants, premature birth is perhaps still the most important factor for adverse lung growth.

  13. Molecular profiling identifies prognostic markers of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Shao, Jinchen; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Ruiying; Xing, Jie; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiaohui; Tu, Shichun; Han, Baohui; Yu, Keke

    2017-09-26

    We previously showed that different pathologic subtypes were associated with different prognostic values in patients with stage IA lung adenocarcinoma (AC). We hypothesize that differential gene expression profiles of different subtypes may be valuable factors for prognosis in stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. We performed microarray gene expression profiling on tumor tissues micro-dissected from patients with acinar and solid predominant subtypes of stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. These patients had undergone a lobectomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection at the Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China in 2012. No patient had preoperative treatment. We performed the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) analysis to look for gene expression signatures associated with tumor subtypes. The histologic subtypes of all patients were classified according to the 2015 WHO lung Adenocarcinoma classification. We found that patients with the solid predominant subtype are enriched for genes involved in RNA polymerase activity as well as inactivation of the p53 pathway. Further, we identified a list of genes that may serve as prognostic markers for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Validation in the TCGA database shows that these genes are correlated with survival, suggesting that they are novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, we have uncovered novel prognostic factors for stage IA lung adenocarcinoma using gene expression profiling in combination with histopathology subtyping.

  14. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  15. MR Differentiation of Lung Cancer from Progressive Massive Fibrosis in Patients with Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Jung, Jung Im; Park, Seog Hee; Lim, Young; Koo, Jung Wan

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the potential of MR to distinguish lung cancer from progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. The study consisted of 9 patients with pathologically proven lung cancer and 26 PMFs in 17 patients. All the patients had radiologic evidence of pneumoconiosis. T1-weighted FLASH images were obtained before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 minutes after injection of Gd-DTPA. T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were obtained. The imaging findings were evaluated for enhancement time curve, contrast uptake equivalent (CE), and enhancement factor (EF). On T1WI, there was no significant signal intensity difference between lung cancer and PMF. On T2WI, all lung cancer showed high signal intensity, as opposed to all PMFs which showed low signal intensity except for one PMF. Only one PMF showed high signal intensity on T2WI. For the dynamic contrast study, lung cancer showed faster and slightly stronger enhancement than PMFs. For a delayed image, most of the lung cancers (78%) showed washout, as opposed to a plateau in most of PMFs (73%) (p=0.0153). However, no difference was detected between the EFmax of lung cancer and PMFs (p=0.349). MR is potentially a useful tool in distinguishing lung cancer from PMFs in patients with coal worker's pneumoconiosis

  16. Structural characterization of pharmaceutical heparins prepared from different animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Li, Guoyun; Yang, Bo; Onishi, Akihiro; Li, Lingyun; Sun, Peilong; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Although most pharmaceutical heparin used today is obtained from porcine intestine, heparin has historically been prepared from bovine lung and ovine intestine. There is some regulatory concern about establishing the species origin of heparin. This concern began with the outbreak of mad cow disease in the 1990s and was exacerbated during the heparin shortage in the 2000s and the heparin contamination crisis of 2007-2008. Three heparins from porcine, ovine, and bovine were characterized through state-of-the-art carbohydrate analysis methods with a view profiling their physicochemical properties. Differences in molecular weight, monosaccharide and disaccharide composition, oligosaccharide sequence, and antithrombin III-binding affinity were observed. These data provide some insight into the variability of heparins obtained from these three species and suggest some analytical approaches that may be useful in confirming the species origin of a heparin active pharmaceutical ingredient. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > How Lungs Work How Lungs Work The Respiratory System Your lungs are part of the respiratory system, ... your sense of smell. The Parts of the Respiratory System and How They Work Airways SINUSES are hollow ...

  18. A hybrid approach for fusing 4D-MRI temporal information with 3D-CT for the study of lung and lung tumor motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y. X.; Van Reeth, E.; Poh, C. L., E-mail: clpoh@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Teo, S.-K. [Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Tan, C. H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore 308433 (Singapore); Tham, I. W. K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore 119082 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Accurate visualization of lung motion is important in many clinical applications, such as radiotherapy of lung cancer. Advancement in imaging modalities [e.g., computed tomography (CT) and MRI] has allowed dynamic imaging of lung and lung tumor motion. However, each imaging modality has its advantages and disadvantages. The study presented in this paper aims at generating synthetic 4D-CT dataset for lung cancer patients by combining both continuous three-dimensional (3D) motion captured by 4D-MRI and the high spatial resolution captured by CT using the authors’ proposed approach. Methods: A novel hybrid approach based on deformable image registration (DIR) and finite element method simulation was developed to fuse a static 3D-CT volume (acquired under breath-hold) and the 3D motion information extracted from 4D-MRI dataset, creating a synthetic 4D-CT dataset. Results: The study focuses on imaging of lung and lung tumor. Comparing the synthetic 4D-CT dataset with the acquired 4D-CT dataset of six lung cancer patients based on 420 landmarks, accurate results (average error <2 mm) were achieved using the authors’ proposed approach. Their hybrid approach achieved a 40% error reduction (based on landmarks assessment) over using only DIR techniques. Conclusions: The synthetic 4D-CT dataset generated has high spatial resolution, has excellent lung details, and is able to show movement of lung and lung tumor over multiple breathing cycles.

  19. What Are the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ... buildup in the lung tissues. These sensors are thought to trigger rapid, shallow breathing. Sensors in your ... is a complex process. If injury, disease, or other factors affect any ...

  20. Kaempferol attenuates acute lung injury in caecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabha, Dipankar Jyoti; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Rungsung, Soya; Kumar, Tarun; Parida, Subhashree; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Paul, Avishek; Sahoo, Monalisa; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-03-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid and important part of the diet. Kaempferol has shown antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities in various studies. However, protective potential of kaempferol in acute lung injury induced by sepsis and its mechanism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in sepsis-induced acute lung injury in mice and its possible mechanism of action. Acute lung injury was induced by CLP surgery in mice. Kaempferol (100 mg/kg bw) was administered orally one hour before caecal ligation and puncture surgery in mice. Mice were divided into four groups sham, KEM+sham, sepsis (CLP), and KEM+sepsis. Assessment of lung injury was done by estimation of protein content in lung tissue, lung edema, proinflammatory cytokines in plasma and lung tissue, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, nitrite production, and histopathology. Kaempferol pretreated mice showed significant (P Kaempferol pretreatment showed reduction in cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in plasma as well as in lung tissue in comparison with septic mice without pretreatment. Pretreatment with kaempferol did not show any reduction in MDA level in comparison with septic mice. Antioxidant enzymes SOD and catalase and nonenzymatic antioxidant GSH activities were also increased with kaempferol pretreatment in septic mice. Further, kaempferol pretreatment reduced the lung tissue nitrite level (P Kaempferol pretreatment did not decrease bacterial load in septic mice. Mice pretreated with kaempferol followed by sepsis showed lesser infiltration of cells and more arranged alveolar structure in histopathological analysis. The study suggests that kaempferol showed attenuation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury in mice through suppression of oxidative stress, iNOS, and ICAM-1 pathways.

  1. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  2. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  3. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell–cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Hazelwood, Lee; Chessum, Lauren; Paudyal, Anju; Hilton, Helen; Romero, M. Rosario; Wilde, Jonathan; Bogani, Debora; Sanderson, Jeremy; Formstone, Caroline; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Niswander, Lee A.; Greenfield, Andy; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    During lung development, proper epithelial cell arrangements are critical for the formation of an arborized network of tubes. Each tube requires a lumen, the diameter of which must be tightly regulated to enable optimal lung function. Lung branching and lumen morphogenesis require close epithelial cell–cell contacts that are maintained as a result of adherens junctions, tight junctions and by intact apical–basal (A/B) polarity. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain epithelial cohesion and lumen diameter in the mammalian lung are unknown. Here we show that Scribble, a protein implicated in planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, is necessary for normal lung morphogenesis. Lungs of the Scrib mouse mutant Circletail (Crc) are abnormally shaped with fewer airways, and these airways often lack a visible, ‘open’ lumen. Mechanistically we show that Scrib genetically interacts with the core PCP gene Vangl2 in the developing lung and that the distribution of PCP pathway proteins and Rho mediated cytoskeletal modification is perturbed in ScribCrc/Crc lungs. However A/B polarity, which is disrupted in Drosophila Scrib mutants, is largely unaffected. Notably, we find that Scrib mediates functions not attributed to other PCP proteins in the lung. Specifically, Scrib localises to both adherens and tight junctions of lung epithelia and knockdown of Scrib in lung explants and organotypic cultures leads to reduced cohesion of lung epithelial cells. Live imaging of Scrib knockdown lungs shows that Scrib does not affect bud bifurcation, as previously shown for the PCP protein Celsr1, but is required to maintain epithelial cohesion. To understand the mechanism leading to reduced cell–cell association, we show that Scrib associates with β-catenin in embryonic lung and the sub-cellular distribution of adherens and tight junction proteins is perturbed in mutant lung epithelia. Our data reveal that Scrib is required for normal lung epithelial organisation and lumen

  4. Relationship between tuberculous scar and carcinomas of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, S.; Hirsch, A.; Bickel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a transversal case-control study are reported which shows that there is a statistically significant association between tuberculous scars and carcinoma of the lung. Accordingly the possibility of malignancy has to be kept in mind when radiological or scintigraphic scanning reveal the presence of lung scars. (orig.)

  5. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  6. Lung Transplantation for Lymphangioleiomyomatosis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Okada, Yoshinori; Akiba, Miki; Kondo, Takashi; Kawamura, Tomohiro; Okumura, Meinoshin; Chen, Fengshi; Date, Hiroshi; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Yamasaki, Naoya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Chida, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirai, Toyohiro; Seyama, Kuniaki; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung transplantation has been established as the definitive treatment option for patients with advanced lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). However, the prognosis after registration and the circumstances of lung transplantation with sirolimus therapy have never been reported. Methods In this national survey, we analyzed data from 98 LAM patients registered for lung transplantation in the Japan Organ Transplantation Network. Results Transplantation was performed in 57 patients as of March 2014. Survival rate was 86.7% at 1 year, 82.5% at 3 years, 73.7% at 5 years, and 73.7% at 10 years. Of the 98 patients, 21 had an inactive status and received sirolimus more frequently than those with an active history (67% vs. 5%, p<0.001). Nine of twelve patients who remained inactive as of March 2014 initiated sirolimus before or while on a waiting list, and remained on sirolimus thereafter. Although the statistical analysis showed no statistically significant difference, the survival rate after registration tended to be better for lung transplant recipients than for those who awaited transplantation (p = 0.053). Conclusions Lung transplantation is a satisfactory therapeutic option for advanced LAM, but the circumstances for pre-transplantation LAM patients are likely to alter with the use of sirolimus. PMID:26771878

  7. The PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Bogani, Debora; Formstone, Caroline J.; Townsend, Stuart; Greenfield, Andy; Niswander, Lee A.; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2010-01-01

    The lungs are generated by branching morphogenesis as a result of reciprocal signalling interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme during development. Mutations that disrupt formation of either the correct number or shape of epithelial branches affect lung function. This, in turn, can lead to congenital abnormalities such as cystadenomatoid malformations, pulmonary hypertension or lung hypoplasia. Defects in lung architecture are also associated with adult lung disease, particularly in cases of idiopathic lung fibrosis. Identifying the signalling pathways which drive epithelial tube formation will likely shed light on both congenital and adult lung disease. Here we show that mutations in the planar cell polarity (PCP) genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 lead to disrupted lung development and defects in lung architecture. Lungs from Celsr1Crsh and Vangl2Lp mouse mutants are small and misshapen with fewer branches, and by late gestation exhibit thickened interstitial mesenchyme and defective saccular formation. We observe a recapitulation of these branching defects following inhibition of Rho kinase, an important downstream effector of the PCP signalling pathway. Moreover, epithelial integrity is disrupted, cytoskeletal remodelling perturbed and mutant endoderm does not branch normally in response to the chemoattractant FGF10. We further show that Celsr1 and Vangl2 proteins are present in restricted spatial domains within lung epithelium. Our data show that the PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for foetal lung development thereby revealing a novel signalling pathway critical for this process that will enhance our understanding of congenital and adult lung diseases and may in future lead to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20223754

  8. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico

    2017-10-13

    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical and survival outcomes of lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Keiji; Okumura, Norihito; Takahashi, Ayuko; Nakashima, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tomoaki

    2017-05-26

    Intratumoral lung abscess is a secondary lung abscess that is considered to be fatal. Therefore, surgical procedures, although high-risk, have sometimes been performed for intratumoral lung abscesses. However, no studies have examined the surgical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. The aim of this study was to investigate the surgical and survival outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses. Eleven consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, who had undergone pulmonary resection at our institution between January 2007 and December 2015, were retrospectively analysed. The post-operative prognoses were investigated and prognostic factors were evaluated. Ten of 11 patients were male and one patient was female. The median age was 64 (range, 52-80) years. Histopathologically, 4 patients had Stage IIA, 2 patients had Stage IIB, 2 patients had Stage IIIA, and 3 patients had Stage IV tumors. The median operative time was 346 min and the median amount of bleeding was 1327 mL. The post-operative morbidity and mortality rates were 63.6% and 0.0%, respectively. Recurrence of respiratory infections, including lung abscesses, was not observed in all patients. The median post-operative observation period was 16.1 (range, 1.3-114.5) months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 43.3%. No pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative prognostic factors were identified in the univariate analyses. Surgical procedures for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients with intratumoral lung abscesses, although high-risk, led to satisfactory post-operative mortality rates and acceptable prognoses.

  10. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  11. Reduced Lung Cancer Mortality With Lower Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Frutos, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that higher altitude is associated with lower risk of lung cancer and improved survival among patients. The current study assessed the influence of county-level atmospheric pressure (a measure reflecting both altitude and temperature) on age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates in the contiguous United States, with 2 forms of spatial regression. Ordinary least squares regression and geographically weighted regression models were used to evaluate the impact of climate and other selected variables on lung cancer mortality, based on 2974 counties. Atmospheric pressure was significantly positively associated with lung cancer mortality, after controlling for sunlight, precipitation, PM2.5 (µg/m 3 ), current smoker, and other selected variables. Positive county-level β coefficient estimates ( P atmospheric pressure were observed throughout the United States, higher in the eastern half of the country. The spatial regression models showed that atmospheric pressure is positively associated with age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rates, after controlling for other selected variables.

  12. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung capacity. Specific breathing exercises can also help improve your lung function if you have certain lung diseases, like COPD. Exercise and breathing techniques are also great for improving your mood and helping you relax. Public Health and Your ...

  13. The diagnostic value of PET-CT on peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lebao; Peng Xiang; Ye Hui; Mo Yi; Xie Aimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of PET-CT in the diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. cancer proved pathology characteristics and standardized uptake value (SUV) of 70 patients with lung cancer proved by pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of the 70 cases, 32 cases were squamous carcinoma, 25 cases were adenocarcinoma, 8 cases were small cell lung cancer, 3 cases were adenosquamous carcinoma and 2 cases were megacell lung cancer. The average SUV of the lung cancer was 4.94±1.53. In the group of lung cancer, hypermetabolic lesions were found in 66 cases and the SUV was more than 2.5 while the SUV was less than 2.5 in 4 cases. Positive correlation was showed in the SUV and the size of tumors. Conclusions: The peripheral lung cancer has its special imaging appearances of PET-CT. PET-CT is an excellent modality in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of preipheral lung cancer. The SUV combining with morphological findings sometimes may be helpful for the differential diagnosis. (authors)

  14. Horseshoe lung with multiple congenital anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawass, N.D.; Badawi, M.G.; Fatani, J.A.; Meshari, A.A.; Edrees, Y.B.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed radiologic and anatomic study of a 20-week old fetus is presented. In addition to conventional radiography, various contrast medium injection techniques were used. The findings were followed up at autopsy. The fetus showed multiple congenital abnormalities comprising phocomelia, horseshoe lung, horseshoe kidney, urethral stenosis with megacystis, bilateral hydronephrosis, hydroureters, imperforate anus, and a single tracheo-esophageal tube (persistent esophago-trachea). The association of horseshoe lung with persistent esophago-trachea, microurethra, megacystis, bilateral hydroureters, hydronephrosis and phocomelia is, we believe, the first ever to have been recorded in the literature. Twenty-one cases of horseshoe lung have been reported in the literature. These cases were reviewed and a comparison with the present case is presented. The embryologic basis for these anomalies is also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  15. Lung regeneration by fetal lung tissue implantation in a mouse pulmonary emphysema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Koh; Sakiyama, Shoji; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Toba, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Yukikiyo; Okumura, Kazumasa; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are high. However, no radical therapy has been developed to date. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fetal mouse lung tissue can grow and differentiate in the emphysematous lung. Fetal lung tissue from green fluorescent protein C57BL/6 mice at 16 days' gestation was used as donor material. Twelve-month-old pallid mice were used as recipients. Donor lungs were cut into small pieces and implanted into the recipient left lung by performing thoracotomy under anesthesia. The recipient mice were sacrificed at day 7, 14, and 28 after implantation and used for histological examination. Well-developed spontaneous pulmonary emphysema was seen in 12-month-old pallid mice. Smooth and continuous connection between implanted fetal lung tissue and recipient lung was recognized. Air space expansion and donor tissue differentiation were observed over time. We could clearly distinguish the border zones between injected tissue and native tissue by the green fluorescence of grafts. Fetal mouse lung fragments survived and differentiated in the emphysematous lung of pallid mice. Implantation of fetal lung tissue in pallid mice might lead to further lung regeneration research from the perspective of respiratory and exercise function. J. Med. Invest. 63: 182-186, August, 2016.

  16. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  18. Pathology of radiation induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Murata, Yoshihiko; Ogata, Hideo; Katagiri, Shiro; Sugita, Hironobu; Iwai, Kazuo; Sakurai, Isamu.

    1985-01-01

    We examined pathological findings of radiation induced lung damage. Twenty-three cases are chosen from our hospital autopsy cases for 9 years, which fulfil strict criteria of radiation lung damage. Lung damage could be classified into 3 groups : 1) interstitial pneumonia type (9 cases), 2) intermediate pneumonia type (8 cases), and 3) alveolar pneumonia type (6 cases), according to the degree of intra-luminal exudation. These classification is well correlated with clinical findings. Pathological alveolar pneumonia type corresponds to symptomatic, radiologic ground glass pneumonic shadow. And pathologic interstitial type corresponds to clinical asymptomatic, radiologic reticulo-nodular shadow. From the clinico-pathological view point these classification is reasonable one. Radiation affects many lung structures and showed characteristic feature of repair. Elastofibrosis of the alveolar wall is observed in every cases, obstructive bronchiolitis are observed in 5 cases, and obstructive bronchiolitis in 9 cases. They are remarkable additional findings. Thickening of the interlobular septum, broncho-vascular connective tissue, and pleural layer are observed in every cases together with vascular lesions. (author)

  19. Serial perfusion in native lungs in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases after single lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokai, Akihiko; Handa, Tomohiro; Chen, Fengshi; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Aoyama, Akihiro; Kubo, Takeshi; Ikezoe, Kohei; Nakatsuka, Yoshinari; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Hirai, Toyohiro; Nagai, Sonoko; Chin, Kazuo; Date, Hiroshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2016-04-01

    Lung perfusions after single lung transplantation (SLT) have not been fully clarified in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). The present study aimed to investigate temporal changes in native lung perfusion and their associated clinical factors in patients with ILD who have undergone SLT. Eleven patients were enrolled. Perfusion scintigraphy was serially performed up to 12 months after SLT. Correlations between the post-operative perfusion ratio in the native lung and clinical parameters, including pre-operative perfusion ratio and computed tomography (CT) volumetric parameters, were evaluated. On average, the perfusion ratio of the native lung was maintained at approximately 30% until 12 months after SLT. However, the ratio declined more significantly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) than in other ILDs (p = 0.014). The perfusion ratio before SLT was significantly correlated with that at three months after SLT (ρ = 0.64, p = 0.048). The temporal change of the perfusion ratio in the native lung did not correlate with those of the CT parameters. The pre-operative perfusion ratio may predict the post-operative perfusion ratio of the native lung shortly after SLT in ILD. Perfusion of the native lung may decline faster in IPF compared with other ILDs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Yuichiro

    2004-01-01

    For many years, thoracic radiotherapy had been regarded as the standard treatment for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, meta-analyses show that cisplatin-containing chemoradiotherapy is significantly superior to radiotherapy alone in terms of survival. Moreover, concurrent chemoradiotherapy yields a significantly increased response rate and enhanced survival duration when compared with the sequential approach. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy yields a 5-year survival rate of approximately 15% for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer is considered to be four cycles of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin plus etoposide combined with early concurrent twice-daily thoracic irradiation (45 Gy). If patients achieve complete remission, prophylactic cranial irradiation should be administered. A 5-year survival rate of approximately 25% is expected with the state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Chemoradiotherapy is considered to be a standard treatment for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Several new strategies are currently being investigated to improve the survival of these patients. The incorporation of target-based drugs such as gefitinib is considered to be the most promising strategy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The incorporation of irinotecan is also a promising strategy to improve the survival of patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group is conducting clinical trials to develop new treatment strategies for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. (author)

  1. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  2. Tendon Reattachment to Bone in an Ovine Tendon Defect Model of Retraction Using Allogenic and Xenogenic Demineralised Bone Matrix Incorporated with Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanujan Thangarajah

    Full Text Available Tendon-bone healing following rotator cuff repairs is mainly impaired by poor tissue quality. Demineralised bone matrix promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface but its role in the treatment of tendon tears with retraction has not been investigated. We hypothesized that cortical demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells will result in improved function and restoration of the tendon-bone interface with no difference between xenogenic and allogenic scaffolds.In an ovine model, the patellar tendon was detached from the tibial tuberosity and a complete distal tendon transverse defect measuring 1 cm was created. Suture anchors were used to reattach the tendon and xenogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5, or allogenic demineralised bone matrix + minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells (n = 5 were used to bridge the defect. Graft incorporation into the tendon and its effect on regeneration of the enthesis was assessed using histomorphometry. Force plate analysis was used to assess functional recovery.Compared to the xenograft, the allograft was associated with significantly higher functional weight bearing at 6 (P = 0.047, 9 (P = 0.028, and 12 weeks (P = 0.009. In the allogenic group this was accompanied by greater remodeling of the demineralised bone matrix into tendon-like tissue in the region of the defect (p = 0.015, and a more direct type of enthesis characterized by significantly more fibrocartilage (p = 0.039. No failures of tendon-bone healing were noted in either group.Demineralised bone matrix used with minimally manipulated mesenchymal stem cells promotes healing of the tendon-bone interface in an ovine model of acute tendon retraction, with superior mechanical and histological results associated with use of an allograft.

  3. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 ± 13 years, 78 ± 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC—end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Ω cm to 1583 Ω cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method

  4. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 +/- 13 years, 78 +/- 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC--end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Omega cm to 1583 Omega cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method.

  5. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  6. Histogram based analysis of lung perfusion of children after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassner, Nora; Weis, Meike; Zahn, Katrin; Schaible, Thomas; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Schad, Lothar R; Zöllner, Frank G

    2018-05-01

    To investigate a histogram based approach to characterize the distribution of perfusion in the whole left and right lung by descriptive statistics and to show how histograms could be used to visually explore perfusion defects in two year old children after Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) repair. 28 children (age of 24.2±1.7months; all left sided hernia; 9 after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy) underwent quantitative DCE-MRI of the lung. Segmentations of left and right lung were manually drawn to mask the calculated pulmonary blood flow maps and then to derive histograms for each lung side. Individual and group wise analysis of histograms of left and right lung was performed. Ipsilateral and contralateral lung show significant difference in shape and descriptive statistics derived from the histogram (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, phistogram derived parameters. Histogram analysis can be a valuable tool to characterize and visualize whole lung perfusion of children after CDH repair. It allows for several possibilities to analyze the data, either describing the perfusion differences between the right and left lung but also to explore and visualize localized perfusion patterns in the 3D lung volume. Subgroup analysis will be possible given sufficient sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MRI and CT lung biomarkers: Towards an in vivo understanding of lung biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; Eddy, Rachel L; Parraga, Grace

    2017-09-29

    The biomechanical properties of the lung are necessarily dependent on its structure and function, both of which are complex and change over time and space. This makes in vivo evaluation of lung biomechanics and a deep understanding of lung biomarkers, very challenging. In patients and animal models of lung disease, in vivo evaluations of lung structure and function are typically made at the mouth and include spirometry, multiple-breath gas washout tests and the forced oscillation technique. These techniques, and the biomarkers they provide, incorporate the properties of the whole organ system including the parenchyma, large and small airways, mouth, diaphragm and intercostal muscles. Unfortunately, these well-established measurements mask regional differences, limiting their ability to probe the lung's gross and micro-biomechanical properties which vary widely throughout the organ and its subcompartments. Pulmonary imaging has the advantage in providing regional, non-invasive measurements of healthy and diseased lung, in vivo. Here we summarize well-established and emerging lung imaging tools and biomarkers and how they may be used to generate lung biomechanical measurements. We review well-established and emerging lung anatomical, microstructural and functional imaging biomarkers generated using synchrotron x-ray tomographic-microscopy (SRXTM), micro-x-ray computed-tomography (micro-CT), clinical CT as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pulmonary imaging provides measurements of lung structure, function and biomechanics with high spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging biomarkers that reflect the biomechanical properties of the lung are now being validated to provide a deeper understanding of the lung that cannot be achieved using measurements made at the mouth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  9. Titanium Dioxide Exposure Induces Acute Eosinophilic Lung Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Gil Soon; OAK, Chulho; CHUN, Bong-Kwon; WILSON, Donald; JANG, Tae Won; KIM, Hee-Kyoo; JUNG, Mannhong; TUTKUN, Engin; PARK, Eun-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250 µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:24705802

  10. Ezh2 represses the basal cell lineage during lung endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitow, Melinda E; Li, Shanru; Morley, Michael P; Rathi, Komal; Lu, Min Min; Kadzik, Rachel S; Stewart, Kathleen M; Morrisey, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The development of the lung epithelium is regulated in a stepwise fashion to generate numerous differentiated and stem cell lineages in the adult lung. How these different lineages are generated in a spatially and temporally restricted fashion remains poorly understood, although epigenetic regulation probably plays an important role. We show that the Polycomb repressive complex 2 component Ezh2 is highly expressed in early lung development but is gradually downregulated by late gestation. Deletion of Ezh2 in early lung endoderm progenitors leads to the ectopic and premature appearance of Trp63+ basal cells that extend the entire length of the airway. Loss of Ezh2 also leads to reduced secretory cell differentiation. In their place, morphologically similar cells develop that express a subset of basal cell genes, including keratin 5, but no longer express high levels of either Trp63 or of standard secretory cell markers. This suggests that Ezh2 regulates the phenotypic switch between basal cells and secretory cells. Together, these findings show that Ezh2 restricts the basal cell lineage during normal lung endoderm development to allow the proper patterning of epithelial lineages during lung formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Lung abscess caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omae, Takashi; Matsubayashi, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    A 10-year-old boy with West syndrome was referred to hospital because of high fever and cough. Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed consolidation with an abscess in the right upper lobe. Laboratory data indicated cytokine storm. Various antibacterial agents and additional corticosteroid were unable to control the hypercytokinemia, which was suppressed after cyclosporine A was started. The lung abscess remained, however, and right upper lobectomy was performed. Culture from the abscess showed no growth, while polymerase chain reaction assay indicated Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA. Serum passive agglutinin titer for M. pneumoniae was significantly elevated in the convalescent phase. These findings are strong evidence that the lung abscess was caused by M. pneumoniae infection. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus, aromatase, and sexual partner preferences in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2010-02-28

    We are using the domestic ram as an experimental model to examine the role of aromatase in the development of sexual partner preferences. This interest has arisen because of the observation that as many as 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to estrous ewes (female-oriented). Our findings demonstrate that aromatase expression is enriched in a cluster of neurons in the medial preoptic nucleus called the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN). The size of the oSDN is associated with a ram's sexual partner preference, such that the nucleus is 2-3 times larger in rams that are attracted to females (female-oriented) than in rams that are attracted to other rams (male-oriented). Moreover, the volume of the oSDN in male-oriented rams is similar to the volume in ewes. These volume differences are not influenced by adult concentrations of serum testosterone. Instead, we found that the oSDN is already present in late gestation lamb fetuses (approximately day 135 of gestation) when it is approximately 2-fold greater in males than in females. Exposure of genetic female fetuses to exogenous testosterone during the critical period for sexual differentiation masculinizes oSDN volume and aromatase expression when examined subsequently on day 135. The demonstration that the oSDN is organized prenatally by testosterone exposure suggests that the brain of the male-oriented ram may be under-androgenized during development. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal and cerebral responses to hypoxemia in the ovine fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mild to moderate hypoxemia without major changes in pH and pCO(2) does not reduce fetal renal blood flow and fetal urine production rate. Other factors such as acidemia, hypercapnia or changes in lung liquid production or fetal swallowing are candidates for the reduced amniotic fluid in the growth

  14. Lung function studies in diagnostics and follow-up of pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braadvik, I.

    1994-06-01

    In 66 patients the relationship between lung volumes and lung mechanics in pulmonary sarcoidosis was investigated. Lung volumes, static lung mechanics, lung resistance, dynamic lung mechanics and arterial blood gases at rest and during exercise were obtained. Fifteen functionally compromised patients received steroids during one year. They were re-investigated during the treatment and at a follow-up after an average of 7 years. In another 41 patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis, the kinetics of the lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA measured over 180 minutes was explored, and compared to kinetics in healthy smokers. The relationship between lung clearance and lung volumes, lung mechanics, arterial blood gases and disease activity assessed with serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and 67 Ga scintigraphy was studied. Reducing lung volumes and compliance, increased resistance and arterial oxygen tension were common. Vital capacity (VC), and changes of VC at follow-up, corresponded to the slope of the static elastic pressure/volume curve, and to the variation of it. Other static lung volumes reflected rather the position of the curve along the volume axis. Reduced VC also reflected obstruction. Forced expiratory volume in one second revealed to equal extent lung stiffness and obstruction. Lung mechanics showed abnormalities not always evident from spirometry.In 50% of the patients lung clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA disclosed an abnormally fast mono-exponential clearance or a bi-exponential clearance, which however differed from that in smokers. Lung clearance more readily detected abnormal function than did spirometry. Clearance did nor correlate with other investigations. 67 Ga lung activity was higher in patients with a pathologic lung clearance

  15. Relation of occupations to the regional differences of lung cancer motality in Fukuoka Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, T; Yamasaki, M

    1977-07-01

    Geographic pattern of lung cancer mortality in Fukuoka Prefecture showed elevated mortalities among males in the Chikuho district where many coal-mines had long been operated as one of the biggest coal-mining areas in Japan. The analysis in relations of occupations to lung cancer mortality revealed that consistently significant correlations exist between lung cancer mortality, and mining and quarrying occupations in every census year after World War II. No other occupations showed consistent relations to lung cancer though a few significant correlations were found only in the recent years. The results appear to suggest that elevated risk of lung cancer among coal-mining workers may exist and deserve further analytical study.

  16. Stochastic rat lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny: a surrogate for the human lung for lung cancer risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Heil, R.; Hofmann, W. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Hussain, M. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    Laboratory rats are frequently used in inhalation studies as a surrogate for human exposures. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop a stochastic dosimetry model for inhaled radon progeny in the rat lung, to predict bronchial dose distributions and to compare them with corresponding dose distributions in the human lung. The most significant difference between human and rat lungs is the branching structure of the bronchial tree, which is relatively symmetric in the human lung, but monopodial in the rat lung. Radon progeny aerosol characteristics used in the present study encompass conditions typical for PNNL and COGEMA rat inhalation studies, as well as uranium miners and human indoor exposure conditions. It is shown here that depending on exposure conditions and modeling assumptions, average bronchial doses in the rat lung ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 mGy WLM{sup -1}. If plotted as a function of airway generation, bronchial dose distributions exhibit a significant maximum in large bronchial airways. If, however, plotted as a function of airway diameter, then bronchial doses are much more uniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree. Comparisons between human and rat exposures indicate that rat bronchial doses are slightly higher than human bronchial doses by about a factor of 1.3, while lung doses, averaged over the bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) regions, are higher by about a factor of about 1.6. This supports the current view that the rat lung is indeed an appropriate surrogate for the human lung in case of radon-induced lung cancers. Furthermore, airway diameter seems to be a more appropriate morphometric parameter than airway generations to relate bronchial doses to bronchial carcinomas. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of in vitro and in vivo anthelminthic potential of extracts of Allium sativum bulb against naturally occurring ovine gastrointestinal nematodiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojiya, Dharmendra; Shanker, Daya; Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of anthelminthic resistance has limited the success of traditional control programmes, thereby forcing researchers to search for ethno-veterinary alternatives. The objective is to assess the anthelminthic potential of various extracts of the bulb of Allium sativum in naturally infected sheep. In vitro anthelminthic activities of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the bulb of A. sativum were investigated against the egg (500 eggs/ml) and larvae of naturally infected sheep. The aqueous extract of A. sativum was also investigated for in vivo anthelminthic activity in three groups (n = 15 each) of naturally infected Chokla sheep with a negative control group receiving no treatment, a positive control group was given a single oral dose of albendazole at 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight, and a group administered a single oral dose of an aqueous extract at 5 g/animal. Data were analysed using the general linear model. Aqueous extract showed better efficacy in egg hatch assay and larval development test. However, in larval paralysis test, reverse trend was seen as methanolic extract was more potent than the aqueous counterpart. A significant amount of 57% faecal egg count reduction was observed in in vivo trail using the aqueous extract on day 21 post-treatment, although in initial stages it showed 30% and 83% effectiveness on days 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively. No deleterious ill effect was found in any of the haematological and biochemical parameters. Bulb of A. sativum possesses good anthelminthic efficacy and further research is thereby warranted before recommending it for nematode control programme in ovines.

  18. Fetal lung interstitial tumor: the first Japanese case report and a comparison with fetal lung tissue and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mariko; Tanaka, Mio; Gomi, Kiyoshi; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Dehner, Louis P; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2013-10-01

    Fetal lung interstitial tumor, a newly recognized lung lesion in infants, was first reported in 2010. Here, we report the first Japanese case of fetal lung interstitial tumor which was originally diagnosed as atypical congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. A 7-day-old girl was referred to our hospital with respiratory distress and a left lung mass and she subsequently underwent left lower lobectomy. The specimen showed a 5 cm solid mass with a fibrous capsule. Histological examination revealed immature airspaces and interstitium, containing bronchioles and cartilage. The epithelial and interstitial cells contained abundant glycogen granules. Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin in the epithelial and interstitial cells. β-catenin gene mutations and trisomy 8 were not detected, so a neoplastic origin could not be confirmed. The histological findings were partly consistent with normal fetal lung at the canalicular stage, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. In this report, we compare the above conditions and discuss the pathogenesis of fetal lung interstitial tumor. © 2013 The Authors. Pathology International © 2013 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Multigene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    K-ras codon 12 point mutations mRb and p53 gene deletions were examined in tissues from 120 normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were Formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago. The results showed that 12 of 60 (20%) lung adenocarcinomas had mRb deletions. All lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found bearing deleted mRb had p53 deletions (15 of 15; 100%). A significantly higher mutation frequency for K-ras codon 12 point mutations was also found in the lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 24 once-weekly neutron irradiation (10 of 10; 100%) compared with those exposed to 24 or 60 once-weekly γ-ray doses (5 of 10; 50%). The data suggested that p53 and K-ras gene alterations were two contributory factors responsible for the increased incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in B6CF 1 male mice exposed to protracted neutron radiation

  20. Lung Nodule Detection in CT Images using Neuro Fuzzy Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman Akram

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated lung cancer detection using computer aided diagnosis (CAD is an important area in clinical applications. As the manual nodule detection is very time consuming and costly so computerized systems can be helpful for this purpose. In this paper, we propose a computerized system for lung nodule detection in CT scan images. The automated system consists of two stages i.e. lung segmentation and enhancement, feature extraction and classification. The segmentation process will result in separating lung tissue from rest of the image, and only the lung tissues under examination are considered as candidate regions for detecting malignant nodules in lung portion. A feature vector for possible abnormal regions is calculated and regions are classified using neuro fuzzy classifier. It is a fully automatic system that does not require any manual intervention and experimental results show the validity of our system.

  1. Lung-derived growth factors: possible paracrine effectors of fetal lung development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A potential role for paracrine secretions in lung organogenesis has been hypothesized (Alescio and Piperno, 1957). These studies present direct support for the paracrine model by demonstrating the presence of locally produced mitogenic/maturational factors in fetal rat lung tissue. Conditioned serum free medium (CSFM) from nineteen-day fetal rat lung cultures was shown to contain several bioactive peptides as detected by 3 H-Thymidine incorporation into chick embryo and rat lung fibroblasts, as well as 14 C-choline incorporation into surfactant in mixed cell cultures. Using ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex gel filtration, a partially purified mitogen, 11-III, was obtained. The partially purified 11-III stimulates mitosis in chick embryo fibroblasts and post-natal rat lung fibroblasts. Multiplication in fetal rat lung fibroblasts cultures is stimulated only when these are pre-incubated with a competence factor or unprocessed CSFM. This suggests the existence of an endogenously produced competence factor important in the regulation of fetal lung growth. Preparation 11-III does not possess surfactant stimulating activity as assessed by 3 H-choline incorporation into lipids in predominantly type-II cell cultures. These data demonstrate the presence of a maturational/mitogenic factor, influencing type-II mixed cell cultures. In addition, 11-III had been shown to play an autocrine role stimulating the proliferation of fetal lung fibroblasts. Finally, these data suggest the existence of a local produced competence factor

  2. Computed tomographic evaluation of empyema and lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Dong; Kwon, Kwi Ryun; Kim, Ok Bae; Zeon, Suck Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1986-01-01

    abscess had only small (33%) or medium (67%) size. 8) Air in lesion was seen in 41% empyemas and in 89% lung abscesses. 9) Adjacent lung consolidation showed in 34% empyemas and in all lung abscesses. 10) Free pleural fluid was seen in 12% empyemas and in 89% lung abscesses. 11) Septated lesions were seen in 32% empyemas and in 56% lung abscesses 12) Multiple lesions were seen in 44% empyemas and in 55% lung abscesses 13) Mediastinal shifting was seen in 49% empyemas and in 44% lung abscesses, but which all lung abscesses were coexisted with empyemas. 14) Pleural calcification was seen in 5 cases (12%) of all empyemas. 15) Location of lesion: Most (93%) of empyemas were located in posterolateral portion of hemithorax, and most (78%) of lung abscesses involved in right lower lobe.

  3. Computed tomographic evaluation of empyema and lung abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Dong; Kwon, Kwi Ryun; Kim, Ok Bae; Zeon, Suck Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University School of medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-06-15

    the lung abscess had only small (33%) or medium (67%) size. 8) Air in lesion was seen in 41% empyemas and in 89% lung abscesses. 9) Adjacent lung consolidation showed in 34% empyemas and in all lung abscesses. 10) Free pleural fluid was seen in 12% empyemas and in 89% lung abscesses. 11) Septated lesions were seen in 32% empyemas and in 56% lung abscesses 12) Multiple lesions were seen in 44% empyemas and in 55% lung abscesses 13) Mediastinal shifting was seen in 49% empyemas and in 44% lung abscesses, but which all lung abscesses were coexisted with empyemas. 14) Pleural calcification was seen in 5 cases (12%) of all empyemas. 15) Location of lesion: Most (93%) of empyemas were located in posterolateral portion of hemithorax, and most (78%) of lung abscesses involved in right lower lobe.

  4. Validation of SCT Methylation as a Hallmark Biomarker for Lung Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-An; Ma, Xiaotu; Sathe, Adwait; Fujimoto, Junya; Wistuba, Ignacio; Lam, Stephen; Yatabe, Yasushi; Wang, Yi-Wei; Stastny, Victor; Gao, Boning; Larsen, Jill E; Girard, Luc; Liu, Xiaoyun; Song, Kai; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Michael Q; Minna, John D; Gazdar, Adi F

    2016-03-01

    The human secretin gene (SCT) encodes secretin, a hormone with limited tissue distribution. Analysis of the 450k methylation array data in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) indicated that the SCT promoter region is differentially hypermethylated in lung cancer. Our purpose was to validate SCT methylation as a potential biomarker for lung cancer. We analyzed data from TCGA and developed and applied SCT-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. The analyses of TCGA 450K data for 801 samples showed that SCT hypermethylation has an area under the curve (AUC) value greater than 0.98 that can be used to distinguish lung adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas from nonmalignant lung tissue. Bisulfite sequencing of lung cancer cell lines and normal blood cells allowed us to confirm that SCT methylation is highly discriminative. By applying a quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that SCT hypermethylation is frequently detected in all major subtypes of malignant non-small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.92, n = 108) and small cell lung cancer (AUC = 0.93, n = 40) but is less frequent in lung carcinoids (AUC = 0.54, n = 20). SCT hypermethylation appeared in samples of lung carcinoma in situ during multistage pathogenesis and increased in invasive samples. Further analyses of TCGA 450k data showed that SCT hypermethylation is highly discriminative in most other types of malignant tumors but less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors. The only normal tissue with a high level of methylation was the placenta. Our findings demonstrated that SCT methylation is a highly discriminative biomarker for lung and other malignant tumors, is less frequent in low-grade malignant tumors (including lung carcinoids), and appears at the carcinoma in situ stage. Copyright © 2015 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Air pollution from traffic and risk for lung cancer in three Danish cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Bak, Helle; Sørensen, Mette

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. The purpose was to investigate whether the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence, used as an indicator of air pollution from traffic, is associated with risk for lung cancer. METHODS: We identified 679 lung cancer cases...... ratio per 100 microg/m3 NOx. The results showed no significant heterogeneity in the incidence rate ratio for lung cancer between cohorts or between strata defined by gender, educational level, or smoking status. CONCLUSION: The study showed a modest association between air pollution from traffic...... and the risk for lung cancer. IMPACT: This study points at traffic as a source of carcinogenic air pollution and stresses the importance of strategies for reduction of population exposure to traffic-related air pollution....

  6. Amebic lung abscess with coexisting lung adenocarcinoma: a unusual case of amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hailong; Min, Xiangyang; Li, Shuai; Feng, Meng; Zhang, Guofeng; Yi, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    Amebic lung abscess with concurrent lung cancer, but without either a liver abscess or amebic colitis, is extremely uncommon. Here, we report a 70-year-old man presenting with pulmonary amebiasis and coexisting lung adenocarcinoma. During his first-time hospitalization, the diagnosis of lung amebiasis was confirmed by morphological observation and PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sediments of pleural effusion. Almost four months later, the patient was readmitted to hospital for similar complaints. On readmission, lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by liquid-based sputum cytology and thought to be delayed because coexisting amebic lung abscess. This case demonstrated that sediments of pleural effusion may be used for further pathological examination after routine cytology has shown negative results. At the same time, we concluded that lung cancer may easily go undetected in the patients with pulmonary amebiasis and repetitive evaluation by cytology and imaging follow-up are useful to find potential cancer.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of bovine, ovine and porcine luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosberg, M; Tagle, R; Madej, A; Molina, J R; Carlsson, M -A

    1993-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for bovine (bLH), ovine (oLH) and porcine (pLH) luteinizing hormone was developed using a human [sup 125]ILH tracer from a commercial kit and a monoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. Standard curves demonstrated similar binding kinetics when bLH, oLH and pLH were incubated with tracer and antibody for 2 h at room temperature. A 30-min delay in the addition of the tracer gave sufficient sensitivity when analysing pLH. Separation of antibody-bound LH from free hormone was achieved by using second antibody-coated micro Sepharose beads. The assay was validated and the performance compared with that of an RIA currently in use for determination of bLH (coefficient of correlation: 0.99 and 0.98). Regardless of the standards used, intra-assay coefficients of variation were <10% for LH concentrations exceeding 1 [mu]g/L. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were <15%. The assay was used for clinical evaluation demonstrating the pre-ovulatory LH surge in two cyclic cows, LH pulsatility in an oophorectomized ewe and LH response to GnRH injection in a boar. (au) (7 refs.).

  8. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, K.; Eenjes, E.; van Riet, S.; Poot, Andreas A.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Hiemstra, P.; Rottier, R.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as

  9. Open lung approach vs acute respiratory distress syndrome network ventilation in experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, P M; Güldner, A; Carvalho, A R; Kasper, M; Pelosi, P; Uhlig, S; Koch, T; Gama de Abreu, M

    2011-09-01

    Setting and strategies of mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in acute lung injury (ALI) remains controversial. This study compares the effects between lung-protective mechanical ventilation according to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network recommendations (ARDSnet) and the open lung approach (OLA) on pulmonary function and inflammatory response. Eighteen juvenile pigs were anaesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented. ALI was induced by surfactant washout. Animals were randomly assigned to mechanical ventilation according to the ARDSnet protocol or the OLA (n=9 per group). Gas exchange, haemodynamics, pulmonary blood flow (PBF) distribution, and respiratory mechanics were measured at intervals and the lungs were removed after 6 h of mechanical ventilation for further analysis. PEEP and mean airway pressure were higher in the OLA than in the ARDSnet group [15 cmH(2)O, range 14-18 cmH(2)O, compared with 12 cmH(2)O; 20.5 (sd 2.3) compared with 18 (1.4) cmH(2)O by the end of the experiment, respectively], and OLA was associated with improved oxygenation compared with the ARDSnet group after 6 h. OLA showed more alveolar overdistension, especially in gravitationally non-dependent regions, while the ARDSnet group was associated with more intra-alveolar haemorrhage. Inflammatory mediators and markers of lung parenchymal stress did not differ significantly between groups. The PBF shifted from ventral to dorsal during OLA compared with ARDSnet protocol [-0.02 (-0.09 to -0.01) compared with -0.08 (-0.12 to -0.06), dorsal-ventral gradients after 6 h, respectively]. According to the OLA, mechanical ventilation improved oxygenation and redistributed pulmonary perfusion when compared with the ARDSnet protocol, without differences in lung inflammatory response.

  10. Metabolic lung scanning with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.; Akber, S.F.; Rashimian, J.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of uptake of N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the lung was studied in dogs. It has been concluded that this amine is taken in low specificity - high capacity endothelial receptors. Competitive effect of propranolol guanethidine, amphetamine and ketanine for the binding sites of IMP in the pulmonary endothelial cells was observed. These results show that IMP can be an agent for nonparticulate lung perfusion scans as well as for metabolic lung scans

  11. Evaluation of pentavalent Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy in small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atasever, T.; Guendogdu, C.; Vural, G.; Kapucu, L.Oe.; Karalezli, A.; Uenlue, M.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Tc-99m (V) DMSA in patients suspected of lung cancer and determine whether this agent may have value in differentiation between small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell (NSCLC) lung carcinoma. Methods: Thirty-six patients with clinical and radiological suspicion of primary lung carcinoma were injected 450-600 MBq of Tc-99m (V) DMSA intravenously. Whole body and planar anterior, posterior thorax images were obtained 4-5 h after injection of the radioactive complex. Results: Histopathological results confirmed 23 NSCLC, 10 SCLC and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma and 2 lung abscess. Nineteen of the 23 (82%) NSCLC and all of the 10 (100%) SCLC cases showed Tc-99m (V) DMSA uptake. Single metastatic lung cancer also accumulated radiotracer. Lung abscess did not show uptake. Lesion/Nonlesion (L/N) ratio of SCLC (1.59±0.32) and NSCLC (1.43±0.19) tumour types did not show statistical difference (p>0.05). Tc-99m (V) DMSA whole body imaging also showed bone metastases. Conclusion: Tc-99m (V) DMSA is a noninvasive and cheap imaging method to detect malignant lung cancers and their bone metastases but, differentiation of SCLC and NSCLC is not possible. (orig.) [de

  12. Cadmium stimulates myofibroblast differentiation and mouse lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xin; Fernandes, Jolyn; Jones, Dean P.; Go, Young-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-dose Cd stimulates differentiation of human lung fibroblast to myofibroblast. • Cd-stimulated fibrosis signaling involves activation of SMAD transcription factor. • Low-dose Cd intake in mice activates myofibroblast differentiation. - Abstract: Increasing evidence suggests that Cd at levels found in the human diet can cause oxidative stress and activate redox-sensitive transcription factors in inflammatory signaling. Following inflammation, tissue repair often involves activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors in fibroblasts. In lungs, epithelial barrier remodeling is required to restore gas exchange and barrier function, and aberrant myofibroblast differentiation leads to pulmonary fibrosis. Contributions of exogenous exposures, such as dietary Cd, to pulmonary fibrosis remain inCompletely defined. In the current study, we tested whether Cd activates fibrotic signaling in human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLF) at micromolar and submicromolar Cd concentrations that do not cause cell death. Exposure of HFLF to low-dose Cd (≤1.0 μM) caused an increase in stress fibers and increased protein levels of myofibroblast differentiation markers, including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and extra-domain-A-containing fibronectin (ED-A-FN). Assay of transcription factor (TF) activity using a 45-TF array showed that Cd increased activity of 12 TF, including SMAD2/3/4 (mothers against decapentaplegic homolog) signaling differentiation and fibrosis. Results were confirmed by real-time PCR and supported by increased expression of target genes of SMAD2/3/4. Immunocytochemistry of lungs of mice exposed to low-dose Cd (0.3 and 1.0 mg/L in drinking water) showed increased α-SMA protein level with lung Cd accumulation similar to lung Cd in non-smoking humans. Together, the results show that relatively low Cd exposures stimulate pulmonary fibrotic signaling and myofibroblast differentiation by activating SMAD2/3/4-dependent signaling. The results

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those...... relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA...

  14. Effects of lung elasticity on the sound propagation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Wada, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masanori; Horii, Noriaki; Mizushima, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Sound propagation in the lung was simulated for gaining insight into its acoustic properties. A thorax model consisting of lung parenchyma, thoracic bones, trachea and other tissues was made from human CT images. Acoustic nature of the lung parenchyma and bones was expressed with the Biot model of poroelastic material, whereas trachea and tissues were modeled with gas and an elastic material. A point sound source of white noises was placed in the first bifurcation of trachea. The sound propagation in the thorax model was simulated in a frequency domain. The results demonstrated the significant attenuation of sound especially in frequencies larger than 1,000 Hz. Simulations with a stiffened lung demonstrated suppression of the sound attenuation for higher frequencies observed in the normal lung. These results indicate that the normal lung has the nature of a low-pass filter, and stiffening helps the sound at higher frequencies to propagate without attenuations. (author)

  15. The possibility of heavy ion radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors in Japan and statisticians predict that the death rate by lung cancer will increase twice or 2.5 times within 10 years. Early detection and early resection are the first task to decrease the death rate, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be improved. In this paper, the present status of surgical treatment for lung cancer was summarized and the possibility of heavy ion therapy for lung cancer was discussed in comparison with surgical result. Overall 5-year survival rates in stages I, II, III and IV were 78%, 42% 29% and 16% respectively. The survival rate in stage I was correlated with tumor size and that in lung cancer of tumor size 2 cm or less was about 90%. If lung cancer is found at early stage, lung cancer can be cured. Limitation of detection of lung cancer is 2.3 mm in hilar squamous cell carcinoma by autofluorescence bronchoscopy and 5-10 mm in peripheral adenocarcinoma by high resolution CT. Less invasive surgery by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was applied to stage I lung cancer and the result was satisfactory. However, most lung cancer patients are heavy smokers with underlying lung diseases including chronic obstructive plumonary disease (COPD) and there are many patients not indicative for less invasive surgery. Preliminary results of heavy ion therapy showed remarkable improvement compared with that with conventional radiation therapy. Three-year survival rate of stage I in Protocol 9802 is 80%, almost the same with that in surgical result, indicating the possibility becoming the established therapeutic modality in stage I lung cancers, in patients with marginal biological function for surgical treatment, in particular. (authors)

  16. Low Tidal Volume Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Liquid Ventilation in Piglets With Severe Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijun; Feng, Huizhen; Chen, Xiaofan; Liang, Kaifeng; Ni, Chengyao

    2017-05-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO 2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively. Extracorporeal CO 2 removal was applied in low tidal volume group to improve CO 2 clearance and in high tidal volume group as sham control. Gas exchange and hemodynamic status were monitored every 30 min during TLV. At the end of the study, pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by collecting lung tissue and blood samples from piglets. Arterial blood pressure, PaO 2 , and PaCO 2 showed no remarkable difference between groups during the observation period. Compared with high tidal volume strategy, low tidal volume resulted in 76% reduction of minute volume and over 80% reduction in peak inspiratory pressure during TLV. In addition, low tidal volume significantly diminished pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic level of IL-6 and IL-8. We conclude that during TLV, low tidal volume reduces lung inflammation in piglets with acute lung injury without compromising gas exchange. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Delayed lung scintigraphy with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine in lung cancer and inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suematsu, Toru; Narabayashi, Isamu; Takada, Yoshiki and others

    1989-01-01

    Lung studies with N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were performed on patients with lung cancer or inflammatory disease. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of the delayed scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 27 patients with lung cancer (34 lesions), 3 with radiation pneumonitis, 2 with interstitial pneumonitis, 2 with old tuberculous lesion (tuberculomas), 1 with diffuse panbronchiolitis, 1 with pneumonia and 1 with lung abscess. The delayed scintigraphy was performed 24 hr after intravenous injection of 3 mCi IMP, in sitting position. In 10 patients, SPECT images were obtained following the delayed scintigraphy. Delayed scintigraphic appearances of lung cancer were classified into 5 types, high IMP uptake in the area congruent with the lesion of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonia (Type I), high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type II), a defect in the area consistent with the tumor and no high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type III), high IMP uptake in the area almost congruent with the tumor (Type IV) and no significant change (Type V). Excluding 10 lesions with Type IV or V, no IMP uptake was seen in the areas congruent with the tumors. Type II was the most frequently observed pattern. Normal scintigrams (Type V) were observed in 8 lesions, whose sizes were fairly small. There was no definite trend caused by difference in histological types of cancers. In 8 patients with viable inflammatory disease of the lung, the delayed scintigrams showed high IMP uptake in the areas congruent with the abnormalities on chest roentgenograms. On the other hand, no uptake was seen in the old tuberculous lesions. (J.P.N.).

  18. Delayed lung scintigraphy with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine in lung cancer and inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Toru; Narabayashi, Isamu; Takada, Yoshiki

    1989-01-01

    Lung studies with N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were performed on patients with lung cancer or inflammatory disease. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of the delayed scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 27 patients with lung cancer (34 lesions), 3 with radiation pneumonitis, 2 with interstitial pneumonitis, 2 with old tuberculous lesion (tuberculomas), 1 with diffuse panbronchiolitis, 1 with pneumonia and 1 with lung abscess. The delayed scintigraphy was performed 24 hr after intravenous injection of 3 mCi IMP, in sitting position. In 10 patients, SPECT images were obtained following the delayed scintigraphy. Delayed scintigraphic appearances of lung cancer were classified into 5 types, high IMP uptake in the area congruent with the lesion of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonia (Type I), high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type II), a defect in the area consistent with the tumor and no high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type III), high IMP uptake in the area almost congruent with the tumor (Type IV) and no significant change (Type V). Excluding 10 lesions with Type IV or V, no IMP uptake was seen in the areas congruent with the tumors. Type II was the most frequently observed pattern. Normal scintigrams (Type V) were observed in 8 lesions, whose sizes were fairly small. There was no definite trend caused by difference in histological types of cancers. In 8 patients with viable inflammatory disease of the lung, the delayed scintigrams showed high IMP uptake in the areas congruent with the abnormalities on chest roentgenograms. On the other hand, no uptake was seen in the old tuberculous lesions. (J.P.N.)