Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...
Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M
Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.
Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir
To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat
[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...
Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C
Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese
Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat
[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.
Lucas, Rudolf; Parikh, Samip J.; Sridhar, Supriya; Guo, De-Huang; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Dong, Yutong; Caldwell, Ruth; Mellor, Andrew; Caldwell, William; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin
Approximately 5–10% of subjects with prediabetes become diabetic every year. Inflammation is involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to date, the relationship between inflammation and prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 5.7 and prediabetes. A total of 21 otherwise healthy, overweight/obese, young adult African American females with prediabetes, together with 20 matched overweight/obese controls, were selected for this study. Plasma cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-6, IL-7, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were significantly higher in the prediabetic group, as compared to the control group (all p prediabetic group, but failed to reach statistical significances. Upon merging both groups, HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with IFN- γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-8, TNF-α and GM-CSF. This study demonstrates elevated levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in overweight/obese young subjects with prediabetes, which place them at higher risk of developing T2D and cardiovascular diseases. Our data also call for further investigations in animal models and population cohorts to establish the roles of a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the early development of obesity-related T2D. PMID:23769592
Sonneville, Kendrin R; Thurston, Idia B; Milliren, Carly E; Gooding, Holly C; Richmond, Tracy K
The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between weight misperception among young adults with overweight/obesity and disordered eating behaviors. In a subsample of young adults with overweight or obesity participating in Wave III (2001-2002) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 5,184), we examined the cross-sectional association between weight under-perception (i.e., perceiving oneself to be at a healthy body weight or underweight) and disordered eating (fasting/meal skipping for weight control, purging/pills for weight control, overeating/loss of control eating, and use of performance-enhancing products/substances). About 20% of young adult females under-perceived their weight compared to 48% of males. Individuals who misperceived their weight as healthy were significantly less likely to report fasting/meal skipping (Females: OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.14-0.43; Males: OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.20-0.48) and vomiting or taking diet pills/laxatives/diuretics (Females: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25; Males: OR: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04-0.25) for weight control. Among females, those who misperceived their weight status as healthy were also less likely to report overeating or loss of control eating (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24-0.71). Greater use of performance-enhancing products/substances was seen among males who under-perceived their weight as healthy (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.57-2.72) and among both females (OR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40-20.0) and males (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.55) who perceived themselves to be underweight. Weight under-perception among young adults with overweight/obesity may convey some benefit related to disordered eating behaviors, but could be a risk factor for the use of performance-enhancing products/substances. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord ; 49:937-946). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Jakicic, John M.; Hebert, James R.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.
With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energy expenditure data, assessed via the SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc.). Frequency and duration of participation in various exercise types was self-reported. Weight status was based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) with body weight and height being measured according to standard procedures. Eighty-four percent of the participants reported regular exercise engagement with no difference in participation rate by sex or BMI category. Exercise time along with sex and ethnicity explained roughly 60% of the variability in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) while the association between exercise and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA or being sedentary was low or nonsignificant. Engagement in endurance exercise and sports contributed predominantly to the variability in energy expenditure and PA in nonoverweight participants. In overweight/obese participants engagement in resistance exercise and swimming contributed significantly to variability in TDEE. Current exercise recommendations focus primarily on aerobic exercise, but results of the present study suggest that nonweight-bearing exercises, such as resistance exercise and swimming, contribute significantly to the variability in TDEE in overweight/obese adults, which would make these types of activities viable options for exercise interventions. PMID:25647557
Cooper, Jennifer N; Fried, Linda; Tepper, Ping; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Conroy, Molly B; Evans, Rhobert W; Mori Brooks, Maria; Woodard, Genevieve A; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim
Recent data suggest excess circulating aldosterone promotes cardiometabolic decline. Weight loss may lower aldosterone levels, but little longitudinal data is available in normotensive adults. We aimed to determine whether, independent of changes in sodium excretion, reductions in serum aldosterone are associated with favorable changes in obesity-related factors in normotensive overweight/obese young adults. We studied 285 overweight/obese young adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25 andobesity-related factors were measured at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Weight loss was significant at 6 (7%), 12 (6%) and 24 months (4%; all Pobesity-related factors are associated with reductions in aldosterone in young adults with no risk factors besides excess weight, an important finding, given aldosterone's emergence as an important cardiometabolic risk factor.
Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is in a general practice trial setting to identify predictive factors for weight loss after 1 year among young adults who are over-weight or obese and who have several psychosocial problems. METHODS: Twenty-eight general practitioners recruited 495 patients aged 20...
Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard
Thirty-two common variants associated with body mass index (BMI) have been identified in genome-wide association studies, explaining ∼1.45% of BMI variation in general population cohorts. We performed a genome-wide association study in a sample of young adults enriched for extremely overweight...
Ptomey, Lauren T; Willis, Erik A; Honas, Jeffery J; Mayo, Matthew S; Washburn, Richard A; Herrmann, Stephen D; Sullivan, Debra K; Donnelly, Joseph E
Recent reports have questioned the adequacy of self-report measures of dietary intake as the basis for scientific conclusions regarding the associations of dietary intake and health, and reports have recommended the development and evaluation of better methods for the assessment of dietary intake in free-living individuals. We developed a procedure that used pre- and post-meal digital photographs in combination with dietary recalls (DP+R) to assess energy intake during ad libitum eating in a cafeteria setting. To compare mean daily energy intake of overweight and obese young adults assessed by a DP+R method with mean total daily energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water (TDEE(DLW)). Energy intake was assessed using the DP+R method in 91 overweight and obese young adults (age = 22.9±3.2 years, body mass index [BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.2±5.6, female=49%) over 7 days of ad libitum eating in a university cafeteria. Foods consumed outside the cafeteria (ie, snacks, non-cafeteria meals) were assessed using multiple-pass recall procedures, using food models and standardized, neutral probing questions. TDEE(DLW) was assessed in all participants over the 14-day period. The mean energy intakes estimated by DP+R and TDEE(DLW) were not significantly different (DP+R=2912±661 kcal/d; TDEE(DLW)=2849±748 kcal/d, P=0.42). The DP+R method overestimated TDEE(DLW) by 63±750 kcal/d (6.8±28%). Results suggest that the DP+R method provides estimates of energy intake comparable to those obtained by TDEE(DLW). Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grech, A; Allman-Farinelli, M
This analysis examines period trends in body weight of Australian 18-24 year olds. Secondary analysis of National Health Surveys was performed, including examination of socio-demographic determinants of obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased from 24.0 and 5.1% in males and 13.2 and 5.8% in females, respectively, in 1995 to 29.3 and 13.8% in males and 20.6 and 20.6% in females in 2012. Mean body mass index (BMI) increased over time from 23.7 (s.d. 3.5) for males and 22.4 (s.d. 4.0) for females in 1995 to 25.2 (s.d. 4.8) and 25.5 (s.d. 5.9) in 2011/2. Lower educational attainment increased the odds of having BMI⩾25.00 kg/m(2) for both sexes (P=0.03 males and Pobesity were higher in rural females (Pobesity epidemic has worsened for Australian young adults and in particular young females.
Stovitz, Steven D; Demerath, Ellen W; Hannan, Peter J; Lytle, Leslie A; Himes, John H
To study whether patterns of height growth differ by adult obesity status, and determine the contribution of subcutaneous fatness as an explanatory variable for any differences. A multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort assessed in 3rd grade (8.8 years), 5th grade (11.1 years), 8th grade (14.1 years), and 12th grade (18.3 years). Exposures were young adult obesity status classified by CDC adult BMI categories at 12th grade. Skinfolds were measured in third, fifth, and eighth grades. Outcome was mean height (cm) at the four measurements using repeated-measures ANCOVA for young adult obesity status, and height increments between grades by adult obesity status in sequential models including initial height and, secondarily, initial skinfolds. Adjusted for age, and race/ethnicity, young adult obesity status explained a small, but statistically significant amount of height growth among both females and males within each of the three intervals. Compared with normal weight young adults, overweight or obese young adults stood taller in childhood, but had relatively less growth in height throughout the teenage years. There was no association between adult height and weight status. Skinfolds explained only a small amount of the height patterns in the three weight groups. Childhood and adolescent height growth patterns differ between those who become young adults who are normal weight and those who become overweight or obese. Since differences in fatness explain only a small amount of these height growth patterns, research is needed to identify other determinants. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Sutharsan, Ratneswary; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah A
Rapid weight gain in early life may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adulthood. We investigated the association between the rate of growth during early childhood and the development of overweight and obesity in young adults. We used a prospective cohort study of 2077 young adults who were born between 1981 and 1984 in Brisbane, Australia and had anthropometry measurements available at birth, 6 months, 5 years, 14 years and 21 years of age. The associations of rate of early growth with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and their categories at 21 years were studied using multivariate analysis. We found that rapid weight gain [> + 0.67 standard deviation score (SDS)] in the first 5 years of life was associated with young adults' overweight status (BMI: adjusted OR = 2.35, 95% CI, 1.82-3.03; WC: adjusted OR = 2.20, 95% CI, 1.65-2.95). We also observed that slow weight gain in the first 5 years of age (young adulthood, in contrast slow weight gain was inversely associated with weight status at 21 years.
Cha, EunSeok; Akazawa, Margeaux K; Kim, Kevin H; Dawkins, Colleen R; Lerner, Hannah M; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Dunbar, Sandra B
Obesity among young adults is a growing problem in the United States and is related to unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as high caloric intake and inadequate exercise. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits across obesity stages is important for informing age-specific intervention strategies to prevent and reduce obesity progression. Using a modified version of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (mEOSS), a new scale for defining obesity risk and predicting obesity morbidity and mortality, this cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of overweight/obese conditions in 105 young adults and compared their lifestyle habits across the mEOSS stages. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and one-way analyses of variance were performed. Eighty percent of participants (n = 83) fell into the mEOSS-2 group and had obesity-related chronic disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia. There were significant differences in dietary quality and patterns across the mEOSS stages. Findings highlighted the significance of prevention and early treatment for overweight and obese young adults to prevent and cease obesity progression. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ray, Sougat; Kulkarni, Bharati; Sreenivas, A.
Background & objectives: Estimation of prevalence of prehypertension in a population and its association with risk factors of cardiovascular disease is important to design preventive programmes. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a healthy military population to assess the prevalence of prehypertension and its association with risk factors such as overweight, abdominal adiposity and dyslipidaemia. Methods: The study included 767 participants (130 officers and 637 from other ranks). The blood pressure, serum triglycerides and serum cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL) were assessed along with anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist-hip ratio in apparently healthy military personnel. Information on smoking, alcohol intake, dietary habits and physical activity was collected using pretested questionnaire. Prehypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 120-139 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 80-89 mm Hg. Results: The overall prevalence of prehypertension was high (about 80%). The prevalence of other risk factors such as overweight (BMI>23 kg/m2), serum total cholesterol > 200 mg/dl, serum LDL cholesterol > 130 mg/dl, serum HDL cholesterol 150 mg/dl in the total group was 30, 22, 22, 67, and 14 per cent, respectively. Most of the personnel undertook moderate or heavy exercise. A significantly higher proportion of individuals with prehypertension had clinical and behavioural risk factors such as overweight, dyslipidaemia and adverse dietary practices like saturated fat and added salt intake. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, prehypertension had significant positive association with BMI>23 kg/m2 (OR 1.75), age (OR 1.89), serum triglyceride >150 mg/dl (OR 2.25)and serum HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl (OR 1.51). Interpretation & conclusions: The high prevalence of prehypertension and its association with overweight and dyslipidaemia in this young, physically active military population indicates an urgent need for
Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff
We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…
Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Levek-Motola, Noa; Kaidar, Kfir; Boyko, Valentina; Tisch, Efrat; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Graf-Barel, Chana; Landau, Zohar; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Frumkin Ben-David, Rachel
We aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children, adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components. The study cohort comprised 326 (168 women) consecutive patients aged 5 to 30 years diagnosed with T1DM and followed up in the Juvenile Diabetes Clinic, Maccabi Health Care Services. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, presence of additional diseases, other medications, HbA1c , triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were obtained. The mean age in the study group was 18.5 ± 6.0 years, and the mean diabetes duration was 8.7 ± 5.0 years. Mean HbA1c level was 8.1 ± 1.3%. Nineteen per cent of the study population was overweight (85th > body mass index obese (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile). Female patients aged 15 ≤ 18 and 18 ≤ 25 years were significantly overweight compared with healthy Israeli women in the same age groups, 33.3% versus 12.7% and 26.3% versus 7.8%, respectively, p 1. There were no obese female patients in the 15 ≤ 18 age group. Among the men in all age groups, there was no difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity compared with healthy men in the general population. There was no difference in the age of onset, disease duration, HbA1c levels, treatment with anti-depressants and associated morbidities between the normal weight, overweight and obese groups. Obese patients had lower levels of HDL and increased prevalence of hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Overweight but not obesity was more prevalent in women with T1DM. Metabolic syndrome and its components were more prevalent among overweight and obese individuals with T1DM than among normal weight individuals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Khan, S; Barrington, G; Bettiol, S; Barnett, T; Crocombe, L
Obesity in young adults and adolescents is associated with chronic co-morbidities. This project investigated whether being overweight or obese is a risk factor for periodontitis in adolescents (13-17 years) and young adults (18-34 years). A search of 12 databases was conducted using Medical Subject Headings/Index and Emtree terms. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, articles published between 2003 and 2016 were screened that reported periodontal and anthropometric measures. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to appraise the quality of studies. Of 25 eligible studies from 12 countries, 17 showed an association between obesity and periodontitis (odds ratios ranged from 1.1 to 4.5). The obesity indicators of body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and body fat percentage were significantly associated with measures of periodontitis of bleeding on probing, plaque index, probing depths, clinical attachment loss, calculus, oral hygiene index and community periodontal index. Two prospective cohort studies in the review showed no significant association between obesity and periodontitis, but these studies had limitations of study design and used inappropriate epidemiological diagnostic measures of periodontitis. There was evidence to suggest that obesity is associated with periodontitis in adolescents and young adults. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42016046507. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.
Conclusion: A strong sense of meaningfulness and better recovery from stress predict an increase in PA among physically inactive and overweight young adults. Therefore, participants with a low sense of meaningfulness and low recovery from stress may require support from other interventions to be able to increase their PA.
Coll, Josep L; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Tur, Josep A
This article aimed at assessing the 10-year trends (2000-2010) in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for young (18-35 year-olds) and middle-aged (36-55 year-olds) adults living in the Balearics was calculated. Data represented 1,089 people during 1999-2000 and 1,081 people during 2009-2010. The BMI categories were as follows: normal weight (18.5 obese (≥30). Weighted frequency estimates and logistic regression analysis were used to calculate overweight and obesity trends. While the prevalence of overweight and obesity mostly remained stable over the 2000-2010 period, the prevalence of obesity increased from 5.1 to 8.3% in young adults (aged 18-35), a 1.66-fold increase in prevalence (95% CI 1.02-2.70) over the study period. Total overweight and obesity prevalence remained stable in the Balearic adult population; however, a rising prevalence of obesity has been observed in young adults, which suggests a need to develop and change current strategies in order to reverse the current trends in obesity among this age group. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
At action level II, there was no obese male. Conclusion: This study revealed that underweight, overweight and obesity exist in young adults, but overweight and obesity are more prevalent. Therefore, concerted efforts should be made to control this in young adults for their present well-being and to possibly avoid the risk of ...
... Step in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight & Obesity View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts The terms “overweight” and “obesity” refer to body weight that is greater than ...
Higgins, Simon; Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous cycle training (MICT), with equal estimated energy expenditure during training on body composition and aerobic capacity. Body composition measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic capacity were assessed following 6 weeks of training in previously inactive overweight/obese young women (n = 52; age, 20.4 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 30.3 ± 4.5 kg·m -2 , 67.3% white). Training was performed in a group-exercise format that mimicked cycling classes offered by commercial fitness facilities, and included 3 weekly sessions of either 30-s "all-out" sprints followed by 4 min of active recovery (SIT), or continuous cycling at 60%-70% heart rate reserve to expend a similar amount of energy. Participants were randomized to SIT or MICT, attended a similar number of sessions (15.0 ± 1.5 sessions vs. 15.8 ± 1.9 sessions, P = 0.097) and expended a similar amount of energy (541.8 ± 104.6 kJ·session -1 vs. 553.5 ± 138.1 kJ·session -1 , P = 0.250). Without significant changes in body mass (P > 0.05), greater relative reductions occurred in SIT than in MICT in total fat mass (3.6% ± 5.6% vs. 0.6% ± 3.9%, P = 0.007), and android fat mass (6.6% ± 6.9% vs. 0.7% ± 6.5%, P = 0.002). Aerobic capacity (mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) increased significantly following both interventions (P interval cycling reduces adiposity and increases aerobic capacity more than continuous moderate-intensity cycling of equal estimated energy expenditure in overweight/obese young women.
Podina, Ioana R; Fodor, Liviu A; Cosmoiu, Ana; Boian, Rareș
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-line of treatment for overweight and obesity patients whose problems originate in maladaptive eating habits (e.g., emotional eating). However, in-person CBT is currently difficult to access by large segments of the population. The proposed SIGMA intervention (i.e., the Self-help, Integrated, and Gamified Mobile-phone Application) is a mHealth intervention based on CBT principles. It specifically targets overweight young adults with underlying maladaptive behaviors and cognitions regarding food. The SIGMA app was designed as a serious game and intended to work as a standalone app for weight maintenance or alongside a calorie-restrictive diet for weight loss. It uses a complex and novel scoring system that allows points earned within the game to be supplemented by points earned during outdoor activities with the help of an embedded pedometer. The efficacy of the SIGMA mHealth intervention will be investigated within a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The intervention will be set to last 2 months with a 3-month follow-up. Selected participants will be young overweight adults with non-clinical maladaptive eating habits embodied by food cravings, binge eating, and emotional eating. The primary outcomes will be represented by changes in (1) self-reported maladaptive thoughts related to eating and body weight, (2) self-reported maladaptive eating behaviors in the range of urgent food cravings, emotional eating or binge eating, (3) as well as biased attentional processing of food items as indexed by reaction times. Secondary outcomes will be represented by changes in weight, Body Mass Index, general mood, and physical activity as indexed by the number of steps per day. Through an evidence-based cognitive behavioral approach and a user-friendly game interface, the SIGMA intervention offers a significant contribution to the development of a cost-effective and preventive self-help tool for young overweight adults with
Cha, EunSeok; Akazawa, Margeaux K.; Kim, Kevin H.; Dawkins, Colleen R.; Lerner, Hannah M.; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Dunbar, Sandra B.
Obesity among young adults is a growing problem in the United States and is related to unhealthy lifestyle habits such as high caloric intake and inadequate exercise. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits across obesity stages is important for informing age-specific intervention strategies to prevent and reduce obesity progression. Using a modified version of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (mEOSS), a new scale for defining obesity risk and predicting obesity morbidity and mortality, th...
Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J
Although lesbian women are more likely to be obese compared to heterosexual women, relatively little research has examined correlates of overweight and obesity among lesbians. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of minority stress and depression, relationship quality, and alcohol-use variables to overweight and obesity among lesbians in relationships. Self-identified lesbians (n=737) in current relationships completed measures of demographics, minority stress, depressive symptoms, relationship variables, and alcohol use. Overweight and obesity were associated with more public identification as a lesbian, more depressive symptoms, increased heavy drinking, longer relationship length, and lower relationship consensus. Health promotion and weight loss intervention programs for lesbians should incorporate psychological, relationship, and alcohol use components to reduce overweight and obesity among lesbians.
Manco, L; Dias, H; Muc, M; Padez, C
Several studies reported associations of the lactase gene (LCT) polymorphism -13910C>T (rs4988235) with obesity-related variables and obesity in adults. This study aimed to replicate previously reported associations in a population sample of Portuguese young adults. We genotyped 447 subjects from central and northern regions of Portugal (mean age 20.81±4.24 years) for the lactase variant -13910C>T (rs4988235), using TaqMan probes. Anthropometric variables (weight, height and body fat) were measured using standardized procedures and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ) was calculated. Frequency of genotypes was 35.8% CC (lactase nonpersistent, LNP), 48.1% CT and 16.1% TT, consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P=1). The frequency for the minor -13910 T allele was 0.402. Assuming a dominance model for the lactase persistence (LP) minor T-allele, linear regression models showed statistically significant associations between the LP genotype CT/TT and BMI, fat mass and weight (β=1.114, P=0.003; β=1.309, P=0.007 and β=2.67, P=0.021, respectively) after adjustment for age and sex. In concordance, logistic regression showed significant association between LP genotype CT/TT and overweight/obesity (OR=1.77; CI 1.08-2.92; P=0.023), as well as with high fat percentage ranges (OR=1.58; CI 1.01-2.46; P=0.041), when adjusting for age and sex. No significant interaction was obtained between the LCT polymorphism and physical activity for BMI (P int =0.454) or FAT % (P int =0.421). In the Portuguese sample of young adults, the lactase -13910C>T polymorphism revealed significant associations with the obesity-related anthropometric variables BMI, fat mass and weight, and previously observed associations with the obesity risk were also confirmed.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group. Median body mass index (BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2 were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02 and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06 was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively. Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31. There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. CONCLUSION: Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.
Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten
Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0.06) was higher in the exposed group. Conscripts exposed 6 to 0 months before conception and during pregnancy had a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03; 1.27 and odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.25, respectively). Conscripts born to mothers who experienced death of the child's biological father before child birth had a two-fold risk of obesity (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI: 0.93; 4.31). There was no elevated risk in those who experienced maternal bereavement postnatally. Maternal bereavement during the prenatal period was associated with increased risk of overweight or obesity in a group of young male conscripts, and this may possibly be reflected to severe stress exposure early in life. However, not all associations were clear, and further studies are warranted.
Hohwü, Lena; Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stress may programme overweight and obesity. We examined whether maternal pre- and post-natal bereavement was associated with overweight and obesity in young men. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted including 119,908 men born from 1976 to 1993 and examined for military...... service between 2006 and 2011. Among them, 4,813 conscripts were born to mothers bereaved by death of a close relative from 12 months preconception to birth of the child (exposed group). Median body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated. Odds ratio of overweight (BMI≥25...... kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusted for maternal educational level. RESULTS: Median BMI was similar in the exposed and the unexposed group but the prevalence of overweight (33.3% versus 30.4%, p = 0.02) and obesity (9.8% versus 8.5%, p = 0...
Salehi, P; Hsu, I; Azen, C G; Mittelman, S D; Geffner, M E; Jeandron, D
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is associated with hyperphagia and hyperghrelinemia with major morbidity because of obesity without effective medical treatment targeting hyperphagia. Exenatide (Byetta [synthetic Exendin-4]; AstraZeneca, Wilmington DE) is a GLP-1 receptor agonist which reduces appetite and weight and may be an effective treatment in PWS. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of a 6-month trial of exenatide on appetite, weight and gut hormones in youth with PWS. Ten overweight and obese subjects with PWS (13-25 years) were recruited for a 6-month open-label, non-randomized, longitudinal study conducted at Children's Hospital Los Angeles. Exenatide was given using standard diabetes dosing without dietary modifications. Weight, body mass index (BMI), truncal fat, appetite and plasma acylated ghrelin were measured over 6 months. Mixed meal tolerance tests were performed at 0 and 6 months. Appetite scores significantly decreased from baseline (32.2 ± 8.7) after 1, 3 and 6 moths of treatment (27.5 ± 8.8, 25.4 ± 9.3, and 25.4 ± 7.2 respectively; p = 0.004). Hemoglobin A1c decreased significantly after treatment, but weight, BMI z-score and adiposity did not. There was no significant change in ghrelin. This is the first longitudinal investigation of the effects of exenatide in subjects with PWS. It was effective in decreasing appetite, without change in weight or BMI in the short term. Larger, controlled, longer-term trials in patients with PWS are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of exenatide and to evaluate whether its use might induce weight loss when given in conjunction with behavioural modification. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 1999-2006.
Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Radcliffe, John D; O'Neil, Carol E; Liu, Yan
To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA. Young adults (20–39 years of age). Among these young adults (n 5316), 23.8% were BS, 16.5% were RTEC consumers and 59.7% were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31%, 39%, 37%, 28%, 23%, 40% and 42% less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1.24, 1.26 and 1.44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22%, 31% and 24% less likely to be overweight/ obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed. Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in U.S. young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.
Ljubisavljevic, M; Maxood, K; Bjekic, J; Oommen, J; Nagelkerke, N
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in the regulation of food intake. Several previous studies demonstrated that a single session of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC reduces food craving and caloric intake. We hypothesized that repeated tDCS of the right DLPFC cortex may exert long-term changes in food craving in young, healthy adults and that these changes may differ between normal and overweight subjects. Thirty healthy individuals who reported frequent food cravings without a prior history of eating disorders were initially recruited. Subjects were randomized into an ACTIVE group who received 5 days of real tDCS (20 minutes, anode right-cathode left montage, 2 mA with current density kept at 0.06 mA/cm2, 1 min ramp-up/ramp-down), and a SHAM group, who received one day of real tDCS, on the first day (same parameters), followed by 4 days of sham tDCS. Food craving intensity was examined by Food Craving Questionnaires State and Trait and Food Craving Inventory before, during, (5-days) and one month (30-days) after tDCS. Single session of tDCS significantly reduced the intensity of current food craving (FCQ-S). Five days of active tDCS significantly reduced habitual experiences of food craving (FCQ-T), when compared to baseline pre-stimulation levels. Furthermore, both current (FCQ-S) and habitual craving (FCQ-T) were significantly reduced 30 days after active tDCS, while sham tDCS, i.e. a single tDCS session did not have significant effects. Also, active tDCS significantly decreased craving for fast food and sweets, and to a lesser degree for fat, while it did not have significant effects on craving for carbohydrates (FCI). There were no significant differences between individual FCQ-T subscales (craving dimensions) after 5 or 30 days of either sham or active tDCS. Changes in craving were not significantly associated with the initial weight, or with weight changes 30 days after the stimulation in the
Beals, Joseph W; Sukiennik, Richard A; Nallabelli, Julian; Emmons, Russell S; van Vliet, Stephan; Young, Justin R; Ulanov, Alexander V; Li, Zhong; Paluska, Scott A; De Lisio, Michael; Burd, Nicholas A
Excess body fat diminishes muscle protein synthesis rates in response to hyperinsulinemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps. However, muscle protein synthetic responses after the ingestion of a protein-dense food source across a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) have not been compared. We compared the myofibrillar protein synthetic response and underlying nutrient-sensing mechanisms after the ingestion of lean pork between obese, overweight, and healthy-weight adults. Ten healthy-weight [HW; BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 22.7 ± 0.4], 10 overweight (OW; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.5), and 10 obese (OB; BMI: 35.9 ± 1.3) adults received primed continuous l-[ring- 13 C 6 ]phenylalanine infusions. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after the ingestion of 170 g pork (36 g protein and 3 g fat) to assess skeletal muscle anabolic signaling, amino acid transporters [large neutral and small neutral amino acid transporters (LAT1, SNAT2) and CD98], and myofibrillar protein synthesis. At baseline, OW and OB groups showed greater relative amounts of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein than the HW group. Pork ingestion increased mTORC1 phosphorylation only in the HW group (P = 0.001). LAT1 and SNAT2 protein content increased during the postprandial period in all groups (time effect, P anabolic signals, that reduces muscle sensitivity to food ingestion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02613767. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available Background: Wearable magneto-inertial sensors are being increasingly used to obtain human motion measurements out of the lab, although their performance in applications requiring high accuracy, such as gait analysis, are still a subject of debate. The aim of this work was to validate a gait analysis system (H-Gait based on magneto-inertial sensors, both in normal weight (NW and overweight/obese (OW subjects. The validation is performed against a reference multichannel recording system (STEP32, providing direct measurements of gait timings (through foot-switches and joint angles in the sagittal plane (through electrogoniometers. Methods: Twenty-two young male subjects were recruited for the study (12 NW, 10 OW. After positioning body-fixed sensors of both systems, each subject was asked to walk, at a self-selected speed, over a 14-m straight path for 12 trials. Gait signals were recorded, at the same time, with the two systems. Spatio-temporal parameters, ankle, knee, and hip joint kinematics were extracted analyzing an average of 89 ± 13 gait cycles from each lower limb. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altmann plots were used to compare H-Gait and STEP32 measurements. Changes in gait parameters and joint kinematics of OW with respect NW were also evaluated. Results: The two systems were highly consistent for cadence, while a lower agreement was found for the other spatio-temporal parameters. Ankle and knee joint kinematics is overall comparable. Joint ROMs values were slightly lower for H-Gait with respect to STEP32 for the ankle (by 1.9° for NW, and 1.6° for OW and for the knee (by 4.1° for NW, and 1.8° for OW. More evident differences were found for hip joint, with ROMs values higher for H-Gait (by 6.8° for NW, and 9.5° for OW. NW and OW showed significant differences considering STEP32 (p = 0.0004, but not H-Gait (p = 0.06. In particular, overweight/obese subjects showed a higher cadence (55.0 vs. 52.3 strides/min and a
Partridge, S R; Juan, S J-H; McGeechan, K; Bauman, A; Allman-Farinelli, M
Young adulthood is a high-risk life stage for weight gain. Evidence is needed to translate behavioural approaches into community practice to prevent weight gain in young adults. This systematic review assessed the effectiveness and reporting of external validity components in prevention interventions. The search was limited to randomized controlled trial (RCT) lifestyle interventions for the prevention of weight gain in young adults (18-35 years). Mean body weight and/or body mass index (BMI) change were the primary outcomes. External validity, quality assessment and risk of bias tools were applied to all studies. Twenty-one RCTs were identified through 14 major electronic databases. Over half of the studies were effective in the short term for significantly reducing body weight and/or BMI; however, few showed long-term maintenance. All studies lacked full reporting on external validity components. Description of the intervention components and participant attrition rates were reported by most studies. However, few studies reported the representativeness of participants, effectiveness of recruitment methods, process evaluation detail or costs. It is unclear from the information reported how to implement the interventions into community practice. Integrated reporting of intervention effectiveness and enhanced reporting of external validity components are needed for the translation and potential upscale of prevention strategies. © 2014 World Obesity.
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...
Epstein, Connie C.
Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)
MSc Annemieke van Nunen; PhD Ad Vingerhoets; MD E.J.M. Wouters; PhD Rinie Geenen
Objective: Health beliefs of overweight adults who did and did not enter an exercise program were compared to identify possible factors that hamper people to increase physical exercise. Method: Participants (n = 116, 78 women and 38 men) were overweight adults without comorbidities. Self-report
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.
Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror
The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.
Jun 15, 2011 ... Obesity in Developing Countries: People are Overweight But Still Not Well Nourished. Available. Sola, et al.: Underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. [Downloaded from http://www.annalsafrmed.org on Wednesday, June 15, 2011, IP: 220.127.116.11] || Click here to download free Android application ...
Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael
Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing...
Rancourt, Diana; Thurston, Idia B; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Milliren, Carly E; Richmond, Tracy K
Accurate perception of one's weight status is believed to be necessary to motivate weight loss intention and subsequent weight loss among those with overweight/obesity. This proposed pathway, however, is understudied in longitudinal research. This study examined the indirect effect of weight change intention on the relationship between weight status perception and BMI change among adolescents with overweight/obesity. Participants included 2664 adolescents with overweight/obesity (52% female) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Longitudinal associations between Wave II weight status perception (accurate versus misperception) and intent to change weight (i.e., gain, lose, stay the same) on BMI change (Wave II-Wave IV) were examined using multiple linear regression. Indirect effects of weight change intention were investigated using the Monte Carlo method. Analyses were stratified by gender. Accurate perceivers (81.0% female; 60.1% male) were more likely than misperceivers (i.e., perception of "about the right weight") to report weight loss intention (p<0.001). Among females, weight status misperception and weight loss intention individually were associated with smaller (β=-1.37, 95% CI [-2.64, -0.10]) and greater (β=1.18, 95% CI [0.11, 2.25]) BMI gains, respectively. Among males, fully adjusted models suggested that weight status misperception was associated with significantly smaller gains in BMI over time (β=-1.51, 95% CI [-2.38, -0.63]). Weight change intention did not emerge as an indirect effect for either gender. Although weight status misperception was protective against weight gain, weight change intention did not provide an explanation for this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A
To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.
Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna
This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.
Jahangir, Eiman; De Schutter, Alban; Lavie, Carl J
The prevalence of individuals who are overweight or obese is growing exponentially in the United States and worldwide. This growth is concerning, as both overweightness and obesity lead to impaired physical function, decreased quality of life, and increased risk of chronic diseases. Additionally, overweightness and obesity are related to increased mortality among young and middle-aged adults. This weight-related risk of mortality is more ambiguous among older adults. In fact, obesity may be protective in this population, a relationship described as the "obesity paradox". In this review we discuss the effects of overweightness and obesity among the elderly on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, along with the risks of low weight. We conclude by discussing the goal of weight management among older adults, focusing particularly on benefits of preserving lean body mass and muscular strength while stabilizing body fat. Ideally, overweight or mildly obese elderly individuals should devise a plan with their physicians to maintain their weight, while increasing lean body mass through a plan of healthy diet, behavioral therapy, and physical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018
Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon
Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.
Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström
Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because
Trinh, Oanh T H; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Dibley, Michael J; Bauman, Adrian E
To determine the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) using Caucasian and Asian cut-offs. A cross-sectional survey. In 2005, 1,971 adults aged 25-64 years in HCMC were randomly selected using a proportional to population size sampling method to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Multivariable logistic models were used to examine associations between overweight/obesity and socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and biochemical indices of chronic disease risk. The prevalence of overweight and obesity using the Caucasian BMI cut-offs were 13.9% and 1.8% respectively, and those with the Asian BMI cut-offs were 27.5% and 5.7%, respectively. The abdominal adiposity rates were higher than the BMI overweight and obesity rates in women, but not in men. Increasing age, low education, high household wealth index, high levels of sitting and reclining time, cholesterol and high blood pressure were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Current smoking and sedentary leisure time was significantly negatively associated with this status in men. Associations between overweight/obesity and metabolic disorders were evident using both cut-offs. Asian cut-offs identified more risk factors and therefore could be considered for defining at-risk groups. The results highlight the importance of intervention programs to prevent overweight/obesity in young adults.
Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W
The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: Obesity has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, several cancers and numerous other Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs).The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural adults in North Central Nigeria. Methods: A ...
Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity Among Urban Nigeria Adults In Jos. ... to be associated with non-communicable disease (NCDS) like type 2 Diabetes, ... and obesity was 21.4% (19.4%) in males and 23.5% in females (M:F= 1:1.3, ...
Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and hematologic (such as deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or
Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…
Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I
Cross-sectional studies of adult males have shown that intelligence test score and educational level are inversely correlated to obesity. This study prospectively assessed whether school difficulties in the third school grade are related to the risk of overweight and obesity in young adulthood....... In 1974, body weight, height and social background were ascertained in 987 randomly-selected Copenhagen third graders. For each child, information about learning difficulties, scholastic proficiency, special education received, scholarly difficulties, reduced hearing, speech handicap, and speech...... or hearing education received was obtained. When the subjects were 20-21 years old, they reported their height and weight. The risk of being obese (above the 95th percentile of body mass index distribution) in young adulthood was assessed by logistic regression analysis taking social background, body mass...
Young adults are especially distressed by skin conditions that are uncomfortable, ... treatment are as for teenage acne. ... sive cases are treated with low to medium ... This is usually mild and self-limiting, ... loss of confidence, and depression,.
Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J
Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21-30) compared with participants over age 30. Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a nonsignificant difference between age groups). Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group.
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.
Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.
Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included.
Kim, Byung-Mi; Lee, Bo-Eun; Park, Hye-Sook; Kim, Young-Ju; Suh, Young-Ju; Kim, Jeong-Youn; Shin, Ji-Young; Ha, Eun-Hee
Previous studies have identified a link between gender and the various risk factors associated with obesity. We examined obesity risk factors in working adults to identify the effects of differences in body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) between women and men. A total of 1,120 adults agreed to participate in the study. Data from 711 participants, including 411 women and 300 men, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of risk factors on obesity and being overweight. In addition, the least-squares (LS) means of both BMI and PBF were estimated by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in a generalized linear model. Increases in BMI and PBF were significantly related to an age > 50 years and long working hours in women after compensating for confounding factors. Using the PBF criterion, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight or obese in women > 50 years of age who worked for > 9 h a day was 3.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-11.00). For BMI, women who were > 50 years of age and worked for > 9 h a day were 3.82 times (95% CI, 1.31-11.14) more likely to be overweight or obese than those who were worked for working adults was associated with > 50 years of age and long working hours in women. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship and its potential implications for the prevention and management of excess weight and obesity.
Cha, EunSeok; Crowe, James M; Braxter, Betty J; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski
To better understand health-related decision making among overweight and obese emerging adults. A cross-sectional design was used in the parent study involving overweight and obese emerging adults, ages 18-29 years. The goal of the parent study was to screen participants' diabetes risk and identify characteristics of emerging adults with prediabetes (N=107). A sub-sample of respondents (n=34) from the parent study were invited to participate in focus group interviews depending on whether they had prediabetes (three groups) or they did not have prediabetes (four groups). Each focus group interview lasted 90-120 minutes following a semi-structured interview guide. Conventional content analysis was used in the data analysis. Because of the similarities between participants with and without prediabetes, the findings were synthesized and reported in the aggregate. Moreover, during the analysis, the authors decided that rational choice theory provided a useful organizing structure for presenting the data. Emerging adults' behavioral decisions were rational reactions to their personal competence, perception of health, environment, and availability of resources to handle problems. Calculation of trade-offs and estimations of resource availability were often used when making decisions. Emerging adults choose unhealthy behaviors due to inaccurate information and insufficient competence to practice healthy lifestyles rather than because of laziness or being irrational. Behavioral interventions for emerging adults need to help them develop skills to enhance health literacy and problem solving, thereby enhancing their awareness of available resources and decreasing the perceived cost of making healthy choices. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Damiri, Basma; Aghbar, Amir; Alkhdour, Saja; Arafat, Yousef
Metabolic Syndrome "MetS" is characterized by the presence of several factors that play a major role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of MetS and its individual components among the overweight and obese students at An-Najah National University (ANU) using IDF and modified NCEP ATP III definition and to identify conditions associated with it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016. Data were collected in two stages: first stage included anthropometric and blood pressure measurements for 850 participants. Second stage included a self-administered questionnaire and biochemical analysis for only overweight or obese (154) participants. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 26.2%, with significant increase among males (36.4%) compared with females (19.1%). The prevalence of MetS among obese and overweight was (28.6%) according to IDF with no significant increase compared to NCEP ATP criteria (24%). Reduced HDL- cholesterol was the most prevalent component (74.7%) in obese and overweight participants followed by central obesity (72.1%), raised blood pressure (29.9%), elevated fasting blood sugar (24%), and lastly increased triglycerides (18.2%). No significant differences were found between males and females according to both criteria. Moreover, no significant associations with geographic locality, house-hold income, smoking, physical activity, or family history were determined. The prevalence of MetS among overweight and obese young adult Palestinians was high and demands immediate intervention, given the potential for these adults to develop chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill
While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…
...-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended... TRICARE Program coverage made available for purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage...
Top of the News, 1984
This 22-item filmography of 16mm films recommended for use in programs planned for young adults was compiled by the Selected Films for Young Adults Committee, Young Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Producers, directors, distributors, length, price, and brief annotations are provided. Addresses for 12 distributors are…
Cuypers, Koenraad; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Bratberg, Grete Helen; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid Lingaas
Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13–19 yrs) who were followed up as young adults (24–30 yrs) in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations an...
Mendy, Vincent L.; Vargas, Rodolfo; Cannon-Smith, Gerri; Payton, Marinelle
Introduction In 2015, about 1.5 million adults in Mississippi were overweight or obese. Obesity is associated with increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular problems. We examined trends in the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity from 2001 through 2010 and 2011 through 2015. Methods We used data from the Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to analyze trends in the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults from 2001 through 20...
Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...
Ames, Megan; Leadbeater, Bonnie
This longitudinal study investigates whether there are particularly salient ages when being overweight is related to problems in interpersonal relationships (i.e., physical, relational, and verbal victimization, lack of friend social support, dating status, and romantic relationship worries). Participants were from a large, six-wave longitudinal…
Gómez Puente, Juana María; Martínez-Marcos, Mercedes
To identify the most effective interventions in overweight and obese adults. A narrative review through a search of the literature in databases PubMed, Cochrane, Joanna Briggs Institute, EMBASE, Cuiden y Cinahl with free and controlled language (MeSH terms) using Boolean operators AND and NOT. The research was limited to articles published between 2007 and 2015. Eighteen articles were selected based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Different types of interventions were identified based on the modification of lifestyles, mainly diet, physical activity and behavior. Major differences were found in specific content, degree of intensity of interventions, time tracking and elements evaluated. Most of studies found statistically significant weight loss but this was limited in terms of weight and number of people. Web-based interventions have no uniform effect on weight loss but achieve similar levels to face-to-face interventions in maintaining weight loss. The combination of personalised diet, exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy is the most effective form of intervention in overweight and obesity. There is insufficient data to indicate whether group or individual interventions are more effective. Online intervention allows greater accessibility and lower cost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Brander, Birgitte Gade
Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...
Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Hills, Andrew P; Misra, Anoop
Obesity among teenagers/adolescents and young adults is associated with significant adverse short and longer-term effects on health. To date, no narrative reviews have evaluated nutrition transition and its contribution to the obesity epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the South Asian (SA) region. Data were retrieved by a four-stage systematic search process. A search of the online Pub- Med/Medline, SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed. The age groups were defined as follows; teenage:13-19 years, adolescence:10-18 years and young adult:19-24 years. Among teenagers/adolescents, the prevalence of overweight ranged from 11.0% (Sri Lanka) to 19.0% (India), while obesity ranged from 2.4% (Sri Lanka) to 11.0% (Pakistan). In young adults, prevalence of overweight ranged between 7.9% (Nepal) to 15.0% (Pakistan), while obesity showed a much wider variation (0.005%[Nepal] - 22.8%[India]). Nutritional risk factors associated with overweight/ obesity among SAs of this age group included reduced fruit and vegetable consumption, a total vegetarian diet, consumption of fast food and soft drinks, and skipping breakfast. Other contributing factors identified were: adding extra salt to meals, eating meals outside of the home, frequently visiting restaurants and eating while watching television. Daily milk/yoghurt consumption and a family supper have shown a protective effect against overweight/obesity. Overweight and obesity are common amongst teenagers/adolescents and young adults of the SA region. Several food types and habits were identified as being associated with overweight/ obesity in this population. Identifying common protective and contributory factors is very important for the development of a shared regional preventive strategy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J
Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.
Hoek, van E.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Bouwman, L.I.; Janse, A.J.
Abstract Background: Treatment programs for overweight and obese young children are of variable effectiveness, and the characteristics of effective programs are unknown. In this systematic review with meta-analysis, the effectiveness of treatment programs for these children is summarized. Methods:
de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K
Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.
Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.
Leyk, Dieter; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Moedl, Anne; Blettner, Maria; Hackfort, Dieter; Löllgen, Herbert
The health and physical fitness of adolescents and young adults are important not just to the individuals concerned, but also to society as a whole. Many studies from many different countries have dealt with the prevalence of overweight, the risk factors for it, and the morbidity it causes, but no more than a few have addressed the effects of unhealthy lifestyles on physical fitness. In this study, we show that young adults' physical performance depends on the number of risk factors they possess. We also compare the young adults' physical performance with that of adolescents aged 10 to 17. We obtained cross-sectional data on the weight, smoking status, athletic activity, time to run 1 km, and ability to perform a chin-up on a horizontal bar of 8048 subjects aged 10 to 25. The young adults were divided into groups depending on the number of risk factors they possessed from the following list: overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. 28.4% of the men and 35.4% of the women aged 18 to 25 had none of these risk factors and exhibited the best physical performance. The more risk factors were present, the worse physical performance became. The 24- and 25-year-olds performed at the same level as the 14- and 15-year-olds. Unhealthy lifestyles can impair physical fitness even before any chronic disease arises. Possession of even a single risk factor is associated with significantly worse performance. Unless comprehensive and effective interventions are introduced in school and at work, the further cementation and worsening of unhealthy lifestyles will be hard to stop.
Full Text Available Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13–19 yrs who were followed up as young adults (24–30 yrs in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations and regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between self-perceived overweight and change in BMI or waist circumference (WC adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and other relevant cofactors. Results. Adolescents, defined as being normal weight, but who perceived themselves as overweight had a larger weight gain into young adulthood than adolescents who perceived themselves as normal weight (difference in BMI: 0.66 units [CI95%: 0.1, 1.2] and in WC: 3.46 cm [CI95%: 1.8, 5.1]. Level of physical activity was not found to moderate this association. Conclusions. This study reveals that self-perceived overweight during adolescence may affect development of weight from adolescence into young adulthood. This highlights the importance of also focusing on body image in public health interventions against obesity, favouring a “healthy” body weight taking into account natural differences in body shapes.
Cuypers, Koenraad; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Bratberg, Grete; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid Lingaas
Objectives. To explore if self-perceived overweight in normal weight adolescents influence their weight development into young adulthood and if so, whether physical activity moderates this association. Methods. A longitudinal study of 1196 normal weight adolescents (13-19 yrs) who were followed up as young adults (24-30 yrs) in the HUNT study. Lifestyle and health issues were assessed employing questionnaires, and standardized anthropometric measurements were taken. Chi square calculations and regression analyses were performed to investigate the associations between self-perceived overweight and change in BMI or waist circumference (WC) adjusted for age, age squared, sex, and other relevant cofactors. Results. Adolescents, defined as being normal weight, but who perceived themselves as overweight had a larger weight gain into young adulthood than adolescents who perceived themselves as normal weight (difference in BMI: 0.66 units [CI95%: 0.1, 1.2] and in WC: 3.46 cm [CI95%: 1.8, 5.1]). Level of physical activity was not found to moderate this association. Conclusions. This study reveals that self-perceived overweight during adolescence may affect development of weight from adolescence into young adulthood. This highlights the importance of also focusing on body image in public health interventions against obesity, favouring a "healthy" body weight taking into account natural differences in body shapes.
Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven
Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…
Khambalia, A Z; Seen, L S
Like other nations experiencing rapid industrialization, urbanization and a nutrition transition, there is concern in Malaysia of a possible escalation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. In 1996, the National Health and Morbidity Survey reported a 16.6% and 4.4% prevalence of overweight and obesity, respectively. In the following decade, there have been several national and community surveys on overweight and obesity in Malaysia. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the trend from 1996 to 2009 in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in Malaysia nationally and by gender, age and race. Results indicate that there has been a small rise in overweight adults in the years 1996, 2003 and 2006 (20.7%, 26.7% and 29.1%) and a much more dramatic increase in obesity in 1996, 2003, 2004 and 2006 (5.5%, 12.2%, 12.3% and 14.0%). Evidence showed a greater risk for overweight and obesity among women compared with men. Based on the highest-quality studies, overweight and obesity levels were highest among adults 40-59 years old. Overweight levels were highest among Indians, followed by Malays, Chinese and Aboriginals, with less consistency across studies on the order of risk or obesity by ethnicity.
Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R
Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities. However, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and type of disability among adults who are obese. Pooled data from the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type and obesity. The disability prevalence was stratified by body mass index (BMI): healthy weight (BMI 18.5-reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of those with a healthy weight and 28.5% of those who were overweight reported a disability. The most common disabilities among respondents with obesity were movement difficulty (32.5%) and work limitation (16.6%). This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in assessing the burden of obesity. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E
Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.
Foster, Harold M.
Discusses films based on young adult novels and why they are often considered failures. Describes various films about young adults and their problems that have proven to be artistic successes. Gives close attention to film versions of S. E. Hinton's novels and of Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War." (HB)
Warren C. Sanderson
Full Text Available Many young working age adults in developed countries are failing to thrive in economic, demographic and social terms. Their failure to thrive is a relatively new phenomenon that has not been widely recognized, but it affects young adults in virtually all the more developed countries for which we have relevant data. Young adults nowadays are more often in poverty. They are leaving their parental homes at ever later ages and in some countries the frequency of psychological problems increased. The seriousness of failure to thrive syndrome is reflected in the relationship between relative economic conditions and increased suicide rates. The syndrome is important because young adults are at the prime ages for finding employment, establishing long-run career paths and building an economic basis for founding a family. Developing strategies to arrest the spread of failure to thrive syndrome among young adults, in order to keep them vibrant contributors to our societies, should be a priority for policy makers.
Hung, Shang-Ping; Chen, Ching-Yu; Guo, Fei-Ran; Chang, Ching-I; Jan, Chyi-Feng
Obesity screening among young adult groups is meaningful. Body mass index (BMI) is limited to discriminate between fat and lean mass. Asian young adult group tends to have lower BMI and higher body fat percentage (BFP) than other ethnic groups. Accuracy of obesity screening by commonly used BMI criteria is unclear in young Taiwanese population. A total of 894 young adults (447 males and 447 females) aged 20-26 were recruited. BMI, regional fat percentage and BFP determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured. BMI cutoff points were based on the criteria adopted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. Cutoff points of low or high BFP were defined as 24% in men and 31.4% in women. Prevalence of BFP defining obesity was 14.8% in young men and 27.3% in young women. 23.2% of young men and only 8.3% of young women were classified to overweight or obesity categories according to the BMI criteria. Disagreement was noticed mainly among overweight males and normal weight females. 68.7% of BMI defining overweight young men had low BFP; however, 29.7% of young women of BMI defining normal group had high BFP. Up to 69.7% of young women with high BFP would be missed by BMI category only. Disagreement between BMI and BFP was significant among young adults, especially young women. We suggest combining BMI and BIA for obesity and overweight screening in Asian young adults. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Obesity is most common nutritional disorder in developed countries and is assuming significant dimensions in developing countries. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 18 years and above and socio-demographic factors affecting overweight and obesity in rural population of Meerut. To suggest measures for prevention of overweight and obesity in adults population of rural Meerut. Material and Methods: In present community based cross sectional study 1382 individuals aged 18 years and above were covered from 400 families spread over 5 villages with the help of systemic random sampling in rural area of Meerut District. The Individuals were interviewed and examined personally using Pre-designed and Pre-tested Questionnaire. Results: Out of 1382 individuals 244 (17.7% were having BMI ≥ 25. Prevalence of obesity in females (22% was found more than males (13.8%. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity increased with advancing age, maximum being in age group 50-59 years (22.2%. Maximum numbers of males (19.9% were overweight in their most productive life (30 -39 years whereas maximum females were overweight in their menopausal decade i.e. 40-49 years (32.8%. Overweight was more in persons who were married (18.9%, professional/Technical person (33.3%, Savarna upper caste (23.1%, belonging to high standard of living index (21.0%, person living in joint families (18.2%, and Alcoholics (18.6% while smokers were having lower prevalence of overweight (10.6%. Conclusion: The prevalence of Overweight and Obesity is increasing in adult population of rural area. Various socio-demographic correlates are affecting the prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Rural population.
Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon-Wan; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin-Md; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Yaacob, Nor Azwany; Mustafa, Norlaila; Ali, Osman; Isa, Siti Harnida-Md; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad-Wan
A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country.
-course-specific factors and mechanisms for more effective weight control.Keywords: developmental trajectory, overweight, obesity, adolescents and young adults, life course, United States
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
Abstract (in English): The digital turn brings about not only changes in young adult literature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but also changes in the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal and interactive...... will be the focal point here. The pivotal point of this paper will be exploring how transgressing analytical categories, e.g. rhythm, sequentiality, time, space and dialogue with the reader, can shed light on the formation of meaning in a specific digital young adult literary work, i.e. Tavs (Camilla Hübbe, Rasmus......, the paper will investigate the ‘denaturalization’ of the reading process and it will attempt to investigate and offer analytical categories which can be used also by young readers so that they can become competent cross media readers of young adult literature in a digitalized and medialized landscape...
Uecker, Jeremy E.
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171
Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A
Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.
Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more
Full Text Available There is no data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide baseline and reference data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Syrian boys using skin-fold thickness measurements and deuterium dilution (DD as a reference method. The sample of 2470 healthy Syrian 18- to 19-year-old boys were enrolled in this study. SFTs were measured at the biceps (B, triceps (T, subscapular (SI and suprailiac locations (SS were done and validated using the DD technique as a reference method. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve was drawn to determine appropriate cut-off points of the Σ2 limb SFT (T+B, Σ2 trunk SFT (SI+SS, Σ4 SFT (T+B+SI+SS and Log Σ4 SFT for defining overweight and obesity. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in young Syrian boys, based on biceps SFT, triceps SFT, subscapular SFT, suprailiac SFT, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT, logarithm Σ4 SFT, and DDT were 35.3%, 32%, 31.6%, 14.8%, 32.9%, 26.6%, 28.1%, 24.1%, 46.5%, respectively. Strongly positive correlation was found between SFT and total body fat in adolescents. For diagnosing overweight on the basis of Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT, we propose the following cut-off points: 17.25 mm, 23.50 mm, 39.25 mm and 1.60, respectively. To predict obesity, Σ2 limb SFT, Σ2 trunk SFT, Σ4 SFT and logarithm Σ4 SFT threshold were increased to 23.25 mm, 32.50 mm, 55.25 and 1.75, respectively. Basing on SFT clearly leads to underestimates of the prevalence of weight problems among young boys. SFT measurement screen missed 11.2 to 31.7% of overall overweight and obesity cases.
van Londen, Marco; Schaeffers, Anouk W M A; de Borst, Martin H; Joles, Jaap A; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A Titia
Maintenance of adequate renal function after living kidney donation is important for donor outcome. Overweight donors in particular may have an increased risk for end stage kidney disease (ESKD), and young female donors have an increased preeclampsia risk. Both of these risks may associate with low post-donation renal functional reserve (RFR). Because we previously found that higher BMI and lower post-donation RFR were associated, we now studied the relationship between BMI and RFR in young female donors. RFR, the rise in GFR (125I-Iothalamate clearance) during dopamine, was measured in female donors (donation. Donors who are overweight (BMI>25) and non-overweight donors were compared by t-test; the association was subsequently explored with regression analysis. We included 105 female donors (age 41 [36-44] (median[IQR])) with a BMI of 25 [22-27] kg/m2. Pre-donation GFR was 118 (17) ml/min (mean(SD)) rising to 128 (19) ml/min during dopamine; mean RFR was 10 (10) ml/min. Post-donation GFR was 76 (13) ml/min, rising to 80 (12); RFR was 4 (6) ml/min (pdonation). In overweight donors, RFR was fully lost after donation (1 ml/min vs. 10 ml/min pre-donation, pdonation, independent of confounders (St. β 0.37, p=0.02). Reduced RFR might associate with the risk of preeclampsia and ESKD in kidney donors. Prospective studies should explore whether RFR is related to preeclampsia and whether BMI reduction prior to conception is of benefit to overweight female kidney donors during and after pregnancy.
Alviso-Orellana, Claudia; Estrada-Tejada, Dayna; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio
To determine the association between consumption of snacks and sweetened beverages and risk of overweight among children. Secondary analysis of the Young Lives cohort study in Peru. Twenty sentinel sites from a total of 1818 districts available in Peru. Children in the younger cohort of the Young Lives study in Peru, specifically those included in the third (2009) and the fourth (2013) rounds. A total of 1813 children were evaluated at baseline; 49·2 % girls and mean age 8·0 (sd 0·3) years. At baseline, 3·3 (95 % CI 2·5, 4·2) % reported daily sweetened beverage consumption, while this proportion was 3·9 (95 % CI 3·1, 4·9) % for snacks. Baseline prevalence of overweight was 22·0 (95 % CI 20·1, 23·9) %. Only 1414 children were followed for 4·0 (sd 0·1) years, with an overweight incidence of 3·6 (95 % CI 3·1, 4·1) per 100 person-years. In multivariable analysis, children who consumed sweetened beverages and snacks daily had an average weight increase of 2·29 (95 % CI 0·62, 3·96) and 2·04 (95 % CI 0·48, 3·60) kg more, respectively, than those who never consumed these products, in approximately 4 years of follow-up. Moreover, there was evidence of an association between daily consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of overweight (relative risk=2·12; 95 % CI 1·05, 4·28). Daily consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks was associated with increased weight gain v. never consuming these products; and in the case of sweetened beverages, with higher risk of developing overweight.
Pérez, Cynthia M; Sánchez, Hesmy; Ortiz, Ana P
This study characterized the prevalence of overweight and obesity and assessed their cardiometabolic comorbidities in the population aged 21-79 years living in the San Juan metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. We analyzed data from a household survey conducted in Puerto Rico between 2005 and 2007 that used a representative sample of 840 non-institutionalized adults living in the San Juan metropolitan area. Body mass index categories were classified as normal weight, overweight and obese. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to estimate the prevalence ratio to assess the association of each cardiometabolic comorbidity (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, prediabetes, systemic inflammation, prothrombotic state, and coronary heart disease) with overweight and obesity. Age-standardized prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35.9 and 41.5%, respectively, figures higher than the combined prevalence for the U.S. adult population (68.8%) but similar to all mainland Hispanics (78.8%). Men were more likely to be overweight than women (40.4 vs. 33.4%), whereas more women than men were obese (43.7 vs. 37.6%). Prevalence of all cardiometabolic comorbidities was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among overweight and obese adults than those of normal weight after adjusting for age, sex, years of education, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity. A considerable proportion of adults in this population are overweight or obese. In view of the wide-ranging effects that overweight and obesity have on health, preventive actions to avert the rise of excess body weight as well as the design of lifestyle interventions are largely needed in this population.
Shi, Z; Riley, M; Taylor, A W; Page, A
The frequency of spicy food intake has recently been associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the Chinese population. This study aimed to prospectively examine the association between chilli intake and the incidence of overweight/obesity in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20-75 years in the China Health and Nutrition Survey were followed between 1991 and 2011. Dietary data were collected during home visits using a 3-day food record in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2011. Cox regression was used in the analysis. Overweight/obesity was defined as body mass index ⩾25 kg m - 2 . A total 12 970 adults were followed for a median of 9 years. During 126 884 person-years of follow-up, 3203 subjects developed overweight/obesity. The absolute incidence rate of overweight/obesity was 26.4, 22.3, 24.4 and 20.5 per 1000 person-years among those who consumed no chilli or 1-20, 20.1-50, ⩾50.1 g per day, respectively. Chilli consumption was therefore inversely associated with the incidence of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for age, gender, energy and fat intake, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity, those whose cumulative average chilli intake was 0, 1-20, 20.1-50 and ⩾50.1 g per day had a hazard ratio for overweight/obesity of 1.00, 0.81 (95% confidence interval=0.73-0.89), 0.77 (0.69-0.86) and 0.73 (0.63-0.84); P for trend overweight/obesity. Chilli intake is inversely associated with the risk of becoming overweight/obese in Chinese adults.
All children in Sweden are entitled to regular, free dental care up to 20 years of age. While dental caries generally continues to decline, still there is a pronounced skewness in caries prevalence. Furthermore, the reported increase in dental erosion in young adults is cause for concern. The aim was to study the prevalence of dental caries and dental erosion in a cohort of Swedish 20 year-olds, with special reference to the influence of previous caries experience and lifestyle as well as parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. The study was prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional in design and based on registration of caries lesions, dental erosion, body adiposity status, saliva sampling, interviews, and questionnaires at 20 years of age. Data were available for the same cohort at 1, 3, 6 and 15 years of age. 499 subjects (74 percent of the original cohort) were included. Five individuals were subsequently excluded, leaving a final sample of 494. 74 percent of the subjects had initial and/or manifest caries lesions and/or restorations. The mean number of DimFS was 5.8 and the mean number of DmFS on occlusal surfaces of molars was 1.1. There was a strong relationship between caries activity at 3 and 6 years of age and approximal caries prevalence in premolars and molars at 20 years of age. Overweight/obese individuals had significantly higher caries prevalence than normal weight individuals. Parental, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors during infancy were related to approximal caries at age 20. Dental erosion was found in 75 percent of the individuals: 18 percent of these had extensive erosion. There was a significant association between caries and dental erosion. A relationship was found between dental erosion and lifestyle factors and overweight/obesity. There is a strong relationship between caries prevalence at age 20 and caries experience in early childhood. Young adults show a high prevalence of dental erosion, but the severity is
Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway
Skinner, Asheley C; Perrin, Eliana M; Moss, Leslie A; Skelton, Joseph A
The prevalence of severe obesity among children and young adults has increased over the past decade. Although the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is relatively low among children and young adults who are overweight or obese, those with more severe forms of obesity may be at greater risk. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from overweight or obese children and young adults 3 to 19 years of age who were included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2012 to assess the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors according to the severity of obesity. Weight status was classified on the basis of measured height and weight. We used standard definitions of abnormal values for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting glucose and report the prevalence of abnormal values in children and young adults according to weight status. Among 8579 children and young adults with a body-mass index at the 85th percentile or higher (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts), 46.9% were overweight, 36.4% had class I obesity, 11.9% had class II obesity, and 4.8% had class III obesity. Mean values for some, but not all, cardiometabolic variables were higher with greater severity of obesity in both male and female participants, and the values were higher in male participants than in female participants; for HDL cholesterol, the mean values were lower with greater severity of obesity. Multivariable models that controlled for age, race or ethnic group, and sex showed that the greater the severity of obesity, the higher the risks of a low HDL cholesterol level, high systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and high triglyceride and glycated hemoglobin levels. Severe obesity in children and young adults was associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors
Evans, Gary W; Otto, Siegmar; Kaiser, Florian G
Prospective, longitudinal analyses revealed that over a 12-year period from ages 6 to 18, individuals who grew up with mothers with more proenvironmental attitudes engaged in more proenvironmental behavior as young adults. A similar marginal association was uncovered between mothers' proenvironmental behaviors and the proenvironmental behavior of their young adult offspring. Maternal educational attainment, but not political ideology, was also associated with more proenvironmental behavior as children matured. Moreover, childhood time spent outdoors was positively associated with increased environmentally responsible behavior in young adulthood. Interestingly, one's own childhood proenvironmental behavior and attitude, at least as assessed at age 6, bear little on one's eventual proenvironmental behavior as a young adult. Finally, among this set of childhood factors, maternal education and childhood time spent outdoors were independent predictors of positive changes in environmental behavior from early childhood to young adulthood.
Henderson, C. Michael; Robinson, Laura M.; Davidson, Philip W.; Haveman, Meindert; Janicki, Matthew P.; Albertini, Giorgio
Research indicates that adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have high rates of overweight status/obesity (OSO). OSO is associated with several important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). This study focused on assessing whether such risk factors are being identified in adults with ID who are receiving their healthcare in…
Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.
General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.
Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel
Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are
Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily
In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…
Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.
Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by
... a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the field of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and cancer survivors answer the ... trials. Fertility Preservation Options View this video on YouTube. ... on fertility is a special concern for young cancer patients. It is important to talk with ...
Roskam, Albert-Jan R; Kunst, Anton E; Van Oyen, Herman; Demarest, Stefaan; Klumbiene, Jurate; Regidor, Enrique; Helmert, Uwe; Jusot, Florence; Dzurova, Dagmar; Mackenbach, Johan P
In Western societies, a lower educational level is often associated with a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, there may be important international differences in the strength and direction of this relationship, perhaps in respect of differing levels of socio-economic development. We aimed to describe educational inequalities in overweight and obesity across Europe, and to explore the contribution of level of socio-economic development to cross-national differences in educational inequalities in overweight and obese adults in Europe. Cross-sectional data, based on self-reports, were derived from national health interview surveys from 19 European countries (N = 127 018; age range = 25-44 years). Height and weight data were used to calculate the body mass index (BMI). Multivariate regression analysis was employed to measure educational inequalities in overweight and obesity, based on BMI. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was used as a measure of level of socio-economic development. Inverse educational gradients in overweight and obesity (i.e. higher education, less overweight and obesity) are a generalized phenomenon among European men and even more so among women. Baltic and eastern European men were the exceptions, with weak positive associations between education and overweight and obesity. Educational inequalities in overweight and obesity were largest in Mediterranean women. A 10 000-euro increase in GDP was related to a 3% increase in overweight and obesity for low-educated men, but a 4% decrease for high-educated men. No associations with GDP were observed for women. In most European countries, people of lower educational attainment are now most likely to be overweight or obese. An increasing level of socio-economic development was associated with an emergence of inequalities among men, and a persistence of these inequalities among women.
El sobrepeso es el factor determinante en la presentación de síndrome coronario agudo en adultos jóvenes colombianos Overweight is a determinant factor in the presentation of acute coronary syndrome in colombian young adults
Sandra Y Silva
student or Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used, according to the variables distribution. A multivariated study for determining the independent risk factors was performed. A p < 0,05 value was considered significant. Results: during the study period 942 subjects with acute coronary syndrome diagnosis were admitted. 16.1% (152 were subjects younger than 50 years and 90.79% (132 had a first event. Mean age in the young group was 44.3 ± 5,1 and in the older group (n = 132 was 65,6 ± 8,3 years. Overweight (OR 1.095; IC 1,01-1,18 p=0,019 and leucocyte count (OR 1,00; IC 1.001-1.005 p=0,001 were the two independent factors that predicted acute coronary syndrome in younger than 50 years adults, after realizing a multivariate non conditional analysis. Other conventional risk factors did not show significant difference. Conclusion: overweight and inflammation estimated by leucocyte count were the independent risk factors for the presentation of a first episode of acute coronary syndrome in Colombian adults younger than 50 years. These results confirm the importance of overweight and inflammation in the physiopathological mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in our population.
Bowman, Shanthy A
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among television viewing, eating practices, and overweight and health status of a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Data on adults aged 20 years or older from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996 were used for the study. Participants' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, macronutrient intakes, weight status, prevalence of health conditions, television viewing, and overweight status were analyzed. Survey design effects were used in the analyses. More than 2 hours of television viewing per day was associated with a high mean body mass index and overweight or obesity in both men and women. Other characteristics associated with watching more than 2 hours of television per day were being 50 years of age or older, having a high school education or less, living in a household with income below 131% of the federal poverty level, and not being employed. Adults who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had high intakes of energy and macronutrients and were more likely to be overweight. They also obtained more energy from snacks and supper. A higher percentage of adults with health conditions watched more than 2 hours of television per day compared with adults without health conditions. Obesity intervention programs, especially those aimed at adults who are retired or not employed, should emphasize reducing time spent viewing television or videos or participating in similar sedentary activities and discourage snacking or eating while watching television.
Durant, Nefertiti H; Joseph, Rodney P; Cherrington, Andrea; Cuffee, Yendelela; Knight, BernNadette; Lewis, Dwight; Allison, Jeroan J
Innovative approaches are needed to promote physical activity among young adult overweight and obese African American women. We sought to describe key elements that African American women desire in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool to promote physical activity among overweight and obese young adult African American women. A mixed-method approach combining nominal group technique and traditional focus groups was used to elicit recommendations for the development of an Internet-based physical activity promotion tool. Participants, ages 19 to 30 years, were enrolled in a major university. Nominal group technique sessions were conducted to identify themes viewed as key features for inclusion in a culturally relevant Internet-based tool. Confirmatory focus groups were conducted to verify and elicit more in-depth information on the themes. Twenty-nine women participated in nominal group (n = 13) and traditional focus group sessions (n = 16). Features that emerged to be included in a culturally relevant Internet-based physical activity promotion tool were personalized website pages, diverse body images on websites and in videos, motivational stories about physical activity and women similar to themselves in size and body shape, tips on hair care maintenance during physical activity, and online social support through social media (eg, Facebook, Twitter). Incorporating existing social media tools and motivational stories from young adult African American women in Internet-based tools may increase the feasibility, acceptability, and success of Internet-based physical activity programs in this high-risk, understudied population.
Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero
Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Vladimir Schuindt da Silva
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n2p161 The worldwide overweight prevalence showed a rapid increase in recent decades, featuring a true global epidemic. The aim of this study was to determine the overweight prevalence (BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 and possible associations with socioeconomic and demographic indicators for adults in Brazil. This epidemiological study analyzed data from the population of adults aged 20-59 years (n = 101 308 637 included in the 2008-2009 Brazilian Family Budget Survey (POF conducted in all geographic regions of Brazil. The nutritional status assessment used the Body Mass Index, which was categorized as normal weight and overweight according to cutoff points recommended by the World Health Organization. As socioeconomic and demographic indicators, sex, age, color-race, education, income, and geographic region were analyzed. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression was performed. The results showed that the overweight prevalence was 47.7%, and the groups with the highest prevalence were adults aged 20-59 years, males, black skin color, schooling from 6 to 9 years , income of 1/4 ≥ minimum wage <1/2 and living in Southern Brazil. Almost half of adults in Brazil are overweight. Strategic actions aimed at reducing the overweight prevalence among adults in Brazil are needed to combat the obesity epidemic.
Cooper, Lesley; Ells, Louisa; Ryan, Cormac; Martin, Denis
To gain insight into the lived experience of adults with overweight/obesity and chronic musculoskeletal pain. Knowledge gained will inform healthcare professionals about the complexity of the weight-pain relationship and enable more effective engagement with this population. Quantitative studies show links between weight and pain. Adults with overweight/obesity are more likely to experience comorbidity; however, qualitative research describing the complexities of the relationship is limited. A purposive sample of adults with overweight/obesity and chronic musculoskeletal pain participated in face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Eighteen adults (16 female) aged 29-71, body mass index ≥25-46, participated in this study. Three superordinate themes emerged: "pain as a motivator and barrier to weight loss"; "fear of weight causing more damage"; and "activity is positive." Pain motivates some individuals to lose weight while simultaneously inhibiting weight loss efforts. Participants' perception that extra pressure caused by their weight further damaged joints contributed to fear and catastrophising. Fear is often exacerbated by healthcare professionals' descriptions of musculoskeletal damage, or participants' perception of healthcare professionals' attitude towards people with overweight/obesity. Conversely, individuals acknowledged the benefits of increased activity. Adults with overweight/obesity and chronic musculoskeletal pain in this study identified a bidirectional relationship between their weight and pain that challenged their weight loss efforts. Overweight/obesity contributed to fear and catastrophising, which resulted in avoidance of exercise that would have assisted their weight loss. Healthcare professionals need to understand the complex relationship between weight and pain, and their patients' understanding of that relationship. Healthcare professionals
Damiri, Basma; Abualsoud, Mohammed S; Samara, Amjad M; Salameh, Sakhaa K
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is one of the main reasons for elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Obese and overweight individuals are at high risk of developing these chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to characterize and establish sex-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015, 689 (329 men and 360 women) aged 18-65 years from three refugee camps in the West Bank. International Diabetes Federation and modified National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel definitions were used to identify MetS. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was high, 63.1%; Obesity (42 and 29.2% in women men; respectively and overweight 25.8 and 28.9% in women and men; respectively. The prevalence of MetS among obese and overweight was significantly higher (69.4%) according to IDF than NCEP definition (52%) ( p family history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus. In this study, irrespective of the definition used, metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in obese and overweight Palestinian adults with no gender-based differences. The contribution of the metabolic components to the metabolic syndrome is different in men and women. With the increase of age and obesity, the clustering of metabolic syndrome components increased remarkably. More attention through health care providers should, therefore, be given to the adult population at risk to reduce adulthood obesity and subsequent cardiovascular diseases.
Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.
Full Text Available Background: the prevalence of overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate in the developing countries. The present cross-sectional study assesses the prevalence of overweight and obesity along with their associated variables among urban adult individuals belonging to the Bengalee Hindu Caste Population (BHCP.Methods: the study has been carried out among 600 adult individuals belonging to the BHCP in the age group of 20-60 years and residing in the district of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal, India. Height and weight, along with a number of socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle variables were recorded. International cut off points of the body mass index were used to assess overweight (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 25.00 kg/m2. The statistical tests (ANOVA, chi-square and multinomial logistic regression were done using SPSS (version 15.00.Results: the prevalence of overweight and obesity were observed to be high among both the male (23.67% and 9.67% and the female (20.33% and 29.33% individuals. The sex difference was observed to be significant in case of obesity (p<0.01 and combined overweight-obesity (p<0.01. The multinomial logistic regression indicated that age and monthly income had significant effects on overweight (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income, marital status, education and alcohol intake were observed to have significant effects on obesity (p<0.05. Sex, age, monthly income and monthly income and marital status also showed significant effects with combined overweight-obesity (BMI ≥ 23.00 kg/m2 (p<0.05.Conclusions: the prevalence of overweight and obesity exhibited an increasing trend among urban adults of the BHCP. Sex, age, marital status and monthly income were observed to have more influence on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them. There appears to be an urgent need for the development of health strategies and intervention programmes for combating the consequences of overweight and obesity.
Fawad, A.; Alvi, S.F.D.; Hakeem, R.; Basit, A.; Ahmedani, M.Y.
Objective: To observe changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes in young adults in the rural area of Baluchistan. Methods: A community based observational study was carried out in the rural area of Baluchistan by conducting two surveys, in the years 2002 and 2009 respectively. The survey was further subdivided into two groups i.e. young adults (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years). In this study, data of young adults was analyzed. Data obtained in 2002 was also analyzed according to the current guidelines and compared with 2009 survey. Results: A total of 230 and 197 young adults participated in 2002 and 2009 surveys respectively. Obesity increased significantly (p <0.001) from 20 (10.15%) young adults in the year 2002 to 64 (27.82%) in 2009. Similarly 15 (7.61%) young adults were overweight in 2002 which increased to 24 (10.43%) in 2009 (p <0.317). Smoking increased from 8 (4.06%) to 49 (21.3%) in 2009 (p <0.001). Family history of diabetes mellitus also showed a significant increase (p <0.005). Hypertension increased from 13 (6.6%) young adults in 2002 survey to 17 (7.39%) in 2009, the increase was not statistically significant (p <0.749). Conclusion: The present study showed that risk factors for diabetes such as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes increased over time in the young adults of rural Baluchistan. (author)
Lithander, F E
Poor nutritional status, which includesboth under- a nd over-nutrition, i s associated w it h poor health outcomes. T his cross-sectional study assessed the nutritional status of older patients admitted to an acute geriatric ward of a Dublin hospital. Anthropometric and clinical measurements were made. Thirty patients, mean (sd) age 79 (7) y and body mass index 26.6 (4.7) kg\\/m2, participated. More patients were overweight (n = 12) or obese (n = 9) than underweight (n= 1) or healthy weight (n = 8) which indicates that this age-group may be part of the Irish obesity epidemic.
After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.
Miller, Wayne C.; Miller, Todd A.
Objective: To compare attitudes of overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) adults regarding health club exercise. Design: A 46-item survey (23 pairs of attitude/value statements) measured attitudes toward exercising at a health club 30 minutes, twice a week, for a month. Setting: Survey posted on surveymonkey.com. Respondents (men = 730, women =…
Roda, C.; Charreire, H.; Feuillet, T.; Mackenbach, J.D.; Compernolle, S.; Glonti, K.; Bárdos, H.; Rutter, H.; McKee, M.; Brug, J.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lakerveld, J.; Oppert, J.-M.
Background Obesity-related lifestyle behaviors usually co-exist but few studies have examined their simultaneous relation with body weight. This study aimed to identify the hierarchy of lifestyle-related behaviors associated with being overweight in adults, and to examine subgroups so identified.
Hernandez, Daphne C; Reesor, Layton M; Murillo, Rosenda
The majority of the food insecurity-obesity research has indicated a positive association among women, especially minority women. Less research has been conducted on men, and the findings are inconsistent. The aim was to assess whether gender and race/ethnic disparities exists between the food insecurity and overweight/obesity relationship among adults ages 18-59. We used the cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data (N = 19,990). Three or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale indicated food insecure experiences. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity to estimate the association between food insecurity and overweight/obesity controlling for several demographic characteristics. Adults on average were 36 years of age (51% female; 56% white, 27% Hispanic, and 17% black), 27% were food insecure, and 65% were overweight/obese. Food insecurity was most prevalent among blacks and Hispanics, regardless of gender. A greater percentage of food insecure women were overweight/obese compared to food secure women among all race/ethnicity groups; while similar proportions of white, black, and Hispanic men were overweight/obese irrespective of their food security status. In covariate-adjusted models, food insecurity was associated with a 41% and 29% higher odds of being overweight/obese among white and Hispanic women, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to overweight/obesity among black women nor among white, black, and Hispanic men. The complex relationship between food insecurity and obesity suggests a need to investigate potential behavioral and physiological mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang
Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lipids in overweight Chinese young females, while the additive effect of the HIIT under normobaric hypoxia solely enhanced
Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.
Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were
Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Brunjes, Danielle L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A
What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults have been studied, little is known regarding ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine the following: (i) whether regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so, (ii) whether the reduction in ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in this population. Forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to intra-arterial infusion of selective ET A receptor blockade (BQ-123, 100 nmol min -1 for 60 min), acetylcholine [4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1 min -1 ] in the absence and presence of ET A receptor blockade and sodium nitroprusside [1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1 min -1 ] were determined before and after a 3 month aerobic exercise training intervention in 25 (16 men and nine women) overweight/obese (body mass index 30.1 ± 0.5 kg m -2 ) adults. The vasodilator response to BQ-123 was
Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.
Lee, Chanam; Ory, Marcia G; Yoon, Jeongjae; Forjuoh, Samuel N
Walking is a popular form of physical activity that can bring many public health benefits. It can be even more beneficial to those who are currently obese or overweight. However, many barriers discourage people from walking, ranging from lack of motivation to unsafe neighborhood environments, and such barriers vary with age. This study addresses barriers and motivators to walking among overweight and obese adults, and examines their age variations. Particular emphasis was given to modifiable environmental factors as the priority intervention targets. A survey of 161 overweight and obese adults recruited from a large integrated healthcare system in central Texas provided data on walking, demographics, motivators and barriers. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted. The respondents had a mean age of 48.4 (20-86), and were predominantly female (80.8%), non-Hispanic White (86.0%), and obese (mean BMI = 32.5). Popular environmental barriers to walking were: bad weather, inadequate lighting, no shade, unattended dogs, disconnected sidewalks, poor walking surfaces, no interesting places to walk nearby, and no benches (74.5-38.5%). Even and smooth walking surfaces and benches were more frequently reported by older adults as motivators. Proximity to recreational facilities was a stronger motivator for younger adults. Two safety related barriers, fear of injury (older adults) and traffic safety concerns (younger adults), also showed significant age differences. Overweight and obese adults experience substantial environmental barriers to walking, but many of them are modifiable. Observed age variations suggest that future interventions may be more effective if tailored to address age-specific barriers.
Hübers, M; Geisler, C; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Müller, M J
To determine age-related associations between fat mass (FM), regional fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in normal- and overweight children, adolescents and adults. Detailed body composition (regional subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue; SAT, VAT) by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), FM and fat-free mass by air-displacement plethysmography, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), plasma glucose and plasma insulin were measured in 433 subjects (BMI: 23.6 (21.0-27.7); 151 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, 150 young adults, aged 18-30 years and 132 adults, aged 30-60 years). Data were derived from pooled data of the 'Reference Center for Body Composition' in Kiel, Germany. Insulin resistance was determined by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between body composition and cardiometabolic traits. A descriptive approach was used to demonstrate age-dependent differences in associations between body fat depots and insulin resistance, independent of BMI. FM, SAT, and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood with low VAT in children and adolescents. When compared to children, TG was higher in adults. HDL and DBP did not differ between age groups. Insulin resistance was highest in male adolescents and female young adults. Associations between body fat depots and cardiometabolic traits were seen after puberty with no associations in pre- and intrapubertal children. When compared to FM, SAT and VAT had the strongest association with insulin resistance in adults. This association was independent of BMI. Associations between individual body fat depots and most cardiometabolic traits became evident after puberty only. The strongest associations were observed between insulin resistance and abdominal fat in adults. The impact of VAT was independent
Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.
OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...
Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.
The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…
Larsen, Maiken K; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Ingrid B
pathogenic mutations. Lipid profiles and genetic testing for FH could be considered when autopsy reveals significant atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries in young adults. First-degree family members are advised to seek medical advice and testing to determine their own risks of atherosclerosis to prevent...
Gold, Rinat; Segal, Osnat
In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and…
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences
Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley
Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workersâ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...
Method: HIV screening was performed on all (n = 673) young adults referred to the retrovirology unit of the Haematology Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2003 to December 2003 comprising of 205 males and 432 females were screened for HIV using a double ELISA ...
Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce
As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…
Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.
To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both insufficient physical activity (PA and high screen time (ST are independent risk factors for obesity, how the combination of sufficient/insufficient PA and high/low ST could increase obesity risk among the adult population of Japan is not known. This study examined joint associations of PA and ST with overweight among Japanese adults. Methods An Internet-based survey collected data on height, weight, self-reported time spent in PA and ST, and sociodemographic variables from 2832 adults. Respondents were categorized into sufficient PA/low ST, sufficient PA/high ST, insufficient PA/low ST, or insufficient PA/high ST categories as per public PA guidelines and the median of ST. Logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios (OR of being overweight (body mass index, ≥ 25 kg/m2 according to the categories of PA and ST. Results In comparison with the sufficient PA/low ST category, participants in the insufficient PA/high ST category were significantly more likely overweight (OR, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95%CI, 1.14, 1.93 after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. A significantly higher OR for overweight (including obesity among insufficient PA/high ST category was also observed in men, but no significant association was found in women. Conclusions Both insufficient PA and prolonged ST contribute to overweight and obesity among Japanese adults. Public health initiatives addressing obesity in Japan need to consider both promoting PA and reducing ST, especially in men.
Jaqueline Lopes Pereira
Full Text Available Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight.The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048, red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043, rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001, salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022, and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007.Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations.
Fernanda D.B. Abadio Finco
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional situation of rural adults in the Brazilian Amazon. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist circumference were taken from all participants. BMI was calculated. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 h recall and food patterns were assessed by food frequency questionnaires (FFQ. Energy expenditure was calculated from the resting metabolic rate multiplied by an activity factor based on physical activity. Linear regression was applied to assess variables associated to BMI. Participants of the study comprised 58 men and 50 women. The mean (±standard deviation age of the study population was 44.0 ± 12 years for women and 47.0 ± 15.0 year for men. The BMI for normal weight men was 22.16 ± 1.57 whereas for the overweight group was 28.33 ± 2.58 kg. Overweight and obese adults together comprise 60.2% of the study sample and therefore were considered as one group. Normal weight individuals had higher values of PAL (physical activity level than overweight persons for both sex. There was no statistical difference between the groups concerning the intake of protein, kilocalories from protein and percentage of energy from protein. The physical activity level of participants describes a sedentary profile for women in the rural communities for both groups. The food pattern of surveyed people is based on rice, beans and meat as daily food. The prevalence of overweight and obesity altogether is comparable to that reported by other studies for Brazilian rural areas. The dietetic assessment revealed that energy expenditure was significantly different between normal weight and overweight women. Physical activity was shown to be a relevant factor for overweight in the two rural communities. The food pattern of the two communities expresses a monotonous diet.
Cao, Keke; He, Yuna; Yang, Xiaoguang
To investigate the association between out-of-home eating (OH eating) and overweight/obesity among adults in China. A total of 33 828 subjects aged 18-60 years old from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were selected to calculate their daily consumption of food and nutrition, when people eating at home or out-of-home. The 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect food intake information ( not including the condiment intake). The logistic regression method was used to analyze the relationship between OH eating and overweight/obesity. The prevalence of OH eating among Chinese adults aged 18-60 years old was 28.3% (9 562/33 828) in 2002. Overall, the prevalence of OH eating was significantly greater among men compared to women (P out of home showed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than those who ate at home (P out of home, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity among them were 38.1% (5 174/13 571) and 35.6% (1 581/4 445), respectively. Compared with at-home eating group, 130.4 kJ energy, 12.2 g fat, 6.2 g protein and 67.1 mg sodium were excessively consumed per day for men, and 102.5 kJ energy, 8.6 g fat, 3.4 g protein and 60.6 mg sodium were excessively consumed per day for women. To sum up, OH eating was positively associated with overweight and obesity among men (OR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.09-1.27) , but not among women (OR = 0.94, 95% CI:0.87-1.01). OH eating was positively associated with overweight and obesity among men in China.
Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens
This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia. © 2014 APJPH.
Chaparro, M Pia; de Luna, Xavier; Häggström, Jenny; Ivarsson, Anneli; Lindgren, Urban; Nilsson, Karina; Koupil, Ilona
The aim of this study was to investigate whether women's adult overweight and obesity risk was associated with their childhood family structure, measured as their mothers' marital status history, during the women's first 18 years of life. Using linked register data, we analyzed 30,584 primiparous women born in Sweden in 1975 who were between 19-35 years of age when their height and pre-pregnancy weight was recorded. The outcomes were women's overweight/obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) and the predictor was mothers' marital status history, which was summarized using sequence analysis. We carried out nested logistic regression models adjusting for women's age and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Mothers' marital status history was summarized into six clusters: stable marriage, stable cohabitation, married then divorcing, cohabiting then separating, varied transitions, and not with father. In fully adjusted models and compared with women whose mothers belonged to the stable marriage cluster: (1) women whose mothers belonged to the other marital status clusters had higher odds of overweight/obesity (odds ratio (OR) ranging 1.15-1.19; p overweight or obese in adulthood. The finding that even women raised in the context of stable cohabitation had higher odds of being overweight or obese is intriguing as these relationships are socially accepted in Sweden.
Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen
There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p food access and health inequalities.
Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali
Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...
Sairanen, Essi; Tolvanen, Asko; Karhunen, Leila; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Järvelä, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Korpela, Riitta; Lappalainen, Raimo
The current study investigated whether mindfulness and psychological flexibility, independently and together, explain intuitive eating. The participants were overweight or obese persons (N = 306) reporting symptoms of perceived stress and enrolled in a psychological lifestyle intervention study. Participants completed self-report measures of psychological flexibility; mindfulness including the subscales observe, describe, act with awareness, non-react, and non-judgment; and intuitive eating including the subscales unconditional permission to eat, eating for physical reasons, and reliance on hunger/satiety cues. Psychological flexibility and mindfulness were positively associated with intuitive eating factors. The results suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are related constructs that not only account for some of the same variance in intuitive eating, but they also account for significant unique variances in intuitive eating. The present results indicate that non-judgment can explain the relationship between general psychological flexibility and unconditional permission to eat as well as eating for physical reasons. However, mindfulness skills-acting with awareness, observing, and non-reacting-explained reliance on hunger/satiety cues independently from general psychological flexibility. These findings suggest that mindfulness and psychological flexibility are interrelated but not redundant constructs and that both may be important for understanding regulation processes underlying eating behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Frandsen, Christian Seerup; Hansen, Tanja Stenbæk
to insulin for overweight adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at Steno Diabetes Center (Gentofte, Denmark). Patients aged 18 years or older with type 1 diabetes, insufficient glycaemic control (HbA1c >8% [64 mmol/mol]), and overweight (BMI...
Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín; Campillo-Martínez, José M.; Ato-García, Manuel
Background: Overweight and obesity are major health risk factors in people with intellectual disabilities. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a multicomponent programme (physical activity, diet and motivation) for overweight and obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental design…
Verreijen, A. M.; Garrido, V.; Engberink, M.F.; Memelink, R. G.; Visser, M.; Weijs, P. J.
Rationale: Predictive equations for resting energy expenditure (REE) are used in the treatment of overweight and obesity, but the validity of these equations in overweight older adults is unknown. This study evaluates which predictive REE equation is the best alternative to indirect calorimetry in
Seidell, J C; de Groot, L.C.; van Sonsbeek, J L; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
Data on height, weight, illness, medical care consumption, and demographic variables for 19,126 Dutch adults aged 20 years or older were obtained from three annual Health Interview Surveys. Data on severely overweight (Body Mass Index 30.0-40.0 kg/m2) and moderately overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2)
Walton, AnnMarie L; Albrecht, Tara A; Lux, Lauren; Judge Santacroce, Sheila
Social media use is ubiquitous among young adults. Young adults with cancer must make important decisions about where, what, and how to share information on social media. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to start conversations about the risks and benefits of social media use. This column aims to review a variety of social media platforms that may be used by young adults with cancer and provide guidance to nurses on initiating open dialogue with young adults about social media usage. .
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major risk factor for development and progression of hypertension and diabetes, which often coexist in obese patients. Losing weight by means of energy restriction and physical activity has been effective in preventing and managing these diseases. However, weight control behaviors among overweight/obese adults with these conditions are poorly understood. Methods Using self-reported data from 143,386 overweight/obese participants (aged ≥ 18 years in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the proportion of overweight/obese adults who tried to lose weight and their weight control strategies by hypertension and/or diabetes status. Results Among all participants, 58% of those with hypertension, 60% of those with diabetes, and 72% of those with both diseases tried to lose weight, significantly higher than the 50% of those with neither condition (Bonferroni corrected P Conclusion The proportion of overweight/obese patients with diagnosed hypertension and/or diabetes who attempted to lose weight remains suboptimal and the weight control strategies varied significantly among these patients.
Reichkendler, M H; Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, P L
% in HIGH (P health assessed by questionnaire increased similarly in MOD (P additional health benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important...... public health implications....
Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki
In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…
Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. AF Mustapha, EO Sanya, TO Bello. Abstract. Background: Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from ...
Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti
This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…
As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…
School Library Journal, 2010
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…
School Library Journal, 2009
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…
Beaty, Lee A.
In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…
Rodríguez-Martín, A; Novalbos Ruiz, J P; Martínez Nieto, J M; Escobar Jiménez, L
To assess the relationship between life styles and eating habits with the overweight and obesity prevalence in a Spanish adult population. A population-based, cross-sectional study conducted on 2640 subjects older than 15 years, in Cádiz (Spain). Surveys were conducted in subjects' homes to obtain life styles, eating habits, and anthropometric data. Logistic regression has been used to study the association between the life style variables and overweight and obesity. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Cadiz is 37% and 17%, respectively; higher in males and increases with age. BMI has an inverse relationship with educational level (PR = 2.3, 1.57-2.38). The highest levels of obesity are associated with daily alcohol consumption (PR = 1.39, 1.29-1.50), greater consumption of television,and sedentary pursuit (PR 1.5, 1.07-1.24). A lower prevalence of obesity is observed among those with active physical activity (10.9% vs 21.6%), with differences between sex. Following a slimming diet is more frequent in the obese and in women but dedicate more hours than men to passive activities. In men is greater the consumption of alcohol, high energy foods and snacks. Overweight and obesity is associated with the male sex (OR = 3.35 2.75-4.07), high consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.38 1.03-1.86) and watching television (OR = 1.52 1.11-2.07), and foods likes bread and cereals (OR = 1.47 1.13-1.91). Exercise activities is a protective factor (OR = 0.76 0.63-0.98). Life styles factors associated with overweight and obesity present different patterns in men and women and is necessary to understand them to identify areas for behavioural intervention in overweight and obesity patients.
Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers
Traulsen, Lisbet Krogh; Halling, Anders; Bælum, Jesper
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 asthmatic subjects from an enriched population-based sample of 1,191 young adults, aged 20-44 years, who...... participated in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline in 2003-2006. From the interview, an asthma score was generated as the simple sum of affirmative answers to five main asthma-like symptoms in order to analyse symptoms of asthma as a continuum. The clinical...... examination comprised spirometry, bronchial challenge or bronchodilation, and skin prick test. Results: Among the 239 individuals with asthma at baseline 164 (69%) had persistent asthma at follow up, while 68 (28%) achieved remission of asthma and seven (3%) were diagnosed with COPD solely. Determinants...
Innerd, Paul; Harrison, Rory; Coulson, Morc
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are difficult to assess in overweight and obese adults. However, the use of open-source, raw accelerometer data analysis could overcome this. This study compared raw accelerometer and questionnaire-assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking and sedentary behaviour in normal, overweight and obese adults, and determined the effect of using different methods to categorise overweight and obesity, namely body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). One hundred twenty adults, aged 24-60 years, wore a raw, tri-axial accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+), for 3 days and completed a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-S). We used open-source accelerometer analyses to estimate MVPA, walking and sedentary behaviour from a single raw accelerometer signal. Accelerometer and questionnaire-assessed measures were compared in normal, overweight and obese adults categorised using BMI, BIA and WHR. Relationships between accelerometer and questionnaire-assessed MVPA (Rs = 0.30 to 0.48) and walking (Rs = 0.43 to 0.58) were stronger in normal and overweight groups whilst sedentary behaviour were modest (Rs = 0.22 to 0.38) in normal, overweight and obese groups. The use of WHR resulted in stronger agreement between the questionnaire and accelerometer than BMI and BIA. Finally, accelerometer data showed stronger associations with BMI, BIA and WHR (Rs = 0.40 to 0.77) than questionnaire data (Rs = 0.24 to 0.37). Open-source, raw accelerometer data analysis can be used to estimate MVPA, walking and sedentary behaviour from a single acceleration signal in normal, overweight and obese adults. Our data supports the use of WHR to categorise overweight and obese adults. This evidence helps researchers obtain more accurate measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in overweight and obese populations.
of consumer competence in actual consumption decisions, however more competent approaches were reported when respondents were faced with hypothetical purchase situations. The young consumers' own understanding of what consumer competence requires showed some degree of correspondence with traditional notions...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...
In the chapter forming of religiousness in young adults in the view of current concepts, both normative (stadial concepts of religiousness) and non-normative, will be presented. The majority of research on religiousness of youth is carried out in the normative understanding of development, which refers to general trends of human psychological development, especially cognitive development (cognitive developmental concepts of religiousness), personality development (humanistic concepts of the d...
Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto
Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asy...
Dib, Jean J.; Alameddine, Y.; Geitany, R.; Afiouni, F.
Only one published has directly evaluated the utility of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines in young adults that study population consisted of young Americans. We examined the utility of the latest NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) guidelines in a group of young Lebanese adults. A group of 234 young adults admitted for myocardial infarction at a Lebanese teaching hospital over a 2-year period were evaluated retrospectively. The Framingham risk predictor model was used to calculate the 10-year risk for coronary events in all subjects. Two hundred young Lebanese adults with a mean age of 49+-7.6 years were included in the analysis. The majority of the study population had a history of smoking (67%) and LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL (70.5%) and were considered overweight and obese (80.5%). As a group, 80% did not meat the criteria to qualify for antilipiemic pharmacotherapy prior to their presentation. The predictive model did not detect the majority of these patients. Clinicians should treat modifiable risk factors with the same intensity given to cholesterol even if the patient has a normal lipid profile. (author)
Kullmann, Stephanie; Pape, Anna-Antonia; Heni, Martin; Ketterer, Caroline; Schick, Fritz; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert; Veit, Ralf
In order to adequately explore the neurobiological basis of eating behavior of humans and their changes with body weight, interactions between brain areas or networks need to be investigated. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the modulating effects of stimulus category (food vs. nonfood), caloric content of food, and body weight on the time course and functional connectivity of 5 brain networks by means of independent component analysis in healthy lean and overweight/obese adults. These functional networks included motor sensory, default-mode, extrastriate visual, temporal visual association, and salience networks. We found an extensive modulation elicited by food stimuli in the 2 visual and salience networks, with a dissociable pattern in the time course and functional connectivity between lean and overweight/obese subjects. Specifically, only in lean subjects, the temporal visual association network was modulated by the stimulus category and the salience network by caloric content, whereas overweight and obese subjects showed a generalized augmented response in the salience network. Furthermore, overweight/obese subjects showed changes in functional connectivity in networks important for object recognition, motivational salience, and executive control. These alterations could potentially lead to top-down deficiencies driving the overconsumption of food in the obese population.
Nathalie T Burkert
Full Text Available The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.
Burkert, Nathalie T; Rásky, Éva; Großschädl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang
The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were normal weight, overweight, or obese, respectively, and matched according to their age, sex and SES, were analyzed concerning health outcomes. The results show that subjects with a low SES differ significantly from those of high SES in terms of their health behavior, self-perceived health, levels of impairment, chronic conditions, quality of life, and health care. Additionally, obesity in adults is associated with sub-optimal dietary practices and worse health, poorer quality of life and medical care than normal weight and overweight individuals. A significant interaction between the weight class and SES was found concerning physical exercise, impairment due to health problems and chronic diseases. A low SES has a strong negative impact on health, especially in obese individuals. Therefore a continuous target group-oriented, non-discriminatory public health program is required, prioritizing obese subjects with low SES.
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...
Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari
This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
Background Overweight, obesity and associated conditions are major public health concerns in Norway. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population in Norway is increasing, but there are limited data on how the situation is in hospitals. This study aimed to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and explore the associations of overweight, obesity and its related medical conditions in an adult in-patient sample at specified somatic and psychiatric departments at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim. Results A total of 497 patients participated. The mean BMI for the total sample at screening was 25.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 45.1%. There was a higher association of overweight and obesity among patients aged 40–59 years (OR: 1.7) compared to those being younger. There was no significant difference between the somatic and the psychiatric samples. In the somatic sample overweight and obesity was associated with obesity-related conditions for both genders (OR: 2.0 and 2.1, respectively), when adjusted for age. Conclusion The substantial prevalence of overweight and obese patients may pose a threat to future hospital services. To further address the burden of overweight and obesity in hospitals, we need more knowledge about consequences of length of stay, use of resources and overall cost. PMID:24571809
Kaseb, Fatemeh; Haghighyfard, Kimia; Salami, Maryam-Sadat; Ghadiri-Anari, Akram
In recent years, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease has had a tremendous elevation growth. Many studies have demonstrated negative correlation between vitamin D deficiency and indexes of metabolic syndrome in obese patients. This study was designed to find the relation between vitamin D deficiency and markers of metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese adults referred to obesity center of Shahid Sadoughi hospital in 2014. Eighty-nine overweight and obese adults (79 women and 10 men), who 13 subjects were overweight and 76 subjects were obese were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma glucose and vitamin D were measured. IDF criteria were used for identifying subjects with metabolic syndrome. Demographic questionnaire was completed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Fisher exact test, logistic regression, and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. The frequency of vitamin D deficiency was 93.2%. According to IDF criteria, the frequency of metabolic syndrome was 36%. There was no significant relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Among metabolic syndrome indicators, there was a significant direct relationship between vitamin D level with FBS (P=0.013) and SBP (P=0.023). There was no significant relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Due to the lack of relationship between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome, small number of participants in this study and very low case of normal vitamin D level, further studies are needed.
Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef
This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the
Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.
Kappus, Rebecca M; Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stomatis; Rossow, Lindy; Jae, Sae Y; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo
Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, increased mortality and vascular remodeling. Although increased arterial diameter is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and obesity, it is unknown whether lumen enlargement is accompanied by unfavorable vascular changes in young and otherwise healthy obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid and brachial artery diameter, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in young, apparently healthy, normal-weight, overweight, and obese male subjects. One hundred sixty-five male subjects (27.39±0.59 years) were divided into 3 groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to body mass index. Subjects underwent cardiovascular measurements to determine arterial diameter, function, and stiffness. After adjusting for age, the obese group had significantly greater brachial, carotid, and aortic pressures, brachial pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, and carotid arterial diameter compared with both the overweight and normal-weight groups. Obesity is associated with a much worse arterial profile, as an increased carotid lumen size was accompanied by higher blood pressure, greater arterial stiffness, and greater carotid intima media thickness in obese compared with overweight or normal-weight individuals. These data suggest that although obesity may be a factor in arterial remodeling, such remodeling is also accompanied by other hemodynamic and arterial changes consistent with reduced arterial function and increased cardiovascular risk.
In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…
Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others
This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work
Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde
This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 ? 8?s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ( V ? O 2 p e a k ) interspersed with 12?s recovery, whereas MI...
Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them. Understanding these perspectives will help identify areas of need as well as disconnections between service objectives and the goals of young adults and their families. Participants described outcomes as more complex and nuanced than current conceptions and measures account for. They defined and evaluated outcomes in relation to their or their child's individual abilities, needs, and desires. These findings provide important insight into challenges to and facilitators of desired outcomes, which has implications for programming, service delivery, and policy.
Nichols, Mary Anne
By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…
De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra
Objective: To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Design: Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Participants: Thirty-three overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. ...
Mummah, Sarah; Robinson, Thomas N; Mathur, Maya; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Sutton, Stephen; Gardner, Christopher D
Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials. We tested the effect of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults attempting weight loss maintenance. Overweight adults (n=135) aged 18-50 years with BMI=28-40 kg/m 2 near Stanford, CA were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial) and randomly assigned to either the stand-alone, theory-based Vegethon mobile app (enabling goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback and using "process motivators" including fun, surprise, choice, control, social comparison, and competition) or a wait-listed control condition. The primary outcome was daily vegetables servings, measured by an adapted Harvard food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) 8 weeks post-randomization. Daily vegetable servings from 24-hour dietary recalls, administered by trained, certified, and blinded interviewers 5 weeks post-randomization, was included as a secondary outcome. All analyses were conducted according to principles of intention-to-treat. Daily vegetable consumption was significantly greater in the intervention versus control condition for both measures (adjusted mean difference: 2.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.1, 3.8, p=0.04 for FFQ; and 1.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9; p=0.02 for 24-hour recalls). Baseline vegetable consumption was a significant moderator of intervention effects (p=0.002) in which effects increased as baseline consumption increased. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults. Theory-based mobile interventions may present a low-cost, scalable, and effective approach to improving dietary behaviors and preventing associated chronic diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01826591. Registered 27 March 2013.
Elliston, Katherine G; Ferguson, Stuart G; Schüz, Natalie; Schüz, Benjamin
Individual eating behavior is a risk factor for obesity and highly dependent on internal and external cues. Many studies also suggest that the food environment (i.e., food outlets) influences eating behavior. This study therefore examines the momentary food environment (at the time of eating) and the role of cues simultaneously in predicting everyday eating behavior in adults with overweight and obesity. Intensive longitudinal study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 14 days in 51 adults with overweight and obesity (average body mass index = 30.77; SD = 4.85) with a total of 745 participant days of data. Multiple daily assessments of eating (meals, high- or low-energy snacks) and randomly timed assessments. Cues and the momentary food environment were assessed during both assessment types. Random effects multinomial logistic regression shows that both internal (affect) and external (food availability, social situation, observing others eat) cues were associated with increased likelihood of eating. The momentary food environment predicted meals and snacking on top of cues, with a higher likelihood of high-energy snacks when fast food restaurants were close by (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.93) and a higher likelihood of low-energy snacks in proximity to supermarkets (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.38, 3.82). Real-time eating behavior, both in terms of main meals and snacks, is associated with internal and external cues in adults with overweight and obesity. In addition, perceptions of the momentary food environment influence eating choices, emphasizing the importance of an integrated perspective on eating behavior and obesity prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Roy, Melyssa; Williams, Sheila M; Brown, Rachel C; Meredith-Jones, Kim A; Osborne, Hamish; Jospe, Michelle; Taylor, Rachael W
Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise have comparable health outcomes in the laboratory setting, effectiveness studies in real-world environments are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an unsupervised HIIT programme in overweight/obese adults over 12 months. 250 overweight/obese adults could choose HIIT or current exercise guidelines of 30 minutes/day moderate-intensity exercise. HIIT participants received a single training session and were advised to independently perform HIIT 3x/week utilizing a variety of protocols. Mixed models, with a random effect for participant, compared differences in weight, body composition, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, physical activity and blood indices at 12 months, adjusting for relevant baseline variables. Forty-two percent (n=104) of eligible participants chose HIIT in preference to current guidelines. At 12 months, there were no differences between exercise groups in weight (adjusted difference HIIT vs conventional; 95% CI: -0.44kg; -2.5, 1.6) or visceral fat (-103cm; -256, 49), although HIIT participants reported greater enjoyment of physical activity (p=0.01). Evidence of adherence to ≥2 sessions/week of unsupervised HIIT (from heart rate monitoring) declined from 60.8% at baseline to 19.6% by 12 months. Participants remaining adherent to HIIT over 12 months (23%) were more likely to be male (67% vs 36%, p=0.03), with greater reductions in weight (-2.7kg; -5.2 -0.2) and visceral fat (-292cm; -483, -101) than non-adherent participants. HIIT was well-accepted by overweight adults and opting for HIIT as an alternative to standard exercise recommendations led to no difference in health outcomes after 12 months. While regular participation in unsupervised HIIT declined rapidly, those apparently adherent to regular HIIT demonstrated beneficial weight loss and visceral fat reduction. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN
Carels, Robert A; Domoff, Sarah E; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Hinman, Nova G; Davis, Alan K; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A
The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m². Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
Robert A. Carels
Full Text Available Objective: The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group and source (i.e., the self or others. This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method: 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64 years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5 kg/m2. Results: Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat. Conclusion: Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes.
Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad
This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what...
Kansagra, Ankit; Litzow, Mark
Young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are a distinctive category of patients, with substantial difference in disease biology and response to therapy; hence, they pose unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by children and older adults. Despite inferior survival compared to children, there is growing evidence to suggest that young adults have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-based approaches. With better supportive care and toxicity management and multidisciplinary team and approach, we have made great improvement in outcomes of young adults with ALL. However, despite significant progress, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease have a poor prognosis. This review discusses current controversies in the management of young adults with ALL, outcomes following pediatric and adult protocols, and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We also explore recent advances in disease monitoring and highlight our approach to incorporation of novel therapies in the management of young adults with ALL.
Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory
This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…
Park, In Sook; Kim, Bo Young; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song; Oh, Sung Soo
Of patients examined during the 24 years from January 1963 to December 1986, we have reviewed 6116 cases of gastric cancer. We found 126 cases of gastric carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age among 6116 cases of gastric malignancy, which were confirmed by histopathological study at PMC in Chonju. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in young adults, we reviewed 126 cases of stomach carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age at PMC. The results were as follows: 1.Among the gastric malignancies the incidence of gastric carcinoma in young adults was 2.1%. 2.The age ranged from 13 years to 29 years, and the peak incidence occurred in the 3rd decade. 3.Male to female ratio was 1:1.03. 4.Common symptoms included epigastric pain, indigestion, weight loss, and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the 1st visit to a physician was 12 months. 5.Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series, endoscopic examination and biopsy. 6.In the endoscopic finding Borrmamn type III was predominant. 7.The majority of tumors occurred in the antrum and Pyloric portion. 8.Histologic diagnosis were adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, and mucinous cardinoma, in orders
Guglielmo, Dana; Hootman, Jennifer M; Murphy, Louise B; Boring, Michael A; Theis, Kristina A; Belay, Brook; Barbour, Kamil E; Cisternas, Miriam G; Helmick, Charles G
In the United States, 54.4 million adults report having doctor-diagnosed arthritis (1). Among adults with arthritis, 32.7% and 38.1% also have overweight and obesity, respectively (1), with obesity being more prevalent among persons with arthritis than among those who do not have arthritis (2). Furthermore, severe joint pain among adults with arthritis in 2014 was reported by 23.5% of adults with overweight and 31.7% of adults with obesity (3). The American College of Rheumatology recommends weight loss for adults with hip or knee osteoarthritis and overweight or obesity,* which can improve function and mobility while reducing pain and disability (4,5). The Healthy People 2020 target for health care provider (hereafter provider) counseling for weight loss among persons with arthritis and overweight or obesity is 45.3%. † Adults with overweight or obesity who receive weight-loss counseling from a provider are approximately four times more likely to attempt to lose weight than are those who do not receive counseling (6). To estimate changes in the prevalence of provider counseling for weight loss reported by adults with arthritis and overweight or obesity, CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. § Overall, age-standardized estimates of provider counseling for weight loss increased by 10.4 percentage points from 2002 (35.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.0-37.3) to 2014 (45.5%; 95% CI = 42.9-48.1) (phealth benefits for this population.
Walker S.C. Poston
Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.
Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert
Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Xiaoli Chen; Wipawan C. Pensuksan; Vitool Lohsoonthorn; Somrat Lertmaharit; Bizu Gelaye; Michelle A.Williams
Objective;To examine the associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity among young adults. Design and Methods;A total of 2911 college students in Thailand participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were taken by trained research staff. Results; Overall, 6.3% of college students had OSA determined by the Berlin Questionnaire, 9.6% were overweight (BMI: 25-29 kg/m2), 4.5% were obese (BMI¡Ý30 kg/m2); 12.4% had abdominal obesity (men: waist circumfe...
Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix
Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participated in each survey. Young adults in 2003 reported fewer traffic- and sports-related accidents, but more work-related and other accidents versus young adults in 1993. A greater percentage of men were overweight or obese in 2003. Also in 2003, a greater percentage of males and females regularly used alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis. In particular, the number that smoked cigarettes daily increased by almost 30% and daily cannabis users increased more than two-fold. Young adults reported higher rates of inter-personal violence and theft in 2003. Compared to 1993, in 2003 young adults were more likely to report a sense of coherence; they also had fewer thoughts of suicide, but a greater sense that life is meaningless. Our study provides the first Swiss data comparing the health status of 20-year-olds a decade apart. The findings suggest a significant increase in substance use. Health prevention efforts among young adults ages 18-24 should focus on substance use. In addition, developing strategies to decrease interpersonal violence, delinquent behaviour, and obesity should be a major public health priority.
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle
Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.
Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P
Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Aarnio, Karoliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Haapaniemi, Elena; Melkas, Susanna; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka
Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. 1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age>40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Curtis, Randall; Baker, Judith; Riske, Brenda; Ullman, Megan; Niu, Xiaoli; Norton, Kristi; Lou, Mimi; Nichol, Michael B
Improvements in hemophilia care over the last several decades might lead to expectations of a near-normal quality of life for young adults with hemophilia. However, few published reports specifically examine health status indicators in this population. To remedy this knowledge gap, we examined the impact of hemophilia on physical and social functioning and quality of life among a national US cohort of 141 young men with hemophilia aged 18-34 years of age who received care at 10 geographically diverse, federally funded hemophilia treatment centers in 11 states between 2005 and 2013 and enrolled in the Hemophilia Utilization Group Studies. Indicators studied included educational achievement, employment status, insurance, health-related quality of life, and prevalence of the following comorbidities: pain, range of motion limitation, overweight/obesity, and viral status. The cohort was analyzed to compare those aged 18-24 to those aged 25-34 years. When compared to the general US adult population, this nationally representative cohort of young US adults with hemophilia experienced significant health and social burdens: more liver disease, joint damage, joint pain, and unemployment as well as lower high-school graduation rates. Nearly half were overweight or obese. Conversely, this cohort had higher levels of health insurance and equivalent mental health scores. While attention has typically focused on newborns, children, adolescents, and increasingly, on older persons with hemophilia, our findings suggest that a specific focus on young adults is warranted to determine the most effective interventions to improve health and functioning for this apparently vulnerable age group. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...
Patients with type 1 diabetes develop overweight and obesity in early adulthood more frequently than the general population and are characterized by higher body fat mass. Gender-related differences in body weight and composition in young type 1 diabetic adults were found.
Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Papadopoulos, Stephanie; Brennan, Leah
While evidence regarding associations between weight stigma and biopsychosocial outcomes is accumulating, outcomes are considered in isolation. Thus, little is known about their complex relationships. This article extends existing work by systematically reviewing the biopsychosocial consequences of stigma in adults with overweight/obesity. Articles were identified through Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. Independent extraction of articles was conducted using predefined data fields, including data on biopsychosocial correlates in each study. Twenty-three studies published from 2001 and addressing correlates of stigma in adults with overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg m(-2); 18-65 years) were identified. Numerous biopsychosocial correlates of weight stigma were studied, particularly in treatment-seeking individuals. Available research shows that weight stigma is consistently associated with medication non-adherence, mental health, anxiety, perceived stress, antisocial behavior, substance use, coping strategies, and social support. Biopsychosocial correlates were not considered in combination in research. Psychological correlates were well documented in comparison to biological and social correlates for each weight stigma type. There were some indications that associations are stronger once stigma is internalized. While there is evidence for biopsychosocial correlates of weight stigma, these are not considered in combination in research; thus their inter-relationships are unknown. Conclusions from the review are limited by this and the small number of studies, types of designs, and variables considered. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
Khan, Naiman A; Walk, Anne M; Edwards, Caitlyn G; Jones, Alicia R; Cannavale, Corinne N; Thompson, Sharon V; Reeser, Ginger E; Holscher, Hannah D
Excess adiposity or obesity has been inversely related to cognitive function and macular xanthophyll status. However, whether the neuroprotective effects of macular xanthophylls on cognitive function are independent of excess adiposity is unclear. We investigated the relationship between macular xanthophylls and intellectual ability among adults ( N = 114) between 25 and 45 years with overweight and obesity (≥25 kg/m²). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry were used to assess whole body adiposity (%Fat) and macular pigment optical density (MPOD), respectively. Dietary xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) were assessed using 7-day diet records. The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2 (KBIT-2) was used to assess general intelligence (IQ) as well as fluid and crystallized intelligence. Bivariate correlations revealed that MPOD was inversely related to %Fat and positively associated with IQ and fluid intelligence. Although %Fat was inversely correlated to IQ and fluid intelligence, this relationship did not persist following adjustment for sex and MPOD. Further, MPOD was an independent predictor of IQ and fluid intelligence. However, no significant relationships were observed between MPOD and crystalized intelligence. These results suggest that macular xanthophylls are selectively related to fluid intelligence, regardless of degree of adiposity among adults with overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among Inuit undergoing rapid cultural changes. Study design. A cross-sectional health survey of 2,592 Inuit adults from 36 communities in the Canadian Arctic. Methods. Main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2 and >30 kg/m2, respectively and as characteristics were similar, groups were combined into an at-risk BMI category (BMI>25 kg/m2. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between various sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity with overweight and obesity. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 28 and 36%, respectively, with a total prevalence of overweight and obesity of 64%. In analyses of sociodemographic variables adjusted for age, gender and region, higher education, any employment, personal income, and private housing were all significantly positively correlated with an at-risk BMI (p≤0.001. Smoking, Inuit language as primary language spoken at home, and walking were inversely associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusions. The current findings highlight the social disparities in overweight and obesity prevalence in an ethnically distinct population undergoing rapid cultural changes.
María Martina Casullo
Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria.
Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante
BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p
Hoque, Mohammad Enamul; Mannan, Munim; Long, Kurt Z; Al Mamun, Abdullah
To assess the economic burden of underweight and overweight among adults in the Asia-Pacific region. Systematic review of articles published until March 2015. Seventeen suitable articles were found, of which 13 assess the economic burden of overweight/obesity and estimate that it accounts for 1.5-9.9% of a country's total healthcare expenditure. Four articles on the economic burden of underweight estimate it at 2.5-3.8% of the country's total GDP. Using hospital data, and compared to normal weight individuals, four articles estimated extra healthcare costs for overweight individuals of 7-9.8% and more, and extra healthcare costs for obese individuals of 17-22.3% and higher. Despite methodological diversity across the studies, there is a consensus that both underweight and overweight impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems in the Asia-Pacific region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin
This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…
It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…
Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.
We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…
Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…
Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran
This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…
Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges
The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…
Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the ...
Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K
Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:26376700
Teasley, Alan B.; Wilder, Ann
Discusses how films portraying the lives of young adults can serve as the basis for a "viewer response" study of film and filmmaking. Lists and summarizes 50 films found to be suitable for teaching to young adults. Provides criteria by which the films were selected. (HB)
Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.
This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…
Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.
Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no
Manjunath, Dinaker; Uthappa, Chengapp Kechamada; Kattula, Sri Rama; Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Chava, Nalini; Oruganti, Ganesh
We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults (18-25 years) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), Internation Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Indian consensus statement criteria. We included 473 urban young adults through simple random sampling methodology to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-5.8], 6.6% (95% CI 4.6-9.1), and 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-11.6) using the NCEP ATP III, IDF, and Indian consensus statement criteria, respectively. Men had significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, whereas mean concentrations of both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol were significantly higher among women. Low HDL-C (38.9%), high blood pressure (26%), and central obesity (16.1%) were the most common component risk factors. Although less than 4% of normal weight adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, rates increased in overweight individuals and reached a prevalence of 87% in the obese participants. In all, 61.3% of the total population had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among urban young adults in India, and it increased with increase in body mass index (BMI). Each component risk factor in isolated form-increased BMI, smoking, and history of hypertension--is an associated risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although it is unclear whether metabolic syndrome screening in young Indians as a means to prevent adverse cardiovascular health outcomes is appropriate, healthy lifestyles should nevertheless be encouraged, and young adults should be considered as an important group for cardiovascular risk reduction programs.
Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J
Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Sharabi, Y; Grotto, I; Huerta, M; Eldad, A; Green, M S
Assessing the prevalence of relevant risk factors among young adults is a critical step in the process of preventing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) later in life. The Israel Defense Force Periodic Health Examination Center performs a routine check-up for subjects aged 25-45 years. Medical history, physical examination notes, laboratory results and ECG tracings are recorded, computerized and processed to form the Young Adults Periodic Examinations in Israel (YAPEIS) database. Data representing 31,640 subjects (27,769 males and 3871 females) examined between the years 1991-1999 were analyzed. The prevalence of documented risk factors for ASCVD were evaluated. The results of all parameters were graded categorically as low, moderate or high and the Framingham risk score was calculated. Fifty-one percent of the study participants were found to be overweight (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2), 8.5% had high systolic blood pressure and 14.6% had high diastolic blood pressure. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia was found to be 44.7 and 9.7%, respectively. Thirty-two percent of the subjects smoked cigarettes, and 76.7% reported not performing any routine physical activity. Furthermore, 31.8% had a Framingham score indicating a greater than 5% risk for developing a coronary event within the next 10 years. As expected, the prevalence of these risk factors increased with age and were found to be less frequent among females. Thus we conclude that many young Israeli adults hold significant risk factors for future ASCVD. Many of these risk factors are modifiable, and risk behavior is often amenable to alteration. Awareness to the high prevalence of risk factors among young adults should spark vigorous health-promotion programs as well as screening, education, and interventional measures aimed at altering the expected outcome of future ASCVD.
Boyland, Emma J; Burgon, Rachel H; Hardman, Charlotte A
Recent evidence indicates that acute exposure to food advertising increases food intake. However, little research to date has explored the potential mechanisms underpinning this, such as the extent to which food commercials elicit conditioned physiological responses (e.g. increased salivation). The aim of the current study was to examine salivary, cognitive and consumptive responses to televised food commercials in overweight (N=26) and lean (N=29) adult females. Participants attended two laboratory sessions in a counterbalanced order; in one session they viewed a television show with embedded commercials for unhealthy foods, and in the other session they viewed the same show with non-food commercials. In both conditions, following viewing participants were exposed to an in vivo food cue (freshly cooked pizza) which they were then invited to eat ad libitum. Salivation was measured at baseline, during commercial exposure, and during in vivo exposure. Participants also self-reported components of appetite on visual analogue scales and completed a word stem task. Results indicated little evidence of increased salivary reactivity to the food commercials. In both conditions, lean participants showed reliable salivary responses to the in vivo food cue. In contrast, overweight participants only showed increased salivation to the in vivo cue in the food commercials condition. Food commercial exposure did not increase the number of food-related cognitions or amount of food consumed, but did drive a greater increase in desire to eat prior to pizza consumption than exposure to the control commercials. Exposure to food advertising primes eating-related motivations, and while it may not be associated with increased intake or salivation per se, non-food commercials may attenuate subsequent physiological responses to actual food cues in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.
Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and…
Roux, Anne M.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Wagner, Mary; Narendorf, Sarah C.
Objective We examined postsecondary employment experiences of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these outcomes with those of young adults with different disabilities. Method Data were from Wave 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative survey of young adults who had received special education services during high school. We examined the prevalence of ever having had—and currently having—a paid job at 21–25 years of age. We analyzed rates of full employment, wages earned, number of jobs held since high school, and job types. Results About half (53.4%) of young adults with an ASD had ever worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school, the lowest rate among disability groups. Young adults with an ASD earned an average of $8.10 per hour, significantly lower than average wages for young adults in the comparison groups, and held jobs that clustered within fewer occupational types. Odds of ever having had a paid job were higher for those who were older, from higher-income households, and with better conversational abilities or functional skills. Conclusions Findings of worse employment outcomes for young adults with an ASD suggest this population is experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood. PMID:23972695
Full Text Available Neck circumference (NC is an anthropometric measurement of differentiating body fat distributions and a marker of upper subcutaneous adiposity. The present study highlights the association and importance of NC as a suitable proxy screening measure of overweight/obesity as compared to the conventional anthropometric variables used among Indian adults. The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 1169 Karbi adults (males: 625; females: 544 residing in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, Northeast India, who were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC and NC were recorded using standard procedures. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and prevalence of overweight/obesity was assessed using standard cut-offs. The prevalence of obesity using BMI (≥25.00 kg m-2 was 15.52% and 15.26% among males and females, respectively (p≥0.05.The prevalence of obesity using NC was observed to be significantly higher among males (48.80% than females (19.12% (p<0.01. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that NC predicted obesity over the conventional anthropometric variables with reasonable accuracy (p<0.01. The ROC-AUC analysis showed a relatively greater significant association between BMI, WC and HC and NC for obesity (p<0.01. Thus, NC appears to be a potentially simple, easyto- use screening measure for predicting obesity among adults. Further studies are required to validate its use for screening of obesity among other ethnic populations in India.
Cloud Kennedy Couto de Sá
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with overweight in adults and the frequencies of these factors. The sample comprised 101 adults, all aged ≥ 18 years, 75 (74.0% females and 26 (26.0% males, registered at a Family Health Center (FHC in the town of Jequié, and distributed proportionally throughout the FHC’s seven sub-areas. Patients were defined as overweight if their body mass index (BMI was ≥ 25kg/m². The proportion of overweight people was calculated for the whole sample and for each of the associated variables (age, sex, occupation, educational level, number of meals per day, smoking, alcoholism, arterial hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and habitual level of physical activity. The chi-square test was applied to test associations between the variables and the proportion of overweight to a significance level of 5% (p ≤ 0.05. the overall frequency of overweight was 28.0%, and this was more prevalent only among individuals who do not consume alcoholic beverages, although the comparison between those with and without hypertension was borderline (p = 0.052. The results of this study suggest a need for further investigation into the effect of alcoholic beverages on the nutritional status of adults and for implementation of nutritional vigilance strategies at this FHC, with special attention given to hypertense patients. Resumo ResumoO objetivo do estudo foi verificar a freqüência e fatores associados ao sobrepeso em adultos acompanhados por uma Unidade de Saúde da Família (USF, na cidade de Jequié, Bahia, Brasil. O desenho foi transversal em amostra de 101 adultos ≥ 18 anos de idade, cadastrados e distribuídos proporcionalmente entre as sete microáreas da USF, sendo 75 (74,0% do sexo feminino e 26 (26,0% do masculino. Com sobrepeso foram considerados aqueles que apresentaram índice de massa corporal (IMC ≥ 25kg/m². Calculou-se a freqüência do sobrepeso no total e por vari
Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta
Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.
Adam E. Green
Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
Sarah E Jackson
Full Text Available Participation in weight loss programs is often associated with improved wellbeing alongside reduced cardio-metabolic risk. In contrast, population-based analyses have found no evidence of psychological benefits of weight loss, but this may be due to inclusion of healthy-weight individuals. We therefore examined cardio-metabolic and psychological changes following weight loss in a cohort of overweight/obese adults.Data were from 1,979 overweight and obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2; age ≥ 50 y, free of long-standing illness or clinical depression at baseline, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Participants were grouped according to four-year weight change into those losing ≥ 5% weight, those gaining ≥ 5%, and those whose weight was stable within 5%. Logistic regression examined changes in depressed mood (eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 4, low wellbeing (Satisfaction With Life Scale score <20, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or anti-hypertensives, and high triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/l, controlling for demographic variables, weight loss intention, and baseline characteristics.The proportion of participants with depressed mood increased more in the weight loss than weight stable or weight gain groups (+289%, +86%, +62% respectively; odds ratio [OR] for weight loss vs. weight stable = 1.78 [95% CI 1.29-2.47]. The proportion with low wellbeing also increased more in the weight loss group (+31%, +22%, -4%, but the difference was not statistically significant (OR = 1.16 [0.81-1.66]. Hypertension and high triglyceride prevalence decreased in weight losers and increased in weight gainers (-28%, 4%, +18%; OR = 0.61 [0.45-0.83]; -47%, -13%, +5%; OR = 0.41 [0.28-0.60]. All effects persisted in analyses adjusting for illness and life stress during the weight loss period.Weight loss over four years in initially healthy overweight/obese older adults was associated with reduction in cardio
Drew Sayer, R; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W
The brain's reward system influences ingestive behavior and subsequently obesity risk. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a common method for investigating brain reward function. This study sought to assess the reproducibility of fasting-state brain responses to visual food stimuli using BOLD fMRI. A priori brain regions of interest included bilateral insula, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate, and putamen. Fasting-state fMRI and appetite assessments were completed by 28 women (n = 16) and men (n = 12) with overweight or obesity on 2 days. Reproducibility was assessed by comparing mean fasting-state brain responses and measuring test-retest reliability of these responses on the two testing days. Mean fasting-state brain responses on day 2 were reduced compared with day 1 in the left insula and right amygdala, but mean day 1 and day 2 responses were not different in the other regions of interest. With the exception of the left orbitofrontal cortex response (fair reliability), test-retest reliabilities of brain responses were poor or unreliable. fMRI-measured responses to visual food cues in adults with overweight or obesity show relatively good mean-level reproducibility but considerable within-subject variability. Poor test-retest reliability reduces the likelihood of observing true correlations and increases the necessary sample sizes for studies. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Reed, Jill R; Yates, Bernice C; Houfek, Julia; Pullen, Carol H; Briner, Wayne; Schmid, Kendra K
Poor eating behaviors greatly influence the development of becoming overweight or obese. Learning to better self-regulate eating is one area in which individuals can positively influence their own health. The purpose of this concept analysis is to provide an in-depth analysis of the concept eating self-regulation as it pertains to overweight and obese adults using Walker and Avant's method. The definition for eating self-regulation formulated as a result of this concept analysis and based on the critical attributes is the ability to initiate goal-related behaviors, to consistently self-monitor dietary intake, to regularly apply willpower to resist temptations, to self-evaluate where one stands in relationship to goal attainment, and finally to maintain motivation to positively change eating behaviors. Cognitive restraint, moderation, mindfulness, disinhibition, delayed gratification, emotions and moods, self-efficacy, social support, the environment, and physical activity are the antecedents that may influence eating self-regulation. Examining an individual's weight, body mass index, lipid levels, or blood pressure are some ways to determine if self-regulation of eating behavior is achieved. With a consistent definition of self-regulation and a better understanding of the critical factors that influence eating behaviors, research can better explore how to help individuals change their eating behaviors more effectively. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Álvarez-Dongo, Doris; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina
Estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and the determining social factors of overweight in the Peruvian population. A cross-cut study was conducted which included family members from homes in the sample of the National Household Survey, 2009-2010. Stratified random and multistage sampling was used. The sample included 69 526 members; the anthropometric measurements were done based on the international methodology. To evaluate overweight and obesity, weight-for-height (children Overweight and obesity were higher in young adults (62.3%) and lower in children overweight according to age group were: not being poor (child Overweight and obesity are indeed a public health issue in Peru. Not being poor and living in urban areas are determining social factors of overweight among Peruvian people.
... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is ...
Jacoby, Enrique; Goldstein, Juli; López, Augusto; Núñez, Eloisa; López, Teresa
Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to explore social and behavioral factors associated with obesity in Peruvian cities. Between 1998 and 2000 health examination surveys were conducted among adults in 1176 families identified in six cities. Stratified by social class, multistaged random sampling was used. Using body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), men and women were classified into normal weight (BMI or =30); abdominal circumference (> or =94 cm in men and > or =84 cm in women) further identified morbidity risk. Several demographic, social, and behavioral variables were collected following standardized procedures. Adjusting for age, 37% of women were categorized as normal weight, 40% overweight, and 23% obese; corresponding figures for men were 40, 44, and 16%. More developed cities, e.g., Lima, Arequipa, and Ica, had the largest prevalence of overweight and obesity for both men and women. Adjusted logistic models showed that BMI > or =25 was positively correlated with age; whereas, education was negatively associated, only among women. Other significant associated factors of overweight included city of residence, television viewing > or =4 h daily in women, and underestimation of body weight status. The study showed elevated rates of overweight across the income level spectrum. Factors such as urban development stage, income, education, and gender posed differential relationships with the risk of overweight and must be considered in designing future public health interventions. Underestimation of body weight status and sedentary behavior may also constitute specific areas of intervention.
Ayesha S Al Dhaheri
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17-25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity.In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013-2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria.Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%, as compared with normal-weight (1.7% and overweight (10.1% participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15-12.52 and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1-40.9, as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10-8.44 was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37-79.42 compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%-6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4-23.5.The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction.
Straight, Chad R; Dorfman, Leah R; Cottell, Kathryn E; Krol, Julie M; Lofgren, Ingrid E; Delmonico, Matthew J
Community-based interventions that incorporate resistance training (RT) and dietary changes have not been extensively studied in overweight and obese older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a community-based RT and dietary intervention on physical function and body composition in overweight and obese older adults. Ninety-five overweight and obese (BMI=33.4±4.0 kg/m2) older adults aged 55-80 years completed an 8-week RT and dietary intervention at 4 Rhode Island senior centers. Participants performed RT twice-weekly using resistance tubing, dumbbells, and ankle weights. Participants also attended 1 weekly dietary counseling session on a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Outcome measurements included anthropometrics, body composition, and physical function. There were small changes in body mass (-1.0±1.8 kg, Pfoot up-and-go test time (-0.56±0.89 s, P<.001). Community-based RT and dietary modifications can improve body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in overweight and obese older adults. Future investigations should determine if this intervention is effective for long-term changes.
This study used the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to determine the combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults. Twelve studies representing 859 men and women (443 intervention, 416 control) were included. Using random-effects models...
Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Peskova, E V; Keshabyants, E E; Mikhaylov, N A
Fermented dairy products comprise a large food group in Russia and are an important source of dietary nutrients like protein, calcium, fat. Obesity is a rising public health issue in Russia. Observing the role of fermented dairy in the maintenance of healthy weights is important. Current study objective was to explore the association between obesity/overweight prevalence and yogurt consumption in Russian adults. Data from RLMS-HSE 1994-2012 was used. Primary materials are available on http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms-hse, http://www. hse.ru/org/hse/rlms. Data collected included dietary intake by single 24h recalls and anthropometric measures for 72.400 adults (≥ 19 y.o.). Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationships between yogurt consumption and obesity prevalence (BMI > 30.0 compared with. 18.5-25.0), controlling for age and gender. Daily average intake (g/day) of yogurt significantly increased from 1994 to 2012. Yogurt consumption decreased over 40 y.o. in both gender. Women yogurt consumption is inversely correlated with the magnitude of the BMI: the consumption of yogurt in women with normal BMI values (> 18.5-25.0) was significantly higher than in women who are overweight and/or obese (BMI > 25.0; or > 30.0). The mean values of BMI in women who ate yogurt, were significantly lower than in women not consuming yogurt. In men, the relationship between consumption of yogurt and BMI is not revealed. Thus, among women, a significant inverse association was observed between yogurt consumption and obesity (OR 0.582, CI 95% 0.497, 0.680; p yogurt intake and prevalence of obesity is dependent on gender: yogurt is associated with lower obesity prevalence only in women.
Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J
Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; Ppattern rich in nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shelley E. Keating
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.
Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Lim, Kuang Hock; Teh, Chien Huey; Kee, Chee Cheong; Cheong, Siew Man; Khoo, Yi Yi; Baharudin, Azli; Ling, Miaw Yn; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani
Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA), increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults. This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS), a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261) were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was administered to assess the respondents' PA levels. The respondents' height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ) or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m 2 ). Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2%) were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0%) reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week). In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week) was observed among men than women (p obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p obesity (Adjusted OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30) compared to a high level of PA among men but not among women. The levels of PA were inversely related to the risk of overweight/obesity in men but not in women. Programs designed to reduce overweight/obesity rates should encourage the practice of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. Future research should consider using longitudinal and prospective
Weil, B J; Martens, P B; Harte, J S
Review a case of Salmonella infection in a young adult related to handling of an infected iguana. Case report. Most cases of Salmonella infection related to handling of reptiles have occurred in children. We report a case of Salmonella diarrhea in a 19-year-old male who kept a pet iguana. The iguana was asymptomatic, but Salmonella grew from stool specimens. Those who keep iguanas as pets, which are particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults, should be aware that iguanas frequently carry Salmonella. Those caring for adolescents and young adults should always inquire into the pet-keeping habits of their patients when illnesses develop.
Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality
Neufeld, Lynnette M; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Fernald, Lia C; Ramakrishnan, Usha
To document the changes in BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young women living in poverty in a semi-urban community in Mexico. Women who had previously participated in a longitudinal research study (1997-2000) were re-assessed in 2005. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures, and socio-demographic questionnaires were administered. Total and annual rate of change in BMI and change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 25.0 and > or =30.0) were estimated. Mean age in 2005 was 30.0 +/- 5.7 years (n = 683) and time between recruitment and follow-up was 6.4 +/- 1.0 years. Mean change in BMI was +3.6 +/- 2.7 (range -8.2 to +14.6). In 2005, 500 (73.2%) women were overweight, up from 263 (38.5%) in the original assessment. The prevalence of obesity tripled over the follow-up period (from 9.8% to 30.3%). The mean annual rate of change in BMI was +0.6 (+/-0.4). After adjustment for age and parity at baseline, an annual rate of change of BMI above the sample median (>0.5) was associated with lower levels of formal education. The annual increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample is double that which was reported at a national level in Mexico. An understanding of the determinants of this rapid increase among the women living in poverty in Mexico is urgently needed.
Volevach, L V; Khismatullina, G Ia; Uliamaeva, V V; Gur'ev, R D; Kamalova, A A
The goal of the present research was to study the types of nutritional behavior disturbances in overweight patients with the pathology biliary tract. 132 patients with chronic noncalculous cholecystitis aged from 18 to 35 were examined. The comprehensive clinical examination was conducted and types of eating behavior disturbances with the help DEBQ test (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) were examined. It was discovered that disturbances of eating behavior are observed in 82,9 percent of normal weight patients, in 100 percent of overweight and in 93,3 percent of patients with obesity. Restraint and emotional eating are more often observed in obesity. External eating is more often observed in overweight and normal weight persons than that emotional eating. Rational eating is rarely observed in all groups of examined persons.
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
George B. Richardson
Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Stone, Dawn S; Ganz, Patricia A; Pavlish, Carol; Robbins, Wendie A
Sixty-three percent of cancer survivors continue to work, or return to work after treatment. Among this population, work ability and challenges encountered in the workplace by young adult cancer survivors have not been well established. The purposes of the study are to describe what is currently known about work-related issues for young adult cancer survivors diagnosed between ages 15 and 39, to identify gaps in the research literature, and to suggest interventions or improvements in work processes and occupational settings. A narrative review of articles using PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo was conducted without date limitations. Search phrases included young adult cancer survivors, long-term cancer survivors, young adults affected by cancer, further combined with key terms employment, work, and occupationally active. Inclusion criteria for publications were young adult cancer survivors initially diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, data about work or employment was presented, and articles written in English. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Work-related issues included the potential for reduced work productivity from cancer-changed physical and cognitive functional ability that affected income, and resulted in distress. Coping style, support systems, and changing perspectives about work and life in general were also influential on career decisions among young adult cancer survivors. More research is needed to study interventions to better manage health changes in young adult cancer survivors within the context of the workplace. Since financial hardship has been shown to be especially high among young cancer survivors, employment is essential to ensure payment of cancer-associated costs and continued medical care. While young adult cancer survivors may initially grapple with cancer-related physical and psychosocial changes that impact work productivity or influence choice of occupation, employment appears to enhance overall quality of life.
Howe, Cheryl A; Barr, Marcus W; Winner, Brett C; Kimble, Jenelyn R; White, Jason B
Although promoted for weight loss, especially in young adults, it has yet to be determined if the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensity of the newest active video games (AVGs) qualifies as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; > 3.0 METs). This study compared the PAEE and intensity of AVGs to traditional seated video games (SVGs). Fifty-three young adults (18-35 y; 27 females) volunteered to play 6 video games (4 AVGs, 2 SVGs). Anthropometrics and resting metabolism were measured before testing. While playing the games (6-10 min) in random order against a playmate, the participants wore a portable metabolic analyzer for measuring PAEE (kcal/min) and intensity (METs). A repeated-measures ANOVA compared the PAEE and intensity across games with sex, BMI, and PA status as main effects. The intensity of AVGs (6.1 ± 0.2 METs) was significantly greater than SVGs (1.8 ± 0.1 METs). AVGs elicited greater PAEE than SVGs in all participants (5.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.0 kcal/min); PAEE during the AVGs was greater in males and overweight participants compared with females and healthy weight participants (p's < .05). The newest AVGs do qualify as MVPA and can contribute to the recommended dose of MVPA for weight management in young adults.
Reichkendler, M H; Rosenkilde, M; Auerbach, P L; Agerschou, J; Nielsen, M B; Kjaer, A; Hoejgaard, L; Sjödin, A; Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B
The dose-response effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity, metabolic risk, and quality of life were examined. Sixty-one healthy, sedentary (VO₂max: 35 ± 5 ml/kg/min), moderately overweight (BMI: 27.9 ± 1.8), young (age: 29 ± 6 years) men were randomized to sedentary living (sedentary control group; n = 18), moderate (moderate dose training group [MOD]: 300 kcal/day, n = 21), or high (high dose training group [HIGH]: 600 kcal/day, n = 22) dose physical exercise for 11 weeks. The return rate for post-intervention testing was 82-94% across groups. Weekly exercise amounted to 2,004 ± 24 and 3,774 ± 68 kcal, respectively, in MOD and HIGH. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased (P exercise groups (MOD: 32 ± 1 to 29 ± 1%; HIGH: 30 ± 1 to 27 ± 1%). Peripheral insulin sensitivity increased (P benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.
Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde
This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods . Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results . Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention ( p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT ( p = 0.042). Conclusion . Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.
Harrell, M.B.; Weaver, S.R.; Loukas, A.; Creamer, M.; Marti, C.N.; Jackson, C.D.; Heath, J.W.; Nayak, P.; Perry, C.L.; Pechacek, T.F.; Eriksen, M.P.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12?17?years old), young adults (18?29?years old), and older adults (30?+ years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n?=?3907) and young adult college students (n?=?5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n?=?6051) nationwide were administered in 2014?2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...
Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.
This study examined the influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism and compared findings with earlier studies of juvenile recidivism. Logistic regression analysis examined subsequent adulthood recidivism (through age 23 years) by disorder profile, adjusting for prior
Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have investigated the determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults (18-25 years old) using a set of variables that include lifestyle, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data. Our aim was to investigate the association between...... these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized.......68). For vitamin D insufficiency, the highest RR was again for men 1.31 (1.06, 1.61); obese subjects 1.57 (1.17, 2.11); and subjects who exercised 0-½ hours a week 1.51 (1.11, 2.06). CONCLUSION: In this study of young adults, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent. Modifiable factors such as smoking...
Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.
Apr 4, 2013 ... In a business context, marketing is used to recruit new customers. Similarly, the .... church can be used as a basis for young adults to experience the church .... the spatial relationships (distances) between the items, whereas ...
Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær
by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...
have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults. The participants ... music to risky areas such as drugs, sex, and smoking, and ..... Nakamuk, Takano, 2005), work stress ..... Anger management for families. Parent.
Eijkemans, M.; Mommers, M.; Vries, S.I. de; Buuren, S. van; Stafleu, A.; Bakker, I.; Thijs, C.
OBJECTIVE. Prevalence of asthma and overweight has increased simultaneously during the past decades. Several studies have reported an association between these two health problems, but it is unclear whether this relation is causal. We hypothesize that children with asthmatic symptoms are less
Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…
Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal
The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.
Larsson, IngBeth; Svedin, Carl-Göran
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous questionnaires were answered by 269 final year, senior high-school students, mean age 18.6 years; 82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child. Most of the children had their experiences together with a same-age friend. Girls had more same-sex experiences than boys did. Thirteen percent reported coercive experiences where they had been tricked, bribed, threatened, or physically forced into participation. Some children, 8.2%, had coerced another child into participation in sexual activities. The majority thought of their childhood experiences as normal. There were also 6.3% of the respondents who had had inappropriate sexual experiences with someone at least 5 years older, the majority being girls. Gender differences were evident in several respects: girls were more often coerced, they felt more guilt, and they had far less experience of masturbation, whereas boys were somewhat more active in explorative activities on their own as well as with peers. Some kind of coercive sexual experiences appears to be part of growing up for quite a few children, although in general the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration and experimentation.
Mohammad Ali Ostovan
Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of obesity is rapidly rising. To reverse the obesity epidemic, efforts should be made to incorporate intensive weight loss programs into medical practice. The primary aim of this study was to change the behavior for achieving a mean weight loss of 5-10% of initial body weight over 6 months in overweight and obese adults. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 266 out of 533 subjects screened for coronary heart disease risk factors in Shiraz Healthy Heart House were overweight or obese. 140 individuals with BMI≥25 completed this study’s 6 month program. The subjects were visited on day 1 and at 2 week intervals and taught intensive lifestyle modification. The subjects who did not lose 5% of their initial body weight after 3 months were assigned to receive 120 mg orlistat three times daily for 3 months in addition to counseling sessions. The main outcome measures were body weight and BMI. Results: The mean weight and BMI of participants were 78.6±10.7 kg and 30±0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Women included 58% of the sample. 110 subjects (78.5% lost ≥5% of their initial body weight during 3 months. The Mean weight and BMI loss in these subjects were 7.6±0.8 kg and 2.4±0.3 kg/m2, respectively. Conclusions: Teaching of how to modify lifestyle and to gain more self-control with eating have the major role in reducing weight and BMI. So, training accompanied by continual follow up for performing the instructions could lead to favourable results.
Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth
Most young carer studies on parentification, resilience and coping concentrated on child carers up to age 18 years, whereas the group of young adult caregivers (18-24 years) has been neglected. In our study, we focused on these young adult caregivers, who are in a life phase in which young people usually are distancing themselves from their families and are striving for autonomy and freedom. To explore young adult carers' perceptions of parentification, resilience and coping compared to young adult noncarers. Cross-sectional. In 2014/2015, data were collected on 297 healthcare students from a school for vocational education and a university in the Netherlands. A fully structured questionnaire was used. Young adult carers were compared with young adult noncarers on parentification, resilience and coping. Fifty-six students identified themselves as a carer: 40 vocational education students and 16 university students. Carers scored significantly higher than noncarers on three out of six parentification dimensions. No differences were found for resilience and problem-focused coping behaviour, whereas results for emotion-focused coping demonstrated a higher score for the carers compared to the noncarers. Although it is important to take care of the needs of all young carers, special attention should be given to those who are at the start of their adult lives, undergoing extensive changes and taking major decisions on study and career issues. Home-care professionals and school counsellors should be able to recognise this group and their needs and activate support from specialised services and significant others. © 2018 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…
Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Larsen, Finn Breinholt
-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults (16-24 years) in Denmark. Methods The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink...... and the potential explanatory factors of interest. Results In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly...
... 0720-AB48] Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult... Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended.... The TRICARE Young [[Page 23480
Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…
Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.
Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly
Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980
Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…
Hernandez, Daphne C; Reesor, Layton; Murillo, Rosenda
Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are increasing among older adults. Food insecurity is a nutrition-related factor that coexists with obesity among low-income individuals. The majority of the research on the food insecurity-obesity paradox has been conducted on low-income mothers and children, with research lacking on large diverse samples of older adults. The purpose of this study was to assess gender disparities in the association between food insecurity and overweight and obesity among low-income older adults. Cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data were used. Food insecurity status was determined by ≥3 affirmative responses on the 10-item US Department of Agriculture Food Security Scale (FSS). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention based on self-reported height and weight. Adults included were low-income (≤1.99 federal poverty level [FPL]), older (aged ≥60 years), with a normal BMI (18.5) or greater who had complete data on FSS, BMI, and the following covariates: age, race or ethnicity, marital status, income, nativity status, physical activity, poor health status, health insurance coverage, problems paying medical bills or for medicine, and region of residency (N=5,506). Multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by gender to estimate the association between food insecurity and higher weight status. All models included covariates. In covariate-adjusted models, compared with low-income, food secure men, low-income, food-insecure men had 42% and 41% lower odds of being overweight and overweight or obese, respectively. Despite the high prevalence rate of obesity among low-income, food-insecure women, food insecurity was not significantly related to overweight, obesity, or overweight or obesity for older adult women in adjusted models. Food insecurity-overweight and -obesity paradox appears not to be present in older men. However, food insecurity and
Choy, Courtney C; Wang, Dongqing; Baylin, Ana; Soti-Ulberg, Christina; Naseri, Take; Reupena, Muagututia S; Thompson, Avery A; Duckham, Rachel L; Hawley, Nicola L
Among young Samoan children, diet may not be optimal: in 2015, 16·1 % of 24-59-month-olds were overweight/obese, 20·3 % stunted and 34·1 % anaemic. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns among 24-59-month-old Samoan children and evaluate their association with: (i) child, maternal and household characteristics; and (ii) nutritional status indicators (stunting, overweight/obesity, anaemia). A community-based, cross-sectional study. Principal component analysis on 117 FFQ items was used to identify empirical dietary patterns. Distributions of child, maternal and household characteristics were examined by factor score quintiles. The regression of nutritional status indicators v. these quintiles was performed using logistic regression models. Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu. A convenience sample of mother-child pairs (n 305). Two dietary patterns, modern and neo-traditional, emerged. The modern pattern was loaded with 'westernized' foods (red meat, condiments and snacks). The neo-traditional pattern included vegetables, local starches, coconuts, fish and poultry. Following the modern diet was associated with urban residence, greater maternal educational attainment, higher socio-economic status, lower vitamin C intake and higher sugar intake. Following the neo-traditional diet was associated with rural residence, lower socio-economic status, higher vitamin C intake and lower sugar intake. While dietary patterns were not related to stunting or anaemia, following the neo-traditional pattern was positively associated with child overweight/obesity (adjusted OR=4·23, 95 % CI 1·26, 14·17, for the highest quintile, P-trend=0·06). Further longitudinal monitoring and evaluation of early childhood growth and development are needed to understand the influences of early diet on child health in Samoa.
Ying Ying Chan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are growing health problems both worldwide and in Malaysia due to such lifestyle changes as decreased physical activity (PA, increased sedentary behavior and unhealthy eating habits. This study examined the levels and patterns of PA among normal-weight and overweight/obese adults and to investigate the association between PA level and overweight/obesity in Malaysian adults. Methods This study used data from the 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS, a nationwide cross-sectional survey that implemented a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Respondents aged 18 years and above (n = 17,261 were included in the analysis. The short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was administered to assess the respondents’ PA levels. The respondents’ height and weight were objectively measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. The respondents were categorized according to BMI as either normal-weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2 or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m2. Descriptive and complex sample logistic regression analyses were employed as appropriate. Results Overall, approximately 1 in 2 respondents (51.2% were overweight/obese, even though the majority (69.0% reporting at least a moderate level of PA (total PA ≥ 10 MET-hours/week. In both normal-weight and overweight/obese groups, a significantly higher prevalence of high PA (total PA ≥ 50 MET-hours/week was observed among men than women (p < 0.001, but women reported a significantly higher prevalence of low and moderate PA than men (p < 0.001. Men reported significantly higher activity levels (in MET-hours/week than women with regard to walking, vigorous-intensity PA and total PA (p < 0.001. Overweight/obese men reported a significantly lower level of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA than normal-weight men (p < 0.001. A low level of PA was associated with the risk of overweight
Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos
This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…
Atkinson, Meredith A; Lestz, Rachel M; Fivush, Barbara A; Silverstein, Douglas M
Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommended clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of KDOQI targets among children (young adults (18-24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, in conjunction with the 2007 and 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Projects. Data on all enrolled pediatric dialysis patients, categorized into three age groups (0-8, 9-12, 13-17 years), and on a random sample of 5% of patients ≥ 18 years in ESRD Network 5 were examined for two study periods: hemodialysis (HD) data were collected from October to December 2006 and from October to December 2007 and peritoneal dialysis (PD) data were collected from October 2006 to March 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008. In total, 114 unique patients were enrolled the study, of whom 41.2% (47/114) were on HD and 58.8% (67/114) on PD. Compared to the pediatric patients, young adults were less likely to achieve the KDOQI recommended serum phosphorus levels and serum calcium × phosphorus product values, with less than one-quarter demonstrating values at or below each goal. Multivariate analysis revealed that both young adults and 13- to 17-year-olds were less likely to achieve target values for phosphorus [young adults: odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.01-0.19, p young adults: OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.002-0.09, p young adult ESRD patients.
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....
Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Jiménez-Flores, J Rafael; Simental-Mendia, Luis E; Méndez-Cruz, René; Murguía-Romero, Miguel; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha
Although the Glucose and Triglyceride levels (TyG) index is useful for identification of insulin resistance (IR) in different ethnic groups, it has not been evaluated in young adults. We undertook this study to evaluate the TyG index as a diagnostic test for IR in young adults. A total of 5,538 healthy young adults, 3,795 (68.5%) non-pregnant women and 1,743 (31.5%) men, with an average age of 19.2 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. To estimate diagnostic characteristics of the TyG index, a randomized subsample of the target population (n = 75) was under euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test. Using the cutoff values obtained in the clamp study, the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was evaluated in the overall population. The TyG index was calculated as the Ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)]/2. Normal weight, overweight, and obesity were identified in 3,632 (65.6%), 1,355 (24.5%), and 551 (9.9%) participants. A total of 346 (9.1%) men and 278 (15.9%) women exhibited IR. The best cutoff value of TyG index for diagnosis of IR was 4.55 (sensitivity 0.687, negative predictive value (NPV) 0.844, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.47) for women and 4.68 (sensitivity 0.673, NPV 0.900, and NLR 0.45) for men. In normal-weight individuals the diagnostic concordance between TyG index and HOMA-IR was 0.934 and 0.915, in the overweight subjects was 0.908 and 0.895 and, in the obese participants 0.916 and 0.950, for men and women, respectively. TyG index may be useful for screening IR in young adults. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
It finally seems that wine suffers from its nearly sacred image. The young seem not to allow themselves to consume this product, whose image is associated with coded practices that obviously, are different from those of other spirits.
Abdullah, Abdul Ridha; Hasan, Haydar A; Raigangar, Veena L
Over the last decade there has been a steady rise in obesity and co-morbidity, but little is known about the rate of metabolic dysfunction among young adults in the United Arab Emirates. Various factors have been implicated as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships of leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, insulin, and uric acid to the metabolic syndrome components in lean, overweight, and obese young females. This was a cross-sectional study of 69 apparently healthy young females, who were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) (kg/m(2)) into three groups: lean (25 and or=30). Estimated biomarkers were: leptin, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity [hs]-CRP, uric acid, blood sugar, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also measured. Serum leptin, hs-CRP, insulin, and uric acid increased significantly (p syndrome components was found in lean subjects (leptin vs. waist circumference r = 0.48) as opposed to six in the obese group (hs-CRP vs. waist circumference and systolic blood pressure [SBP], r = 0.45 and r = -0.41, respectively; insulin vs. diastolic blood pressure [DBP], r = 0.47; adiponectin vs. blood sugar, r = -0.44; and uric acid vs. waist circumference and TG, r = 0.5 and r = 0.51, respectively). Estimation of the levels of studied biomarkers could be an important tool for early detection of metabolic syndrome before the appearance of its frank components. Uric acid seems to be the most reliable biomarker to identify obese subjects with metabolic syndrome.
Altenburg, Teatske M; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy; Chinapaw, Mai J M
TV time and total sedentary time have been positively related to biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk in adults. We aim to examine the association of TV time and computer time separately with cardiometabolic biomarkers in young adults. Additionally, the mediating role of waist circumference (WC) is studied. Data of 634 Dutch young adults (18-28 years; 39% male) were used. Cardiometabolic biomarkers included indicators of overweight, blood pressure, blood levels of fasting plasma insulin, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides and a clustered cardiometabolic risk score. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the cross-sectional association of self-reported TV and computer time with cardiometabolic biomarkers, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors. Mediation by WC was checked using the product-of-coefficient method. TV time was significantly associated with triglycerides (B = 0.004; CI = [0.001;0.05]) and insulin (B = 0.10; CI = [0.01;0.20]). Computer time was not significantly associated with any of the cardiometabolic biomarkers. We found no evidence for WC to mediate the association of TV time or computer time with cardiometabolic biomarkers. We found a significantly positive association of TV time with cardiometabolic biomarkers. In addition, we found no evidence for WC as a mediator of this association. Our findings suggest a need to distinguish between TV time and computer time within future guidelines for screen time.
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez
The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...
Kremers, S; Reubsaet, A; Martens, M; Gerards, S; Jonkers, R; Candel, M; de Weerdt, I; de Vries, N
To date, most interventions aimed at preventing obesity have underemphasized the application of systematic intervention development, implementation and evaluation. The present review provides a thorough insight in factors promoting implementation and/or effectiveness in interventions aimed at preventing overweight/obesity among adults. A total of 46 studies evaluating interventions aimed at preventing obesity were reviewed, followed by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The Intervention Mapping protocol and the Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention (EnRG) were applied to analyse and classify the included studies. The interventions were categorized by setting (workplace, community, health care) and target group (ethnic minorities, pregnant women, [pre]menopausal women, smokers, people with intellectual disabilities). Generally, interventions were found to have potential in changing energy balance-related behaviours and anthropometric outcomes. Effect sizes for changes in body mass index ranged between -0.09 and 0.45. When the programme goal specifically aimed at weight management, the intervention was found to be more successful than interventions with programme goals that were aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease or improving general health status. Although a considerable part of studies included motivational interventions, only some actually assessed the effects on potential cognitive mediators. A general lack of reporting underlying theoretical models for behaviour change was observed as well as the inclusion of linkage groups and strategies to promote empowerment.
Greenwood-Hickman, Mikael Anne; Renz, Anne; Rosenberg, Dori E
To explore individual, social, environmental, and program-related motivators, barriers, and impacts of sedentary behavior (SB) reduction among a group of overweight and obese older adults aged 60 and older. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 participants following a SB reduction intervention. Transcripts from these interviews were iteratively coded by a team, and key themes were defined and refined guided by the social-ecological framework. Motivators included the desire to improve health, newly acquired awareness of SB, the ease of incorporating SB reduction into current lifestyle, an adaptable environment, and the use of reminders. Barriers included existing health conditions, enjoyment of sedentary activities, unadaptable environments, fatigue, and difficulty understanding SB reduction as distinct from physical activity (PA). Participants reported impacts on physical and mental health and changes in awareness, exercise, and daily activity. Although in many ways motivators and barriers to reducing SB are similar to those of PA, SB interventions have special considerations and may ultimately be easier for some individuals to incorporate into their lifestyle. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ranjan, Sobhana; Nasser, Jennifer A.; Fisher, Kathleen
Background: The prevalence of being overweight and obese is increasing not just in the general population but also in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Therefore, a need to identify factors contributing to overweight/obesity arises as this population is escalating. Materials and Methods: This narrative review article summarizes…
Ergin, Isil; Hassoy, Hur; Kunst, Anton
Objective: Patterns of socio-economic inequalities in obesity and overweight have not been documented for Turkey. The present study aimed to describe educational and wealth-related inequalities for overweight in Turkey, taking a regional perspective. Design: Cross-sectional self-reported data of the
de Castro, Marcelo P.; Abreu, Sofia C.; Sousa, Helena; Machado, Leandro; Santos, Rubim; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo
Purpose: Because walking is highly recommended for prevention and treatment of obesity and some of its biomechanical aspects are not clearly understood for overweight people, we compared the absolute and normalized ground reaction forces (GRF), plantar pressures, and temporal parameters of normal-weight and overweight participants during…
Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse
OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in the prevalence of overweight and weight misperception among overweight Danes from 1995 to 2008, and to identify factors associated with weight misperception. DESIGN: Cross-sectional studies, in which data on self-reported weight, height and self-perception...
Vella, Chantal A; Taylor, Katrina; Drummer, Devin
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies but adherence, enjoyment, and health benefits of HIIT performed independently are yet to be understood. We compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT. After completing 12 sessions of supervised training over 3 weeks, participants were asked to independently perform HIIT or MICT for 30 min, 4 times/week for 5 weeks. Cardiometabolic outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak), lipids, and inflammatory markers. Exercise enjoyment was measured by the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Exercise adherence (93.4 ± 3.1% vs. 93.1 ± 3.7%, respectively) and mean enjoyment across the intervention (100.1 ± 4.3 vs. 100.3 ± 4.4, respectively) were high, with no differences between HIIT and MICT (p > .05). Similarly, enjoyment levels did not change over time in either group (p > .05). After training, HIIT exhibited a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than MICT (-0.66 mmol L -1 vs. -0.03 mmol L -1 , respectively) and a greater increase in VO 2 peak than MICT (p HIIT (+0.5 pg mL -1 and + 31.4 nmol L -1 , respectively) and decreased in MICT (-0.6 pg mL -1 and -6.7 nmol L -1 , respectively, p HIIT is enjoyable and has high unsupervised adherence rates in overweight and obese adults. However, HIIT may be associated with an increase in inflammation with short-term exercise in this population.
Vikøren, Linn A; Nygård, Ottar K; Lied, Einar; Rostrup, Espen; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A
The popularity of high-protein diets for weight reduction is immense. However, the potential benefits from altering the source of dietary protein rather than the amount is scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the effects of fish protein supplement on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight adults. A total of thirty-four overweight adults were randomised to 8 weeks' supplementation with fish protein or placebo tablets (controls). The intake of fish protein supplement was 3 g/d for the first 4 weeks and 6 g/d for the last 4 weeks. In this study, 8 weeks of fish protein supplementation resulted in lower values of fasting glucose (Pfish protein supplementation compared to controls. Glucose-AUC was decreased after 8 weeks with fish protein supplement compared to baseline (Pfish protein may have beneficial effects on blood levels of glucose and LDL-cholesterol as well as glucose tolerance and body composition in overweight adults. The long-term effects of fish protein supplementation is of interest in the context of using more fish as a protein source in the diet, and the effects of inclusion of fish in the diet of individuals with low glucose tolerance should be evaluated.
Pell, Christopher; Allotey, Pascale; Evans, Natalie; Hardon, Anita; Imelda, Johanna D; Soyiri, Ireneous; Reidpath, Daniel D
Malaysians have become increasingly obese over recent years. The transition from adolescence to early adulthood is recognized as critical for the development of eating and activity habits. However, little obesity-related research focuses on this life stage. Drawing on data from a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia, this article describes obesity and overweight amongst adolescents and young adults in a multi-ethnic population. Data were collected at the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) in Segamat District, Johor. In this dynamic cohort of approximately 40,000 people, 5,475 were aged 16-35 in 2013-2014. The population consists of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Indigenous (Orang Asli) families in proportions that reflect the national ethnic diversity. Data were collected through health profiles (Body Mass Index [BMI] measurements in homes) and self-report questionnaires. Age and ethnicity were associated with overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9Kg/m 2 ) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30Kg/m 2 ). The prevalence of overweight was 12.8 % at ages 16-20 and 28.4 % at ages 31-35; obesity was 7.9 % and 20.9 % at the same age groups. The main ethnic groups also showed varied patterns of obesity and overweight at the different age groups with Chinese at lowest and Orang Asli at highest risk. Level of education, employment status, physical activity and frequency of eating out were poorly predictive of overweight and obesity. The pattern of overweight and obesity in the 16-35 age group further highlights this as a significant period for changes in health-related behaviours. Further longitudinal research is however needed to confirm the observed pattern and investigate causal factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysians have become increasingly obese over recent years. The transition from adolescence to early adulthood is recognized as critical for the development of eating and activity habits. However, little obesity-related research focuses on this life stage. Drawing on data from a health and demographic surveillance site in Malaysia, this article describes obesity and overweight amongst adolescents and young adults in a multi-ethnic population. Methods Data were collected at the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO in Segamat District, Johor. In this dynamic cohort of approximately 40,000 people, 5,475 were aged 16–35 in 2013–2014. The population consists of Malay, Chinese, Indian and Indigenous (Orang Asli families in proportions that reflect the national ethnic diversity. Data were collected through health profiles (Body Mass Index [BMI] measurements in homes and self-report questionnaires. Results Age and ethnicity were associated with overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9Kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30Kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight was 12.8 % at ages 16–20 and 28.4 % at ages 31–35; obesity was 7.9 % and 20.9 % at the same age groups. The main ethnic groups also showed varied patterns of obesity and overweight at the different age groups with Chinese at lowest and Orang Asli at highest risk. Level of education, employment status, physical activity and frequency of eating out were poorly predictive of overweight and obesity. Conclusion The pattern of overweight and obesity in the 16–35 age group further highlights this as a significant period for changes in health-related behaviours. Further longitudinal research is however needed to confirm the observed pattern and investigate causal factors.
Lee, H. R.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K. W.
Carcinoma of the stomach is usually considered a disease of middle aged or elderly patients and is rarely suspected in young adults. However carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults is an aggressive malignant disease with nonspecific symptoms and worse prognosis than older age group because of late diagnosis and increased incidence of undifferentiated form. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults, we reviewed 68 cases of stomach cancers in patients 30 years of age and less at Severance hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The over-all male to female ratio in the young adult was 1:1.34 and in order age group was 2.44:1. 2. Common symptoms included epigastric pain, weight loss and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the first visit to a physician was 3 months. 3. Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series and endoscopic examination. 38 patients underwent an exploratory laparatomy, and lesions were amenable to curative or palliative resection. 4. In the young age Bormann type III and IV were predominant, while in the older age group Bormann type II and III were common. 5. The majority of tumors occurred in the cardia, fundus and upper body. 6. Histologic diagnosis were poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma in orders. 7. A relatively high incidence of pregnancy and Krukenberg tumor in the young age were noted
Limperg, Perrine F.; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.
The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the systematic development of an intervention for the prevention of obesity among overweight adults. Its development was guided by the six steps of Intervention Mapping (IM, in which the establishment of program needs, objectives and methods is followed by development of the intervention and an implementation and evaluation plan. Methods Weight gain prevention can be achieved by making small changes in dietary intake (DI or physical activity (PA. The intervention objectives, derived from self-regulation theory, were to establish goal-oriented behaviour. They were translated into a computer-tailored Internet-delivered intervention consisting of four modules. The intervention includes strategies to target the main determinants of self-regulation, such as feedback and action planning. The first module is intended to ensure adults' commitment to preventing weight gain, choosing behaviour change and action initiation. The second and third modules are intended to evaluate behaviour change, and to adapt action and coping plans. The fourth module is intended to maintain self-regulation of body weight without use of the program. The intervention is being evaluated for its efficacy in an RCT, whose protocol is described in this paper. Primary outcomes are weight, waist circumference and skin-fold thickness. Other outcomes are DI, PA, cognitive mediators and self-regulation skills. Discussion The IM protocol helped us integrating insights from various theories. The performance objectives and methods were guided by self-regulation theory but empirical evidence with regard to the effectiveness of theoretical methods was limited. Sometimes, feasibility issues made it necessary to deviate from the original, theory-based plans. With this paper, we provide transparency with regard to intervention development and evaluation. Trial registration NTR1862
Kaltenbrunner Bernitz, Brita; Grees, Nadja; Jakobsson Randers, Marie; Gerner, Ulla; Bergendorff, Sisko
This article, based on a study by the Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate, describes the development of young adults receiving disability benefits due to reduced working capability, and the disability benefit systems in seven European countries; Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. This comparative study mainly uses Sweden as a benchmark. Apart from a documentary and legal data collection and analysis, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of the responsible ministries and authorities in the studied countries. In addition, national and European data was collected. There is an increasing trend of young adults, aged 19-29, on disability benefits in all studied countries. The most common diagnosis group among young adults on disability benefits is mental and behavioural disorders, ranging from 58% in the UK to 80% in Denmark. The comparison of the different disability benefit systems shows that there are relatively large national differences in terms of rules and regulations, the handling of disability benefit cases, and offered rehabilitation activities and other measures to support young adults on disability benefits to strengthen their working capability, and hence enable them to approach the labour market in the future. However, it is clear that these countries face similar challenges, and therefore there could be a lot to learn from European exchange of experiences and expertise in this area. This article identifies a number of measures of special interest to study and discusses further with regard to the further development of the Swedish system for disability benefits for young adults.
Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.
Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jinyi
This study was performed to identify the factors influencing gender differences in sleep quality between men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 300 young adults from three Korean universities. Participants were 20-40 years of age, used smartphones, and took no sleep medication. Participants completed questionnaires on sleep quality, exercise, stress, depression, and smart phone addiction. The predictors of sleep quality in men were coffee consumption, napping, depression, failure to engage in light exercise at least three times per week, being overweight, being in the potential smart phone addiction group, and being employed, which explained 30.2% of the variance. The predictors of sleep quality in women were education to college level or higher, smoking, and stress, which explained 30.5% of the variance. To improve sleep quality in this population, future intervention should contain life style modification strategies containing smartphone addiction prevention.
Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.
Maya S. Bassil
Full Text Available Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05, which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02 lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm. P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety.
Coll, Josep L.; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.
Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) by BMI and abdominal obesity (AO) by waist-to-height ratio, (WHtR) among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Methods Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (2009-2010). A random sample (n = 1,081) of young (18-35 years) and middle-aged adults (36-55 years) were interviewed and anthropometrically measured. OW (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and OB (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) were defined according to WHO criteria. AO was defined as WHtR ≥ 0.5. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants were considered. Results The overall prevalence of OW/OB and AO was 29.4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 26.9-32.3%), 11.2% (95% CI 9.5-13.2%) and 33.1% (95% CI 30.4-36.0%), respectively. Men showed higher prevalence of OW (35.9%, 95% CI 31.6-40.5%) and AO (37.9%, 95% CI 33.6-42.5%) than women (OW 24.9%, 95% CI 21.7-28.4%; AO 29.7%, 95%CI 26.2-33.4%). Overall prevalence of OB was 11.8% (95% CI 9.1-15.1%) in men and 10.8% (95% CI 8.6-13.5%) in women. Age and no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) were main risk factors associated with OW/OB and AO. Living with at least one child at home and to be married in men as well as to be unemployed, to be born in South America, and a low level of education in women were associated with AO. Conclusions Men showed higher prevalence of OW and AO than women. In both sexes, age is the main risk factor associated with OW/OB and AO; in men also the absence of LTPA plays a significant role. PMID:26159577
Josep L. Coll
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of overweight (OW and obesity (OB by BMI and abdominal obesity (AO by waist-to-height ratio, (WHtR among the Balearic Islands' adult population. Methods: Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands (2009-2010. A random sample (n = 1,081 of young (18-35 years and middle-aged adults (36-55 years were interviewed and anthropometrically measured. OW (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and OB (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were defined according to WHO criteria. AO was defined as WHtR ≥ 0.5. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants were considered. Results: The overall prevalence of OW/OB and AO was 29.4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI 26.9-32.3%, 11.2% (95% CI 9.5-13.2% and 33.1% (95% CI 30.4-36.0%, respectively. Men showed higher prevalence of OW (35.9%, 95% CI 31.6-40.5% and AO (37.9%, 95% CI 33.6-42.5% than women (OW 24.9%, 95% CI 21.7-28.4%; AO 29.7%, 95%CI 26.2-33.4%. Overall prevalence of OB was 11.8% (95% CI 9.1-15.1% in men and 10.8% (95% CI 8.6-13.5% in women. Age and no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA were main risk factors associated with OW/OB and AO. Living with at least one child at home and to be married in men as well as to be unemployed, to be born in South America, and a low level of education in women were associated with AO. Conclusions: Men showed higher prevalence of OW and AO than women. In both sexes, age is the main risk factor associated with OW/OB and AO; in men also the absence of LTPA plays a significant role.
Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
Full Text Available Demographics questionnaires, and fitness tests were utilized to identify the risk factors of hypertension among younger adults in the years 2005, 2010, and 2014 in China’s southwest province of Hubei. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of hypertension was higher between 2011 and 2014 among the young people in this area. The main risk factors of developing hypertension were found to be sex (as man, individuals over 40 years old, blue collar employees who worked in rural areas, overweight/obesity, and those with the low CRF.
Albert A Okunade
Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.
Full Text Available Background: While hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity can act alone to increase the prevalence of hypertension, few studies have examined their combined effect. Methods: This cross-sectional study of 42 332 Han Chinese from southwestern China investigated the combined effect of hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity on risk of hypertension in the entire sample as well as in different genders and age groups. Results: Hypertension was significantly more prevalent among individuals with both hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity (45.5% than among those with hyperuricaemia alone (28.1% or overweight/obesity alone (31.3%. Similarly, the increase in hypertension risk in the presence of both hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity (OR = 6.777, 95%CI 6.133, 7.489 was significantly greater than the increase in the presence of hyperuricaemia alone (OR = 3.168, 95%CI 2.705, 3.711 or overweight/obesity alone (OR = 3.693, 95% CI 3.503, 3.893. These results were similar across each age group. The same trend was also observed when comparing men and women, though the odds ratios were greater for women. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of hyperuricaemia and overweight/obesity increases risk of hypertension more than either morbidity on its own, and this risk differential is significantly greater in women than men. These findings should be confirmed in other ethnic groups and in longitudinal studies.
Bergström, E; Stenlund, H; Svedjehäll, B
To assess body perception in adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa. Using a visual size estimation technique, perceived body size was estimated in four groups of Swedish adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa (86 males and 95 females). Perceived body size was estimated at nine different body sites comparing these estimations to real body size. The results show that 95% of males and 96% of females overestimated their body size (mean overestimation: males +22%, females +33%). The overestimations were greatest in females. The greatest overestimations were made of the waist (males +31%, females +46%), buttocks (males +22%, females +42%), and thighs (males +27%, females +41%). The results indicate that overestimation of body size may be a general phenomenon in adolescents and young adults in a country such as Sweden, implying a similar, but less pronounced distortion of body image as in individuals with anorexia nervosa.
Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A
We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.
Metzinger, Courtney; Berg, Christine
Young adults with chronic health conditions can experience barriers to work performance, ability, and their present and future worker roles. Work readiness resources can expand individuals' work skills, abilities, and interests. Five work readiness tools are presented (1) building an occupational profile, (2) generating environmental strategies, (3) on-the-job strategy use, and exploration of online tools (4) O*NET® and (5) O*NET® Interest Profiler, along with two theories (Knowles's Andragogy and Lawton's Ecological Model) to guide tool use. Use of these tools can assist young adults to better manage their health and expand their vocational identities for success at work. These approaches and tools support health professionals, community partners, and vocational organizations in their efforts to help young adults with chronic conditions.
Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.
Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…
Varona, Jose F.
There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...
George B. Richardson; Ching-Chen Chen; Chia-Liang Dai; Patrick H. Hardesty; Christopher M. Swoboda
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict...
Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in
Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W.; Block, Rebecca G.; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms—closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust—of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented. PMID:27624944
Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.
Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville
Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.
Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H
In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.
Excesso de peso e o risco cardiovascular em jovens seguidos por 17 anos: estudo do Rio de Janeiro El exceso de peso y el riesgo cardiovascular en jóvenes seguidos durante 17 años: estudio del Rio de Janeiro Overweight and cardiovascular risk among young adults followed-up for 17 years: the Rio de Janeiro study, Brazil
Flávia Lopes Fonseca
el HOMA-IR. En A3 se añadió la medida de la circunferencia abdominal (CA, relación abdomen/cadera (RAC y porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC. RESULTADOS: 1 Grupo S/O presentó mayores promedios de PA aumentada (pBACKGROUND: The adoption of primary prevention measures among young people has a favorable impact on the context of cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk variables among young adults stratified according to the body mass index (BMI behavior obtained along 17 years, since childhood/adolescence (C/A. METHODS: Three assessments were carried out in 115 individuals pertaining to the study cohort of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A1: 12.97 ± 1.48 years old; A2: 21.90 ± 1.71 years old; A3: 30.65 ± 2.00 years olds and divided into three groups according to BMI in the three assessments: Group N (always normal BMI; n=46, Group L (varying BMI; n=49 and Group O/O (always increased BMI; n=20. In A1, A2 and A3, BP and BMI were obtained. In A2 and A3, glucose (G and lipidic profile were dosed. Also in A2, insulin (INS was dosed and HOMA-IR was calculated. In A3, the measurement of waist circumference (WC, abdomen/hip relation (AHR and body fat percentage (%BF were added. RESULTS: 1 Group O/O presented higher mean values of increased BP (p<0.0001 at the three assessments; 2 In A3, Group O/O showed higher mean values for WC, AHR and %BF and prevalence of increased WC and metabolic syndrome (MS (p<0.0001; 3 higher mean values were observed for INS, HOMA-IR, LDL-c in A2, and G, cholesterol, LDL-c and triglycerides in A3 for Group O/O (p<0.05; 4 masculine sex and O/O at A1 determined higher risk for MS occurrence in adult age. CONCLUSION: The presence of O/O since C/A was associated with higher BP values, anthropometric indexes and higher prevalence of MS in the young adult phase.
Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S
The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
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Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX14642...4210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX331...RX043965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX080072,SRX39553...2299,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX1388777,SRX554723,SR...1388779,SRX1388772,SRX1388771,SRX1388778,SRX012297 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX331...RX043965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Young adult SRX005630,SRX3732...X331269,SRX331331,SRX467093,SRX982096,SRX1388752,SRX1388749,SRX235166,SRX012299 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Young adult SRX707297,SRX70729...8 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Young adult SRX707297,SRX70729...8 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX331268,SRX331...RX043964 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX08007...4210,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX14642...54208,SRX054210,SRX054211 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX554723,SRX1388779,SR...RX1388775,SRX554734,SRX1388768,SRX012297,SRX012298,SRX012300 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX1388777,SRX1388779,S...SRX554724,SRX554734,SRX1388769,SRX012297,SRX012298,SRX012300 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX146...,SRX054211 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Young adult SRX005630,SRX0056...6,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX080072,SRX331...,SRX054211,SRX054210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX146...,SRX054208,SRX054210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Aline de Cássia Oliveira Castro
Full Text Available Summary Objective: To investigate the prevalence of overweight, abdominal obesity and associated factors in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Method: Cross-sectional study with 270 PLWHA. A questionnaire was applied to investigate sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured. BMI ≥25 kg/m2 was considered overweight, while abdominal obesity referred to waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥88 cm for women. The authors used multiple Poisson regression with 5% significance level. Results: The prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity was 33.7% and 12.6%, respectively, referring to 37.9% of women and 5.7% of men (p350 cells/mm3. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity associated with sociodemographic and clinical conditions, and consumption of risk foods. This scenario indicates the need for reorientation of the health care focus in this population.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Adaptive functioning of 149 hyperactive (H group and 72 control children (CC group in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, followed for at least 13 years to young adulthood (mean 20 years, range 19-25, was evaluated by interviews with participants, employer ratings, and high school records, and reported by researchers from Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester.
Ishikawa, M; Moriya, S; Yokoyama, T
To identify the relationship between diet-related indicators and overweight and obesity in older adults in rural Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Obira, Hokkaido, Japan. Local residents aged between 65 and 74 years, except for those with poor health, were included. A health- and diet-related questionnaire was applied to participants house-to-house by trained health professionals. The following indicators were examined: number of meals, number of balanced meals, food diversity, food group diversity, chewing ability, alcohol intake habit, smoking habit, instrumental activities of daily living scores, age, and residing alone or with family. Of 550 residents, 317 residents completely responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 41 were had low body mass index (BMI≤20) and were excluded. This resulted in a sample of 307 subjects comprising 117 men and 190 women; 37.6% and 46.8% of men and women were classified as obese (BMI≥25), respectively. Women with a normal BMI (20diet-related indicators compared with women with high BMI. The mean number of meals per day of normal men was significantly higher than of obese men. Using logistic regression analysis (stepwise), it was found that the number of meals per day was associated with obesity in men (OR=3.02; 95% CI 0.91-9.98; P=0.071), and food diversity was significantly associated with obesity in women (OR=1.95; 95% CI 1.12-3.38; P=0.018). The associations between dietary indicators and obesity differed by sex. Food diversity may be a potential indicator to measure nutritional status in women.
West, Sheila G; McIntyre, Molly D; Piotrowski, Matthew J; Poupin, Nathalie; Miller, Debra L; Preston, Amy G; Wagner, Paul; Groves, Lisa F; Skulas-Ray, Ann C
The consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate is associated with a lower risk of CVD, and improvements in endothelial function may mediate this relationship. Less is known about the effects of cocoa/chocolate on the augmentation index (AI), a measure of vascular stiffness and vascular tone in the peripheral arterioles. We enrolled thirty middle-aged, overweight adults in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 4-week, cross-over study. During the active treatment (cocoa) period, the participants consumed 37 g/d of dark chocolate and a sugar-free cocoa beverage (total cocoa = 22 g/d, total flavanols (TF) = 814 mg/d). Colour-matched controls included a low-flavanol chocolate bar and a cocoa-free beverage with no added sugar (TF = 3 mg/d). Treatments were matched for total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates and protein. The cocoa treatment significantly increased the basal diameter and peak diameter of the brachial artery by 6% (+2 mm) and basal blood flow volume by 22%. Substantial decreases in the AI, a measure of arterial stiffness, were observed in only women. Flow-mediated dilation and the reactive hyperaemia index remained unchanged. The consumption of cocoa had no effect on fasting blood measures, while the control treatment increased fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (P= 0·01). Fasting blood pressure (BP) remained unchanged, although the acute consumption of cocoa increased resting BP by 4 mmHg. In summary, the high-flavanol cocoa and dark chocolate treatment was associated with enhanced vasodilation in both conduit and resistance arteries and was accompanied by significant reductions in arterial stiffness in women.
Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D
) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...... force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement......, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across...
The primary objectives of the study were to calculate overweight prevalence (body mass index ≥ 25.0) and simple correlations between 10 demographic, social welfare and behavioural variables and overweight prevalence for Muslim countries (populations >50% Muslim; N = 46). Overweight data for a country's total, male and female populations were extracted from the World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise country reports and relevant publications. Country-level data for potential correlates were extracted from multiple sources: Central Intelligence Agency (literacy), Gallup Poll (religiosity), United Nations (agricultural employment, food supply, gender inequality, human development), World Bank (automobile ownership, Internet, labour force) and WHO (physical inactivity). The overall, male and female overweight prevalence was 37.4, 33.0 and 42.1%, respectively. Prevalence estimates significantly differed by economic classification, gender and ethnicity. Middle- and upper income countries were 1.54-7.76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-8.07) times more likely overweight than low-income countries, females were 1.48 (CI: 1.45-1.50) times more likely overweight than males and Arab countries were 2.92 (CI: 2.86-2.97) times more likely overweight than non-Arab countries. All 10 of the potential correlates were significantly associated with overweight for at least one permutation (total, economic classification, gender, ethnicity). The greater percentage of poorer countries among non-Arab Muslim countries, which compared with Arab countries have not as rapidly been transformed by globalization, nutrition transition and urbanization, may partially explain prevalence differences. Evaluation of correlational data generally followed associations seen in non-Muslim countries but more complex analysis of subnational data is needed. Arab women are a particularly vulnerable subgroup and governments should act within religious and cultural parameters to provide
Jurgens, Tannis M; Whelan, Anne Marie; Killian, Lara; Doucette, Steve; Kirk, Sara; Foy, Elizabeth
Preparations of green tea are used as aids in weight loss and weight maintenance. Catechins and caffeine, both contained in green tea, are each believed to have a role in increasing energy metabolism, which may lead to weight loss. A number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the role of green tea in weight loss have been published; however, the efficacy of green tea preparations in weight loss remains unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of green tea preparations for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. We searched the following databases from inception to specified date as well as reference lists of relevant articles: The Cochrane Library (Issue 12, 2011), MEDLINE (December 2011), EMBASE (December 2011), CINAHL (January 2012), AMED (January 2012), Biological Abstracts (January 2012), IBIDS (August 2010), Obesity+ (January 2012), IPA (January 2012) and Web of Science (December 2011). Current Controlled Trials with links to other databases of ongoing trials was also searched. RCTs of at least 12 weeks' duration comparing green tea preparations to a control in overweight or obese adults. Three authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and quality, with differences resolved by consensus. Heterogeneity of included studies was assessed visually using forest plots and quantified using the I(2) statistic. We synthesised data using meta-analysis and descriptive analysis as appropriate; subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Adverse effects reported in studies were recorded. Due to the level of heterogeneity among studies, studies were divided into two groups; those conducted in Japan and those conducted outside Japan. Study length ranged between 12 and 13 weeks. Meta-analysis of six studies conducted outside Japan showed a mean difference (MD) in weight loss of -0.04 kg (95% CI -0.5 to 0.4; P = 0.88; I(2) = 18%; 532 participants). The eight studies conducted in Japan were not similar
Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...
Harrell, M B; Weaver, S R; Loukas, A; Creamer, M; Marti, C N; Jackson, C D; Heath, J W; Nayak, P; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T F; Eriksen, M P
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth ( n = 3907) and young adult college students ( n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults ( n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and "usual" e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%), Texas young adult college students (95%), and young adults (71.2%) nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco), while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy) may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12–17 years old, young adults (18–29 years old, and older adults (30+ years old. Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907 and young adult college students (n = 5482 in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051 nationwide were administered in 2014–2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and “usual” e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%, Texas young adult college students (95%, and young adults (71.2% nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco, while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03. Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Patel, Mitesh S; Asch, David A; Rosin, Roy; Small, Dylan S; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Heuer, Jack; Sproat, Susan; Hyson, Chris; Haff, Nancy; Lee, Samantha M; Wesby, Lisa; Hoffer, Karen; Shuttleworth, David; Taylor, Devon H; Hilbert, Victoria; Zhu, Jingsan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Xingmei; Volpp, Kevin G
Financial incentive designs to increase physical activity have not been well-examined. To test the effectiveness of 3 methods to frame financial incentives to increase physical activity among overweight and obese adults. Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 02030119). University of Pennsylvania. 281 adult employees (body mass index ≥27 kg/m2). 13-week intervention. Participants had a goal of 7000 steps per day and were randomly assigned to a control group with daily feedback or 1 of 3 financial incentive programs with daily feedback: a gain incentive ($1.40 given each day the goal was achieved), lottery incentive (daily eligibility [expected value approximately $1.40] if goal was achieved), or loss incentive ($42 allocated monthly upfront and $1.40 removed each day the goal was not achieved). Participants were followed for another 13 weeks with daily performance feedback but no incentives. Primary outcome was the mean proportion of participant-days that the 7000-step goal was achieved during the intervention. Secondary outcomes included the mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal during follow-up and the mean daily steps during intervention and follow-up. The mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.37) in the control group, 0.35 (CI, 0.28 to 0.42) in the gain-incentive group, 0.36 (CI, 0.29 to 0.43) in the lottery-incentive group, and 0.45 (CI, 0.38 to 0.52) in the loss-incentive group. In adjusted analyses, only the loss-incentive group had a significantly greater mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal than control (adjusted difference, 0.16 [CI, 0.06 to 0.26]; P = 0.001), but the adjusted difference in mean daily steps was not significant (861 [CI, 24 to 1746]; P = 0.056). During follow-up, daily steps decreased for all incentive groups and were not different from control. Single employer. Financial incentives framed as a loss were most effective for achieving physical
Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of conducted researches in field of loneliness psychology, in order to reveal the feeling of loneliness and its manifestation at young adults. At this age, the main hazard represent the excessive self-concern or avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The inability to establish personal relationships of trust leads to loneliness. The causes and factors findings that could trigger loneliness, as well as their effects on young adults reflect a multi-featured phenomenon of this complex and ambiguous condition. The clear depiction deficiency of loneliness approach among young adults shows that this phenomenon may have different distinctions. As a prerequisite for personal development, as well as a multitude of causes, these can be expressed through various contexts of social isolation disclosure (voluntary or forced and life consequences of young individual. All of the above represent an additional need of developing the loneliness concept of young, based on an integrated approach and oriented towards structuring the control of loneliness and empirical data-bases.
Ng, Marie; Fleming, Tom; Robinson, Margaret; Thomson, Blake; Graetz, Nicholas; Margono, Christopher; Mullany, Erin C; Biryukov, Stan; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry P; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME; Achoki, Tom; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso, Rafael; Ali, Mohammed K; Ali, Raghib; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Banerjee, Amitava; Barquera, Simon; Basu, Sanjay; Bennett, Derrick A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blore, Jed; Cabral, Norberto; Nonato, Ismael Campos; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cundiff, David K; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C; Dandona, Lalit; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Ding, Eric L; Durrani, Adnan M; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek FJ; Feigin, Valery L; Flaxman, Abraham; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Goto, Atsushi; Green, Mark A; Gupta, Rajeev; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hankey, Graeme J; Harewood, Heather C; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon; Hernandez, Lucia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Islami, Farhad; Jahangir, Eiman; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeffreys, Mona; Jonas, Jost B; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinge, Jonas M; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Kwan, Gene; Lai, Taavi; Leinsalu, Mall; Li, Yichong; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shiwei; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lu, Yuan; Ma, Jixiang; Mainoo, Nana Kwaku; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Mokdad, Ali H; Moschandreas, Joanna; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Nand, Devina; Narayan, KM Venkat; Nelson, Erica Leigh; Neuhouser, Marian L; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Oti, Samuel O; Pedroza, Andrea; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Roy, Nobhojit; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Seo, Hyeyoung; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shibuya, Kenji; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Stapelberg, Nicolas JC; Sturua, Lela; Sykes, Bryan L; Tobias, Martin; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; van de Vijver, Steven; Vasankari, Tommi J; Veerman, J Lennert; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wang, Claire; Wang, Sharon XiaoRong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Werdecker, Andrea; Wright, Jonathan L; Yang, Y Claire; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yoon, Jihyun; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Shankuan; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL
Background In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3.4 million deaths, 3.9% of years of life lost, and 3.8% of DALYs globally. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparative, up-to-date information on levels and trends is essential both to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision-makers to prioritize action. Methods We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n = 1,769) that included information on height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. Mixed effects linear regression was used to correct for the bias in self-reports. Age-sex-country-year observations (n = 19,244) on prevalence of obesity and overweight were synthesized using a spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings Globally, the proportion of adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater increased from 28.8% (95% UI: 28.4-29.3) in 1980 to 36.9% (36.3-37.4) in 2013 for men and from 29.8% (29.3-30.2) to 38.0% (37.5-38.5) for women. Increases were observed in both developed and developing countries. There have been substantial increases in prevalence among children and adolescents in developed countries, with 23.8% (22.9-24.7) of boys and 22.6% (21.7-23.6) of girls being either overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is also rising among children and adolescents in developing countries as well, rising from 8.1% (7.7-8.6) to 12.9% (12.3-13.5) in 2013 for boys and from 8.4% (8.1-8.8) to 13.4% (13.0-13.9) in girls. Among adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeds 50% among men in Tonga and women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has stabilized. Interpretation Because of the established health risks
Bedogni, Giorgio; Bertoli, Simona; Leone, Alessandro; De Amicis, Ramona; Lucchetti, Elisa; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marazzi, Nicoletta; Battezzati, Alberto; Sartorio, Alessandro
We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE. The highest CCF was 79%, 80%, 72%, 64%, and 63% in subjects with normal weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity, respectively. The Henry weight and height and Mifflin equations performed equally well with CCFs of 77% vs. 77% for subjects with normal weight, 80% vs. 80% for those with overweight, 72% vs. 72% for those with class 1 obesity, 64% vs. 63% for those with class 2 obesity, and 61% vs. 60% for those with class 3 obesity. The Sabounchi meta-regression equations offered an improvement over the above equations only for class 3 obesity (63%). The accuracy of REE equations decreases with increasing values of body mass index. The Henry weight & height and Mifflin equations are similarly accurate and the Sabounchi equations offer an improvement only in subjects with class 3 obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Patricia Ann
Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…
Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender
Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…
Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen
This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…
Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret
Purpose: Young adult's drinking is about pleasure, a communal practice of socialising together in a friendship group. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolving support practices of drinking groups for better targeting of health communications messages. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examined the…
Hughes, Janette; Laffier, Jennifer Lynn
In this article, the authors examine how bullying is portrayed in three recent young adult novels, focusing specifically on whether the information about bullying is accurate, biased, or represents old myths in comparison to current research. The authors conduct a systematic analysis of the following four themes: (1) What is bullying?; (2) Who are…
Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad
The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…
Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan
Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…
M. H. Harirchian
Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.
Mathews-Bradshaw, Beth; Johnson, Rebecca; Kaplan, Stuart; Craddock, Kelli; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon
This article outlines the history, background, and accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. The LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance, a program of the Lance Armstrong Foundation, was developed as a vehicle for a strategic plan designed to implement the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (AYAO PRG) recommendations. The AYAO PRG was co-sponsored by Lance Armstrong Foundation and the National Cancer Institute (NCI); both LIVESTRONG and NCI provide strategic oversight and guidance to the Alliance. Highlights and accomplishments: The Alliance accomplishments include the publication of disease-specific retrospective analyses, funding of an AYA cohort study and biorepository proposal, publication of two position statements on guidelines for care of AYAs with cancer and training for AYA oncology health professionals, promotion of an international charter of rights for AYA cancer patients, creation and distribution of a survey to college health professionals, creation and implementation of a Cancer Centers Working Group and Institutional Review Board Toolkit, and continued growth and collaboration through an annual meeting. The growth and success of the Alliance has coincided with the growth of AYA oncology as a field. The collaborative environment of the Alliance draws together a diverse group of individuals united in the effort to increase survival rates and improve the quality of life for adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer.
Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ
Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with
Li, Qing; Pustaka, Arkhadi
Background: Cyberbullying is connected with online gaming in complex ways. Although cyberbullying can occur while people play games, it is also the case that gaming may have the potential to address cyberbullying and bullying problems. Purpose: This study examines young adults' beliefs and experiences related to cyberbullying and gaming. Sample:…
Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D
) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...
Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.
We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories persists…
This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...
Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting
Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…
Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...
Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…
R.H.J.M. Staring (Richard)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Young adults heading for Syria to join the jihad and the safety risks associated with their return are currently a topic of debate in the Netherlands and in many other European countries. Around 120 Dutch citizens have gone abroad to join the jihad and the Dutch
Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.
Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…
Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor
Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…
In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…
Hill, Katherine Jane Roney
The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…
Bull, Kelly Byrne
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…
Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others
This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…
Michelle C. van der Merwe
Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.
Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…
Background: Studies in most countries have shown an increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in children and young adults. Double diabetes is a newly recognized problem in children with different diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Methods: A review of over 30 literature obtained from Google, PUBMED search and ...
Locke, Bill J.; And Others
Thirty-six mildly mentally retarded young adults were exposed to one of three training arrangements for vigilance performance, a monitoring task that some professionals consider uniquely appropriate for such persons because they are assumed to be less susceptible to boredom. (Author)
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration
Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.
Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of
Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions ... and associated factors in a group of university undergraduates in south-east Nigeria. ... being a female (X2 = 47.91), first year student (X2 = 41.82), and having high ...
Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva
This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…
van Pelt, Philomine A.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Dolhain, Radboud J.E.M.; Kruize, Aike A.; Huisman, Jaap; Wulffraat, Nico M.
Background/Purpose: Internet-use is increasing since it is an efficient way to find information. Information obtained via Health Related Internet (HRI) sites, or online peer support groups might increase knowledge and self-management in adolescents and young adults with Juvenile IdiopathicArthritis
Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes ...
Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata
Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical…
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…
Discusses a public library film literacy program offered to adolescents and young adults which incorporates films that are not curriculum-oriented and center around specific themes such as self-identity, creativity, speculations, and lifestyles. Seven films selected for program on social issues and viewers' evaluations are highlighted.…
Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia
In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.
Splete, Howard; Freeman-George, Ann
This article (1) reviews family influences on career development (geographic location, genetic inheritance, family background, socioeconomic status, family composition, parenting style, parental work-related attitudes) and (2) suggests counselor interventions to aid young adults in becoming autonomous in their career development (e.g., review…
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl
Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…
James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Van Der Laan, Peter H.
This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether
James, Chrissy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M; van der Laan, Peter H.
This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether
Hall, Scott S.
The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…
Academy for Educational Development, 2012
This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…
Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda. ... The mean age of participants was 23 years, there were slightly more males 1.3:1. ... The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this cohort was low but falls in the range found elsewhere.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Sanchez, Julissa; Lopez, Bianca
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups. Guided by an intersectional minority stress resilience framework, we asked: how do self-identified LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults manage cultural messages of prejudice and discrimination in relation to their health? Findings underscore how LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults established a strong sense of health autonomy to resist cultural stigma related to their intersecting identities. Young people actively educated themselves on health-related concerns, engaged in health-promoting tactics, and practised cultural negativity management to effectively navigate exposure to prejudice and discrimination.
Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.
Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297
Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954
Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.
Marley, Tennille L; Metzger, Molly W
American Indian young adults have higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes than the general US population. They are also more likely than the general population to have higher rates of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes, such as poverty, frequent changes of residence, and stress. The objective of this study was to investigate possible links between these 2 sets of problems. Data from the American Indian subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to examine potential links between obesity and type 2 diabetes and structural risk factors such as neighborhood poverty, housing mobility, and stress. We used logistic regression to explore explanatory factors. American Indians in the subsample had higher rates of poor health, such as elevated hemoglobin A1c levels, self-reported high blood glucose, self-reported diabetes, and overweight or obesity. They also had higher rates of structural risk factors than non-Hispanic whites, such as residing in poorer and more transient neighborhoods and having greater levels of stress. Self-reported stress partially mediated the increased likelihood of high blood glucose or diabetes among American Indians, whereas neighborhood poverty partially mediated their increased likelihood of obesity. Neighborhood poverty and stress may partially explain the higher rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among American Indian young adults than among non-Hispanic white young adults. Future research should explore additional neighborhood factors such as access to grocery stores selling healthy foods, proximity and safety of playgrounds or other recreational space, and adequate housing.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.
Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won
Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study.
Ueda, Keisuke; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shioya, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Satoru; Nakata, Yoshio
The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture (A-mix) ingestion at 1,500 mg/day in combination with the promotion of physical activity for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial for 12 weeks combined with a 4-week follow-up period was conducted at a single center in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, between December 2016 and May 2017. Data were analyzed between June and August 2017. The study participants were 200 overweight adults within the age range of 20-64 years. The participants were randomly assigned to the A-mix group (n=100) or a placebo group (n=100) and were administered 500 mL of test beverage containing 1,500 or 0 mg of A-mix, respectively, for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle between week 0 and week 12 through monthly sessions of physical activity. The primary outcomes were the 12-week changes in the abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, as assessed by computed tomography. Of the 200 enrolled participants, 199 (99%) accomplished the 12-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. The per-protocol-based analysis for 194 participants demonstrated that the abdominal total fat area decreased significantly in the A-mix group compared with that in the placebo group (difference, 10.0 cm 2 ; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-19.6 cm 2 ; P =0.041). Comparable outcomes were obtained for the abdominal subcutaneous fat area (difference, 7.4 cm 2 ; 95% CI: 0.1-14.7 cm 2 ; P =0.047). No study-related unfavorable events occurred. A-mix supplementation in combination with physical activity promotion facilitated abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults.
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)
textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A
Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach. ... A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Research in developed countries has demonstrated an association of varying degrees between watching TV and the risk of being overweight and obese. However, there is no evidence of such an association in the context of the South Asian population. To investigate whether watching TV increases the risk of being overweight and obese among women in Bangladesh. Rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. Participants were 16 624 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. The study was based on cross-sectional data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted in 2014. The main outcome variables were overweight and obesity measured by body mass index. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and multivariable logistic regression models. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample population were, respectively, 4.5% (4.18% to 4.82%) and 20% (95% CI 19.39% to 20.61%). In the multivariable analysis, no statistically significant association was found between watching TV and being overweight. However, the odds of being obese among rural women were 63% higher (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.625, 95% CI 1.179 to 2.241) among those who watched less than once a week, and 68% (AOR 1.683, 95% CI 1.029 to 2.751) higher among women who watched TV at least once a week compared to those who did not watch TV at all. Urban women who watched TV at least once a week were 67% more likely to be obese (AOR 1.665, 95% CI 1.079 to 2.568) compared to those who did not watch at all. Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen considerably among women aged between 15 and 49 years since the previous estimates based on BDHS data. Frequent TV watching was associated with a higher risk of being obese among adult women in rural areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Christine H.K. Ou, RN, BN, MSN
Conclusion: Chinese young adults share similar issues with other young adults in relation to not having a primary care provider and accessing preventive care but their health beliefs and practices make their needs for care unique from other young adults.
Ribera, Josep-Maria; Oriol, Albert
Today, long-term survival is achieved in more than 80% of children 1 to 10 years old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, cure rates for adults and adolescents and young adults (AYA) with ALL remain relatively low, at only 40% to 50%. Age is a continuous prognostic variable in ALL, with no single age at which prognosis deteriorates markedly. Within childhood ALL populations, older children have shown inferior outcomes, whereas younger adults have shown superior outcomes among adult ALL patients. The type of treatment (pediatric-based versus adult-based) for AYA has recently been a matter of debate. In this article the biology and treatment of ALL in AYA is reviewed.
Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.
Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…
Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…
Bullis, Michael; And Others
Comparison of hearing (n=222) and deaf (n=217) young adults on employment, independent living, and social experience outcomes found that the hearing group was generally more successful than deaf persons from mainstream or residential schools. Gender differences did not uniformly favor men. Suggestions for improving transition programs for the deaf…
Sarma, Haribondhu; Saquib, Nazmus; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Saquib, Juliann; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Uddin, Md Jasim; Cullen, Mark R; Ahmed, Tahmeed
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in Bangladesh. It is higher among Bangladeshi women than among men. This study was conducted to assess a host of demographic and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, separately for the urban and rural women of Bangladesh. We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. The BDHS provides cross-sectional data on a wide range of indicators relating to population, health, and nutrition. We analyzed nutrition-related data to identify the factors associated with being overweight or obese among ever-married women aged 18-49 years. Of 16,493 women, about 18 % (95 % CI 17 · 80-18 · 99) were overweight or obese. Unemployed urban women were at 1 · 44 (95 % CI 1 · 18-1 · 76, p women who were involved in manual-labored work. Watching television at least once a week was another significant predictor among urban women (OR 1 · 49; 95 % CI 1 · 24-1 · 80; p women (OR 1 · 31; 95 % CI 1 · 14-1 · 51; p women. The findings of the study indicate that a large number of women in Bangladesh are suffering from being overweight or obese, and multiple factors are responsible for this including, older age, being from wealthy households, higher education, being from food-secured households, watching TV at least once a week, and being an unemployed urban woman. Given the anticipated long-term effects, the factors that are associated with being overweight or obese should be considered while formulating an effective intervention for the women of Bangladesh.
Sharmayne R. E. Brady
Full Text Available Objective: To compare cardiometabolic risk factors including cytokine and adipokine concentrations between individuals with and without back pain.Methods: In 62 overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; 23F/39M, we collected data on: self-reported back pain; anthropometry [BMI, waist circumference, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry—DEXA]; metabolic parameters [fasting glucose; insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps]; cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, lipids; serum inflammation markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; immunoturbidimetric-assay, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10 (multiplex-assay]; and adipokines [leptin, adipsin, resistin, and adiponectin (multiplex-assay].Results: Participants who reported having back pain in the past month (n = 24; 39% had higher BMI (mean ± SD = 33.8 ± 6.3 vs. 30.2 ± 4.1 kg/m2, p = 0.008, fat-mass (39.9 ± 12.3 vs. 33.9 ± 9.8%, p = 0.04, and waist circumference (109.6 ± 16.8 vs. 101.0 ± 9.3 cm, p = 0.01 compared to those without back pain (n = 38; 61%. No differences were observed in cardiometabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, or adiponectin or resistin concentrations. Those reporting back pain had higher adipsin concentrations compared to those without back pain [median (IQR = 744 (472–2,804 vs. 721 (515–867 ng/ml, p = 0.03], with a trend for higher leptin [5.5 (1.5–24.3 vs. 2.3 (1.5–6.7 ng/ml, p = 0.05], both of which persisted after adjustment for age and sex. Adipsin remained associated with back pain independently of adiposity (BMI, waist, fat-mass, or total %body fat; all p ≤ 0.03.Conclusions: Greater obesity, and higher adipsin and leptin concentrations were observed in those who reported back pain in the past month compared to those without back pain, and adipsin was associated with back pain independently of adiposity. Larger studies are needed to determine if adipsin could be a novel
Kirsten A Berk
Full Text Available A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes.192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques.Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2-8.5; p<0.001 and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18, p = 0.001, anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11, p = 0.001, numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87, p = 0.002, insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02, p = 0.014 and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78, p = 0.003. This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5% weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67-0.82, with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97 and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.42. When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181 were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11, p = 0.008, whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not.Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Marc A Adams
Full Text Available Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible.To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention.Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data.A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74.The adaptive intervention outperformed the static intervention for increasing
Patrone R. Risenga; Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate perceptions of young adults regarding HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) and the factors contributing to either negative or positive perceptions towards the programme. This article is a report of a concept analysis of young adults' perceptions of HCT that were collected during the study. Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decid...
Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Kerksick, Chad M
Improved dietary strategies for weight loss are necessary to decrease metabolic disease risk in overweight or obese adults. Varying meal frequency (MF; i.e., increasing or decreasing eating occasions beyond the traditional pattern of three meals daily) has been thought to have an influence on body weight regulation, hunger control, and blood markers of health. It is common practice for weight management clinicians to recommend increasing MF as a strategy for weight management and to improve metabolic parameters. However, limited research exists investigating the effect of MF during controlled hypocaloric dietary interventions. Furthermore, MF literature often speculates with regard to efficacy of MF treatments based on research using normal weight, overweight/obese, or some combination, where much diversity exists within these various populations. In this review, we suggest that normal-weight and overweight/obese populations, as well as free-living versus investigator-controlled research trials, should be studied independently. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to survey the literature to assess whether the alteration of MF influences body weight regulation, hunger control, and/or blood markers of health in overweight/obese participants undergoing a controlled hypocaloric diet to induce weight loss. Findings of this review indicate that there is uncertainty in the literature when interpreting the optimal MF for obesity treatment, where reduced MF may even show more favorable lipid profiles in obese individuals compared with increased MF. Furthermore, the simple relationship of comparing MF with body fatness or body mass index should also consider whether eating frequency is associated with other healthy factors (e.g., increased physical activity). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beaty, Narlin B; Le, Thomas T
To measure thicknesses in clinical landmark areas of the dentate mandibles of young men and women. Using standard radiologic software, we obtained mean (SD) thickness measurements at the inferior or posterior borders of the mandible at the following 7 surgically useful sites: (1) the symphysis, (2) a point halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, (3) the mental nerve, (4) a point halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, (5) the facial artery notch, (6) the angle vertex, and (7) the ramus-condylar neck border. University hospital. A total of 150 dentate men and 75 dentate women aged 18 to 30 years who had undergone computed tomography of the head and neck region during the period of December 20, 2006 to February 20, 2007. Thicknesses of 7 mandibular sites. Mean (SD) thicknesses at the 7 mandibular sites were as follows: symphysis, 14.03 (1.53) mm for men and 13.21 (1.46) mm for women; halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, 11.17 (1.37) mm for men and 10.00 (1.08) mm for women; mental nerve, 9.48 (1.28) mm for men and 8.72 (1.00) mm for women; halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, 10.33 (1.24) mm for men and 9.45 (0.92) mm for women; facial artery notch, 7.27 (0.82) mm for men and 7.10 (0.88) mm for women; angle vertex, 5.42 (0.90) mm for men and 5.39 (0.66) mm for women; and ramus-condylar neck border, 5.90 (0.86) mm for men and 5.85 (0.71) mm for women. Clinical landmark areas in young dentate mandibles have mean thicknesses with limited SDs. The thickness measurements obtained at the sites in this study provide practical reference information for mandibular reconstruction and bicortical screw length estimation.
Zebrack, Brad J
Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. © 2011 American Cancer Society
Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Xiang; Heianza, Yoriko; Nisa, Hoirun; Shang, Xiaoyun; Rabito, Felicia; Kelly, Tanika; Harville, Emily; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia; Chen, Wei; Qi, Lu
Asthma is related to various cardiovascular risk. Whether a history of asthma from childhood contributes to arterial stiffness in adulthood, a noninvasive surrogate for cardiovascular events, is unknown. Prospective analyses were performed among 1746 Bogalusa Heart Study participants aged 20 to 51 years with data on self-report asthma collected since childhood. Aorta-femoral pulse wave velocity (af-PWV, m/s) was repeatedly assessed among adults ≥aged 18 years. Generalized linear mixed models and generalized linear models were fitted for the repeated measurements of af-PWV and its changes between the last and the first measurements, respectively. After a median follow-up of 11.1 years, participants with a history of asthma from childhood had a higher af-PWV (6.78 versus 6.13; P =0.048) and a greater increase in af-PWV (8.99 versus 2.95; P =0.043) than those without asthma, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status, heart rate, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, lipids, and glycemia. In addition, we found significant interactions of asthma with body mass index and systolic blood pressure on af-PWV and its changes ( P for interaction The associations of asthma with af-PWV and its changes appeared to be stronger among participants who were overweight and obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) or with prehypertension and hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥120 mm Hg) compared with those with a normal body mass index or systolic blood pressure. Our findings indicate that a history of asthma from childhood is associated with higher af-PWV and greater increases in af-PWV, and such associations are stronger among young adults who are overweight or with elevated blood pressure. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D
Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru
Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.
Staub, Kaspar; Bender, Nicole; Floris, Joël; Pfister, Christian; Rühli, Frank J
The global obesity epidemic continues, new approaches are needed to understand the causes. We analyzed data from an evolutionary perspective, stressing developmental plasticity. We present diachronical height, weight, and BMI data for 702,902 Swiss male conscripts aged 18-20 years, a representative, standardized and unchanged data source. From 1875 to 1879, the height distribution was slightly left-skewed; 12.1% of the conscripts were underweight, overweight and obesity were rare. The BMI-to-height relationship was positive but not linear, and very short conscripts were particularly slim. Since the 1870s, Swiss conscripts became taller, a trend that markedly slowed in the 1990s. In contrast, weight increased in two distinct steps at the end of the 1980s and again after 2002. Since 2010, BMI did not increase but stabilized at a high level. The body of young men adapted differently to varying living conditions over time: First, less investment in height and weight under conditions of undernutrition and food uncertainty; second, more investment in height under more stable nutritional conditions; third, development of obesity during conditions of plateaued height growth, overnutrition, and decreasing physical activity. This example contributes to the evaluation of hypotheses on human developmental plasticity. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…
Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert
Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…
The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…
The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…
Menard, Lauren A.
Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…
Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.
Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…
Drill, Rebecca L.
Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…
Grossbard, Joel R; Lehavot, Keren; Hoerster, Katherine D; Jakupcak, Matthew; Seal, Karen H; Simpson, Tracy L
Although many risk behaviors peak during young adulthood, little is known about health risk factors and access to care. This study assessed health indicators and health care access in a national sample of young adult veterans and civilians. Data were from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a national telephone survey. Of 27,471 participants, ages 19-30 years, 2.2% were veterans (74.6% were male) and 97.7% were civilians (37.6% were male). Gender-stratified comparisons assessed health indicators and health care access by veteran status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine health indicators and health care access as a function of gender and veteran status. In the overall sample, women were more likely than men to have insurance, to have a regular physician, and to have had a routine checkup and yet were more likely to report financial barriers to care. Women also were more likely than men to report general medical and mental distress and higher lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders, whereas men were more likely to be overweight or obese and to report tobacco use and high-risk drinking. Adjusted analyses revealed a higher likelihood of general medical distress and higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders among veterans compared with civilians, although there were no differences between veterans and civilians regarding health care utilization and hazardous drinking. Findings extend the literature on health care status and modifiable risk factors for young adults by identifying differences between men and women and between veterans and civilians. Interventions may need to be tailored on the bases of gender and veteran status because of several differences in mental health and general health needs.
Pinto, Karina Araujo; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lucia; da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Maria; Barreto, Rosane Sousa; Aquino, Estela M L
Perceived time constraints have been highlighted in sociological studies as representing a core issue in determining quality of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gender inequalities regarding insufficiency of time play a role in the development of overweight and obesity in adults. The study used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), which monitors a cohort of 15,105 civil servants of 35 to 74 years of age. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure due to professional and domestic duties, as detailed in a structured questionnaire, comprised the main exposure variable. The outcome variable was overweight/obesity measured according to body mass index. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. A greater proportion of women compared to men reported insufficient time for personal care and leisure (34.5% versus 23.8%, respectively). The prevalence of overweight was greater in men, while obesity was more common in women. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure was associated with overweight (PR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.04-1.61) and obesity (PR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.28-2.12) only in women working over 40 hours/week. No significant association was found for males. These results suggest that the length of the working week influences factors underlying weight gain, possibly issues linked to behavior and/or stress mechanisms. The fact that such an association was restricted to women suggests that the results originate from gender inequalities involving relationships between time and health. The findings of this study provide data on which to base public policies aimed at encouraging the redistribution of domestic responsibilities in the direction of gender equity, as well as macrosocial policies such as providing public schools for workers' children.
Höchsmann, Christoph; Rossmeissl, Anja; Baumann, Sandra; Infanger, Denis; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno
To examine cardiorespiratory exertion during mini trampoline exercises of different intensities in both endurance-trained athletes and overweight-obese adults. Physically healthy participants (Group A: normal-weight, endurance-trained athletes; Group B: inactive, overweight-obese adults) participated in two measurement appointments and three training sessions in between appointments, in which participants familiarized themselves with the use of the mini trampoline and the execution of the exercises. The primary outcome was the ⩒O 2peak for each of the six mini trampoline exercises relative to the ⩒O 2peak as established during an all-out exercise test on a bike ergometer during the first measurement appointment. Secondary outcomes were average ⩒O 2 as well as maximum and average heart rate. The six mini trampoline exercises generated ⩒O 2peak values between 42% and 81% in the endurance-trained athletes and between 58% and 87% in the overweight-obese participants, both in relation to the bike ergometer ⩒O 2peak . Average ⩒O 2 values ranged from 35% to 69% (endurance-trained athletes) and from 48% to 71% (overweight-obese participants), depending on exercise. Average heart rate likewise lay in a range that can be categorized as moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise for both groups. A moderate-to-strong correlation (0.658 to 0.875, depending on exercise) between bike ergometer ⩒O 2peak and mini trampoline ⩒O 2peak was found for all six exercises. Mini trampoline exercise has the potential to produce training intensities that concur with established exercise guidelines. The exercise intensity is self-adjusting and allows for an effective and safe workout for different users with a wide range of fitness levels.
Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki
The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.
Yanez, Betina; Garcia, Sofia F; Victorson, David; Salsman, John M
Being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult can lead to significant psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Compared to children and older adults diagnosed with cancer, fewer studies have addressed psychological distress among young adult cancer survivors. This study sought to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, distress among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). Young adult cancer survivors (N = 335, mean age = 31.8, women = 68.4%) were recruited from an online research panel and stratified by cohort (time postactive treatment: 0-12, 13-24, and 25-60 months). Participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, global impact of cancer, cancer-related education and work interruption, and cancer-specific distress using the impact of event scale (IES). The mean score on the IES (M = 31.0, range = 0-75) was above the cut point of 20, suggesting clinically elevated distress. Analysis of covariance revealed significant main effects for cohort, global impact and cancer-related education/work interruption, and an interaction between cohort and cancer-related education/work interruption on distress. Although there was no significant effect of education/work interruption on distress for those in the 0-12 month cohort (p = .88), survivors in the 13-24 and 25-60 month cohorts reporting education/work interruption were significantly more distressed than those not reporting education/work interruption in the respective cohorts (p cancer survivors face unique challenges. These data underscore the importance of attending to cancer-related distress beyond the completion of treatment and may help inform targeted interventions to prevent or reduce significant distress and related sequelae in this population.
Genugten, L. van; Empelen, P. van; Boon, B.; Borsboom, G.; Visscher, T.; Oenema, A.
Background: Prevention of weight gain has been suggested as an important strategy in the prevention of obesity and people who are overweight are a specifically important group to target. Currently there is a lack of weight gain prevention interventions that can reach large numbers of people.
L. van Genugten (Lenneke); P. van Empelen (Pepijn); B.J.F. Boon (Brigitte); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); T.L.S. Visscher (Tommy); A. Oenema (Anke)
textabstractPrevention of weight gain has been suggested as an important strategy in the prevention of obesity and people who are overweight are a specifically important group to target. Currently there is a lack of weight gain prevention interventions that can reach large numbers of people.
Hansen, S; Halldorsson, T I; Olsen, S F
insulin, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid concentrations. RESULTS: In the cohort, 7% were born by C-section, and at age 20 years, 18% of the offspring had a BMI ⩾25 kg m-2. Birth by C-section was associated with increased odds of overweight or obesity at 20 years (Odds ratio=2.17 (95% confidence interval...
Sonneville, Kendrin R; Horton, Nicholas J; Micali, Nadia; Crosby, Ross D; Swanson, Sonja A; Solmi, Francesca; Field, Alison E
To investigate the association between overeating (without loss of control) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control) and adverse outcomes. Prospective cohort study. Adolescents and young adults living throughout the United States. Sixteen thousand eight hundred eighty-two males and females participating in the Growing Up Today Study who were 9 to 15 years old at enrollment in 1996. Overeating and binge eating assessed via questionnaire every 12 to 24 months between 1996 and 2005. Risk of becoming overweight or obese, starting to binge drink frequently, starting to use marijuana, starting to use other drugs, and developing high levels of depressive symptoms. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations. All models controlled for age and sex; additional covariates varied by outcome. Among this large cohort of adolescents and young adults, binge eating was more common among females than males. In fully adjusted models, binge eating, but not overeating, was associated with incident overweight/obesity (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.11-2.69) and the onset of high depressive symptoms (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.40-3.45). Neither overeating nor binge eating was associated with starting to binge drink frequently, while both overeating and binge eating predicted starting to use marijuana and other drugs. Although any overeating, with or without loss of control, predicted the onset of marijuana and other drug use, we found that binge eating is uniquely predictive of incident overweight/obesity and the onset of high depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that loss of control is an important indicator of severity of overeating episodes.
Samuel N. Forjuoh
Full Text Available Background. This study examined the association between selected sociodemographic, health, and built environmental factors and walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight/obese adults. Methods. Subjective data were obtained from surveys administered to community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged ≥50 years residing in four Texas cities from October 2013 to June 2014, along with objective data on neighborhood walkability (Walk Score™. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting the odds of walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose. Results. Of 253 participants, the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.8%, married (74.5%, and male (53.4% and reported an annual income of ≥$50,000 (65.5%. Approximately, half were employed (49.6% or had at least a college degree (51.6%. Walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose (n=57, 22.5% was significantly associated with having at least a college degree (OR=5.55, 95% CI = 1.79–17.25, having no difficulty walking a quarter of a mile (OR=5.18, 95% CI = 1.30–20.83, and being unemployed (OR=3.25, 95% CI = 1.18–8.93 as well as perceived presence of sidewalks/protected walkways (OR=3.56, 95% CI = 1.10–11.50 and perceived absence of distracted drivers in the neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI = 1.47–11.36. Conclusion. Addressing neighborhood conditions related to distracted drivers and pedestrian infrastructure may promote walking among middle-aged and older overweight/obese individuals.
De Frène, Veerle; Verhofstadt, Lesley; Lammertyn, Jan; Stuyver, Isabelle; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra
To evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), including an acne parameter, of overweight adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a lifestyle modification program. Prospective longitudinal within-patient study. Department of Reproductive Medicine of the Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Thirty-three overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m²) women with PCOS between age 18 and 43 years. Participants followed a 24-week lifestyle modification program consisting of a diet, exercise, and psychological subprogram. BMI was assessed at Weeks 0, 8, 16, and 24 of the program. The HRQoL was measured at Week 0, 12, and 24 of the program using the PolyCystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) to evaluate the influence of acne on HRQoL. During a 24-week period no significant decrease in BMI occurred (mean difference = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.38, 4.81]. During that period, there was a significant positive evolution of the total PCOSQ score, F(2, 37.5) = 23.7, the emotions, F(2, 37.9) = 4.2, weight, F(2, 42.1) = 24.8, body hair, F(2, 35.6) = 3.3, and infertility problems domain scores, F(2, 43.1) = 15.64, of the PCOSQ, as well as of the acne VAS score, F(2, 29.3) = 4.2. These effects primarily occurred during the first 12 weeks. In spite of no significant changes in BMI, the HRQoL of overweight adult women with PCOS significantly improved during a 24-week lifestyle modification program. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Zimmermann, E; Berentzen, T L; Ängquist, Lars Henrik
change and all-cause mortality in a broad range of body mass index (BMI) in young men.METHODS:Among 362200 Danish draftees, examined between 1943 and 1977, all obese (BMI 31.0 kg m(-2); n=1930), and a random 1% sample of the others (n=3601) were identified at a mean age of 20 years (range: 18-25 years......BACKGROUND:Although the expectation is that weight gain increases mortality and weight loss among those overweight reduces mortality, results on weight gain and mortality in young adults are conflicting, and weight loss is less explored. We investigated the association between long-term weight......). All the obese and half the controls were re-examined between 4 and 40 years later (mean age 35 years). Weight changes were defined as: weight loss 0.1 kg m(-2) per year. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.RESULTS:Among the 908 obese and 1073...
Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.
Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799
perkembangan dan usia kronologis pemustaka. Kata Kunci: fiksi remaja terjemahan, pengembangan koleksi fiksi, perkembangan remaja, Pitimoss Fun Library Abstract. Library has to provide fiction as one of its collection. There are two kind of fictions; national fiction and translated fiction. Its selection is not only based on amusement function, but also its role to help readers developing themselves. This research aims to describe the roles of translated young adult fiction in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Those aspects are cognitive, social, and affective. Theoritically, this research gives advantages for library and information science, especially for developing selection theory and bibliotheraphy. Practically, the advantages those are given by this research are tended to caretakers of Pitimoss Fun Library and other researchers. This reasearch is done by using qualitative approach.Meanwhile, descriptive method is chosen with case study interpretative as its model. The answers of research questions are based on explanation of six informants and key informant. Six informants are chosen by purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, key informant is a bibliotheraphist. Observation, interview, document study, and online searching are techniques those are used for collecting data. Research data are analyzed by narrative analysis technique. The result shows the two-way relation between translated young adult fiction and developmental achievement. Translated young adult fictions those are provided by Pitimoss Library have roles in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Even so, developmental achievement also determines the effectiveness of translated fiction roles for young adults. It also helps them to react to controversial issues. The roles of translated young adult fiction can be maximized if Pitimoss Fun Library doing some efforts, such us involving developmental needs as one of selection criteria, also giving guidance and books
Cheung Yee Tak Derek
Full Text Available Abstract Background Body shape dissatisfaction has been thought to have an indispensable impact on weight control behaviors. We investigated the prevalence of body shape dissatisfaction (BSD and explored its association with weight status, education level and other determinants among young adults in Hong Kong. Methods Information on anthropometry, BSD, and socio-demographics was collected from a random sample of 1205 young adults (611 men and 594 women aged 18-27 in a community-based household survey. BSD was defined as a discrepancy between current and ideal body shape based on a figure rating scale. Cross-tabulations, homogeneity tests and logistic regression models were applied. Results The percentages of underweight men and women were 16.5% and 34.9% respectively, and the corresponding percentages of being overweight or obese were 26.7% and 13.2% for men and women respectively. Three-quarters of young adults had BSD. Among women, 30.9% of those underweight and 75.5% of those with normal weight desired a slimmer body shape. Overweight men and underweight women with lower education level were more likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than those with higher education level. After controlling for other determinants, underweight women were found to have a higher likelihood to maintain their current body shapes than other women. Men were found to be less likely to have a mismatch between weight status and BSD than women. Conclusions Overweight and obesity in men and underweight in women were prevalent among Hong Kong young adults. Inappropriate body shape desire might predispose individuals to unhealthy weight loss or gain behaviors. Careful consideration of actual weight status in body shape desire is needed in health promotion and education, especially for underweight and normal weight women and those with a low education level.
Knight, Andrea M; Trupin, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Yelin, Edward; Lawson, Erica F
To compare major depression risk among young adults with juvenile-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to determine demographic and health-related predictors of depression. Young adults with SLE ages 18-45 years (n = 546) in the Lupus Outcomes Study completed annual telephone surveys from 2002-2015, including assessment of depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and self-report measures of sociodemographics and health characteristics. Juvenile-onset SLE was defined as age adult-onset SLE. Older age, lower educational attainment, and physical function, higher disease activity, and a history of smoking were associated with an increased depression risk. Juvenile-onset SLE patients had a higher risk of major depression across all educational groups. Young adults with SLE, particularly those with juvenile-onset disease, are at high risk for major depression, which is associated with increased disease activity, poorer physical functioning, and lower educational attainment. Early depression intervention in young adults with SLE has the potential to improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
Martinelli, Marcela; Hick, Emilia; Walz, Florencia; Drago, Silvina R
The effects of 15 d polydextrose (16.7 g) consumption on energy intake (EI) and appetite feelings were investigated. Overweight adults consumed a polydextrose-bar or a control-bar matched in energy content as a midmorning snack for 15 consecutive days in a single-blind, randomised, crossover design. The two 15-d intervention periods were separated by a 15-d washout period. On the day 1 and the day 15 of each intervention period, energy intake (primary outcome) and appetite feelings (secondary outcome) were assessed. There were not significant main effects of the day, type of bar, or their interaction for EI (at lunchtime test meal, at rest of the day, or at total daily) or subjective feelings (hunger, desire to eat, fullness, and prospective food consumption) during the satiation and satiety periods. The results showed the consumption of polydextrose-bar during 15 d did not significantly affect energy intake and subjective feelings of appetite in overweight adults.
Full Text Available The objective of this meta-analysis is to summarize the effect of exercise intervention on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD in overweight and obese adults. We searched four electronic databases (PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and CINAHL through June 2016 for relevant studies pertaining to the effectiveness of exercise intervention on FMD. Seventeen of the 91 studies identified met the inclusion criteria. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 3 was used to compute the standardized mean difference effect size (ES and 95% CI using a random effects model. We calculated 34 ESs. We found that exercise intervention had medium and positive effects on FMD, with an overall ES of 0.522 (95% CI = 0.257, 0.786. Heterogeneity of ESs was observed (Qb=239, p≤0.001, I2 = 86.19, and the effect was moderated by comorbidity (Qb = 6.39, df = 1, p=0.011. A large ES for the combination exercise, low intensity exercise, and comorbidity subgroups (ES = 0.82~1.24 was found. We conclude that while exercise intervention significantly improves FMD in overweight and obese adults, the effect may depend on the different characteristics of exercise intervention and on participants’ demographics.
Paul, Tracy K; Sciacca, Robert R; Bier, Michael; Rodriguez, Juviza; Song, Sharon; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V
Perception of body size is a key factor driving health behavior. Mothers directly influence children's nutritional and exercise behaviors. Mothers of ethnic minority groups and lower socioeconomic status are less likely to correctly identify young children as overweight or obese. Little evaluation has been done of the inverse--the child's perception of the mother's weight. To determine awareness of weight status among mother-child dyads (n = 506). Cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient pediatric dental clinic of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. Primarily Hispanic (82.2 %) mothers (n = 253), 38.8 ± 7.5 years of age, and children (n = 253), 10.5 ± 1.4 years of age, responding to a questionnaire adapted from the validated Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Anthropometric measures-including height, weight, and waist circumference-and awareness of self-size and size of other generation were obtained. 71.4 % of obese adults and 35.1 % of overweight adults underestimated size, vs. 8.6 % of normal-weight (NW) adults (both p < 0.001). Among overweight and obese children, 86.3 % and 62.3 % underestimated their size, vs. 14.9 % NW children (both p < 0.001). Among mothers with overweight children, 80.0 % underestimated their child's weight, vs. 7.1 % of mothers with NW children (p < 0.001); 23.1 % of mothers with obese children also underestimated their child's weight (p < 0.01). Among children with obese mothers, only 13.0 % correctly classified the adult's size, vs. 76.5 % with NW mothers (p < 0.001). Among obese mothers, 20.8 % classified overweight body size as ideal, vs. 1.2 % among NW mothers (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese adults and children frequently underestimate their size. Adults misjudge overweight/obese children as being of normal weight, and children of obese mothers often underestimate the adult's size. Failure to recognize overweight/obesity status among adults and children can lead to prolonged exposure to obesity
Wang, Zhenghe; Fu, Lianguo; Yang, Yide; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Jun
To compare consistency of Body Mineral Content (BMC, kg) assessed by Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis ( MF-BIA) and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) measurement, providing evidence for MF-BIA accurate application in Chinese overweight/obese adults. A total of 1323 overweight/obesity adults aged 22-55 years were recruited voluntarily. All the subjects received the measurement of BMC both using MF-BIA and DXA. To evaluate the agreement of BMC measured by MF-BIA and DXA using interclass correlation coefficients (ICC), then establish correction prediction models. The mean difference of BMC between two methods was significant different with 0, overweight male subgroup was 0.28 kg, and 0.38 kg for obesity male, 0.24 kg for overweight female and 0.36 kg for obesity female, respectively (P BMC between MF-BIA and DXA measurement were statistically significant in all subgroups (P BMC (DXA method) = -0.297 + 1.005 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Obese male population: BMC (DXA method) =0.302 + 0.799 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Overweight female groups: BMC (DXA method) = 0.780 + 0.598 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Obese female group: BMC (DXA method) = 0.755 + 0.597 x BMC (MF-BIA method). Upon examination, correction prediction models were better. Co The correlation and agreement of BMC measured by BIA and DXA are weak in Chinese overweight/obese adults. Therefore, consideration should be given to BMC measured by BIA method in Chinese overweight/obese adults. It should be corrected or adjusted to reduce errors compared with DXA method.
Patel, Opal; Shahulhameed, Safraj; Shivashankar, Roopa; Tayyab, Mohammad; Rahman, Atiqur; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil; Jaacks, Lindsay M
, and owning a bicycle or motorized vehicle. Most full service and fast food restaurants were Indian, suggesting that the nutrition transition in this megacity may be better characterized by the large number of unhealthy Indian food outlets rather than the Western food outlets. Full service and fast food restaurant density in the residence area of adults in Delhi, India, was associated with poor dietary intake. It was also positively associated with overweight/obesity, but this was largely explained by socioeconomic status. Further research is needed exploring these associations prospectively and in other LMICs.
Kee, C C; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ali, Z Ahmad; Safiza, M N Noor; Suzana, S; Khor, G L; Rahmah, R; Jamalludin, A R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H; Faudzi, Y Ahmad; Amal, N M
Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low
Dani, K K; Oswal, K; Maudgal, S; Saranath, D
The use of tobacco has been on the rise globally including in India, posing a grave public health problem. Recently, tobacco use through hookah smoking has increased among young adults in India, Middle East, Southwest Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Hookah prevalence of 0.4-15% has been reported in India. The aim of the study was to understand perception of hookah use among young adults in Mumbai. A total of 500 college students, with/without hookah habit, were given a self-administered questionnaire to indicate their perception of hookah use, using yes/no responses. The responses were analyzed in the users/non-users and considered significantly different at P Mumbai, toward hookah use, indicates an increased trend to use hookah. We recommend deterrents for hookah use by display of health warnings on hookah assembly and the tobacco products, implementation of government policies on hookah and tobacco use and punitive measures for offenders.
Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B
These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use. PMID:21094585
Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent
Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia.
Baer, Tamara E; Milliren, Carly E; Walls, Courtney; DiVasta, Amy D
To review the clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB) adolescent and young adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) during a 2-year follow-up. Retrospective chart review. One hundred seventy-three adolescent and young adult women, aged 12-22 years, diagnosed with PCOS. Demographic, health data, and laboratory measures were abstracted from 3 clinic visits: baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up. Subjects were classified as NW, OW, or OB. Longitudinal data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Body mass index, self-reported concerns, and lifestyle changes. Most patients (73%) were OW or OB. Family history of type 2 diabetes was greater in OW (38%) and OB (53%) patients compared with NW (22%) patients (P = .002). Acanthosis nigricans was identified in OW (62%) and OB (21%) patients but not in NW patients (0%; P insulin (P PCOS were OW or OB. Substantial clinical variability existed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) screening; among those screened, OW and OB patients had greater CVD risk factors. Despite self-reported concerns about weight and diabetes risk among OW and OB patients, no clinically significant change in body mass index percentile occurred. Evidence-based interventions and recommendations for screening tests are needed to address CVD risk in adolescents and young adults with PCOS. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mai Le B
Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries, overweight prevalence is increasing while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double nutrition burden. Both underweight and overweight are related to increased risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, reduced well-being and quality of life. This study aims to compare the prevalence of overweight and underweight among Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005. Methods The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects. Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators. Results The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%. Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI 2 of 20.9% in 2005 was lower than the rate of 25.0% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight as compared to men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were clearer among the higher food expenditure levels. Conclusions The double nutrition burden was clearly present in Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level
Dugas, E N; Sylvestre, M P; O'Loughlin, E K; Brunet, J; Kakinami, L; Constantin, E; O'Loughlin, J
More cigarette smokers report poor sleep quality than non-smokers, but the association between nicotine dependence (ND) and sleep quality has not been well-characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the associations among frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality in young adults. Data on past-year smoking frequency, number of cigarettes smoked in the past month, five ND indicators (i.e., withdrawal, craving, self-medication symptoms, mFTQ, ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence), and sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) were collected in 2011-12 in self-report questionnaires completed by 405 young adult smokers (mean age 24 (0.6) years; 45% male; 45% daily smokers) participating in a longitudinal investigation of the natural course of ND. Associations between indicators of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality were examined in multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for age, sex, mother's education, and alcohol use. Thirty-six percent of participants reported poor sleep quality (PSQI>5). Higher cigarette consumption (OR(95% CI), 1.03(1.001-1.05)) but not frequency of past-year smoking, more frequent withdrawal symptoms (1.05(1.004-1.10)), more frequent cravings (1.05(1.004-1.10)), higher mFTQ scores (1.14(1.02-1.27)), and endorsing more ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence (1.19(1.04-1.36)) were also associated with poor sleep quality. Cigarette smoking and ND symptoms are associated with poor sleep quality in young adult smokers. Advice from practitioners to cut back on number of cigarettes smoked per day and treatment of ND symptoms may improve sleep quality in young adult smokers. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro
In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by s...
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on ...
Lee, Juyoung; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Takayama, Norimasa; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Song, Chorong; Komatsu, Misako; Ikei, Harumi; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Kagawa, Takahide; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi
Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in ...
Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.
Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negativ...
McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine
Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…
Jeffries, Jayne K; Lytle, Leslie; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Golden, Shelley; Aiello, Allison E; Linnan, Laura
To address chronic disease risk holistically from a behavioral perspective, insights are needed to refine understanding of the covariance of key health behaviors. This study aims to identify distinct typologies of young adults based on 4 modifiable risk factors of chronic disease using a latent class analysis approach, and to describe patterns of class membership based on demographic characteristics, living arrangements, and weight. Overall, 441 young adults aged 18-35 attending community colleges in the Minnesota Twin Cities area completed a baseline questionnaire for the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings study, a RCT. Behavioral items were used to create indicators for latent classes, and individuals were classified using maximum-probability assignment. Three latent classes were identified: 'active, binge-drinkers with a healthy dietary intake' (13.1%); 'non-active, moderate-smokers and non-drinkers with poor dietary intake' (38.2%); 'moderately active, non-smokers and non-drinkers with moderately healthy dietary intake' (48.7%). Classes exhibited unique demographic and weight-related profiles. This study may contribute to the literature on health behaviors among young adults and provides evidence that there are weight and age differences among subgroups. Understanding how behaviors cluster is important for identifying groups for targeted interventions in community colleges.
Evans, S E; Radford, M
The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified.
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T; McGregor, Karla K; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact.
Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.
Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502