High-field Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization in silicon below the metal-insulator transition.
Dementyev, Anatoly E; Cory, David G; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar
2011-04-21
Single crystal silicon is an excellent system to explore dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), as it exhibits a continuum of properties from metallic to insulating as a function of doping concentration and temperature. At low doping concentrations DNP has been observed to occur via the solid effect, while at very high-doping concentrations an Overhauser mechanism is responsible. Here we report the hyperpolarization of (29)Si in n-doped silicon crystals, with doping concentrations in the range of (1-3) × 10(17) cm(-3). In this regime exchange interactions between donors become extremely important. The sign of the enhancement in our experiments and its frequency dependence suggest that the (29)Si spins are directly polarized by donor electrons via an Overhauser mechanism within exchange-coupled donor clusters. The exchange interaction between donors only needs to be larger than the silicon hyperfine interaction (typically much smaller than the donor hyperfine coupling) to enable this Overhauser mechanism. Nuclear polarization enhancement is observed for a range of donor clusters in which the exchange energy is comparable to the donor hyperfine interaction. The DNP dynamics are characterized by a single exponential time constant that depends on the microwave power, indicating that the Overhauser mechanism is a rate-limiting step. Since only about 2% of the silicon nuclei are located within 1 Bohr radius of the donor electron, nuclear spin diffusion is important in transferring the polarization to all the spins. However, the spin-diffusion time is much shorter than the Overhauser time due to the relatively weak silicon hyperfine coupling strength. In a 2.35 T magnetic field at 1.1 K, we observed a DNP enhancement of 244 ± 84 resulting in a silicon polarization of 10.4 ± 3.4% following 2 h of microwave irradiation.
Overhauser shift and dynamic nuclear polarization on carbon fibers
Herb, Konstantin; Denninger, Gert
2018-06-01
We report on the first experimental magnetic resonance determination of the coupling between electrons and nuclear spins (1H, 13C) in carbon fibers. Our results strongly support the assumption that the electronic spins are delocalized on graphene like structures in the fiber. The coupling between these electrons and the nuclei of the lattice results in dynamic nuclear polarization of the nuclei (DNP), enabling very sensitive NMR experiments on these nuclear spins. For possible applications of graphene in spintronics devices the coupling between nuclei and electrons is essential. We were able to determine the interactions down to 30 × 10-9(30 ppb) . We were even able to detect the coupling of the electrons to 13C (in natural abundance). These experiments open the way for a range of new double resonance investigations with possible applications in the field of material science.
Nuclear overhauser spectroscopy of chiral CHD methylene groups
Augustyniak, Rafal [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Colaux, Henri; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Koźmiński, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Herrmann, Torsten [Université de Lyon/UMR 5280 CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs (France); Ferrage, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.Ferrage@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France)
2016-01-15
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) can provide a great deal of information about structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of an NMR structure strongly depends on the number of experimental observables and on their accurate conversion into geometric restraints. When distance restraints are derived from nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), stereo-specific assignments of prochiral atoms can contribute significantly to the accuracy of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we introduce a series of NOESY-based pulse sequences that can assist in the assignment of chiral CHD methylene protons in random fractionally deuterated proteins. Partial deuteration suppresses spin-diffusion between the two protons of CH{sub 2} groups that normally impedes the distinction of cross-relaxation networks for these two protons in NOESY spectra. Three and four-dimensional spectra allow one to distinguish cross-relaxation pathways involving either of the two methylene protons so that one can obtain stereospecific assignments. In addition, the analysis provides a large number of stereospecific distance restraints. Non-uniform sampling was used to ensure optimal signal resolution in 4D spectra and reduce ambiguities of the assignments. Automatic assignment procedures were modified for efficient and accurate stereospecific assignments during automated structure calculations based on 3D spectra. The protocol was applied to calcium-loaded calbindin D{sub 9k}. A large number of stereospecific assignments lead to a significant improvement of the accuracy of the structure.
Towards Overhauser DNP in supercritical CO(2).
van Meerten, S G J; Tayler, M C D; Kentgens, A P M; van Bentum, P J M
2016-06-01
Overhauser Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) is a well known technique to improve NMR sensitivity in the liquid state, where the large polarization of an electron spin is transferred to a nucleus of interest by cross-relaxation. The efficiency of the Overhauser mechanism for dipolar interactions depends critically on fast local translational dynamics at the timescale of the inverse electron Larmor frequency. The maximum polarization enhancement that can be achieved for (1)H at high magnetic fields benefits from a low viscosity solvent. In this paper we investigate the option to use supercritical CO2 as a solvent for Overhauser DNP. We have investigated the diffusion constants and longitudinal nuclear relaxation rates of toluene in high pressure CO2. The change in (1)H T1 by addition of TEMPO radical was analyzed to determine the Overhauser cross-relaxation in such a mixture, and is compared with calculations based on the Force Free Hard Sphere (FFHS) model. By analyzing the relaxation data within this model we find translational correlation times in the range of 2-4ps, depending on temperature, pressure and toluene concentration. Such short correlation times may be instrumental for future Overhauser DNP applications at high magnetic fields, as are commonly used in NMR. Preliminary DNP experiments have been performed at 3.4T on high pressure superheated water and model systems such as toluene in high pressure CO2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Daniel Paech
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique on the basis of saturation transfer between exchanging protons of tissue proteins and bulk water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the information provided by three dimensional NOE mediated CEST at 7 Tesla (7T and standard MRI in glioblastoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with newly diagnosed histologically proven glioblastoma were enrolled in this prospective ethics committee-approved study. NOE mediated CEST contrast was acquired with a modified three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence and asymmetry analysis was conducted at 3.3 ppm (B1 = 0.7 µT to calculate the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR(asym. Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1 and T2-weighted images were acquired at 3T and used for data co-registration and comparison. RESULTS: Mean NOE mediated CEST signal based on MTR(asym values over all patients was significantly increased (p<0.001 in CE-T1 tumor (-1.99 ± 1.22%, tumor necrosis (-1.36 ± 1.30% and peritumoral CEST hyperintensities (PTCH within T2 edema margins (-3.56 ± 1.24% compared to contralateral normal appearing white matter (-8.38 ± 1.19%. In CE-T1 tumor (p = 0.015 and tumor necrosis (p<0.001 mean MTR(asym values were significantly higher than in PTCH. Extent of the surrounding tumor hyperintensity was smaller in eight out of 12 patients on CEST than on T2-weighted images, while four displayed at equal size. In all patients, isolated high intensity regions (0.40 ± 2.21% displayed on CEST within the CE-T1 tumor that were not discernible on CE-T1 or T2-weighted images. CONCLUSION: NOE mediated CEST Imaging at 7 T provides additional information on the structure of peritumoral hyperintensities in glioblastoma and displays isolated high intensity regions within the CE-T1 tumor that cannot be acquired on CE-T1 or T2
Faria, Terezinha de Jesus; Silva, Luiz Gonzaga Fonseca e; Souza Filho, Jose Dias de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Chiari, Egler [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Oliveira, Alaide Braga de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos
1997-12-31
After the confirmation of the biological activity of iso-flavenoids against tropical diseases, the preparation of glucidic acids was attempted as these are intermediates for the chemical preparation of hydro soluble iso flavones and iso flavines. The increase in solubility was expected to increase the biological availability of the compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to stepwise follow the procedure. Results are presented 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Rosevear, P.R.; Powers, V.M.; Dowhan, D.; Mildvan, A.S.; Kenyon, G.L.
1987-01-01
Nuclear Overhauser effects were used to determine interproton distances on MgATP bound to rabbit muscle creatine kinase. The internuclear distances were used in a distance geometry program that objectively determines both the conformation of the bound MgATP and its uniqueness. Two classes of structures were found that satisfied the measured interproton distances. Both classes had the same anti glycosidic torsional angle (X = 78 +/- 10 0 ) but differed in their ribose ring puckers (O1'-endo or C4'-exo). The uniqueness of the glycosidic torsional angle is consistent with the preference of creatine kinase for adenine nucleotides. One of these conformations of MgATP bound to creatine kinase is indistinguishable from the conformation found for Co(NH 3 ) 4 ATP bound to the catalytic subunit of protein kinase, which also has a high specificity for adenine nucleotides. Distance geometry calculations also suggest that upper limit distances, when low enough (≤ 3.4 A), can be used instead of measured distances to define, within experimental error, the glycosidic torsional angle of bound nucleotides. However, this approach does not permit an evaluation of the ribose ring pucker
Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L.; Clore, G. Marius
2011-01-01
Methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy is rapidly becoming the preferred NMR technique for probing structure and dynamics of very large proteins up to ∼1 MDa in molecular size. Data interpretation, however, necessitates assignment of methyl groups which still presents a very challenging and time-consuming process. Here we demonstrate that, in combination with a known 3D structure, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), induced by nitroxide spin-labels incorporated at only a few surface-exposed engineered cysteines, provides fast, straightforward and robust access to methyl group resonance assignments, including stereoassignments for the methyl groups of leucine and valine. Neither prior assignments, including backbone assignments, for the protein, nor experiments that transfer magnetization between methyl groups and the protein backbone, are required. PRE-derived assignments are refined by 4D methyl–methyl nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, eliminating ambiguities and errors that may arise due to the high sensitivity of PREs to the potential presence of sparsely-populated transient states.
Venditti, Vincenzo; Fawzi, Nicolas L.; Clore, G. Marius, E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)
2011-11-15
Methyl-transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy is rapidly becoming the preferred NMR technique for probing structure and dynamics of very large proteins up to {approx}1 MDa in molecular size. Data interpretation, however, necessitates assignment of methyl groups which still presents a very challenging and time-consuming process. Here we demonstrate that, in combination with a known 3D structure, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE), induced by nitroxide spin-labels incorporated at only a few surface-exposed engineered cysteines, provides fast, straightforward and robust access to methyl group resonance assignments, including stereoassignments for the methyl groups of leucine and valine. Neither prior assignments, including backbone assignments, for the protein, nor experiments that transfer magnetization between methyl groups and the protein backbone, are required. PRE-derived assignments are refined by 4D methyl-methyl nuclear Overhauser enhancement data, eliminating ambiguities and errors that may arise due to the high sensitivity of PREs to the potential presence of sparsely-populated transient states.
Paech, Daniel; Burth, Sina; Windschuh, Johannes; Meissner, Jan-Eric; Zaiss, Moritz; Eidel, Oliver; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Wiestler, Benedikt; Sahm, Felix; Floca, Ralf Omar; Neumann, Jan-Oliver; Wick, Wolfgang; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark Edward; Bachert, Peter; Radbruch, Alexander
2015-01-01
To explore the correlation between Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE)-mediated signals and tumor cellularity in glioblastoma utilizing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cell density from histologic specimens. NOE is one type of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) that originates from mobile macromolecules such as proteins and might be associated with tumor cellularity via altered protein synthesis in proliferating cells. For 15 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, NOE-mediated CEST-contrast was acquired at 7 Tesla (asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.3ppm, B1 = 0.7 μT). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1), T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) were acquired at 3 Tesla and coregistered. The T2 edema and the CE-T1 tumor were segmented. ADC and MTRasym values within both regions of interest were correlated voxelwise yielding the correlation coefficient rSpearman (rSp). In three patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy, cell density of 12 specimens per patient was correlated with corresponding MTRasym and ADC values of the biopsy site. Eight of 15 patients showed a weak or moderate positive correlation of MTRasym and ADC within the T2 edema (0.16≤rSp≤0.53, pcorrelations were statistically insignificant (p>0.05, n = 4) or yielded rSp≈0 (pcorrelation between MTRasym and ADC was found in CE-T1 tumor (-0.310.05, n = 6). The biopsy-analysis within CE-T1 tumor revealed a strong positive correlation between tumor cellularity and MTRasym values in two of the three patients (rSppatient3 = 0.69 and rSppatient15 = 0.87, pcorrelation of ADC and cellularity was heterogeneous (rSppatient3 = 0.545 (p = 0.067), rSppatient4 = -0.021 (p = 0.948), rSppatient15 = -0.755 (p = 0.005)). NOE-imaging is a new contrast promising insight into pathophysiologic processes in glioblastoma regarding cell density and protein content, setting itself apart from DWI. Future studies might be based on the assumption that NOE-mediated CEST visualizes
1988-12-01
This bibliography contains citations concerning the enhanced analytical techniques of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2-D NMR). Applications to specific molecules, biomolecules, and compounds as well as comparisons of three 2-D NMR techniques: correlated spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser (NOSEY), and homonuclear-correlated spectroscopy (HOMCOR). (Contains 190 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)
Milon, Alain; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Higashijima, Tsutomu (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))
1990-01-09
Leu-enkephalin, (D-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin, and (D-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalinamide (agonists) and (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin (inactive analogue) bind to lipid bilayer consisting of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine. The conformations that these compounds assume, once bound to perdeuterated phospholipid bilayer, have been shown to be unique, as shown by the transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. In addition, their location in the bilayer was analyzed by TRNOE in the presence of spin-labeled phospholipids. These analyses showed a clear relationship between the activity and the peptide-membrane interaction. The three active peptides, when bound to membranes, adopt the same conformation, characterized by a type II{prime} {beta}-turn around Gly{sup 3}-Phe and a {gamma}-turn around Gly{sup 2} (or D-Ala{sup 2}). The inactive analogue, (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin, displayed a completely different TRNOE pattern corresponding to a different conformation in the membrane-bound state. The tyrosine residue of the active compounds is not inserted into the interior of membrane, but it is inserted into the bilayer for the L-Ala{sup 2} analogue. According to these results, (L-Ala{sup 2})Leu-enkephalin may be explained to be inactive because the mode of binding to the membranes is different from that of active compounds.
Nes, W.D.; Benson, M.; Lundin, R.E.; Le, P.H.
1988-01-01
Nuclear Overhauser difference spectroscopy and variable temperature studies of the 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols 24,25-dehydropollinastanol (4,4-desmethyl-5α-cycloart-24-en-3β-ol) and cyclolaudenol [(24S)-24-methyl-5α-cycloart-25(27)-en-3β-ol] have shown the solution conformation of the B/C rings to be twist-chair/twist-boat rather than boat/chair as suggested in the literature. This is very similar to the known crystal structure conformation of 9β,19-cyclopropyl sterols. The effect of these conformations on the molecular shape is highly significant; the first conformation orients into a pseudoplanar or flat shape analogous to lanosterol, whereas the latter conformation exhibits a bent shape. The results are interpreted to imply that, for conformational reasons, cyclopropyl sterols can be expected to maintain the pseudoplanar shape in membrane bilayers
Dugad, L.B.; La Mar, G.N.; Banci, L.; Bertini, I.
1990-01-01
The homonuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), in conjunction with nonselective spin-lattice relaxation measurements, has been employed to assign the contact-shifted resonances for the reduced form of two typical plant-type two-iron ferrodoxins from the algae Spirulina platensis and Porphyra umbilicalis. These results demonstrate that the NOE should have broad general applicability for the assignments and electronic structural elucidation of diverse subclasses of paramagnetic iron-sulfur cluster proteins. NOE connectivities were detected only among sets of resonances exhibiting characteristically different deviations from Curie behavior, providing strong support for the applicability of the spin Hamiltonian formulation for the NMR properties of the antiferromagnetically coupled iron clusters. The geminal β-methylene protons for the two cysteines bound to the iron(II) center were clearly identified, as well as the C α H and one C β H for each of the cysteines bound to the iron(III). The identification of the iron bound to cysteines 41 and 46 as the iron(II) in the reduced protein was effected on the basis of dipolar contacts between the bound cysteines. Resolved labile proton contact-shifted resonances are attributed to hydrogen bonding to the iron(III) center, and it is concluded that the contact-shifted resonances for the more numerous hydrogen bonds to the iron(II) center are not resolved from the diamagnetic envelope. The identification of the iron closer to the protein surface as the more reducible one is consistent with predictions based on a larger number of hydrogen bonds to this center
Thomas, P.D.; Basus, V.J.; James, T.L.
1991-01-01
Solution structures for many proteins have been determined to date utilizing interproton distance constraints estimated from two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect (2D NOE) spectra. Although the simple isolated spin pair approximation (ISPA) generally used can result in systematic errors in distances, the large number of constraints enables proteins structure to be defined with reasonably high resolution. Effects of these systematic errors on the resulting protein structure are examined. Iterative relaxation matrix calculations, which account for dipolar interactions between all protons in a molecule, can accurately determine internuclear distances with little or no a priori knowledge of the molecular structure. The value of this additional complexity is also addressed. To assess these distance determination methods, hypothetical experimental data, including random noise and peak overlap, are calculated for an arbitrary true protein structure. Three methods of obtaining distance constraints from 2D NOE peak intensities are examined: one entails a conservative use of ISPA, one assumes the ISPA to be fairly accurate, and on utilizes an iterative relaxation matrix method called MARDIGRAS (matrix analysis of relaxation for discerning the geometry of an aqueous structure), developed in this laboratory. An R factor for evaluating fit between experimental and calculated 2D NOE intensities is proposed
Nuclear Overhauser effect studies of the conformation of Co(NH3)4ATP bound to kidney Na,K-ATPase
Stewart, J.M.; Jorgensen, P.L.; Grisham, C.M.
1989-01-01
Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect measurements (in the two-dimensional mode) have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH3)4ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH3)4ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase. Nine unique proton-proton distances on ATPase-bound Co(NH3)4ATP were determined from the initial build-up rates of the cross-peaks of the 2D-TRNOE data sets. These distances, taken together with previous 31P and 1H relaxation measurements with paramagnetic probes, are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The bound (Co(NH3)4ATP) adopts an anti conformation, with a glycosidic torsion angle of 35 degrees, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type (C2'-exo, C3'-endo). The delta and gamma torsional angles in this conformation are 100 degrees and 178 degrees, respectively. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. Mn2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from enzyme-bound Mn2+ to N6 and N7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes, but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme
Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Li, Hua; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang
2017-07-01
Accurate quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effects, including dipole-dipole mediated relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer, is important for applications and studies of molecular concentration and transfer rate (and thereby pH or temperature). Although several quantification methods, such as Lorentzian difference (LD) analysis, multiple-pool Lorentzian fits, and the three-point method, have been extensively used in several preclinical and clinical applications, the accuracy of these methods has not been evaluated. Here we simulated multiple-pool Z spectra containing the pools that contribute to the main CEST and rNOE saturation transfer signals in the brain, numerically fit them using the different methods, and then compared their derived CEST metrics with the known solute concentrations and exchange rates. Our results show that the LD analysis overestimates contributions from amide proton transfer (APT) and intermediate exchanging amine protons; the three-point method significantly underestimates both APT and rNOE saturation transfer at -3.5 ppm (NOE(-3.5)). The multiple-pool Lorentzian fit is more accurate than the other two methods, but only at lower irradiation powers (≤1 μT at 9.4 T) within the range of our simulations. At higher irradiation powers, this method is also inaccurate because of the presence of a fast exchanging CEST signal that has a non-Lorentzian lineshape. Quantitative parameters derived from in vivo images of rodent brain tumor obtained using an irradiation power of 1 μT were also compared. Our results demonstrate that all three quantification methods show similar contrasts between tumor and contralateral normal tissue for both APT and the NOE(-3.5). However, the quantified values of the three methods are significantly different. Our work provides insight into the fitting accuracy obtainable in a complex tissue model and provides guidelines for evaluating other newly developed
Nuclear Overhauser effect studies of the conformation of Co(NH3)4ATP bound to kidney Na,K-ATPase
Stewart, J.M.; Jorgensen, P.L.; Grisham, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))
1989-05-30
Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect measurements (in the two-dimensional mode) have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH3)4ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH3)4ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase. Nine unique proton-proton distances on ATPase-bound Co(NH3)4ATP were determined from the initial build-up rates of the cross-peaks of the 2D-TRNOE data sets. These distances, taken together with previous 31P and 1H relaxation measurements with paramagnetic probes, are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The bound (Co(NH3)4ATP) adopts an anti conformation, with a glycosidic torsion angle of 35{degrees}, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type (C2'-exo, C3'-endo). The delta and gamma torsional angles in this conformation are 100 degrees and 178 degrees, respectively. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. Mn2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from enzyme-bound Mn2+ to N6 and N7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes, but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme.
Overhauser effects in insulating solids
Can, T. V.; Caporini, M. A.; Mentink-Vigier, F.; Corzilius, B.; Walish, J. J.; Rosay, M.; Maas, W. E.; Baldus, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410864; Vega, S.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.
2014-01-01
We report magic angle spinning, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments at magnetic fields of 9.4 T, 14.1 T, and 18.8 T using the narrow line polarizing agents 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA) dispersed in polystyrene, and sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA) and trityl OX063 in glassy
Water accessibility in a membrane-inserting peptide comparing Overhauser DNP and pulse EPR methods
Segawa, Takuya F., E-mail: takuya.segawa@alumni.ethz.ch; Doppelbauer, Maximilian; Garbuio, Luca; Doll, Andrin; Polyhach, Yevhen O.; Jeschke, Gunnar, E-mail: gjeschke@ethz.ch [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)
2016-05-21
Water accessibility is a key parameter for the understanding of the structure of biomolecules, especially membrane proteins. Several experimental techniques based on the combination of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with site-directed spin labeling are currently available. Among those, we compare relaxation time measurements and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) experiments using pulse EPR with Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at X-band frequency and a magnetic field of 0.33 T. Overhauser DNP transfers the electron spin polarization to nuclear spins via cross-relaxation. The change in the intensity of the {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of H{sub 2}O at a Larmor frequency of 14 MHz under a continuous-wave microwave irradiation of the nitroxide spin label contains information on the water accessibility of the labeled site. As a model system for a membrane protein, we use the hydrophobic α-helical peptide WALP23 in unilamellar liposomes of DOPC. Water accessibility measurements with all techniques are conducted for eight peptides with different spin label positions and low radical concentrations (10–20 μM). Consistently in all experiments, the water accessibility appears to be very low, even for labels positioned near the end of the helix. The best profile is obtained by Overhauser DNP, which is the only technique that succeeds in discriminating neighboring positions in WALP23. Since the concentration of the spin-labeled peptides varied, we normalized the DNP parameter ϵ, being the relative change of the NMR intensity, by the electron spin concentration, which was determined from a continuous-wave EPR spectrum.
Overhauser effect in metallic lithium; Effet Overhauser dans le lithium metallique
Gueron, J.; Ryter, Ch. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)
1960-07-01
The Overhauser effect has been observed: a) at ordinary temperatures, by measuring the increase in the nuclear resonance signal of Li{sup 7}; b) at the temperature of liquid helium, by observing the electron resonance shift due to the secular part of the electron-nucleus coupling. The metallic lithium particles are produced by irradiating lithium hydride with thermal neutrons. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 3, no. 7, 1959, p. 338-340 [French] L'effet Overhauser est mis en evidence: a) a la temperature ordinaire, en mesurant l'augmentation du signal de resonance nucleaire du Li{sup 7}; b) a la temperature de l'helium liquide, en observant le deplacement de la raie de resonance electronique du a la partie seculaire du couplage electron-noyau. Les particules de lithium metallique sont produites par irradiations aux neutrons thermiques de l'hydrure de lithium Li{sup 7}. Reproduction d'un article publie dans Physical Review Letters, vol. 3, no. 7, 1959, p. 338-340.
Construction of 0.15 Tesla Overhauser Enhanced MRI.
Tokunaga, Yuumi; Nakao, Motonao; Naganuma, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro
2017-01-01
Overhauser enhanced MRI (OMRI) is one of the free radical imaging technologies and has been used in biomedical research such as for partial oxygen measurements in tumor, and redox status in acute oxidative diseases. The external magnetic field of OMRI is frequently in the range of 5-10 mTesla to ensure microwave penetration into small animals, and the S/N ratio is limited. In this study, a 0.15 Tesla OMRI was constructed and tested to improve the S/N ratio for a small sample, or skin measurement. Specification of the main magnet was as follows: 0.15 Tesla permanent magnet; gap size 160 mm; homogenous spherical volume of 80 mm in diameter. The OMRI resonator was designed based on TE 101 cavity mode and machined from a phosphorus deoxidized copper block for electron spin resonance (ESR) excitation and a solenoid transmission/receive resonator for NMR detection. The resonant frequencies and Q values were 6.38 MHz/150 and 4.31-4.41 GHz/120 for NMR and ESR, respectively. The Q values were comparable to those of conventional low field OMRI resonators at 15 mTesla. As expected, the MRI S/N ratio was improved by a factor of 30. Triplet dynamic nuclear polarization spectra were observed for 14 N carboxy-PROXYL, along the excitation microwave sweep. In the current setup, the enhancement factor was ca. 0.5. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that the 0.15 Tesla OMRI could be useful for free radical measurement for small samples.
Determination of the Overhauser magnetometer uncertainty
Ulvr, M.; Zikmund, A.; Kupec, J.; Janošek, M.; Vlk, Michal; Bayer, Tomáš
2015-01-01
Roč. 66, 7/s (2015), s. 26-29 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Overhauser magnetometer * Earth `s magnetic field * comparison * uncertainty Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.407, year: 2015
Overhauser-enhanced MR imaging (OMRI)
Golman, K; Leunbach, I; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, JH
1998-01-01
Purpose. To evaluate a new single-electron contrast agent for Overhauser-enhanced MR imaging. The contrast agents that are currently available give enhancement factors that are too low to make the technique a valid option for routine clinical use. Material and Methods. MR images were generated di...
Collective nuclear dynamics. Proceedings
Ivanyuk, F.A.
1994-01-01
The Fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects:liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities
Collective nuclear dynamics. Abstracts
Abrosimov, V.I.; Kolomietz, V.M.
1994-01-01
The fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects: liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities
Collective nuclear dynamics. Proceedings.
Ivanyuk, F A [eds.
1994-12-31
The Fourth International school on nuclear physics was help on 29 Aug - 7 Sep, 1994 in Ukraine. The specialists discussed following subjects:liquid drop and the shell correction method; nuclear deformation energy and fission; nuclear structure at high spins, superdeformed states, structure of excited and exotic nuclei; nuclear fluid dynamics and large scale collective motion; order and chaos as they relate to the collective motion; quantum and interference phenomena in nuclear collisions; quasi-fission and multinucleon fragmentation effects; shell effects in non-nuclear systems; new nuclear facilities.
Terekhov, Maxim; Krummenacker, Jan; Denysenkov, Vasyl; Gerz, Kathrin; Prisner, Thomas; Schreiber, Laura Maria
2016-03-01
Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) allows the production of liquid hyperpolarized substrate inside the MRI magnet bore as well as its administration in continuous flow mode to acquire MR images with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. We implemented inversion recovery preparation in order to improve contrast-to-noise ratio and to quantify the overall imaging performance of Overhauser DNP-enhanced MRI. The negative enhancement created by DNP in combination with inversion recovery (IR) preparation allows canceling selectively the signal originated from Boltzmann magnetization and visualizing only hyperpolarized fluid. The theoretical model describing gain of MR image intensity produced by steady-state continuous flow DNP hyperpolarized magnetization was established and proved experimentally. A precise quantification of signal originated purely from DNP hyperpolarization was achieved. A temperature effect on longitudinal relaxation had to be taken into account to fit experimental results with numerical prediction. Using properly adjusted IR preparation, the complete zeroing of thermal background magnetization was achieved, providing an essential increase of contrast-to-noise ratio of DNP-hyperpolarized water images. To quantify and optimize the steady-state conditions for MRI with continuous flow DNP, an approach similar to that incorporating transient-state thermal magnetization equilibrium in spoiled fast field echo imaging sequences can be used. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dynamic nuclear spin polarization
Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)
1996-11-01
Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.
Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi
2013-01-01
Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.
Dynamics of nuclear proliferation
Meyer, S.M.
1984-01-01
This book looks beyond policy disputes to make a systematic examination of the assumptions and contending hypotheses that constitute contemporary thinking on nuclear proliferation. Rather than determine who is right or wrong, the intent is to develop a better picture by using the various schools of thought as analytic windows. A better understanding of how the process operates should offer better guidance for predicting future nuclear proliferation and, ultimately, for controlling it. Separate chapters deal with the contending views, the technological and motivational bases of nuclear proliferation, the presence of a technological imperative, testing the motivational hypothesis, the dynamics of the process, and forecasting. Four appendices present historical decisions, the technical model, cost-estimating procedures, and procedures for estimating nuclear propensities. 288 references, 17 figures, 26 tables
Souza Filho, J D; Silva, L.G. Fonseca e; Oliveira, A Braga de; Alves, R Jose [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lukacs, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles
1992-12-31
The discovery of ramified sugars as various antibiotics constituents, leads to the development of various preparation technologies. In the framework of hexa pyranose analogues synthesis, the 1,6-anhydride -16a was one of the byproducts obtained in the attempt of bromide -16 derivative transformation in the iodate -6-1 derivative. The bromide -16 derivative was treated with 2 equivalents of Bu{sub 4} N I during 24 hours, acetonitrile reflux. 3 parts of 2 Bu{sub 4} N I equivalents were added each 24 hours. A unique pure substance was obtained from the formed products mixture, which the structural determination was proposed in accordance with: 1) disappearing of the C-13 signal and the two protons from the anomeric methoxy group, and 2) registering of the molecular ion with m/z 359D, corresponding to the loss of 94D (Br + C H{sub 3}), from the -16 (M{sup +}., m/z 453D). The 1,6-anhydride -16a structure was confirmed by experiments on homo- and heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts (COSY H-H and COSY C-H), and by spectroscopy using the differential Overhauser nuclear effect. The spectrum obtained by C-H correlation identified the singlet at 5.65 ppm as due to the H-1 ([C-1 x H-1]) 2 refs., 6 figs.
Overhauser-enhanced MR imaging (OMRI)
Golman, K.; Leunbach, I.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J.H.; Wistrand, L.G.; Petersson, J.S.; Ehnholm, G.J.; Jaervi, A.; Vahasalo, S.
1998-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate a new single-electron contrast agent for Overhauser-enhanced MR imaging. The contrast agents that are currently available give enhancement factors that are too low to make the technique a valid option for routine clinical use. Material and Methods: MR images were generated directly following the injection of the substance into rats. The MR scanner was operated at a main magnetic field of 0.01 T and equipped with a separate rf-transmitter tuned to the electron paramagnetic resonance frequency of the contrast agent. Results: As expected, the images generated show a high level of enhancement in areas where the contrast agent was present, and a maximum enhancement of 60 times the normal proton signal was obtained in the vascular area. The signal-to-noise ratios in the images were superior to those previously attained. Conclusion: The new contrast agent makes it possible to generate MR images with both morphological and functional information at 0.01 T. The signal-to-noise ratios found in the generated images were of the same order as, or better than, those obtained with the standard clinical routine. (orig.)
Design and implementation of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer analog circuit
Zhang, Xiao; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jianchang; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tingting
2017-09-01
Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of static-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in archaeological exploration, mineral resources exploration, oil and gas basin structure detection, prediction of engineering exploration environment, earthquakes and volcanic eruotions, object magnetic measurement and underground buried booty exploration. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its characteristics of small size, low power consumption and high sensitivity. This paper researches the design and the application of the analog circuit of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer. First, the Larmor signal output by the probe is very weak. In order to obtain the signal with high signal to noise rstio(SNR), the design of pre-amplifier circuit is the key to improve the quality of the system signal. Second, in this paper, the effectual step which could improve the frequency characters of bandpass filter amplifier circuit were put forward, and theoretical analysis was made for it. Third, the shaping circuit shapes the amplified sine signal into a square wave signal which is suitable for detecting the rising edge. Fourth, this design elaborated the optimized choice of tuning circuit, so the measurement range of the magnetic field can be covered. Last, integrated analog circuit testing system was formed to detect waveform of each module. By calculating the standard deviation, the sensitivity of the improved Overhauser magnetometer is 0.047nT for Earth's magnetic field observation. Experimental results show that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.
Ma, L.X.; Hass, M.A.S.; Vierick, N.
2003-01-01
The dynamics of the backbone of the electron-transfer protein plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis were determined from the N-15 and C-13(alpha) R-1 and R-2) relaxation rates and steady-state [H-1]-N-15 and [H-1]-C-13 nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) using the model...
Non-Markovian nuclear dynamics
Kolomietz, V.M.
2011-01-01
A prove of equations of motion for the nuclear shape variables which establish a direct connection of the memory effects with the dynamic distortion of the Fermi surface is suggested. The equations of motion for the nuclear Fermi liquid drop are derived from the collisional kinetic equation. In general, the corresponding equations are non-Markovian. The memory effects appear due to the Fermi surface distortions and depend on the relaxation time. The main purpose of the present work is to apply the non-Markovian dynamics to the description of the nuclear giant multipole resonances (GMR) and the large amplitude motion. We take also into consideration the random forces and concentrate on the formation of both the conservative and the friction forces to make more clear the memory effect on the nuclear dynamics. In this respect, the given approach represents an extension of the traditional liquid drop model (LDM) to the case of the nuclear Fermi liquid drop. In practical application, we pay close attention to the description of the descent of the nucleus from the fission barrier to the scission point.
Dynamical features of nuclear fission
Wheeler underestimates several observables in heavy-ion-induced ... excitation energies, there may not be sufficient nuclei near the fission barrier after the .... Dissipation in nuclear dynamics in the mean-field regime accounts for the coupling of the .... barrier for different isotopes of Fr. The lines are drawn to guide the eye.
Rho, Mannque
2008-01-01
This is the sequel to the first volume to treat in one effective field theory framework the physics of strongly interacting matter under extreme conditions. This is vital for understanding the high temperature phenomena taking place in relativistic heavy ion collisions and in the early Universe, as well as the high-density matter predicted to be present in compact stars. The underlying thesis is that what governs hadronic properties in a heat bath and/or a dense medium is hidden local symmetry which emerges from chiral dynamics of light quark systems and from the duality between QCD in 4D and
Nuclear dynamics in phase space
Di Toro, M.
1984-07-01
We present a unified semiclassical picture of nuclear dynamics, from collective states to heavy ion physics, based on a study of the time evolution of the Wigner distribution function. We discuss in particular the mean field dynamics, in this ''quantal'' phase space, which is ruled by the nuclear Vlasov equation. Simple approximate solutions are worked out for rotational and vibrational collective motions. Giant resonances are shown to be quite well described as scaling modes, which are equivalent to a lowest multipole (up to 1sub(max)=2) distortions of the momentum distribution. Applications are shown to heavy ion physics to study giant resonances on high spin states and dynamical collective effects in subthreshold π-production. Several possible extensions and in particular the inclusion of two-body collision terms are finally discussed
Dynamic polarization in paramagnetic solids and microscopic correlation functions
Boucher, Jean-Paul
1972-01-01
The different effects of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in paramagnetic solids are described by means of a single thermodynamic formalism. In the case of large exchange interactions, the Overhauser effect correlated with nuclear relaxation time measurements can provide a way of studying correlation functions between electronic spins. This method is used to study the low-frequency behaviour of the microscopic spectral density which should diverge as ω → 0, in the case of a linear exchange chain. (author) [fr
Macroscopic treatment of nuclear dynamics
Swiatecki, W.J.
1984-05-01
A qualitative classification of nucleus-nucleus reactions into four types is described, a consequence of the existence of up to three milestone configurations that a fusing system may be faced with. These considerations lead to phenomenological formulae for fusion and compound-nucleus cross-sections that may be compared with experiments by the use of rectilinear cross section plots. Examples of more specific model calculations of nuclear reactions employing the Chaotic Regime Dynamics are described. Some misunderstandings regarding the Wall and Wall-and-Window formulae, underlying this type of dynamics, are discussed in the appendix. 23 references
Quark exchange and nuclear dynamics
Moniz, E.J.
1985-01-01
This paper gives a qualitative understanding of hadronic phenomena in terms of quark degrees of freedom. The basic model which incorporates saturating confining interactions and the study of hadron-hadron scattering has been carried through in collaboration with F. Lenz, J.T. Londergan, R. Rosenfelder, M. Stingl and K. Yazaki. It is shown that minimal confining dynamics together with exchange symmetry indeed leads to a remarkable range of phenomena at both the nuclear and particle energy scales. Most observables are well described by an effective hadron theory, the quark momentum distribution being the major exception. These features emerge even in the simplest model, namely, U(1) color and hadrons composed of two quarks (anti qq or qq). The author concentrates here on this model. In the concluding section, he remarks on the SU(N) results, particularly on the extent to which the color-hidden dynamics are constrained by examining the systematics of nuclear and hadronic phenomena. (Auth.)
Nuclear chiral dynamics and thermodynamics
Holt, Jeremy W.; Kaiser, Norbert; Weise, Wolfram
2013-11-01
This presentation reviews an approach to nuclear many-body systems based on the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of low-energy QCD. In the low-energy limit, for energies and momenta small compared to a characteristic symmetry breaking scale of order 1 GeV, QCD is realized as an effective field theory of Goldstone bosons (pions) coupled to heavy fermionic sources (nucleons). Nuclear forces at long and intermediate distance scales result from a systematic hierarchy of one- and two-pion exchange processes in combination with Pauli blocking effects in the nuclear medium. Short distance dynamics, not resolved at the wavelengths corresponding to typical nuclear Fermi momenta, are introduced as contact interactions between nucleons. Apart from a set of low-energy constants associated with these contact terms, the parameters of this theory are entirely determined by pion properties and low-energy pion-nucleon scattering observables. This framework (in-medium chiral perturbation theory) can provide a realistic description of both isospin-symmetric nuclear matter and neutron matter, with emphasis on the isospin-dependence determined by the underlying chiral NN interaction. The importance of three-body forces is emphasized, and the role of explicit Δ(1232)-isobar degrees of freedom is investigated in detail. Nuclear chiral thermodynamics is developed and a calculation of the nuclear phase diagram is performed. This includes a successful description of the first-order phase transition from a nuclear Fermi liquid to an interacting Fermi gas and the coexistence of these phases below a critical temperature Tc. Density functional methods for finite nuclei based on this approach are also discussed. Effective interactions, their density dependence and connections to Landau Fermi liquid theory are outlined. Finally, the density and temperature dependences of the chiral (quark) condensate are investigated.
Some aspects of nuclear dynamics
Gregoire, C.
1987-01-01
First the BBGKY hierarchy of equations is presented; the method developed here lies on a reduction procedure of a many body density distribution function. From the equations, Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations are deduced, and time dependent Hartree-Fock equation. Then two derivations of a nuclear reaction kinetic equation are presented: the Woldmann-Snider equation and the Botermans-Malfliet equation. The Wigner transformation is used and the Landau-Vlasov equation is studied. (Or Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck or Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation). Keypoints of approximate solutions are mentioned. Simulation calculations of phenomenological collisions are shown. Then dynamics of heavy ion reactions is studied from results presented
Semiclassical approaches to nuclear dynamics
Magner, A. G., E-mail: magner@kinr.kiev.ua; Gorpinchenko, D. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research NASU (Ukraine); Bartel, J. [Université de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS/IN2P3 (France)
2017-01-15
The extended Gutzwiller trajectory approach is presented for the semiclassical description of nuclear collective dynamics, in line with the main topics of the fruitful activity of V.G. Solovjov. Within the Fermi-liquid droplet model, the leptodermous effective surface approximation was applied to calculations of energies, sum rules, and transition densities for the neutron–proton asymmetry of the isovector giant-dipole resonance and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. By using the Strutinsky shell correction method, the semiclassical collective transport coefficients, such as nuclear inertia, friction, stiffness, and moments of inertia, can be derived beyond the quantum perturbation approximation of the response function theory and the cranking model. The averaged particle-number dependences of the low-lying collective vibrational states are described in good agreement with the basic experimental data, mainly due to the enhancement of the collective inertia as compared to its irrotational flow value. Shell components of the moment of inertia are derived in terms of the periodic-orbit free-energy shell corrections. A good agreement between the semiclassical extended Thomas–Fermi moments of inertia with shell corrections and the quantum results is obtained for different nuclear deformations and particle numbers. Shell effects are shown to be exponentially dampted out with increasing temperature in all the transport coefficients.
Semiclassical approaches to nuclear dynamics
Magner, A. G.; Gorpinchenko, D. V.; Bartel, J.
2017-01-01
The extended Gutzwiller trajectory approach is presented for the semiclassical description of nuclear collective dynamics, in line with the main topics of the fruitful activity of V.G. Solovjov. Within the Fermi-liquid droplet model, the leptodermous effective surface approximation was applied to calculations of energies, sum rules, and transition densities for the neutron–proton asymmetry of the isovector giant-dipole resonance and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. By using the Strutinsky shell correction method, the semiclassical collective transport coefficients, such as nuclear inertia, friction, stiffness, and moments of inertia, can be derived beyond the quantum perturbation approximation of the response function theory and the cranking model. The averaged particle-number dependences of the low-lying collective vibrational states are described in good agreement with the basic experimental data, mainly due to the enhancement of the collective inertia as compared to its irrotational flow value. Shell components of the moment of inertia are derived in terms of the periodic-orbit free-energy shell corrections. A good agreement between the semiclassical extended Thomas–Fermi moments of inertia with shell corrections and the quantum results is obtained for different nuclear deformations and particle numbers. Shell effects are shown to be exponentially dampted out with increasing temperature in all the transport coefficients.
Pion scattering and nuclear dynamics
Johnson, M.B.
1988-01-01
A phenomenological optical-model analysis of pion elastic scattering and single- and double-charge-exchange scattering to isobaric-analog states is reviewed. Interpretation of the optical-model parameters is briefly discussed, and several applications and extensions are considered. The applications include the study of various nuclear properties, including neutron deformation and surface-fluctuation contributions to the density. One promising extension for the near future would be to develop a microscopic approach based on powerful momentum-space methods brought to existence over the last decade. In this, the lowest-order optical potential as well as specific higher-order pieces would be worked out in terms of microscopic pion-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions that can be determined within modern meson-theoretical frameworks. A second extension, of a more phenomenological nature, would use coupled-channel methods and shell-model wave functions to study dynamical nuclear correlations in pion double charge exchange. 35 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab
Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N.; Pike, Kevin J.; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R.; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen
2018-04-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T (1H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 μL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes).
Dubroca, Thierry; Smith, Adam N; Pike, Kevin J; Froud, Stuart; Wylde, Richard; Trociewitz, Bianca; McKay, Johannes; Mentink-Vigier, Frederic; van Tol, Johan; Wi, Sungsool; Brey, William; Long, Joanna R; Frydman, Lucio; Hill, Stephen
2018-04-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an intrinsically insensitive technique, with Boltzmann distributions of nuclear spin states on the order of parts per million in conventional magnetic fields. To overcome this limitation, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to gain up to three orders of magnitude in signal enhancement, which can decrease experimental time by up to six orders of magnitude. In DNP experiments, nuclear spin polarization is enhanced by transferring the relatively larger electron polarization to NMR active nuclei via microwave irradiation. Here, we describe the design and performance of a quasi-optical system enabling the use of a single 395 GHz gyrotron microwave source to simultaneously perform DNP experiments on two different 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz) NMR spectrometers: one configured for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR; the other configured for solution state NMR experiments. In particular, we describe how the high power microwave beam is split, transmitted, and manipulated between the two spectrometers. A 13 C enhancement of 128 is achieved via the cross effect for alanine, using the nitroxide biradical AMUPol, under MAS-DNP conditions at 110 K, while a 31 P enhancement of 160 is achieved via the Overhauser effect for triphenylphosphine using the monoradical BDPA under solution NMR conditions at room temperature. The latter result is the first demonstration of Overhauser DNP in the solution state at a field of 14.1 T ( 1 H 600 MHz). Moreover these results have been produced with large sample volumes (∼100 µL, i.e. 3 mm diameter NMR tubes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palo Verde nuclear dynamic analysis (PANDA)
Girjashankar, P.V.; Secker, P.A. Jr.; LeClair, S.J.; Mendoza, J.; Webb, J.R.
1988-01-01
Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) has initiated the development of a large scale dynamic analysis computer program for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS). This paper presents the decision processes and preliminary development activities that have been pursued related to the code development. The PANDA (Palo Verde Nuclear Dynamic Analysis) code will be used for a variety of applications as described in this paper
Pechlaner, Maria; Sigel, Roland K O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Dolenc, Jožica
2013-10-08
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) data obtained for a 35-nucleotide RNA segment of a bacterial group II intron indicate a helical hairpin structure in which three parts, a terminal pentaloop, a bulge, and a G-A mismatch, display no Watson-Crick base pairing. The 668 NOE upper distance bounds for atom pairs are insufficient to uniquely determine the conformation of these segments. Therefore, molecular dynamics simulations including time-averaged distance restraints have been used to obtain a conformational ensemble compatible with the observed NMR data. The ensemble shows alternating hydrogen bonding patterns for the mentioned segments. In particular, in the pentaloop and in the bulge, the hydrogen bonding networks correspond to distinct conformational clusters that could not be captured by using conventional single-structure refinement techniques. This implies that, to obtain a realistic picture of the conformational ensemble of such flexible biomolecules, it is necessary to properly account for the conformational variability in the structure refinement of RNA fragments.
Microwave-gated dynamic nuclear polarization
Bornet, Aurélien; Pinon, Arthur; Jhajharia, Aditya
2016-01-01
Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) has become a method of choice to enhance signals in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Recently, we have proposed to combine cross-polarization (CP) with D-DNP to provide high polarization P((13)C) in short build-up times. In this paper, we show...
Order, chaos and nuclear dynamics: An introduction
Swiatecki, W.J.
1990-08-01
This is an introductory lecture illustrating by simple examples the anticipated effect on collective nuclear dynamics of a transition from order to chaos in the motions of nucleons inside an idealized nucleus. The destruction of order is paralleled by a transition from a rubber-like to a honey-like behaviour of the independent-particle nuclear model. 10 refs., 6 figs
New trends in nuclear collective dynamics
Abe, Yasuhisa; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi
1992-01-01
New Trends in Nuclear Collective Dynamics comprises reviews by well-known researchers from international centers of nuclear physics. This overview of recent advances concentrates on - order amd chaos in finite quantum systems - dissipation in heavy-ion collions - collective motion in warm nuclei - time-dependent mean-field theory with collision terms - nuclear fission and multi-dimensional tunneling - large scale collective motion see hints under the relevent topics. (orig.) With 90 figs
Dynamic modelling of nuclear steam generators
Kerlin, T.W.; Katz, E.M.; Freels, J.; Thakkar, J.
1980-01-01
Moving boundary, nodal models with dynamic energy balances, dynamic mass balances, quasi-static momentum balances, and an equivalent single channel approach have been developed for steam generators used in nuclear power plants. The model for the U-tube recirculation type steam generator is described and comparisons are made of responses from models of different complexity; non-linear versus linear, high-order versus low order, detailed modeling of the control system versus a simple control assumption. The results of dynamic tests on nuclear power systems show that when this steam generator model is included in a system simulation there is good agreement with actual plant performance. (author)
Dynamical calculation of nuclear temperature
Zheng Yuming
1998-01-01
A new dynamical approach for measuring the temperature of a Hamiltonian dynamical system in the microcanonical ensemble of thermodynamics is presented. It shows that under the hypothesis of ergodicity the temperature can be computed as a time average of a function on the energy surface. This method not only yields an efficient computational approach for determining the temperature, but also provides an intrinsic link between dynamical system theory and the statistical mechanics of Hamiltonian system
Collectivity and chaoticity in nuclear dynamics
Zelevinsky, V.G.
1992-01-01
Collective and chaotic features of nuclear dynamics are discussed using simple criteria of complexity of wave functions and their coherence with respect to specific operators. Various physical phenomena are considered in this connection: - coherent interaction of collective modes; - fragmentation and spreading widths; - mixing of compound states and dynamical enhancement; - mean field as a smooth component of complicated dynamics; - coupling through continuum and collectivization of widths; - structure of giant resonances; - statistical properties of unstable states as generalization of canonical random matrix ensembles. (orig.)
Wavelet representation of the nuclear dynamics
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la
1997-12-31
The study of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach named DYWAN, based on the projection methods of statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Strongly compressed representations of the nuclear systems are obtained with an accurate description of the wave functions and of their antisymmetrization. The results of the approach are illustrated for the ground state description as well as for the dissipative dynamics of nuclei at intermediate energies. (K.A.). 52 refs.
Wavelet representation of the nuclear dynamics
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la.
1997-01-01
The study of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach named DYWAN, based on the projection methods of statistical physics and on the mathematical theory of wavelets. Strongly compressed representations of the nuclear systems are obtained with an accurate description of the wave functions and of their antisymmetrization. The results of the approach are illustrated for the ground state description as well as for the dissipative dynamics of nuclei at intermediate energies. (K.A.)
Microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics
Sakata, Fumihiko; Marumori, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yukio; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Iwasawa, Kazuo.
1990-10-01
A recent development of the INS-TSUKUBA joint research project on large-amplitude collective motion is summarized by putting special emphasis on an inter-relationship between quantum chaos and nuclear spectroscopy. Aiming at introducing various concepts used in this lecture, we start with recapitulating the semi-classical theory of nuclear collective dynamics formulated within the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. The central part of the semi-classical theory is provided by the self-consistent collective coordinate (SCC) method which has been developed to properly take account of the non-linear dynamics specific for the finite many-body quantum system. A decisive role of the level crossing dynamics on the order-to-chaos transition of collective motion is discussed in detail. Extending the basic idea of the semi-classical theory, we discuss a full quantum theory of nuclear collective dynamics which allows us to properly define a concept of the quantum integrability as well as the quantum chaoticity for each eigenfunction. The lecture is arranged so as to clearly show the similar structure between the semi-classical and quantum theories of nuclear collective dynamics. Using numerical calculations, we illustrate what the quantum chaos for each eigenfunction means and relate it to the usual definition of quantum chaos for nearest neighbor level spacing statistics based on the random matrix theory. (author)
Nuclear Research Center IRT reactor dynamics calculation
Aleman Fernandez, J.R.
1990-01-01
The main features of the code DIRT, for dynamical calculations are described in the paper. With the results obtained by the program, an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the Research Reactor IRT of the Nuclear Research Center (CIN) is performed. Different transitories were considered such as variation of the system reactivity, coolant inlet temperature variation and also variations of the coolant velocity through the reactor core. 3 refs
Cluster dynamics transcending chemical dynamics toward nuclear fusion.
Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore
2006-07-11
Ultrafast cluster dynamics encompasses femtosecond nuclear dynamics, attosecond electron dynamics, and electron-nuclear dynamics in ultraintense laser fields (peak intensities 10(15)-10(20) W.cm(-2)). Extreme cluster multielectron ionization produces highly charged cluster ions, e.g., (C(4+)(D(+))(4))(n) and (D(+)I(22+))(n) at I(M) = 10(18) W.cm(-2), that undergo Coulomb explosion (CE) with the production of high-energy (5 keV to 1 MeV) ions, which can trigger nuclear reactions in an assembly of exploding clusters. The laser intensity and the cluster size dependence of the dynamics and energetics of CE of (D(2))(n), (HT)(n), (CD(4))(n), (DI)(n), (CD(3)I)(n), and (CH(3)I)(n) clusters were explored by electrostatic models and molecular dynamics simulations, quantifying energetic driving effects, and kinematic run-over effects. The optimization of table-top dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of deuterium containing heteroclusters is realized for light-heavy heteroclusters of the largest size, which allows for the prevalence of cluster vertical ionization at the highest intensity of the laser field. We demonstrate a 7-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the yield of dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of light-heavy heteroclusters as compared with (D(2))(n) clusters of the same size. Prospective applications for the attainment of table-top nucleosynthesis reactions, e.g., (12)C(P,gamma)(13)N driven by CE of (CH(3)I)(n) clusters, were explored.
Multiphase Flow Dynamics 5 Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2012-01-01
The present Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step...
Multiphase flow dynamics 5 nuclear thermal hydraulics
Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov
2015-01-01
This Volume 5 of the successful book package "Multiphase Flow Dynamics" is devoted to nuclear thermal hydraulics which is a substantial part of nuclear reactor safety. It provides knowledge and mathematical tools for adequate description of the process of transferring the fission heat released in materials due to nuclear reactions into its environment. It step by step introduces into the heat release inside the fuel, temperature fields in the fuels, the "simple" boiling flow in a pipe described using ideas of different complexity like equilibrium, non equilibrium, homogeneity, non homogeneity. Then the "simple" three-fluid boiling flow in a pipe is described by gradually involving the mechanisms like entrainment and deposition, dynamic fragmentation, collisions, coalescence, turbulence. All heat transfer mechanisms are introduced gradually discussing their uncertainty. Different techniques are introduced like boundary layer treatments or integral methods. Comparisons with experimental data at each step demons...
Bimodality in macroscopic dynamics of nuclear fission
Bastrukov, S.I.; Salamatin, V.S.; Strteltsova, O.I.; Molodtsova, I.V.; Podgainy, D.V.; )
2000-01-01
The elastodynamic collective model of nuclear fission is outlined whose underlying idea is that the stiff structure of nuclear shells imparts to nucleus properties typical of a small piece of an elastic solid. Emphasis is placed on the macroscopic dynamics of nuclear deformations resulting in fission by two energetically different modes. The low-energy S-mode is the fission due to disruption of elongated quadrupole spheroidal shape. The characteristic features of the high-energy T-mode of division by means of torsional shear deformations is the compact scission configuration. Analytic and numerical estimates for the macroscopic fission-barrier heights are presented, followed by discussion of fingerprints of the above dynamical bimodality in the available data [ru
Hysteresis phenomenon in nuclear reactor dynamics
Pirayesh, Behnam; Pazirandeh, Ali [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch; Akbari, Monireh [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mathematics
2017-05-15
This paper applies a nonlinear analysis method to show that hysteresis phenomenon, due to the Saddle-node bifurcation, may occur in the nuclear reactor. This phenomenon may have significant effects on nuclear reactor dynamics and can even be the beginning of a nuclear reactor accident. A system of four dimensional nonlinear ordinary differential equations was considered to study the hysteresis phenomenon in a typical nuclear reactor. It should be noted that the reactivity was considered as a nonlinear function of state variables. The condition for emerging hysteresis was investigated using Routh-Hurwitz criterion and Sotomayor's theorem for saddle node bifurcation. A numerical analysis is also provided to illustrate the analytical results.
Dynamics and instabilities in nuclear fragmentation
Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Latora, V.; Smerzi, A.; Catania Univ.
1993-01-01
A general procedure to identify instability regions which lead to multifragmentation events is presented. The method covers all possible sources of dynamical instabilities. Informations on the instability point, like the time when the nuclear system enters the critical region, the most unstable modes and the time constant of the exponential growing of the relative variances, are deduced without any numerical bias. Important memory effects in the fragmentation pattern are revealed. Some hints towards a fully dynamical picture of fragmentation processes are finally suggested. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs
Macroscopic dynamics of thermal nuclear excitations
Bastrukov, S.I.; Deak, F.; Kiss, A.; Seres, Z.
1989-11-01
The concept of kinetic temperature as a local dynamical variable of thermal nuclear collective motion is formulated using long-mean-free-path approach based on the Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation. In the Fermi drop model the thermal fluid dynamics of the spherical nucleus is analyzed. It is shown that in a compressible Fermi liquid the temperature pulses propagate in the form of spherical wave in phase with the acoustic wave. The thermal and compressional excitations are caused by the isotropic harmonic oscillations of the Fermi sphere in momentum space. (author) 25 refs.; 2 figs
Electron-nuclear dynamics of molecular systems
Diz, A.; Oehrn, Y.
1994-01-01
The content of an ab initio time-dependent theory of quantum molecular dynamics of electrons and atomic nuclei is presented. Employing the time-dependent variational principle and a family of approximate state vectors yields a set of dynamical equations approximating the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. These equations govern the time evolution of the relevant state vector parameters as molecular orbital coefficients, nuclear positions, and momenta. This approach does not impose the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, does not use potential energy surfaces, and takes into account electron-nuclear coupling. Basic conservation laws are fully obeyed. The simplest model of the theory employs a single determinantal state for the electrons and classical nuclei and is implemented in the computer code ENDyne. Results from this ab-initio theory are reported for ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions
Dynamics of nuclear reactor operational cycles
Chapman, L.D.; Wayland, J.R.
With this system dynamics computer model, one can explore the long term effects of a nuclear reactor program. Given an input demand for reactors, the consequences on each sector and the interactions among sectors can be simulated to provide a better understanding of the time development of a nuclear reactor program. The model permits the determination of various levels of activity as a function of time for plant enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and storage of waste products. In addition, the rates of construction of reactors, spent fuel transit, disposal of waste, mining, shipping, recycling and enrichment can be investigated for optimal planning purposes. The model has been written in a very general manner so that it can be used to simulate any nuclear reactor program. It is an easy task to relate the amount of accidental or operational release of radioactive contaminants into our environment to the activity levels of each of the above sectors. (U.S.)
NMR dispersion measurement of dynamic nuclear polarization
Davies, K.; Cox, S.F.J.
1978-01-01
The feasibility of monitoring dynamic nuclear polarization from the NMR dispersive susceptibility is examined. Two prototype instruments are tested in a polarized proton target using organic target material. The more promising employs a tunnel diode oscillator, inside the target cavity, and should provide a precise polarization measurement working at a frequency far enough from the main resonance for the disturbance of the measured polarization to be negligible. Other existing methods for measuring target polarization are briefly reviewed. (author)
Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation
Brown, Dennis Eugene [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1993-05-01
The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of ^{57}Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 11/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.
Bond graph modeling of nuclear reactor dynamics
Tylee, J.L.
1981-01-01
A tenth-order linear model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is developed using bond graph techniques. The model describes the nuclear heat generation process and the transfer of this heat to the reactor coolant. Comparisons between the calculated model response and test data from a small-scale PWR show the model to be an adequate representation of the actual plant dynamics. Possible application of the model in an advanced plant diagnostic system is discussed
Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation
Brown, D.E.
1993-05-01
The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57 Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1 1/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei
Nuclear Regulator Knowledge Management in a Dynamic Nuclear Industry Environment
Turner, J.
2016-01-01
Full text: The paper outlines the experiences to date in developing mature knowledge management within the UK’s nuclear regulatory body The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). In 2010 concerns over the loss of knowledge due to the age profile within the organization instigated a review of knowledge management and the development of a knowledge management initiative. Initially activities focused on knowledge capture but in order to move to through life knowledge transfer, knowledge management was then aligned with organizational resilience initiatives. A review of progress highlighted the need to better engage the whole organization to achieve the desired level of maturity for knowledge management. Knowledge management activities now cover organizational culture and environment and all aspects of organizational resilience. Benefits to date include clear understanding of core knowledge requirements, better specifications for recruitment and training and the ability to deploy new regulatory approaches. During the period of implementing the knowledge management programme ONR undertook several organizational changes in moving to become a separate statutory body. The UK nuclear industry was in a period of increased activity including the planning of new nuclear reactors. This dynamic environment caused challenges for embedding knowledge management within ONR which are discussed in the paper. (author
Liu, H.; Dong, H.; Liu, Z.; Ge, J.; Bai, B.; Zhang, C.
2017-10-01
The proton precession magnetometer with single sensor is commonly used in geomagnetic observation and magnetic anomaly detection. Due to technological limitations, the measurement accuracy is restricted by several factors such as the sensor performance, frequency measurement precision, instability of polarization module, etc. Aimed to improve the anti-interference ability, an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer with dual sensor structure was designed. An alternative design of a geomagnetic sensor with differential dual-coil structure was presented. A multi-channel frequency measurement algorithm was proposed to increase the measurement accuracy. A silicon oscillator was adopted to resolve the instability of polarization system. This paper briefly discusses the design and development of the gradiometer and compares the data recorded by this instrument with a commonly used commercially Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The proposed gradiometer records the earth magnetic field in 24 hours with measurement accuracy of ± 0.3 nT and a sampling rate of 3 seconds per sample. The quality of data recorded is excellent and consistent with the commercial instrument. In addition, experiments of ferromagnetic target localization were conducted. This gradiometer shows a strong ability in magnetic anomaly detection and localization. To sum up, it has the advantages of convenient operation, high precision, strong anti-interference, etc., which proves the effectiveness of the dual sensor structure Overhauser magnetic gradiometer.
Liu, H.; Dong, H.; Ge, J.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Z.; Bai, B.
2017-01-01
The proton precession magnetometer with single sensor is commonly used in geomagnetic observation and magnetic anomaly detection. Due to technological limitations, the measurement accuracy is restricted by several factors such as the sensor performance, frequency measurement precision, instability of polarization module, etc. Aimed to improve the anti-interference ability, an Overhauser magnetic gradiometer with dual sensor structure was designed. An alternative design of a geomagnetic sensor with differential dual-coil structure was presented. A multi-channel frequency measurement algorithm was proposed to increase the measurement accuracy. A silicon oscillator was adopted to resolve the instability of polarization system. This paper briefly discusses the design and development of the gradiometer and compares the data recorded by this instrument with a commonly used commercially Overhauser magnetometer in the world market. The proposed gradiometer records the earth magnetic field in 24 hours with measurement accuracy of ± 0.3 nT and a sampling rate of 3 seconds per sample. The quality of data recorded is excellent and consistent with the commercial instrument. In addition, experiments of ferromagnetic target localization were conducted. This gradiometer shows a strong ability in magnetic anomaly detection and localization. To sum up, it has the advantages of convenient operation, high precision, strong anti-interference, etc., which proves the effectiveness of the dual sensor structure Overhauser magnetic gradiometer.
Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants (DSNP)
Saphier, D.
1976-01-01
A new simulation language DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants) is being developed. It is a simple block oriented simulation language with an extensive library of component and auxiliary modules. Each module is a self-contained unit of a part of a physical component to be found in nuclear power plants. Each module will be available in four levels of sophistication, the fourth being a user supplied model. A module can be included in the simulation by a single statement. The precompiler translates DSNP statements into FORTRAN statements, takes care of the module parameters and the intermodular communication blocks, prepares proper data files and I/0 statements and searches the various libraries for the appropriate component modules. The documentation is computerized and all the necessary information for a particular module can be retrieved by a special document generator. The DSNP will be a flexible tool which will allow dynamic simulations to be performed on a large variety of nuclear power plants or specific components of these plants
Statistical estimation of nuclear reactor dynamic parameters
Cummins, J.D.
1962-02-01
This report discusses the study of the noise in nuclear reactors and associated power plant. The report is divided into three distinct parts. In the first part parameters which influence the dynamic behaviour of some reactors will be specified and their effect on dynamic performance described. Methods of estimating dynamic parameters using statistical signals will be described in detail together with descriptions of the usefulness of the results, the accuracy and related topics. Some experiments which have been and which might be performed on nuclear reactors will be described. In the second part of the report a digital computer programme will be described. The computer programme derives the correlation functions and the spectra of signals. The programme will compute the frequency response both gain and phase for physical items of plant for which simultaneous recordings of input and output signal variations have been made. Estimations of the accuracy of the correlation functions and the spectra may be computed using the programme and the amplitude distribution of signals may also b computed. The programme is written in autocode for the Ferranti Mercury computer. In the third part of the report a practical example of the use of the method and the digital programme is presented. In order to eliminate difficulties of interpretation a very simple plant model was chosen i.e. a simple first order lag. Several interesting properties of statistical signals were measured and will be discussed. (author)
Fluctuation in nuclear dynamics and multifragmentation
Chomaz, P.; Di Toro, M.; Randrup, J.
1993-01-01
We first explain why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. This concept is illustrated on the schematic example of the Hysteresis circle of two compasses. We study the dynamical behaviour of unstable systems, characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, we discuss the spinodal instability both in two and in three dimensions. In such a critical situation, we explore the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment
Fluctuation in nuclear dynamics and multifragmentation
Chomaz, P.; Colonna, M.; Burgio, G.F.; Guarnera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Randrup, J.
1993-01-01
We first explain why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. This concept is illustrated on the schematic example of the Hysteresis circle of two compasses. We study the dynamical behaviour of unstable systems, characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, we discuss the spinodal instability in two dimensions. In such a critical situation, we explore the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment. (author). 24 refs., 10 figs
Fluctuation in nuclear dynamics and multifragmentation
Chomaz, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Colonna, M.; Burgio, G.F.; Guarnera, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Di Toro, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Randrup, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)
1993-12-31
We first explain why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. This concept is illustrated on the schematic example of the Hysteresis circle of two compasses. We study the dynamical behaviour of unstable systems, characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, we discuss the spinodal instability in two dimensions. In such a critical situation, we explore the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment. (author). 24 refs., 10 figs.
Effect of pairing on nuclear dynamics
Scamps, Guillaume
2014-01-01
Pairing correlations is an essential component for the description of the atomic nuclei. The effects of pairing on static property of nuclei are now well known. In this thesis, the effect of pairing on nuclear dynamics is investigated. Theories that includes pairing are benchmarked in a model case. The TDHF+BCS theory turns out to be a good compromise between the physics taken into account and the numerical cost. This TDHF+BCS theory was retained for realistic calculations. Nevertheless, the application of pairing in the BCS approximation may induce new problems due to (1) the particle number symmetry breaking, (2) the non-conservation of the continuity equation. These difficulties are analysed in detail and solutions are proposed. In this thesis, a 3 dimensional TDHF+BCS code is developed to simulate the nuclear dynamic. Applications to giant resonances show that pairing modify only the low lying peaks. The high lying collective components are only affected by the initial conditions. An exhaustive study of the giant quadrupole resonances with the TDHF+BCS theory is performed on more than 700 spherical or deformed nuclei. Is is shown that the TDHF+BCS theory reproduces well the collective energy of the resonance. After validation on the small amplitude limit problem, the approach was applied to study nucleon transfer in heavy ion reactions. A new method to extract transfer probabilities is introduced. It is demonstrated that pairing significantly increases the two-nucleon transfer probability. (author) [fr
Classical molecular dynamics simulation of nuclear fuels
Devanathan, R.; Krack, M.; Bertolus, M.
2015-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation using forces calculated from empirical potentials, commonly called classical molecular dynamics, is well suited to study primary damage production by irradiation, defect interactions with fission gas atoms, gas bubble nucleation, grain boundary effects on defect and gas bubble evolution in nuclear fuel, and the resulting changes in thermomechanical properties. This enables one to obtain insights into fundamental mechanisms governing the behaviour of nuclear fuel, as well as parameters that can be used as inputs for mesoscale models. The interaction potentials used for the force calculations are generated by fitting properties of interest to experimental data and electronic structure calculations (see Chapter 12). We present here the different types of potentials currently available for UO 2 and illustrations of applications to the description of the behaviour of this material under irradiation. The results obtained from the present generation of potentials for UO 2 are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different. There is a need to refine these existing potentials to provide a better representation of the performance of polycrystalline fuel under a variety of operating conditions, develop models that are equipped to handle deviations from stoichiometry, and validate the models and assumptions used. (authors)
Dynamic nuclear polarization of irradiated target materials
Seely, M.L.
1982-01-01
Polarized nucleon targets used in high energy physics experiments usually employ the method of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) to polarize the protons or deuterons in an alcohol. DNP requires the presence of paramagnetic centers, which are customarily provided by a chemical dopant. These chemically doped targets have a relatively low polarizable nucleon content and suffer from loss of polarization when subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation. If the paramagnetic centers formed when the target is irradiated can be used in the DNP process, it becomes possible to produce targets using materials which have a relatively high polarizable nucleon content, but which are not easily doped by chemical means. Furthermore, the polarization of such targets may be much more radiation resistant. Dynamic nuclear polarization in ammonia, deuterated ammonia, ammonium hydroxide, methylamine, borane ammonia, butonal, ethane and lithium borohydride has been studied. These studies were conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the Yale-SLAC polarized target system. Results indicate that the use of ammonia and deuterated ammonia as polarized target materials would make significant increases in polarized target performance possible
Nonadiabatic effects in electronic and nuclear dynamics
Martin P. Bircher
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Due to their very nature, ultrafast phenomena are often accompanied by the occurrence of nonadiabatic effects. From a theoretical perspective, the treatment of nonadiabatic processes makes it necessary to go beyond the (quasi static picture provided by the time-independent Schrödinger equation within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and to find ways to tackle instead the full time-dependent electronic and nuclear quantum problem. In this review, we give an overview of different nonadiabatic processes that manifest themselves in electronic and nuclear dynamics ranging from the nonadiabatic phenomena taking place during tunnel ionization of atoms in strong laser fields to the radiationless relaxation through conical intersections and the nonadiabatic coupling of vibrational modes and discuss the computational approaches that have been developed to describe such phenomena. These methods range from the full solution of the combined nuclear-electronic quantum problem to a hierarchy of semiclassical approaches and even purely classical frameworks. The power of these simulation tools is illustrated by representative applications and the direct confrontation with experimental measurements performed in the National Centre of Competence for Molecular Ultrafast Science and Technology.
A fermionic molecular dynamics technique to model nuclear matter
Vantournhout, K.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.
2009-01-01
Full text: At sub-nuclear densities of about 10 14 g/cm 3 , nuclear matter arranges itself in a variety of complex shapes. This can be the case in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae. These slab like and rod like structures, designated as nuclear pasta, have been modelled with classical molecular dynamics techniques. We present a technique, based on fermionic molecular dynamics, to model nuclear matter at sub-nuclear densities in a semi classical framework. The dynamical evolution of an antisymmetric ground state is described making the assumption of periodic boundary conditions. Adding the concepts of antisymmetry, spin and probability distributions to classical molecular dynamics, brings the dynamical description of nuclear matter to a quantum mechanical level. Applications of this model vary from investigation of macroscopic observables and the equation of state to the study of fundamental interactions on the microscopic structure of the matter. (author)
Dynamics and control in nuclear power stations
Butterfield, M.H.
1992-01-01
This volume presents a wide view of aspects of control of nuclear power stations by taking into consideration the plant as a whole and the protection systems employed therein. Authors with worldwide experience consider all aspects of dynamics and control in the context of both fast and thermal power stations. The topics discussed include the methods of development and applications within the analysis of plant behaviour, the validation of mathematical models, plant testing, and the design and implementation of controls. There are 27 papers all of which are indexed separately; steady states and model evolution (5 papers), control and protection systems (5 papers), transients (7 papers), testing and data (3 papers), model validation (6 papers) and commissioning and operation (1 paper). (author)
Quantum Nuclear Extension of Electron Nuclear Dynamics on Folded Effective-Potential Surfaces
Hall, B.; Deumens, E.; Ohrn, Y.
2014-01-01
A perennial problem in quantum scattering calculations is accurate theoretical treatment of low energy collisions. We propose a method of extracting a folded, nonadiabatic, effective potential energy surface from electron nuclear dynamics (END) trajectories; we then perform nuclear wave packet...
Dudal, David; Verschelde, Henri; Lemes, Vitor E.R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Sorella, Silvio P.; Picariello, Marco; Vicini, Alessandro; Gracey, John A.
2003-01-01
We analyze the ghost condensates abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-barbc c > in Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. By combining the local composite operator formalism with the algebraic renormalization technique, we are able to give a simultaneous discussion of abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-bar b c c >, which can be seen as playing the role of the BCS, respectively Overhauser effect in ordinary superconductivity. The Curci-Ferrari gauge exhibits a global continuous symmetry generated by the Nakanishi-Ojima (NO) algebra. This algebra includes, next to the {(anti-)BRST} transformation, a SL(2,R) subalgebra. We discuss the dynamical symmetry breaking of the NO algebra through these ghost condensates. Particular attention is paid to the Landau gauge, a special case of the Curci-Ferrari gauge. (author)
Varshavsky, Leonid
2013-01-01
Analysis of external and internal factors influencing significant improvement of economic indicators of US nuclear power stations in the 1990s is carried out. Approaches to modeling dynamics of capacity factors of nuclear power stations are proposed. Comparative analysis of dynamics of capacity factors and occupational radiation exposure for various generations of US nuclear power plants is carried out. Dynamical characteristics of «learning by doing» effects for analyzed indicators are measu...
Self-Sustaining Dynamical Nuclear Polarization Oscillations in Quantum Dots
Rudner, Mark Spencer; Levitov, Leonid
2013-01-01
Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce......) and nuclear spin diffusion, which governs dynamics of the spatial profile of nuclear polarization. The proposed framework naturally explains the differences in phenomenology between vertical and lateral quantum dot structures as well as the extremely long oscillation periods....
Wavelet representation of the nuclear dynamics
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; De La Mota, V.
1997-01-01
The study of the transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on wavelet theory and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to optimize the representation spaces and the numerical treatment which gives the opportunity to enlarge the spectra of physical processes taken into account to preserve some important quantum information. At the same time this approach is more efficient than the usual solving schemes and mathematical formulations of the equations based on usual concepts. The application of this methodology to the the study of the physical phenomena related to the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies has resulted in a model named DYWAN (DYnamical WAvelets in Nuclei). The results obtained with DYWAN for the central collisions in the system Ca + Ca at three different beam energies are reported. These are in agreement with the experimental results since a fusion process at 30 MeV is observed as well as a binary reaction at 50 MeV and kind of an explosion of the system at 90 MeV
Oil and nuclear power: the dynamic interrelationship
Stauffer, T.
1987-01-01
The impact of changing oil prices on the economic case for nuclear power and the political viability of the nuclear industry is reviewed. The case for nuclear energy is less obvious currently on the grounds of safety (following the Chernobyl accident), need (because of slower economic growth and energy conservation) and rationale (the cost advantage is no longer obvious). Nuclear power and oil prices are shown to be interrelated because the competitive economics of each is affected by the other. The competitive balance between the two changes. The use of nuclear power helps to keep oil prices down. However, if oil is cheap, nuclear power is less favourable economically. Some facts and figures are used to illustrate this paradox. (U.K.)
Dynamics and Thermodynamics with Nuclear Degrees of Freedom
Chomaz, Philippe; Trautmann, Wolfgang; Yennello, Sherry J
2006-01-01
The study of nuclear reaction dynamics and thermodynamics with nuclear degrees of freedom has progressed dramatically in the past 20 years, from inclusive charge distributions to exclusive isotopically resolved fragment observables and from schematic phenomenological break-up models to sophisticated quantum many-body transport theories. A coherent and quantitative understanding of reaction mechanisms and of the underlying nuclear matter equation of state is emerging from the analysis of experimental data and from the theoretical modeling of heavy ion reactions. In addition, the accumulated evidence for phenomena related to the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter has triggered interdisciplinary activities and the transfer of useful methods. In the near future, the availability of radioactive beam facilities is expected to provide unique opportunities for extending our knowledge of the dynamic properties and the nuclear phase diagram towards exotic nuclear systems with important astrophysical implicat...
Symplectic dynamics of the nuclear mean-field
Grigorescu, Marius
1996-01-01
Collective and microscopic pictures of the nuclear dynamics are related in the frame of time-dependent variational principle on symplectic trial manifolds. For symmetry braking systems such manifolds are constructed by cranking, and applied to study the nuclear isovector collective excitations. (author)
Theory of coherent dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots
Neder, Izhar; Rudner, Mark Spencer; Halperin, Bertrand
2014-01-01
We consider the production of dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) in a two-electron double quantum dot, in which the electronic levels are repeatedly swept through a singlet-triplet avoided crossing. Our analysis helps to elucidate the intriguing interplay between electron-nuclear hyperfine...
Electron-nuclear corellations for photoinduced dynamics in molecular dimers
Kilin, Dmitri S.; Pereversev, Yuryi V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.
2003-03-01
Ultrafast photoinduced dynamics of electronic excitation in molecular dimers is drastically affected by dynamic reorganization of of inter- and intra- molecular nuclear configuration modelled by quantized nuclear degree of freedom [1]. The dynamics of the electronic population and nuclear coherence is analyzed with help of both numerical solution of the chain of coupled differential equations for mean coordinate, population inversion, electronic-vibrational correlation etc.[2] and by propagating the Gaussian wavepackets in relevant adiabatic potentials. Intriguing results were obtained in the approximation of small energy difference and small change of nuclear equilibrium configuration for excited electronic states. In the limiting case of resonance between electronic states energy difference and frequency of the nuclear mode these results have been justified by comparison to exactly solvable Jaynes-Cummings model. It has been found that the photoinduced processes in dimer are arranged according to their time scales:(i) fast scale of nuclear motion,(ii) intermediate scale of dynamical redistribution of electronic population between excited states as well as growth and dynamics of electronic -nuclear correlation,(iii) slow scale of electronic population approaching to the quasiequilibrium distribution, decay of electronic-nuclear correlation, and diminishing the amplitude of mean coordinate oscillations, accompanied by essential growth of the nuclear coordinate dispersion associated with the overall nuclear wavepacket width. Demonstrated quantum-relaxational features of photoinduced vibronic dinamical processess in molecular dimers are obtained by simple method, applicable to large biological systems with many degrees of freedom. [1] J. A. Cina, D. S. Kilin, T. S. Humble, J. Chem. Phys. (2003) in press. [2] O. V. Prezhdo, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2995 (2002).
Microscopic study of nuclear 'pasta' by quantum molecular dynamics
Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu
2002-01-01
Structure of cold dense matter at subnuclear densities is investigated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. We succeeded in showing that the phases with slab-like and rod-like nuclei etc. and be formed dynamically from hot uniform nuclear matter without any assumptions on nuclear shape. We also observe intermediate phases, which has complicated nuclear shapes. Geometrical structures of matter are analyzed with Minkowski functionals, and it is found out that intermediate phases can be characterized as ones with negative Euler characteristic. Our result suggests the existence of these kinds of phases in addition to the simple 'pasta' phases in neutron star crusts. (author)
Isospin effects on collective nuclear dynamics
Di Toro, M; Baran, V; Larionov, A B
1999-01-01
We suggest several ways to study properties of the symmetry term in the nuclear equation of state, EOS, from collective modes in beta-unstable nuclei. After a general discussion on compressibility and saturation density in asymmetric nuclear matter we show some predictions on the collective response based on the solution of generalized Landau dispersion relations. Isoscalar-isovector coupling, disappearance of collectivity and possibility of new instabilities in low and high density regions are discussed with accent on their relation to the symmetry term of effective forces. The onset of chemical plus mechanical instabilities in a dilute asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed with reference to new features in fragmentation reactions.
Three lectures on macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics
Swiatecki, W.J.
1979-03-01
These lectures concentrate on macroscopic aspects of nuclear dynamics, those aspects that come into prominence when the number of nucleons, A, is large, A >> 1. An attempt is made to set up a theory of the dynamics of nuclear shape changes, for small (sub-sonic) collective velocities. To set up the equations of motion one needs three forces: conservative, dissipative, and inertial. The first lecture deals with statics, i.e., it discusses methods of treating the Potential Energy Function of nuclear systems. From the Potential Energy the conservative forces that drive the time evolution of a nuclear configuration can be deduced. The division of the underlying potential energy into Local, Proximity, and Global terms is stressed. The second lecture deals with dynamical aspects, especially with the nuclear Dissipation Function, which describes how dissipative frictional forces oppose the conservative driving forces. The underlying physics is the approximate validity of the Independent-Particle model. This, combined with the Randomization Hypothesis, leads to simple formulas that suggest that dissipative forces may often overshadow the inertial forces. The third lecture outlines the kind of dynamics that results from the balance of these forces, and describes a number of applications to nuclear fission and heavy-ion collisions of this New Dynamics. Particularly simple equations of motion are set up, and some of the consequences are explored. 18 references, 31 figures, 3 tables
TDHF and fluid dynamics of nuclear collective motions
Di Nardo, M.; Di Toro, M.; Giansiracusa, G.; Lombardo, U.; Russo, G.
1983-01-01
The nuclear fluid dynamical equations are derived from a mean field description of the nuclear dynamics. Simple approximate solutions, corresponding to generalized scaling modes, are worked out for rotations and vibrations, with the evaluation of inertial parameters and flow patterns. Giant resonances are shown to be quite well described within an irrotational ansatz, which is equivalent to a lowest multipoles (up to lsub(max)=2) distortion of the momentum distribution. The physical meaning of a higher order truncation of the TDHF-Fluid-Dynamics chain is finally discussed with its implication on low lying states and on some description of the Landau damping. (author)
Dynamic cost control information system for nuclear power plant construction
Wang Yongqing; Liu Wei
1998-01-01
The authors first introduce the cost control functions of some overseas popular project management software at present and the specific ways of cost control of nuclear power plant construction in China. Then the authors stress the necessity of cost and schedule control integration and present the concept of dynamic cost control, the design scheme of dynamic cost control information system and the data structure modeling. Based on the above, the authors can develop the system which has the functions of dynamic estimate, cash flow management and cost optimization for nuclear engineering
Dynamic nuclear development in Pacific Asia
Tillessen, U.
1996-01-01
The gigantic wave of industrialization in Pacific Asia is based on a reliable supply of electricity whose expansion is being planned long in advance. In this context, nuclear power serves to reduce the dependence on, mostly imported, fossil fuels. Seventy nuclear power plants are in operation, twelve are under construction, and at least another 65 are planned by the year 2020. Also current nuclear research programs have been designed with long term objectives in mind. In times of moratoria and intentions to opt out in Western Europe it is perhaps worthwhile to look beyond the borders of cantons and federal states. The situation of nuclear power worldwide, especially in Pacific Asia, clearly reveals one thing: There is no opting out. (orig.) [de
Dynamical chaos and induced nuclear fission
Bolotin, Yu L; Krivoshej, I V
1985-01-01
It is shown that the exponential instability of trajectories, which arises at negative curvature of the potential energy surface, leads to diffusion of the image point through the barrier and determines real time delays in induced nuclear fission.
Clore, G.M.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Nilges, M.; Ryan, C.A.
1987-01-01
The solution conformation of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (CPI) has been investigated by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The spectrum is assigned in a sequential manner by using two-dimensional NMR techniques to identify through-bond and through-space (<5 A) connectivities. A set of 309 approximate interproton distance restraints is derived from the two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra and used as the basis of a three-dimensional structure determination by a combination of metric matrix distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. A total of 11 converged distance geometry structures were computed and refined by using restrained molecular dynamics. The average atomic root mean square (rms) difference between the final 11 structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 1.4 +/- 0.3 A for residues 2-39 and 0.9 +/- 0.2 A for residues 5-37. The corresponding values for all atoms are 1.9 +/- 0.3 and 1.4 +/- 0.2 A, respectively. The computed structures are very close to the X-ray structure of CPI in its complex with carboxypeptidase, and the backbone atomic rms difference between the mean of the computed structures and the X-ray structure is only 1.2 A. Nevertheless, there are some real differences present which are evidenced by significant deviations between the experimental upper interproton distance limits and the corresponding interproton distances derived from the X-ray structure. These principally occur in two regions, residues 18-20 and residues 28-30, the latter comprising part of the region of secondary contact between CPI and carboxypeptidase in the X-ray structure
Zheng Yi
2008-01-01
A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model for atmospheric nuclear explosion radioactive prediction was presented. The deposition of particles and initial cloud radius changing with time before the cloud stabilization was considered. Large-scale relative diffusion theory was used after cloud stabilization. The model was considered reasonable and dependable in comparison with four U.S. nuclear test cases and DELFIC model results. (authors)
Sakata, F.; Marumori, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Tsukuma, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Terasaki, J.; Iwasawa, Y.; Itabashi, H.
1992-01-01
Since the research field of nuclear physics is expanding rapidly, it is becoming more imperative to develop the microscopie theory of nuclear matter physics which provides us with a unified understanding of diverse phenomena exhibited by nuclei. An estabishment of various stable mean-fields in nuclei allows us to develop the microscopie theory of nuclear collective dynamics within the mean-field approximation. The classical-level theory of nuclear collective dynamics is developed by exploiting the symplectic structure of the timedependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF)-manifold. The importance of exploring the single-particle dynamics, e.g. the level-crossing dynamics in connection with the classical order-to-chaos transition mechanism is pointed out. Since the classical-level theory os directly related to the full quantum mechanical boson expansion theory via the symplectic structure of the TDHF-manifold, the quantum theory of nuclear collective dynamics is developed at the dictation of what os developed on the classical-level theory. The quantum theory thus formulated enables us to introduce the quantum integrability and quantum chaoticity for individual eigenstates. The inter-relationship between the classical-level and quantum theories of nuclear collective dynamics might play a decisive role in developing the quantum theory of many-body problems. (orig.)
Pieters, J.M.L.; de Vroom, E.; van der Marel, G.A.; van Boom, J.H.; Altona, C.; Koning, T.H.G.; Kaptein, R.
1990-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and model-building studies were carried out on the hairpin form of the octamer d(CG a CTAGCG) ( a C = arabinofuranosylcytosine), referred to as the TA compound. The nonexchangeable protons of the TA compound were assigned by means of nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and correlated spectroscopy (COSY). Form a detailed analysis of the coupling data and of the NOESY spectra the following conclusions are reached: (i) the hairpin consists of a stem of three Watson-Crick type base pairs, and the two remaining residues, T(4) and dA(5), participate in a loop. (ii) All sugar rings show conformational flexibility although a strong preference for the S-type (C2'-endo) conformer is observed. (iii) The thymine does not stack upon the 3' side of the stem as expected, but swings into the minor groove. (iv) At the 5'-3' loop-stem junction a stacking discontinuity occurs as a consequence of a sharp turn in that part of the backbone, caused by the unusual β + and γ t torsion angles in residue dG(6). (v) The A base slides over the 5' side of the stem to stack upon the a C(3) residue at the 3' side of the stem in an antiparallel fashion. On the basis of J couplings and a set approximate proton-proton distances from NOE cross peaks, a model for the hairpin was constructed
Non equilibrium effects in nuclear dynamics
Papa, M.; Arena, N.; Cardella, G.; Lanzano, G.; Filippo, E. de; Lanzalone, G.; Pagano, A.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G. [Catania Univ., INFN Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Bonasera, A.; Cavallaro, S.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Giustolisi, F.; Iacono Manno, M.; La Guidara, E.; Maiolino, C.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sperduto, M.L. [Catania Univ., INFN-LNS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Auditore, L.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M. [Messina Univ., INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)
2003-07-01
A Constraint Molecular Dynamics (CoMD) approach is used to study dynamical effects related to both the average dynamics and the fluctuations around it. Data obtained in the REVERSE and in TRASMARAD experiments were compared with the theoretical simulations. The concept of temperature, as derived from a fully dynamical description of the GDR (giant dipole resonance) mode, is also discussed. In this contribution we have discussed the comparison between the CoMD model and two classes of phenomena, induced by heavy ion collisions. The first one is related to the IMF (intermediate mass fragment) production in semi-peripheral collisions for the {sup 124}Sn + {sup 64}Ni system at 35 MeV/nucleon. The comparison put in evidence clear preequilibrium effects in the fragment production mechanism which are essentially related to the behavior of the average dynamics. The second one concerns the high {gamma}-ray productions, due to dipolar resonant mechanisms, in the {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca system at 25 MeV/nucleon. In this case the comparisons with the model allows to put in evidence preequilibrium effects related both to the average dynamics and to the fluctuating one.
Methods of fluid dynamics in nuclear physics
Zweifel, P.F.
1984-01-01
The author summaries the contributions to an interdisciplinary workshop attended by physicist and mathematicians at the University of Catania in Italy. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together physicists and mathematicians with an interest in fluid mechanical calculations. Several applications to nuclear structure and heavy ion collisions are outlined
Dynamic energy analysis and nuclear power
Price, J.
1974-01-01
An initial inquiry (intended for the layman) into how the net energy balance of exponential programmes of energy conversion facilities varies in time; what are the energy inputs and outputs of commercial nuclear reactors, both singly and in such programmes; what are the possible errors and omissions in this analysis; and what are the policy and research implications of the results. (author)
Qualitative methods in nuclear reactor dynamics. Issue 23
Goryachenko, V.D.
1983-01-01
Applicability of qualitative methods of the theory of nonlinear oscillations including the bifurcation theory to the problems of nuclear reactor nonlinear dynamics is investigated. Basic statements of the dynamic system qualitative theory on a phase plane and the bifurcation theory of multidimensional dynamic systems are briefly outlined. The model of reactor dynamics with two reactivity temperature coefficients neglecting delayed neutrons, the model of slow process dynamics in a reactor with two reactivity temperature coefficients, the simplified model of reactor dynamics as an object with delay and the model of a reactor with linear feedback are considered. A conclusion is drawn that the usage of the above models allows one to reveal qualitative peculiarities of reactor dynamics creating conditions for more purposeful utilization of more complicated models
Overhauser-enhanced MRI of elastase activity from in vitro human neutrophil degranulation.
Elodie Parzy
Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging can reveal exquisite anatomical details. However several diseases would benefit from an imaging technique able to specifically detect biochemical alterations. In this context protease activity imaging is one of the most promising areas of research.We designed an elastase substrate by grafting stable nitroxide free radicals on soluble elastin. This substrate generates a high Overhauser magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI contrast upon digestion by the target proteases through the modulation of its rotational correlation time. The sensitivity is sufficient to generate contrasted images of the degranulation of neutrophils induced by a calcium ionophore from 2×10(4 cells per milliliter, well under the physiological neutrophils concentrations.These ex-vivo experiments give evidence that OMRI is suitable for imaging elastase activity from neutrophil degranulation. Provided that a fast protease-substrate is used these results open the door to better diagnoses of a number of important pathologies (cystic fibrosis, inflammation, pancreatitis by OMRI or Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging in vivo. It also provides a long-expected method to monitor anti-protease treatments efficiency and help pharmaceutical research.
A New Dynamic Model for Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis
Choi, Sungyeol; Ko, Won Il
2014-01-01
The evaluation of mass flow is a complex process where numerous parameters and their complex interaction are involved. Given that many nuclear power countries have light and heavy water reactors and associated fuel cycle technologies, the mass flow analysis has to consider a dynamic transition from the open fuel cycle to other cycles over decades or a century. Although an equilibrium analysis provides insight concerning the end-states of fuel cycle transitions, it cannot answer when we need specific management options, whether the current plan can deliver these options when needed, and how fast the equilibrium can be achieved. As a pilot application, the government brought several experts together to conduct preliminary evaluations for nuclear fuel cycle options in 2010. According to Table 1, they concluded that the closed nuclear fuel cycle has long-term advantages over the open fuel cycle. However, it is still necessary to assess these options in depth and to optimize transition paths of these long-term options with advanced dynamic fuel cycle models. A dynamic simulation model for nuclear fuel cycle systems was developed and its dynamic mass flow analysis capability was validated against the results of existing models. This model can reflects a complex combination of various fuel cycle processes and reactor types, from once-through to multiple recycling, within a single nuclear fuel cycle system. For the open fuel cycle, the results of the developed model are well matched with the results of other models
Probing electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in Momentum Space
Deleuze, M S; Hajgato, B; Morini, F; Knippenberg, S
2010-01-01
Orbital imaging experiments employing Electron Momentum Spectroscopy are subject to many complications, such as distorted wave effects, conformational mobility in the electronic ground state, ultra-fast nuclear dynamics in the final state, or a dispersion of the ionization intensity over electronically excited (shake-up) configurations of the cation. The purpose of the present contribution is to illustrate how a proper treatment of these complications enables us to probe in momentum space the consequences of electron correlation and nuclear dynamics in neutral and cationic states.
Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle
Brent Dixon; Sonny Kim; David Shropshire; Steven Piet; Gretchen Matthern; Bill Halsey
2008-12-01
This report examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from the current United States (U.S.) nuclear fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is disposed in a repository to a closed fuel cycle where the used fuel is recycled and only fission products and waste are disposed. The report is intended to help inform policy developers, decision makers, and program managers of system-level options and constraints as they guide the formulation and implementation of advanced fuel cycle development and demonstration efforts and move toward deployment of nuclear fuel recycling infrastructure.
Entangled trajectories Hamiltonian dynamics for treating quantum nuclear effects
Smith, Brendan; Akimov, Alexey V.
2018-04-01
A simple and robust methodology, dubbed Entangled Trajectories Hamiltonian Dynamics (ETHD), is developed to capture quantum nuclear effects such as tunneling and zero-point energy through the coupling of multiple classical trajectories. The approach reformulates the classically mapped second-order Quantized Hamiltonian Dynamics (QHD-2) in terms of coupled classical trajectories. The method partially enforces the uncertainty principle and facilitates tunneling. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by studying the dynamics in symmetric double well and cubic metastable state potentials. The methodology is validated using exact quantum simulations and is compared to QHD-2. We illustrate its relationship to the rigorous Bohmian quantum potential approach, from which ETHD can be derived. Our simulations show a remarkable agreement of the ETHD calculation with the quantum results, suggesting that ETHD may be a simple and inexpensive way of including quantum nuclear effects in molecular dynamics simulations.
Dynamics of nuclear fuel assemblies in vertical flow channels
Mason, V.A.
1988-01-01
DYNMOD is a computer program designed to predict the dynamic behaviour of nuclear fuel assemblies in axial flow. The calculations performed by DYNMOD and the input data required by the program are described in this report. Examples of DYNMOD usage and a brief assessment of the accuracy of the dynamic model are also presented. It is intended that the report will be used as a reference manual by users of DYNMOD
The role of delay in the dynamics of nuclear reactors
Svitra, D.; Bucys, K.
1999-01-01
The stability of nuclear reactors based on nonlinear models of reactor dynamics including the action of delayed neutrons is analysed. The point model of reactor dynamics with the system of seven nonlinear simple differential equations was changed to the system of two nonlinear differential equations including the action of delay. The method of the theory of bifurcations for nonlinear differential equations with delay is used. (author)
New results from dissipative diabatic dynamics and nuclear elastoplasticity
Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt
1986-10-01
I present new results about dissipative diabatic dynamics and nuclear elastoplasticity, in particular on a self-consistent diabatic formulation, on first numerical calculations of dissipative diabatic dynamics in two collective degrees of freedom, on quasi-elastic recoil in central nucleus-nucleus collisions, on the diabatic hindrance of fusion reactions and on the diabatic emission of nucleons in central nucleus-nucleus collisions. (orig./HSI)
Identification of a nuclear plant dynamics via ARMAX model
Yamamoto, Shigeki; Otsuji, Tomoo; Muramatsu, Eiichi
2000-01-01
Dynamics of the reactor of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' is described by a linear time-invariant discrete-time model which is referred to as ARMAX (Auto-Regressive Moving Average eXogenious inputs) model. Applying system identification methods, parameters of the ARMAX model are determined from input-output data of the reactor. Accuracy of the model is examined in time and frequency domain. We show that the model can be a good approximation of the plant dynamics. (author)
Kaon dynamics in dense nuclear matter
David, Ch.
1998-01-01
In this thesis a list of cross sections concerning the kaons and antikaons production, has been presented. A new method for the parametrisation of particles rescattering cross sections, based on the neural networks has been developed. Because of the influence of the nuclear matter on kaons properties, the effect of the optical potential parameters has been studied. In particular a term has been added to the vector part of this potential to determine the relative importance of this part compared to the scalar part. A new parametrisation of the resonance lifetime has been proposed. (A.L.B.)
Recent developments in the theory of nuclear dynamics
Randrup, J.
1977-01-01
A brief account is given of the dynamical properties of nuclei, with particular emphasis on the mechanism of nuclear dissipation in the extreme one-body limit. The approach is based on the application of linear response techniques to the independent particle model of the nucleus
Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear ...
2014-05-01
May 1, 2014 ... Various features related to the dynamics of competing decay modes of nuclear systems are explored by addressing the experimental data of a number of reactions in light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy mass regions. The DCM, being a non-statistical description for the decay of a com- pound nucleus ...
Influence of nuclear dissipation on fission dynamics of the excited ...
A stochastic approach to fission dynamics based on two-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate the anisotropy of the fission fragments angular distribution and average pre-scission neutron multiplicities for the compound nucleus 248Cf formed in the $${16}$O+$^{232}$Th reactions. Postsaddle nuclear ...
Increasing Spin Coherence in Nanodiamond via Dynamic Nuclear Polarization
Gaebel, Torsten; Rej, Ewa; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David; Reilly, David
Nanodiamonds are of interest for quantum information technology, as metrological sensors, and more recently as a probe of biological environments. Here we present results examining how intrinsic defects can be used for dynamic nuclear polarization that leads to a dramatic increase in both T1 and T2 for 13C spins in nanodiamond. Mechanisms to explain this enhancement are discussed.
The dynamic analysis facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories
Argue, D.S.; Howatt, W.T.
1979-10-01
The Dynamic Analysis Facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) comprises a Hybrid Computer, consisting of two Applied Dynamic International AD/FIVE analog computers and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/55 digital computer, and a Program Development System based on a DEC PDP-11/45 digital computer. This report describes the functions of the various hardware components of the Dynamic Analysis Facility and the interactions between them. A brief description of the software available to the user is also given. (auth)
Dynamical and statistical bimodality in nuclear fragmentation
Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.; Gulminelli, F.
2018-02-01
The origin of bimodal behavior in the residue distribution experimentally measured in heavy ion reactions is reexamined using Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck simulations. We suggest that, depending on the incident energy and impact parameter of the reaction, both entrance channel and exit channel effects can be at the origin of the observed behavior. Specifically, fluctuations in the reaction mechanism induced by fluctuations in the collision rate, as well as thermal bimodality directly linked to the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, are observed in our simulations. Both phenomenologies were previously proposed in the literature but presented as incompatible and contradictory interpretations of the experimental measurements. These results indicate that heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies can be viewed as a powerful tool to study both bifurcations induced by out-of-equilibrium critical phenomena, as well as finite-size precursors of thermal phase transitions.
Dynamic functional studies in nuclear medicine in developing countries
1989-01-01
The Proceedings document some of the trials and tribulations involved in setting up nuclear medicine facilities in general and specifically as regards nuclear medicine applications for the diagnosis of the diseases prevalent in the less developed countries. Most of the 51 papers deal with various clinical applications of dynamic functional studies. However, there was also a session on quality control of the equipment used, and a panel discussion critically looked at the problems and potential of dynamic studies in developing countries. This book will be of interest and use not only to those practising nuclear medicine in the developing countries, but it may also bring home to users in developed countries how ''more can be done with less''. Refs, figs and tabs
Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems
Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz
2009-07-31
This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.
Development of Dynamic Spent Nuclear Fuel Environmental Effect Analysis Model
Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il; Lee, Ho Hee; Cho, Dong Keun; Park, Chang Je
2010-07-01
The dynamic environmental effect evaluation model for spent nuclear fuel has been developed and incorporated into the system dynamic DANESS code. First, the spent nuclear fuel isotope decay model was modeled. Then, the environmental effects were modeled through short-term decay heat model, short-term radioactivity model, and long-term heat load model. By using the developed model, the Korean once-through nuclear fuel cycles was analyzed. The once-through fuel cycle analysis was modeled based on the Korean 'National Energy Basic Plan' up to 2030 and a postulated nuclear demand growth rate until 2150. From the once-through results, it is shown that the nuclear power demand would be ∼70 GWe and the total amount of the spent fuel accumulated by 2150 would be ∼168000 t. If the disposal starts from 2060, the short-term decay heat of Cs-137 and Sr-90 isotopes are W and 1.8x10 6 W in 2100. Also, the total long-term heat load in 2100 will be 4415 MW-y. From the calculation results, it was found that the developed model is very convenient and simple for evaluation of the environmental effect of the spent nuclear fuel
A model for nuclear research reactor dynamics
Barati, Ramin, E-mail: Barati.ramin@aut.ac.ir; Setayeshi, Saeed, E-mail: setayesh@aut.ac.ir
2013-09-15
Highlights: • A thirty-fourth order model is used to simulate the dynamics of a research reactor. • We consider delayed neutrons fraction as a function of time. • Variable fuel and temperature reactivity coefficients are used. • WIMS, BORGES and CITVAP codes are used for initial condition calculations. • Results are in agreement with experimental data rather than common codes. -- Abstract: In this paper, a useful thirty-fourth order model is presented to simulate the kinetics and dynamics of a research reactor core. The model considers relevant physical phenomena that govern the core such as reactor kinetics, reactivity feedbacks due to coolant and fuel temperatures (Doppler effects) with variable reactivity coefficients, xenon, samarium, boron concentration, fuel burn up and thermal hydraulics. WIMS and CITVAP codes are used to extract neutron cross sections and calculate the initial neuron flux respectively. The purpose is to present a model with results similar to reality as much as possible with reducing common simplifications in reactor modeling to be used in different analyses such as reactor control, functional reliability and safety. The model predictions are qualified by comparing with experimental data, detailed simulations of reactivity insertion transients, and steady state for Tehran research reactor reported in the literature and satisfactory results have been obtained.
Dynamic screening in solar and stellar nuclear reactions
Daeppen, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mussack, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, XTD-2, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2012-02-15
In the hot, dense plasma of solar and stellar interiors, Coulomb potentials are screened, resulting in increased nuclear reaction rates. Although Salpeter's approximation for static screening is widely accepted and used in stellar modeling, the question of screening in nuclear reactions was revisited in the 1990s. In particular the issue of dynamic effects was raised by Shaviv and Shaviv, who applied the techniques of molecular dynamics to the conditions in the Sun's core in order to numerically determine the effect of screening. By directly calculating the motion of ions and electrons due to Coulomb interactions, the simulations are used to compute the effect of screening without the mean-field assumption inherent in Salpeter's approximation. In the last few years, the USC group has first reproduced Shaviv and Shaviv's numerical analysis of the screening energy, showing an effect of dynamic screening. When the consequence for the reaction-rate was computed, a rather surprising resulted, which is contrary to that from static screening theory. Our calculations showed that dynamic screening does not significantly change the reaction rate from that of the bare Coulomb potential. If this can be independently confirmed, then the effects of dynamic screening are highly relevant and should be included in stellar nuclear reaction rates (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Full scale dynamic testing of Paks nuclear power plant structures
Da Rin, E.M.
1995-01-01
This report refers to the full-scale dynamic structural testing activities that have been performed in December 1994 at the Paks (H) Nuclear Power Plant, within the framework of: the IAEA Coordinated research Programme 'Benchmark Study for the Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-type Nuclear Power Plants, and the nuclear research activities of ENEL-WR/YDN, the Italian National Electricity Board in Rome. The specific objective of the conducted investigation was to obtain valid data on the dynamic behaviour of the plant's major constructions, under normal operating conditions, for enabling an assessment of their actual seismic safety to be made. As described in more detail hereafter, the Paks NPP site has been subjected to low level earthquake like ground shaking, through appropriately devised underground explosions, and the dynamic response of the plant's 1 st reactor unit important structures was appropriately measured and digitally recorded. In-situ free field response was measured concurrently and, moreover, site-specific geophysical and seismological data were simultaneously acquired too. The above-said experimental data is to provide basic information on the geophysical and seismological characteristics of the Paks NPP site, together with useful reference information on the true dynamic characteristics of its main structures and give some indications on the actual dynamic soil-structure interaction effects for the case of low level excitation
Korenev, V. L.
2007-01-01
Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei brings the optical transition energy into resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of...
Variational approach to nuclear fluid dynamics
Da Providencia, J.P.; Holzwarth, G.
1983-01-01
A variational derivation of a fluid-dynamical formalism for finite Fermi systems is presented which is based on a single determinant as variational function and does not exclude the possibility of transverse flow. Therefore the explicit specification of the time-odd part has to go beyond the local chi-approximation, while the time-even part is taken in the generalized scaling form. The necessary boundary conditions are derived from the variation of the lagrangian. The results confirm previous simplified approaches to a remarkable degree for quadrupole modes; for other multipolarities the deviations are much less than might be expected according to a sizeable change in the transverse sound speed. (orig.)
30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics
2014-01-01
The 30th edition of the Winter Workshop will be held April 6-12th, 2014 in Hotel Galvez & Spa, Galveston, Texas, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas.Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, April 6th. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday evening. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via individual invitations. We will also work with the talks committees of all relevant experimenta...
32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics
2016-01-01
The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...
Teruo, KISHIMOTO; Tetsuo, KAMMURI; Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba; Department of Physics, Osaka University
1990-01-01
With the Dynamical Nuclear Field Theory (DNFT) in the Tamm-Dancoff representation we examine higher order corrections in the vibrational mode of a spherical nuclear system. Due to the effects of bubble diagrams, the perturbation expansion in terms of the unrenormalized coupling strength and boson energy fails at full self-consistency. On the other hand, it becomes applicable in the form of linked-cluster expansion when we use thses constants renormalized by the effect of bubble diagrams, in t...
NATO Advanced Study Institute on New Aspects of Nuclear Dynamics
Huberts, P
1989-01-01
The 1988 Summer School on New Aspects of Nuclear Dynamics took place in the style that by now has become a tradition: a series of lectures by well known scientists on modem topics of nuclear physics, where special emphasis is placed on the didactic aspects of the lectures. In the past few years, we have witnessed a rapid evolution of the field of nuclear physics towards novel directions of research. This development is accompanied by the construction of some of the largest experimental facilities ever built for nuclear research. The subjects covered by the Summer School focussed on two main issues currently under active investigation and which will be pursued with the new facilities: the transition from nucleonic to quark degrees of freedom in the decription of nuclear reactions, and the behavior of nuclear matter as one approaches extreme densities and temperatures. These topics in many respects go beyond traditional nuclear physics and the speakers therefore also included high energy physicists. From the re...
Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarisation in diamond
Scheuer, Jochen; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Schwartz, Ilai; Chen, Qiong; Plenio, Martin B; Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Luy, Burkhard; Carl, Patrick; Höfer, Peter; Retzker, Alexander; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi
2016-01-01
The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends strongly on nuclear spin polarisation and, motivated by this observation, dynamical nuclear spin polarisation has recently been applied to enhance MRI protocols (Kurhanewicz et al 2011 Neoplasia 13 81). Nuclear spins associated with the 13 C carbon isotope (nuclear spin I = 1/2) in diamond possess uniquely long spin lattice relaxation times (Reynhardt and High 2011 Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 38 37). If they are present in diamond nanocrystals, especially when strongly polarised, they form a promising contrast agent for MRI. Current schemes for achieving nuclear polarisation, however, require cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate an efficient scheme that realises optically induced 13 C nuclear spin hyperpolarisation in diamond at room temperature and low ambient magnetic field. Optical pumping of a nitrogen-vacancy centre creates a continuously renewable electron spin polarisation which can be transferred to surrounding 13 C nuclear spins. Importantly for future applications we also realise polarisation protocols that are robust against an unknown misalignment between magnetic field and crystal axis. (paper)
Dynamical response of the nuclear 'pasta' in neutron star crusts
Horowitz, C.J.; Perez-Garcia, M.A.; Berry, D.K.; Piekarewicz, J.
2005-01-01
The nuclear pasta - a novel state of matter having nucleons arranged in a variety of complex shapes - is expected to be found in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae at subnuclear densities of about 10 14 g/cm 3 . Owing to frustration, a phenomenon that emerges from the competition between short-range nuclear attraction and long-range Coulomb repulsion, the nuclear pasta displays a preponderance of unique low-energy excitations. These excitations could have a strong impact on many transport properties, such as neutrino propagation through stellar environments. The excitation spectrum of the nuclear pasta is computed via a molecular-dynamics simulation involving up to 100,000 nucleons. The dynamic response of the pasta displays a classical plasma oscillation in the 1- to 2-MeV region. In addition, substantial strength is found at low energies. Yet this low-energy strength is missing from a simple ion model containing a single-representative heavy nucleus. The low-energy strength observed in the dynamic response of the pasta is likely to be a density wave involving the internal degrees of freedom of the clusters
Nuclear dynamics in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions
Kapoor, S.S.
1992-01-01
Heavy ion induced fission and fission-like reactions evolve through a complex nuclear dynamics encountered in the medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. In the recent years, measurements of the fragment-neutron and fragment-charged particle angular correlations in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions, have provided new information on the dynamical times of nuclear deformations of the initial dinuclear complex to the fission saddle point and the scission point. From the studies of fragment angular distributions in heavy ion induced fission it has been possible to infer the relaxation times of the dinuclear complex in the K-degree of freedom and our recent measurements on the entrance channel dependence of fragment anisotropies have provided an experimental signature of the presence of fissions before K-equilibration. This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical status of the above studies with particular regard to the questions relating to dynamical times, nuclear dissipation and the effect of nuclear dissipation on the K-distributions at the fission saddle in completely equilibrated compound nucleus. (author). 19 refs., 9 figs
Generating highly polarized nuclear spins in solution using dynamic nuclear polarization
Wolber, J.; Ellner, F.; Fridlund, B.
2004-01-01
A method to generate strongly polarized nuclear spins in solution has been developed, using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a temperature of 1.2K, and at a field of 3.354T, corresponding to an electron spin resonance frequency of 94GHz. Trityl radicals are used to directly polarize 13C...... and other low-γ nuclei. Subsequent to the DNP process, the solid sample is dissolved rapidly with a warm solvent to create a solution of molecules with highly polarized nuclear spins. Two main applications are proposed: high-resolution liquid state NMR with enhanced sensitivity, and the use...
High-Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in the Nuclear Rotating Frame
Farrar, C. T.; Hall, D. A.; Gerfen, G. J.
2000-01-01
A proton dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancement (ϵ) close to thermal equilibrium, ϵ = 0.89, has been obtained at high field (B0 = 5 T, νepr = 139.5 GHz) using 15 mM trityl radical in a 40:60 water/glycerol frozen solution at 11 K. The electron-nuclear polarization transfer...... is performed in the nuclear rotating frame with microwave irradiation during a nuclear spin-lock pulse. The growth of the signal enhancement is governed by the rotating frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1ρ), which is four orders of magnitude shorter than the nuclear spin–lattice relaxation time (T1n......). Due to the rapid polarization transfer in the nuclear rotating frame the experiment can be recycled at a rate of 1/T1ρ and is not limited by the much slower lab frame nuclear spin–lattice relaxation rate (1/T1n). The increased repetition rate allowed in the nuclear rotating frame provides an effective...
Autonomous dynamic decision making in a nuclear fuel cycle simulator
Pelakauskas, Martynas; Auzans, Aris; Schneider, Erich A.; Tkaczyk, Alan H.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Objective criteria based decision making in a nuclear fuel cycle simulator. • Simulation driven by an evolving performance metric. • Implementation of the model in a nuclear fuel cycle simulator. • Verification of dynamic decision making based on uranium price evolution. -- Abstract: Growing energy demand and the push to move toward carbon-free ways of electricity generation have renewed the world's interest in nuclear energy. Due to the high technical and economic uncertainties related to nuclear energy, simulation tools have become a necessity in order to plan and evaluate possible nuclear fuel cycles (NFCs). Most of the NFC simulators today work by running the simulation with a user-defined set of facility build orders and preferences. While this allows for a simple way to change the simulation conditions, it may not always lead to optimal results and strongly relies on the user defining the correct parameters. This study looks into the possibility of using the expected cost of electricity (CoE) as the driving build decision variable instead of relying on user-defined build orders. This is a first step toward a more general decision making strategy in dynamic fuel cycle simulation. For this purpose, additional modules were implemented in an NFC simulator, VEGAS, with the consumption dependent price of uranium as a time-varying NFC cost component that drives the cost competitiveness of available NFC options. The model was demonstrated to verify the correct operation of a CoE-driven NFC simulator
Parvovirus induced alterations in nuclear architecture and dynamics.
Teemu O Ihalainen
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The nucleus of interphase eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized structure containing the three-dimensional network of chromatin and numerous proteinaceous subcompartments. DNA viruses induce profound changes in the intranuclear structures of their host cells. We are applying a combination of confocal imaging including photobleaching microscopy and computational methods to analyze the modifications of nuclear architecture and dynamics in parvovirus infected cells. Upon canine parvovirus infection, expansion of the viral replication compartment is accompanied by chromatin marginalization to the vicinity of the nuclear membrane. Dextran microinjection and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP studies revealed the homogeneity of this compartment. Markedly, in spite of increase in viral DNA content of the nucleus, a significant increase in the protein mobility was observed in infected compared to non-infected cells. Moreover, analysis of the dynamics of photoactivable capsid protein demonstrated rapid intranuclear dynamics of viral capsids. Finally, quantitative FRAP and cellular modelling were used to determine the duration of viral genome replication. Altogether, our findings indicate that parvoviruses modify the nuclear structure and dynamics extensively. Intranuclear crowding of viral components leads to enlargement of the interchromosomal domain and to chromatin marginalization via depletion attraction. In conclusion, parvoviruses provide a useful model system for understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced intranuclear modifications.
The role of meson dynamics in nuclear matter saturation
Goncalves, E.
1988-01-01
The problem of the saturation of nuclea matter in the non-relativistic limit of the model proposed by J.D. Walecka is studied. In the original context nuclear matter saturation is obtained as a direct consequence of relativistic effects and both scalar and vector mesons are treated statically. In the present work we investigate the effect of the meson dynamics for the saturation using a Born-Oppenheimer approximation for the ground state. An upper limit for the saturation curve of nuclear matter and are able to decide now essential is the relativistic treatment of the nucleons for this problem, is obtained. (author) [pt
Dynamic performance analysis of two regional Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems
Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Jun; Kim, Jong S.; Vilim, Richard B.; Binder, William R.; Bragg Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.; McKellar, Michael G.; Paredis, Christiaan J.J.
2016-01-01
In support of more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, HES (hybrid energy systems) can be designed and operated as FER (flexible energy resources) to meet both electrical and thermal energy needs in the electric grid and industrial sectors. These conceptual systems could effectively and economically be utilized, for example, to manage the increasing levels of dynamic variability and uncertainty introduced by VER (variable energy resources) such as renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar), distributed energy resources, demand response schemes, and modern energy demands (e.g., electric vehicles) with their ever changing usage patterns. HES typically integrate multiple energy inputs (e.g., nuclear and renewable generation) and multiple energy outputs (e.g., electricity, gasoline, fresh water) using complementary energy conversion processes. This paper reports a dynamic analysis of two realistic HES including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by their application in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high renewable penetration. It is performed for regional cases – not generic examples – based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses. - Highlights: • Hybrids including renewables can operate as dispatchable flexible energy resources. • Nuclear energy can address high variability and uncertainty in energy systems. • Nuclear hybrids can reliably provide grid services over various time horizons. • Nuclear energy can provide operating reserves and grid inertia under high renewables. • Nuclear hybrids can greatly reduce GHG emissions and support grid and industry needs.
Dynamic analysis and qualification test of nuclear components
Kim, B.K.; Lee, C.H.; Park, S.H.; Kim, Y.M.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, I.G.; Chung, C.W.; Kim, Y.M.
1981-01-01
This report contains the study on the dynamic characteristics of Wolsung fuel rod and on the dynamic balancing of rotating machinery to evaluate the performance of nuclear reactor components. The study on the dynamic characteristics of Wolsung fuel rod was carried out by both experimental and theoretical methods. Forced vibration testing of actual Wolsung fuel rod using sine sweep and sine dwell excitation was conducted to find the dynamic and nonlinear characteristics of the fuel rod. The data obtained by the test were used to analyze the nonlinear impact characteristics of the fuel rod which has a motion-constraint stop in the center of the rod. The parameters used in the test were the input force level of the exciter, the clearance gap between the fuel rod and the motion constraints, and the frequencies. Test results were in good agreement with the analytical results
Uranium resources, scenarios, nuclear and energy dynamics - 5200
Bidaud, A.; Mima, S.; Criqui, P.; Gabriel, S.; Monnet, A.; Mathonniere, G.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present a new model of the impact of uranium scarcity on the development of nuclear reactors. A dynamic simulation of coupled supply and demand of energy, resources and nuclear reactors is done with the global model Prospective Outlook for Long Term Energy Supply (POLES) over this century. In this model, both electricity demand and uranium supply are not independent of the cost of all base load electricity suppliers. Only two nuclear reactor types are modeled in POLES. Globally one has the characteristics of a Thermal Neutron Reactor (TR) and the other one has the ones of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). The results show that If both generations of nuclear reactors can be competitive with other sources, we see that in many countries their development would probably be limited by the availability of natural and recycled materials. Depending on the locally available alternative (hydro, coal) and local regulatory framework (safety and waste management for nuclear reactors but also environmental constraints such as CO 2 targets), both nuclear technologies could be developed. The advantage of the new model is that it avoids the difficult question of defining 'ultimate resources'. The drawback is that it needs a description of the volume of uranium resources but also of the link between the cost and the potential production capacities of these resources
The chaos and order in nuclear molecular dynamics
Srokowski, T.
1995-01-01
The subject of the presented report is role of chaos in scattering processes in the frame of molecular dynamics. In this model, it is assumed that scattering particles (nuclei) consist of not-interacted components as alpha particles or 12 C, 16 O and 20 Ne clusters. The results show such effects as dynamical in stabilities and fractal structure as well as compound nuclei decay and heavy-ion fusion. The goal of the report is to make the reader more familiar with the chaos model and its application to nuclear phenomena. 157 refs, 40 figs
Instability in nuclear dynamics: loss of collectivity and multifragmentation
Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Guarnera, A.; Latora, V.; Smerzi, A.
1995-01-01
Two limiting cases of nuclear dynamics are analysed: the disappearing of giant collective motions in hot nuclei and the nuclear disassembly in violent heavy ion collisions. For collective vibration build on excited states we get a dramatic increase of the widths of hot Giant Dipole Resonances (GDR). As a consequence of the competition with particle evaporation we get a sharp quenching of giant photon emission. Pre-equilibrium effects on the GDR formation are also accounted for. At high temperature and low density the collective motions can become unstable leading to multifragmentation events in heavy ion collisions. We present a general procedure to identify instability regions and to get informations on the instability point. Some hints towards fully dynamical picture of multi-fragmentation processes are finally suggested. (author)
Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization capability study with fluid path
Malinowski, Ronja Maja; Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Lerche, Mathilde Hauge
2016-01-01
Signal enhancement by hyperpolarization is a way of overcoming the low sensitivity in magnetic resonance; MRI in particular. One of the most well-known methods, dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, has been used clinically in cancer patients. One way of ensuring a low bioburden of the hyperp......Signal enhancement by hyperpolarization is a way of overcoming the low sensitivity in magnetic resonance; MRI in particular. One of the most well-known methods, dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization, has been used clinically in cancer patients. One way of ensuring a low bioburden...... of the hyperpolarized product is by use of a closed fluid path that constitutes a barrier to contamination. The fluid path can be filled with the pharmaceuticals, i.e. imaging agent and solvents, in a clean room, and then stored or immediately used at the polarizer. In this study, we present a method of filling...
Dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures: an evaluation
Weaver, H.J.
1980-02-01
Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) evaluated the applications of system identification techniques to the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures and subsystems. These experimental techniques involve exciting a structure and measuring, digitizing, and processing the time-history motions that result. The data can be compared to parameters calculated using finite element or other models of the test systems to validate the model and to verify the seismic analysis. This report summarizes work in three main areas: (1) analytical qualification of a set of computer programs developed at LLL to extract model parameters from the time histories; (2) examination of the feasibility of safely exciting nuclear power plant structures and accurately recording the resulting time-history motions; (3) study of how the model parameters that are extracted from the data be used best to evaluate structural integrity and analyze nuclear power plants
Dynamic performance of concrete undercut anchors for Nuclear Power Plants
Mahrenholtz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf
2013-12-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Behavior of undercut anchors under dynamic actions simulating earthquakes. • First high frequency load and crack cycling tests on installed concrete anchors ever. • Comprehensive review of anchor qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. - Abstract: Post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and nonstructural connections to concrete. In many countries, concrete anchors used for Nuclear Power Plants have to be qualified to ensure reliable behavior even under extreme conditions. The tests required for qualification of concrete anchors are carried out at quasi-static loading rates well below the rates to be expected for dynamic actions deriving from earthquakes, airplane impacts or explosions. To investigate potentially beneficial effects of high loading rates and cycling frequencies, performance tests on installed undercut anchors were conducted. After introductory notes on anchor technology and a comprehensive literature review, this paper discusses the qualification of anchors for Nuclear Power Plants and the testing carried out to quantify experimentally the effects of dynamic actions on the load–displacement behavior of undercut anchors.
Discretization of the total magnetic field by the nuclear spin bath in fluorine-doped ZnSe.
Zhukov, E A; Kirstein, E; Kopteva, N E; Heisterkamp, F; Yugova, I A; Korenev, V L; Yakovlev, D R; Pawlis, A; Bayer, M; Greilich, A
2018-05-16
The coherent spin dynamics of fluorine donor-bound electrons in ZnSe induced by pulsed optical excitation is studied in a perpendicular applied magnetic field. The Larmor precession frequency serves as a measure for the total magnetic field exerted onto the electron spins and, surprisingly, does not increase linearly with the applied field, but shows a step-like behavior with pronounced plateaus, given by multiples of the laser repetition rate. This discretization occurs by a feedback mechanism in which the electron spins polarize the nuclear spins, which in turn generate a local Overhauser field adjusting the total magnetic field accordingly. Varying the optical excitation power, we can control the plateaus, in agreement with our theoretical model. From this model, we trace the observed discretization to the optically induced Stark field, which causes the dynamic nuclear polarization.
Fractional neutron point kinetics equations for nuclear reactor dynamics
Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Polo-Labarrios, Marco-A.; Espinosa-Martinez, Erick-G.; Valle-Gallegos, Edmundo del
2011-01-01
The fractional point-neutron kinetics model for the dynamic behavior in a nuclear reactor is derived and analyzed in this paper. The fractional model retains the main dynamic characteristics of the neutron motion in which the relaxation time associated with a rapid variation in the neutron flux contains a fractional order, acting as exponent of the relaxation time, to obtain the best representation of a nuclear reactor dynamics. The physical interpretation of the fractional order is related with non-Fickian effects from the neutron diffusion equation point of view. The numerical approximation to the solution of the fractional neutron point kinetics model, which can be represented as a multi-term high-order linear fractional differential equation, is calculated by reducing the problem to a system of ordinary and fractional differential equations. The numerical stability of the fractional scheme is investigated in this work. Results for neutron dynamic behavior for both positive and negative reactivity and for different values of fractional order are shown and compared with the classic neutron point kinetic equations. Additionally, a related review with the neutron point kinetics equations is presented, which encompasses papers written in English about this research topic (as well as some books and technical reports) published since 1940 up to 2010.
Dynamics of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reactions
Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.
1979-01-01
Large-amplitude collective motion in fission and heavy-ion reactions is studied by solving classical equations of motion for the time evolution of the nuclear shape. In the nuclear potential energy of deformation, the generalized surface energy was calculated by means of a double volume integral of a Yukawa-plus-exponential function, which was obtained by requiring that two semi-infinite slabs of constant-density nuclear matter have minimum energy at zero separation. The collective kinetic energy is calculated for nuclear flow that is a superposition of incompressible, nearly irrotational collective-shape motion and rigid-body rotation. Nuclear dissipation is included by means of the Rayleigh dissipation function, which depends upon the physical mechanism that converts collective energy into internal energy. For both ordinary two-body viscosity and a combined wall and window one-body dissipation, fission-fragment kinetic energies are calculated for the fission of nuclei throughout the periodic table and compare with experimental results. Finally, the one-body dynamics of nucleons inside a cylinder colliding with a moving piston is explicitly studied by solving exactly the collisionless Boltzmann equation for the distribution function. By examining the relative phases of the pressure at the piston and the piston's velocity, a dissipative force and an elastic restoring force can be separately identified. 9 references
Dynamics of process at the final stage of nuclear fission
Koljari, I.G.; Mavlitov, N.D.
2005-01-01
Numerous experimental data show, that the final stage of nuclear fission near to a scission point plays an essential role at formation of characteristics of fission products. At the description of a final stage of fission there is a number of problems: Definition of the form of the nuclear near the scission point and definition forms of a fission fragments; The account of dynamic processes in compound nuclear directly before of fission. The condition of the quasistatic al adiabatic process - dS/dt=0 - is applied in a point of transition from the uniform compound nuclei to several forms for definition of generalized coordinates and speeds. Calculation of dependence of post neutrons from nuclear mass of fission fragments for reactions is α+ 83 Bi 209 → 85 At 213 (E lab = 45 MeV); α+ 92 U 242 → 94 Pu 242 (E lab = 45 MeV); 8 O 18 + 79 Au 197 → 97 Fr 215 (E lab = 159 MeV). System of equations, which describes behaviour of system in a point of nuclear fission-transition from the uniform form to system of a two (and, probably more) fission fragments is given. The system of the equations allows in a fission point to define the generalized coordinates, and the generalized speeds for each of the generalized coordinates of collective deformation variables
Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo.
Palanker, Laura; Necakov, Aleksandar S; Sampson, Heidi M; Ni, Ruoyu; Hu, Chun; Thummel, Carl S; Krause, Henry M
2006-09-01
Nuclear receptors are a large family of transcription factors that play major roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism and disease. To determine how, where and when nuclear receptors are regulated by small chemical ligands and/or protein partners, we have used a 'ligand sensor' system to visualize spatial activity patterns for each of the 18 Drosophila nuclear receptors in live developing animals. Transgenic lines were established that express the ligand binding domain of each nuclear receptor fused to the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4. When combined with a GAL4-responsive reporter gene, the fusion proteins show tissue- and stage-specific patterns of activation. We show that these responses accurately reflect the presence of endogenous and exogenously added hormone, and that they can be modulated by nuclear receptor partner proteins. The amnioserosa, yolk, midgut and fat body, which play major roles in lipid storage, metabolism and developmental timing, were identified as frequent sites of nuclear receptor activity. We also see dynamic changes in activation that are indicative of sweeping changes in ligand and/or co-factor production. The screening of a small compound library using this system identified the angular psoralen angelicin and the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb as activators of the Ultraspiracle (USP) ligand-binding domain. These results demonstrate the utility of this system for the functional dissection of nuclear receptor pathways and for the development of new receptor agonists and antagonists that can be used to modulate metabolism and disease and to develop more effective means of insect control.
Master equations in the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics
Matsuo, M.; Sakata, F.; Marumori, T.; Zhuo, Y.
1988-07-01
In the first half of this paper, the authors describe briefly a recent theoretical approach where the mechanism of the large-amplitude dissipative collective motions can be investigated on the basis of the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics. Namely, we derive the general coupled master equations which can disclose, in the framework of the TDHF theory, not only non-linear dynamics among the collective and the single-particle modes of motion but also microscopic dynamics responsible for the dissipative processes. In the latter half, the authors investigate, without relying on any statistical hypothesis, one possible microscopic origin which leads us to the transport equation of the Fokker-Planck type so that usefullness of the general framework is demonstrated. (author)
The assessment of structural dynamics problems in nuclear reactor safety
Liebe, R.
1978-10-01
The paper discusses important physical features of structural dynamics problems in reactor safety. First a general characterization is given of the following problems: Containment deformation due to pool-dynamics during BWR-blowdown; behavior of the core internals due to PWR-blowdown loads; dynamic response of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake; fuel element deformation due to local pressure pulses in an LMFBR core. Several criterias are formulated to classify typical problems so that a better choise can be made both of appropriate mathematical/numerical as well as experimental techniques. The degree of physical coupling between structural dynamics and fluid dynamics is discussed in more detail since it requires particular attention when selecting problem-oriented methods of solution. Some examples are given to illustrate the application and to compare advantages and disadvantages of several numerical methods. Then description is given of experimental techniques in structural dynamics and typical problem areas are identified. Finally some results are presented concerning the fuel element deformation problem in LMFBRs and from the general considerations some important conclusions are summarized. (orig.) 891 RW 892 AP [de
System Dynamics Modeling for the Resilience in Nuclear Power Plants
Florah, Kamanj; Kim, Jonghyun
2013-01-01
This paper aims to model and evaluate emergency operation system (EOS) resilience using the System Dynamics. System Dynamics is the study of causal interactions between elements of a complex system. This paper identifies the EOS resilience attributes and their interactions by constructing a causal loop diagram. Then, the interactions are quantified based on literature review and simulated to analyze resilience dynamics. This paper describes the use of system dynamics to improve understanding of the resilience dynamics of complex systems such as emergency operation systems. This paper takes into account two aspects; the strength of resilience attributes interactions and the quantification of dynamic behaviour of resilience over time. This model can be applied to review NPP safety in terms of the resilience level and organization. Simulation results can give managers insights to support their decisions in safety management. A nuclear power plant (NPP) is classified as a safety critical organization whose safety objective is to control hazards that can cause significant harm to the environment, public, or personnel. There has been a significant improvement of safety designs as well as risk analysis tools and methods applied in nuclear power plants over the last decade. Conventional safety analysis methods such as PSA have several limitations they primarily focus on technical dimension, the analysis are linear and sequential, they are dominated by static models, they do not take a systemic view into account, and they focus primarily on why accidents happen and not how success is achieved. Hence new approaches to risk analysis for NPPs are needed to complement the conventional approaches. Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust to its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. An EOS in a NPP refers to a system consisting of personnel
System Dynamics Modeling for the Resilience in Nuclear Power Plants
Florah, Kamanj; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
This paper aims to model and evaluate emergency operation system (EOS) resilience using the System Dynamics. System Dynamics is the study of causal interactions between elements of a complex system. This paper identifies the EOS resilience attributes and their interactions by constructing a causal loop diagram. Then, the interactions are quantified based on literature review and simulated to analyze resilience dynamics. This paper describes the use of system dynamics to improve understanding of the resilience dynamics of complex systems such as emergency operation systems. This paper takes into account two aspects; the strength of resilience attributes interactions and the quantification of dynamic behaviour of resilience over time. This model can be applied to review NPP safety in terms of the resilience level and organization. Simulation results can give managers insights to support their decisions in safety management. A nuclear power plant (NPP) is classified as a safety critical organization whose safety objective is to control hazards that can cause significant harm to the environment, public, or personnel. There has been a significant improvement of safety designs as well as risk analysis tools and methods applied in nuclear power plants over the last decade. Conventional safety analysis methods such as PSA have several limitations they primarily focus on technical dimension, the analysis are linear and sequential, they are dominated by static models, they do not take a systemic view into account, and they focus primarily on why accidents happen and not how success is achieved. Hence new approaches to risk analysis for NPPs are needed to complement the conventional approaches. Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust to its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. An EOS in a NPP refers to a system consisting of personnel
Quantal and dissipative aspects in nuclear structure and dynamics
Lacroix, Denis
1999-01-01
This work is devoted to the description of both quantal and statistical aspects in a coherent theoretical framework that goes beyond a mean-field approximation. It is shown that among the possible methods, the Extended mean-field theory (ETDHF) is able to describe relaxation by including correlation effects. This theory is first applied to cold and hot giant resonances. After having developed a extended version of the linear response theory the effect of collisions on the response of 40 Ca is studied. It is shown that collisions contribute to the spreading width of giant resonances and become a dominant decay channel at high temperature. The generalization of these methods through the modelization of the Hamiltonian as a series of couplings in cascade has enabled to go beyond ETDHF. Thus, phenomena as multi-scale Ericson fluctuations and interferences in the nuclear response are predicted. The study of larger amplitudes requires the introduction of transport theories for the nuclear dynamics. Thus the deexcitation of hot and compressed nuclei has been studied with mean-field theories. This analysis has clarified the link between the equation of state and the dynamical expansion in finite Systems. A comparison with semi-classical has further shown the importance of quantum effects and has demonstrated the necessity to take into account nucleon collisions in a quantum framework. The possibility to apply ETDHF to nuclear dynamics in the general case is then discussed. A rapid and reliable method, tested on a schematic model is proposed to solve the extended mean-field. The application of ETDHF to the monopolar expansion of 16 O has finally demonstrated the interesting perspectives of this theory for describing dissipative aspects in quantum dynamics. Finally, the introduction of quantum stochastic approaches is discussed. (author) [fr
Nuclear magnetic resonance in pulse radiolysis. Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization
Trifunac, A.D.; Johnson, K.W.; Lowers, R.H.
1976-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) were applied to the study of pulse radiolysis. Samples were irradiated with a 3-MeV electron beam from the Argonne Van de Graaff accelerator in an EPR magnet (approximately 4000 G) which had axial holes for beam access. A fast flow system transferred the irradiated solution to the rotating 5-mm NMR sample tube. The NMR spectra of mixtures of sodium acetate and methanol were presented to demonstrate the features of the CIDNP in pulse radiolysis
Lee, K.M.; Marshall, A.G.
1987-01-01
Base-pair sequences for 5S and 5.8S RNAs are not readily extracted from proton homonuclear nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivity experiments alone, due to extensive peak overlap in the downfield (11-15 ppm) proton NMR spectrum. In this paper, we introduce a new method for base-pair proton peak assignment for ribosomal RNAs, based upon the distance-dependent broadening of the resonances of base-pair protons spatially proximal to a paramagnetic group. Introduction of a nitroxide spin-label covalently attached to the 3'-terminal ribose provides an unequivocal starting point for base-pair hydrogen-bond proton NMR assignment. Subsequent NOE connectivities then establish the base-pair sequence for the terminal stem of a 5S RNA. Periodate oxidation of yeast 5S RNA, followed by reaction with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (TEMPO-NH2) and sodium borohydride reduction, produces yeast 5S RNA specifically labeled with a paramagnetic nitroxide group at the 3'-terminal ribose. Comparison of the 500-MHz 1H NMR spectra of native and 3'-terminal spin-labeled yeast 5S RNA serves to identify the terminal base pair (G1 . C120) and its adjacent base pair (G2 . U119) on the basis of their proximity to the 3'-terminal spin-label. From that starting point, we have then identified (G . C, A . U, or G . U) and sequenced eight of the nine base pairs in the terminal helix via primary and secondary NOE's
Cadiz, Fabian; Djeffal, Abdelhak; Lagarde, Delphine; Balocchi, Andrea; Tao, Bingshan; Xu, Bo; Liang, Shiheng; Stoffel, Mathieu; Devaux, Xavier; Jaffres, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Hehn, Michel; Mangin, Stephane; Carrere, Helene; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Han, Xiufeng; Wang, Zhanguo; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Lu, Yuan; Renucci, Pierre
2018-04-11
The emission of circularly polarized light from a single quantum dot relies on the injection of carriers with well-defined spin polarization. Here we demonstrate single dot electroluminescence (EL) with a circular polarization degree up to 35% at zero applied magnetic field. The injection of spin-polarized electrons is achieved by combining ultrathin CoFeB electrodes on top of a spin-LED device with p-type InGaAs quantum dots in the active region. We measure an Overhauser shift of several microelectronvolts at zero magnetic field for the positively charged exciton (trion X + ) EL emission, which changes sign as we reverse the injected electron spin orientation. This is a signature of dynamic polarization of the nuclear spins in the quantum dot induced by the hyperfine interaction with the electrically injected electron spin. This study paves the way for electrical control of nuclear spin polarization in a single quantum dot without any external magnetic field.
Development and demonstration program for dynamic nuclear materials control
Augustson, R.H.; Baron, N.; Ford, R.F.; Ford, W.; Hagen, J.; Li, T.K.; Marshall, R.S.; Reams, V.S.; Severe, W.R.; Shirk, D.G.
1978-01-01
A significant portion of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Safeguards Program is directed toward the development and demonstration of dynamic nuclear materials control. The building chosen for the demonstration system is the new Plutonium Processing Facility in Los Alamos, which houses such operations as metal-to-oxide conversion, fuel pellet fabrication, and scrap recovery. A DYnamic MAterials Control (DYMAC) system is currently being installed in the facility as an integral part of the processing operation. DYMAC is structured around interlocking unit-process accounting areas. It relies heavily on nondestructive assay measurements made in the process line to draw dynamic material balances in near real time. In conjunction with the nondestructive assay instrumentation, process operators use interactive terminals to transmit additional accounting and process information to a dedicated computer. The computer verifies and organizes the incoming data, immediately updates the inventory records, monitors material in transit using elapsed time, and alerts the Nuclear Materials Officer in the event that material balances exceed the predetermined action limits. DYMAC is part of the United States safeguards system under control of the facility operator. Because of its advanced features, the system will present a new set of inspection conditions to the IAEA, whose response is the subject of a study being sponsored by the US-IAEA Technical Assistance Program. The central issue is how the IAEA can use the increased capabilities of such a system and still maintain independent verification
Fluctuations of the single-particle density in nuclear dynamics
Burgio, G.F.; Chomaz, P.; Randrup, J.
1991-01-01
In recent years semiclassical methods have been developed to study heavy-ion collisions in the framework of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck theory, in which the collisionless mean field evolution has been augmented by a Pauli-blocked Nordheim collision term. Since these models describe the average dynamic trajectory, they cannot be applied to describe fluctuations of one-body observables, correlations in the emission of light particles and catastrophic processes like multifragmentation. The authors have developed a new method in order to include the stochastic part of the collision integral into BUU-type simulations of the nuclear dynamics. They apply this method to a two-dimensional gas of fermions on a torus, for which the time evolution of the mean trajectory and the associated correlation function are calculated; the variance of the phase-space occupancy follows closely the predictions of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation and relaxes towards the appropriate quantum-statistical limit. The breaking of the translational and spherical symmetry in the model permits the study of unstable situations in phase-space. The introduction of the nonlinear one-body field allows them to explore dynamical instabilities and bifurcations. Therefore the model can be appropriate for studying nuclear multifragmentation
Application of system dynamics on nuclear policy model
An, N. S.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, D. W.; Kang, S. C.
2000-01-01
A system dynamics model for a nuclear energy policy in Korea (SIMNEP) was developed to analyze the Korea nuclear system and to predict the influence of the nuclear energy policy in the future. Two cases were analyzed using SIMNEP. The first case is to see the effect of the occurrence of severe nuclear accident in foreign country on the Korean government support. In the beginning, the Korean government support drops but jump up to the higher value than normal support due to the intelligentsia support influenced by the delay time of perception. Then, the national government support converges to the normal support. This turns out that the intelligentsia support plays a major role in increasing the government support. The second case is to see the effect of prior efforts on the foreign factors and/or on domestic factors on the U.S. government support. In the short term, effort on the U.S. government is more effective to increase U.S. government support but in the long term (about after 5 years), efforts on the domestic factors influence on the U.S. government support more than efforts on the foreign factors. The Korean government counter reaction among the influencing factors on the U.S. government support plays a major role to explain this result
Structural dynamic and resistance to nuclear air blast
Qureshi, S.M.
2003-01-01
A need exists to design protective shelters attached to specialized facilities against nuclear airbursts, explosive shocks and impacting projectiles. Designing such structures against nuclear and missile impact is a challenging task that needs to be looked into for design methodology formulation and practicability. Structures can be designed for overpressure pulsed generated by a nuclear explosion as well as the scabbing and perforation/punching of an impacting projectile. This paper discuses and formulates the methods of dynamic analysis and design required to undertake such a task. Structural resistance to peak overpressure pulse for a 20 KT weapons and smaller tactical nuclear weapons of 1 KT (16 psi, overpressure) size as a direct air blast overpressure has been considered in design of walls, beams and slabs of a special structure under review. The design of shear reinforcement as lacing is also carried out. Adopting the philosophy of strengthening and hardening can minimize the effect of air blast overpressure and projectile impact. The objective is to avoid a major structural failure. The structure then needs to be checked against ballistic penetration by a range of weapons or be required to resist explosive penetration from the charge detonated in contact with the structure. There is also a dire need to formulate protective guidelines for all existing and future critical facilities. (author)
NMR of insensitive nuclei enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization.
Miéville, Pascal; Jannin, Sami; Helm, Lothar; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2011-01-01
Despite the powerful spectroscopic information it provides, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy suffers from a lack of sensitivity, especially when dealing with nuclei other than protons. Even though NMR can be applied in a straightforward manner when dealing with abundant protons of organic molecules, it is very challenging to address biomolecules in low concentration and/or many other nuclei of the periodic table that do not provide as intense signals as protons. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is an important technique that provides a way to dramatically increase signal intensities in NMR. It consists in transferring the very high electron spin polarization of paramagnetic centers (usually at low temperature) to the surrounding nuclear spins with appropriate microwave irradiation. DNP can lead to an enhancement of the nuclear spin polarization by up to four orders of magnitude. We present in this article some basic concepts of DNP, describe the DNP apparatus at EPFL, and illustrate the interest of the technique for chemical applications by reporting recent measurements of the kinetics of complexation of 89Y by the DOTAM ligand.
A microstructural study of dynamic crack propagation in nuclear graphites
Burchell, T.D.; McEnaney, B.; Tucker, M.O.; Rose, A.P.G.
1986-01-01
This paper reports a new microstructural study of dynamic crack propagation in three nuclear graphites: (i) PGA, the moderator material in UK Magnox reactors; (ii) IMl-24, the moderator material in UK Advanced gas cooled reactors (AGR); and (iii) a pitch coke graphite, which is used in the fabrication of AGR fuel sleeves. The fracture mechanisms in nuclear graphites are initiated by microcrack formation at low stresses. Typically, microcracks form in regions of well-aligned binder or at favourably-oriented pores, where stress is concentrated. With increasing applied loads, microcracks propagate taking advantage of easy cleavage paths or linking with pores. Eventually, coalescence of such cracks and inherent porosity produces a crack of critical length for fast fracture. (orig./MM)
Chiral SU(3) dynamics and antikaon-nuclear quasibound states
Weise, W.; Haertle, R.
2008-01-01
Recent developments are summarised concerning low-energy K-bar N interactions as they relate to the possible existence of antikaon-nuclear quasibound states. An exploratory study of antikaons bound to finite nuclei is performed, with emphasis on the evolution of such states from light to heavy nuclei (A = 16-208). The energy dependent, driving attractive K-bar N interactions are constructed using the s-wave coupled-channel amplitudes involving the Λ(1405) and resulting from chiral SU(3) dynamics, plus p-wave amplitudes dominated by the Σ(1385). Effects of Pauli and short-range correlations are discussed. The decay width induced by K - NN two-body absorption is estimated and found to be substantial. It is concluded that K-bar-nuclear quasibound states can possibly exist with binding energies ranging from 60 to 100 MeV, but with short life times corresponding to decay widths of similar magnitudes
Nuclear Fermi Dynamics: physical content versus theoretical approach
Griffin, J.J.
1977-01-01
Those qualitative properties of nuclei, and of their energetic collisions, which seem of most importance for the flow of nuclear matter are listed and briefly discussed. It is suggested that nuclear matter flow is novel among fluid dynamical problems. The name, Nuclear Fermi Dynamics, is proposed as an appropriate unambiguous label. The Principle of Commensurability, which suggests the measurement of the theoretical content of an approach against its expected predictive range is set forth and discussed. Several of the current approaches to the nuclear matter flow problem are listed and subjected to such a test. It is found that the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) description, alone of all the major theoretical approaches currently in vogue, incorporates each of the major qualitative features within its very concise single mathematical assumption. Some limitations of the conventional TDHF method are noted, and one particular defect is discussed in detail: the Spurious Cross Channel Correlations which arise whenever several asymptotic reaction channels must be simultaneously described by a single determinant. A reformulated Time-Dependent-S-Matrix Hartree-Fock Theory is proposed, which obviates this difficulty. It is noted that the structure of TD-S-HF can be applied to a more general class of non-linear wave mechanical problems than simple TDHF. Physical requirements minimal to assure that TD-S-HF represents a sensible reaction theory are utilized to prescribe the definition of acceptable asymptotic channels. That definition, in turn, defines the physical range of the TD-S-HF theory as the description of collisions of certain mathematically well-defined objects of mixed quantal and classical character, the ''TDHF droplets.''
The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave
Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li
2005-01-01
To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)
Nuclear dynamics during ascospore germination in Sordaria macrospora.
Teichert, Ines
2017-01-01
The ascomycete Sordaria macrospora has a long history as a model organism for studying fungal sexual development. Starting from an ascospore, sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) develop within seven days and discharge new ascospores. Sexual development has been studied in detail, revealing genes required for perithecium formation and ascospore germination. However, the germination process per se has not yet been examined. Here I analyze nuclear dynamics during ascospore germination using a fluorescently labeled histone. Live-cell imaging revealed that nuclei are transported into germination vesicles that form on one side of the spore. Polar growth is established from these vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Relativistic nuclear fluid dynamics and VUU kinetic theory
Molitoris, J.J.; Hahn, D.; Alonso, C.; Collazo, I.; D'Alessandris, P.; McAbee, T.; Wilson, J.; Zingman, J.
1987-01-01
Relativistic kinetic theory may be used to understand hot dense hadronic matter. We address the questions of collective flow and pion production in a 3 D relativistic fluid dynamic model and in the VUU microscopic theory. The GSI/LBL collective flow and pion data point to a stiff equation of state. The effect of the nuclear equation of state on the thermodynamic parameters is discussed. The properties of dense hot hadronic matter are studied in Au + Au collisions from 0.1 to 10 GeV/nucleon. 22 refs., 5 figs
Frozen Acrylamide Gels as Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Matrices.
Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Berruyer, Pierrick; Gajan, David; Basset, Jean-Marie; Lesage, Anne; Tordo, Paul; Ouari, Olivier; Emsley, Lyndon
2017-01-01
We show that aqueous acrylamide gels can be used to provide dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancements of around 200 at 9.4 T and 100 K. The enhancements are shown to increase with cross linker concentration and low concentrations of the AMUPol biradical. We show that this DNP matrix can be used in situations where conventional incipient wetness methods fail, such as to obtain DNP surface enhanced NMR spectra from inorganic nanoparticles. In particular, we obtain 113Cd spectra from CdTe-COOH NPs in minutes. The spectra clearly indicate a highly-disordered cadmium rich surface.
Frozen Acrylamide Gels as Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Matrices.
Viger-Gravel, Jasmine
2017-05-24
We show that aqueous acrylamide gels can be used to provide dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR signal enhancements of around 200 at 9.4 T and 100 K. The enhancements are shown to increase with cross linker concentration and low concentrations of the AMUPol biradical. We show that this DNP matrix can be used in situations where conventional incipient wetness methods fail, such as to obtain DNP surface enhanced NMR spectra from inorganic nanoparticles. In particular, we obtain 113Cd spectra from CdTe-COOH NPs in minutes. The spectra clearly indicate a highly-disordered cadmium rich surface.
Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems
Wetch, J.R.; Begg, L.L.; Koester, J.K.
1985-01-01
Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed. 10 references
Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities
Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina
2012-09-01
The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.
Calculation of dynamic hydraulic forces in nuclear plant piping systems
Choi, D.K.
1982-01-01
A computer code was developed as one of the tools needed for analysis of piping dynamic loading on nuclear power plant high energy piping systems, including reactor safety and relief value upstream and discharge piping systems. The code calculates the transient hydraulic data and dynamic forces within the one-dimensional system, caused by a pipe rupture or sudden value motion, using a fixed space and varying time grid-method of characteristics. Subcooled, superheated, homogeneous two-phase and transition flow regimes are considered. A non-equilibrium effect is also considered in computing the fluid specific volume and fluid local sonic velocity in the two-phase mixture. Various hydraulic components such as a spring loaded or power operated value, enlarger, orifice, pressurized tank, multiple pipe junction (tee), etc. are considered as boundary conditions. Comparisons of calculated results with available experimental data shows a good agreement. (Author)
Dynamic vortex dust structures in a nuclear-track plasma
Rykov, V A; Khudyakov, A V; Filinov, V S; Vladimirov, V I; Deputatova, L V; Krutov, D V; Fortov, V E
2003-01-01
Results are presented from Monte Carlo calculations of the electric charge on dust grains in a plasma produced during the slowing down of radioactive decay products of californium nuclei in neon. The dust grain charging is explained as being due to the drift of electrons and ions in an external electric field. It is shown that the charges of the grains depend on their coordinates and strongly fluctuate with time. The time-averaged grain charges agree with the experimental data obtained on ordered liquid-like dust structures in a nuclear-track plasma. The time-averaged dust grain charges are used to carry out computer modelling of the formation of dynamic vortex structures observed in experiments. Evidence is obtained for the fact that the electrostatic forces experienced by the dust grains are potential in character. The paper is supplemented by a video clip showing the typical dynamics of the simulated vortex dust structure
System of nuclear power reactor protection using dynamic logic
Carvalho, P.V.R. de; Silva, L.C.R.P. da
1990-01-01
The aim of this work is the design of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) using dynamic logic as basic circuitry principle. This concept was developed to permit the electronic and eletromagnetic components employment in 'fail-safe' mode applied to automatic shutdown systems. 'Fail-safe' here means that a fail always yields a constant state that leads to a plant shutdown condition. So the normal condition of operation corresponds to an oscillating state response and the fail or abnormal condition to a static one. At present, almost all modern nuclear plant reactor protection systems use dynamic logic, just differing in the kind of technology employed in the construction of the system. In this work we define what technology best fits our necessities, setting out to design a RPS based on this philosophy. (author) [pt
Contributions to thermal and fluid dynamic problems in nuclear technology
Mueller, U.; Krebs, L.; Rust, K.
1984-02-01
The majority of contributions compiled in this report deals with thermal and fluid dynamic problems in nuclear engineering. Especially problems of heat transfer and cooling are represented which may arise during and afer a loss-of-coolant accident both in light water reactors and in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. Papers on the mass transfer in pressurized water, tribological problems in sodium cooled reactors, the fluid dynamics of pulsed column, and fundamental investigations of convective flows supplement these contributions on problems connected with accidents. Furthermore, a keynote paper presents the individual activities relating to the reliability of reactor components, a field recently included in our research program. Technical solutions to special problems are closely connected to the investigations based on experiments. Therefore, several contributions deal with new developments in technology and measuring techniques. (orig.) [de
Report on research in progress in the nuclear structure, dynamics area
Kodama, T.
1982-01-01
The experimental and theoretical studies related to the nuclear dynamics, actually done by the nuclear physical groups in Brazil, are reported. A qualitative division of the several aspects concerning to this subject is shown. (L.C.) [pt
Nuclear spin dynamics in soap solutions and related systems
Bloom, M.
1973-01-01
Soap molecules consist of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic lipid tail. For example, potassium laureate, the soap molecule on which the most complete study of nuclear spin dynamics has been made has the chemical formula KCOO(CH 2 ) 10 CH 3 . High concentration (greater than or approximately equal to 20% soap molecules by weight) soap solutions in water form ordered, liquid crystal structures in which the polar heads are arranged on regular surfaces which define a lattice having long range order. The soap molecules diffuse very rapidly parallel to the surfaces and undergo rapid conformational changes. Studies of T 1 , Tsub(1p) and Tsub(D) have indicated a wide spectrum of correlation times associated with these changes. Because of the orientational order of the soap molecules, the dipolar interactions between nuclear spins on a single molecule are not averaged to zero by the molecular motions. Thus, it is possible to use NMR techniques normally applied to solids (i.e. transfer of Zeeman into dipolar order, etc.) to study their static and dynamical properties. These systems are unusual in that they are basically one-dimensional systems in which the effective, time-averaged, dipolar coupling constants become progressively stronger for protons closer to the polar heads ot the molecules. A review will be presented of the experimental and theoretical NMR work performed on such systems to date. (author)
Mean-field theory of nuclear structure and dynamics
Negele, J.W.
1982-01-01
The physical and theoretical foundations are presented for the mean-field theory of nuclear structure and dynamics. Salient features of the many-body theory of stationary states are reviewed to motivate the time-dependent mean-field approximation. The time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation and its limitations are discussed and general theoretical formulations are presented which yield time-dependent mean-field equations in lowest approximation and provide suitable frameworks for overcoming various conceptual and practical limitations of the mean-field theory. Particular emphasis is placed on recent developments utilizing functional integral techniques to obtain a quantum mean-field theory applicable to quantized eigenstates, spontaneous fission, the nuclear partition function, and scattering problems. Applications to a number of simple, idealized systems are presented to verify the approximations for solvable problems and to elucidate the essential features of mean-field dynamics. Finally, calculations utilizing moderately realistic geometries and interactions are reviewed which address heavy-ion collisions, fusion, strongly damped collisions, and fission
Dynamical calculations of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reactions
Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.
1984-01-01
With the goal of determining the magnitude and mechanism of nuclear dissipation from comparisons of predictions with experimental data, we describe recent calculations in a unified macroscopic-microscopic approach to large-amplitude collective nuclear motion such as occurs in fission and heavy-ion reactions. We describe the time dependence of the distribution function in phase space of collective coordinates and momenta by a generalized Fokker-Planck equation. The nuclear potential energy of deformation is calculated as the sum of repulsive Coulomb and centrifugal energies and an attractive Yukawa-plus-exponential potential, the inertia tensor is calculated for a superposition of rigid-body rotation and incompressible, nearly irrotational flow by use of the Werner-Wheeler method, and the dissipation ensor that describes the conversion of collective energy into single-particle excitation energy is calculated for two prototype mechanisms that represent opposite extremes of large and small dissipation. We solve the generalized Hamilton equations of motion for the first moments of the distribution function to obtain the mean translational fission-fragment kinetic energy and mass of a third fragment that sometimes forms between the two end fragments, as well as dynamical thresholds, capture cross sections, and ternary events in heavy-ion reactions. 33 references
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization and other magnetic ideas at EPFL.
Bornet, Aurélien; Milani, Jonas; Wang, Shutao; Mammoli, Daniele; Buratto, Roberto; Salvi, Nicola; Segaw, Takuya F; Vitzthum, Veronika; Miéville, Pascal; Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Perez-Linde, Angel J; Carnevale, Diego; Jannin, Sami; Caporinia, Marc; Ulzega, Simone; Rey, Martial; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2012-01-01
Although nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can provide a wealth of information, it often suffers from a lack of sensitivity. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) provides a way to increase the polarization and hence the signal intensities in NMR spectra by transferring the favourable electron spin polarization of paramagnetic centres to the surrounding nuclear spins through appropriate microwave irradiation. In our group at EPFL, two complementary DNP techniques are under investigation: the combination of DNP with magic angle spinning at temperatures near 100 K ('MAS-DNP'), and the combination of DNP at 1.2 K with rapid heating followed by the transfer of the sample to a high-resolution magnet ('dissolution DNP'). Recent applications of MAS-DNP to surfaces, as well as new developments of magnetization transfer of (1)H to (13)C at 1.2 K prior to dissolution will illustrate the work performed in our group. A second part of the paper will give an overview of some 'non-enhanced' activities of our laboratory in liquid- and solid-state NMR.
A quantum-classical simulation of the nuclear dynamics in NO 2 and ...
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We perform the nuclear dynamics simulation to calculate the broad band as well as better resolved (a) ... The CIs significantly affect the molecular dynamics and henceforth ...... cluster with accessible 64 GB RAM and 1.65 GHz clock speed.
Nuclear dynamics around the barrier: from fusion to evaporation
Simenel, Cedric
2003-01-01
This work is devoted to aspects of nuclear dynamics around the barrier. It is shown that for fusion reactions, the Coulomb field couples relative motion of nuclei to rotation of a deformed projectile independently of the energy and the charge of the nuclei. An experimental study of the reaction 6 He + 190 Os via gamma spectroscopy of product nuclei has shown that the break up of the 6 He is coupled to the relative motion too, a strong hindrance resulting in the fusion around and above the fusion barrier. The path to fusion after overcoming the barrier, especially the charge equilibration, have been studied in the framework of the TDHF theory via the preequilibrium GDR excited in N/Z asymmetric reactions. An application to formation of the super-heavy elements has been proposed. Finally, couplings between protons and neutrons have been shown up in mean field calculations. Their main expected effect is an emission of protons under the Coulomb barrier. (author)
Dynamic analysis of WWER-1000 nuclear power plants
Asfura, A.P.; Jordanov, M.J.
1995-01-01
As part of the effort to assess the seismic vulnerability of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, a series of dynamic analyses have been carried out for several plants. These analyses were performed using modern analysis techniques, current local seismic parameters, and local soil profiles. This paper presents a compilation of some of the seismic analyses performed for the WWER-1000 reactor buildings at the nuclear power plants of Belene and Kozloduy in Bulgaria, and Temelin in the Czech Republic. The reactor buildings at these three plants are practically identical and correspond to the standard building design for this type of reactors. The series of analyses performed for these buildings encompasses various soil profiles, seismic ground motions, and different soil-structure interaction analysis techniques and modelling. The analysis of a common structure under different conditions gives the opportunity to assess the relative importance that each of the analysis elements has in the structural responses. The use of different SSI computer programs and foundation modeling was studied for Kozloduy, and the effects of different soil conditions and site-specific seismicity were studied by comparing the responses for the three plants. In-structure acceleration response spectra were selected as the structural responses for comparison purposes
Development of nonlinear dynamic analysis program for nuclear piping systems
Kamichika, Ryoichi; Izawa, Masahiro; Yamadera, Masao
1980-01-01
In the design for nuclear power piping, pipe-whip protection shall be considered in order to keep the function of safety related system even when postulated piping rupture occurs. This guideline was shown in U.S. Regulatory Guide 1.46 for the first time and has been applied in Japanese nuclear power plants. In order to analyze the dynamic behavior followed by pipe rupture, nonlinear analysis is required for the piping system including restraints which play the role of an energy absorber. REAPPS (Rupture Effective Analysis of Piping Systems) has been developed for this purpose. This program can be applied to general piping systems having branches etc. Pre- and post- processors are prepared in this program in order to easily input the data for the piping engineer and show the results optically by use of a graphic display respectively. The piping designer can easily solve many problems in his daily work by use of this program. This paper describes about the theoretical background and functions of this program and shows some examples. (author)
Towards an efficient multiphysics model for nuclear reactor dynamics
Obaidurrahman K.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Availability of fast computer resources nowadays has facilitated more in-depth modeling of complex engineering systems which involve strong multiphysics interactions. This multiphysics modeling is an important necessity in nuclear reactor safety studies where efforts are being made worldwide to combine the knowledge from all associated disciplines at one place to accomplish the most realistic simulation of involved phenomenon. On these lines coupled modeling of nuclear reactor neutron kinetics, fuel heat transfer and coolant transport is a regular practice nowadays for transient analysis of reactor core. However optimization between modeling accuracy and computational economy has always been a challenging task to ensure the adequate degree of reliability in such extensive numerical exercises. Complex reactor core modeling involves estimation of evolving 3-D core thermal state, which in turn demands an expensive multichannel based detailed core thermal hydraulics model. A novel approach of power weighted coupling between core neutronics and thermal hydraulics presented in this work aims to reduce the bulk of core thermal calculations in core dynamics modeling to a significant extent without compromising accuracy of computation. Coupled core model has been validated against a series of international benchmarks. Accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed multiphysics model has been demonstrated by analyzing a reactivity initiated transient.
Dynamic nuclear-polarization studies of paramagnetic species in solution
Glad, W.E.
1982-07-01
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) was used to measure the electron spin lattice relaxation times, T 1 , of transition metal ions in aqueous solution. Saturation which is induced in the electron spin system is transferred to the solvent proton spins by dipole-dipole interactions. The change in the polarization of the proton spins is much larger than it is in the electron spins. The change in proton polarization is easily measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In one experimental arrangement the sample solution was continuously flowed through a microwave cavity to the NMR coil. The NMR was observed with a continuous wave NMR spectrometer. In a second arrangement the whole sample tube was moved from within the microwave cavity to the NMR coil in less than 40 ms by a blast of compressed air. The NMR was then observed with a pulse-Fourier-transform spectrometer. With the second arrangement a mean-square microwave magnetic field at the sample of more than 10 G 2 is obtainable with 14 W of microwave power. Measurements of DNP at 9 GHz were made on aqueous solutions of VO 2+ , Mn 2+ , Cr(CN) 6 3- , Cu 2+ and Cu(ethylenediamine) 2 (H 2 0) 2 2+ ions from 3 to 60 0 C. It was also possible to observe DNP on resolved proton resonances from mixed water-acetonitrile solutions of VO 2+ and Cr(CN) 6 3- ions
Woo, Tae Ho
2012-01-01
It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)
Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
2012-12-15
It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)
Simplified dynamic simulation of a traveling wave nuclear reactor
Sanchez M, H.; Espinosa P, G.; Francois, J. L.; Lopez S, R.
2016-09-01
In this work the nuclear fuel burn wave in a fast traveling wave reactor (TWR) is presented, using the reduced model of the neutron diffusion equation, considering only the axial component, and the equations of the transuranic dynamics of U-Pu and a radionuclide of Pu. Two critical zones of the reactor are considered, one enriched with U-Pu called ignition zone and the other impoverished zone or of U-238, named breeding zone. Occupying Na as refrigerant within TWR, and Fe as structural material; both are present in the ignition and breeding zones. Considering as a fissile material the Pu, since by neutron capture the U is transformed into Pu, thus increasing the quantity of Pu more than that of U; in this way the fuel burn stability with the wave dynamics is understood. The calculation of the results was approached numerically to determine the temporal space evolution of the neutron flux in this system and of the main isotopes involved in the burning process. (Author)
Hirschegg '03: Nuclear structure and dynamics at the limits. Proceedings
Feldmeier, H.; Knoll, J.; Noerenberg, W.; Wambach, J.
2003-01-01
The following topics were dealt with: Nuclear structure ans symmetries, nuclei near the drip line, halo nuclei and nuclear resonances, superheavy elements and fission, fragmentation and multifragmentation, nuclear astrophysics. (HSI)
Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Han, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Do Hyoung
2007-01-01
The methodology being used today for assuring nuclear safety is based on analytic approaches. In the 21st century, holistic approaches are increasingly used over traditional analytic method that is based on reductionism. Presently, it leads to interest in complexity theory or system dynamics. In this paper, we review global academic trends, social environments, concept of nuclear safety and regulatory frameworks for nuclear safety. We propose a new safety paradigm and also regulatory approach using holistic approach and system dynamics now in fashion
Description of the turnover of the dynamical moment of inertia of the superdeformed nuclear state
Yuxin Liu; Jiangang Song; Hong-zhou Sun; Jia-jun Wang; En-guang Zhao
1998-01-01
We propose in this paper an approach to describe the dynamical moment of inertia of superdeformed nuclear states in the spirit of variable moments of inertia. Both the general changing feature and the turnover of dynamical moments of inertia with rotational frequency are well described in our approach. It indicates that the competition between the angular momentum driving effect and the restraining effect plays a crucial role in determining the dynamical moments of inertia of superdeformed nuclear states. (author)
Philippe Mellet
Full Text Available Proteolysis, involved in many processes in living organisms, is tightly regulated in space and time under physiological conditions. However deregulation can occur with local persistent proteolytic activities, e.g. in inflammation, cystic fibrosis, tumors, or pancreatitis. Furthermore, little is known about the role of many proteases, hence there is a need of new imaging methods to visualize specifically normal or disease-related proteolysis in intact bodies.In this paper, a new concept for non invasive proteolysis imaging is proposed. Overhauser-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OMRI at 0.2 Tesla was used to monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of a nitroxide-labeled protein. In vitro, image intensity switched from 1 to 25 upon proteolysis due to the associated decrease in the motional correlation time of the substrate. The OMRI experimental device used in this study is consistent with protease imaging in mice at 0.2 T without significant heating. Simulations show that this enzymatic-driven OMRI signal switch can be obtained at lower frequencies suitable for larger animals or humans.The method is highly sensitive and makes possible proteolysis imaging in three dimensions with a good spatial resolution. Any protease could be targeted specifically through the use of taylor-made cleavable macromolecules. At short term OMRI of proteolysis may be applied to basic research as well as to evaluate therapeutic treatments in small animal models of experimental diseases.
Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2007-10-18
We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.
Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics
Barrall, G.A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1995-09-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample's density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques
Dynamical nuclear polarization using multi-colour control of color centers in diamond
Yang, Pengcheng [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Center for Quantum Optical Science, Wuhan (China); Plenio, Martin B. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ulm (Germany); Universitaet Ulm, Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm (Germany); Cai, Jianming [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Center for Quantum Optical Science, Wuhan (China); Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ulm (Germany); Universitaet Ulm, Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm (Germany)
2016-12-15
Dynamical nuclear polarization (DNP) transfers the polarization of electron spins at cryogenic temperatures to achieve strong nuclear polarization for applications in nuclear magnetic resonance. Recently introduced approaches employ optical pumping of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to achieve DNP even at ambient temperatures. In such schemes microwave radiation is used to establish a Hartmann-Hahn condition between the NV electron spin and proximal nuclear spins to facilitate polarization transfer. For a single monochromatic microwave driving field, the Hartmann-Hahn condition cannot be satisfied for an ensemble of NV centers due to inhomogeneous broadening and reduces significantly the overall efficiency of dynamical nuclear polarization using an ensemble of NV centers. Here, we adopt generalized Hartmann-Hahn type dynamical nuclear polarization schemes by applying microwave driving fields with (multiple) time-modulated frequencies. We show that it is possible to enhance the effective coupling between an ensemble of NV center spins with inhomogeneous broadening and nuclear spins, thereby improving significantly the overall efficiency of dynamical nuclear polarization. This approach can also be used to achieve dynamical nuclear polarization of an ensemble of nuclei with a distribution of Larmor frequencies, which would be helpful in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a single NV spin sensor. (orig.)
Neural network modeling of chaotic dynamics in nuclear reactor flows
Welstead, S.T.
1992-01-01
Neural networks have many scientific applications in areas such as pattern classification and time series prediction. The universal approximation property of these networks, however, can also be exploited to provide researchers with tool for modeling observed nonlinear phenomena. It has been shown that multilayer feed forward networks can capture important global nonlinear properties, such as chaotic dynamics, merely by training the network on a finite set of observed data. The network itself then provides a model of the process that generated the data. Characterizations such as the existence and general shape of a strange attractor and the sign of the largest Lyapunov exponent can then be extracted from the neural network model. In this paper, the author applies this idea to data generated from a nonlinear process that is representative of convective flows that can arise in nuclear reactor applications. Such flows play a role in forced convection heat removal from pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, and decay heat removal from liquid-metal-cooled reactors, either by natural convection or by thermosyphons
Dynamic analysis of auxiliary buildings in nuclear power plants
Subramanian, K.V.; Madhava Rao, A.S.; Warudkar, A.S.
1989-01-01
All nuclear power plants have a large number of auxiliary buildings housing various services and control systems required for the operation of the plant. Illustrative examples are turbine building, control building, service building etc. These buildings are seismically qualified as Class I or Class II structures. Usually, these auxiliary buildings are of low rise type with two or three floors and floor heights varying from five to eight meters and of framed construction in steel or concrete or a combination of both the materials. The floors are usually staggered with large cutouts and may not extend over the full area in plan. Some of the bays are often of double story height with the columns continuous over a story in order to accommodate cranes and other equipment. The structural elements supporting the roof may consist of steel roof trusses instead of beams. The seismic analysis of these structures involves the formulation of the analytical model that can simulate the physical behavior of the structure as close as possible taking into consideration the practical aspects. The criteria adopted to formulate the mathematical model has an important bearing on the evaluated dynamic characteristics and seismic response
Dynamic nuclear polarization of nucleic acid with endogenously bound manganese
Wenk, Patricia; Kaushik, Monu; Richter, Diane; Vogel, Marc; Suess, Beatrix; Corzilius, Björn
2015-01-01
We report the direct dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of 13 C nuclei of a uniformly [ 13 C, 15 N]-labeled, paramagnetic full-length hammerhead ribozyme (HHRz) complex with Mn 2+ where the enhanced polarization is fully provided by the endogenously bound metal ion and no exogenous polarizing agent is added. A 13 C enhancement factor of ε = 8 was observed by intra-complex DNP at 9.4 T. In contrast, “conventional” indirect and direct DNP experiments were performed using AMUPol as polarizing agent where we obtained a 1 H enhancement factor of ε ≈ 250. Comparison with the diamagnetic (Mg 2+ ) HHRz complex shows that the presence of Mn 2+ only marginally influences the (DNP-enhanced) NMR properties of the RNA. Furthermore two-dimensional correlation spectra ( 15 N– 13 C and 13 C– 13 C) reveal structural inhomogeneity in the frozen, amorphous state indicating the coexistence of several conformational states. These demonstrations of intra-complex DNP using an endogenous metal ion as well as DNP-enhanced MAS NMR of RNA in general yield important information for the development of new methods in structural biology
Dynamic nuclear polarization of nucleic acid with endogenously bound manganese
Wenk, Patricia [University of Tübingen, Werner Siemens Imaging Center and Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy (Germany); Kaushik, Monu; Richter, Diane [Goethe University, Institute of Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry und Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ) (Germany); Vogel, Marc; Suess, Beatrix [Technical University Darmstadt, Department of Biology (Germany); Corzilius, Björn, E-mail: corzilius@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University, Institute of Physical und Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry und Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance (BMRZ) (Germany)
2015-09-15
We report the direct dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of {sup 13}C nuclei of a uniformly [{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N]-labeled, paramagnetic full-length hammerhead ribozyme (HHRz) complex with Mn{sup 2+} where the enhanced polarization is fully provided by the endogenously bound metal ion and no exogenous polarizing agent is added. A {sup 13}C enhancement factor of ε = 8 was observed by intra-complex DNP at 9.4 T. In contrast, “conventional” indirect and direct DNP experiments were performed using AMUPol as polarizing agent where we obtained a {sup 1}H enhancement factor of ε ≈ 250. Comparison with the diamagnetic (Mg{sup 2+}) HHRz complex shows that the presence of Mn{sup 2+} only marginally influences the (DNP-enhanced) NMR properties of the RNA. Furthermore two-dimensional correlation spectra ({sup 15}N–{sup 13}C and {sup 13}C–{sup 13}C) reveal structural inhomogeneity in the frozen, amorphous state indicating the coexistence of several conformational states. These demonstrations of intra-complex DNP using an endogenous metal ion as well as DNP-enhanced MAS NMR of RNA in general yield important information for the development of new methods in structural biology.
Dynamical nuclear safeguard investigations in nuclear materials using Analytic Pair Values
Woo, Tae-Ho
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The quantification of the safeguard is performed to enhance operation safety. → Newly introduced maximum pair values with multiplications are obtained by the AHP method. → The dynamical simulations are performed based on the energy policy aspect. → The comparisons using NSP are possible. → A better operation skill is developed. - Abstract: The operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been investigated from the view point of safeguard assessment. The risk of terrorist attack on NPPs is one of the critical points in the secure plant operations. The basic event of the related incidents is quantified by the random sampling using a Monte-Carlo method. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is developed leading to the maximum pair values with multiplications which are decided by reactor characteristics. The matrix form analysis is compared with five NPP types of interest. Using a life cycle of 60 years, the range of the secure operation is between 0.020628 and 0.0212986, as relative numbers. This means the highest value in the range of secure power operation is about 1.043 times larger than the lowest one in this study. The consistency has the highest consistent values in the 24th and 54th years, as represented by C.I. (Consistency Index) and C.R. (Consistency Ratio). Finally, a nuclear safeguard protocol (NSP) is successfully constructed for the safe operation.
Hirschegg '95: Dynamical properties of hadrons in nuclear matter. Proceedings
Feldmeier, H.; Noerenberg, W.
1995-01-01
The following topics were dealt with: Chiral symmetry, chiral condensates, in-medium effective chiral Lagrangians, Δ's in nuclei, nonperturbative QCD, electron scattering from nuclear matter, nuclear shadowing, QCD sum rules, deconfinement, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, nuclear dimuon and electron pair production, photoproduction from nuclei, subthreshold K + production, kaon polarization in nuclear matter, charged pion production in relativistic heavy ion collisions, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the SU(3) L xSU(3) R sigma model, nonequilibrium dense nuclear matter, pion pair production at finite temperature. (HSI)
Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives
Bernreuter, D L; Jackson, E C; Miller, A B [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)
1970-05-15
One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)
Control of the dynamic environment produced by underground nuclear explosives
Bernreuter, D.L.; Jackson, E.C.; Miller, A.B.
1970-01-01
One important aspect of any underground nuclear explosion is recording, retrieval and analysis of experiment and/or device performance. Most of the information is recorded or conditioned on sensitive electronic equipment and often transmitted via antennas that must remain in alignment. Sometimes diagnostic packages are located in towers near surface ground zero (SGZ). Also, some equipment is needed for timing and firing as well as safety requirements. Generally it is desirable to locate this equipment as close to SGZ as possible. This paper is a summary of LRL's method of controlling the dynamic environment in order to get good quality data and protect equipment while optimizing the cost. The overall problem blends together: (1) definition of input, i.e. ground shock parameters; (2) shock sensitivity or fragility level of equipment to the input and purpose (i.e. does it record or transmit through shock arrival time?); and (3) design of a fail-safe shock mount (SM) system to modify the shock environment when required. Before any SM system can be designed, items I and 2 must be answered as the ground shock can vary over a wide range and the sensitivity/fragility of the equipment can vary from less than 1/2 g to more than 100 g's, particularly if recording is done through shock arrival time. Keeping antennas in alignment is a somewhat different problem. Whenever possible the design of the SM system is based only on peak input parameters of the ground motion since detailed time histories of the ground motions are very difficult to predict. For towers and other systems which require detailed time histories, computer codes have been developed which allow a parametric study of the input ground motion's effect on the response of the system. This paper deals mainly with the close-in region where the dynamic environment is quite severe. In this region, non-standard methods and analysis are required. Out of this region, more standard methods can be used. (author)
On the fly quantum dynamics of electronic and nuclear wave packets
Komarova, Ksenia G.; Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.
2018-05-01
Multielectronic states quantum dynamics on a grid is described in a manner motivated by on the fly classical trajectory computations. Non stationary electronic states are prepared by a few cycle laser pulse. The nuclei respond and begin moving. We solve the time dependent Schrödinger equation for the electronic and nuclear dynamics for excitation from the ground electronic state. A satisfactory accuracy is possible using a localized description on a discrete grid. This enables computing on the fly for both the nuclear and electronic dynamics including non-adiabatic couplings. Attosecond dynamics in LiH is used as an example.
Software for the nuclear reactor dynamics study using time series processing
Valero, Esbel T.; Montesino, Maria E.
1997-01-01
The parametric monitoring in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) permits the operational surveillance of nuclear reactor. The methods employed in order to process this information such as FFT, autoregressive models and other, have some limitations when those regimens in which appear strongly non-linear behaviors are analyzed. In last years the chaos theory has offered new ways in order to explain complex dynamic behaviors. This paper describes a software (ECASET) that allow, by time series processing from NPP's acquisition system, to characterize the nuclear reactor dynamic as a complex dynamical system. Here we show using ECASET's results the possibility of classifying the different regimens appearing in nuclear reactors. The results of several temporal series processing from real systems are introduced. This type of analysis complements the results obtained with traditional methods and can constitute a new tool for monitoring nuclear reactors. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs
Simulation and study on reactivity disturbs dynamic character of HTR-10 nuclear power system
Huang Xiaojin; Feng Yuankun
2002-01-01
In order to not only know 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR-10) nuclear power system's dynamic character more deeply but also to satisfy requirements of control system's design and analysis, the dynamic model of HTR-10 nuclear power system is established on the basis of dynamic model of HTR-10 nuclear system, which supplies turbine and generate electricity system model. Using this model, system's main variables' dynamic processes are simulated when control rod takes step reactivity disturb. The concussive progresses which is caused by reactivity disturb are analyzed. The results indicate that fuel temperature changing more slowly than nuclear power makes reactivity negative feedback not to restrain power changing, and then power concussive progress comes to being
Nuclear many-body correlation dynamics--a nonperturbative approach in quantum many-body theory
Wang Shunjin
1996-01-01
Based on the experimental results and theoretical experience in nuclear physics, the article has explored the basic physical ideas and theoretical methods in nuclear and quantum many-body correlation dynamics. The main theoretical results and important applications are introduced briefly. The paper addresses the fundamental ingredients and physical interpretation of theoretical results in a comprehensive way. Recent new results about correlation dynamics in quantum field theories are also presented. The perspectives of further application are viewed. (91 refs.)
The Global Nuclear Futures Model: A Dynamic Simulation Tool for Energy Strategies
Bixler, N.E.
2002-01-01
The Global Nuclear Futures Model (GNFM) is a dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of nuclear energy, nuclear materials storage and disposition, global nuclear materials management, and nuclear proliferation risk. It links nuclear energy and other energy shares dynamically to greenhouse gas emissions and twelve other measures of environmental impact. It presents historical data from 1990 to 2000 and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. More specifically, it contains separate modules for energy, the nuclear fuel cycle front end, the nuclear fuel cycle back end, defense nuclear materials, environmental impacts, and measures of the potential for nuclear proliferation. It is globally integrated but also breaks out five regions of the world so that environmental impacts and nuclear proliferation concerns can be evaluated on a regional basis. The five regions are the United States of America (USA), The Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the OECD nations excluding the USA, and the rest of the world (ROW). (author)
Nuclear spin dynamics in double quantum dots : Fixed points, transients, and intermittency
Rudner, M.S.; Koppens, F.H.L.; Folk, J.A.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Levitov, L.S.
2011-01-01
Transport through spin-blockaded quantum dots provides a means for electrical control and detection of nuclear spin dynamics in the host material. Although such experiments have become increasingly popular in recent years, interpretation of their results in terms of the underlying nuclear spin
Cluster formation restricts dynamic nuclear polarization of xenon in solid mixtures
Kuzma, N. N.; Pourfathi, M.; Kara, H.
2012-01-01
During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 1.5 K and 5 T, Xe-129 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a homogeneous xenon/1-propanol/trityl-radical solid mixture exhibit a single peak, broadened by H-1 neighbors. A second peak appears upon annealing for several hours at 125 K. Its...
Nuclear and partonic dynamics in high energy elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering
Malecki, A.
1991-01-01
A hybrid description of diffraction which combines a geometrical modelling of multiple scattering with many-channel effects resulting from intrinsic dynamics on nuclear and sub-nuclear level is presented. The application to the 4 He- 4 He elastic scattering is very satisfactory. Our analysis suggests that at large momentum transfers the parton constituents of nucleons immersed in nuclei are deconfined. (author)
Clarkson, R B; Odintsov, B M; Ceroke, P J
1998-01-01
; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the nuclear spin population...
Trifunac, A.D.
1981-01-01
Structure and dynamics of transient radicals in pulse radiolysis can be studied by time resolved EPR and NMR techniques. EPR study of kinetics and relaxation is illustrated. The NMR detection of nuclear resonance in transient radicals is a new method which allows the study of hyperfine coupling, population dynamics, radical kinetics, and reaction mechanism. 9 figures
Nuclear dynamics consequence analysis of SNF disposed in volcanic tuff
Sanchez, L.C.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.; Taylor, L.L.
1998-05-01
This paper describes criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository. The analyses investigated criticality potential, criticality excursion consequences, and the probability frequency for nuclear criticality. Key findings include: expected number of fissions per excursion range from 10 17 to 10 20 , repeated rate of criticalities range from 3 to 30 per year, and the probability frequency for criticality initiators (based on rough-order-of-magnitude calculations) is 7x10 -7 . Overall results indicate that criticality consequences are a minor contribution to the biological hazards caused by the disposal of spent nuclear material
Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F.
2018-03-01
A new methodology of simulating nonadiabatic dynamics using frozen-width Gaussian wavepackets within the moving crude adiabatic representation with the on-the-fly evaluation of electronic structure is presented. The main feature of the new approach is the elimination of any global or local model representation of electronic potential energy surfaces; instead, the electron-nuclear interaction is treated explicitly using the Gaussian integration. As a result, the new scheme does not introduce any uncontrolled approximations. The employed variational principle ensures the energy conservation and leaves the number of electronic and nuclear basis functions as the only parameter determining the accuracy. To assess performance of the approach, a model with two electronic and two nuclear spacial degrees of freedom containing conical intersections between potential energy surfaces has been considered. Dynamical features associated with nonadiabatic transitions and nontrivial geometric (or Berry) phases were successfully reproduced within a limited basis expansion.
Remaking nuclear politics? The dynamics of subgovernment change
Duffy, R.J.
1991-01-01
Changes in the politics of commercial nuclear power in the 1970s are examined. United by a conviction that the generation of electricity from fission was both necessary and desirable, the Atomic Energy Commission, the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, and the nuclear power industry formed a classic subgovernment. Although such policy subsystems are presumed to be relatively autonomous and resistant to change, the convergence of several factors caused this subgovernment to collapse in the 1970s. It is shown that the scope of the conflict over nuclear power expanded as it became a highly visible and controversial issue that attracted the attention of a broad range of interest groups and government officials. The nuclear power issue became more visible because it was redefined as an environmental issue and then as an issue of public health and safety. It is also shown that the increasing salience of energy issues and the emergence of expert critics played a critical role in socializing the conflict and introducing new actors to the policy arena. It is further shown that changes in the institutions and processes of nuclear policy making help explain the collapse of the atomic subgovernment
Koszykowski, M.L.; Pfeffer, G.A.; Noid, D.W.
1987-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics plays a dominant role in a variety of important problems in chemical physics. Examples are unimolecular reactions, infrared multiphoton decomposition of molecules, the pumping process of the gamma ray laser, dissociation of vibrationally excited state-selected van der Waals's complexes, and many other chemical and atomic processes. The present article discusses recent theoretical studies on the quasi-periodic and chaotic dynamic aspects of vibrational-rotational states of atomic, nuclear, and molecular systems using the semiclassical spectral method (SSM). The authors note that the coordinates, momenta, and so on, are found using classical mechanics in the studies included in this review. They outline the semiclassical spectral method and a wide variety of applications. Although this technique was first developed ten years ago, it has proved to be tremendously successful as a tool used in dynamics problems. Applications include problems in nonlinear dynamics, molecular and atomic spectra, surface science, astronomy and stellar dynamics, nuclear physics, and polymer physics
Investigation of nuclear multifragmentation using molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation
Paula, L. de; Nemeth, J.; Ben-Hao, Sa.; Leray, S.; Ngo, C.; Souza, S.R.; Yu-Ming, Zheng; Paula, L. de; Nemeth, J.; Ben-Hao, Sa.; Yu-Ming, Zheng; Ngo, H.
1991-01-01
We study the stability of excited 197 Au nuclei with respect to multifragmentation. For that we use a dynamical simulation based on molecular dynamics and restructured aggregation. A particular attention is paid to check the stability of the ground state nuclei generated by the simulation. Four kinds of excitations are considered: heat, compression, rotation and a geometrical instability created when a projectile drills a hole in a 197 Au nucleus
Covariant description of dynamical processes in relativistic nuclear matter
Celenza, L.S.; Pantziris, A.; Shakin, C.M.
1992-01-01
We report results of covariant calculations of density-dependent polarization processes in relativistic nuclear matter. We consider the polarization induced by those mesons that play an important role in the boson-exchange model of nuclear forces (σ,π,ρ,ω). After obtaining the polarization operators, we construct the propagators for these mesons. The covariant nature of the calculation greatly clarifies the structure of the polarization operators and associated Green's functions. (In addition to the meson momentum, these quantities depend upon another four-vector, η μ , that describes the uniform motion of the medium.) In the case of the pion, we show that the same results are obtained for pseudovector or pseudoscalar coupling to the nucleon, if the associated Lagrangians are related by chiral transformations. Of particular interest are the extremely large values found for the polarization operators of the omega and sigma mesons. It is also found that the coupling of the sigma and omega fields through the polarization process is also extremely large. (Because of these results one cannot usefully consider the sigma and omega fields as independent degrees of freedom in nuclear matter.) We describe methods for reorganizing the calculation of ring diagrams in which we group those diagrams that exhibit strong cancellations. We also comment on the implication of our results for nuclear structure studies
Dynamical effects in the Colomb expansion following nuclear fragmentation
Chung, K.C.; Donangelo, R.J.; Schechter, H.
1987-01-01
The effects of the Colomb expansion on the fragment Kinetic energy spectrum for a fragmentating hot nuclear system is investigated. In particular, 12 C fragment spectra are calculated and compared with those predicted by the uniform expansion approximation. The results indicate that energy spectra of fragments are quite sensitive to the details of the Coulomb expansion treatment. (Author) [pt
K-nuclear bound states in a dynamical model
Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.
2006-01-01
Roč. 770, 1/2 (2006), s. 84-105 ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : kaonic atoms * K-nuclear bound states * K-nucleus interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.155, year: 2006
Dynamics of miRNA biogenesis and nuclear transport
Kotipalli Aneesh
2016-12-01
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNA sequences ~22 nucleotides in length that play an important role in gene regulation-transcription and translation. The processing of these miRNAs takes place in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm while the final maturation occurs in the cytoplasm. Some mature miRNAs with nuclear localisation signals (NLS are transported back to the nucleus and some remain in the cytoplasm. The functional roles of these miRNAs are seen in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, miRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to the targeted promoter sequences and affect either the transcriptional gene silencing (TGS or transcriptional gene activation (TGA. In the cytoplasm, targeted mRNAs are translationally repressed or cleaved based on the complementarity between the two sequences at the seed region of miRNA and mRNA. The selective transport of mature miRNAs to the nucleus follows the classical nuclear import mechanism. The classical nuclear import mechanism is a highly regulated process, involving exportins and importins. The nuclear pore complex (NPC regulates all these transport events like a gate keeper. The half-life of miRNAs is rather low, so within a short time miRNAs perform their function. Temporal studies of miRNA biogenesis are, therefore, useful. We have carried out simulation studies for important miRNA biogenesis steps and also classical nuclear import mechanism using ordinary differential equation (ODE solver in the Octave software.
A simple dynamic model and transient simulation of the nuclear power reactor on microcomputers
Han, Yang Gee; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
A simple dynamic model is developed for the transient simulation of the nuclear power reactor. The dynamic model includes the normalized neutron kinetics model with reactivity feedback effects and the core thermal-hydraulics model. The main objective of this paper demonstrates the capability of the developed dynamic model to simulate various important variables of interest for a nuclear power reactor transient. Some representative results of transient simulations show the expected trends in all cases, even though no available data for comparison. In this work transient simulations are performed on a microcomputer using the DESIRE/N96T continuous system simulation language which is applicable to nuclear power reactor transient analysis. 3 refs., 9 figs. (Author)
A simple dynamic model and transient simulation of the nuclear power reactor on microcomputers
Han, Yang Gee; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
A simple dynamic model is developed for the transient simulation of the nuclear power reactor. The dynamic model includes the normalized neutron kinetics model with reactivity feedback effects and the core thermal-hydraulics model. The main objective of this paper demonstrates the capability of the developed dynamic model to simulate various important variables of interest for a nuclear power reactor transient. Some representative results of transient simulations show the expected trends in all cases, even though no available data for comparison. In this work transient simulations are performed on a microcomputer using the DESIRE/N96T continuous system simulation language which is applicable to nuclear power reactor transient analysis. 3 refs., 9 figs. (Author)
Novel NMR tools to study structure and dynamics of biomembranes.
Gawrisch, Klaus; Eldho, Nadukkudy V; Polozov, Ivan V
2002-06-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on biomembranes have benefited greatly from introduction of magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR techniques. Improvements in MAS probe technology, combined with the higher magnetic field strength of modern instruments, enables almost liquid-like resolution of lipid resonances. The cross-relaxation rates measured by nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY) provide new insights into conformation and dynamics of lipids with atomic-scale resolution. The data reflect the tremendous motional disorder in the lipid matrix. Transfer of magnetization by spin diffusion along the proton network of lipids is of secondary relevance, even at a long NOESY mixing time of 300 ms. MAS experiments with re-coupling of anisotropic interactions, like the 13C-(1)H dipolar couplings, benefit from the excellent resolution of 13C shifts that enables assignment of the couplings to specific carbon atoms. The traditional 2H NMR experiments on deuterated lipids have higher sensitivity when conducted on oriented samples at higher magnetic field strength. A very large number of NMR parameters from lipid bilayers is now accessible, providing information about conformation and dynamics for every lipid segment. The NMR methods have the sensitivity and resolution to study lipid-protein interaction, lateral lipid organization, and the location of solvents and drugs in the lipid matrix.
Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.
1998-01-01
The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)
External magnetic field induced anomalies of spin nuclear dynamics in thin antiferromagnetic films
Tarasenko, S.V.
1995-01-01
It is shown that if the thickness of homogeneously magnetized plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic within H external magnetic field becomes lower the critical one, then the effect of dynamic magnetoelastic interaction on Soul-Nakamura exchange of nuclear spins results in formation of qualitatively new types of spreading nuclear spin waves no else compared neither within the model of unrestricted magnetic nor at H = 0 in case of thin plate of high-axial antiferromagnetic. 10 refs
Dynamics of the nuclear one-body density: small amplitude regime
Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.
1984-01-01
A microscopic treatment for the small amplitude limite of the equations of motion for the nuclear one-body density is presented. These were derived previously by means of projection techniques, and allow for the explicit separation of mean-field and collision effects which result from the dynamics of many-body correlations. The form of the nuclear response in the presence of collision effects is derived. An illustrative application to a soluble model is discussed. (Author) [pt
Structural design and dynamic analysis of underground nuclear reactor containments
Kierans, T.W.; Reddy, D.V.; Heale, D.G.
1975-01-01
Present actual experience in the structural design of undeground containments is limited to only four rather small reactors all located in Europe. Thus proposals for future underground reactors depend on the transposition of applicable design specifications, constraints and criteria from existing surface nuclear power plants to underground, and the use of many years of experience in the structural design of large underground cavities and cavity complexes for other purposes such as mining, hydropower stations etc. An application of such considerations in a recent input for the Underground Containment sub-section of the Seismic Task Group Report to the ASCE Committee for Nuclear Structures and Materials is presented as follows: underground concept considerations, siting criteria and structural selection, structural types, analytical and semi-analytical approaches, design and other miscellaneous considerations
Analysis of the dynamics of a boiling water nuclear reactor
Castillo D, R.
1996-01-01
The March-Leuba lineal reduced model is represented mathematically by a differential equations system, which corresponds to the direct transfer function, punctual kinetics approximation, neutron field dynamics, heat transfer in fuels, and channel dynamics approximation that relates the fuel temperature changes to the reactivity changes by vacuums. The model presents significant differences in one of the equation coefficients. The Pade order approximation used for the equation deduction for the channel has a different behavior to the exponential one for long periods of bubble residence. (Author)
A study on discrete event dynamic model for nuclear operations of main feed water pump
Bae, J. C.; Choi, J. I.
2000-01-01
A major objective of the study is to propose a supervisory control algorithm based on the discrete event dynamic system (DEDS) model and apply it to the automation of nuclear operations. The study is motivated by the suitability of the DEDS model for simulation of man-made control action and the potential of the DEDS based supervisory control algorithm for enhanced licensibility, when implemented in nuclear plants, through design transparency due to strong analytic backgrounds. The DEDS model can analytically show the robust stability of the proposed supervisory controller providing design transparency for enhanced licensibility when implemented in nuclear operations
Simulation language of DSNP: dynamic simulator for nuclear power-plants
Saphier, D.
1978-09-01
The Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants (DSNP) is a system of programs and data sets by which a nuclear power plant or part thereof can be simulated at different levels of sophistication. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, for the DSNP precompiler, for the DSNP libraries, and for the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a set of simple block oriented statements, which together with the appropriate data, comprise a simulation of a nuclear power plant. The majority of the DSNP statements will result in the inclusion of a simulated physical module into the program. FORTRAN statements can be inserted with no restrictions among DSNP statements
Level-one modules library for DSNP: Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants
Saphier, D.
1978-09-01
The Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-plants (DSNP) is a system of programs and data sets by which a nuclear power plant or part thereof can be simulated at different levels of sophistication. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, for the DSNP precompiler, for the DSNP libraries, and for the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a set of simple block oriented statements, which together with the appropriate data, comprise a simulation of a nuclear power plant. The majority of the DSNP statements will result in the inclusion of a simulated physical module into the program. FORTRAN statements can be inserted with no restrictions among DSNP statements
Statistics and dynamics of strongly collective nuclear processes
Blocki, J.
1985-01-01
A short introduction to the published and not yet published papers is presented. Two methods of the dynamical calculations - a classical and a selfconsistent quantum mechanical (TDHF) one are discussed. The most interesting results are presented. All the limitations in the use of both methods are also given. 26 refs. (author)
Nuclear visions enhanced: chromatin structure, organization and dynamics
Meshorer, Eran; Herrmann, Harald; Raška, Ivan
2011-01-01
The EMBO Workshop on ‘Chromatin Structure, Organization and Dynamics' took place in April 2011 in Prague, Czech Republic. Participants presented data on the generation of models of the genome, working to correlate changes in the organization of chromatin with the functional state of the genome.
Dynamic nuclear polarization tests in some polymers for polarized targets
Brandt, B. van den; Hautle, P.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Bunyatova, E.I.
1998-01-01
The results of dynamic polarization tests in polyethylene (PE) and ethylene propylene copolymer (EPC), doped with the stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), are presented. Sizable proton polarizations have been achieved in a magnetic field of 2.5 T at a temperature below 0.3 K and 5T at 1 K
Book of abstracts of International Conference on Nuclear Structure and Dynamics 2009
Prepolec, L.; Niksic, T.
2009-01-01
Following the long tradition of nuclear physics conferences organized by our two institutes, e.g. the Adriatic International Conference and Europhysics Study Conferences, this meeting will provide a broad discussion forum on recent experimental and theoretical advances in the physics of nuclear structure and reactions. The main focus will be on the following topics: Nuclear structure and reactions far from stability; Exotic modes of excitation and decays; Collective phenomena and symmetries; Ab initio, cluster model, and shell-model approaches; Nuclear energy density functionals; Heavy-ion reactions at near-barrier energies; Dynamics of light-ion reactions; Nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest; Weak-interaction processes. This booklet contains the abstracts of contributions which will be presented at the Conference, either as invited and contributed talks, or oral poster presentations
Liu, Guan-Ting; Kung, Hsiu-Ni; Chen, Chung-Kuan; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Yung-Li; Yu, Cheng-Pu; Lee, Chung-Pei
2018-02-26
Although a vesicular nucleocytoplasmic transport system is believed to exist in eukaryotic cells, the features of this pathway are mostly unknown. Here, we report that the BFRF1 protein of the Epstein-Barr virus improves vesicular transport of nuclear envelope (NE) to facilitate the translocation and clearance of nuclear components. BFRF1 expression induces vesicles that selectively transport nuclear components to the cytoplasm. With the use of aggregation-prone proteins as tools, we found that aggregated nuclear proteins are dispersed when these BFRF1-induced vesicles are formed. BFRF1-containing vesicles engulf the NE-associated aggregates, exit through from the NE, and putatively fuse with autophagic vacuoles. Chemical treatment and genetic ablation of autophagy-related factors indicate that autophagosome formation and autophagy-linked FYVE protein-mediated autophagic proteolysis are involved in this selective clearance of nuclear proteins. Remarkably, vesicular transport, elicited by BFRF1, also attenuated nuclear aggregates accumulated in neuroblastoma cells. Accordingly, induction of NE-derived vesicles by BFRF1 facilitates nuclear protein translocation and clearance, suggesting that autophagy-coupled transport of nucleus-derived vesicles can be elicited for nuclear component catabolism in mammalian cells.-Liu, G.-T., Kung, H.-N., Chen, C.-K., Huang, C., Wang, Y.-L., Yu, C.-P., Lee, C.-P. Improving nuclear envelope dynamics by EBV BFRF1 facilitates intranuclear component clearance through autophagy.
Measurement and analysis on dynamic behaviour of parallel-plate assembly in nuclear reactors
Chen Junjie; Guo Changqing; Zou Changchuan
1997-01-01
Measurement and analysis on dynamic behaviour of parallel-plate assembly in nuclear reactors have been explored. The electromagnetic method, a new method of measuring and analysing dynamic behaviour with the parallel-plate assembly as the structure of multi-parallel-beams joining with single-beam, has been presented. Theoretical analysis and computation results of dry-modal natural frequencies show good agreement with experimental measurements
Object-oriented simulator of the dynamics of Embalse nuclear power plant
Boroni, Gustavo A.; Cuadrado, M.; Clausse, Alejandro
2000-01-01
LUDWIG is an object-oriented simulator of the dynamics of the CANDU Nuclear power plant Embalse Rio Tercero. The tool consists in a numerical plant analyzer by means of a model of the plant dynamics during normal operation, and a graphic environment for configuration and visualization of results. The simulator was validated against plant transients occurred in the plant and recorded in the past. (author)
Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.
1990-01-01
This paper discusses the development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository. Scientific understanding dependent upon information from a number of geoscience disciplines is described. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. The authors point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure
Efficient and dynamic nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein via RNA binding
Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Kinjo, Masataka, E-mail: kinjo@sci.hokudai.ac.jp
2015-07-31
Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences have been used for artificial localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus as a positioning marker or for measurement of the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling rate in living cells. However, the detailed mechanism of nuclear retention of GFP-NLS remains unclear. Here, we show that a candidate mechanism for the strong nuclear retention of GFP-NLS is via the RNA-binding ability of the NLS sequence. GFP tagged with a classical NLS derived from Simian virus 40 (GFP-NLS{sup SV40}) localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus, the nuclear subdomain in which ribosome biogenesis takes place. GFP-NLS{sup SV40} in the nucleolus was mobile, and intriguingly, the diffusion coefficient, which indicates the speed of diffusing molecules, was 1.5-fold slower than in the nucleoplasm. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis showed that GFP-NLS{sup SV40} formed oligomers via RNA binding, the estimated molecular weight of which was larger than the limit for passive nuclear export into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that the nuclear localization of GFP-NLS{sup SV40} likely results from oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. The analytical technique used here can be applied for elucidating the details of other nuclear localization mechanisms, including those of several types of nuclear proteins. In addition, GFP-NLS{sup SV40} can be used as an excellent marker for studying both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus in living cells. - Highlights: • Nuclear localization signal-tagged GFP (GFP-NLS) showed clear nuclear localization. • The GFP-NLS dynamically localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus. • The nuclear localization of GFP-NLS results from transient oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. • Our NLS-tagging procedure is ideal for use in artificial sequestration of proteins in the nucleus.
Efficient and dynamic nuclear localization of green fluorescent protein via RNA binding
Kitamura, Akira; Nakayama, Yusaku; Kinjo, Masataka
2015-01-01
Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences have been used for artificial localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus as a positioning marker or for measurement of the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling rate in living cells. However, the detailed mechanism of nuclear retention of GFP-NLS remains unclear. Here, we show that a candidate mechanism for the strong nuclear retention of GFP-NLS is via the RNA-binding ability of the NLS sequence. GFP tagged with a classical NLS derived from Simian virus 40 (GFP-NLS SV40 ) localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus, the nuclear subdomain in which ribosome biogenesis takes place. GFP-NLS SV40 in the nucleolus was mobile, and intriguingly, the diffusion coefficient, which indicates the speed of diffusing molecules, was 1.5-fold slower than in the nucleoplasm. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) analysis showed that GFP-NLS SV40 formed oligomers via RNA binding, the estimated molecular weight of which was larger than the limit for passive nuclear export into the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that the nuclear localization of GFP-NLS SV40 likely results from oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. The analytical technique used here can be applied for elucidating the details of other nuclear localization mechanisms, including those of several types of nuclear proteins. In addition, GFP-NLS SV40 can be used as an excellent marker for studying both the nucleoplasm and nucleolus in living cells. - Highlights: • Nuclear localization signal-tagged GFP (GFP-NLS) showed clear nuclear localization. • The GFP-NLS dynamically localized not only in the nucleoplasm, but also to the nucleolus. • The nuclear localization of GFP-NLS results from transient oligomerization mediated via RNA binding. • Our NLS-tagging procedure is ideal for use in artificial sequestration of proteins in the nucleus
Decision analysis for dynamic accounting of nuclear material
Shipley, J.P.
1978-01-01
Effective materials accounting for special nuclear material in modern fuel cycle facilities will depend heavily on sophisticated data analysis techniques. Decision analysis, which combines elements of estimation theory, decision theory, and systems analysis, is a framework well suited to the development and application of these techniques. Augmented by pattern-recognition tools such as the alarm-sequence chart, decision analysis can be used to reduce errors caused by subjective data evaluation and to condense large collections of data to a smaller set of more descriptive statistics. Application to data from a model plutonium nitrate-to-oxide conversion process illustrates the concepts
Hierarchical control of a nuclear reactor using uncertain dynamics techniques
Rovere, L.A.; Otaduy, P.J.; Brittain, C.R.; Perez, R.B.
1988-01-01
Recent advances in the nonlinear optimal control area are opening new possibilities towards its implementation in process control. Algorithms for multivariate control, hierarchical decomposition, parameter tracking, model uncertainties actuator saturation effects and physical limits to state variables can be implemented on the basis of a consistent mathematical formulation. In this paper, good agreement is shown between a centralized and a hierarchical implementation of a controller for a hypothetical nuclear power plant subject to multiple demands. The performance of the hierarchical distributed system in the presence of localized subsystem failures is analyzed. 4 refs., 13 figs
Fourier analysis in dynamic non periodic phenomena in nuclear medicine
Constantinesco, A.; Lallot, C.
1984-01-01
The success of Fourier analysis in assessing cardiac function has led us to investigate other possible uses of this technique. We show that phase analysis applied to dynamic non periodic activity changes gives useful parametric functional images. The phase image is comparable to a transit time image, the amplitude image is comparable to the maximum variations of activity and the mean image corresponds to a normalized sum of images. Exemples of this powerful application of Fourier analysis are discussed [fr
Dynamic power behavior of a PWR type nuclear reactor
Moreira, F.J.
1984-01-01
A methodology for the power level evaluation (dynamic behavior) in a Pressurized Water Reactor, during a transient is developed, by solving the point kinetic equation related to the control rod insertion effects and fuel or moderator temperature 'feed-back'. A new version of the thermal-hydraulic code COBRA III P/MIT, is used. In this new version was included, as an option, the methodology developed. (E.G.) [pt
Quantum dynamics of nuclear spins and spin relaxation in organic semiconductors
Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Dobrovitski, V. V.
2017-06-01
We investigate the role of the nuclear-spin quantum dynamics in hyperfine-induced spin relaxation of hopping carriers in organic semiconductors. The fast-hopping regime, when the carrier spin does not rotate much between subsequent hops, is typical for organic semiconductors possessing long spin coherence times. We consider this regime and focus on a carrier random-walk diffusion in one dimension, where the effect of the nuclear-spin dynamics is expected to be the strongest. Exact numerical simulations of spin systems with up to 25 nuclear spins are performed using the Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of the evolution operator. Larger nuclear-spin systems are modeled utilizing the spin-coherent state P -representation approach developed earlier. We find that the nuclear-spin dynamics strongly influences the carrier spin relaxation at long times. If the random walk is restricted to a small area, it leads to the quenching of carrier spin polarization at a nonzero value at long times. If the random walk is unrestricted, the carrier spin polarization acquires a long-time tail, decaying as 1 /√{t } . Based on the numerical results, we devise a simple formula describing the effect quantitatively.
Many-body kinetics of dynamic nuclear polarization by the cross effect
Karabanov, A.; Wiśniewski, D.; Raimondi, F.; Lesanovsky, I.; Köckenberger, W.
2018-03-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is an out-of-equilibrium method for generating nonthermal spin polarization which provides large signal enhancements in modern diagnostic methods based on nuclear magnetic resonance. A particular instance is cross-effect DNP, which involves the interaction of two coupled electrons with the nuclear spin ensemble. Here we develop a theory for this important DNP mechanism and show that the nonequilibrium nuclear polarization buildup is effectively driven by three-body incoherent Markovian dissipative processes involving simultaneous state changes of two electrons and one nucleus. We identify different parameter regimes for effective polarization transfer and discuss under which conditions the polarization dynamics can be simulated by classical kinetic Monte Carlo methods. Our theoretical approach allows simulations of the polarization dynamics on an individual spin level for ensembles consisting of hundreds of nuclear spins. The insight obtained by these simulations can be used to find optimal experimental conditions for cross-effect DNP and to design tailored radical systems that provide optimal DNP efficiency.
Dynamic nuclear polarization and optimal control spatial-selective 13C MRI and MRS
Vinding, Mads Sloth; Laustsen, Christoffer; Maximov, Ivan I.
2013-01-01
. This is achieved through the development of spatial-selective single-shot spiral-readout MRI and MRS experiments combined with dynamic nuclear polarization hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate on a 4.7T pre-clinical MR scanner. The method stands out from related techniques by facilitating anatomic shaped region...
Dynamic Response of AP1000 Nuclear Island Due to Safe Shutdown Earthquake Loading
Gan Buntara S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available AP1000 is a standard nuclear power plant developed by Westinghouse and its partners by using an advanced passive safety feature. Among the five principle building structures, namely the nuclear island, turbine building, annex building, diesel generator building and radwaste building, the safety of the nuclear island building is the most concerned. This paper investigates the dynamic response of the nuclear island building of the AP1000 plant subjected to safe shutdown earthquake loadings. A finite element model for the building, which is assumed to be built in a hard-rock base, is developed and its dynamic response is computed with the aid of the commercial finite element package ANSYS. The dynamic characteristics, including the natural frequencies, the vibration modes, and the time histories for displacements, velocities, and accelerations of the building are obtained for two typical safe shutdown earthquakes, El Centro and Kobe earthquakes. The dynamic behavior of the building due to the earthquakes and its safety is examined and highlighted.
Multi-input wide dynamic range ADC system for use with nuclear detectors
Austin, R W [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Ala. (USA). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center
1976-04-15
A wide dynamic range, eight input analog-to-digital converter system has been developed for use in nuclear experiments. The system consists of eight dual-range sample and hold modules, an eight input multiplexer, a ten-bit analog-to-digital converter, and the associated control logic.
In situ nuclear magnetic resonance study of defect dynamics during deformation of materials
Murty, K.L.; Detemple, K.; Kanert, O.; Peters, G; de Hosson, J.T.M.
1996-01-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques can be used to monitor in situ the dynamical behaviour of point and line defects in materials during deformation. These techniques are non-destructive and non-invasive. We report here the atomic transport, in particular the enhanced diffusion during deformation
Stable isotope-resolved analysis with quantitative dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization
Lerche, Mathilde Hauge; Yigit, Demet; Frahm, Anne Birk
2018-01-01
Metabolite profiles and their isotopomer distributions can be studied non-invasively in complex mixtures with NMR. The advent of dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (dDNP) and isotope enrichment add sensitivity and resolution to such met-abolic studies. Metabolic pathways and networks can be...
Effects of Quantum Nuclear Delocalisation on NMR Parameters from Path Integral Molecular Dynamics
Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.
2014-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 8 (2014), s. 2201-2207 ISSN 0947-6539 Grant - others:Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union(XE) FP7-299242 People Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional calculations * isotope effects * NMR spectroscopy * nuclear delocalisation * path integral molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.731, year: 2014
The relativistic mean-field description of nuclei and nuclear dynamics
Reinhard, P.G.
1989-01-01
The relativistic mean-field model of the nucleus is reviewed. It describes the nucleus as a system of Dirac-Nucleons which interact in a relativistic covariant manner via meson fields. The meson fields are treated as mean fields, i.e. as non quantal c-number fields. The effects of the Dirac sea of the nucleons is neglected. The model is interpreted as a phenomenological ansatz providing a selfconsistent relativistic description of nuclei and nuclear dynamics. It is viewed, so to say, as the relativistic generalisation of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock ansatz. The capability and the limitations of the model to describe nuclear properties are discussed. Recent applications to spherical and deformed nuclei and to nuclear dynamics are presented. (orig.)
Validation of Infinite Impulse Response Multilayer Perceptron for Modelling Nuclear Dynamics
F. Cadini
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Artificial neural networks are powerful algorithms for constructing nonlinear empirical models from operational data. Their use is becoming increasingly popular in the complex modeling tasks required by diagnostic, safety, and control applications in complex technologies such as those employed in the nuclear industry. In this paper, the nonlinear modeling capabilities of an infinite impulse response multilayer perceptron (IIR-MLP for nuclear dynamics are considered in comparison to static modeling by a finite impulse response multilayer perceptron (FIR-MLP and a conventional static MLP. The comparison is made with respect to the nonlinear dynamics of a nuclear reactor as investigated by IIR-MLP in a previous paper. The superior performance of the locally recurrent scheme is demonstrated.
Application of cellular neural network (CNN) method to the nuclear reactor dynamics equations
Hadad, K.; Piroozmand, A.
2007-01-01
This paper describes the application of a multilayer cellular neural network (CNN) to model and solve the nuclear reactor dynamic equations. An equivalent electrical circuit is analyzed and the governing equations of a bare, homogeneous reactor core are modeled via CNN. The validity of the CNN result is compared with numerical solution of the system of nonlinear governing partial differential equations (PDE) using MATLAB. Steady state as well as transient simulations, show very good comparison between the two methods. We used our CNN model to simulate space-time response of different reactivity excursions in a typical nuclear reactor. On line solution of reactor dynamic equations is used as an aid to reactor operation decision making. The complete algorithm could also be implemented using very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) circuitry. The efficiency of the calculation method makes it useful for small size nuclear reactors such as the ones used in space missions
Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam (India). Computer Div.; Aghila, G. [National Institute of Technology, Karaikal (India). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
2015-05-15
In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.
Dynamical analysis of mCAT2 gene models with CTN-RNA nuclear retention
Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou
2015-01-01
As an experimentally well-studied nuclear-retained RNA, CTN-RNA plays a significant role in many aspects of mouse cationic amino acid transporter 2 (mCAT2) gene expression, but relevant dynamical mechanisms have not been completely clarified. Here we first show that CTN-RNA nuclear retention can not only reduce pre-mCAT2 RNA noise but also mediate its coding partner noise. Then, by collecting experimental observations, we conjecture a heterodimer formed by two proteins, p54 nrb and PSP1, named p54 nrb -PSP1, by which CTN-RNA can positively regulate the expression of nuclear mCAT2 RNA. Therefore, we construct a sequestration model at the molecular level. By analyzing the dynamics of this model system, we demonstrate why most nuclear-retained CTN-RNAs stabilize at the periphery of paraspeckles, how CTN-RNA regulates its protein-coding partner, and how the mCAT2 gene can maintain a stable expression. In particular, we obtain results that can easily explain the experimental phenomena observed in two cases, namely, when cells are stressed and unstressed. Our entire analysis not only reveals that CTN-RNA nuclear retention may play an essential role in indirectly preventing diseases but also lays the foundation for further study of other members of the nuclear-regulatory RNA family with more complicated molecular mechanisms. (paper)
Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V.; Aghila, G.
2015-01-01
In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.
Study of nuclear statics and dynamics using the Wigner transform
Shlomo, S.
1983-01-01
The Wigner phase-space distribution function, given as the shifted Fourier transform of the density matrix, provides a framework for an exact reformulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of classical concepts. The Wigner distribution function (WDF), f(r-vector, p-vector), is considered as a quantum mechanical generalization of the classical phase space distribution function. While basic observables, such as matter density and momentum density, are given by the same integrals over f(r-vector, p-vector) as in classical physics, f(r-vector, p-vector) differs from its classical analog by the fact that it can assume negative values in some regions. However, it is known that the WDF is a useful and convenient tool for the study of the static and the dynamical aspects of many-body quantum systems, and the equation of motion for f(r-vector, p-vector) serves as a starting point for semi-classical approximations. The aim of this talk is to present and discuss some recent results for static and dynamic properties of nuclei obtained by exact evaluation of the WDF
Nuclear structure calculations in the dynamic-interaction propagator approach
Engelbrecht, C.A.; Hahne, F.J.W.; Heiss, W.D.
1978-01-01
The dynamic-interaction propagator approach provides a natural method for the handling of energy-dependent effective two-body interactions induced by collective excitations of a many-body system. In this work this technique is applied to the calculation of energy spectra and two-particle strengths in mass-18 nuclei. The energy dependence is induced by the dynamic exchange of the lowest 3 - octupole phonon in O 16 , which is described within a normal static particle-hole RPA. This leads to poles in the two-body self-energy, which can be calculated if other fermion lines are restricted to particle states. The two-body interaction parameters are chosen to provide the correct phonon energy and reasonable negative-parity mass-17 and positive-parity mass-18 spectra. The fermion lines must be dressed consistently with the same exchange phonon to avoid redundant solutions or ghosts. The negative-parity states are then calculated in a parameter-free way which gives good agreement with the observed spectra [af
Path-integral isomorphic Hamiltonian for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic dynamics
Tao, Xuecheng; Shushkov, Philip; Miller, Thomas F.
2018-03-01
We describe a path-integral approach for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic chemical dynamics simulations. For a general physical system with multiple electronic energy levels, a corresponding isomorphic Hamiltonian is introduced such that Boltzmann sampling of the isomorphic Hamiltonian with classical nuclear degrees of freedom yields the exact quantum Boltzmann distribution for the original physical system. In the limit of a single electronic energy level, the isomorphic Hamiltonian reduces to the familiar cases of either ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) or centroid molecular dynamics Hamiltonians, depending on the implementation. An advantage of the isomorphic Hamiltonian is that it can easily be combined with existing mixed quantum-classical dynamics methods, such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, to enable the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes with nuclear quantum effects. We present numerical applications of the isomorphic Hamiltonian to model two- and three-level systems, with encouraging results that include improvement upon a previously reported combination of RPMD with surface hopping in the deep-tunneling regime.
A nuclear fuel cycle system dynamic model for spent fuel storage options
Brinton, Samuel; Kazimi, Mujid
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Used nuclear fuel management requires a dynamic system analysis study due to its socio-technical complexity. • Economic comparison of local, regional, and national storage options is limited due to the public financial information. • Local and regional options of used nuclear fuel management are found to be the most economic means of storage. - Abstract: The options for used nuclear fuel storage location and affected parameters such as economic liabilities are currently a focus of several high level studies. A variety of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis models are available for such a task. The application of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics models for waste management options is important to life-cycle impact assessment. The recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Committee on America’s Nuclear Future led to increased focus on long periods of spent fuel storage [1]. This motivated further investigation of the location dependency of used nuclear fuel in the parameters of economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Through a review of available literature and interactions with each of the programs available, comparisons of post-reactor fuel storage and handling options will be evaluated based on the aforementioned parameters and a consensus of preferred system metrics and boundary conditions will be provided. Specifically, three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module (WMM) which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Initial results of baseline cases point to positive benefits of regional storage locations with local regional storage options continuing to offer the lowest cost
Clore, G.M.; Driscoll, P.C.; Wingfield, P.T.; Gronenborn, A.M.
1990-01-01
The backbone dynamics of uniformly 15 N-labeled interleukin-1β are investigated by using two-dimensional inverse detected heteronuclear 15 N- 1 H NMR spectroscopy. 15 N T 1 , T 2 , and NOE data at a spectrometer frequency of 600 MHz are obtained for 90% of the backbone amide groups. The data provide evidence for motions on three time scales. All the residues exhibit very fast motions on a time scale of approx-lt 20-50 ps that can be characterized by a single-order parameter with an average value of 0.82 ± 0.05. Thirty-two residues also display motions on a time scale of 0.5-4 ns, slightly less than the overall rotational correlation time of the protein (8.3 ns). While the simple formulation can account for the 15 N T 1 and T 2 data, it fails to account for the 15 N- 1 H NOE data and yields calculated values for the NOEs that are either too small or negative, whereas the observed NOEs are positive. Another 42 residues are characterized by some sort of motion on the 30-ns-10-ms time scale, which results in 15 N line broadening due to chemical exchange between different conformational substates with distinct 15 N chemical shifts. In general, the motions on both the 0.5-4-ns and 30-ns-10-ms time scales are localized in surface-accessible loops and turns connecting the β-strands, as well as at the beginning and end of strands. Finally, the kinetic and equilibrium properties of a slow conformational equilibrium between a major and a minor species, involving at least 19 residues and located on one contiguous face of the molecule, are characterized by using 1 H- 15 N correlation spectroscopy, 1 H- 15 N heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence-nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy, and 1 H- 1 H nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy
Dynamic analysis of Boushehr Nuclear Power Plant in connected to grid system
Karimi Fard, A.
1999-01-01
Models of generating with the pressurized water reactor (PWR) have been developed for simulating. the plant dynamics under system disturbances. These models include power plant, energy sources, turbine, transmission system and control system such as Avr and govern and other local control devices. Simulink toolbox of Matlab software is used for simulations. The study is mainly based on the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plants (BNPP) parameters. Assuming that BNPP is connected to infinite bus with double tie line. Four cases are studied to examine the internal dynamic behavior of BNPP. First and second cases are used to load following studies in nuclear power plant. Another cases are used to study the dynamic behavior after short circuit fault and line outages in transmission systems. The results discussed in the thesis
Nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci in euchromatin and heterochromatin
Chiolo, Irene; Tang, Jonathan; Georgescu, Walter; Costes, Sylvain V.
2013-01-01
Repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell survival and genome integrity. While much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in DSB repair and checkpoint activation, the roles of nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in DNA repair are just beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize results from recent studies that point to distinct features of these dynamics in two different chromatin environments: heterochromatin and euchromatin. We also discuss how nuclear architecture and chromatin components might control these dynamics, and the need of novel quantification methods for a better description and interpretation of these phenomena. These studies are expected to provide new biomarkers for radiation risk and new strategies for cancer detection and treatment
Thermo field dynamics in the treatment of the nuclear pairing problem at finite temperature
Civitarese, O.; DePaoli, A.L.
1993-01-01
The use of the thermo field dynamics, in dealing with the study of nuclear properties at finite temperature, is discussed for the case of a nuclear Hamiltonian which includes a single-particle term and a monopole pairing residual two-body interaction. The rules of the thermo fields dynamics are applied to double the Hilbert space, thus accounting for the thermal occupation of single-particle states, and to construct dual spaces, both for single-particle (BCS) and collective (RPA) degrees of freedom. It is shown that the rules of the thermo field dynamics yield to a temperature dependence of the equations describing quasiparticle and phonon excitations which is similar to the one found in the more conventional finite temperature Wick's theorem approach, namely: By dealing with thermal averages. (orig.)
Nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci in euchromatin and heterochromatin
Chiolo, Irene; Tang, Jonathan; Georgescu, Walter; Costes, Sylvain V.
2013-10-01
Repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for cell survival and genome integrity. While much is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in DSB repair and checkpoint activation, the roles of nuclear dynamics of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in DNA repair are just beginning to emerge. Here, we summarize results from recent studies that point to distinct features of these dynamics in two different chromatin environments: heterochromatin and euchromatin. We also discuss how nuclear architecture and chromatin components might control these dynamics, and the need of novel quantification methods for a better description and interpretation of these phenomena. These studies are expected to provide new biomarkers for radiation risk and new strategies for cancer detection and treatment.
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of nuclear reactor primary coolant systems
Saffell, B.F. Jr.; Macek, R.W.; Thompson, T.R.; Lippert, R.F.
1979-01-01
The ADINA computer code is utilized to perform mechanical response analysis of pressurized reactor primary coolant systems subjected to postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loadings. Specifically, three plant analyses are performed utilizing the geometric and material nonlinear analysis capabilities of ADINA. Each reactor system finite element model represents the reactor vessel and internals, piping, major components, and component supports in a single coupled model. Material and geometric nonlinear capabilities of the beam and truss elements are employed in the formulation of each finite element model. Loadings applied to each plant for LOCA dynamic analysis include steady-state pressure, dead weight, strain energy release, transient piping hydraulic forces, and reactor vessel cavity pressurization. Representative results are presented with some suggestions for consideration in future ADINA code development
Valero, Esbel T.; Montesino, Maria E. [Instituto Superior de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba)
1997-12-01
The parametric monitoring in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) permits the operational surveillance of nuclear reactor. The methods employed in order to process this information such as FFT, autoregressive models and other, have some limitations when those regimens in which appear strongly non-linear behaviors are analyzed. In last years the chaos theory has offered new ways in order to explain complex dynamic behaviors. This paper describes a software (ECASET) that allow, by time series processing from NPP`s acquisition system, to characterize the nuclear reactor dynamic as a complex dynamical system. Here we show using ECASET`s results the possibility of classifying the different regimens appearing in nuclear reactors. The results of several temporal series processing from real systems are introduced. This type of analysis complements the results obtained with traditional methods and can constitute a new tool for monitoring nuclear reactors. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs.
Coupled problems in transient fluid and structural dynamics in nuclear engineering
Krieg, R.
1978-01-01
Some important problems in coupled fluid-structural dynamics which occur in safety investigations of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). light water reactors and nuclear reprocessing plants are discussed and a classification of solution methods is introduced. A distinction is made between the step by step solution procedure, where available computer codes in fluid and structural dynamics are coupled, and advanced simultaneous solution methods, where the coupling is carried out at the level of the fundamental equations. Results presented include the transient deformation of a two-row pin bundle surrounded by an infinite fluid field, vapour explosions in a fluid container and containment distortions due to bubble collapse in the pressure suppression system of a boiling water reactor. A recently developed simultaneous solution method is presented in detail. Here the fluid dynamics (inviscid, incompressible fluid) is described by a singularity method which reduces the three-dimensional fluid dynamics problems to a two-dimensional formulation. In this way the three-dynamics fluid dynamics as well as the structural (shell) dynamics can be described essentially by common unknowns at the fluid-structural interface. The resulting equations for the coupled fluid-structural dynamics are analogous to to the equations of motion of the structural dynamics alone. (author)
Fam, I. M.; Shekari, A.
2008-01-01
The Business excellence model has been developed to improve and promote business levels. In business excellence model such as European Foundation for Quality Management model, the important role of resource management is emphasizes. In this paper, we have tried with consideration to tendency progressive concepts of nuclear energy management; a dynamic model has been presented for energy management within the scope of European Foundation for Quality Management model. Population growth could cause increasing of the level of energy demands. No doubt, the confidence of this developed phenomenon with the limits of environment will create greater challenges for the world and its inhabitants. Considering the shortage of energy supply all over the world, nuclear energy management has been studied with a view to fourth and fifth criterions included in European Foundation for Quality Management model (Partnership and resource and Process criteria's). In addition to it, a dynamic model has been presented for nuclear energy management within the scope of European Foundation for Quality Management model. In this dynamic model, with differential equation definition for each of the presented communications of defined causal model, input variable impacts on output ones have been determined and considered. They can be reviewed, based on six scenario plans, the importance of nuclear energy management of a business has been properly shown, and similarly the rate of investment on systems as a factor affecting the level of attention paid to the future of business enterprises, has been specified. This paper conceives nuclear energy management as an instrument to contribute to the growth and fall of a business. It is therefore, imperative to attach more importance at nuclear energy demand management in the business and an attempt should be made to keep it under our control
Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF). Dynamic application of atomic and nuclear data
Kawarasaki, Yuuki
1995-01-01
New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; 1) so-called cold fusion (CF), 2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and 3) accelerator-based D-T(D) neutron source. Details of the LCF reactor physics require dynamics of atomic data as well as nuclear data; interaction of ions with matters in solid and the problems of radiation damage. (author)
Strunk, W.D.; Singh, S.P.; Tuft, R.M.
1988-01-01
The development of centrifugal separators has been a key ingredient in improving the process used for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The separators are used to segregate uranium and plutonium from the fission products produced by a controlled nuclear reaction. The separators are small variable speed centrifuges, designed to operate in a harsh environment. Dynamic problems were detected by vibration analysis and resolved using modal analysis and trending. Problems with critical speeds, resonances in the base, balancing, weak components, precision manufacturing, and short life have been solved
Using genetic algorithms for calibrating simplified models of nuclear reactor dynamics
Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Canetta, Raffaele
2004-01-01
In this paper the use of genetic algorithms for the estimation of the effective parameters of a model of nuclear reactor dynamics is investigated. The calibration of the effective parameters is achieved by best fitting the model responses of the quantities of interest (e.g., reactor power, average fuel and coolant temperatures) to the actual evolution profiles, here simulated by the Quandry based reactor kinetics (Quark) code available from the Nuclear Energy Agency. Alternative schemes of single- and multi-objective optimization are investigated. The efficiency of convergence of the algorithm with respect to the different effective parameters to be calibrated is studied with reference to the physical relationships involved
Using genetic algorithms for calibrating simplified models of nuclear reactor dynamics
Marseguerra, Marzio E-mail: marzio.marseguerra@polimi.it; Zio, Enrico E-mail: enrico.zio@polimi.it; Canetta, Raffaele
2004-07-01
In this paper the use of genetic algorithms for the estimation of the effective parameters of a model of nuclear reactor dynamics is investigated. The calibration of the effective parameters is achieved by best fitting the model responses of the quantities of interest (e.g., reactor power, average fuel and coolant temperatures) to the actual evolution profiles, here simulated by the Quandry based reactor kinetics (Quark) code available from the Nuclear Energy Agency. Alternative schemes of single- and multi-objective optimization are investigated. The efficiency of convergence of the algorithm with respect to the different effective parameters to be calibrated is studied with reference to the physical relationships involved.
Earthquakes - dynamic loads on the foundation piles of a nuclear reactor
Henning, F.; Dufour, C.; Fuzier, J.P.; Cheyrezy, M.
1976-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the behaviour of a piled foundation of a nuclear power plant submitted to earthquake loadings. The actual horizontal stiffness of the compound 'soil + structure' is calculated from the stiffness of the piles and the dynamic characteristics of the different layers of soil. The maximum amplitude of the horizontal displacement of the raft foundation is obtained by an iterative calculation from the displacement spectrum applied to the surrounding earth. At this stage, the moment diagrams for the different types of piles and their required reinforcement are calculated. The response of the nuclear plant components is determined from the displacement spectrum previously obtained for the raft. (author)
Nuclear quantum many-body dynamics: from collective vibrations to heavy-ion collisions
Simenel, Cedric
2012-01-01
This report gives a summary of my research on nuclear dynamics during the past ten years. The choice of this field has been motivated by the desire to understand the physics of complex systems obeying quantum mechanics. In particular, the interplay between collective motion and single-particle degrees of freedom is a source of complex and fascinating behaviours. For instance, giant resonances are characterised by a collective vibration of many nucleons, but their decay may occur by the emission of a single nucleon. Another example could be taken from the collision of nuclei where the transfer of few nucleons may have a strong impact on the formation of a compound system is non trivial. To describe these complex systems, one needs to solve the quantum many-body problem. The description of the dynamics of composite systems can be very challenging, especially when two such systems interact. An important goal of nuclear physics is to find a unified way to describe the dynamics of nuclear systems. Ultimately, the same theoretical model should be able to describe vibrations, rotations, fission, all the possible outcomes of heavy-ion collisions (elastic and inelastic scattering, particle transfer, fusion, and multifragmentation), and even the dynamics of neutron star crust. This desire for a global approach to nuclear dynamics has strongly influenced my research activities. In particular, all the numerical applications presented in this report have been obtained from few numerical codes solving equations derived from the same variational principle. Beside the quest for a unified model of nuclear dynamics, possible applications of heavy-ion collisions such as the formation of new nuclei is also a strong motivation for the experimental and theoretical studies of reaction mechanisms. This report is not a review article, but should be considered as a reading guide of the main papers my collaborators and myself have published. It also gives the opportunity to detail some
Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet in an Optically Excited Quantum Dot
Korenev, V. L.
2007-12-01
Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei shifts the optical transition energy close to resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of the quantum dot electron. As a result the optically selected single quantum dot represents a tiny magnet with the ferromagnetic ordering of nuclear spins—the nuclear spin nanomagnet.
γ-rays as a probe to study nuclear dynamics and nuclear structure at intermediate energies
Schutz, Y.
1987-01-01
The usefulness of gamma rays in nuclear physics is reviewed, and it is shown how they offer insight into the structure and damping of giant resonances, and how they can be used as an isospin filter. Results from inclusive and exclusive experiments at GANIL are discussed. It is stressed that although the production of high energy gamma rays in heavy ion reactions between 30 MeV/A and 86 MeV/A is understood qualitatively, most models fail in being more quantitative
Beretta, M.; Pilon, R.; Mut, F.
2002-01-01
Aim: To develop a procedure for the creation of nuclear medicine reports containing static and dynamic images. The reason for implementing this technique is the lack of adequate solutions for an electronic format of nuclear medicine results allowing for rapid transmission via e-mail, specially in the case of dynamic and gated SPECT studies, since functional data is best presented in dynamic mode. Material and Methods: Clinical images were acquired in static, whole body, dynamic and gated mode, corresponding to bone studies, diuretic renogram, radionuclide cystography and gated perfusion SPECT, as well as respective time-activity curves. Image files were imported from a dedicated nuclear medicine computer system (Elscint XPert) to a Windows-based PC through a standard ethernet network with TCP-IP communications protocol, using a software developed by us which permits the conversion from the manufacturer's original format into a bitmap format (.bmp) compatible with commercially available PC software. For cardiac perfusion studies, background was subtracted prior to transferring to reduce the amount of information in the file; this was not done for other type of studies because useful data could be eliminated. Dynamic images were then processed using commercial software to create animated files and stored in .gif format. Static images were re-sized and stored in .jpg format. Original color or gray scale was always preserved. All the graphic material was then merged with a previously prepared report text using HTML format. The report also contained reference diagrams to facilitate interpretation. The whole report was then compressed into a self-extractable file, ready to be sent by electronic mail. Reception of the material was visually checked for data integrity including image quality by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Results: The report presented allows for simultaneous visualization of the text, diagrams and images either static, dynamic, gated or
Full-scale dynamic structural testing of Paks nuclear power plant
Da Rin, E.M.; Muzzi, F.P.
1995-01-01
Within the framework of the IAEA coordinated 'Benchmark Study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type NPPs', in-situ dynamic structural testing activities have been performed at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The specific objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data on the actual dynamic structural behaviour of the plant's major constructions and equipment under normal operating conditions, for enabling a valid seismic safety review to be made. This paper gives a synthetic description of the conducted experiments and presents some results, regarding in particular the free-field excitations produced during the earthquake-simulation experiments and an experiment of the dynamic soil-structure interaction global effects at the base of the reactor containment structure. Moreover, a method which can be used for inferring dynamic structural characteristics from the recorded time-histories is briefly described and a simple illustrative example given. (author)
Three-dimensional reactor dynamics code for VVER type nuclear reactors
Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)
1995-10-01
A three-dimensional reactor dynamics computer code has been developed, validated and applied for transient and accident analyses of VVER type nuclear reactors. This code, HEXTRAN, is a part of the reactor physics and dynamics calculation system of the Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT. HEXTRAN models accurately the VVER core with hexagonal fuel assemblies. The code uses advanced mathematical methods in spatial and time discretization of neutronics, heat transfer and the two-phase flow equations of hydraulics. It includes all the experience of VTT from 20 years on the accurate three-dimensional static reactor physics as well as on the one-dimensional reactor dynamics. The dynamic coupling with the thermal hydraulic system code SMABRE also allows the VVER circuit-modelling experience to be included in the analyses. (79 refs.).
Three-dimensional reactor dynamics code for VVER type nuclear reactors
Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.
1995-10-01
A three-dimensional reactor dynamics computer code has been developed, validated and applied for transient and accident analyses of VVER type nuclear reactors. This code, HEXTRAN, is a part of the reactor physics and dynamics calculation system of the Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT. HEXTRAN models accurately the VVER core with hexagonal fuel assemblies. The code uses advanced mathematical methods in spatial and time discretization of neutronics, heat transfer and the two-phase flow equations of hydraulics. It includes all the experience of VTT from 20 years on the accurate three-dimensional static reactor physics as well as on the one-dimensional reactor dynamics. The dynamic coupling with the thermal hydraulic system code SMABRE also allows the VVER circuit-modelling experience to be included in the analyses. (79 refs.)
Van Den Durpel, Luc; Yacout, Abdellatif; Wade, Dave
2005-01-01
Nuclear energy is increasingly perceived as an attractive mature energy generation technology that can deliver an answer to the worldwide increasing energy demand while respecting environmental concerns as well as contributing to a reduced dependence on fossil fuel. Advancing nuclear energy deployment demands an assessment of nuclear energy with respect to all sustainability dimensions allowing full stakeholder involvement in deciding on the role of nuclear energy as part of a sustainable energy generation mix in the future. Integrated system dynamics models of nuclear energy systems are interesting tools for such assessment studies allowing performing material flow accounting, environmental impact, economic competitiveness and socio-political analysis and this for time-evolving nuclear energy systems. No single tool today is capable of covering all the dimensions for such integrated assessment while various developments are ongoing in different places around the world to make such tools available in the nearby future. Argonne National Laboratory has embarked on such tool development since the year 2000 and has developed various tools among which the DANESS-code shall be described in some more detail in this paper. (author)
Schemes of detecting nuclear spin correlations by dynamical decoupling based quantum sensing
Ma, Wen-Long Ma; Liu, Ren-Bao
Single-molecule sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and angstrom resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the highest challenges in magnetic microscopy. Recent development in dynamical decoupling (DD) enhanced diamond quantum sensing has enabled NMR of single nuclear spins and nanoscale NMR. Similar to conventional NMR and MRI, current DD-based quantum sensing utilizes the frequency fingerprints of target nuclear spins. Such schemes, however, cannot resolve different nuclear spins that have the same noise frequency or differentiate different types of correlations in nuclear spin clusters. Here we show that the first limitation can be overcome by using wavefunction fingerprints of target nuclear spins, which is much more sensitive than the ''frequency fingerprints'' to weak hyperfine interaction between the targets and a sensor, while the second one can be overcome by a new design of two-dimensional DD sequences composed of two sets of periodic DD sequences with different periods, which can be independently set to match two different transition frequencies. Our schemes not only offer an approach to breaking the resolution limit set by ''frequency gradients'' in conventional MRI, but also provide a standard approach to correlation spectroscopy for single-molecule NMR.
The chaos and order in nuclear molecular dynamics; Chaos i porzadek w jadrowej dynamice molekularnej
Srokowski, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1995-12-31
The subject of the presented report is role of chaos in scattering processes in the frame of molecular dynamics. In this model, it is assumed that scattering particles (nuclei) consist of not-interacted components as alpha particles or {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 20}Ne clusters. The results show such effects as dynamical in stabilities and fractal structure as well as compound nuclei decay and heavy-ion fusion. The goal of the report is to make the reader more familiar with the chaos model and its application to nuclear phenomena. 157 refs, 40 figs.
The dynamics of the nuclear disassembly in a field-theoretical model at finite entropies
Knoll, J.; Strack, B.
1984-10-01
The expansion phase of a hot nuclear system as created in an energetic heavy-ion collision is calculated and discussed by a selfconsistent field-theoretical model. Dynamical instabilities arising during the expansion from strong fluctuations of the one-body density are included explicitely. First multiplicity distributions and mass spectra resulting from a series of numerical runs in a 2+1 dimensional model world are presented. The dependence of break-up dynamics both on the properties of the binding force and possible correlations in the initially compressed hot state are discussed. (orig.)
Mason, V.A.; Pettigrew, M.J.; Lelli, G.; Kates, L.; Reimer, E.
1978-10-01
A computer model, designed to predict the dynamic behaviour of nuclear fuel assemblies in axial flow, is described in this report. The numerical methods used to construct and solve the matrix equations of motion in the model are discussed together with an outline of the method used to interpret the fuel assembly stability data. The mathematics developed for forced response calculations are described in detail. Certain structural and hydrodynamic modelling parameters must be determined by experiment. These parameters are identified and the methods used for their evaluation are briefly described. Examples of typical applications of the dynamic model are presented towards the end of the report. (author)
Dynamical coupled-channels model for meson productions and application to strange nuclear physics
Nakamura, S.X.; Kamano, H.; Lee, T.-S.H.; Sato, T.
2013-01-01
We discuss our dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model in the context of extracting interesting strange nuclear physics from forthcoming J-PARC data. We describe the dynamical contents of the model, and its capability of describing a large amount of data of S=0 sector, namely, πN, γN → πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ data. Then we discuss future extensions of the DCC model to S ≠ 0 and B ≥ 1 sectors. We emphasize that realistic amplitudes will be essential for extracting interesting physics from data, and the extended DCC model will play an important role there. (author)
Modelling dynamic processes in a nuclear reactor by state change modal method
Avvakumov, A. V.; Strizhov, V. F.; Vabishchevich, P. N.; Vasilev, A. O.
2017-12-01
Modelling of dynamic processes in nuclear reactors is carried out, mainly, using the multigroup neutron diffusion approximation. The basic model includes a multidimensional set of coupled parabolic equations and ordinary differential equations. Dynamic processes are modelled by a successive change of the reactor states. It is considered that the transition from one state to another occurs promptly. In the modal method the approximate solution is represented as eigenfunction expansion. The numerical-analytical method is based on the use of dominant time-eigenvalues of a group diffusion model taking into account delayed neutrons.
Al-Dabbagh, Ahmad W. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Lu, Lixuan [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)
2010-09-15
Modeling and analysis of system reliability facilitate the identification of areas of potential improvement. The Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is an emerging discrete modeling framework that allows for capturing time dependent behaviour, switching logic and multi-state representation of system components. The objective of this research is to demonstrate the process of dynamic flowgraph modeling of a nuclear-based hydrogen production plant with the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle. Modeling of the thermochemical process of the Cu-Cl cycle in conjunction with a networked control system proposed for monitoring and control of the process is provided. This forms the basis for future component selection. (author)
Generation of artificial earthquakes for dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant
Tsushima, Y.; Hiromatsu, T.; Abe, Y.; Tamaki, T.
1979-01-01
A procedure for generating artificial earthquakes for the purpose of the dynamic analysis of the nuclear power plant has been studied and relevant computer codes developed. This paper describes brieafly the generation procedure employed in the computer codes and also deals with the results of two artificial earthquakes generated as an example for input motions for the aseismic design of a BWR-type reactor building. Using one of the generated artificial earthquakes and two actually recorded earthquakes, non-linear responses of the reactor building were computed and the results were compared with each other. From this comparison, it has been concluded that the computer codes are practically usable and the generated artificial earthquakes are useful and powerful as input motions for dynamic analysis of a nuclear power plant. (author)
Recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in a nuclear medium
Oset, E.; Sarkar, S.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.; Kaskulov, M.; Roca, L.; Magas, V.K.; Ramos, A.; Toki, H.
2007-01-01
In this talk I present recent developments in chiral dynamics of hadrons and hadrons in a medium addressing the following points: interaction of the octet of pseudoscalar mesons with the octet of baryons of the nucleon, showing recent experimental evidence on the existence of two Λ(1405) states, the interaction of the octet of pseudoscalar mesons with the decuplet of baryons of the Δ, with particular emphasis on the Λ(1520) resonance, dynamically generated by this interaction. Then I review the interaction of kaons in a nuclear medium and briefly discuss the situation around the claims of deeply bound states in nuclei. The large renormalization of the Λ(1520) in the nuclear medium is shown as another example of successful application of the chiral unitary techniques
Simulating the Langevin force by simple noise in nuclear one-body dynamics
Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Burgio, G.F.; Toro, M. Di; Randrup, J.
1992-01-01
For the purpose of addressing catastrophic phenomena in nuclear dynamics, the possibility of simulating the stochastic part of the collision integral is explored in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in the ordinary BUU treatment. Considering idealized two-dimensional matter, for which it is practical to simulate the Boltzmann-Langevin equation directly, it is demonstrated that the number of test-particles per nucleon can be adjusted so that the corresponding BUU calculation yields a good reproduction of the spontaneous clusterization occurring inside the spinodal region. This approximate method may therefore provide a relatively easy way to introduce meaningful fluctuations in simulations of unstable nuclear dynamics. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs
Farasat, M; Golzan, M M; Shojaei, S H R; Morini, F; Deleuze, M S
2016-01-01
The electronic structure, electron binding energy spectrum and (e, 2e) momentum distributions of aniline have been theoretically predicted at an electron impact energy of 1.500 keV on the basis of Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamical simulations, in order to account for thermally induced nuclear motions in the initial electronic ground state. Most computed momentum profiles are rather insensitive to thermally induced alterations of the molecular structure, with the exception of the profiles corresponding to two ionization bands at electron binding energies comprised between ∼10.0 and ∼12.0 eV (band C) and between ∼16.5 and ∼20.0 eV (band G). These profiles are found to be strongly influenced by nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state, especially in the low momentum region. The obtained results show that thermal averaging smears out most generally the spectral fingerprints that are induced by nitrogen inversion. (paper)
NMR studies on the structure and dynamics of lac operator DNA
Lee, S.C.
1985-01-01
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was used to elucidate the relationships between structure, dynamics and function of the gene regulatory sequence corresponding to the lactose operon operator of Escherichia coli. The length of the DNA fragments examined varied from 13 to 36 base pair, containing all or part of the operator sequence. These DNA fragments are either derived genetically or synthesized chemically. Resonances of the imino protons were assigned by one dimensional inter-base pair nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) measurements. Imino proton exchange rates were measured by saturation recovery methods. Results from the kinetic measurements show an interesting dynamic heterogeneity with a maximum opening rate centered about a GTG/CAC sequence which correlates with the biological function of the operator DNA. This particular three base pair sequence occurs frequently and often symmetrically in prokaryotic nd eukaryotic DNA sites where one anticipates specific protein interaction for gene regulation. The observed sequence dependent imino proton exchange rate may be a reflection of variation of the local structure of regulatory DNA. The results also indicate that the observed imino proton exchange rates are length dependent
Package Flow Model and its fuzzy implementation for simulating nuclear reactor system dynamics
Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Misako.
1996-01-01
A simple intuitive simulation model, which we call 'Package Flow Model', has been developed to evaluate physical processes in nuclear reactor system from a macroscopic point of view. In the previous paper, we showed the physical process of each energy generation and transfer stage in a PWR could be modeled by PFM, and its dynamics could be approximately simulated by fuzzy implementation. In this paper, a PFMs network approach for a total PWR system simulation is proposed and some transients of nuclear ship 'MUTSU' reactor system are evaluated. The simulated results are consistent with those from Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System developed by JAERI. Furthermore, a visual representation method is proposed to intuitively capture the profile of fuel safety transient. Using the PFMs network, we can handily calculate the transient phenomena of the system even by a notebook-type personal computer. In addition, we can easily interpret the results of calculation surveying a small number of parameters. (author)
Automated nuclear material recovery and decontamination of large steel dynamic experiment containers
Dennison, D.K.; Gallant, D.A.; Nelson, D.C.; Stovall, L.A.; Wedman, D.E.
1999-01-01
A key mission of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to reduce the global nuclear danger through stockpile stewardship efforts that ensure the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons. In support of this mission LANL performs dynamic experiments on special nuclear materials (SNM) within large steel containers. Once these experiments are complete, these containers must be processed to recover residual SNM and to decontaminate the containers to below low level waste (LLW) disposal limits which are much less restrictive for disposal purposes than transuranic (TRU) waste limits. The purpose of this paper is to describe automation efforts being developed by LANL for improving the efficiency, increasing worker safety, and reducing worker exposure during the material cleanout and recovery activities performed on these containers
Hess, Stephen M.; Albano, Alfonso M.; Gaertner, John P.
2005-01-01
Application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to model nuclear power plant accident sequences has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events, equipment failures and operator errors that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has resulted in significant improvements in plant operation and safety. However, this approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. The research described in this paper presents an alternative approach to addressing this issue. In this paper we propose a dynamical systems model that describes the interaction of important plant processes on nuclear safety risk. We discuss development of the mathematical model including the identification and interpretation of significant inter-process interactions. Next, we review the techniques applicable to analysis of nonlinear dynamical systems that are utilized in the characterization of the model. This is followed by a preliminary analysis of the model that demonstrates that its dynamical evolution displays features that have been observed at commercially operating plants. From this analysis, several significant insights are presented with respect to the effective control of nuclear safety risk. As an important example, analysis of the model dynamics indicates that significant benefits in effectively managing risk are obtained by integrating the plant operation and work management processes such that decisions are made utilizing a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach. We note that although the model was developed specifically to be applicable to nuclear power plants, many of the insights and conclusions obtained are likely applicable to other process industries
Development of a dynamic model of a BWR nuclear power plant
Nonboel, E.
1975-12-01
A description is given of a one-dimensional steady-state model of a high-pressure steam turbine, a low-pressure steam turbine, a moisture separator, a reheater, a condenser, feedwater heaters and feedwater pump for a nuclear power plant. The model is contained in the program ''TURBPLANT''. The dynamic part of this model is presented in part II of this report. (author)
A nuclear magnetic relaxation study of hydrogen exchange and water dynamics in aqueous systems
Lankhorst, D.
1983-01-01
In this thesis exchange of water protons in solutions of some weak electrolytes and polyelectrolytes is studied. Also the dynamical behaviour of water molecules in pure water is investigated. For these purposes nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements, in solutions of oxygen-17 enriched water, are interpreted. The exchange rate of the water protons is derived from the contribution of 1 H- 17 O scalar coupling to the proton transverse relaxation rate. This rate is measured by the Carr-Purcell technique. (Auth.)
Cadini, F.; Zio, E.; Pedroni, N.
2007-01-01
In this paper, a locally recurrent neural network (LRNN) is employed for approximating the temporal evolution of a nonlinear dynamic system model of a simplified nuclear reactor. To this aim, an infinite impulse response multi-layer perceptron (IIR-MLP) is trained according to a recursive back-propagation (RBP) algorithm. The network nodes contain internal feedback paths and their connections are realized by means of IIR synaptic filters, which provide the LRNN with the necessary system state memory
Varicella-zoster virus induces the formation of dynamic nuclear capsid aggregates
Lebrun, Marielle [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Thelen, Nicolas; Thiry, Marc [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Neurosciences, Laboratory of Cellular and Tissular Biology, Liege (Belgium); Riva, Laura; Ote, Isabelle; Condé, Claude; Vandevenne, Patricia [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Di Valentin, Emmanuel [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Viral Vectors Platform, Liege (Belgium); Bontems, Sébastien [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine, E-mail: csadzot@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium)
2014-04-15
The first step of herpesviruses virion assembly occurs in the nucleus. However, the exact site where nucleocapsids are assembled, where the genome and the inner tegument are acquired, remains controversial. We created a recombinant VZV expressing ORF23 (homologous to HSV-1 VP26) fused to the eGFP and dually fluorescent viruses with a tegument protein additionally fused to a red tag (ORF9, ORF21 and ORF22 corresponding to HSV-1 UL49, UL37 and UL36). We identified nuclear dense structures containing the major capsid protein, the scaffold protein and maturing protease, as well as ORF21 and ORF22. Correlative microscopy demonstrated that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates and time-lapse video imaging showed that they appear prior to the accumulation of cytoplasmic capsids, presumably undergoing the secondary egress, and are highly dynamic. Our observations suggest that these structures might represent a nuclear area important for capsid assembly and/or maturation before the budding at the inner nuclear membrane. - Highlights: • We created a recombinant VZV expressing the small capsid protein fused to the eGFP. • We identified nuclear dense structures containing capsid and procapsid proteins. • Correlative microscopy showed that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates. • Procapsids and partial capsids are found within the aggregates of WT and eGFP-23 VZV. • FRAP and FLIP experiments demonstrated that they are dynamic structures.
Local bifurcation analysis in nuclear reactor dynamics by Sotomayor’s theorem
Pirayesh, Behnam; Pazirandeh, Ali; Akbari, Monireh
2016-01-01
Highlights: • When the feedback reactivity is considered as a nonlinear function some complex behaviors may emerge in the system such as local bifurcation phenomenon. • The qualitative behaviors of a typical nuclear reactor near its equilibrium points have been studied analytically. • Comprehensive analytical bifurcation analyses presented in this paper are transcritical bifurcation, saddle- node bifurcation and pitchfork bifurcation. - Abstract: In this paper, a qualitative approach has been used to explore nuclear reactor behaviors with nonlinear feedback. First, a system of four dimensional ordinary differential equations governing the dynamics of a typical nuclear reactor is introduced. These four state variables are the relative power of the reactor, the relative concentration of delayed neutron precursors, the fuel temperature and the coolant temperature. Then, the qualitative behaviors of the dynamical system near its equilibria have been studied analytically by using local bifurcation theory and Sotomayor’s theorem. The results indicated that despite the uncertainty of the reactivity, we can analyze the qualitative behavior changes of the reactor from the bifurcation point of view. Notably, local bifurcations that were considered in this paper include transcritical bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation and pitchfork bifurcation. The theoretical analysis showed that these three types of local bifurcations may occur in the four dimensional dynamical system. In addition, to confirm the analytical results the numerical simulations are given.
Dynamic CT for Parathyroid Adenoma Detection: How Does Radiation Dose Compare With Nuclear Medicine?
Czarnecki, Caroline A; Einsiedel, Paul F; Phal, Pramit M; Miller, Julie A; Lichtenstein, Meir; Stella, Damien L
2018-05-01
Dynamic CT is increasingly used for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas, but concerns remain about the radiation effective dose of CT compared with that of 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose delivered by three-phase dynamic CT with that delivered by 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT performed in accordance with our current protocols and to assess the possible reduction in effective dose achieved by decreasing the scan length (i.e., z-axis) of two phases of the dynamic CT protocol. The effective dose of a 99m Tc-sestamibi nuclear medicine parathyroid study performed with and without coregistration CT was calculated and compared with the effective dose of our current three-phase dynamic CT protocol as well as a proposed protocol involving CT with reduced scan length. The median effective dose for a 99m Tc-sestamibi nuclear medicine study was 5.6 mSv. This increased to 12.4 mSv with the addition of coregistration CT, which is higher than the median effective dose of 9.3 mSv associated with the dynamic CT protocol. Reducing the scan length of two phases in the dynamic CT protocol could reduce the median effective dose to 6.1 mSv, which would be similar to that of the dose from the 99m Tc-sestamibi study alone. Dynamic CT used for the detection of parathyroid adenoma can deliver a lower radiation dose than 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT. It may be possible to reduce the dose further by decreasing the scan length of two of the phases, although whether this has an impact on accuracy of the localization needs further investigation.
Wang, Shenglong; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun; Yang, Bin
2016-01-01
In this study, the dynamic recrystallization behaviors of a nuclear grade 316LN austenitic stainless steel were researched through hot compression experiment performed on a Gleeble-1500 simulator at temperatures of 900–1250 °C and strain rates of 0.01–1 s −1 . By multiple linear regressions of the flow stress-strain data, the dynamic recrystallization mathematical models of this steel as functions of strain rate, strain and temperature were developed. Then these models were verified in a real experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic recrystallization mechanism of the steel was determined. The results indicated that the subgrains in this steel are formed through dislocations polygonization and then grow up through subgrain boundaries migration towards high density dislocation areas and subgrain coalescence mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization nucleation performs in grain boundary bulging mechanism and subgrain growth mechanism. The nuclei grow up through high angle grain boundaries migration. - Highlights: •Establish the DRX mathematical models of nuclear grade 316LN stainless steel •Determine the DRX mechanism of this steel •Subgrains are formed through dislocations polygonization. •Subgrains grow up through subgrain boundaries migration and coalescence mechanism. •DRX nucleation performs in grain boundary bulging mechanism and subgrain growth mechanism.
The effect of motion on dynamic nuclear polarization: A new theoretical development
Coffino, A.R.
1989-01-01
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is a magnetic resonance technique which uses two different radiation sources: a radiofrequency field and microwave field to radiate nuclei and electrons, respectively. The DNP experiment probes the nature of the interaction between nuclei and electrons. The maximum of the resonance signal from the nucleus is plotted as a function of microwave frequency for the case of the microwaves on and off. The DNP signal is the ratio of these two signals and is termed the enhancement of the nuclear signal. This thesis considers the theory of the DNP signal based on the density matrix formulation of the Stochastic Liouville Equation, which incorporates the spin-spin interactions, spin-field interactions and a stochastic dynamics process which modulates these interactions. The case of one electron coupled to one spin one-half nucleus is considered. Such a formulation has never been developed. The thesis demonstrates that previous partial theories have attempted to incorporate dynamics have been incorrect. This theoretical development demonstrates, for the first time, how dynamics affects the DNP lineshapes. This theory predicts that DNP spectra change smoothly from the no motion to the fast motion region, and reproduces the known analytic answers in both the no-motion and the fast-motion limit. The most important observation of the results is that a DNP signal for a motional rate in the intermediate motional region looks like a superposition of a no-motion and fast-motion signal
Multitudes of Stable States in a Periodically Driven Electron-Nuclear Spin System in a Quantum Dot
Korenev, V. L.
2010-01-01
The periodical modulation of circularly polarized light with a frequency close to the electron spin resonance frequency induces a sharp change of the single electron spin orientation. Hyperfine interaction provides a feedback, thus fixing the precession frequency of the electron spin in the external and the Overhauser field near the modulation frequency. The nuclear polarization is bidirectional and the electron-nuclear spin system (ENSS) possesses a few stable states. A similar frequency-loc...
Numerical solutions of the aerosol general dynamic equation for nuclear reactor safety studies
Park, J.W.
1988-01-01
Methods and approximations inherent in modeling of aerosol dynamics and evolution for nuclear reactor source term estimation have been investigated. Several aerosol evolution problems are considered to assess numerical methods of solving the aerosol dynamic equation. A new condensational growth model is constructed by generalizing Mason's formula to arbitrary particle sizes, and arbitrary accommodation of the condensing vapor and background gas at particle surface. Analytical solution is developed for the aerosol growth equation employing the new condensation model. The space-dependent aerosol dynamic equation is solved to assess implications of spatial homogenization of aerosol distributions. The results of our findings are as follows. The sectional method solving the aerosol dynamic equation is quite efficient in modeling of coagulation problems, but should be improved for simulation of strong condensation problems. The J-space transform method is accurate in modeling of condensation problems, but is very slow. For the situation considered, the new condensation model predicts slower aerosol growth than the corresponding isothermal model as well as Mason's model, the effect of partial accommodation is considerable on the particle evolution, and the effect of the energy accommodation coefficient is more pronounced than that of the mass accommodation coefficient. For the initial conditions considered, the space-dependent aerosol dynamics leads to results that are substantially different from those based on the spatially homogeneous aerosol dynamic equation
The impact of interface bonding efficiency on high-burnup spent nuclear fuel dynamic performance
Jiang, Hao, E-mail: jiangh@ornl.gov; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong
2016-12-01
Highlights: • To investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on its dynamic performance. • Flexural rigidity, EI = M/κ, estimated from FEA results were benchmarked with SNF dynamic experimental results, and used to evaluate interface bonding efficiency. • Interface bonding efficiency can significantly dictate the SNF system rigidity and the associated dynamic performance. • With consideration of interface bonding efficiency and fuel cracking, HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with SNF static and dynamic experimental data. - Abstract: Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on system dynamic performance. Bending moments M were applied to FEA model to evaluate the system responses. From bending curvature, κ, flexural rigidity EI can be estimated as EI = M/κ. The FEA simulation results were benchmarked with experimental results from cyclic integrated reversal bending fatigue test (CIRFT) of HBR fuel rods. The consequence of interface debonding between fuel pellets and cladding is a redistribution of the loads carried by the fuel pellets to the clad, which results in a reduction in composite rod system flexural rigidity. Therefore, the interface bonding efficiency at the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces can significantly dictate the SNF system dynamic performance. With the consideration of interface bonding efficiency, the HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with CIRFT test data.
Thurber, Kent R; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert
2013-01-01
We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier, but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13)C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly (13)C-labeled l-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly (13)C-labeled amino acids. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2010-06-14
We evaluate the feasibility of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with sub-micron voxel dimensions using a combination of low temperatures and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Experiments are performed on nitroxide-doped glycerol-water at 9.4 T and temperatures below 40 K, using a 30 mW tunable microwave source for DNP. With DNP at 7 K, a 0.5 microL sample yields a (1)H NMR signal-to-noise ratio of 770 in two scans with pulsed spin-lock detection and after 80 db signal attenuation. With reasonable extrapolations, we infer that (1)H NMR signals from 1 microm(3) voxel volumes should be readily detectable, and voxels as small as 0.03 microm(3) may eventually be detectable. Through homonuclear decoupling with a frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg spin echo technique, we obtain 830 Hz (1)H NMR linewidths at low temperatures, implying that pulsed field gradients equal to 0.4 G/d or less would be required during spatial encoding dimensions of an imaging sequence, where d is the resolution in each dimension.
Han, Sang Jun; O'Malley, Bert W.
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND Endometriosis is defined as the colonization and growth of endometrial tissue at anatomic sites outside the uterine cavity. Up to 15% of reproductive-aged women in the USA suffer from painful symptoms of endometriosis, such as infertility, pelvic pain, menstrual cycle abnormalities and increased risk of certain cancers. However, many of the current clinical treatments for endometriosis are not sufficiently effective and yield unacceptable side effects. There is clearly an urgent need to identify new molecular mechanisms that critically underpin the initiation and progression of endometriosis in order to develop more specific and effective therapeutics which lack the side effects of current therapies. The aim of this review is to discuss how nuclear receptors (NRs) and their coregulators promote the progression of endometriosis. Understanding the pathogenic molecular mechanisms for the genesis and maintenance of endometriosis as modulated by NRs and coregulators can reveal new therapeutic targets for alternative endometriosis treatments. METHODS This review was prepared using published gene expression microarray data sets obtained from patients with endometriosis and published literature on NRs and their coregulators that deal with endometriosis progression. Using the above observations, our current understanding of how NRs and NR coregulators are involved in the progression of endometriosis is summarized. RESULTS Aberrant levels of NRs and NR coregulators in ectopic endometriosis lesions are associated with the progression of endometriosis. As an example, endometriotic cell-specific alterations in gene expression are correlated with a differential methylation status of the genome compared with the normal endometrium. These differential epigenetic regulations can generate favorable cell-specific NR and coregulator milieus for endometriosis progression. Genetic alterations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertion/deletion polymorphisms of NR
Sanchez M, H.; Espinosa P, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Francois, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Jiutepec 62550, Morelos (Mexico); Lopez S, R., E-mail: heribertosanchez7@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2016-09-15
In this work the nuclear fuel burn wave in a fast traveling wave reactor (TWR) is presented, using the reduced model of the neutron diffusion equation, considering only the axial component, and the equations of the transuranic dynamics of U-Pu and a radionuclide of Pu. Two critical zones of the reactor are considered, one enriched with U-Pu called ignition zone and the other impoverished zone or of U-238, named breeding zone. Occupying Na as refrigerant within TWR, and Fe as structural material; both are present in the ignition and breeding zones. Considering as a fissile material the Pu, since by neutron capture the U is transformed into Pu, thus increasing the quantity of Pu more than that of U; in this way the fuel burn stability with the wave dynamics is understood. The calculation of the results was approached numerically to determine the temporal space evolution of the neutron flux in this system and of the main isotopes involved in the burning process. (Author)
Dundulis, Gintautas, E-mail: gintas@mail.lei.lt [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Grybenas, Albertas [Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Karalevicius, Renatas [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Makarevicius, Vidas [Laboratory of Materials Research and Testing, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Rimkevicius, Sigitas; Uspuras, Eugenijus [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Breslaujos str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania)
2013-07-15
Highlights: • Plastical deformation of the shock absorber. • Dynamic testing of the scaled shock absorber. • Dynamic simulation of the shock absorber using finite element method. • Strain-rate evaluation in dynamic analysis. • Variation of displacement, acceleration and velocity during dynamic impact. -- Abstract: The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has two RBMK-1500 graphite moderated boiling water multi-channel reactors. The Ignalina NPP Unit 1 was shut down at the end of 2004 while Unit 2 has been in operation for over 5 years. After shutdown at the Unit 1 remained spent fuel assemblies with low burn-up depth. In order to reuse these assemblies in the reactor of Unit 2 a special set of equipment was developed. One of the most important items of this set is a container, which is used for the transportation of spent fuel assemblies between the reactors of Unit 1 and Unit 2. A special shock absorber was designed to avoid failure of fuel assemblies in case of hypothetical spent fuel assemblies drop accident during uploading/unloading of spent fuel assemblies to/from container. This shock absorber was examined using scaled experiments and finite element analysis. Static and dynamic investigations of the shock absorber were performed for the estimation and optimization of its geometrical parameters. The objective of this work is the estimation whether the proposed design of shock absorber can fulfil the stopping function of the spent fuel assemblies and is capable to withstand the dynamics load. Experimental testing of scaled shock absorber models and dynamic analytical investigations using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit were performed. The simulation model was verified by comparing the experimental and simulation results and it was concluded that the shock absorber is capable to withstand the dynamic load, i.e. successful force suppression function in case of accident.
Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration
Taylor, J'Tia Patrice; Shropshire, David E.
2009-01-01
This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated system
Dynamic Complexity Study of Nuclear Reactor and Process Heat Application Integration
J' Tia Patrice Taylor; David E. Shropshire
2009-09-01
Abstract This paper describes the key obstacles and challenges facing the integration of nuclear reactors with process heat applications as they relate to dynamic issues. The paper also presents capabilities of current modeling and analysis tools available to investigate these issues. A pragmatic approach to an analysis is developed with the ultimate objective of improving the viability of nuclear energy as a heat source for process industries. The extension of nuclear energy to process heat industries would improve energy security and aid in reduction of carbon emissions by reducing demands for foreign derived fossil fuels. The paper begins with an overview of nuclear reactors and process application for potential use in an integrated system. Reactors are evaluated against specific characteristics that determine their compatibility with process applications such as heat outlet temperature. The reactor system categories include light water, heavy water, small to medium, near term high-temperature, and far term high temperature reactors. Low temperature process systems include desalination, district heating, and tar sands and shale oil recovery. High temperature processes that support hydrogen production include steam reforming, steam cracking, hydrogen production by electrolysis, and far-term applications such as the sulfur iodine chemical process and high-temperature electrolysis. A simple static matching between complementary systems is performed; however, to gain a true appreciation for system integration complexity, time dependent dynamic analysis is required. The paper identifies critical issues arising from dynamic complexity associated with integration of systems. Operational issues include scheduling conflicts and resource allocation for heat and electricity. Additionally, economic and safety considerations that could impact the successful integration of these systems are considered. Economic issues include the cost differential arising due to an integrated
Molecular dynamics simulation of Xe bubble nucleation in nanocrystalline UO2 nuclear fuel
Moore, Emily; René Corrales, L.; Desai, Tapan; Devanathan, Ram
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► We simulated the interactions of defects and fission gas with grain boundaries in nuclear fuel. ► We observed the formation of Xe bubble nuclei that are difficult to observe experimentally. ► The bubble nuclei form by vacancy-assisted diffusion of Xe atoms. ► We also observed the initial stages of grain boundary motion. ► The study offers insights to the design of nuclear fuel to control fission gas release. - Abstract: We have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the dynamical interactions between vacancy defects, fission gas atoms (Xe), and grain boundaries in a model of polycrystalline UO 2 nuclear fuel with average grain diameter of about 20 nm. We followed the mobility and aggregation of Xe atoms in the vacancy-saturated model compound for up to 2 ns. During this time we observed the aggregation of Xe atoms into nuclei, which are possible precursors to Xe bubbles. The nucleation was driven by the migration of Xe atoms via vacancy-assisted diffusion. The Xe clusters aggregate faster than grain boundary diffusion rates and are smaller than experimentally observed bubbles. As the system evolves towards equilibrium, the Xe atom cluster growth slows down significantly, and the lattice relaxes around the cluster. These simulations provide insights into fundamental physical processes that are inaccessible to experiment.
Nuclear dynamics during germination, conidiation, and hyphal fusion of Fusarium oxysporum.
Ruiz-Roldán, M Carmen; Köhli, Michael; Roncero, M Isabel G; Philippsen, Peter; Di Pietro, Antonio; Espeso, Eduardo A
2010-08-01
In many fungal pathogens, infection is initiated by conidial germination. Subsequent stages involve germ tube elongation, conidiation, and vegetative hyphal fusion (anastomosis). Here, we used live-cell fluorescence to study the dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Hyphae of F. oxysporum have uninucleated cells and exhibit an acropetal nuclear pedigree, where only the nucleus in the apical compartment is mitotically active. In contrast, conidiation follows a basopetal pattern, whereby mononucleated microconidia are generated by repeated mitotic cycles of the subapical nucleus in the phialide, followed by septation and cell abscission. Vegetative hyphal fusion is preceded by directed growth of the fusion hypha toward the receptor hypha and followed by a series of postfusion nuclear events, including mitosis of the apical nucleus of the fusion hypha, migration of a daughter nucleus into the receptor hypha, and degradation of the resident nucleus. These previously unreported patterns of nuclear dynamics in F. oxysporum could be intimately related to its pathogenic lifestyle.
Xinyu Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Water plays a very important role in wood and wood products. The molecular motion of water in wood is susceptible to thermal activation. Thermal energy makes water molecules more active and weakens the force between water and wood; therefore, the water molecules dynamic properties are greatly influenced. Molecular dynamics study is important for wood drying; this paper therefore focuses on water molecular dynamics in wood through fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry techniques. The results show that the spin-lattice relaxation rate decreases with the Larmor frequency. Nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion profiles at different temperatures could separate the relaxation contribution of water in bigger pores and smaller pores. The T1 distribution from wide to narrow at 10 MHz Larmor frequency reflects the shrinkage of pore size with the higher temperature. The dependence of spin-lattice relaxation rate on correlation time for water molecular motion based on BPP (proposed by Bloembergen, Purcell, and Pound theory shows that water correlation time increases with higher temperature, and its activation energy, calculated using the Arrhenius transformation equation, is 9.06±0.53 kJ/mol.
Nuclear dynamics in the metastable phase of the solid acid caesium hydrogen sulfate.
Krzystyniak, Maciej; Drużbicki, Kacper; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix
2015-12-14
High-resolution spectroscopic measurements using thermal and epithermal neutrons and first-principles calculations within the framework of density-functional theory are used to investigate the nuclear dynamics of light and heavy species in the metastable phase of caesium hydrogen sulfate. Within the generalised-gradient approximation, extensive calculations show that both 'standard' and 'hard' formulations of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional supplemented by Tkatchenko-Scheffler dispersion corrections provide an excellent description of the known structure, underlying vibrational density of states, and nuclear momentum distributions measured at 10 and 300 K. Encouraged by the agreement between experiment and computational predictions, we provide a quantitative appraisal of the quantum contributions to nuclear motions in this solid acid. From this analysis, we find that only the heavier caesium atoms reach the classical limit at room temperature. Contrary to naïve expectation, sulfur exhibits a more pronounced quantum character relative to classical predictions than the lighter oxygen atom. We interpret this hitherto unexplored nuclear quantum effect as arising from the tighter binding environment of this species in this technologically relevant material.
Dynamical nuclear spin polarization induced by electronic current through double quantum dots
Lopez-Monis, Carlos; Platero, Gloria; Inarrea, Jesus
2011-01-01
We analyse electron-spin relaxation in electronic transport through coherently coupled double quantum dots (DQDs) in the spin blockade regime. In particular, we focus on hyperfine (HF) interaction as the spin-relaxation mechanism. We pay special attention to the effect of the dynamical nuclear spin polarization induced by the electronic current on the nuclear environment. We discuss the behaviour of the electronic current and the induced nuclear spin polarization versus an external magnetic field for different HF coupling intensities and interdot tunnelling strengths. We take into account, for each magnetic field, all HF-mediated spin-relaxation processes coming from different opposite spin level approaches. We find that the current as a function of the external magnetic field shows a peak or a dip and that the transition from a current dip to a current peak behaviour is obtained by decreasing the HF coupling or by increasing the interdot tunnelling strength. We give a physical picture in terms of the interplay between the electrons tunnelling out of the DQD and the spin-flip processes due to the nuclear environment.
Cerjan, Ch J.; Bernstein, L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cassata, W. S.; Brune, C. R.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G.; Hagmann, Chr; Hamza, A.; Hatarik, R.; Hartouni, E. P.; Henry, E. A.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khater, H. Y.; Kim, Y.; Kritcher, A.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Merrill, F.; Moody, K.; Neumayer, P.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sayre, D.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B.; Stoeffl, W.; Tommasini, R.; Yeamans, Ch; Velsko, C.; Wiescher, M.; Couder, M.; Zylstra, A.; Schneider, D.
2018-03-01
The generation of dynamic high energy density plasmas in the pico- to nano-second time domain at high-energy laser facilities affords unprecedented nuclear science research possibilities. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the primary goal of inertial confinement fusion research has led to the synergistic development of a unique high brightness neutron source, sophisticated nuclear diagnostic instrumentation, and versatile experimental platforms. These novel experimental capabilities provide a new path to investigate nuclear processes and structural effects in the time, mass and energy density domains relevant to astrophysical phenomena in a unique terrestrial environment. Some immediate applications include neutron capture cross-section evaluation, fission fragment production, and ion energy loss measurement in electron-degenerate plasmas. More generally, the NIF conditions provide a singular environment to investigate the interplay of atomic and nuclear processes such as plasma screening effects upon thermonuclear reactivity. Achieving enhanced understanding of many of these effects will also significantly advance fusion energy research and challenge existing theoretical models.
Dynamic analysis of Korean nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactor systems
Jeong, Chang Joon
2004-12-01
The Korean nuclear fuel cycle scenario was analyzed by the dynamic analysis method, including Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) and fast reactor systems. For the once-through fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 1%. After setting up the once-through fuel cycle model, the Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER) scenario was modeled to investigate the fuel cycle parameters. For the analysis of the fast reactor fuel cycle, both KAILMER-150 and KALIMER-600 reactors were considered. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, Minor Actinides (MA) and Fission Products (FP) of the recycling fuel cycle was estimated and compared to that of the once-through fuel cycle. Results of the once-through fuel cycle calculation showed that the demand grows up to 64 GWe and total amount of spent fuel would be ∼102 kt in 2100. If the KALIMER scenario is implemented, the total spent fuel inventory can be reduced by ∼80%. However it was found that the KALIMER scenario does not contribute to reduce the amount of MA and FP, which is important when designing a repository. For the further destruction of MA, an actinide burner can be considered in the future nuclear fuel cycle
Effect of heavy atoms on photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in liquids
Okuno, Yusuke; Cavagnero, Silvia
2018-01-01
Given its short hyperpolarization time (∼10-6 s) and mostly non-perturbative nature, photo-chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) is a powerful tool for sensitivity enhancement in nuclear magnetic resonance. In this study, we explore the extent of 1H-detected 13C nuclear hyperpolarization that can be gained via photo-CIDNP in the presence of small-molecule additives containing a heavy atom. The underlying rationale for this methodology is the well-known external-heavy-atom (EHA) effect, which leads to significant enhancements in the intersystem-crossing rate of selected photosensitizer dyes from photoexcited singlet to triplet. We exploited the EHA effect upon addition of moderate amounts of halogen-atom-containing cosolutes. The resulting increase in the transient triplet-state population of the photo-CIDNP sensitizer fluorescein resulted in a significant increase in the nuclear hyperpolarization achievable via photo-CIDNP in liquids. We also explored the internal-heavy-atom (IHA) effect, which is mediated by halogen atoms covalently incorporated into the photosensitizer dye. Widely different outcomes were achieved in the case of EHA and IHA, with EHA being largely preferable in terms of net hyperpolarization.
Large-signal, dynamic simulation of the slowpoke-3 nuclear heating reactor
Tseng, C.M.; Lepp, R.M.
1983-07-01
A 2 MWt nuclear reactor, called SLOWPOKE-3, is being developed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL). This reactor, which is cooled by natural circulation, is designed to produce hot water for commercial space heating and perhaps generate some electricity in remote locations where the costs of alternate forms of energy are high. A large-signal, dynamic simulation of this reactor, without closed-loop control, was developed and implemented on a hybrid computer, using the basic equations of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. The natural circulation of downcomer flow in the pool was simulated using a special filter, capable of modelling various flow conditions. The simulation was then used to study the intermediate and long-term transient response of SLOWPOKE-3 to large disturbances, such as loss of heat sink, loss of regulation, daily load following, and overcooling of the reactor coolant. Results of the simulation show that none of these disturbances produce hazardous transients
Dynamic interaction of components, structure, and foundation of nuclear power facilities
Pajuhesh, J.; Hadjian, A.H.
1977-01-01
A solution is formulated for the dynamic analysis of structures and components with different stiffness and damping characteristics, including the consideration of soil-structure interaction effects. Composite structures are often analysed approximately, in particular with regards to damping. For example, the reactor and other equipment in nuclear power plant structures are often analysed by assuming them uncoupled from the supporting structures. To achieve a better accuracy, the coupled system is hereby analysed as a composite component-structure-soil system. To demonstrate the assembly technique, two examples are considered: (a) a steel structure sitting on a concrete stem and linked by a steel bridge to another concrete structure, and (b) an actual model of a nuclear power plant containment structure. (Auth.)
Control Systems for a Dynamic Multi-Physics Model of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System
Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Fugate, David W [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL
2017-01-01
A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different local markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.
Perera, Gonaduwage; Johnson, Ian; Keller, Dustin
2017-09-01
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is used in most of the solid polarized target scattering experiments. Those target materials must be irradiated using microwaves at a frequency determined by the difference in the nuclear Larmor and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) frequencies. But the resonance frequency changes with time as a result of radiation damage. Hence the microwave frequency should be adjusted accordingly. Manually adjusting the frequency can be difficult, and improper adjustments negatively impact the polarization. In order to overcome these difficulties, two controllers were developed which automate the process of seeking and maintaining the optimal frequency: one being a standalone controller for a traditional DC motor and the other a LabVIEW VI for a stepper motor configuration. Further a Monte-Carlo simulation was developed which can accurately model the polarization over time as a function of microwave frequency. In this talk, analysis of the simulated data and recent improvements to the automated system will be presented. DOE.
Suraud, E.
1989-01-01
We present a microscopic study of the quasi-fusion/explosion transition in the framework of Landau-Vlasov simulations and for intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions (beam energy from 10 to 100 MeV/A). After a short presentation of the results of schematic calculations, which furnish a guideline for microscopic investigations, we discuss the relevance of our approach for studying multifragmentation. Once the limitations of this kind of dynamical simulations exhibited, we perform a detailed analysis in terms of the equation of state of the system. In agreement with schematic models we find that the composite nuclear system formed in the collision actually explodes when it stays long enough in the mechanically unstable region (spinodal region). Quantitative estimates of the explosion threshold are given for central symmetric reactions (Ca + Ca and Ar + Ti). The link of the results with transport properties and the equation of state of nuclear matter are briefly discussed
Application of the nuclear gages in dynamic sedimentology for the solid transport study
Lamdasni, Y.
1994-02-01
The problems caused by the solid particle transport in rivers, dams, harbors, estuaries and in navigation channels have considerable economical consequences. The technical difficulties met when trying to limit or manage these problems are very important because of lack of knowledge. The nuclear gages and the radioactive tracers can be the measurement and monitoring means which, associated to the conventional techniques, permit to develop strongly the knowledge in the solid transport field. This report gives the modes of solid transport and the problems caused by these transports and exposes the physical properties of the fine sediments and their behavior under the hydrodynamic effects. In the same way, it deals with the theory of the nuclear gages, often applied in dynamic sedimentology and gives some examples of their applications. 29 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs. (F.M.)
Clarkson, R.B.; Odintsov, B.M.; Ceroke, P.J.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, J.H.; Fruianu, M.; Belford, R.L.
1998-01-01
Carbon chars have been synthesized in our laboratory from a variety of starting materials, by means of a highly controlled pyrolysis technique. These chars exhibit electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) line shapes which change with the local oxygen concentration in a reproducible and stable fashion; they can be calibrated and used for oximetry. Biological stability and low toxicity make chars good sensors for in vivo measurements. Scalar and dipolar interactions of water protons at the surfaces of chars may be utilized to produce dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of the 1 H nuclear spin population in conjunction with electron Zeeman pumping. Low-frequency EPR, DNP and DNP-enhanced MRI all show promise as oximetry methods when used with carbon chars. (author)
THz-waves channeling in a monolithic saddle-coil for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR
Macor, A.; de Rijk, E.; Annino, G.; Alberti, S.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.
2011-10-01
A saddle coil manufactured by electric discharge machining (EDM) from a solid piece of copper has recently been realized at EPFL for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance experiments (DNP-NMR) at 9.4 T. The corresponding electromagnetic behavior of radio-frequency (400 MHz) and THz (263 GHz) waves were studied by numerical simulation in various measurement configurations. Moreover, we present an experimental method by which the results of the THz-wave numerical modeling are validated. On the basis of the good agreement between numerical and experimental results, we conducted by numerical simulation a systematic analysis on the influence of the coil geometry and of the sample properties on the THz-wave field, which is crucial in view of the optimization of DNP-NMR in solids.
Zheng, Z.C.; Xie, G.; Du, Q.H.
1987-01-01
Because of the existence of nonlinear characteristics in practical engineering structures, such as large steam turbine-foundation system and offshore platform, it is necessary to predict nonlinear dynamic responses for these very large and complex structural systems subjected extreme load. Due to the limited storage and high executing cost of computers, there are still some difficulties in the analysis for such systems although the traditional finite element methods provide basic available methods to the problems. The dynamic substructure methods, which were developed as a branch of general structural dynamics in the past more than 20 years and have been widely used from aircraft, space vehicles to other mechanical and civil engineering structures, present a powerful method to the analysis of very large structural systems. The key to success is due to the considerable reduction in the number of degrees of freedom while not changing the physical essence of the problems investigated. The dynamic substructure method has been extended to nonlinear system and applicated to the analysis of nonlinear dynamic response of an offshore platform by Z.C. Zheng, et al. (1983, 1985a, b, c). In this paper, the method is presented to analyze dynamic responses of the systems contained intrinsic nonlinearities and with nonlinear attachments and nonlinear supports of nuclear structural systems. The efficiency of the method becomes more clear for nonlinear dynamic problems due to the adoption of iterating processes. For simplicity, the analysis procedure is demonstrated briefly. The generalized substructure method of nonlinear systems is similar to linear systems, only the nonlinear terms are treated as pseudo-forces. Interface coordinates are classified into two categories, the connecting interface coordinates which connect with each other directly in the global system and the linking interface coordinates which link to each other through attachments. (orig./GL)
Hossain, M. D.; Sultana, T.
2016-01-01
Full text: Previous research did not investigate the impact of the TH dynamics of knowledge innovations on the nuclear knowledge innovations adoption/assimilation in the organizational context. Hence, the recommendation of R&D policy reformulation seems too broad. These gaps are the prime motivators for the research. In the organizational context, we posit that TH dynamics of knowledge base innovation serves as complements to managers’ knowledge frames related to a technology innovation. We examine interactions between three knowledge frames—integration frame, opportunism frame, and policy knowledge frame, and two TH dynamics of knowledge innovations—bilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations and trilateral TH dynamics of knowledge innovations, and their relationship with the assimilation of nuclear knowledge innovations. We aim to research on the issues of the dynamics of knowledge base of innovations involving TH collaborations (university, industry and government) in Bangladesh as a new build nuclear project. As a result, we can find out the impact of TH collaborations on organizational nuclear knowledge innovations management as well as core institutional problems of the knowledge base of innovation systems in terms of R&D policy. Finally, findings identify lack in production of nuclear knowledge innovations and concrete recommendation of R&D policy reformulation. (author
Furuno, Akiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Tsujita, Yuichi; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Chino, Masamichi
2000-01-01
WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is a computer-based emergency response system to predict long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident. WSPEEDI has been applied to several international exercises and real events. Through such experiences, the new version of WSPEEDI aims to employ a combination of an atmospheric dynamic model and a particle random walk model for more accurate predictions. This paper describes these models, improvement of prediction and computational techniques for quick responses. (author)
Modeling and simulation of pressurizer dynamic process in PWR nuclear power plant
Ma Jin; Liu Changliang; Li Shu'na
2010-01-01
By analysis of the actual operating characteristics of pressurizer in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant and based on some reasonable simplification and basic assumptions, the quality and energy conservation equations about pressurizer' s steam zone and the liquid zone are set up. The purpose of this paper is to build a pressurizer model of two imbalance districts. Water level and pressure control system of pressurizer is formed though model encapsulation. Dynamic simulation curves of main parameters are also shown. At last, comparisons between the theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the pressurizer model of two imbalance districts is reasonable. (authors)
Wylie, Benjamin J.; Dzikovski, Boris G.; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H.; McDermott, Ann E.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces
Ali Farsoon Pilehvar
2018-06-01
Full Text Available Self-pressurization analysis of the natural circulation integral nuclear reactor through a new dynamic model is studied. Unlike conventional pressurized water reactors, this reactor type controls the system pressure using saturated coolant water in the steam dome at the top of the pressure vessel. Self-pressurization model is developed based on conservation of mass, volume, and energy by predicting the condensation that occurs in the steam dome and the flashing inside the chimney using the partial differential equation. A simple but functional model is adopted for the steam generator. The obtained results indicate that the variable measurement is consistent with design data and that this new model is able to predict the dynamics of the reactor in different situations. It is revealed that flashing and condensation power are in direct relation with the stability of the system pressure, without which pressure convergence cannot be established. Keywords: Condensation Power, Flashing Phenomenon, Natural Circulation, Self-Pressurization, Small Modular Reactor
Dynamic model for the control system simulation and design of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor
Zhang Yuai; Liu Longzhi; Ma Changwen
1999-01-01
The author develops a nonlinear dynamic model used in a wide range control system simulation for a 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-200). Besides a one-point neutron kinetics equation and temperature feedback based on the lumped fuel and coolant temperature, which are the usual methods used in modeling of PWR, two other factors are also considered in order to suit the wide range operation. The first consideration is the natural circulation in the primary loop because it affects the heat transfer coefficients in the core and in the primary heat exchanger (PHE). The second consideration is the flow rate variation in the secondary loop which leads to some nonlinear properties. The simulation results show that the model is accurate enough for control system simulation. Some model reduction basis can be obtained through the dynamic analysis
Kusunoki, T.; Uematsu, H.; Kobayashi, H.
1992-01-01
A marine reactor plant sustains incessant load change and the effects of vibration and ship motions due to the maneuvering and dynamic conditions in the marine environment. The change of process variables of the reactor plant is made in accordance with the load change and other effects, and also results in the propeller revolution change and subsequently affects on ship motions. In order to grasp dynamic behavior of the reactor plant in normal operation, including port entry and departure, and also in abnormal conditions such as anticipated transient and accidents, the Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (simply ENSSY, hereinafter) carriers out combined analysis in which the behaviors of the ship propulsion, the reactor plant and the secondary systems are simultaneously calculated in each time step. (author)
Nuclear dynamics of influenza A virus ribonucleoproteins revealed by live-cell imaging studies
Loucaides, Eva M.; Kirchbach, Johann C. von; Foeglein, Agnes; Sharps, Jane; Fodor, Ervin; Digard, Paul
2009-01-01
The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus is transcribed and replicated in the nuclei of infected cells by the viral RNA polymerase. Only four viral polypeptides are required but multiple cellular components are potentially involved. We used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to characterise the dynamics of GFP-tagged viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) components in living cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) displayed very slow mobility that significantly increased on formation of transcriptionally active RNPs. Conversely, single or dimeric polymerase subunits showed fast nuclear dynamics that decreased upon formation of heterotrimers, suggesting increased interaction of the full polymerase complex with a relatively immobile cellular component(s). Treatment with inhibitors of cellular transcription indicated that in part, this reflected an interaction with cellular RNA polymerase II. Analysis of mutated influenza virus polymerase complexes further suggested that this was through an interaction between PB2 and RNA Pol II separate from PB2 cap-binding activity.
Experimental methods of investigation of kinetics and dynamics of nuclear reactors
Costa Oliveira, Jaime M.
1969-03-01
The author presents experimental methods used to study kinetic and dynamic properties of nuclear reactors. Kinetic methods aim at determining characteristic parameters of the behaviour in time of neutrons. Dynamic methods aim at establishing the relationships between the reactor behaviour and its internal and external causes (notably the measurement of transfer functions). The author proposes a classification with respect to the excitation type: periodic excitation (reactivity sinusoidal modulation, source sinusoidal modulation, periodic pulse excitation), non periodic excitation (reactivity monitoring, reactivity linear variation, reactivity variation according to any given law, removal of starting source), random excitation (random reactivity or source excitation), natural fluctuations (alpha-Rossi method, methods of reduced variance, probabilistic methods, correlation methods, spectral analysis method). He also addresses space and energy effects. Applications are reported for low power and power reactors
Cook, N.G.W.; Tsang, C.F.
1990-01-01
The development and safety evaluation of a nuclear waste geologic repository require a proper scientific understanding of the site response. Such scientific understanding depends on information from a number of geoscience disciplines, including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, geomechanics and hydrogeology. The information comes in four stages: (1) general regional survey data base, (2) surface-based testing, (3) exploratory shaft testing, and (4) repository construction and evaluation. A discussion is given on the dynamic use of the information through the different stages. We point out the need for abstracting, deriving and updating a quantitative spatial and process model (QSPM) to develop a scientific understanding of site responses as a crucial element in the dynamic procedure. 2 figs
Huang, Chongyang; Zhou, Qi; Gao, Shan; Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Liu, Chaoyang
2016-01-20
Different ginger cultivars may contain different nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, a time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance method was employed to study water dynamics in different ginger cultivars. Significant differences in transverse relaxation time T2 values assigned to the distribution of water in different parts of the plant were observed between Henan ginger and four other ginger cultivars. Ion concentration and metabolic analysis showed similar differences in Mn ion concentrations and organic solutes among the different ginger cultivars, respectively. On the basis of Pearson's correlation analysis, many organic solutes and 6-gingerol, the main active substance of ginger, exhibited significant correlations with water distribution as determined by NMR T2 relaxation, suggesting that the organic solute differences may impact water distribution. Our work demonstrates that low-field NMR relaxometry provides useful information about water dynamics in different ginger cultivars as affected by the presence of different organic solutes.
Ferguston, C.D.; Ouagrham, S.B.
2002-01-01
An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control
Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roca, M Gabriela; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen
2015-01-01
In the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, vegetative hyphal fusion triggers nuclear mitotic division in the invading hypha followed by migration of a nucleus into the receptor hypha and degradation of the resident nucleus. Here we examined the role of autophagy in fusion-induced nuclear degradation. A search of the F. oxysporum genome database for autophagy pathway components identified putative orthologs of 16 core autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast, including the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8, which is required for the formation of autophagosomal membranes. F. oxysporum Foatg8Δ mutants were generated in a strain harboring H1-cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei to facilitate analysis of nuclear dynamics. The Foatg8Δ mutants did not show MDC-positive staining in contrast to the wild type and the FoATG8-complemented (cFoATG8) strain, suggesting that FoAtg8 is required for autophagy in F. oxysporum. The Foatg8Δ strains displayed reduced rates of hyphal growth, conidiation, and fusion, and were significantly attenuated in virulence on tomato plants and in the nonvertebrate animal host Galleria mellonella. In contrast to wild-type hyphae, which are almost exclusively composed of uninucleated hyphal compartments, the hyphae of the Foatg8Δ mutants contained a significant fraction of hyphal compartments with 2 or more nuclei. The increase in the number of nuclei per hyphal compartment was particularly evident after hyphal fusion events. Time-lapse microscopy analyses revealed abnormal mitotic patterns during vegetative growth in the Foatg8Δ mutants. Our results suggest that autophagy mediates nuclear degradation after hyphal fusion and has a general function in the control of nuclear distribution in F. oxysporum.
Ha, Jeong Gon, E-mail: jgha87@kaist.ac.kr; Kim, Dong-Soo, E-mail: dskim@kaist.ac.kr
2014-10-01
Highlights: • A series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed for NPP structure to investigate the soil–foundation-structure interaction with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock. • SFSI phenomena for NPP structure were observed directly using experimental method. • Effect of the soil stiffness and nonlinear characteristics on SFSI was estimated. • There are comparisons of the control motions for seismic design of a NPP structure. • Subsoil condition, earthquake intensity and control motion affected to seismic load. - Abstract: To evaluate the earthquake loads for the seismic design of a nuclear containment structure, it is necessary to consider the soil–foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) due to their interdependent behavior. Especially, understanding the effects of soil stiffness under the structure and the location of control motion to SFSI are very important. Motivated by these requirements, a series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock (WR), as well as different seismic intensities for the bedrock motion. The different amplification characteristics in peak-accelerations profile and effects of soil-nonlinearity in response spectrum were observed. The dynamic behaviors were compared between surface of free-field and foundation of the structure for the evaluation of the control motion for seismic design. It was found that dynamic centrifuge test has potentials to estimate the seismic load considering SFSI.
Ha, Jeong Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed for NPP structure to investigate the soil–foundation-structure interaction with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock. • SFSI phenomena for NPP structure were observed directly using experimental method. • Effect of the soil stiffness and nonlinear characteristics on SFSI was estimated. • There are comparisons of the control motions for seismic design of a NPP structure. • Subsoil condition, earthquake intensity and control motion affected to seismic load. - Abstract: To evaluate the earthquake loads for the seismic design of a nuclear containment structure, it is necessary to consider the soil–foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) due to their interdependent behavior. Especially, understanding the effects of soil stiffness under the structure and the location of control motion to SFSI are very important. Motivated by these requirements, a series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock (WR), as well as different seismic intensities for the bedrock motion. The different amplification characteristics in peak-accelerations profile and effects of soil-nonlinearity in response spectrum were observed. The dynamic behaviors were compared between surface of free-field and foundation of the structure for the evaluation of the control motion for seismic design. It was found that dynamic centrifuge test has potentials to estimate the seismic load considering SFSI
Dynamics of solid alanine by means of nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry
Kubica-Misztal, A.; Rochowski, P.; Florek-Wojciechowska, M.; Kruk, D.
2017-04-01
1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry was applied to investigate the dynamics of l-alanine in the solid phase (powder). The experimental studies were carried out in a very broad frequency range, covering four orders of magnitude—from 4 kHz to 40 MHz (referring to the 1H resonance frequency) in order to probe motional processes of much different time scales by a single experiment. To get access to the dynamics of different proton groups of alanine, the 1H spin-lattice relaxation measurements were performed for non-deuterated and partially deuterated alanine. The experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 293 K-370 K (non-deuterated alanine) and 318 K-370 K (partially deuterated alanine). As a result of a thorough theoretical analysis of the extensive set of experimental results, three motional processes occurring on different time scales are identified and quantitatively described. The slowest process occurs on a time scale of μs and it is attributed to the collective dynamics of a 3D hydrogen bond network of alanine, while the intermediate, attributed to the dynamics of the NH3 group, corresponds to the range of tenths of ns. The fast process describes the rotation of the CH3 group.
Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.
2013-02-01
This proceedings volume contains the invited lectures and contributions presented at the International Summer School on Nuclear Physics held at Trei Brazi, a summer resort of the Bioterra University, near the city of Predeal, Romania, on 9-20 July 2012. The long tradition of International Summer Schools on Nuclear Physics in Romania dates as far back as 1964, with the event being scheduled every two years. During this period of almost 50 years, many outstanding nuclear scientists have lectured on various topics related to nuclear physics and particle physics. This year we celebrate the 80th birthday of Aureliu Sandulescu, one of the founders of the Romanian school of theoretical nuclear physics. He was Serban Titeica's PhD student, one of Werner Heisenberg's PhD students, and he organized the first edition of this event. Aureliu Sandulescu's major contributions to the field of theoretical nuclear physics are related in particular to the prediction of cluster radioactivity, the physics of open quantum systems and the innovative technique of detecting superheavy nuclei using the double magic projectile 48Ca (Calcium), nowadays a widely used method at the JINR—Dubna and GSI—Darmstadt laboratories. The title of the event, 'Dynamics of Open Nuclear Systems', is in recognition of Aureliu Sandulescu's great personality. The lectures were attended by Romanian and foreign Master and PhD students and young researchers in nuclear physics. About 25 reputable professors and researchers in nuclear physics delivered lectures during this period. According to a well-established tradition, an interval of two hours was allotted for each lecture (including discussions). Therefore we kept a balance between the school and conference format. Two lectures were held during the morning and afternoon sessions. After lecture sessions, three or four oral contributions were given by young scientists. This was a good opportunity for them to present the results of their research in front of
Eichmann, Cédric; Orts, Julien; Tzitzilonis, Christos; Vögeli, Beat; Smrt, Sean; Lorieau, Justin; Riek, Roland
2014-12-11
The interaction between membrane proteins and lipids or lipid mimetics such as detergents is key for the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. In NMR-based structural studies of membrane proteins, qualitative analysis of intermolecular nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) or paramagnetic resonance enhancement are used in general to identify the transmembrane segments of a membrane protein. Here, we employed a quantitative characterization of intermolecular NOEs between (1)H of the detergent and (1)H(N) of (2)H-perdeuterated, (15)N-labeled α-helical membrane protein-detergent complexes following the exact NOE (eNOE) approach. Structural considerations suggest that these intermolecular NOEs should show a helical-wheel-type behavior along a transmembrane helix or a membrane-attached helix within a membrane protein as experimentally demonstrated for the complete influenza hemagglutinin fusion domain HAfp23. The partial absence of such a NOE pattern along the amino acid sequence as shown for a truncated variant of HAfp23 and for the Escherichia coli inner membrane protein YidH indicates the presence of large tertiary structure fluctuations such as an opening between helices or the presence of large rotational dynamics of the helices. Detergent-protein NOEs thus appear to be a straightforward probe for a qualitative characterization of structural and dynamical properties of membrane proteins embedded in detergent micelles.
Schrader, Alex M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Cheng, Chi-Yuan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Israelachvili, Jacob N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Han, Songi [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2016-07-28
Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity.
Collective dynamics of nuclear fusion: deformation changes and heating during the fusion
Mikhailov, I.N.; Mikhailova, T.I.; Toro, M. di; Baran, V.; Briancon, C.
1996-01-01
The formalism developed elsewhere for the theoretical description of the dynamics involved in the heavy nucleus fusion is applied in this paper to study the history of the fusion of two identical heavy nuclei experiencing central collision. The evolution of the shape and of the temperature of symmetrical fusing systems is studied. The role of the elastoplasticity of nuclear matter in the nonmonotonical changes of the shape is elucidated in this way. A tentative explanation of the ''extra push'' phenomenon is given in terms of the competition between elastic properties of fusing systems driving to the re-separation of colliding nuclei and the dissipative (plastic) properties of nuclear matter transforming the energy of collective motion into the energy of statistical excitation and thus leading to the fusion. The fingerprints of the heavy-nucleus fusion history as it is depicted by the model are traced in the anisotropy of the dipole and quadrupole γ-radiation emitted during the fusion. The parallels in the description of the fusion dynamics given by the simple model used in this paper and by the more fundamental approaches based on the kinetic equation are emphasised. (orig.)
Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
Baltisberger, Jay Harvey [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1993-06-01
This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the {sup 87}Rb and {sup 85}Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem.
Numerical simulation of stochastic point kinetic equation in the dynamical system of nuclear reactor
Saha Ray, S.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► In this paper stochastic neutron point kinetic equations have been analyzed. ► Euler–Maruyama method and Strong Taylor 1.5 order method have been discussed. ► These methods are applied for the solution of stochastic point kinetic equations. ► Comparison between the results of these methods and others are presented in tables. ► Graphs for neutron and precursor sample paths are also presented. -- Abstract: In the present paper, the numerical approximation methods, applied to efficiently calculate the solution for stochastic point kinetic equations () in nuclear reactor dynamics, are investigated. A system of Itô stochastic differential equations has been analyzed to model the neutron density and the delayed neutron precursors in a point nuclear reactor. The resulting system of Itô stochastic differential equations are solved over each time-step size. The methods are verified by considering different initial conditions, experimental data and over constant reactivities. The computational results indicate that the methods are simple and suitable for solving stochastic point kinetic equations. In this article, a numerical investigation is made in order to observe the random oscillations in neutron and precursor population dynamics in subcritical and critical reactors.
Advances and applications of dynamic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance
Baltisberger, J.H.
1993-06-01
This dissertation describes nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and theory which have been developed to study quadrupolar nuclei (those nuclei with spin greater than one-half) in the solid state. Primarily, the technique of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, the improvement in both the resolution (two-dimensional pure-absorptive phase methods and DAS angle choice) and sensitivity (pulse-sequence development), along with effective spinning speed enhancement (again through choice of DAS conditions or alternative multiple pulse schemes) of dynamic-angle spinning experiment was realized with both theory and experimental examples. The application of DAS to new types of nuclei (specifically the 87 Rb and 85 Rb nuclear spins) and materials (specifically amorphous solids) has also greatly expanded the possibilities of the use of DAS to study a larger range of materials. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate both recent advances and applications of the DAS technique, and by no means represents a comprehensive study of any particular chemical problem
Experimental and Theoretical Dynamic Study of the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station
Bliselius, P A; Vollmer, H; Aakerhielm, F
1969-12-15
The report presents a final review and summary of all dynamic investigations of the Aagesta nuclear power station. Special attention is paid to the final and unpublished experiments performed in 1965-66. These experiments are discussed and compared to the theoretical predictions. Transfer functions and step responses were measured by perturbations in reactivity and steam load. Three methods were used for transfer function measurements: step functions, trapeze waves and multifrequency functions based on the pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS). From the frequency analysis we found that the different perturbation methods led to quite consistent results. For the Agesta application the PRBS method is demonstrated to be an accurate and practical method for obtaining experimental transfer functions. The step technique did not give satisfactory results for frequencies above approximately 0.01 Hz. From the static check of the model we may conclude that the experiments agree fairly well mutually and with theory. The measured reactivity coefficients tend to be smaller than the predicted ones. The predicted transients compare well with the measured ones. However, there is a tendency to more peaked power transients from the model. This is believed to be due to the assumption that the moderator could be regarded as one channel. The dynamic experiments carried out at the Agesta nuclear power station demonstrate both the inherent stability and the safety of this plant.
Applying fluid dynamics simulations to improve processing and remediation of nuclear waste - 59172
Knight, Kelly J.; Peltier, Joel; Berkoe, Jon; Rosendall, Brigette; Kennedy, Chris
2012-01-01
Transport and processing of nuclear waste for treatment and storage can involve unique and complex thermal and fluid dynamic conditions that pose potential for safety risk and/or design uncertainty and also are likely to be subjected to more precise performance requirements than in other industries. From an engineering analysis perspective, certainty of outcome is essential. Advanced robust methods for engineering analysis and simulation of critical processes can help reduce risk of design uncertainty and help mitigate or reduce the amount of expensive full-scale demonstration testing. This paper will discuss experience gained in applying computational fluid dynamics models to key processes for mixing, transporting, and thermal treatment of nuclear waste as part of designing a massive vitrification process plant that will convert high and low level nuclear waste into glass for permanent storage. Examples from industrial scale simulations will be presented. The computational models have shown promise in replicating several complex physical processes such as solid-liquid flows in suspension, blending of slurries, and cooling of materials at extremely high temperature. Knowledge gained from applying simulation has provided detailed insight into determining the most critical aspects of these complex processes that can ultimately be used to help guide the optimum design of waste handling equipment based on credible calculations while ensuring risk of design uncertainty is minimized. The WTP Project is faced with complex technical challenges that must have solutions that enable the successful operation of the plant for its 30+ year operating life. The Project chose to reduce those risks by employing an experienced team that applied CFD in a disciplined manner and adhered to an established guideline with the following benefits: - Gained an improvement in accuracy of predictions for complex physical situations; - Gained an improvement of the quality of experimental
Visualization of the dynamic multimerization of human Cytomegalovirus pp65 in punctuate nuclear foci
Cui Zongqiang; Zhang Ke; Zhang Zhiping; Liu Yalan; Zhou Yafeng; Wei Hongping; Zhang Xian-En
2009-01-01
The phosphorylated protein pp65 of human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the predominant virion protein and the major tegument constituent. It plays important roles in HCMV infection and virion assembly. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis showed that HCMV pp65 accumulated dynamically in punctuate nuclear foci when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging disclosed that pp65 can self-interact in its localization foci. Yeast two-hybrid assay verified that pp65 is a self-associating protein, and the N-terminal amino acids 14-22 were determined to be essential for pp65 self-association. However, these amino acids were not related to pp65 localization in the specific nuclear foci. The interaction of pp65 and ppUL97 was also studied by FRET microscopy, and the result suggested that there is another signal sequence in pp65, being the ppUL97 phosphorylation site, that is responsible for localization of pp65 in nuclear foci. These results help to understand the function of pp65 in HCMV infection and virion morphogenesis.
Dynamic nuclear polarization using frequency modulation at 3.34 T.
Hovav, Y; Feintuch, A; Vega, S; Goldfarb, D
2014-01-01
During dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments polarization is transferred from unpaired electrons to their neighboring nuclear spins, resulting in dramatic enhancement of the NMR signals. While in most cases this is achieved by continuous wave (cw) irradiation applied to samples in fixed external magnetic fields, here we show that DNP enhancement of static samples can improve by modulating the microwave (MW) frequency at a constant field of 3.34 T. The efficiency of triangular shaped modulation is explored by monitoring the (1)H signal enhancement in frozen solutions containing different TEMPOL radical concentrations at different temperatures. The optimal modulation parameters are examined experimentally and under the most favorable conditions a threefold enhancement is obtained with respect to constant frequency DNP in samples with low radical concentrations. The results are interpreted using numerical simulations on small spin systems. In particular, it is shown experimentally and explained theoretically that: (i) The optimal modulation frequency is higher than the electron spin-lattice relaxation rate. (ii) The optimal modulation amplitude must be smaller than the nuclear Larmor frequency and the EPR line-width, as expected. (iii) The MW frequencies corresponding to the enhancement maxima and minima are shifted away from one another when using frequency modulation, relative to the constant frequency experiments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
3D digital dynamic management of maintenance projects for nuclear power plant
Wang Baizhong; Luo Yalin; Fang Hao; Ma Li; Zhang Jie; Wang Ruobing; Xie Min
2005-01-01
The whole process for the application of digital plant technique in the equipment transport in reactor building and the dynamic management of the spatial arrangement in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station was introduced in the paper. The establishment of 3D digital Daya Bay plant, and the method and procedure to apply it in the nuclear power plant maintenance project have been discussed. This project utilizes the outer database to preserve the maintenance status of equipments, and avoids the damage or changing of the original 3D final model. Based on the maintenance procedure, the spatial arrangement and schedule for the maintenance of nuclear power station have been simulated and optimized for the whole process. This technique can simulate and optimize the arrangement and spatial arrangement for maintenance in limited space. It has been applied successfully in the reactor vessel head replacement for Unit 2 of Daya Bay NPP to shorten the time for key routes and the total time of this project by 16 hours and 92.5 hours, respectively. (author)
A stochastic dynamic model for human error analysis in nuclear power plants
Delgado-Loperena, Dharma
Nuclear disasters like Three Mile Island and Chernobyl indicate that human performance is a critical safety issue, sending a clear message about the need to include environmental press and competence aspects in research. This investigation was undertaken to serve as a roadmap for studying human behavior through the formulation of a general solution equation. The theoretical model integrates models from two heretofore-disassociated disciplines (behavior specialists and technical specialists), that historically have independently studied the nature of error and human behavior; including concepts derived from fractal and chaos theory; and suggests re-evaluation of base theory regarding human error. The results of this research were based on comprehensive analysis of patterns of error, with the omnipresent underlying structure of chaotic systems. The study of patterns lead to a dynamic formulation, serving for any other formula used to study human error consequences. The search for literature regarding error yielded insight for the need to include concepts rooted in chaos theory and strange attractors---heretofore unconsidered by mainstream researchers who investigated human error in nuclear power plants or those who employed the ecological model in their work. The study of patterns obtained from the rupture of a steam generator tube (SGTR) event simulation, provided a direct application to aspects of control room operations in nuclear power plant operations. In doing so, the conceptual foundation based in the understanding of the patterns of human error analysis can be gleaned, resulting in reduced and prevent undesirable events.
Hyperfine interactions measured by nuclear orientation technique
Brenier, R.
1982-01-01
This report concerns the use of hyperfine interaction to magnetism measurements and to the determination of the nuclear structure of Terbium isotopes by the low temperature nuclear orientation technique. In the first part we show that the rhodium atom does not support any localized moment in the chromium matrix. The hyperfine magnetic field at the rhodium nuclear site follows the Overhauser distribution, and the external applied magnetic field supports a negative Knight shift of 16%. In the second part we consider the structure of neutron deficient Terbium isotopes. We introduce a coherent way of evaluation and elaborate a new nuclear thermometer. The magnetic moments allows to strike on the studied states configuration. The analysis of our results shows a decrease of the nuclear deformation for the lighter isotopes [fr
Models test on dynamic structure-structure interaction of nuclear power plant buildings
Kitada, Y.; Hirotani, T.
1999-01-01
A reactor building of an NPP (nuclear power plant) is generally constructed closely adjacent to a turbine building and other buildings such as the auxiliary building, and in increasing numbers of NPPs, multiple plants are being planned and constructed closely on a single site. In these situations, adjacent buildings are considered to influence each other through the soil during earthquakes and to exhibit dynamic behaviour different from that of separate buildings, because those buildings in NPP are generally heavy and massive. The dynamic interaction between buildings during earthquake through the soil is termed here as 'dynamic cross interaction (DCI)'. In order to comprehend DCI appropriately, forced vibration tests and earthquake observation are needed using closely constructed building models. Standing on this background, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) had planned the project to investigate the DCI effect in 1993 after the preceding SSI (soil-structure interaction) investigation project, 'model tests on embedment effect of reactor building'. The project consists of field and laboratory tests. The field test is being carried out using three different building construction conditions, e.g. a single reactor building to be used for the comparison purposes as for a reference, two same reactor buildings used to evaluate pure DCI effects, and two different buildings, reactor and turbine building models to evaluate DCI effects under the actual plant conditions. Forced vibration tests and earthquake observations are planned in the field test. The laboratory test is planned to evaluate basic characteristics of the DCI effects using simple soil model made of silicon rubber and structure models made of aluminum. In this test, forced vibration tests and shaking table tests are planned. The project was started in April 1994 and will be completed in March 2002. This paper describes an outline and the summary of the current status of this project. (orig.)
Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Nam Sung
2010-01-01
Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'
Lee, Yong Suk [Future and Challenges Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Nam Sung [SolBridge International School of Business, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-10-15
Recently, the resource management of nuclear engineering manpower has become an important issue in Korean nuclear industry. The government's plan for increasing the number of domestic nuclear power plants and the recent success of nuclear power plant export to UAE (United Arab Emirates) will increase demand for nuclear engineers in Korea. Accordingly, the Korean government decided to supplement 2,246 engineers in the public sector of nuclear industry in the year 2010 to resolve the manpower shortage problem in the short term. However, the experienced engineers which are essentially important in the nuclear industry cannot be supplied in the short term. Therefore, development of the long term manpower demand forecast model of nuclear industry is needed. The system dynamics (SD) is useful method for forecasting nuclear manpower demand. It is because the time-delays which is important in constructing plants and in recruiting and training of engineers, and the feedback effect including the qualitative factor can be effectively considered in the SD method. Especially, the qualitative factor like 'Productivity' is very important concept in Human Resource Management (HRM) but it cannot be easily considered in the other methods. In this paper, the concepts of the nuclear manpower demand forecast model using the SD method are presented and the some simulation results are being discussed especially for the 'Operation Sector'
Kuszewski, John J.; Thottungal, Robin Augustine [National Institutes of Health, Imaging Sciences Laboratory, Center for Information Technology (United States); Clore, G. Marius [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)], E-mail: mariusc@mail.nih.gov; Schwieters, Charles D. [National Institutes of Health, Imaging Sciences Laboratory, Center for Information Technology (United States)], E-mail: Charles.Schwieters@nih.gov
2008-08-15
We report substantial improvements to the previously introduced automated NOE assignment and structure determination protocol known as PASD (Kuszewski et al. (2004) J Am Chem Soc 26:6258-6273). The improved protocol includes extensive analysis of input spectral data to create a low-resolution contact map of residues expected to be close in space. This map is used to obtain reasonable initial guesses of NOE assignment likelihoods which are refined during subsequent structure calculations. Information in the contact map about which residues are predicted to not be close in space is applied via conservative repulsive distance restraints which are used in early phases of the structure calculations. In comparison with the previous protocol, the new protocol requires significantly less computation time. We show results of running the new PASD protocol on six proteins and demonstrate that useful assignment and structural information is extracted on proteins of more than 220 residues. We show that useful assignment information can be obtained even in the case in which a unique structure cannot be determined.
Gacs, A.; Janosy, J.S.; Kiss, Zs.
1987-07-01
This report describes the simulation model of the secondary circuit of a WWER-440 type nuclear power plant. The goal of this modelling is to simulate normal and small abnormal transients in a Basic Principles Simulator. The earlier reports describing the dynamic simulation of primary circuit of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant are KFKI--1983-127 and KFKI--1985-08. At present the controllers of the secondary circuit are not simulated. Finally, some simulation results are presented. (author)
Kunsman, David Marvin; Aldemir, Tunc; Rutt, Benjamin; Metzroth, Kyle; Catalyurek, Umit; Denning, Richard; Hakobyan, Aram; Dunagan, Sean C.
2008-01-01
This LDRD project has produced a tool that makes probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of nuclear reactors - analyses which are very resource intensive - more efficient. PRAs of nuclear reactors are being increasingly relied on by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.N.R.C.) for licensing decisions for current and advanced reactors. Yet, PRAs are produced much as they were 20 years ago. The work here applied a modern systems analysis technique to the accident progression analysis portion of the PRA; the technique was a system-independent multi-task computer driver routine. Initially, the objective of the work was to fuse the accident progression event tree (APET) portion of a PRA to the dynamic system doctor (DSD) created by Ohio State University. Instead, during the initial efforts, it was found that the DSD could be linked directly to a detailed accident progression phenomenological simulation code - the type on which APET construction and analysis relies, albeit indirectly - and thereby directly create and analyze the APET. The expanded DSD computational architecture and infrastructure that was created during this effort is called ADAPT (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees). ADAPT is a system software infrastructure that supports execution and analysis of multiple dynamic event-tree simulations on distributed environments. A simulator abstraction layer was developed, and a generic driver was implemented for executing simulators on a distributed environment. As a demonstration of the use of the methodological tool, ADAPT was applied to quantify the likelihood of competing accident progression pathways occurring for a particular accident scenario in a particular reactor type using MELCOR, an integrated severe accident analysis code developed at Sandia. (ADAPT was intentionally created with flexibility, however, and is not limited to interacting with only one code. With minor coding changes to input files, ADAPT can be linked to other
Chiotaki, Rena; Polioudaki, Hara; Theodoropoulos, Panayiotis A
2014-08-01
Cancer cells often exhibit characteristic aberrations in their nuclear architecture, which are indicative of their malignant potential. In this study, we have examined the nuclear and cytoskeletal composition, attachment configuration dynamics, and osmotic or drug treatment response of invasive (Hs578T and MDA-MB-231) and non-invasive (MCF-10A and MCF-7) breast cancer cell lines. Unlike MCF-10A and MCF-7, Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 cells showed extensive nuclear elasticity and deformability and displayed distinct kinetic profiles during substrate attachment. The nuclear shape of MCF-10A and MCF-7 cells remained almost unaffected upon detachment, hyperosmotic shock, or cytoskeleton depolymerization, while Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 revealed dramatic nuclear contour malformations following actin reorganization.
Gerken, T.A.; Jentoft, N.
1987-01-01
Nearly all of the resonances in the 13 C NMR spectrum of porcine submaxillary mucin glycoprotein (PSM) have been assigned to the peptide core carbons and to the carbons in the eight different oligosaccharide side chains that arise from the incomplete biosynthesis of the sialylated A blood group pentasaccharide. By use of these assignments, a nearly complete structural analysis of intact PSM has been performed without resorting to degradative chemical methods. Considerable structural variability in the carbohydrate side chains was observed between mucins obtained from different animals, while no variability was observed between glands in a single animal. The dynamics of the PSM core and carbohydrate side chains were examined by using the carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times and nuclear Overhauser enhancements of each assigned carbon resonance. The peptide core of PSM exhibits internal segmental flexibility that is virtually identical with that of ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM), whose carbohydrate side chain consists of the α-NeuNAc(2-6)α-Ga1NAc disaccharide. These results differ from most reports of glycoprotein dynamics, which typically find the terminal carbohydrate residues to be undergoing rapid internal rotation about their terminal glycosidic bonds. The results reported here are consistent with previous studies on the conformations of the A and H determinants derived from model oligosaccharides and further indicate that the conformations of these determinants are unchanged when covalently bound to the mucin peptide core. In spite of their carbohydrate side-chain heterogeneity, mucins appear to be ideal glycoproteins for the study of O-linked oligosaccharide conformation and dynamics and for the study of the effects of glycosylation on polypeptide conformation and dynamics
Doorenbos, J.; Gacs, A.; Kiss, Zs.
1987-12-01
This report describes the dynamic simulation models of the most important controllers of the secondary circuit of a WWER-440 type nuclear power plant, i.e., the hydraulic turbine controller and the level controls of the condenser hotwell and that of the feedwater tank. Simulation results are also presented. (For dynamic simulation models of the primary circuit of WWER-440 type reactors see Reports KFKI--1983-127 and KFKI--1985-08.) (author) 15 figs
Nuclear quantum effects in ab initio dynamics: Theory and experiments for lithium imide
Ceriotti, Michele; Miceli, Giacomo; Pietropaolo, Antonino; Colognesi, Daniele; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Catti, Michele; Bernasconi, Marco; Parrinello, Michele
2010-11-01
Owing to their small mass, hydrogen atoms exhibit strong quantum behavior even at room temperature. Including these effects in first-principles calculations is challenging because of the huge computational effort required by conventional techniques. Here we present the first ab initio application of a recently developed stochastic scheme, which allows to approximate nuclear quantum effects inexpensively. The proton momentum distribution of lithium imide, a material of interest for hydrogen storage, was experimentally measured by inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and compared with the outcome of quantum thermostatted ab initio dynamics. We obtain favorable agreement between theory and experiments for this purely quantum-mechanical property, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to improve the modeling of complex hydrogen-containing materials without additional computational effort.
Transport Properties of the Nuclear Pasta Phase with Quantum Molecular Dynamics
Nandi, Rana; Schramm, Stefan
2018-01-01
We study the transport properties of nuclear pasta for a wide range of density, temperature, and proton fractions, relevant for different astrophysical scenarios adopting a quantum molecular dynamics model. In particular, we estimate the values of shear viscosity as well as electrical and thermal conductivities by calculating the static structure factor S(q) using simulation data. In the density and temperature range where the pasta phase appears, the static structure factor shows irregular behavior. The presence of a slab phase greatly enhances the peak in S(q). However, the effect of irregularities in S(q) on the transport coefficients is not very dramatic. The values of all three transport coefficients are found to have the same orders of magnitude as found in theoretical calculations for the inner crust matter of neutron stars without the pasta phase; therefore, the values are in contrast to earlier speculations that a pasta layer might be highly resistive, both thermally and electrically.
Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems
Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik, E-mail: jhar@elektro.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); GE Healthcare, Park Alle 295, Brøndby (Denmark)
2016-05-15
A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more broadband than commercially available windows, which are usually optimized for single band operation. It is demonstrated that high-density polyethylene with urethane adhesive can be used as a low loss microwave vacuum window in multiband DNP systems. The overall assembly performance and dimensions are found using full-wave simulations. The practical aspects of the window implementation in the waveguide are discussed. To verify the design and simulation results, the window is tested experimentally at the three frequencies of interest.
Dynamic nuclear polarization by frequency modulation of a tunable gyrotron of 260GHz.
Yoon, Dongyoung; Soundararajan, Murari; Cuanillon, Philippe; Braunmueller, Falk; Alberti, Stefano; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2016-01-01
An increase in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) signal intensity is obtained with a tunable gyrotron producing frequency modulation around 260GHz at power levels less than 1W. The sweep rate of frequency modulation can reach 14kHz, and its amplitude is fixed at 50MHz. In water/glycerol glassy ice doped with 40mM TEMPOL, the relative increase in the DNP enhancement was obtained as a function of frequency-sweep rate for several temperatures. A 68 % increase was obtained at 15K, thus giving a DNP enhancement of about 80. By employing λ/4 and λ/8 polarizer mirrors, we transformed the polarization of the microwave beam from linear to circular, and achieved an increase in the enhancement by a factor of about 66% for a given power. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Optimization of fuel management and control poison of a nuclear power reactor by dynamic programming
Lima, C.A.R. de.
1977-01-01
The distribution of fuel and control poison in a nuclear reactor was optimized by the method of Dynamic Programming. A 620 M We Pressurized Water Reactor similar to Angra-1 was studied. The reactor operation was simulated in a IBM-1130 computer. Two fuel shuffling schemes and three poison management schemes were simultaneously employed in the reactor divided into three regions of equal volume and two consecutive stages were studied in order to determine the influence of poison management on the optimum fuel management policy. When uniform poisoning on all the three regions was permitted the traditional out-in fuel management policy proved to be more economic. On introducing simultaneous poison management, the optimum fuel management sequence was found to be different. The results obtained indicate a stronger interaction between the fuel management and the poison management than anticipated in previous works. (author)
Recent developments in methodology for dynamic qualification of nuclear plant equipment
Kana, D.D.; Pomerening, D.J.
1984-01-01
Dynamic qualification of nuclear plant electrical and mechanical equipment is performed basically under guidelines given in IEEE Standards 323 and 344, and a variety of NRC regulatory guides. Over the last fifteen years qualification methodology prescribed by these documents has changed significantly as interpretations, equipment capability, and imagination of the qualification engineers have progressed. This progress has been sparked by concurrent NRC and industry sponsored research programs that have identified anomalies and developed new methodologies for resolving them. Revisions of the standards have only resulted after a lengthy debate of all such new information and subsequent judgment of its validity. The purpose of this paper is to review a variety of procedural improvements and developments in qualification methodology that are under current consideration as revisions to the standards. Many of the improvements and developments have resulted from recent research programs. All are very likely to appear in one type of standard or another in the near future
Pump, Eva; Viger-Gravel, Jasmine; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Samantaray, Manoja; Hamzaoui, Bilel; Gurinov, Andrei; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gajan, David; Lesage, Anne; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Emsley, Lyndon; Basset, Jean-Marie
2016-01-01
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.
Non-Markovian effects on the dynamics of bubble growth in hot asymmetric nuclear matter
Kolomietz, V.M.; Sanzhur, A.I.; Shlomo, S.
2003-01-01
We study the conditions for the generation and the dynamical evolution of embryonic overcritical vapor bubbles in an overheated asymmetric nuclear matter. We show that the Fermi-surface distortion and memory effects significantly hinder the growth of the bubbles. Moreover, the growth of the bubble is accompanied by characteristic oscillations of its radius R. The characteristic energy E, the damping parameter Γ, and the instability growth rate parameter ζ, depend on the relaxation time τ. The characteristic oscillations disappear in the short relaxation time limit τ→0. Our approach ignores the fluctuations of the particle numbers in the bubble region and the finite diffuse layer of the bubble. The minimum size of the critical radius R * for which our approach applies is determined by the condition a/R * <<1, where a=0.5-1 fm is the temperature-dependent surface thickness of the bubble
Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko.
1995-01-01
In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)
System dynamics modeling of social/political factors in nuclear power plant operations
Hansen, K.F.; Turek, M.G.; Eubanks, C.K.
1995-01-01
The safety and performance of nuclear power plants are a function of many technical factors such as initial design, service and maintenance programs, and utility investment in improvements. Safety and performance are also a function of the social/political influences that affect requirements on personnel, practices and procedures, and resource availability. This paper describes a process for constructing models of the social/political influences on plant operations using the system dynamics technique. The model incorporates representation of internal utility actions and decisions as affected by external factors such as public opinion, intervenor actions, safety and economic regulation, and the financial community. The feedback between external agents and plant performance is explicitly modeled. The resulting model can be used to simulate performance under a variety of different external and internal policy choices. In particular, the model can be used to study means of improving performance in response to externally imposed regulations
Pump, Eva
2016-08-15
Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Surface Enhanced NMR Spectroscopy (DNP SENS) is an emerging technique that allows access to high-sensitivity NMR spectra from surfaces. However, DNP SENS usually requires the use of radicals as an exogenous source of polarization, which has so far limited applications for organometallic surface species to those that do not react with the radicals. Here we show that reactive surface species can be studied if they are immobilized inside porous materials with suitably small windows, and if bulky nitroxide bi-radicals (here TEKPol) are used as the polarization source and which cannot enter the pores. The method is demonstrated by obtaining significant DNP enhancements from highly reactive complelxes [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] supported on MCM-41, and effects of pore size (6.0, 3.0 and 2.5 nm) on the performance are discussed.
Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko.
1995-03-01
In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the third reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on September 16, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 70% of reactor power and under a normal sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author)
DSNP, Program and Data Library System for Dynamic Simulation of Nuclear Power Plant
Saphier, D.; Madell, J.; Dean, E.
1988-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP pre-compiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented digital- simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is a user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP pre-compiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN. FORTRAN is considered to be a subset of DSNP and can be inserted anywhere in the simulation program without restriction. I/O statements can be located anywhere in
Imaging Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Dynamics in Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice.
Hasegawa, Kosuke; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Miki; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Bouvet, Michael; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M
2016-05-01
Colon cancer frequently results in metastasis to the liver, where it becomes the main cause of death. However, the cell cycle in primary tumors and metastases is poorly understood. We developed a mouse model of liver metastasis using the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm (HCT-116-GFP-RFP). HCT-116 GFP-RFP cells were injected into the spleen of nu/nu nude mice. HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells subsequently formed primary tumors in the spleen, as well as metastatic colonies in the liver and retroperitoneum by 28 days after cell transplantation. Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, it was possible to clearly image mitosis of the dual-colored colon cancer cells in the primary tumor as well as liver and other metastases. Multi-nucleate cancer cells, in addition to mono-nucleate cancer cells and their mitosis, were observed in the primary tumor and metastasis. Multi-nucleate HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells were also observed after culture of the primary and metastatic tumors. A similar ratio of mono-nucleate, multi-nucleate, and mitotic cells grew from the primary and metastatic tumors in culture, suggesting similarity of the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of primary and metastatic cancer cells, further emphasizing the stochastic nature of metastasis. Our results demonstrate a similar heterogeneity of nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics within primary tumors and metastases, which may be an important factor in the stochastic nature of metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
Unger, Isaak
2017-07-01
About a decade ago new types of electronic non-radiative relaxation processes, involving the environment of an electronically excited or ionized monomer, have been predicted for van der Waals clusters and these were also the first systems where such processes have been detected experimentally. These new autoionization channels encompass the recombination of an electron and a hole, and the energy transfer to a neighboring atom or molecule. Two processes can be distinguished here. In the intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) the hole created upon ionization of a monomer is filled by a valence electron of the same species, and the energy released in this electron-hole recombination is used to ionize a neighboring species. In the electron transfer mediated decay (ETMD) the initial hole is filled by an electron from a neighboring species, and the energy released by this recombination is either used to ionize the same neighbor species, or to ionize a third monomer. In more recent experiments on liquid water it has been discovered that these non- local autoionization processes are strongly coupled with ultrafast nuclear dynamics. The core ionization initiates proton motion along a hydrogen donor-bond of the electronically excited water cation. This nuclear dynamics leads to the formation of transient cationic species where a proton is shared by two neighboring water molecules. Subsequent autoionization, either via Auger decay, ICD or ETMD, then occurs from any of such structure transients. This relaxation process is termed proton transfer mediated charge separation, PTM-CS. It has been found in a number of experiments that the probability of PTM-CS to occur depends on the hydrogen-bond strength between the core-ionized molecule and solvent molecules.
Bis-gadolinium complexes for solid effect and cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization
Kaushik, Monu; Corzilius, Bjoern [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Institut fuer Biophysikalische Chemie und Biomolekulares Magnetresonanzzentrum (BMRZ) (Germany); Qi, Mian; Godt, Adelheid [Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Centrum fuer Molekulare Materialien (CM2), Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany)
2017-04-03
High-spin complexes act as polarizing agents (PAs) for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy and feature promising aspects towards biomolecular DNP. We present a study on bis(Gd-chelate)s which enable cross effect (CE) DNP owing to spatial confinement of two dipolar-coupled electron spins. Their well-defined Gd..Gd distances in the range of 1.2-3.4 nm allowed us to elucidate the Gd..Gd distance dependence of the DNP mechanism and NMR signal enhancement. We found that Gd..Gd distances above 2.1 nm result in solid effect DNP while distances between 1.2 and 2.1 nm enable CE for {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N nuclear spins. We compare 263 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra with the obtained DNP field profiles and discuss possible CE matching conditions within the high-spin system and the influence of dipolar broadening of the EPR signal. Our findings foster the understanding of the CE mechanism and the design of high-spin PAs for specific applications of DNP. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Yu, I.H.
1982-01-01
All conclusions drawn in this dissertation are based on the results of about six hundred study cases. The dynamic characteristics of the present Taiwan Power Company system are very different not only from the characteristics of any other power system in the world but also from Taipower's own history characteristics. Based on the engineers' knowledge, this dissertation takes a calculation risk approach to deal with the problems in the energy systems. Chapter I introduces the information related with the stability of the present Taipower system. Taipower operating engineers are facing the problem of committing a large amount of nuclear generation at a low base load level. The general introduction of the stability program developed for this study is described in Chapter II. In Chapter III, the processes of performing the transient stability study are explained to show how this study was performed. Critical tie flows were suggested in Chapter IV, which might help balance the nuclear generation and thermal generation at the base load level and plan the unit maintenance schedule. Several operation modes which may increase the degree of stability or minimize the number unit trippings were discussed in Chapter V. In Chapter VI, how to adjust the load shedding policy to improve the stability are discussed. The remote tripping scheme which is effective in preventing massive system blackout was studied in Chapter VII. Some broader concepts in load management are presented in Chapter VII for Taipower's management decision
Fanconi anemia FANCD2 and FANCI proteins regulate the nuclear dynamics of splicing factors.
Moriel-Carretero, María; Ovejero, Sara; Gérus-Durand, Marie; Vryzas, Dimos; Constantinou, Angelos
2017-12-04
Proteins disabled in the cancer-prone disorder Fanconi anemia (FA) ensure the maintenance of chromosomal stability during DNA replication. FA proteins regulate replication dynamics, coordinate replication-coupled repair of interstrand DNA cross-links, and mitigate conflicts between replication and transcription. Here we show that FANCI and FANCD2 associate with splicing factor 3B1 (SF3B1), a key spliceosomal protein of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U2 snRNP). FANCI is in close proximity to SF3B1 in the nucleoplasm of interphase and mitotic cells. Furthermore, we find that DNA replication stress induces the release of SF3B1 from nuclear speckles in a manner that depends on FANCI and on the activity of the checkpoint kinase ATR. In chromatin, both FANCD2 and FANCI associate with SF3B1, prevent accumulation of postcatalytic intron lariats, and contribute to the timely eviction of splicing factors. We propose that FANCD2 and FANCI contribute to the organization of functional domains in chromatin, ensuring the coordination of DNA replication and cotranscriptional processes. © 2017 Moriel-Carretero et al.
A methodology for determining the dynamic exchange of resources in nuclear fuel cycle simulation
Gidden, Matthew J., E-mail: gidden@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wilson, Paul P.H. [University of Wisconsin – Madison, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2016-12-15
Highlights: • A novel fuel cycle simulation entity interaction mechanism is proposed. • A framework and implementation of the mechanism is described. • New facility outage and regional interaction scenario studies are described and analyzed. - Abstract: Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle can be performed using a wide range of techniques and methodologies. Past efforts have focused on specific fuel cycles or reactor technologies. The CYCLUS fuel cycle simulator seeks to separate the design of the simulation from the fuel cycle or technologies of interest. In order to support this separation, a robust supply–demand communication and solution framework is required. Accordingly an agent-based supply-chain framework, the Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE), has been designed implemented in CYCLUS. It supports the communication of complex resources, namely isotopic compositions of nuclear fuel, between fuel cycle facilities and their managers (e.g., institutions and regions). Instances of supply and demand are defined as an optimization problem and solved for each timestep. Importantly, the DRE allows each agent in the simulation to independently indicate preference for specific trading options in order to meet both physics requirements and satisfy constraints imposed by potential socio-political models. To display the variety of possible simulations that the DRE enables, example scenarios are formulated and described. Important features include key fuel-cycle facility outages, introduction of external recycled fuel sources (similar to the current mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility in the United States), and nontrivial interactions between fuel cycles existing in different regions.
A methodology for determining the dynamic exchange of resources in nuclear fuel cycle simulation
Gidden, Matthew J.; Wilson, Paul P.H.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A novel fuel cycle simulation entity interaction mechanism is proposed. • A framework and implementation of the mechanism is described. • New facility outage and regional interaction scenario studies are described and analyzed. - Abstract: Simulation of the nuclear fuel cycle can be performed using a wide range of techniques and methodologies. Past efforts have focused on specific fuel cycles or reactor technologies. The CYCLUS fuel cycle simulator seeks to separate the design of the simulation from the fuel cycle or technologies of interest. In order to support this separation, a robust supply–demand communication and solution framework is required. Accordingly an agent-based supply-chain framework, the Dynamic Resource Exchange (DRE), has been designed implemented in CYCLUS. It supports the communication of complex resources, namely isotopic compositions of nuclear fuel, between fuel cycle facilities and their managers (e.g., institutions and regions). Instances of supply and demand are defined as an optimization problem and solved for each timestep. Importantly, the DRE allows each agent in the simulation to independently indicate preference for specific trading options in order to meet both physics requirements and satisfy constraints imposed by potential socio-political models. To display the variety of possible simulations that the DRE enables, example scenarios are formulated and described. Important features include key fuel-cycle facility outages, introduction of external recycled fuel sources (similar to the current mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility in the United States), and nontrivial interactions between fuel cycles existing in different regions.
Micropillar displacements by cell traction forces are mechanically correlated with nuclear dynamics
Li, Qingsen; Makhija, Ekta; Hameed, F.M. [Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Shivashankar, G.V., E-mail: shiva.gvs@gmail.com [Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
2015-05-29
Cells sense physical cues at the level of focal adhesions and transduce them to the nucleus by biochemical and mechanical pathways. While the molecular intermediates in the mechanical links have been well studied, their dynamic coupling is poorly understood. In this study, fibroblast cells were adhered to micropillar arrays to probe correlations in the physical coupling between focal adhesions and nucleus. For this, we used novel imaging setup to simultaneously visualize micropillar deflections and EGFP labeled chromatin structure at high spatial and temporal resolution. We observed that micropillar deflections, depending on their relative positions, were positively or negatively correlated to nuclear and heterochromatin movements. Our results measuring the time scales between micropillar deflections and nucleus centroid displacement are suggestive of a strong elastic coupling that mediates differential force transmission to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Correlation between focal adhesions and nucleus studied using novel imaging setup. • Micropillar and nuclear displacements were measured at high resolution. • Correlation timescales show strong elastic coupling between cell edge and nucleus.
Nonlinear 3-D dynamic time history analysis in the reracking modifications for a nuclear power plant
Zhao, Y.; Stevenson, J.D.
1996-01-01
An independent seismic response evaluation of spent fuel storage racks was performed on the reracking modifications for a typical operating pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant using nonlinear dynamic time history analysis methods per the U. S. nuclear regulatory commission (USNRC) criteria. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to fluid-structure-interaction effects using potential theory. Three dimensional (3-D) single rack and whole pool multiple rack finite element models were developed with features that allow the consideration of geometrically and materially nonlinearities including (1) the impact of a fuel bundle to a rack cell, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to a pool floor; (2) the hydrodynamic coupling of a fuel assembly with a rack and of a rack with adjacent racks or pool walls; and (3) the tilting and frictional sliding of the rack supports. The methodologies and typical results using a 3-D single rack model as well as a 3-D whole pool multiple rack model developed herein are presented. (orig.)
Frequency-agile gyrotron for electron decoupling and pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization
Scott, Faith J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Albert, Brice J.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L.; Gao, Chukun; Golota, Natalie C.; Choi, Eric J.; Jagtap, Anil P.; Wittmann, Johannes J.; Eckardt, Michael; Harneit, Wolfgang; Corzilius, Björn; Th. Sigurdsson, Snorri; Barnes, Alexander B.
2018-04-01
We describe a frequency-agile gyrotron which can generate frequency-chirped microwave pulses. An arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) within the NMR spectrometer controls the microwave frequency, enabling synchronized pulsed control of both electron and nuclear spins. We demonstrate that the acceleration of emitted electrons, and thus the microwave frequency, can be quickly changed by varying the anode voltage. This strategy results in much faster frequency response than can be achieved by changing the potential of the electron emitter, and does not require a custom triode electron gun. The gyrotron frequency can be swept with a rate of 20 MHz/μs over a 670 MHz bandwidth in a static magnetic field. We have already implemented time-domain electron decoupling with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic angle spinning (MAS) with this device. In this contribution, we show frequency-swept DNP enhancement profiles recorded without changing the NMR magnet or probe. The profile of endofullerenes exhibits a DNP profile with a <10 MHz linewidth, indicating that the device also has sufficient frequency stability, and therefore phase stability, to implement pulsed DNP mechanisms such as the frequency-swept solid effect. We describe schematics of the mechanical and vacuum construction of the device which includes a novel flanged sapphire window assembly. Finally, we discuss how commercially available continuous-wave gyrotrons can potentially be converted into similar frequency-agile high-power microwave sources.
Neurochemical dynamics of acute orofacial pain in the human trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex.
de Matos, Nuno M P; Hock, Andreas; Wyss, Michael; Ettlin, Dominik A; Brügger, Mike
2017-11-15
The trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex is the first central relay structure mediating orofacial somatosensory and nociceptive perception. Animal studies suggest a substantial involvement of neurochemical alterations at such basal CNS levels in acute and chronic pain processing. Translating this animal based knowledge to humans is challenging. Human related examining of brainstem functions are challenged by MR related peculiarities as well as applicability aspects of experimentally standardized paradigms. Based on our experience with an MR compatible human orofacial pain model, the aims of the present study were twofold: 1) from a technical perspective, the evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T regarding measurement accuracy of neurochemical profiles in this small brainstem nuclear complex and 2) the examination of possible neurochemical alterations induced by an experimental orofacial pain model. Data from 13 healthy volunteers aged 19-46 years were analyzed and revealed high quality spectra with significant reductions in total N-acetylaspartate (N-acetylaspartate + N-acetylaspartylglutamate) (-3.7%, p = 0.009) and GABA (-10.88%, p = 0.041) during the pain condition. These results might reflect contributions of N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate in neuronal activity-dependent physiologic processes and/or excitatory neurotransmission, whereas changes in GABA might indicate towards a reduction in tonic GABAergic functioning during nociceptive signaling. Summarized, the present study indicates the applicability of 1 H-MRS to obtain neurochemical dynamics within the human trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex. Further developments are needed to pave the way towards bridging important animal based knowledge with human research to understand the neurochemistry of orofacial nociception and pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules
Laws, David D.
2000-01-01
Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (φ/ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13 C a , chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.
On the balance energy and nuclear dynamics in peripheral heavy-ion collisions
Chugh, Rajiv; Puri, Rajeev K.
2010-01-01
We present here the system size dependence of balance energy for semi-central and peripheral collisions using quantum molecular dynamics model. For this study, the reactions of Ne 20 +Ne 20 , Ca 40 +Ca 40 , Ni 58 + Ni 58 , Nb 93 +Nb 93 , Xe 131 +Xe 131 , and Au 197 +Au 197 are simulated at different incident energies and impact parameters. A hard equation of state along with nucleon–nucleon cross-sections between 40 and 55 mb explains the data nicely. Interestingly, balance energy follows a power law ∝A τ for the mass dependence at all colliding geometries. The power factor τ is close to –1/3 in central collisions, whereas it is –2/3 for peripheral collisions suggesting stronger system size dependence at peripheral geometries. This also suggests that in the absence of momentum dependent interactions, Coulomb's interaction plays an exceedingly significant role. These results are further analyzed for nuclear dynamics at the balance point. (author)
Molecular dynamics study of a nuclear waste glass matrix with plutonium
Meis, C.; Delaye, J.M.; Ghaleb, D.
1999-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation techniques were applied to model the incorporation of plutonium in the French nuclear waste glass matrix. Born-Mayer-Huggins analytical potentials were established to characterize short-range interactions between Pu-O and Pu-Pu pairs; the potentials were fitted to the structural properties of plutonium dioxide in the light of a recent experimental study showing that plutonium is found as Pu(IV) in the glass. The transferability of the established potentials to the glass structure is discussed, and the potential parameters are further refined by molecular dynamics simulations in an aluminoborosilicate glass to obtain mean Pu-O interatomic distances and first-neighbor coordination numbers matching the experimental values as closely as possible. Previously published Born-Mayer-Huggins potentials supplemented by Stillinger-Weber three-body terms were used for oxygen-cation and cation-cation interactions. The difficulties encountered in establishing a Pu-O potential that provides satisfactory results in both oxides and glasses are also discussed
Nuclear Dynamics of a Nearby Seyfert with NIRSpec Integral Field Spectroscopy
Bentz, Misty; Batiste, M.; Onken, C.; Roberts, C.; Valluri, M.; Vasiliev, E.
2017-11-01
Integral field spectroscopy has become an invaluable tool for investigating the physical conditions and dynamics deep inside galaxy nuclei. The integral field spectrograph on JWST provides some crucial advantages over those on AO- assisted ground-based telescopes like Gemini and VLT. In particular, JWST will provide a stable and diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) with no seeing halo, and the background will be significantly reduced resulting in shorter exposure times to achieve a benchmark signal-to-noise ratio, even for late-type galaxies that have shallower central cusps and fainter central surface brightnesses, and for which the exposure times required from the ground may be prohibitive. We are particularly interested in comparing black hole masses derived from the modeling of nuclear stellar dynamics to masses derived from reverberation mapping in the same galaxies. With this Early Release Science proposal, we request a small investment of time to clearly demonstrate JWST's capabilities in spatial and spectral resolution relative to the stringent technical requirements for direct black hole mass measurements. The technically demanding nature of the requisite measurements will allow us to explore the limits of what is possible to achieve with the NIRSpec IFU, thus providing technical guidance for a wide range of studies that seek to probe the physics of black hole feeding and feedback and their links to galaxy and black hole co-evolution.
Nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains: reduction of helix H12 dynamics to favour crystallization
Nahoum, Virginie; Lipski, Alexandra; Quillard, Fabien; Guichou, Jean-François [INSERM, U554, 34090 Montpellier (France); Université de Montpellier, CNRS, UMR5048, Centre de Biochimie Structurale (CBS), 34090 Montpellier (France); Boublik, Yvan [CNRS, UMR5237, Centre de Recherche de Biochimie Macromoléculaire (CRBM), 34293 Montpellier (France); Pérez, Efrèn [Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Química, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Germain, Pierre [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch CEDEX (France); Lera, Angel R. de [Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Química, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bourguet, William, E-mail: bourguet@cbs.cnrs.fr [INSERM, U554, 34090 Montpellier (France); Université de Montpellier, CNRS, UMR5048, Centre de Biochimie Structurale (CBS), 34090 Montpellier (France)
2008-07-01
Attempts have been made to crystallize the ligand-binding domain of the human retinoid X receptor in complex with a variety of newly synthesized ligands. An inverse correlation was observed between the ‘crystallizability’ and the structural dynamics of the various receptor–ligand complexes. Crystallization trials of the human retinoid X receptor α ligand-binding domain (RXRα LBD) in complex with various ligands have been carried out. Using fluorescence anisotropy, it has been found that when compared with agonists these small-molecule effectors enhance the dynamics of the RXRα LBD C-terminal helix H12. In some cases, the mobility of this helix could be dramatically reduced by the addition of a 13-residue co-activator fragment (CoA). In keeping with these observations, crystals have been obtained of the corresponding ternary RXRα LBD–ligand–CoA complexes. In contrast, attempts to crystallize complexes with a highly mobile H12 remained unsuccessful. These experimental observations substantiate the previously recognized role of co-regulator fragments in facilitating the crystallization of nuclear receptor LBDs.
Furukawa, Jun
2014-01-01
Research into environmental dynamics of radioactive nuclides released by the Fukushima nuclear accident, especially radiocesium 137 Cs (half-life, 30.1 years), is highly focused especially on diffusion processes of radiocesium into ecosystems, which is high-priority knowledge. Because of relatively sparse knowledge about the reallocation of radiocesium contained in organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems, the effects of diffused rediocesium into ecosystem cannot be accurately estimated. In this article, the terrestrial environmental dynamics of radiocesium mainly in the processes of plant uptake and the possibility of release from plants will be discussed. Plants uptake minerals from soil and these minerals are likewise ingested by animals that feed on plants, including humans. Therefore one of the main gateways of radiocesium into ecosystem is via plants. From the viewpoint of human dietary consumption, rice contamination with radiocesium has been energetically investigated and useful data are accumulating. Processes of radiocesium uptake mechanisms by plants are being researched using legumes, e.g. soybean. Speculation on the possibility of radiocesium release into forest atmosphere via plant activity will be introduced. (author)
Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael Simon; Watanabe, Noboru; Kojima, Masataka; Takahashi, Masahiko
2015-01-01
The influence of nuclear dynamics in the electronic ground state on the (e,2e) momentum profiles of dimethyl ether has been analyzed using the harmonic analytical quantum mechanical and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics approaches. In spite of fundamental methodological differences, results obtained with both approaches consistently demonstrate that molecular vibrations in the electronic ground state have a most appreciable influence on the momentum profiles associated to the 2b 1 , 6a 1 , 4b 2 , and 1a 2 orbitals. Taking this influence into account considerably improves the agreement between theoretical and newly obtained experimental momentum profiles, with improved statistical accuracy. Both approaches point out in particular the most appreciable role which is played by a few specific molecular vibrations of A 1 , B 1 , and B 2 symmetries, which correspond to C–H stretching and H–C–H bending modes. In line with the Herzberg-Teller principle, the influence of these molecular vibrations on the computed momentum profiles can be unraveled from considerations on the symmetry characteristics of orbitals and their energy spacing
Optical pumping of electron and nuclear spin in a negatively-charged quantum dot
Bracker, Allan; Gershoni, David; Korenev, Vladimir
2005-03-01
We report optical pumping of electron and nuclear spins in an individual negatively-charged quantum dot. With a bias-controlled heterostructure, we inject one electron into the quantum dot. Intense laser excitation produces negative photoluminescence polarization, which is easily erased by the Hanle effect, demonstrating optical pumping of a long-lived resident electron. The electron spin lifetime is consistent with the influence of nuclear spin fluctuations. Measuring the Overhauser effect in high magnetic fields, we observe a high degree of nuclear spin polarization, which is closely correlated to electron spin pumping.
Fuson, Michael M.
2017-01-01
Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…
Egmond, M.R.; Slotboom, A.J.; Haas, G.H. de; Dijkstra, Klaas; Kaptein, R.
1980-01-01
Proton-NMR resonances of trytophan 3 and tyrosine 69 in bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2, its pro-enzyme and in Ala1-transaminated protein were assigned using photochemically-induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) as such or in combination with spin-echo measurements. In addition
Minh, Nguyen Nguyen; Aoyagi, Yukio; Kanazu, Tsutomu; Ohtomo, Keizo; Matsumoto, Yasuaki
2000-01-01
Dynamic numerical simulation of a coupled soil-structure system by non-linear finite element method is presented. The target structure is the underground duct-type structure for emergency services in nuclear power plants. By appropriately modeling, including refinements in dynamic soil model and introduction of interface element, etc., the simulated results are in a very good agreement with the experimental results in terms of dynamic amplitudes and damaging process. A simple mesh generation program specific for the system with optimization concern is made. Some issues on computational aspects are then addressed. (author)
Tracking nuclear wave-packet dynamics in molecular oxygen ions with few-cycle infrared laser pulses
De, S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Ray, D.; Cao, W.; Thumm, U.; Cocke, C. L.; Bergues, B.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.
2010-01-01
We have tracked nuclear wave-packet dynamics in doubly charged states of molecular oxygen using few-cycle infrared laser pulses. Bound and dissociating wave packets were launched and subsequently probed via a pair of 8-fs pulses of 790 nm radiation. Ionic fragments from the dissociating molecules were monitored by velocity-map imaging. Pronounced oscillations in the delay-dependent kinetic energy release spectra were observed. The occurrence of vibrational revivals permits us to identify the potential curves of the O 2 dication which are most relevant to the molecular dynamics. These studies show the accessibility to the dynamics of such higher-charged molecules.
11th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics
2017-01-01
Preface The 11 th edition of the International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER‘16) was held in Napoli, Italy, on May 23-27 2016. All the Conference Sessions took place in the magnificent Complesso Monumentale dei Ss. Marcellino e Festo , located in the Historical Centre of Naples. This is one of the most prestigious building complexes of the Federico II University of Naples, the main home institution of the organizers, together with the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Naples division). This building is 500 years old; in the XVIII century, it was reshaped by Luigi Vanvitelli, a famous architect of the pre-Neoclassical period in Italy, designer of the prestigious Royal Palace in the near town of Caserta. The site of Plenary Sessions was the Church of Ss. Marcellino e Festo , where all the participants were surrounded by the Baroque frescoes by Belisario Corenzio and, among the others, the paintings of Battistello Caracciolo, Massimo Stanzione, Giuseppe Simonelli and Francesco De Mura, important artists of the late Baroque period in South Italy. The sites of Parallel Sessions were two halls in the arcade of the S. Marcellino cloister: this gave the opportunity to the participants to enjoy the beauty of the architecture of the cloister with its fountains, gardens, sculptures. As organizers of the Conference, our main aims were: (1) to provide an excellent programme, with the expectation to be a reference point for the Nuclear Cluster Physics in the next four years; (2) to assure a very relaxing stay to the participants, allowing them to explore the bounty of artistic, and also culinary, masterpieces that Naples offers to its guests. The first point was assured by all the conveners that, with their excellent talks, gave a very precise and complete overview of the most recent achievements on Nuclear Cluster Physics, both from the experimental and theoretical point of view. We are indebted with the International
Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.
1998-01-01
The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)
Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.
1998-10-01
The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).
Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.
1998-01-01
The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)
Dynamic simulation of a two-phase control absorber for neutron flux regulation in a nuclear reactor
Plourde, J.A.; Lepp, R.M.
1979-08-01
A dynamic simulation of the two-phase control absorber being proposed for future Canadian nuclear power reactors has been developed at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The model, implemented on a hybrid computer, was developed to study absorber dynamics at different circuit operating conditions and with different circuit configurations. The simulation is modular, with as much correspondence as possible between individual modules and the physical entities. The dynamics of several of the modules are described by partial differential equations, with space and time as independent variables. These are solved via the Continuous Space/Discrete Time technique. The simulation has been validated with data from the Two-Phase Absorber Experimental (TOPAX) Rig installed at the ZED-2 test reactor. (author)
Tajik, M.; Ghasemizad, A.
2008-01-01
In this research, new physical fission reactor parameters which have very sensitive effects on the qualitative behavior of a reactor, are introduced. Therefore, the two, the nonlinear dynamics of two, three and four dimensional, considering almost the effective parameters are formulated for describing nuclear fission reactor systems. Using both analytical and numerical methods, the stability and instability of the given dynamical equations and the conditions of stability are studied in these systems. We have shown that the two parameters of the mean energy residence time in fuel and coolant and also their ratios have the most qualitative effects on the dynamical behaviour of a typical nuclear fission reactor. Increasing or decreasing of these parameters from a captain limit can lead to stability or un stability in a given system
Da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A; Rego, Luis G C
2015-01-01
Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron–nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron–hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures. (paper)
Discrete dynamic event tree modeling and analysis of nuclear power plant crews for safety assessment
Mercurio, D.
2011-01-01
Current Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methodologies model the evolution of accident sequences in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) mainly based on Logic Trees. The evolution of these sequences is a result of the interactions between the crew and plant; in current PRA methodologies, simplified models of these complex interactions are used. In this study, the Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS), a modeling framework based on the Discrete Dynamic Event Tree (DDET), has been used for the simulation of crew-plant interactions during potential accident scenarios in NPPs. In addition, an operator/crew model has been developed to treat the response of the crew to the plant. The 'crew model' is made up of three operators whose behavior is guided by a set of rules-of-behavior (which represents the knowledge and training of the operators) coupled with written and mental procedures. In addition, an approach for addressing the crew timing variability in DDETs has been developed and implemented based on a set of HRA data from a simulator study. Finally, grouping techniques were developed and applied to the analysis of the scenarios generated by the crew-plant simulation. These techniques support the post-simulation analysis by grouping similar accident sequences, identifying the key contributing events, and quantifying the conditional probability of the groups. These techniques are used to characterize the context of the crew actions in order to obtain insights for HRA. The model has been applied for the analysis of a Small Loss Of Coolant Accident (SLOCA) event for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The simulation results support an improved characterization of the performance conditions or context of operator actions, which can be used in an HRA, in the analysis of the reliability of the actions. By providing information on the evolution of system indications, dynamic of cues, crew timing in performing procedure steps, situation
Pinto, J.M.O.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e; Saldanha, P.L.C.
2010-01-01
Given the increasing use of digital systems in nuclear power plants, a specific approach to reliability and risk analysis has been required. The digital system reflects many interactions between hardware, software, process variables, and human actions. At the same time, the software, does not have a reliability approach as well-defined as the one existing for the other physical components of the system. Then, its reliability analysis is still under development due to difficulties arising from the complexity, flexibility and interactions present in such systems.The traditional approach of using fault trees is static and does not approach the dynamic interactions in such systems, such as delays in capture and processing information, memory, logic loops, system states, etc. It is necessary to find a reliability methodology that takes into account these issues without violating the existing requirements concerning safety analysis, such as: ability to distinguish between common-cause failures, availability of relevant information to users, like minimal cut sets, and failure probabilities as long as the possibility of incorporating the results into existing probabilistic safety assessments (PSA).One approach is to trace all the possible errors of the digital system through dynamic methodologies. The DFM (Dynamic Flow-graph Methodology) is one of the methodologies that better meets the requirements for modeling dynamic systems. It discretizes the most relevant variables of the analyzed system in states that reflect their behavior, sets the logic that connects them through decision tables and finally performs a system analysis, aiming, for example, the root causes (prime implicants) of a given top event of failure. Three aspects have been addressed, the modeling of the system itself, the incorporation of results to probabilistic safety analyses and identification of software failures.To illustrate the DFM, a simplified digital control system of a typical PWR pressurizer
Optimization of a dynamic uncertain causality graph for fault diagnosis in nuclear power plant
Yue Zhao; Francesco Di Maio; Enrico Zio; Qin Zhang; Chun-Ling Dong; Jin-Ying Zhang
2017-01-01
Fault diagnostics is important for safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs).In recent years,data-driven approaches have been proposed and implemented to tackle the problem,e.g.,neural networks,fuzzy and neurofuzzy approaches,support vector machine,K-nearest neighbor classifiers and inference methodologies.Among these methods,dynamic uncertain causality graph (DUCG)has been proved effective in many practical cases.However,the causal graph construction behind the DUCG is complicate and,in many cases,results redundant on the symptoms needed to correctly classify the fault.In this paper,we propose a method to simplify causal graph construction in an automatic way.The method consists in transforming the expert knowledge-based DCUG into a fuzzy decision tree (FDT) by extracting from the DUCG a fuzzy rule base that resumes the used symptoms at the basis of the FDT.Genetic algorithm (GA) is,then,used for the optimization of the FDT,by performing a wrapper search around the FDT:the set of symptoms selected during the iterative search are taken as the best set of symptoms for the diagnosis of the faults that can occur in the system.The effectiveness of the approach is shown with respect to a DUCG model initially built to diagnose 23 faults originally using 262 symptoms of Unit-1 in the Ningde NPP of the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation.The results show that the FDT,with GA-optimized symptoms and diagnosis strategy,can drive the construction of DUCG and lower the computational burden without loss of accuracy in diagnosis.
Optimization of a dynamic uncertain causality graph for fault diagnosis in nuclear power plant
Yue Zhao; Francesco Di Maio; Enrico Zio; Qin Zhang; Chun-Ling Dong; Jin-Ying Zhang
2017-01-01
Fault diagnostics is important for safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs).In recent years,data-driven approaches have been proposed and implemented to tackle the problem,e.g.,neural networks,fuzzy and neurofuzzy approaches,support vector machine,K-nearest neighbor classifiers and inference methodologies.Among these methods,dynamic uncertain causality graph (DUCG) has been proved effective in many practical cases.However,the causal graph construction behind the DUCG is complicate and,in many cases,results redundant on the symptoms needed to correctly classify the fault.In this paper,we propose a method to simplify causal graph construction in an automatic way.The method consists in transforming the expert knowledge-based DCUG into a fuzzy decision tree (FDT) by extracting from the DUCG a fuzzy rule base that resumes the used symptoms at the basis of the FDT.Genetic algorithm (GA) is,then,used for the optimization of the FDT,by performing a wrapper search around the FDT:the set of symptoms selected during the iterative search are taken as the best set of symptoms for the diagnosis of the faults that can occur in the system.The effectiveness of the approach is shown with respect to a DUCG model initially built to diagnose 23 faults originally using 262 symptoms of Unit-1 in the Ningde NPP of the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation.The results show that the FDT,with GA-optimized symptoms and diagnosis strategy,can drive the construction of DUCG and lower the computational burden without loss of accuracy in diagnosis.
Learning, innovation and communication: evolving dynamics of a nuclear emergency plan
Quadros, Andre Luiz Lopes
2014-01-01
The technological development inherent to modern societies has placed human beings in situations of choice from a wide variety of possible risks. As a way to protect people and the environment, actions need to be developed in order to reduce possible consequences of the materialisation of these risks. The thermonuclear power generation demand planning in order to prepare answers to possible emergency situations, as even being considered of low probability of occurrence, when they happen have a significant impact on populations and regions of its surroundings. Considering the relevance of this issue, this thesis aimed to identify and analyze the dynamics of preparedness and response to emergency situations in a Nuclear Power Plant, trying to understand its evolution over the time and systematizing it, considering the actors involved, processes of organizational learning, innovation and risk communication, considered as crucial for the development and improvement of emergency plans. Concerning preparedness and response to possible emergency situations in this nuclear plant, it was possible not only to confirm the importance of the three processes studied, but also observe that they can be treated and evaluated in an integrated and systematic way. So, it was presented a model that aims to facilitate the understanding of this perspective and enhance the importance of participation and cooperation between all stakeholders (organizations and the local population) within a socio-participatory perspective. To this end, this exploratory research sought for evidences in documents, participation in planning meetings, direct observation of the general exercises of the CNAAA External Emergency Plan of 2013, interviews with some of the actors involved and through the application of a questionnaire among the population of the Praia Vermelha, in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. (author)
Extended-life nuclear air cleaning filters via dynamic exclusion prefilters
Wright, S.R.; Crouch, H.S.; Bond, J.H. [Micro Composite Materials Corp., Durham, NC (United States)
1997-08-01
The primary objective of this investigation was to ascertain if a dynamic, self-cleaning particulate exclusion precleaner, designed for relatively large dust removal (2 to 100+ {mu}m diameter particles) from helicopter turbine inlets, could be extended to submicron filtration. The improved device could be used as a prefilter for HEPA filtration systems, significantly increasing service life. In nuclear air cleaning, its use would reduce the amount of nuclear particulate matter that would otherwise be entrapped in the HEPA filter cartridge/panel, causing fouling and increased back pressure, as well as requiring subsequent disposal of the contaminated media at considerable expense. A unique (patent-pending) mechanical separation device has recently been developed to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams based on a proprietary concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT). The device creates multiple boundary layers that actively exclude particles from entering the perimeter of the device, while allowing air to traverse the boundaries relatively unimpeded. A modified two-dimensional (2-D) computerized flow simulation model was used to assist in the prototype design. Empirical results are presented from particle breakthrough and AP experiments obtained from a reduced-scale prototype filter. Particles larger than 0.23 {mu}m were actively excluded by the prototype, but at a higher pressure drop than anticipated. Experimental data collected indicates that the filter housing and the inlet flow configuration may contribute significantly to improvements in device particle separation capabilities. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have shown that other downstream pressure drop considerations (besides those just across the spinning filtration disks) must be included to accurately portray the AP across the device. Further detailed quantitative investigations on a larger scale (1,000 CFM) prototype are warranted. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
2014-01-01
This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)
Independent tube verification and dynamic tracking in et inspection of nuclear steam generator
Xiongzi, Li; Zhongxue, Gan; Lance, Fitzgibbons
2001-01-01
The full text follows. In the examination of pressure boundary tubes in steam generators of commercial pressurized water nuclear power plants (PWR's), it is critical to know exactly which particular tube is being accessed. There are no definitive landmarks or markings on the individual tubes. Today this is done manually, it is tedious, and interrupts the normal inspection work, and is difficult due to the presence of water on the tube surface, plug ends instead of tube openings in the field of view, and varying lighting quality. In order to eliminate the human error and increase the efficiency of operation, there is a need to identify tube position during the inspection process, independent of robot encoder position and motion. A process based on a Cognex MVS-8200 system and its application function package has been developed to independently identify tube locations. ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power's Outage Services group, USPPL in collaboration with ABB Power Plant Laboratories' Advanced Computers and Controls department has developed a new vision-based Independent Tube Verification system (GENESIS-ITVS-TM ). The system employ's a model-based tube-shape detection algorithm and dynamic tracking methodology to detect the true tool position and its offsets from identified tube location. GENESIS-ITVS-TM is an automatic Independent Tube Verification System (ITVS). Independent tube verification is a tube validation technique using computer vision, and not using any robot position parameters. This process independently counts the tubes in the horizontal and vertical axes of the plane of the steam generator tube sheet as the work tool is moved. Thus it knows the true position in the steam generator, given a known starting point. This is analogous to the operator's method of counting tubes for verification, but it is automated. GENESIS-ITVS-TM works independent of the robot position, velocity, or acceleration. The tube position information is solely obtained from
New software tool for dynamic radiological characterisation and monitoring in nuclear sites
Szoeke, Istvan; Louka, Michael N.; Mark, Niels K.; Bryntesen, Tom R.; Bratteli, Joachim; Edvardsen, Svein T.; Gustavsen, Morten A.; Toppe, Aleksander L.; Johnsen, Terje; Rindahl, Grete
2012-01-01
The Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a jointly sponsored international cooperation, under the aegis of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency. Extensive and valuable guidance and tools, connected to safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities, has been elaborated throughout the years within the frame of this programme. The HRP has particularly high level results in virtual-reality based tools for real-time areal and personal monitoring. The techniques, developed earlier, are now being supplemented to enhance the planning and monitoring capabilities, and support general radiological characterisation connected to nuclear sites and facilities. Due to the complexity and abundance of the input information required, software tools, dedicated to the radiological characterization of contaminated materials, buildings, land and groundwater, are applied to review, evaluate and visualize the data. Characterisation of the radiation situation in a realistic environment can be very complex, and efficient visualisation of the data to the user is not straight forward. The monitoring and planning tools elaborated in the frame of the HRP feature very sophisticated three-dimensional (3D) high definition visualisation and user interfaces to promote easy interpretation of the input data. The visualisation tools permit dynamic visualisation of radiation fields in virtual or augmented reality by various techniques and real-time personal monitoring of humanoid models. In addition new techniques are being elaborated to visualise the 3D distribution of activities in structures and materials. The dosimetric algorithms, feeding information to the visualisation and user interface of these planning tools, include deterministic radiation transport techniques suitable for fast photon dose estimates, in case physical and radio- and spectrometric characteristics of the gamma sources are known. The basic deterministic model, implemented in earlier
Woodson, S.A.; Crothers, D.M.
1987-01-01
A series of bulge-containing and normal double-helical synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides, of sequence corresponding to a frame-shift mutational hot spot in the λ C/sub I/ gene, are compared by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 500 MHz. The imino proton resonances are assigned by one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Nonselective T 1 inversion-recovery experiments are used to determine exchangeable proton lifetimes and to compare helix stability and dynamics of the three duplexes. An extra adenosine flanking the internal G-C base pairs has a strongly localized effect on helix stability, but the destabilizing effect of an extra cytidine in a C tract is delocalized over the entire G-C run. These data lead to the conclusion that the position of the bulge migrates along the run in the fast-exchange limit on the NMR time scale. Rapid migration of the bulge defect in homopolymeric sequences may help rationalize both frame-shift mutagenesis and translational frame shifting. The authors estimate that the unfavorable free energy of a localized bulge defect is 2.9-3.2 kcal/mol, in good agreement with earlier estimates for RNA helices
Cunningham, J; Gatenby, R
2014-01-01
Purpose: To develop a simulation to catalyze a reevaluation of common assumptions about 3 dimensional diffusive processes and help cell biologists gain a more nuanced, intuitive understanding of the true physical hurdles of protein signaling cascades. Furthermore, to discuss the possibility of intracellular electrodynamics as a critical, unrecognized component of cellular biology and protein dynamics that is necessary for optimal information flow from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Methods: The Unity 3D gaming physics engine was used to build an accurate virtual scale model of the cytoplasm within a few hundred nanometers of the nuclear membrane. A cloud of simulated pERK proteins is controlled by the physics simulation, where diffusion is based on experimentally measured values and the electrodynamics are based on theoretical nano-fluid dynamics. The trajectories of pERK within the cytoplasm and through the 1250 nuclear pores on the nuclear surface is recorded and analyzed. Results: The simulation quickly demonstrates that pERKs moving solely by diffusion will rarely locate and come within capture distance of a nuclear pore. The addition of intracellular electrodynamics between charges on the nuclear pore complexes and on pERKs increases the number of successful translocations by allowing the electro-physical attractive effects to draw in pERKs from the cytoplasm. The effects of changes in intracellular shielding ion concentrations allowed for estimation of the “capture radius” under varying conditions. Conclusion: The simulation allows a shift in perspective that is paramount in attempting to communicate the scale and dynamics of intracellular protein cascade mechanics. This work has allowed researchers to more fully understand the parameters involved in intracellular electrodynamics, such as shielding anion concentration and protein charge. As these effects are still far below the spatial resolution of currently available measurement technology this
Cunningham, J; Gatenby, R [Moffitt Cancer Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To develop a simulation to catalyze a reevaluation of common assumptions about 3 dimensional diffusive processes and help cell biologists gain a more nuanced, intuitive understanding of the true physical hurdles of protein signaling cascades. Furthermore, to discuss the possibility of intracellular electrodynamics as a critical, unrecognized component of cellular biology and protein dynamics that is necessary for optimal information flow from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Methods: The Unity 3D gaming physics engine was used to build an accurate virtual scale model of the cytoplasm within a few hundred nanometers of the nuclear membrane. A cloud of simulated pERK proteins is controlled by the physics simulation, where diffusion is based on experimentally measured values and the electrodynamics are based on theoretical nano-fluid dynamics. The trajectories of pERK within the cytoplasm and through the 1250 nuclear pores on the nuclear surface is recorded and analyzed. Results: The simulation quickly demonstrates that pERKs moving solely by diffusion will rarely locate and come within capture distance of a nuclear pore. The addition of intracellular electrodynamics between charges on the nuclear pore complexes and on pERKs increases the number of successful translocations by allowing the electro-physical attractive effects to draw in pERKs from the cytoplasm. The effects of changes in intracellular shielding ion concentrations allowed for estimation of the “capture radius” under varying conditions. Conclusion: The simulation allows a shift in perspective that is paramount in attempting to communicate the scale and dynamics of intracellular protein cascade mechanics. This work has allowed researchers to more fully understand the parameters involved in intracellular electrodynamics, such as shielding anion concentration and protein charge. As these effects are still far below the spatial resolution of currently available measurement technology this
Yap, J.T.; Chen, C.T.; Cooper, M.
1995-01-01
The authors have previously developed a knowledge-based method of factor analysis to analyze dynamic nuclear medicine image sequences. In this paper, the authors analyze dynamic PET cerebral glucose metabolism and neuroreceptor binding studies. These methods have shown the ability to reduce the dimensionality of the data, enhance the image quality of the sequence, and generate meaningful functional images and their corresponding physiological time functions. The new information produced by the factor analysis has now been used to improve the estimation of various physiological parameters. A principal component analysis (PCA) is first performed to identify statistically significant temporal variations and remove the uncorrelated variations (noise) due to Poisson counting statistics. The statistically significant principal components are then used to reconstruct a noise-reduced image sequence as well as provide an initial solution for the factor analysis. Prior knowledge such as the compartmental models or the requirement of positivity and simple structure can be used to constrain the analysis. These constraints are used to rotate the factors to the most physically and physiologically realistic solution. The final result is a small number of time functions (factors) representing the underlying physiological processes and their associated weighting images representing the spatial localization of these functions. Estimation of physiological parameters can then be performed using the noise-reduced image sequence generated from the statistically significant PCs and/or the final factor images and time functions. These results are compared to the parameter estimation using standard methods and the original raw image sequences. Graphical analysis was performed at the pixel level to generate comparable parametric images of the slope and intercept (influx constant and distribution volume)
Park, Hoon Hee; Lyu, Kwang Yeul; Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Sang Wook; Jin, Gye Hwan
2013-01-01
Currently, commercially available phantom can reproduce and evaluate only a static situation, the study is incomplete research on phantom and system which is can confirmed functional situation in the kidney by time through dynamic phantom and blood flow velocity, various difference according to the amount of radioactive. Therefore, through this study, it has produced the dynamic kidney phantom to reproduce images through the dynamic flow of the kidney, it desires to evaluate the usefulness of nuclear medicine imaging. The production of the kidney phantom was fabricated based on the normal adult kidney, in order to reproduce the dynamic situation based on the fabricated kidney phantom, in this study, it was applied the volume pump that can adjust the speed of blood flow, so it can be integrated continuously radioactive isotopes in the kidney by using 99m Tc-pertechnate. Used the radioactive isotope was supplied through the two pump. It was confirmed the changes according to the infusion rate, radioactive isotopes and the different injection speeds on the left and right, analysis of the acquired images was done by drawn five times ROI in order to check the reproducibility of each on the front and rear of the kidney and bladder. Depending on the speed of injection, radioisotope was a lot of integrated and emissions up when adjusting the pressure of the pump as 30 stroke, it was the least integrated and emissions up when adjusting as 40 stroke. The integration of the left and right kidney was not reached in the amount of the highest when adjusting as 10 stroke. In the changes according to the amount of the radioactive isotope, 0.6 mCi (22.2 MBq), 0.8 mCi (29.6 MBq) was showed up similar tendency but, in the result of the different injection 0.8 mCi, it was showed up counts close to double of 0.6 mCi. In the result of the differently injection speed of the left and right kidney, as a result of different conditions that injection speed was 20 stroke through left kidney
Free Radical Imaging Using In Vivo Dynamic Nuclear Polarization-MRI.
Utsumi, Hideo; Hyodo, Fuminori
2015-01-01
Redox reactions that generate free radical intermediates are essential to metabolic processes, and their intermediates can produce reactive oxygen species, which may promote diseases related to oxidative stress. The development of an in vivo electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer and its imaging enables us noninvasive and direct measurement of in vivo free radical reactions in living organisms. The dynamic nuclear polarization magnetic resonance imaging (DNP-MRI), also called PEDRI or OMRI, is also a new imaging method for observing free radical species in vivo. The spatiotemporal resolution of free radical imaging with DNP-MRI is comparable with that in MRI, and each of the radical species can be distinguished in the spectroscopic images by changing the frequency or magnetic field of ESR irradiation. Several kinds of stable nitroxyl radicals were used as spin probes to detect in vivo redox reactions. The signal decay of nitroxyl probes, which is determined with in vivo DNP-MRI, reflects the redox status under oxidative stress, and the signal decay is suppressed by prior administration of antioxidants. In addition, DNP-MRI can also visualize various intermediate free radicals from the intrinsic redox molecules. This noninvasive method, in vivo DNP-MRI, could become a useful tool for investigating the mechanism of oxidative injuries in animal disease models and the in vivo effects of antioxidant drugs. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Noda, Yohei, E-mail: noda.yohei@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kumada, Takayuki [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Shamoto, Shin-ichi [Quantum Beam Science Centre, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)
2015-03-11
We investigated the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of typical thermosetting polymers (two-component type epoxy resins; Araldite{sup ®} Standard or Araldite{sup ®} Rapid) doped with a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-yl)oxy (TEMPO) radical. The doping process was developed by carefully considering the decomposition of TEMPO during the solidification of the epoxy resin. The TEMPO electron spin in each two-component paste decayed slowly, which was favorable for our study. Furthermore, despite the dissolved TEMPO, the mixture of the two-component paste successfully solidified. With the resulting TEMPO-doped epoxy-resin samples, DNP experiments at 1.2 K and 3.35 T indicated a magnitude of a proton-spin polarization up to 39%. This polarization is similar to that (35%) obtained for TEMPO-doped polystyrene (PS), which is often used as a standard sample for DNP. To combine this solidification of TEMPO-including mixture with a resin-casting technique enables a creation of polymeric target materials with a precise and complex structure.
Stoykovich, M [Burns and Roe, Inc., New York (USA)
1978-10-01
This paper encompasses nonlinear effects in dynamic analysis and design of nuclear power plant facilities. The history of plasticity as a science is briefly discussed, and nonlinear cases of special interest are described. Approaches to some of the nonlinear problems are presented. These include the nonlinearity due to foundation-structure interaction associated with the base slab uplift during seismic disturbances, the nonlinear base-isolation system for the reduction of earthquake-generated forces and deformations of superstructures, nonlinear systems having restoring-force functions in case of gaps and liift-off conditions, and nonlinearity of viscoelastic systems due to inelastic deformations. Available computer programs information for the solution of various types of nonlinear problems are provided. Advantages and disadvantages of some of the nonlinear and linear analyses are discussed. Comparison of some nonlinear and linear results of analyses are presented. Conclusions are reached with regard to research status and recommendations for further studies and for performing non-linear analyses associated with the problems of nonlinearity are presented.
Suzuki, Kohei; Aoki, Shigeru; Hanaoka, Masaaki
1981-01-01
This report deals with a fundamental study concerning an evaluation of uncertainties of the nuclear piping response and cumulative damage under excess-earthquake loadings. The main purposes of this study cover following several problems. (1) Experimental estimation analysis of the uncertainties concerning the dynamic response and the cumulative failure by using piping test model. (2) Numerical simulation analysis by Monte Carlo method under the assumption that relation between restoring force and deformation is characterized by perfectly elasto-plastic one. (Checking the mathematical model.) (3) Development of the conventional uncertainty estimating method by introducing a perturbation technique based on an appropriate equivalently linearized approach. (Checking the estimation technique.) (4) An application of this method to more realistical cases. Through above mentioned procedures some important results are obtained as follows; First, fundamental statistical properties of the natural frequencies and the number of cycle to failure crack initiation are evaluated. Second, the effect of the frequency fluctuation and the yielding fluctuation are estimated and examined through Monte Carlo simulation technique. It has become clear that the yielding fluctuation gives significant effect on the piping power response up to its failure initiation. Finally some results through proposed perturbation technique are discussed. Statistical properties estimated coincide fairly well with those through numerical simulation. (author)
Kimura, Masaaki; Dote, Akinobu; Ohnishi, Akira; Matsumiya, Hiroshi
2009-01-01
This article is originally prepared as the course text for the practice of the AMD course of 'studies of the strangeness nuclei by using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) method' in the Summer School held at KEK and IPCR in 2006-8 for postgraduate as well as undergraduate students and to foster young physicists in the titled area. The fundamental principle and the formalism of the AMD method which have been commonly used in the nuclear physics are explained at first, and it is described how to extend the AMD method to the studies of exotic nuclei especially to hypernuclei. Then calculation procedure is explained in detail so that the readers can understand the structure of exotic nuclei as they follow the process by themselves. It is intended here that they will be able not only to become familiar with the research by using the AMD method but also to visually enjoy the structure of exotic nuclei and will have further interest in this field. (S. Funahashi)
Computational Fluid Dynamics for nuclear applications: from CFD to multi-scale CMFD
Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology-Zurich (ETHZ), Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, ETH-Zentrum, CLT CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: yadi@ethz.ch
2005-02-01
New trends in computational methods for nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics are discussed; traditionally, these have been based on the two-fluid model. Although CFD computations for single phase flows are commonplace, Computational Multi-Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) is still under development. One-fluid methods coupled with interface tracking techniques provide interesting opportunities and enlarge the scope of problems that can be solved. For certain problems, one may have to conduct 'cascades' of computations at increasingly finer scales to resolve all issues. The case study of condensation of steam/air mixtures injected from a downward-facing vent into a pool of water and a proposed CMFD initiative to numerically model Critical Heat Flux (CHF) illustrate such cascades. For the venting problem, a variety of tools are used: a system code for system behaviour; an interface-tracking method (Volume of Fluid, VOF) to examine the behaviour of large bubbles; direct-contact condensation can be treated either by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or by analytical methods.
Signals of a phase transition in nuclear multifragmentation: molecular-dynamics approximation
Kiselev, S.M.
1989-01-01
The signals of a liquid-gas-like phase transition proposed recently by X.Campi are analyzed for the reactions Ca+Ca at E/A=400, 800MeV, Nb+Nb at E/A=150, 400,650,800MeV, La+La at E/A=800 MeV and Ne+U at E/A=400 MeV simulated on the basis of the molecular-dynamical model. For the symmetrical systems at E/A≥400 MeV the manifestations of a phase transition are conditioned by the peripheral collisions whereas for the reactions Nb+Nb at E/A=150 MeV and Ne+U at E/A=400 MeV the quasicentral events are a main source of the signals. The manifestations depend weakly on the projectile energy and become more pronounced for a more heavy nuclear system. 15 refs.; 3 figs
Computational Fluid Dynamics for nuclear applications: from CFD to multi-scale CMFD
Yadigaroglu, G.
2005-01-01
New trends in computational methods for nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics are discussed; traditionally, these have been based on the two-fluid model. Although CFD computations for single phase flows are commonplace, Computational Multi-Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) is still under development. One-fluid methods coupled with interface tracking techniques provide interesting opportunities and enlarge the scope of problems that can be solved. For certain problems, one may have to conduct 'cascades' of computations at increasingly finer scales to resolve all issues. The case study of condensation of steam/air mixtures injected from a downward-facing vent into a pool of water and a proposed CMFD initiative to numerically model Critical Heat Flux (CHF) illustrate such cascades. For the venting problem, a variety of tools are used: a system code for system behaviour; an interface-tracking method (Volume of Fluid, VOF) to examine the behaviour of large bubbles; direct-contact condensation can be treated either by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or by analytical methods
Nuclear energy density functional from chiral pion-nucleon dynamics revisited
Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.
2010-05-01
We use a recently improved density-matrix expansion to calculate the nuclear energy density functional in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory. Our calculation treats systematically the effects from 1 π-exchange, iterated 1 π-exchange, and irreducible 2 π-exchange with intermediate Δ-isobar excitations, including Pauli-blocking corrections up to three-loop order. We find that the effective nucleon mass M(ρ) entering the energy density functional is identical to the one of Fermi-liquid theory when employing the improved density-matrix expansion. The strength F(ρ) of the ( surface-term as provided by the pion-exchange dynamics is in good agreement with that of phenomenological Skyrme forces in the density region ρ/2short-range spin-orbit interaction. The strength function F(ρ) multiplying the square of the spin-orbit density comes out much larger than in phenomenological Skyrme forces and it has a pronounced density dependence.
Stoykovich, M.
1978-01-01
This paper encompasses nonlinear effects in dynamic analysis and design of nuclear power plant facilities. The history of plasticity as a science is briefly discussed, and nonlinear cases of special interest are described. Approaches to some of the nonlinear problems are presented. These include the nonlinearity due to foundation-structure interaction associated with the base slab uplift during seismic disturbances, the nonlinear base-isolation system for the reduction of earthquake-generated forces and deformations of superstructures, nonlinear systems having restoring-force functions in case of gaps and liift-off conditions, and nonlinearity of viscoelastic systems due to inelastic deformations. Available computer programs information for the solution of various types of nonlinear problems are provided. Advantages and disadvantages of some of the nonlinear and linear analyses are discussed. Comparison of some nonlinear and linear results of analyses are presented. Conclusions are reached with regard to research status and recommendations for further studies and for performing non-linear analyses associated with the problems of nonlinearity are presented. (Auth.)
Hu Erbang; Gao Zhanrong; Zhang Heyuan; Wei Weiqiang
1996-12-01
A dynamic food-chain model and program, DYFOM-95, for predicting the radiological consequences of nuclear accident has been developed, which is not only suitable to the West food-chain but also to Chinese food chain. The following processes, caused by accident release which will make an impact on radionuclide concentration in the edible parts of vegetable are considered: dry and wet deposition interception and initial retention, translocation, percolation, root uptake and tillage. Activity intake rate of animals, effects of processing and activity intake of human through ingestion pathway are also considered in calculations. The effects of leaf area index LAI of vegetable are considered in dry deposition model. A method for calculating the contribution of rain with different period and different intensity to total wet deposition is established. The program contains 1 main code and 5 sub-codes to calculate dry and wet deposition on surface of vegetable and soil, translocation of nuclides in vegetable, nuclide concentration in the edible parts of vegetable and in animal products and activity intake of human and so on. (24 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.)
Dynamic aspects of the nuclear decay: from the fission to the multifragmentation
Gruyer, Diego
2014-01-01
In this work we study the evolution and nature of reaction and decay mechanisms of hot nuclei produced in heavy ion collisions from E = 8 to 25 MeV/A measured with INDRA. In central Xe+Sn collisions from E = 8 to 25 MeV/A, three-fragment events present a significant cross section without the underlying production mechanism being clearly established. We have shown that fragments arise from two successive binary splittings. The time interval between these two splittings decreases with increasing incident energy, becoming compatible with a simultaneous three-body break-up above E = 20 MeV/A, which was interpreted as the signature of the onset of multifragmentation. Then we have investigated the nature of the multifragmentation process. A statistical analysis of the largest fragment charge (Zmax) distribution produced in central Xe+Sn collisions at E = 25-50 MeV/A allowed us to establish that multifragmentation is a dynamical aggregation process. It also demonstrates the effects of collective radial expansion on multifragmentation partitions through the link between the timescale of the process and the shape of the Zmax distribution. The comparison of fragmentation patterns of comparable size systems produced in symmetric (Xe+Sn) and asymmetric (Ta+Zn) central collisions, which are supposed to follow different trajectories in the nuclear phase diagram, confirm the link between collective radial expansion and fragment partitions in multifragmentation. (author) [fr
Assessment of water hammer effects on boiling water nuclear reactor core dynamics
Bousbia-Salah Anis
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Complex phenomena, as water hammer transients, occurring in nuclear power plants are still not very well investigated by the current best estimate computational tools. Within this frame work, a rapid positive reactivity addition into the core generated by a water hammer transient is considered. The numerical simulation of such phenomena was carried out using the coupled RELAP5/PARCS code. An over all data comparison shows good agreement between the calculated and measured core pressure wave trends. However, the predicted power response during the excursion phase did not correctly match the experimental tendency. Because of this, sensitivity studies have been carried out in order to identify the most influential parameters that govern the dynamics of the power excursion. After investigating the pressure wave amplitude and the void feed back responses, it was found that the disagreement between the calculated and measured data occurs mainly due to the RELAP5 low void condensation rate which seems to be questionable during rapid transients. .
Dynamical origin of nuclear multifragmentation; Origine dynamique de la multifragmentation nucleaire
Tirel, O. [Caen Univ., 14 (France)
1998-12-01
The study of the peripheral and semi-peripheral collisions in the reaction Xe+Sn at 50 A.MeV has lead to the identification of the role of out-of-equilibrium aspects in the production of intermediate mass fragments (IMF). First, it is shown that the experimental observations are incompatible with a model in which a very hot layer of matter is primarily responsible for the production of IMF at intermediate velocity. Next, the same data are compared with a calculation using the quantum molecular dynamics approach (QMD). the quality of agreement with the predictions of this model allows to draw conclusions concerning the production mechanism of fragments. The IMF originate from region that is intermediate between the projectile and the target. It is furthermore shown that this region is not in thermal equilibrium, that the fragments are pre-formed and that their velocity and composition strongly depend on the initial conditions of the reaction. The quasi-projectile and the quasi-target, on the other hand, are only mildly influenced by the collision and their excitation energies are estimated to be below the limit at which multifragmentation will take place. In parallel, an analysis is carried out which correlates he multiplicity of the IMF with the violence of the collision. This shows that a proper analysis of a process as complex as nuclear multifragmentation must simultaneously involve kinetic variables (velocity, energy,...) as well as static ones (multiplicity. charge distribution,...). (author)
Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation
Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov
2016-12-15
Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration
Nam, Hoseok; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi
2017-01-01
Nuclear-Biomass hybrid system which takes waste biomass from municipal, agricultural area, and forest as feedstock produces Bio-diesel fuel from synthesis gas generated by endothermic pyrolytic gasification using high temperature nuclear heat. Over 900 degree Celsius of exterior thermal heat from nuclear reactors, Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and some other heat sources, bring about waste biomass gasification to produce maximum amount of chemical energy from feedstock. Hydrogen from Biomass gasification or Bio-diesel as the product of Fischer-Tropsch reaction following it provide fuels for transport sector. Nuclear-Biomass hybrid system is a new alternatives to produce more energy generating synergy effects by efficiently utilizing the high temperature heat from nuclear reactor that might be considerably wasted by thermal cycle, and also energy loss from biomass combustion or biochemical processes. System Dynamics approach is taken to analyze low-carbon synthesis fuel, Bio-diesel, production with combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen from biomass gasification. Feedstock cost considering collection, transportation, storage and facility for biomass gasification impacts the economic feasibility of this model. This paper provides the implication of practical nuclear-biomass hybrid system application with feedstock supply chain through evaluation of economic feasibility. (author)
Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert
2012-08-28
We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.
DeLotto, Robert; DeLotto, Yvonne; Steward, Ruth
2007-01-01
, including nuclei on the dorsal side. Nuclear export is blocked by leptomycin B, a potent inhibitor of Exportin 1 (CRM1)-mediated nuclear export. We have developed a novel in vivo assay revealing the presence of a functional leucine-rich nuclear export signal within the carboxyterminal 44 amino acids...
Full Text Available 18022390 Nuclear receptors in macrophages: a link between metabolism and inflammati...on. Szanto A, Roszer T. FEBS Lett. 2008 Jan 9;582(1):106-16. Epub 2007 Nov 20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Nuclear... receptors in macrophages: a link between metabolism and inflammation. PubmedID 18022390 Title Nuclear
Hasegawa, Keita; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa
2016-01-01
The paper presents an economic rationality analysis of power generation mix by stochastic dynamic programming considering fuel price uncertainties and supply disruption risks such as import disruption and nuclear power plant shutdown risk. The situation revolving around Japan's energy security adopted the past statistics, it cannot be applied to a quantitative analysis of future uncertainties. Further objective and quantitative evaluation methods are required in order to analyze Japan's energy system and make it more resilient in sight of long time scale. In this paper, the authors firstly develop the cost minimization model considering oil and natural gas price respectively by stochastic dynamic programming. Then, the authors show several premises of model and an example of result with related to crude oil stockpile, liquefied natural gas stockpile and nuclear power plant capacity. (author)
Missimer, John H; Dolenc, Jožica; Steinmetz, Michel O; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
2010-01-01
Trigger sequences are indispensable elements for coiled-coil formation. The monomeric helical trigger sequence of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 has been investigated recently using several solution NMR observables including nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) intensities and 3J(HN,HCα)-coupling constants, and a set of 20 model structures was proposed. Constrained to satisfy the NOE-derived distance bounds, the NMR model structures do not appear to reproduce all the measured 3J(HN-HCα)-coupling constant values, indicating that the α-helical propensity is not uniform along the GCN4 trigger sequence. A recent methodological study of unrestrained and restrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the GCN4 trigger sequence in solution showed that only MD simulations incorporating time-averaged NOE distance restraints and instantaneous or local-elevation 3J-coupling restraints could satisfy the entire set of the experimental data. In this report, we assess by means of cluster analyses the model structures characteristic of the two simulations that are compatible with the measured data and compare them with the proposed 20 NMR model structures. Striking characteristics of the MD model structures are the variability of the simulated configurations and the indication of entropic stability mediated by the aromatic N-terminal residues 17Tyr and 18His, which are absent in the set of NMR model structures. PMID:20954244
Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy
2016-01-01
In this paper we report initial results of design and practical implementation of tuning and matching circuit to estimate a performance of Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) at a magnetic field of 6.7 T. It is shown that developed circuit for signal observation is compact, easy to make and provides....... Measurement results with a tuning and matching circuit prototype are presented including obtained spectra (13C and 1H) and estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio....
Smith, Albert A.; Corzilius, Björn; Haze, Olesya; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G., E-mail: rgg@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry and Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2013-12-07
We present electron paramagnetic resonance experiments for which solid effect dynamic nuclear polarization transitions were observed indirectly via polarization loss on the electron. This use of indirect observation allows characterization of the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) process close to the electron. Frequency profiles of the electron-detected solid effect obtained using trityl radical showed intense saturation of the electron at the usual solid effect condition, which involves a single electron and nucleus. However, higher order solid effect transitions involving two, three, or four nuclei were also observed with surprising intensity, although these transitions did not lead to bulk nuclear polarization—suggesting that higher order transitions are important primarily in the transfer of polarization to nuclei nearby the electron. Similar results were obtained for the SA-BDPA radical where strong electron-nuclear couplings produced splittings in the spectrum of the indirectly observed solid effect conditions. Observation of high order solid effect transitions supports recent studies of the solid effect, and suggests that a multi-spin solid effect mechanism may play a major role in polarization transfer via DNP.
The electron-nuclear spin system in (In,Ga)As quantum dots
Auer, Thomas
2008-01-01
polarised by optically oriented electrons also in the studied sample, so that it is even a task to keep the nuclear spins randomly oriented. An important finding was to confirm that the nuclear spins can be significantly polarised also at zero external field. I showed that the polarised nuclear spin system can have a supporting effect on the electron spin polarisation or - when the direction of the nuclear field gains a large transverse component - may depolarise the resident electron spin further than the unpolarized nuclear fluctuation field. I demonstrated that the direction of the Overhauser field may indeed be directed by very small external fields. By determining the internal fields acting on the nuclear spins, the Knight field and the nuclear dipole-dipole field, it could be estimated that the nuclear spin system can in principle be polarised to a degree close to unity. The accumulation dynamics of the electron spins polarised via the effect of negative circular polarisation was found to occur on a timescale of hundred nanoseconds. The nuclear spin system becomes polarised by optical orientation within tens of milliseconds. Finally, I observed spin memory times in the system persisting over up to 0.5 s after the excitation had been switched off. This extremely long spin lifetimes were explained in terms of a coupled electron-nuclear spin state, the nuclear spin polaron. (orig.)
Dynamic interactions of components, structure, and foundation of nuclear power facilities
Pajuhesh, J.; Hadjian, A.H.
1977-01-01
A solution is formulated for the dynamic analysis of structures and components with different stiffness and damping characteristics, including the consideration of soil-structure interaction effects. Composite structures are often analysed approximately, in particular with regards to damping. For example, the reactor and other equipment in nuclear power plant structures are often analysed by assuming them uncoupled from the supporting structures. To achieve a better accuracy, the coupled system is hereby analysed as a composite component-structure-soil system. Although derivation of mass and stiffness matrices for the component-structure-soil system is a simple problem, the determination of the damping characteristics of such a system is more complex. This emphasis on the proper evaluation of system damping is warranted on the grounds that, when resonance conditions occur, the response amplitude is governed to a significant degree by the system damping. The damping information is usually available for each sub-structure separately with its based fixed or devoid of rigid-body modes of motion. The rigid-body motions are often free of damping resistance but sometimes, such as in the case of soil-structure interaction, or in the case of aerodynamic resistance, are uniquely defined. The composite damping matrix for the complete structure is hereby derived from the above-mentioned information. Thus, the damping matrix is first obtained for the free-free model of each sub-structure (the model containing the structural degrees of freedom together with rigid-body modes of motion), and then the submatrices for the free-free models are assembled to form the composite damping matrix in acccordance with an assembly technique relating the sub-structure coordinates to the global coordinates of the composite structure
Scheffler, J.E.; Cohn, M.
1986-01-01
A photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) study of yeast and horse muscle phosphoglycerate kinase with flavin dyes was undertaken to identify the histidine, tryptophan, and tyrosine resonances in the aromatic region of the simplified 1 H NMR spectra of these enzymes and to investigate the effect of substrates on the resonances observable by CIDNP. Identification of the CIDNP-enhanced resonances with respect to the type of amino acid residue has been achieved since only tyrosine yields emission peaks and the dye 8-aminoriboflavin enhances tryptophan but not histidine. By use of the known amino acid sequences and structures derived from X-ray crystallographic studies of the enzymes from the two species, assignment of the specific residues in the protein sequences giving rise to the CIDNP spectra was partially achieved. In addition, flavin dye accessibility was used to probe any changes in enzyme structure induced by substrate binding. The accessibility of a tyrosine to photoexcited flavin is reduced in the presence of MgATP. Since the tyrosine residues are located some distance from the MgATP binding site of the catalytic center, it is proposed either that this change is due to a distant conformational change or that a second metal-ATP site inferred from other studies lies close to one of the tyrosines. Horse muscle phosphoglycerate kinase exhibits seven resonances by CIDNP NMR. The addition of 3-phosphoglycerate and MgATP results in the appearance of two additional resonances in the CIDNP spectrum due to a histidine residue that is inaccessible to flavin in both the enzyme alone and its binary complex with 3-phosphoglycerate. The CIDNP spectra are consistent with the suggestions that binding of 3-phosphoglycerate alone is insufficient to effect domain movement and that binding of both substrates are required for conversion of the horse muscle enzyme to its catalytically active form
1H chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in the photodecomposition of uranyl carboxylates
Rykov, S.V.; Khudyakov, I.V.; Skakovsky, E.D.; Burrows, H.D.; Formosinho, S.J.; Miguel, M. da G.M.
1991-01-01
Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization ( 1 H CIDNP) has been observed during photolysis of uranyl salts of pivalic, propionic, and acetic acids in D 2 O solution, [ 2 H 6 ]acetone, [ 2 H 4 ]methanol, or in some other solvent. The multiplet polarization of isobutene and isobutane protons has been found under photolysis of deoxygenated pivalate solution. The polarized compounds are formed in the triplet pairs of tert-butyl free radicals. 1 H Emission of the tert-butylperoxyl group and emission of 1 H from isobutene have been recorded under photolysis of air-saturated pivalate solutions. The CIDNP of butane protons stays as a multiplet. Such changes in the presence of air/oxygen have arisen apparently because of the formation of tert-butylperoxyl free radical and its reaction with tert-butyl radical products, i.e. hydroperoxide (peroxide) and isobutene. Isobutene probably forms a complex with molecular oxygen which has a very short proton relaxation time. During the photolysis of uranyl pivalate in the presence of p-benzoquinone (5 x 10 -2 -0.1 mol dm -3 ) we have not observed any CIDNP, whereas under p-benzoquinone concentrations of 10 -3 -10 -2 mol dm -3 the CIDNP from both hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone has been followed. Photolysis of uranyl propionate has led to CIDNP from butane protons. An emission from methyl group protons of a compound with an ethylperoxyl fragment in the presence of air/oxygen has been observed. The same polarization picture has arisen under interaction of photoexcited uranyl with propionic acid. During the photolysis of uranyl acetate at relatively low concentrations (10 -2 mol dm -3 ) a CIDNP very similar to that registered for uranyl propionate was recorded. The ethyl fragment is probably obtained in reactions for two methyl radicals formed from acetate with the parent uranyl acetate, namely hydrogen-atom abstraction and addition reactions. (author)
Kemp, Thomas F; Dannatt, Hugh R W; Barrow, Nathan S; Watts, Anthony; Brown, Steven P; Newton, Mark E; Dupree, Ray
2016-04-01
A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer which uses a 187 GHz (corresponding to (1)H NMR frequency of 284 MHz) Extended Interaction Klystron (EIK) amplifier as the microwave source is briefly described. Its performance is demonstrated for a biomolecule (bacteriorhodopsin), a pharmaceutical, and surface functionalised silica. The EIK is very compact and easily incorporated into an existing spectrometer. The bandwidth of the amplifier is sufficient that it obviates the need for a sweepable magnetic field, once set, for all commonly used radicals. The variable power (CW or pulsed) output from the EIK is transmitted to the DNP-NMR probe using a quasi-optic system with a high power isolator and a corrugated waveguide which feeds the microwaves into the DNP-NMR probe. Curved mirrors inside the probe project the microwaves down the axis of the MAS rotor, giving a very efficient system such that maximum DNP enhancement is achieved with less than 3 W output from the microwave source. The DNP-NMR probe operates with a sample temperature down to 90K whilst spinning at 8 kHz. Significant enhancements, in excess of 100 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane (bR in PM), are shown along with spectra which are enhanced by ≈25 with respect to room temperature, for both the pharmaceutical furosemide and surface functionalised silica. These enhancements allow hitherto prohibitively time consuming experiments to be undertaken. The power at which the DNP enhancement in bR in PM saturates does not change significantly between 90K and 170 K even though the enhancement drops by a factor of ≈11. As the DNP build up time decreases by a factor 3 over this temperature range, the reduction in T1n is presumably a significant contribution to the drop in enhancement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization at 9.4 T with a 30 mW microwave source.
Thurber, Kent R; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert
2010-06-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can provide large signal enhancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by transfer of polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. We discuss several aspects of DNP experiments at 9.4 T (400 MHz resonant frequency for (1)H, 264 GHz for electron spins in organic radicals) in the 7-80K temperature range, using a 30 mW, frequency-tunable microwave source and a quasi-optical microwave bridge for polarization control and low-loss microwave transmission. In experiments on frozen glycerol/water doped with nitroxide radicals, DNP signal enhancements up to a factor of 80 are observed (relative to (1)H NMR signals with thermal equilibrium spin polarization). The largest sensitivity enhancements are observed with a new triradical dopant, DOTOPA-TEMPO. Field modulation with a 10 G root-mean-squared amplitude during DNP increases the nuclear spin polarizations by up to 135%. Dependencies of (1)H NMR signal amplitudes, nuclear spin relaxation times, and DNP build-up times on the dopant and its concentration, temperature, microwave power, and modulation frequency are reported and discussed. The benefits of low-temperature DNP can be dramatic: the (1)H spin polarization is increased approximately 1000-fold at 7 K with DNP, relative to thermal polarization at 80K. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low-Temperature Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at 9.4 Tesla With a 30 Milliwatt Microwave Source
Thurber, Kent R.; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert
2010-01-01
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can provide large signal enhancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by transfer of polarization from electron spins to nuclear spins. We discuss several aspects of DNP experiments at 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz resonant frequency for 1H, 264 GHz for electron spins in organic radicals) in the 7–80 K temperature range, using a 30 mW, frequency-tunable microwave source and a quasi-optical microwave bridge for polarization control and low-loss microwave transmission. In experiments on frozen glycerol/water doped with nitroxide radicals, DNP signal enhancements up to a factor of 80 are observed (relative to 1H NMR signals with thermal equilibrium spin polarization). The largest sensitivity enhancements are observed with a new triradical dopant, DOTOPA-TEMPO. Field modulation with a 10 G root-mean-squared amplitude during DNP increases the nuclear spin polarizations by up to 135%. Dependencies of 1H NMR signal amplitudes, nuclear spin relaxation times, and DNP build-up times on the dopant and its concentration, temperature, microwave power, and modulation frequency are reported and discussed. The benefits of low-temperature DNP can be dramatic: the 1H spin polarization is increased approximately 1000-fold at 7 K with DNP, relative to thermal polarization at 80 K. PMID:20392658
Bala, Shashi; Kumar, Ajay; Soni, Shivani; Sinha, Sudha; Hanspal, Manjit
2006-01-01
Emp, originally detected in erythroblastic islands, is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues suggesting a functionality not limited to hematopoiesis. To study the function of Emp in non-hematopoietic cells, an epitope-tagged recombinant human Emp was expressed in HEK cells. Preliminary studies revealed that Emp partitioned into both the nuclear and Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeletal fractions in approximately a 4:1 ratio. In this study, we report investigations of Emp in the nucleus. Sequential extractions of interphase nuclei showed that recombinant Emp was present predominantly in the nuclear matrix. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Emp was present in typical nuclear speckles enriched with the spliceosome assembly factor SC35 and partially co-localized with actin staining. Coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pull-down assays confirmed the apparent close association of Emp with nuclear actin. During mitosis, Emp was detected at the mitotic spindle/spindle poles, as well as in the contractile ring during cytokinesis. These results suggest that Emp undergoes dynamic rearrangements within the nuclear architecture that are correlated with cell division
Du, Jincheng
2018-03-16
This NEUP Project aimed to generate accurate atomic structural models of nuclear waste glasses by using large-scale molecular dynamics-based computer simulations and to use these models to investigate self-diffusion behaviors, interfacial structures, and hydrated gel structures formed during dissolution of these glasses. The goal was to obtain realistic and accurate short and medium range structures of these complex oxide glasses, to provide a mechanistic understanding of the dissolution behaviors, and to generate reliable information with predictive power in designing nuclear waste glasses for long-term geological storage. Looking back of the research accomplishments of this project, most of the scientific goals initially proposed have been achieved through intensive research in the three and a half year period of the project. This project has also generated a wealth of scientific data and vibrant discussions with various groups through collaborations within and outside of this project. Throughout the project one book chapter and 14 peer reviewed journal publications have been generated (including one under review) and 16 presentations (including 8 invited talks) have been made to disseminate the results of this project in national and international conference. Furthermore, this project has trained several outstanding graduate students and young researchers for future workforce in nuclear related field, especially on nuclear waste immobilization. One postdoc and four PhD students have been fully or partially supported through the project with intensive training in the field material science and engineering with expertise on glass science and nuclear waste disposal
Anton, V.
1979-12-01
The collapsing formulae for the optimization problems solved by means of the Pontryagin maximum principle in nuclear reactor dynamics are presented. A comparison with the corresponding formulae of the static case is given too. (author)
Toneatto, Judith; Charó, Nancy L; Susperreguy, Sebastián; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela
2013-01-01
Glucocorticoids play an important role in adipogenesis via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that forms a heterocomplex with Hsp90-Hsp70 and a high molecular weight immunophilin FKBP51 or FKBP52. We have found that FKBP51 level of expression progressively increases, FKBP52 decreases, whereas Hsp90, Hsp70, and p23 remain unchanged when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiate. Interestingly, FKBP51 translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus at the onset of adipogenesis. FKBP51 transiently concentrates in the nuclear lamina, at a time that this nuclear compartment undergoes its reorganization. FKBP51 nuclear localization is transient, after 48 h it cycles back to mitochondria. We found that the dynamic FKBP51 mitochondrial-nuclear shuttling is regulated by glucocorticoids and mainly on cAMP-PKA signaling since PKA inhibition by myristoilated-PKI, abrogated FKBP51 nuclear translocation induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). It has been reported that PKA interacts with GR in a ligand dependent manner potentiating its transcriptional capacity. GR transcriptional capacity is reduced when cells are incubated in the presence of IBMX, forskolin or dibutyryl-cAMP, compounds that induced nuclear translocation of FKBP51, therefore PKA may exert a dual role in the control of GR. In summary, the presence of FKBP51 in the nucleus may be critical for GR transcriptional control, and possibly for the control of other transcription factors that are not members of the nuclear receptor family but are regulated by PKA signaling pathway, when transcription has to be strictly controlled to succeed in the acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype.
Nuclear Power Plant Cyber Security Discrete Dynamic Event Tree Analysis (LDRD 17-0958) FY17 Report
Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, R. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Nevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-09-01
Instrumentation and control of nuclear power is transforming from analog to modern digital assets. These control systems perform key safety and security functions. This transformation is occurring in new plant designs as well as in the existing fleet of plants as the operation of those plants is extended to 60 years. This transformation introduces new and unknown issues involving both digital asset induced safety issues and security issues. Traditional nuclear power risk assessment tools and cyber security assessment methods have not been modified or developed to address the unique nature of cyber failure modes and of cyber security threat vulnerabilities. iii This Lab-Directed Research and Development project has developed a dynamic cyber-risk in- formed tool to facilitate the analysis of unique cyber failure modes and the time sequencing of cyber faults, both malicious and non-malicious, and impose those cyber exploits and cyber faults onto a nuclear power plant accident sequence simulator code to assess how cyber exploits and cyber faults could interact with a plants digital instrumentation and control (DI&C) system and defeat or circumvent a plants cyber security controls. This was achieved by coupling an existing Sandia National Laboratories nuclear accident dynamic simulator code with a cyber emulytics code to demonstrate real-time simulation of cyber exploits and their impact on automatic DI&C responses. Studying such potential time-sequenced cyber-attacks and their risks (i.e., the associated impact and the associated degree of difficulty to achieve the attack vector) on accident management establishes a technical risk informed framework for developing effective cyber security controls for nuclear power.
The Dynamic Monte Carlo Method for Transient Analysis of Nuclear Reactors
Sjenitzer, B.L.
2013-01-01
In this thesis a new method for the analysis of power transients in a nuclear reactor is developed, which is more accurate than the present state-of-the-art methods. Transient analysis is important tool when designing nuclear reactors, since they predict the behaviour of a reactor during changing
The safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in the dynamic Pacific basin
Blix, H.
1994-01-01
In the Pacific region, as elsewhere, nuclear techniques have an established role in industry, medicine, and agricultural science. There is also a growing appreciation for the usefulness of nuclear techniques in tackling environmental problems. The risk of misuse and unsafe use remains the major issue
The nuclear industry is about to begin a new dynamic. Interview with Luis Echavarri
Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)
2014-05-15
The nuclear industry has changed significantly in the 17 years since Luis Echavarri became director-general of the Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation's (OECD) Paris-based Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). As he approaches retirement, Mr Echavarri speaks to NucNet about the priorities for the industry as it enters the post-Fukushima era. (orig.)
Dull, Angie; Goncharova, Ekaterina; Hager, Gordon; McMahon, James B
2010-11-01
We have developed a robust high-content assay to screen for novel estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonists and antagonists by quantitation of cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of an estrogen receptor chimera in 384-well plates. The screen utilizes a green fluorescent protein tagged-glucocorticoid/estrogen receptor (GFP-GRER) chimera which consisted of the N-terminus of the glucocorticoid receptor fused to the human ER ligand binding domain. The GFP-GRER exhibited cytoplasmic localization in the absence of ERα ligands, and translocated to the nucleus in response to stimulation with ERα agonists or antagonists. The BD Pathway 435 imaging system was used for image acquisition, analysis of translocation dynamics, and cytotoxicity measurements. The assay was validated with known ERα agonists and antagonists, and the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC 1280). Additionally, screening of crude natural product extracts demonstrated the robustness of the assay, and the ability to quantitate the effects of toxicity on nuclear translocation dynamics. The GFP-GRER nuclear translocation assay was very robust, with z' values >0.7, CVs screening of natural product extracts. This assay has been developed for future primary screening of synthetic, pure natural products, and natural product extracts libraries available at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bayesian network representing system dynamics in risk analysis of nuclear systems
Varuttamaseni, Athi
2011-12-01
A dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) model is used in conjunction with the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) regression method to analyze the risk associated with the loss of feedwater accident coupled with a subsequent initiation of the feed and bleed operation in the Zion-1 nuclear power plant. The use of the DBN allows the joint probability distribution to be factorized, enabling the analysis to be done on many simpler network structures rather than on one complicated structure. The construction of the DBN model assumes conditional independence relations among certain key reactor parameters. The choice of parameter to model is based on considerations of the macroscopic balance statements governing the behavior of the reactor under a quasi-static assumption. The DBN is used to relate the peak clad temperature to a set of independent variables that are known to be important in determining the success of the feed and bleed operation. A simple linear relationship is then used to relate the clad temperature to the core damage probability. To obtain a quantitative relationship among different nodes in the DBN, surrogates of the RELAP5 reactor transient analysis code are used. These surrogates are generated by applying the ACE algorithm to output data obtained from about 50 RELAP5 cases covering a wide range of the selected independent variables. These surrogates allow important safety parameters such as the fuel clad temperature to be expressed as a function of key reactor parameters such as the coolant temperature and pressure together with important independent variables such as the scram delay time. The time-dependent core damage probability is calculated by sampling the independent variables from their probability distributions and propagate the information up through the Bayesian network to give the clad temperature. With the knowledge of the clad temperature and the assumption that the core damage probability has a one-to-one relationship to it, we have
Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.
1986-01-01
This paper is concerned with the application of the electromagnetic force to the determination of the dynamic fracture toughness of materials. Taken is an edge-cracked specimen which carries a transient electric current and is simply supported in a steady magnetic field. As a result of their interaction, the dynamic electromagnetic force occurs in the whole body of the specimen, which is then deformed to fracture in the opening mode of cracking. Using the electric potential and the J-R curve methods to determine the dynamic crack initiation point in the experiment, together with the finite element method to calculate the extended J-integral with the effects of the electromagnetic force and inertia, the dynamic fracture toughness values of nuclear pressure vessel steel A508 class 3 are evaluated over a wide temperature range from lower to upper shelves. The strain distribution near the crack tip in the dynamic process of fracture is also obtained by applying a computer picture processing. (orig.)
Huynh, Tan Vu; Messinger, Robert J.; Sarou-Kanian, Vincent; Fayon, Franck; Bouchet, Renaud; Deschamps, Michaël
2017-10-01
The intrinsic ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based block copolymer electrolytes is often assumed to be identical to the conductivity of the PEO homopolymer. Here, we use high-field 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation and pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion measurements to probe lithium ion dynamics over nanosecond and millisecond time scales in PEO and polystyrene (PS)-b-PEO-b-PS electrolytes containing the lithium salt LiTFSI. Variable-temperature longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) 7Li NMR relaxation rates were acquired at three magnetic field strengths and quantitatively analyzed for the first time at such fields, enabling us to distinguish two characteristic time scales that describe fluctuations of the 7Li nuclear electric quadrupolar interaction. Fast lithium motions [up to O (ns)] are essentially identical between the two polymer electrolytes, including sub-nanosecond vibrations and local fluctuations of the coordination polyhedra between lithium and nearby oxygen atoms. However, lithium dynamics over longer time scales [O (10 ns) and greater] are slower in the block copolymer compared to the homopolymer, as manifested experimentally by their different transverse 7Li NMR relaxation rates. Restricted dynamics and altered thermodynamic behavior of PEO chains anchored near PS domains likely explain these results.
Trifunac, A.D.
1981-01-01
Structure and dynamics of transient radicals in pulse radiolysis can be studied by time resolved EPR and NMR techniques. EPR study of kinetics and relaxation is illustrated. The NMR detection of nuclear resonance in transient radicals is a new method which allows the study of hyperfine coupling, population dynamics, radical kinetics, and reaction mechanism. 9 figures.
Anon.
2000-01-01
The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)
Queisser, Gillian; Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar
2011-01-01
Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons.
Dynamic trafficking of STAT5 depends on an unconventional nuclear localization signal
Shin, Ha Youn; Reich, Nancy C.
2013-01-01
Summary Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is crucial for physiological processes that include hematopoiesis, liver metabolism and mammary gland development. However, aberrant continual activity of STAT5 has been causally linked to human leukemias and solid tumor formation. As a regulated transcription factor, precise cellular localization of STAT5 is essential. Conventional nuclear localization signals consist of short stretches of basic amino acids. In this study, we provide evidence that STAT5 nuclear import is dependent on an unconventional nuclear localization signal that functions within the conformation of an extensive coiled-coil domain. Both in vitro binding and in vivo functional assays reveal that STAT5 nuclear import is mediated by the importin-α3/β1 system independently of STAT5 activation by tyrosine phosphorylation. The integrity of the coiled-coil domain is essential for STAT5 transcriptional induction of the β-casein gene following prolactin stimulation as well as its ability to synergize with the glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid receptor accumulates in the nucleus in response to prolactin and this nuclear import is dependent on STAT5 nuclear import. STAT5 continually shuttles in and out of the nucleus and live cell imaging demonstrates that STAT5 nuclear export is mediated by both chromosome region maintenance 1 (Crm1)-dependent and Crm1-independent pathways. A Crm1-dependent nuclear export signal was identified within the STAT5 N-terminus. These findings provide insight into the fundamental mechanisms that regulate STAT5 nuclear trafficking and cooperation with the glucocorticoid receptor and provide a basis for clinical intervention of STAT5 function in disease. PMID:23704351
Li, Zheng
2014-09-01
The advent of free electron lasers and high harmonic sources enables the investigation of electronic and nuclear dynamics of molecules and solids with atomic spatial resolution and femtosecond/attosecond time resolution, using bright and ultrashort laser pulses of frequency from terahertz to hard x-ray range. With the help of ultrashort laser pulses, the nuclear and electronic dynamics can be initiated, monitored and actively controlled at the typical time scale in the femtosecond to attosecond realm. Meanwhile, theoretical tools are required to describe the underlying mechanism. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical tools based on full quantum mechanical multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) and mixed quantum classical approaches, which can be applied to describe the dynamical behavior of gas phase molecules and strongly correlated solids in the presence of ultrashort laser pulses. In the first part of this thesis, the focus is on the motion of electron holes in gas phase molecular ions created by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization and watched by spectroscopic approaches. The XUV photons create electron-hole in the valence orbitals of molecules by photoionization, the electron hole, as a positively charged quasi-particle, can then interact with the nuclei and the rest of electrons, leading to coupled non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics. I present our study on electron-hole relaxation dynamics in valence ionized molecular ions of moderate size, using quantum wave packet and mixed quantum-classical approaches, using photoionized [H + (H 2 O) n ] + molecular ion as example. We have shown that the coupled motion of the electron-hole and the nuclei can be mapped out with femtosecond resolution by core-level x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, in specific cases, the XUV photon can create a coherent electron hole, that can maintain its coherence to time scales of ∝ 1 picosecond. Employing XUV pump - IR probe
Gallardo S, L F
1991-12-31
The theoretical study of temporal behavior of a nuclear reactor is of great importance, since it allows to know, in advance, the conditions to which a reactor is going to be submitted. The reliability of two computer codes (AIREK-JEN and PLANKIN) designed to reproduce the temporal behavior of nuclear reactors, generally power reactors, when they are applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of TRIGA-3 Salazar Reactor is analyzed. In the first chapters, the fundamental equations that solve this computer codes are deduced, and also the main characteristics of TRIGA-3 Salazar Reactor and the necessary data to run the programs are presented; later the results obtained with the computer codes and the experimental results reported in the operational logbook of the reactor are compared, with the result that such computer codes are applicable to the temporal study of TRIGA-3 Salazar Reactor. (Author).
Solov'yov, Andrey; ISACC 2007; Latest advances in atomic cluster collisions
2008-01-01
This book presents a 'snapshot' of the most recent and significant advances in the field of cluster physics. It is a comprehensive review based on contributions by the participants of the 2nd International Symposium on Atomic Cluster Collisions (ISACC 2007) held in July 19-23, 2007 at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The purpose of the Symposium is to promote the growth and exchange of scientific information on the structure and properties of nuclear, atomic, molecular, biological and complex cluster systems studied by means of photonic, electronic, heavy particle and atomic collisions. Particular attention is devoted to dynamic phenomena, many-body effects taking place in cluster systems of a different nature - these include problems of fusion and fission, fragmentation, collective electron excitations, phase transitions, etc.Both the experimental and theoretical aspects of cluster physics, uniquely placed between nuclear physics on the one hand and atomic, molecular and solid state physics on the other, are discuss...
Kim, Yun Il; Woo, Tae Ho
2018-01-01
The passive system by the free-fall is investigated in the accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The complex algorithm of the system dynamics (SD) modeling is done in the passive cooling system. The nuclear passive system by free-fall is successfully modeled for the loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Conventional passive system of gravity or natural circulation is working only when the piping systems is in the good condition. The external coolant supply system is introduced in the case of the piping system failure. The water is poured into the reactor through the guiding piping or tube. If the explosion happens, the coolants could be showering into the reactor core and its building. New kind of passive system is expected successfully in the on-site black out where the drone could be operated by battery or engine.
Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development.
Abrams, Elliott W; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C
2012-08-03
To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, mitotic intermediates wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope; the karyomeres then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion, resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry protein localizes to the nuclear envelope, with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. brambleberry corresponds to an unannotated gene with similarity to Kar5p, a protein that participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We also demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. Our studies provide insight into the machinery required for karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Damping in nuclear collective modes in a semiclassical fluid-dynamical approximation
Vignolo, C.E.; Hernandez, Susana
1989-01-01
A semiclassical fluiddynamical model based on an usual scaling approximation (SCA) was extended to investigate the role of one and two-body dissipation in the widths of nuclear collective modes. The competition between one and two-body viscosity in: i) the collisionless (elastic) limit; ii) the hydrodynamical case and iii) the general viscoelastic regime is examined over the whole range of nuclear collision time scales. Numerical solutions are investigated for the first magnetic 2 - twist mode in 208 Pb. (Author) [es