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Sample records for ovejas barbados barriga

  1. African Journals Online: Barbados

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Barbados. Home > African Journals Online: Barbados. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  2. Tratamento de barriga de aluguel em Direito Comparado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Ruiz SÁENZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O progresso nas ciências da vida e medicina impulsionadas por avanços e descobertasda ciência moderna e tecnologia levou ao desenvolvimento de tecnologias de reprodução humana assistida como uma solução para o problema da infertilidade, a adoção substitui alternativa tradicional paternidade biológica. Neste contexto, menção especial dada disputas surrogacygerados a partir de um ponto de vista social, ético, legal e biomédica. O regulamento díspares desta prática para o direito nacional levou ao “turismo reprodutivo”, isto é, a transferência de casais de países onde a prática da barriga de aluguel é ilegal emoutros países onde a prática é legal, levando privadas internacionaisquestões de direito relativas ao reconhecimento da paternidade de crianças nascidas com o uso dessas técnicas.

  3. Cecilia Barriga: el feminismo como principio de creación

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Antonio A.; Zurian, Francisco A.

    2013-01-01

    La prolífica obra audiovisual de Cecilia Barriga (desde la video creación al documental y la ficción audiovisual) muestra de forma preclara las relaciones entre los productos audiovisuales y los estudios de género al ofrecer una perspectiva propia sobre la identidad de género, la mujer y el pensamiento feminista. Se repasará, en dicha perspectiva de análisis, su obra audiovisual y se analizará específicamente su pieza documental El camino de Moisés (2004) como ejemplo esp...

  4. Congelación de cuajadas de leche de oveja

    OpenAIRE

    Sendra Nadal, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 26 d'agost de 2008 Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El trabajo propone la congelación de cuajadas para desestacinalizar la producción de queso duro y semi-duro de leche de oveja. Se aplican como variables de estudio, las condiciones de envasado (en bolsas de polietileno y con cierre manual, en envase barrera bb4.1 de cryovac y al vacío y en el mismo envase barrera en atmósfera de dióxido de carbono), la velocidad de congelac...

  5. Somatotropina bovina recombinante en sincronización de estros y prolificidad de ovejas Pelibuey

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa-Pérez, G; Pérez-Hernández, P.; Vaquera-Huerta, H.; Salazar-Ortiz, J.; Sánchez-del-Real, C.; Cadena-Villegas, S.; Gallegos-Sánchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Con la finalidad de estudiar si la administración de la Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante (bST) dos días antes del retiro del progestágeno, tiene efecto en la sincronización de estros, inicio del estro, fertilidad, prolificidad y tipo de parto en ovejas Pelibuey, a 180 ovejas de 4,0 ± 0,32 años de edad, se les inserto un dispositivo intravaginal impregnado con progesterona (CIDR P4 0,3 g), por nueve días. Dos días antes del retiro del dispositivo, las ovejas se asignaron aleatoriamente a uno ...

  6. The Barbados Sea Level Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Mortlock, R. A.; Abdul, N. A.; Wright, J. D.; Cao, L.; Mey, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Additional offshore drill cores, nearly 100 new radiometric dates, and more than 1000 kilometers of Multibeam mapping greatly enhance the Barbados Sea Level record. Extensive Multibeam mapping around the entire island covers approximately 2650 km2 of the sea bottom and now integrates the offshore reef topography and Barbados Sea Level Record with the unparalleled onshore core collection, digital elevation maps, and Pleistocene sea level record spanning the past one million years. The reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, remains the stalwart indicator of sea level for many reasons that are validated by our redundant sea level records and redundant dating via Th/U and Pa/U analyses. Microanalysis and densitometry studies better explain why Acropora palmata is so well preserved in the Pleistocene reef records and therefore why it is the species of choice for sea level reconstructions and radiometric dating. New drill cores into reefs that formed during Marine Isotope Stage 3 lead us to a model of diagenesis that allows us to better prospect for unaltered coral samples in older reefs that may be suitable for Th/U dating. Equally important, our diagenesis model reinforces our rigorous sample quality criteria in a more quantitative manner. The Barbados Sea Level record has a sampling resolution of better than 100 years throughout much of the last deglaciation showing unprecedented detail in redundant drill cores. The Melt Water Pulses (MWP1A and MWP1B) are well resolved and the intervening interval that includes the Younger Dryas reveals sea level changes in new detail that are consistent with the terrestrial records of ice margins (see Abdul et al., this section). More than 100 paired Th/U and radiocarbon ages place the Barbados Sea Level Record unambiguously on the radiocarbon time scale for direct comparisons with the terrestrial records of ice margin changes.

  7. HISTOPATOLOGIA DE LA INFECCIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE OVEJAS SIN LANA Ovis aries POR Neospora caninum

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    Teresa Oviedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovejas sin lana en diferentes estados reproductivos fueron inoculadas por vía intravenosa con taquizoítos deN. caninum muestra «NC-beef» con el fin de estudiar la patofisiología de la enfermedad en estos animales yverificar la posibilidad de ser usados como modelo experimental de neosporosis bovina. Se utilizaron cincoovejas gestantes (una con 15 días, dos con 30 días, dos con 90 días, tres no gestantes y dos con 10 díasposparto. Los animales eran serologicamente negativos para N.caninum y T. gondii. Dos ovejas gestantes, noinoculadas, fueron utilizadas como control negativo. Los corderos necropsiados, nacidos de ovejas inoculadasantes o durante la gestación presentaron alteraciones histopatológicas en diferentes tejidos, siendo las masseveras observadas en el sistema nervioso central, caracterizadas por la presencia de formas quísticas delparásito asociadas con infiltrado inflamatorio predominantemente mononuclear, áreas de necrosis y en algunoscasos presencia de calcificación. Los corderos nacidos de ovejas inoculadas 10 días después del parto nopresentaron signos clínicos de la enfermedad ni anticuerpos contra o parásito y a la necropsia no presentaronlesiones en ninguno de los tejidos analizados. Un cordero nacido de oveja no inoculada no presentó alteracionesmicroscópicas en ninguno de los tejidos analizados

  8. Windmill, sugar works, 'Springhall', St. Lucy, Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    204 x 143 mm. Showing the windmill and other refinery buildings with workers leading bullock teams loaded with cane towards the refinery. The Spring Hall Estate lies in the centre of St. Lucy Parish in northern Barbados.

  9. Antonio María Barriga Villalba, El Multifacético

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    Pablo Gómez Martinez

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Esta sesión solemne que celebramos hoy, gracias a la obligante solicitud del cadémico Laurentino Muñoz, ha debido realizarse el año pasado, pero debido a múltiples inconvenientes y al congestionado calendario de las actividades de la Academia, ello no fue posible, por lo cual rogamos a los oyentes se sirvan disimular la tardanza de esta celebración.

    Para la Academia Nacional de Medicina que ha conservado a través de los años una severa tradición de reconocimiento de los valores humanos, es especialmente grato rendir este homenaje de admiración a los ilustres hombres de ciencia que la honraron con sus ejecutorias ya los distinguidos miembros de la profesión médica que tuvieron su raigambre en ese maravilloso rincón de la patria: el departamento del Huila.

    Aprovechando esta ocasión, vamos a colocar en la galería de los presidentes, los retratos de dos ilustres académicos: del miembro honorario profesor Antonio María Barriga Villalba y el del miembro de número doctor Arturo Arboleda.

    El limitado tiempo de que dispongo, me impide hacer un relato detenido de la vida de Barriga Villalba, y un estudio crítico a fondo de su obra. Me limitaré con la venia de la audiencia, a destacar sólamente algunas realizaciones de sus actividades y de su dedicación a la docencia, pidiéndoles disculpas por las omisiones que pudieran tener estas pocas palabras.

    Nació en Bogotá el día 9 de junio de 1894. Contrajo matrimonio con doña Luisa Del Diestro de cuya unión hubo tres hijos: Luis, Antonio y Fernando. Murió este año a la edad cumplida de 91 años, rodeado del amor y cariño de los suyos.

    Hizo sus estudios secundarios en el Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, bajo la dirección del doctor Liborio Zerda, en donde recibió el título de bachiller. Por su dedicación, por sus dotes de inteligencia, fue nombrado colegial de número, posición reservada a muy pocos estudiantes sobresalientes del

  10. SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN DE OVEJA AWASSI Y RENDIMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO: UNA EXPERIENCIA DEL MEDIO ORIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami T. Kridli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordania es un país predominantemente semiárido. La mayor parte de la tierra es incultivable y sólo se puede utilizar para el pastoreo de rumiantes pequeños. La oveja Awassi de cola gruesa es la raza nativa de ovejas en Jordania. Esta raza es popular por varias razones, tales como su adaptabilidad a ecosistemas difíciles, su producción lechera y por tener una carne con buenas características y un buen sabor. La industria ovejera en Jordania enfrenta muchos retos, el más importante es la escases de agua, que conlleva a una baja disponibilidad de forrajes y a un alza en los precios de los alimentos. A pesar de las dificultades, se realizan esfuerzos para mejorar la productividad de las ovejas Awassi mediante la selección, el cuidado veterinario, la evaluación de fuentes alternativas de alimentación y tratamientos hormonales para mejorar su fertilidad y fecundidad. Este estudio enfatiza la investigación principal llevada a cabo en ovejas Awassi en Jordania en la última década con un énfasis especial en el rendimiento reproductivo.

  11. GRIP BARBADOS/CAPE VERDE RADIOSONDE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Barbados/Cape Verde radiosonde data set consists of generally two soundings per day (06Z and 12Z) launched from Barbados, and one sounding per day (12Z)...

  12. Respuesta reproductiva de ovejas de pelo sincronizadas con progesterona o prostaglandinas

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo-Ledezma, Jaime; De La Torre-Barrera, Jannette; Ávila-Serrano, N. Ysac

    2013-01-01

    La sincronización ajusta los estros a tiempos específicos y permite usar tecnologías reproductivas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la respuesta reproductiva de 30 ovejas de pelo sincronizadas con progesterona (P4) o prostaglandinas. Las ovejas de pelo eran 5/8 Pelibuey x 2/8 Black Belly x 1/8 Dorper, de 3.5 a 4.0 años de edad, con peso promedio de 37.8 ±3.0 kg; el último parto fue 8 meses previos al experimento. Los tratamientos fueron; 1) aplicación por 11 d de 300 mg de P4 impregna...

  13. INFLUENCIA DEL CONTACTO RESTRINGIDO HEMBRA-CORDERO EN LA DURACIÓN DEL ANESTRO POSPARTO EN OVEJAS PELIBUEY

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    Jaime Arroyo Ledezma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de la restricción del contacto hembra-cordero en la duración del anestro posparto. Se utilizaron 28 ovejas Pelibuey adultas con sus crías. Un día después del parto, las hembras se asignaron aleatoriamente a dos condiciones de manejo. Amamantamiento restringido a 17 h/día (RS; n=17 ovejas; n=21 corderos, separación oveja-cría por 7 h/día (8:00 a 15:00 h. Amamantamiento continuo (US; n=11 ovejas; n=13 corderos, contacto e interacción oveja-cordero 24 h/día. Se colectaron muestras sanguíneas en las ovejas, del parto a los 105 días posparto y se determinó la concentración de progesterona por radioinmunoanálisis. Las ovejas y los corderos se pesaron cada 15 días y se registró la mortalidad durante el experimento. El intervalo parto - primera ovulación en las hembras, se analizó con un ANOVA; el peso al destete y la ganancia diaria de peso en los corderos se evaluaron con un Análisis de Covarianza y los cambios de peso en las hembras con un análisis multivariado para mediciones repetidas en el tiempo. La proporción de hembras ovulando a los 105 d posparto y la mortalidad de los corderos se evaluaron con una prueba de x2. El anestro posparto en RS (83.2 + 5.5 días fue mayor (P

  14. La oveja eléctrica y la memoria del universo

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, José

    2013-01-01

    Froylán le enseña a su pequeña hermana, Silvina, a soñar con ovejas eléctricas. La pequeña Silvina, que como buena niña no traza la burda línea que los adultos usan para separar los sueños de la realidad, emprende una búsqueda por su ovejita eléctrica. Y dónde más iba a encontrarla sino en el mercado de La Lagunilla. Pero ni en el más delirante de sus sueños Silvina habría de imaginar lo que contenía la oveja eléctrica: ¡toda la memoria del mundo! Ella y su amigo la Morsa tendrán que luchar por erradicar un virus que infectó a la oveja y que amenaza con destruir el conocimiento, la memoria, la luz de las estrellas y a nuestros héroes mismos. En el camino, José Gordon y Micro nos guían por un viaje fascinante en el que descubrirán lo más grande de lo grande: las estrellas, el misterio del pasado y el Big Bang, entenderán cómo funciona el lenguaje y las posibilidades de las computadoras, verán las chispas eléctricas del cerebro con las que apreciamos lo que nos rodea y verán ...

  15. REGULACIÓN NEUROENDOCRINA DEL ANESTRO POSPARTO EN LA OVEJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Arroyo-Ledezma

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available   La presente revisión se realizó con el propósito de analizar y discutir los eventos neuroendocrinos implicados en el anestro posparto de la oveja. En los mamíferos, durante la etapa posterior al parto, existe un periodo anovulatorio conocido como anestro posparto, estrategia evolutiva que asegura la supervivencia de la cría al incrementar la atención de la madre. En la oveja la presencia del cordero retrasa el reinicio de la actividad ovulatoria y su separación parcial o total adelanta el primer estro y ovulación posparto. Los péptidos opioides endógenos (POEs son neurotransmisores liberados a nivel central en forma aguda o crónica durante periodos de alerta, estrés y lactancia en hembras; están implicados en el mecanismo neuroendocrino que impide la ovulación durante el periodo posparto, actúan como intermediarios entre el estradiol (E2 y las neuronas productoras de la hormona liberadora de gonadotropinas (GnRH; el efecto biológico de este evento es la reducción en la frecuencia de pulsos de GnRH y por lo tanto, de la hormona luteinizante (LH. Los POEs se sintetizan en los lóbulos frontal e intermedio de la hipófisis y en el núcleo hipotalámico A12. En la oveja no es claro si el amamantamiento potencializa el efecto inhibitorio de los POEs. Los sitios de acción de este neurotransmisor, con relación a la reproducción son el área preóptica (APO, eminencia media (EM y núcleo ventromedial (NVM. No se ha determinado si en este evento fisiológico participan el acido gamma aminobutírico (GABA o la dopamina.

  16. Zonation of uplifted pleistocene coral reefs on barbados, west indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesolella, K J

    1967-05-05

    The coral species composition of uplifted Pleistocene reefs on Barbados is very similar to Recent West Indian reefs. Acropora palmata, Acropora cervicornis, and Montastrea annularis are qtuantitatively the most important of the coral species.

  17. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Alvon, E-mail: armoore@centralbank.org.bb [Economist, Central Bank of Barbados, Toms Adams Financial Centre, Bridgetown (Barbados)

    2011-06-15

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: > Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). > The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. > As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. > Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. > Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  18. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alvon

    2011-01-01

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: → Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). → The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. → As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. → Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. → Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  19. Sincronización de celos y diagnóstico precoz de gestación en ovejas Churras da Terra Quente e Ile de France

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Jorge Manuel Teixeira de; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Almeida, José Carlos; Valentim, Ramiro; Fontes, Paulo; Coelho, Alípio; Mendonça, Àlvaro

    2002-01-01

    Este trabajo fue realizado con los objetivos de estudiar los efectos de la aplicación de dos tratamientos alternativos (FGA-PMSG o PGF2alfa-PMSG) de sincronización de celos y la utilización del diagnóstico precoz de gestación en ovejas de las razas Churra da Tena Ouente (CTQ) y IIe de France (IF). Los efectos de estos tratamientos variaron con la raza. Mientras que en las ovejas CTQ la sincronización de celos con FGA resultó igual que con PGF2alfa, en las ovejas IF la utilización de FGA or...

  20. Safeguarding Primary Healthcare: A Case Study of Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodney

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of primary health care has regained prominence as many countries around the globe face rising health costs and failed health systems. This study examines Barbados, a developing country in the eastern Caribbean, which has consistently included the concept of primary health care in all of its development plans. Based on the government's stated commitment to Health for All, this review was conducted to examine whether this focus has prevailed. The purpose of this paper was to identify some of the advancements or reversals of primary health care policy in Barbados.

  1. Sistemas agro y silvopastoriles en El Limón, municipio de Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Tolentino, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    La caracterización de los sistemas agroforestales es una buena herramienta que en su momento proporciona elementos de análisis para la toma de decisiones en sistemas de uso del suelo. El objetivo de la investigación fue caracterizar los sistemas agroforestales de acuerdo a sus componentes (agrícola, forestal y pecuario) y al principal uso de las especies arbóreas en la comunidad El Limón, municipio de Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz. Además evaluar la producción de biomasa vegetal y composición quím...

  2. Social Class as Flow and Mutability: The Barbados Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh-Spencer, Heather; Castro, Michelle; Bulut, Ergin; Goel, Koeli; Lin, Chunfeng; McCarthy, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research that examines the contemporary articulation of class identity in the postcolonial elite school setting of Old College high school in Barbados. From the qualitative data derived from this study, we argue that social class is better conceived as a series of flows, mutations, performances and performatives.…

  3. Expanding entrepreneurship opportunities through local governance: the case of Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pounder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the government and local governance structures of Barbados, arguing that local governance should be leveraged to expand entrepreneurship opportunities at the community level. It examines the links between local governance and entrepreneurship, and proposes a framework aimed at strengthening the relationship between Barbados’ newly formed constituency councils and its government institutions supporting entrepreneurship. The research concludes that there are many inefficiencies in the interaction between government agencies and constituency councils, which the proposed framework is a first step toward remedying.  The research suggests that local governance is a complex issue worldwide. More specifically in Barbados, even though the role of the constituency councils is defined, there are weak formal arrangements which undermine the processes and activities to support community entrepreneurship. The proposed framework highlighted in the research is a first step in formalising a way forward for entrepreneurship in the community. 

  4. Visitor Safety and Security in Barbados: Stakeholder Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford Griffin

    2010-01-01

    Is information about the nature, location and incidence of crimes against tourists/visitors sufficient to develop meaningful visitor safety and security policy? Are the views of key tourism stakeholder groups useful in informing and enhancing visitor safety and security policy? To answer these questions, this study analyzes 24 years of recorded crime data against visitors to Barbados and survey data of key tourism stakeholder groups and concludes: 1) that information about the nature, locatio...

  5. INFLUENCIA DEL AMAMANTAMIENTO CONTROLADO Y DEL EFECTO MACHO SOBRE EL RESTABLECIMIENTO DE LA ACTIVIDAD OVÁRICA POSPARTO EN LA OVEJA PELIBUEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Morales-Terán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el efecto del amamantamiento y del efecto macho sobre la duración del anestro posparto en ovejas Pelibuey y sobre el peso corporal de éstas y sus crías. Siete días después del parto 56 ovejas adultas y sus crías fueron asignadas al azar a los tratamientos: T1 Amamantamiento continuo (CS; n=14; T2 Amamantamiento controlado (RS; n=14; T3 Amamantamiento continuo con carnero (CSR; n=14; y T4 Amamantamiento controlado con carnero (RSR; n=14. Un carnero con mandil fue introducido con las ovejas del día 7 al 60 posparto por 30 min dos veces al día. El peso corporal de ovejas y corderos se registró semanalmente del parto al destete. El porcentaje de ovulación en los primeros 60 días posparto fue mayor en RSR (100 %; P ≤ 0.05 que en RS, CSR y CS (57.1, 64.8 y 35.7 %, respectivamente. El control del amamantamiento redujo (P ≤ 0.05 el intervalo parto-primera ovulación (ILFO en RSR (42.07±2.8 días con respecto a RS, CSR y CS (51.07±3.24, 50.50±3.26 y 56.71±1.73 días, respectivamente. No hubo diferencias (P > 0.05 en peso corporal de ovejas y corderos. La interacción amamantamiento controlado-efecto macho aumentó el porcentaje de ovulación antes del día 60 posparto y redujo el ILFO, sin afectar el peso corporal de ovejas y corderos.

  6. The Remote Sensing of Surface Radiative Temperature over Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing of surface radiative temperature over Barbados was undertaken using a PRT-5 attached to a light aircraft. Traverses across the centre of the island, over the rugged east coast area, and the urban area of Bridgetown were undertaken at different times of day and night in the last week of June and the first week of December, 1969. These traverses show that surface variations in long-wave radiation emission lie within plus or minus 5% of the observations over grass at a representative site. The quick response of the surface to sunset and sunrise was

  7. Workplace violence against medical staff in healthcare facilities in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, M; Morris, E; Sobers-Grannum, N

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests increasing workplace violence against healthcare workers in the Caribbean, but the prevalence is largely undocumented. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence reported by medical staff at primary care clinics in Barbados. A study utilizing a modified version of the standard World Health Organization Workplace Violence Questionnaire, designed to assess the incidence, types and features of workplace violence. All nursing and physician staff on duty at the island's eight primary care clinics during the study period were invited to participate. Of the 102 respondents (72% response rate), 63% of nursing and physician staff at the polyclinics in Barbados reported at least one episode of violence in the past year. The majority reported being exposed to verbal abuse (60%) and 19% reported being exposed to bullying. Seven percent of the staff reported incidents of sexual harassment, 3% physical violence and another 3% reported racial harassment. Patients emerged as the main perpetrators of violence (64%). Logistic regression showed statistically significant associations between gender and workplace violence. Females and nurses were more predisposed to experience violent incidents than males and physicians. Over a half of medical staff surveyed reported experiencing some type of violence in the past year, female gender being a significant predictor of abuse. Adequate documentation and implementing clear policies and violence prevention programmes in health institutions are crucial steps towards addressing this issue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Barbados, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm J. M. Hennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0–170.2 per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0–250.5 and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5–158.6 per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.

  9. The Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service: High Frequency of Nontransported Calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwin E. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. There are no published studies on the Barbados Emergency Ambulance Service and no assessment of the calls that end in nontransported individuals. We describe reasons for the nontransport of potential clients. Methods. We used the Emergency Medical Dispatch (Medical Priority Dispatch System instrument, augmented with five local call types, to collect information on types of calls. The calls were categorised under 7 headings. Correlations between call types and response time were calculated. Results. Most calls were from the category medical (54%. Nineteen (19% percent of calls were in the non-transported category. Calls from call type Cancelled accounted for most of these and this was related to response time, while Refused service was inversely related (. Conclusions. The Barbados Ambulance Service is mostly used by people with a known illness and for trauma cases. One-fifth of calls fall into a category where the ambulance is not used often due to cancellation which is related to response time. Other factors such as the use of alternative transport are also important. Further study to identify factors that contribute to the non-transported category of calls is necessary if improvements in service quality are to be made.

  10. ALIMENTACIÓN DE OVEJAS A PEQUEÑA ESCALA BASADO EN YUCA DEFOLIADA Y HOJAS DE MAIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladapo Ayokunle Fasae

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El reciente incremento en la producción de yuca y maíz en Nigeria ha generado una fuente de hojas las cuales podrían aliviar el problema de escasez de alimento para los pequeños productores de ovejas. Se condujo un experimento con carneros enanos de África occidental de un año de edad para investigar el valor nutritivo de hojas defoliadas de yuca (CL y hojas de maíz (ML en diferentes raciones (CL/ML en las dietas; 100:0 (únicamente ML; 25:75;50:50;75:25; y 0:100 (únicamente CL. El experimento duro 105 días, incluyó veinte (20 carneros en un diseño completamente al azar, se evaluó el consumo de materia seca (DM, la ganancia de peso, digestibilidad de los nutrientes y utilización del nitrógeno así como el efecto de las dietas sobre los perfiles hematológicos de los carneros. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de DM y digestibilidad de los nutrientes fueron similares en los forrajes mezclados y significativamente (P

  11. Visitor Safety and Security in Barbados: Stakeholder Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Griffin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Is information about the nature, location and incidence of crimes against tourists/visitors sufficient to develop meaningful visitor safety and security policy? Are the views of key tourism stakeholder groups useful in informing and enhancing visitor safety and security policy? To answer these questions, this study analyzes 24 years of recorded crime data against visitors to Barbados and survey data of key tourism stakeholder groups and concludes: 1 that information about the nature, location and incidence of crimes against visitors is necessary but not sufficient to inform visitor safety and security policy; and 2 that the views and input of key stakeholders are essential if destinations are to become more effective in enhancing visitor safety and security.

  12. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina A.; Chenery, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    Lead was ubiquitous on Caribbean sugar plantations, where it was used extensively in the production of sugar and rum. Previous studies suggest that skeletal lead contents can be used to identify African-born individuals (as opposed to Creoles) among slave burials found in the New World. To test...... this hypothesis, we measured lead concentrations in enamel samples from 26 individuals from the Newton Plantation cemetery in Barbados, which was in use from around 1660 to 1820, and compared the results with enamel 87Sr/86Sr measurements that had been previously obtained for the same population. Results show...... a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the New World...

  13. Ácido linoleico conjugado en leche de oveja y productos derivados: presencia e influencia del proceso tecnológico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Castañedas, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de este trabajo es conocer el contenido de isómeros del Ácido Linoleico Conjugado (CLA) en leche de oveja parcialmente desnatada y tratada térmicamente, así como en yogur y cuajada elaborados con leche de la misma especie animal. Hasta el momento, no existen datos en productos españoles destinados al consumo. Para alcanzar el objetivo general, se han planteado tres objetivos parciales que se exponen a continuación: 1)Puesta a punto de un método que permita la cuan...

  14. Maternidade desnaturada: uma análise da barriga de aluguel e da doação de óvulos "Denatured" motherhood: an analysis of surrogate gestational motherhood and egg donation

    OpenAIRE

    Naara Luna

    2002-01-01

    O artigo discute representações sociais de duas práticas decorrentes das novas tecnologias reprodutivas ou reprodução assistida. Na fertilização in vitro, o procedimento de transferência do óvulo fertilizado de uma mulher para outra separa a maternidade genética da gestacional. Isto se traduz em duas práticas sociais: a doação de óvulos, em que a gestante é designada à mãe, e a maternidade gestacional substituta ("barriga de aluguel"), em que a mãe é a fornecedora do óvulo ou idealizadora da ...

  15. A comparison of outcome for stroke patients in Barbados and South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Nigel C; Corbin, David O C; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Rose, Angela M C; Fraser, Henry S; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2011-04-01

    Little is known about the poststroke outcome in Caribbean populations. We investigated differences in the activities of daily living, level of social activities, living circumstances and survival for stroke patients in Barbados and London. Data were collected from the South London Stroke Register and the Barbados Register of Strokes for patients with a first-ever stroke registered between January 2001 and December 2004. The ability to perform activities of daily living was measured by the Barthel Index and level of social activities by the Frenchay Activities Index. Living circumstances were categorised into private household vs. institutional care. Death and dependency, activities of daily living and social activities were assessed at three-months, one- and two-years using logistic regression, adjusted for differences in demographic, socioeconomic and stroke severity characteristics. At three-months, a high level of social activities was more likely for the Barbados Register of Strokes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.29); there were no differences in activities of daily living; and Barbados Register of Strokes patients were less likely to be in institutional care (relative risk ratio 0.38; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.79). Following adjustment, Barbados Register of Strokes patients had a higher risk of mortality at three-months (relative risk ratio 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.30), one-year (relative risk ratio 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.09) and two-years (relative risk ratio 1.82; 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.07). This difference was due to early poststroke deaths; for patients alive at four-weeks poststroke, survival thereafter was similar in both settings. In Barbados, there was evidence for a healthy survivor effect, and short-term social activity was greater than that in the South London Stroke Register. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.

  16. Barbados Insulin Matters (BIM) study: Perceptions on insulin initiation by primary care doctors in the Caribbean island of Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles Grafton; Taylor, Gordon; Atherley, Anique; Hambleton, Ian; Unwin, Nigel; Adams, Oswald Peter

    2017-04-01

    With regards to insulin initiation in Barbados we explored primary care doctor (PCD) perception, healthcare system factors and predictors of PCD reluctance to initiate insulin. PCDs completed a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and a reluctance to initiate insulin scale. Using linear regression, we explored the association between TPB domains and the reluctance to initiate insulin scale. Of 161 PCDs, 70% responded (75 private and 37 public sector). The majority felt initiating insulin was uncomplicated (68%) and there was benefit if used before complications developed (68%), but would not use it until absolutely necessary (58%). More private than public sector PCDs (p<0.05) thought that the healthcare system allowed enough flexibility of time for education (68 vs 38%) and initiating insulin was easy (63 vs 35%), but less thought system changes would help initiating insulin (42 vs 70%). Reasons for reluctance to initiate insulin included patient nonadherence (83%) and reluctance (63%). Only the attitudes and belief domain of the TPB was associated with the reluctance to initiate insulin scale (p<0.001). Interventions focusing on PCD attitudes and beliefs and restructuring services inclusive of the use of diabetes specialist nurses are required. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Acropora inheritance: A reinterpretation of the development of fringing reefs in Barbados, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John B.

    1984-11-01

    The discovery of the widespread occurrence of the remains of the reef coral Acropora palmata within the fabric of the fringing reefs on the west coast of Barbados requires a new interpretation of their Holocene development. Radiocarbon dating of the A. palmata framework suggests that reef construction by this species began as early as 2,300 years B.P. A. palmata probably flourished in Barbados into the present century but has now declined. The present fringing reefs are characterized by a core and base of A. palmata upon which subsequent colonization took place, especially by Montastrea annularis, Porites porites and coralline algae.

  18. Respuesta humoral y consecuencias reproductivas en ovejas desafiadas con Brucella ovis al final de la gestación Immune response and reproductive consequences in experimentally infected ewes with Brucella ovis during late pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A Paolicchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis ovina por Brucella ovis es una enfermedad de prevalencia alta en Argentina. Para evaluar la patogenicidad de B. ovis y la respuesta serológica durante el último mes de gestación, 6 ovejas se distribuyeron en dos grupos: G1, ovejas preñadas, n = 4 y G2, ovejas no preñadas, n = 2. Tres ovejas del G1 (15 días preparto y una del G2 fueron inoculadas con B. ovis. Se analizaron muestras de suero mediante diferentes pruebas serológicas. Se realizó aislamiento y PCR a partir de mucus cérvico-vaginal (mcv, placenta y leche. En las muestras de placenta se realizó histopatología. Las hembras del G1 parieron corderos vivos; se detectaron anticuerpos en las ovejas desafiadas del G1 a partir de los 5 días posinoculación. El mcv de las ovejas desafiadas resultó negativo al aislamiento en ambos grupos. Las muestras de leche del G1 fueron positivas por cultivo y PCR a B. ovis. La técnica de PCR resultó positiva en las placentas de las ovejas desafiadas del G1. La histopatología reveló una placentitis necrótica supurativa en una de las ovejas desafiadas. El desafío con B. ovis preparto resultó en la invasión de la placenta y de la glándula mamaria, con la consecuente excreción de la bacteria por leche. La infección con B. ovis indujo una respuesta humoral temprana en las ovejas. La colonización de la placenta por B. ovis y la excreción de la bacteria por la leche sugieren un potencial riesgo de infección activa para los corderos y la posibilidad de que estos se comporten como portadores latentes de la infección.Ovine brucellosis by Brucella ovis is a highly prevalent disease in Argentina. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of B. ovis and the serological response in ewes during late pregnancy and in their offspring. Six adult ewes were distributed in two groupsGI (pregnant females, n = 4 and G2 (nonpregnant females, n = 2. Three pregnant ewes at 15 days prepartum and one nonpregnant eve were inoculated with B

  19. Pastoreo restringido de ovejas Pelibuey en bancos de proteína de morera (Morus alba Restricted grazing of Pelibuey ewes in protein banks of mulberry (Morus alba

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    P.E Lara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de medir el efecto del pastoreo de ovejas Pelibuey en un banco de proteína de morera (Morus alba en el comportamiento productivo, se desarrolló un experimento completamente al azar y se utilizaron 10 ovejas de tercer parto con 32 + 2,6 kg de PV, considerando una oveja como unidad experimental; los tratamientos fueron: grupo testigo (T pastoreo en pasto estrella más 250 g de alimento concentrado animal-1 d-1 y pastoreo restringido (2 h d-1 en morera (M. Se encontró diferencia (PWith the objective of measuring the effect of grazing by Pelibuey ewes in a protein bank of mulberry (Morus alba on the productive performance, a completely randomized trial was carried out and 10 third parturition ewes with 32 ± 2,6 kg LW were used, considering one ewe as experimental unit; the treatments were: control -1 -1 -1 group (C grazing in star grass plus 250 g of concentrate feed animal d and restricted grazing (2 h d in mulberry (M. Difference (P < 0,05 was found in the body condition at the moment of weaning, of 2,46 ± 0,30 in C and 2,00 ± 0,24 in M. The voluntary intake (VI of the ewes was higher in mulberry, with 5,05% in pregnancy and 2,97% in lactation with regards to group C (4,28 and 2,28%. The weight at birth and weaning, as well as the MDG were better (P < 0,05 in the offspring of group C with 3,77; 15,61 and 0,207 vs 2,82; 13,01 and 0,185 kg, respectively. This was due to a lower prolificacy in C, for which the kilograms born and weaned were higher in M, with 5,86 and 23,41 vs 4,52 and 18,74 for C. The regrowth capacity of mulberry was optimal for grazing after 70 days, for which it is feasible to substitute the supplementation with concentrate in ewes by restricted grazing for 2 h in a mulberry bank during pregnancy and lactation.

  20. Understanding Teachers' Perspectives of Factors That Influence Parental Involvement Practices in Special Education in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Stacey; Mahon, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement has been defined in various ways by researchers and is reported to have many advantages for children's education. The research utilises a case study strategy to investigate teachers' perspectives of parental involvement at four case sites in Barbados. In-depth interviews were done with teachers and analysis utilised content…

  1. Teaching for Scientific Literacy? An Examination of Instructional Practices in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the instructional practices of science teachers in Barbados are congruent with best practices for teaching for scientific literacy. Additionally, through observation of practice, it sought to determine the teachers' demonstrated role in the classroom, their demonstration of learning through discourse,…

  2. Active Learning Strategies and Academic Achievement among Some Psychology Undergraduates in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Adebisi Fayombo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the active learning strategies (discussion, video clips, game show, role– play, five minute paper, clarification pauses, and small group) and academic achievement among a sample of 158 undergraduate psychology students in The University of the West Indies (UWI), Barbados. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations between active learning strategies and students’ academic achievement; so also the activ...

  3. Situation Reports--Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, Surinam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Canada, Papua and New Guinea, St. Vincent, and Surinam. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics on population, birth and death rates, G. N. P.,…

  4. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Ethical Perceptions in Barbados: Differences by Gender, Academic Major and Religiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Philmore; Persaud, Nadini

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in students' ethical perceptions based on gender, academic major and religiosity. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered survey was conducted of 132 students at a university in Barbados, to determine ethical perceptions on five moral constructs: justice,…

  5. Inbound medical tourism to Barbados: a qualitative examination of local lawyers' prospective legal and regulatory concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Cohen, I Glenn; Adams, Krystyna; Whitmore, Rebecca; Morgan, Jeffrey

    2015-07-28

    Enabled by globalizing processes such as trade liberalization, medical tourism is a practice that involves patients' intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical legal research on this issue is limited and seldom based on the perspectives of destination countries receiving medical tourists. We consulted with diverse lawyers from across Barbados to explore their views on the prospective legal and regulatory implications of the developing medical tourism industry in the country. We held a focus group in February 2014 in Barbados with lawyers from across the country. Nine lawyers with diverse legal backgrounds participated. Focus group moderators summarized the study objective and engaged participants in identifying the local implications of medical tourism and the anticipated legal and regulatory concerns. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Five dominant legal and regulatory themes were identified through analysis: (1) liability; (2) immigration law; (3) physician licensing; (4) corporate ownership; and (5) reputational protection. Two predominant legal and ethical concerns associated with medical tourism in Barbados were raised by participants and are reflected in the literature: the ability of medical tourists to recover medical malpractice for adverse events; and the effects of medical tourism on access to health care in the destination country. However, the participants also identified several topics that have received much less attention in the legal and ethical literature. Overall this analysis reveals that lawyers, at least in Barbados, have an important role to play in the medical tourism sector beyond litigation - particularly in transactional and gatekeeper capacities. It remains to be seen whether these findings are specific to the ecology of Barbados or can be extrapolated to the legal climate of other medical tourism destination countries.

  6. Protocolo corto de sincronización del celo, mediante la aplicación de cloprostenol y el uso del "efecto macho", en ovejas Est African en condiciones tropicales (10ºN)

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Solis, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo diseñar y evaluar un protocolo alternativo de sincronización del celo en ovejas de pelo, mediante la administración de dos dosis bajas de cloprostenol y el uso del “efecto macho”. En una primera etapa, se observó que el ciclo sexual de la oveja de pelo, presenta un patrón predominante de tres ondas de desarrollo folicular, así como la presencia de un cuerpo lúteo funcional, desde el día 3 hasta día -2 del ciclo (respecto al día del celo). En una segunda ...

  7. Characteristics of HIV-infected childbearing women in Barbados Características de las mujeres con infección por VIH que dan a luz en Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Valmay Bent

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group ...

  8. Recreational SCUBA divers' willingness to pay for marine biodiversity in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Peter W; Casey, James F; Horrocks, Julia A; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2013-05-30

    The use of natural resources and the services they provide often do not have an explicit price and are therefore undervalued in decision-making, leading to environmental degradation. To 'monetize' the benefits from these services requires the use of non-market valuation techniques. Using a stated preference survey of recreational divers in Barbados conducted between 2007 and 2009, the economic value of marine biodiversity to recreational SCUBA divers in Barbados was estimated. In addition to a variety of demographic variables, divers were asked about their level of experience, expenditures related to travel and diving, and encounters with fish and sea turtles. Divers then completed a choice experiment, selecting between alternative dives with varying characteristics including price, crowding, fish diversity, encounters with sea turtles, and coral cover. Results indicate that divers in Barbados have a clear appreciation of reef quality variables. Willingness to pay for good coral cover, fish diversity and presence of sea turtles is significantly higher than prices paid for dives. In general, divers valued reef attributes similarly, although their appreciation of low density of divers at a site and high coral cover varied with prior diving experience. The results of this study demonstrate the economic value generated in Barbados by the recreational SCUBA diving industry and highlight the potential for substantial additional economic contributions with improvements to the quality of a variety of reef attributes. These results could inform management decisions regarding reef use and sea turtle conservation, and could aid in the development of informed 'win-win' policies aimed at maximizing returns from diving while reducing negative impacts often associated with tourism activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternidade desnaturada: uma análise da barriga de aluguel e da doação de óvulos "Denatured" motherhood: an analysis of surrogate gestational motherhood and egg donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute representações sociais de duas práticas decorrentes das novas tecnologias reprodutivas ou reprodução assistida. Na fertilização in vitro, o procedimento de transferência do óvulo fertilizado de uma mulher para outra separa a maternidade genética da gestacional. Isto se traduz em duas práticas sociais: a doação de óvulos, em que a gestante é designada à mãe, e a maternidade gestacional substituta ("barriga de aluguel", em que a mãe é a fornecedora do óvulo ou idealizadora da gravidez. O foco é a análise dessas representações no discurso jurídico e em matérias da grande imprensa brasileira, além do exame de etnografias sobre doação de óvulo e maternidade substituta. A oposição entre Natureza e Cultura é uma chave para compreender a recepção distinta dessas práticas.This article discusses social representations of two practices related to the new reproductive technologies or assisted reproduction techniques. During in vitro fertilization, the transfer procedure of a woman's fertilized egg to another woman separates genetic motherhood from gestational motherhood. Two practices relate to that: in egg donation the pregnant woman is considered the mother, while in surrogate gestational motherhood the mother is the egg donor or the woman who planned the gestation. The focus is in the analysis of the representations of egg donation and surrogate motherhood in juridical discourse and in texts from the Brazilian press, considering also ethnographic articles. The opposition between Nature and Culture is a key for understanding the different reception of these practices.

  10. Nutritional composition of the commonly consumed composite dishes for the Barbados National Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Harris, Rachel; Cao, Xia; Hennis, Anselm J M; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh

    2007-09-01

    To provide, for the first time, the calculated nutritional composition of 32 composite dishes commonly consumed in Barbados to enable dietary intake to be calculated from a Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire developed specifically for this population to determine associations between diet and risk of prostate and breast cancer. Weighed recipes were collected in up to six different households for each of the 32 composite dishes. The average nutritional composition for these composite dishes was calculated using the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database. One hundred and fifty-two weighed recipes were collected for 32 composite dishes: five were fish based, two were ground beef dishes, two were chicken based, two were offal based, two were lamb dishes, one was pork based, three were rice based, three were commonly consumed home-made drinks, and the remaining were miscellaneous items. A total of 152 weighed recipes were collected and we provide, for the first time, nutritional composition data for 32 commonly consumed food and drink items in Barbados. Such data are essential for assessing nutrient intake and determining associations between diet and prostate and breast cancer in the Barbados National Cancer Study.

  11. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  12. Local Geographies of Crime and Punishment in a Plantation Colony: Gender and Incarceration in Barbados, 1878-1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Green

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines gendered profiles of crime and punishment in Barbados between 1878 and 1928. During this period, Barbados stood out from the rest of the Caribbean in levels of imprisonment of women. The context of unusually high levels of female committals to custody – related to (1 women’s prominence in the labor force, (2 entrapment within conditions of near-total plantation monopoly, (3 high levels of male migration and (most importantly criminalization of so-called “abandoned” dependants – provides the backdrop for an examination of penal regimes in Barbados. Using spatial frames, particularly those generated in studies of “colonial geographies,” the article surveys gender differences in crimes, institutional arrangements, and punishments within prison. It also analyzes penal system changes that occurred over the period, signaling the transition to a new disciplinary regime.

  13. Evaluación del suministro de levaduras Saccharomyces Cerevisiae en la alimentación y su efecto sobre la producción y composición de leche de ovejas de raza Pampinta

    OpenAIRE

    Boggero, Carina Alejandra; Boggero, Carina Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Existe creciente uso de aditivos alimenticios en la dieta de los animales para lograr mejoras en la producción. Entre ellos, las levaduras Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios, en el primer estudio, se evaluó el efecto de las levaduras Saccharomyces Cerevisiae sobre la producción y composición de la leche de oveja, se formaron dos grupos de 20 animales cada uno (Grupo 1 Control, sin levaduras, y Grupo 2, tratado con 10 gramos de levadura/día.animal).Se tomaron muestras in...

  14. Productivity of Sumateran Composite dan Barbados Cross sheep breed in the field condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Two years field study has been carried out in the Purwakarta district , West Java, to evaluate sheep productivity of Sumateran Composite (K and Barbados cross (BC breeds introduced to the farmers, compared with locally thin tail sheep breed (L that were maintained by the farmers. Genotype compositions of K sheep were Barbados Blackbelly 25%, St. Croix 25%, and Sumateran sheep 50%; and for BC were Barbados Blackbelly 50% and Sumateran sheep 50%. Sheep those were introduced was new breed from breeding improvement of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Litter size of K, BC, and L ewes was 1.3; 1.4; and 1.5 respectively. Pre-weaning mortality rate were 5.0; 5.0 and 8.0% respectively for K, BC, and L lambs. Ewe Reproduction Rate (LRI = number of lamb at weaning/ewe/year of L (2.14 was higher than BC (2.0 and K (1.85. The ewe productivity (PI = kg lambs/ewe/year is the average of weaning weight timed LRI. Because the weaning weight of L (7.0 kg were significantly lowest than BC (10.5 kg and K (9.25 kg will affect on PI. PI of L (14.98 ewe were significantly (P<00.5 lowest than BC (21 and K (17.11. Body weight of crossbred (K X L and BCxL under the same physiologic status were similarly with BC and K. According to the result of productivity evaluation of introduced sheep breed in the field condition, can be sumarize that productivity of K and BC sheep were significantly better than locally thin tail sheep.

  15. SISTEMAS AGRO Y SILVOPASTORILES EN LA COMUNIDAD EL LIMÓN, MUNICIPIO DE PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista Tolentino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de los sistemas agroforestales es una buena herramienta que proporciona elementos de análisis para la toma de decisiones en sistemas de uso del suelo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar los sistemas agroforestales de acuerdo a sus componentes (agrícola, forestal y pecuario y al principal uso de las especies arbóreas en la comunidad El Limón, municipio de Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz. Se seleccionaron 24 agroecosistemas (AES con ganadería donde se realizaron recorridos de campo y aplicaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a productores. Se identificaron un total 106 sitios de los cuales 78 se clasificaron como sistemas silvopastoriles, 26 en sistemas agrosilvopastoriles y dos fracciones de vegetación secundaria (acahual; de todos los sitios, en el 59% el componente forestal tuvo la función principal de proporcionar leña, 16.2% sombra, 11.4% forraje, 5.7% postes, 6.7% cercas vivas y 1% frutal. Se identificaron un total de 70 especies arbóreas nativas e introducidas. Se concluye que el sistema más común en estos AES es el sistema silvopastoril el cual está integrado por bovinos, Panicum maximum Jacq. y árboles dispersos de distintas especies, mientras que los agrosilvopastoriles están compuestos de maíz, bovinos y especies arbóreas en cercas vivas.

  16. Suplementaci??n de la dieta de ovejas lecheras con aceite de girasol y l??pidos marinos para modificar la composici??n de la grasa de la leche: efecto sobre el rendimiento productivo de los animales, la microbiota y las caracter??sticas de la fermentaci??n ruminal y el perfil de ??cidos grasos de la leche y la digesta

    OpenAIRE

    Guti??rrez Toral, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    214 p. Se han realizado cinco experimentos con ovejas, con el objetivo de investigar el efecto de la suplementaci??n con aceite de girasol y, o bien aceite de pescado, o bien microalgas marinas, sobre la composici??n de los ??cidos grasos de la leche y la digesta, la micriobiota, la fermantaci??n ruminal y el rendimiento productivo de los animales

  17. Spirituality, gender, and drug use among students from one University in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Amour Jules

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo aclarar la relación entre la espiritualidad , el sexo y el consumo de drogas entre los estudiantes de pregrado de una universidad en Barbados . Una muestra por cuotas de 250 estudiantes fue requerido por la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales como el estudio fue parte de un estudio multicéntrico grande que participen estudiantes de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales de otros siete países participantes de América Latina y el Caribe . Relaciones negativas significativas fueron encontradas entre el nivel de un estudiante de la espiritualidad y de su uso de drogas lícitas e ilícitas en los últimos 12 y tres meses . Hombres y mujeres también difieren significativamente en términos de consumo de drogas ilícitas (últimos 12 y tres meses . Sin embargo no se encontraron diferencias de género en su relación con el uso de drogas lícitas . Por otra parte , las mujeres poseían niveles significativamente más altos de espiritualidad que sus homólogos masculinos . Además la investigación cualitativa debe llevarse a cabo dentro de este grupo de edad en el contexto de Barbados para explicar mejor estos hallazgos .

  18. Analytic hierarchy process helps select site for limestone quarry expansion in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Prasanta Kumar; Ramcharan, Eugene K

    2008-09-01

    Site selection is a key activity for quarry expansion to support cement production, and is governed by factors such as resource availability, logistics, costs, and socio-economic-environmental factors. Adequate consideration of all the factors facilitates both industrial productivity and sustainable economic growth. This study illustrates the site selection process that was undertaken for the expansion of limestone quarry operations to support cement production in Barbados. First, alternate sites with adequate resources to support a 25-year development horizon were identified. Second, technical and socio-economic-environmental factors were then identified. Third, a database was developed for each site with respect to each factor. Fourth, a hierarchical model in analytic hierarchy process (AHP) framework was then developed. Fifth, the relative ranking of the alternate sites was then derived through pair wise comparison in all the levels and through subsequent synthesizing of the results across the hierarchy through computer software (Expert Choice). The study reveals that an integrated framework using the AHP can help select a site for the quarry expansion project in Barbados.

  19. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world’s coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future. PMID:27326377

  20. What does the development of medical tourism in Barbados hold for health equity? an exploratory qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Although the global growth of privatized health care services in the form of medical tourism appears to generate economic benefits, there is debate about medical tourism's impacts on health equity in countries that receive medical tourists. Studies of the processes of economic globalization in relation to social determinants of health suggest that medical tourism's impacts on health equity can be both direct and indirect. Barbados, a small Caribbean nation which has universal public health care, private sector health care and a strong tourism industry, is interested in developing an enhanced medical tourism sector. In order to appreciate Barbadians' understanding of how a medical tourism industry might impact health equity. We conducted 50 individual and small-group interviews in Barbados with stakeholders including government officials, business and health professionals. The interviews were coded and analyzed deductively using the schedule's questions, and inductively for novel findings, and discussed by the authors. The findings suggest that in spite of Barbados' universal health care and strong population health indicators, there is expressed concern for medical tourism's impact on health equity. Informants pointed to the direct ways in which the domestic population might access more health care through medical tourism and how privately-provided medical tourism in Barbados could provide health benefits indirectly to the Barbadian populations. At the same time, they cautioned that these benefits may not materialize. For example, the transfer of public resources - health workers, money, infrastructure and equipment - to the private sector to support medical tourism with little to no return to government revenues could result in health inequity through reductions in access to and availability of health care for residents. In clarifying the direct and indirect pathways by which medical tourism can impact health equity, these findings have implications for health

  1. Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Prospero, J.M.; Carey, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied soils on high-purity limestones of Quaternary age on the western Atlantic Ocean islands of Barbados, the Florida Keys, and the Bahamas. Potential soil parent materials in this region, external to the carbonate substrate, include volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent (near Barbados), volcanic ash from the islands of Dominica and St. Lucia (somewhat farther from Barbados), the fine-grained component of distal loess from the lower Mississippi River Valley, and wind-transported dust from Africa. These four parent materials can be differentiated using trace elements (Sc, Cr, Th, and Zr) and rare earth elements that have minimal mobility in the soil-forming environment. Barbados soils have compositions that indicate a complex derivation. Volcanic ash from the island of St. Vincent appears to have been the most important influence, but African dust is a significant contributor, and even Mississippi River valley loess may be a very minor contributor to Barbados soils. Soils on the Florida Keys and islands in the Bahamas appear to have developed mostly from African dust, but Mississippi River valley loess may be a significant contributor. Our results indicate that inputs of African dust are more important to the genesis of soils on islands in the western Atlantic Ocean than previously supposed. We hypothesize that African dust may also be a major contributor to soils on other islands of the Caribbean and to soils in northern South America, central America, Mexico, and the southeastern United States. Dust inputs to subtropical and tropical soils in this region increase both nutrient-holding capacity and nutrient status and thus may be critical in sustaining vegetation. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Relating emotional intelligence to academic achievement among university students in Barbados

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    Grace A. Fayombo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between emotional intelligence and academic achievement among 151 undergraduate psychology students at The University of the West Indies (UWI, Barbados, making use of Barchard (2001's Emotional Intelligence Scale and an Academic Achievement Scale. Findings revealed significant positive correlations between academic achievement and six of the emotional intelligence components, and a negative correlation with negative expressivity. The emotional intelligence components also jointly contributed 48% of the variance in academic achievement. Attending to emotions was the best predictor of academic achievement while positive expressivity, negative expressivity and empathic concern were other significant predictors. Emotion-based decision-making, responsive joy and responsive distress did not make any significant relative contribution to academic achievement, indicating that academic achievement is only partially predicted by emotional intelligence. These results were discussed in the context of the influence of emotional intelligence on university students' academic achievement.

  3. Health human resource planning in Barbados and the eastern Caribbean states: a matter of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B J; Kissoon, N; Syed, N; Fraser, H S

    2008-12-01

    Health and Human Resources (HHR) are very important issues to be considered in healthcare services. While various factors may be of greater significance in one area depending on resources, priorities and stage of economic development, a robust HHR plan is important in all cases. There are many factors such as demographic shifts, changing delivery models, consumer expectations, global shortages and financial restraints that must be considered in proper HHR planning. This manuscript summarizes some of the factors that should be considered and some of the short comings of current HHR planning approaches. Based on our review and experience, we developed a framework for HHR planning and apply the framework to Barbados to try to identify the existing challenges and issues and potential areas for staff and training investments.

  4. Evaluation of small wind turbines in distributed arrangement as sustainable wind energy option for Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Justin D.K.; Amaratunga, Gehan A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The island of Barbados is 99% dependent on fossil fuel imports to satisfy its energy needs, which is unsustainable. This study proposes a 10 MW distributed wind energy scheme using micro wind turbines (WT) of horizontal (HAWT) and vertical axis (VAWT) configurations. These units are rated less than 500 W, and the scheme is hereafter referred to as mWT10. mWT10 is compared to the proposed 10 MW medium WT farm by the Barbados Light and Power Company (BL and P). The economic bottom line is the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The results highlight the BL and P proposal as the best economic option at BDS$0.19 per kWh, while that of both mWT10 configurations exceeds the conventional cost of BDS$0.25 by two to nine times. This is attributed to significantly higher relative installation and operational costs. However, the financial gap between mWT10 LCOE and the retail price of electricity is much smaller due to a large fuel surcharge passed on to each customer. Annual additional benefits of using wind energy include: greenhouse gas emissions savings of 6-23 kt of carbon dioxide; and anavoided fuel costs of BDS$1.5-5.3 million. The distributed mWT10 using HAWTs competes directly with the BL and P farm, however, it provides these benefits without the visual or ecological impacts of the larger machines. Conversely, VAWTs have features that favour a visually discrete and widely repeatable scheme but suffer relatively high costs. Therefore, this study illustrates the great potential of small wind turbines to be competitive with conventional wind farms, thus challenging the small wind industry to meet its potential by producing reliable and robust machines at lower cost

  5. Trans-Atlantic slavery: isotopic evidence for forced migration to Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Hannes; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Evans, Jane A; Shuler, Kristrina A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2009-08-01

    The question of the ultimate origin of African slaves is one of the most perplexing in the history of trans-Atlantic slavery. Here we present the results of a small, preliminary isotopic study that was conducted in order to determine the geographical origin of 25 enslaved Africans who were buried at the Newton plantation, Barbados, sometime between the late 17th and early 19th century. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the slaves' origin, we used a combination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and strontium isotope analyses. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were determined in bone and dentinal collagen; oxygen and strontium isotopes were measured in tooth enamel. Results suggest that the majority of individuals were born on the island, if not the estate itself. Seven individuals, however, yielded enamel oxygen and strontium ratios that are inconsistent with a Barbadian origin, which strongly suggests that we are dealing with first-generation captives who were brought to the island with the slave trade. This idea is also supported by the fact that their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values differ markedly between their teeth and bones. These intra-skeletal shifts reflect major dietary changes that probably coincided with their enslavement and forced migration to Barbados. While it is impossible to determine their exact origins, the results clearly demonstrate that the slaves did not all grow up in the same part of Africa. Instead, the data seem to suggest that they originated from at least three different areas, possibly including the Gold Coast and the Senegambia.

  6. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. Methods We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Results Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Conclusions Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern

  7. Understanding the impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados: a prospective, qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Johnston, Rory

    2013-01-05

    Medical tourism is a global health practice where patients travel internationally with the intention of receiving medical services. A range of low, middle, and high income countries are encouraging investment in the medical tourism sector, including countries in the Caribbean targeting patients in North America and Europe. While medical tourism has the potential to provide economic and employment opportunities in destination countries, there are concerns that it could encourage the movement of health workers from the public to private health sector. We present findings from 19 semi-structured interviews with stakeholders across the public health care, private health care, government, allied business, and civil society sectors. These interviews were conducted in-person in Barbados and via phone. The interview transcripts were coded and a thematic analysis developed. Three themes were identified: 1) Stakeholder perceptions of the patterns and plans for health human resource usage by current and planned medical tourism facilities in Barbados. We found that while health human resource usage in the medical tourism sector has been limited, it is likely to grow in the future; 2) Anticipated positive impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These benefits included improved quality control, training opportunities, and health worker retention; and 3) Anticipated negative impacts of medical tourism on health human resources and access to care in the public system. These impacts included longer wait times for care and a shift in planning priorities driven by the medical tourism sector. Stakeholders interviewed who were connected to medical tourism expansion or the tourism sector took a generally positive view of the likely impacts of medical tourism on health human resources in Barbados. However, stakeholders associated with the public health system and health equity expressed concern that medical tourism may spread

  8. Medical Tourism in the Tropics: New Regulation is Needed to Tackle Equity and Quality Concerns in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Krystyna; Crooks, Valorie A.; Cohen, I. Glenn; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism is on the rise as many patients travel overseas to seek private medical care that is either more expensive, unavailable or requires long waiting periods in their home country. Barbados, a small Caribbean island actively planning for medical tourism industry development, faces common challenges affecting destination countries such as degraded local access to healthcare, and possible brain drain of domestic medical workers. To address such concerns, the government must navigate ...

  9. What does the development of medical tourism in Barbados hold for health equity? an exploratory qualitative case study

    OpenAIRE

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Crooks, Valorie A.; Johnston, Rory; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the global growth of privatized health care services in the form of medical tourism appears to generate economic benefits, there is debate about medical tourism’s impacts on health equity in countries that receive medical tourists. Studies of the processes of economic globalization in relation to social determinants of health suggest that medical tourism’s impacts on health equity can be both direct and indirect. Barbados, a small Caribbean nation which has universal publi...

  10. Trends in beverage prices following the introduction of a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miriam; Kostova, Deliana; Suhrcke, Marc; Hambleton, Ian; Hassell, Trevor; Samuels, T Alafia; Adams, Jean; Unwin, Nigel

    2017-12-01

    A 10% excise tax on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) was implemented in Barbados in September 2015. A national evaluation has been established to assess the impact of the tax. We present a descriptive analysis of initial price changes following implementation of the SSB tax using price data provided by a major supermarket chain in Barbados over the period 2014-2016. We summarize trends in price changes for SSBs and non-SSBs before and after the tax using year-on-year mean price per liter. We find that prior to the tax, the year-on-year growth of SSB and non-SSB prices was very similar (approximately 1%). During the quarter in which the tax was implemented, the trends diverged, with SSB price growth increasing to 3% and that of non-SSBs decreasing slightly. The growth of SSB prices outpaced non-SSBs prices in each quarter thereafter, reaching 5.9% compared to tax price changes. A continued examination of the impact of the SSB tax in Barbados will expand the evidence base available to policymakers worldwide in considering SSB taxes as a lever for reducing the consumption of added sugar at the population level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Efecto de diferentes dosis de aspirina sobre el precondicionamiento contra el atontamiento en ovejas Effect of different doses of aspirin on preconditioning against stunning in conscious sheep

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    Elena C. Lascano

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se ha postulado que los antiinflamatorios no esteroides que actuan inhibiendo la ciclooxigenasa (COX podrían tener efectos nocivos sobre el corazón. Recientemente se ha demostrado que los inhibidores de la COX-2 bloquean la protección por precondicionamiento tardío (PT. Se desconoce sin embargo, el efecto que pudiera tener la aspirina, el antiinflamatorio no esteroide más ampliamente utilizado en la clínica, sobre el PT en mamíferos grandes. La aspirina actúa inhibiendo las dos isoenzimas de la ciclooxigenasa (COX-1 y COX-2, siendo empleada en dosis altas como droga antiinflamatoria y en dosis bajas como agente antitrombótico. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar qué efecto tienen distintas dosis de aspirina sobre la protección del PT contra el atontamiento y las arritmias en ovejas conscientes. Se consideraron 5 grupos; control (C: 12 min de isquemia (I y 2 hr de reperfusión (R; PT: 6 períodos de 5 min I-5 min R, 24 hr antes de la I de 12 min, y tres grupos igual que PT, pero con 1.5 (PTA1.5, 8 (PTA8 y 20 (PTA20 mg/kg de aspirina respectivamente, administrados 10 min antes de la primera I de precondicionamiento. Los resultados demostraron que la dosis antiinflamatoria de aspirina (20 mg/kg fue capaz de inhibir el PT contra el atontamiento (C vs PTA20, NS, mientras que las dosis bajas (1.5 mg/kg e intermedia (8 mg/kg no afectaron la protección (C vs PT, PT1.5 y PT8, pNon-steroid antiinflammatory drugs, inhibitors of cyclooxigenase (COX, have been postulated to have deletereous effects on the heart. Recently, COX-2 inhibitors have also been found to block late preconditioning (LP protection. Aspirin is the most widely clinically used non-steroid antiinflammatory drug; yet its effect on LP in big mammals has not been determined. It inhibits the two cyclooxigenase isoenzymes (COX-1 and COX-2, at high doses being used as an antiinflammatory drug and at low doses as an antithrombotic agent. The goal of this study was thus, to

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Caribbean Women: A Qualitative Interview Study From Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Trudy; Guell, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Barbadian women's attitudes toward and knowledge of routine cervical cancer screening (Pap tests). We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with fourteen female patients between the ages of 20 and 60 years who attended a selected public clinic in Barbados in May and June 2013. Interviews were audio-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were then transcribed verbatim and, using thematic content analysis, indexed and coded inductively for emerging similar themes. We identified four themes: (1) women had poor knowledge of the purpose of Pap tests. The most frequently occurring misconception was that the test was for the detection of sexually transmitted infections. (2) The women displayed limited cervical cancer awareness. (3) Health professionals were identified by the women as the main driving force behind women taking up screening. (4) The screening procedure was perceived as painful, but women's overriding attitude was that screening was necessary. These findings suggest that Barbadian women would benefit from focused health education efforts surrounding cervical cancer screening to eradicate the misconception that the purpose of the Pap test is the detection of sexually transmitted diseases.

  13. The impact of risk factors on the financial performance of the commercial banking sector in Barbados

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    Anthony Wood

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of risk factors on the financial performance of the commercial banking sector in Barbados using quarterly data for the period 2000 to 2015. The empirical results indicate that Capital Risk, Credit Risk, Liquidity Risk, Interest Rate Risk and Operational Risk have statistically significant impacts on financial performance. The only risk variable which does not derive this result is Country Risk. In addition, of those variables which proxy external factors, only GDP Growth has a statistically insignificant influence on financial performance. Credit risk exerted a negative impact on the banks’ financial performance, thus the banks must ensure they adopt appropriate measures to minimise the impact of this risk. Higher levels of capital impacted positively on the banking sector’s profitability. This paper is the first effort employing such an extensive dataset based on Barbados’ commercial banking sector and shows the main factors that influence commercial banks’ financial performance in this developing economy.

  14. Contaminants of emerging concern in surface waters in Barbados, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Quincy A; Kulikov, Sergei M; Garner-O'Neale, Leah D; Metcalfe, Chris D; Sultana, Tamanna

    2017-11-14

    Contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals, artificial sweeteners, steroid hormones, and current-use pesticides have been detected in surface waters around the world, but to date, there have been no reports in the peer-reviewed literature on the levels of these classes of contaminants in freshwater resources in the Caribbean region. In the present study, multi-residue solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) were used to analyze grab samples of surface waters collected from five different watersheds in Barbados, West Indies. The artificial sweeteners (AS), acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were widely detected in the watersheds, indicating contamination from domestic wastewater, and the concentrations of these chemical tracers in water were correlated with the concentrations of the non-prescription pharmaceutical, ibuprofen (R 2 values of 0.4-0.6). Surprisingly, the concentrations of another chemical tracer of domestic wastewater, caffeine were not correlated with ibuprofen or AS concentrations. Several other prescription pharmaceuticals and the steroid hormones, estrone and androstenedione, were detected in selected watersheds at low ng/L concentrations. The fungicide, chlorothalonil was widely detected in surface waters at low (contamination of water resources by pharmaceuticals.

  15. Age and gender differences regarding physical performance in the elderly from Barbados and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Barbosa, Aline; de Miranda, Leticia Miranda; Vieira-Guimarães, Alexsander; Xavier-Corseuil, Herton; Weber-Corseuil, Marui

    2011-02-01

    Presenting physical performance tests' (PPTs) descriptive reference values and prevalence according to gender and age-group regarding a representative sample of non-institutionalised older adults (aged 60 and over) living in Bridgetown (Barbados) and Havana (Cuba). This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. In Bridgetown and Havana, respectively, 1,508 and 1,905 subjects were examined who had been selected by probabilistic sampling. PPTs included handgrip strength, standing balance, timed repeated "chair stand" and "pick up a pen." The results from Bridgetown and Havana showed that values (mean ± standard deviations and percentiles) for men were greater than women in handgrip strength and "chair stand" tests (p≤0.01). Increasing age led to both genders having reduced (p≤0.001) prevalence of people having better results for each test (based on chi-square). Men had proportionately better scores than women in the four tests. The data suggested that younger people and men had better physical performance. Men and women in both countries had differences regarding the prevalence of people unable to perform the tests and better test results, according to the test and age-group. The data provided information about the range of performance that can be expected from people in different ages and helped understand usual rates of change in age-groups.

  16. Obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and vegetarian status among Seventh-Day Adventists in Barbados: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Noel; Fraser, Henry S; Modeste, Naomi; Broome, Hedy; King, Rosaline

    2003-01-01

    A population-based sample of Seventh-Day Adventists was studied to determine the relationship between vegetarian status, body mass index (BMI), obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), and hypertension, in order to gain a better understanding of factors influencing chronic diseases in Barbados. A systematic sampling from a random start technique was used to select participants for the study. A standard questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, to record anthropometrics and blood pressure measurements, and to ascertain the hypertension and diabetes status of participants. The sample population consisted of 407 Barbadian Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs), who ranged in age from 25 to 74 years. One hundred fifty-three (37.6%) participants were male, and 254 (62.4%) were female, and 43.5% were vegetarians. The prevalence rates of diabetes and hypertension were lower among long-term vegetarians, compared to non-vegetarians, and long-term vegetarians were, on average, leaner than non-vegetarians within the same cohort. A significant association was observed between a vegetarian diet and obesity (vegetarian by definition P=.04, self-reported vegetarian P=.009) in this population. Other components of the study population lifestyle should be further analyzed to determine the roles they may plan in lessening the prevalence rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.

  17. Principal Leadership Style and Teacher Commitment among a Sample of Secondary School Teachers in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Alwyn Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Barbados, the issue of principal leadership and teacher productivity has occupied the attention of teacher unions and educational authorities alike.  The teachers have been calling for principals to be removed while the principals have been arguing for greater autonomy to discipline teachers. This state of affairs has, understandably, adversely impacted teacher commitment levels.  In the literature there is a clear correlation between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, however, it is important to know whether or not the relationship holds true in the context of Barbadian schools. This author is of the view that if teacher commitment levels are to return to those in evidence in effective schools, then attention must be given to the way in which principals exercise their leadership functions. This study was therefore designed to examine in greater detail the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment.  The author employed purposive sampling to survey a cohort of ninety (90 teachers and eleven (11 principals drawn from eleven secondary schools. Results confirmed the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment, and a statistically significant difference in the level of commitment reported by teachers at newer secondary schools and teachers at older secondary schools. Results also indicated that biographical variables moderated the relationship between principal leadership style and teacher commitment. Additionally, the regression model indicated that the principal leadership style sub-variables, in combination, accounted for some variance in the commitment demonstrated by teachers.

  18. An investigation of sources of Campylobacter in a poultry production and packing operation in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Suzanne N; Mathison, George E; Lavoie, Marc C

    2008-01-15

    Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and is thought to be the major source of organisms causing human Campylobacter enteritis. Genotypic similarities between Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat at retail outlets and patients with gastroenteritis in Barbados suggested that it is a vehicle for infection of humans on the island and prompted this investigation of transmission of Campylobacter in a local poultry operation. Campylobacter testing was conducted at the hatchery, on the broiler farm and in the processing plant for two consecutive production cycles. The genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates was determined by RAPD typing with primer OPA 11. Hatchery samples and week-old chicks were negative for Campylobacter. Flocks became colonized as early as three weeks after introduction to the farm. Ten distinct RAPD genotypes were identified among isolates. Some genotypes were similar and may be of clonal origin. There was no evidence of vertical transmission of Campylobacter. The results suggest that the broiler flock was infected from more than one source in the farm environment.

  19. Are primary care practitioners in Barbados following hypertension guidelines? - a chart audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Anne O

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 55% of the population 40 to 80 years of age in Barbados is hypertensive. The quality of hypertension primary care compared to available practice guidelines is uncertain. Findings Charts of hypertensive and diabetic patients were randomly sampled at all public and 20 private sector primary care clinics. Charts of all hypertensive patients ≥ 40 years of age were then selected and processes of care and blood pressure (BP maintenance 343 charts of hypertensive patients (170 public, and 173 private were audited. Patients had the following characteristics: mean age 64 years, female gender 63%, mean duration of diagnosis 9.1 years, and diabetes diagnosed 58%. Patients had an average of 4.7 clinic visits per year, 70% were prescribed a thiazide diuretic, 42% a calcium channel blocker, 40% an angiotensin receptor blocker, and 19% a beta blocker. Public patients compared to private patients were more likely to be female (73% vs. 52%, p Conclusions Improvements are needed in following guidelines for basic interventions such as body mass assessment, accurate BP measurement, use of thiazide diuretics and lifestyle advice. BP control is inadequate.

  20. Esofagitis eosinofílica por sensibilización a proteínas de leche de cabra y oveja Eosinophilic esophagitis due to allergy to sheep and goat milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Armisén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis eosinofílica, entidad caracterizada por la infiltración de la mucosa esofágica por más de 20 eosinófilos por campo de gran aumento, se suele presentar en forma de disfagia intermitente de larga evolución, pudiendo estar asociada a sensibilización alérgica a aeroalérgenos y/o alimentos. Presentamos el caso de un varón con clínica de disfagia intermitente coincidiendo con la toma de quesos curados de oveja y cabra que precisó asistencia urgente tras la impactación de un comprimido de ibuprofeno a 30 cm de la arcada dentaria. El estudio practicado demostró la existencia de estenosis en el esófago a ese nivel con infiltración eosinofílica difusa y sensibilización a proteínas de la leche de cabra, oveja y vaca, con especial relevancia para la IgG bovina, lactoferrina y albúmina sérica. Tras tratamiento con fluticasona deglutida y medidas de evitación se consiguió la resolución del cuadro clínico y la desaparición de los eosinófilos en la mucosa.Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by the presence of high numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosal layer (> 20 high-power field. It is uncommon in adults but in such cases intermittent dysphagia and food impaction are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of a male with long-standing intermittent dysphagia after eating selected goat and sheep cheese types, who required medical help following the impaction of an ibuprofen pill in the esophagus. A biopsy demonstrated the presence of eosinophilic inflammation, and allergy testing showed specific IgE against proteins in the milk of goats and sheep. Topical steroid therapy with oral fluticasone, and the elimination of these dairy products from the diet induced complete symptom resolution, and biopsy specimens taken 4 months later showed no eosinophils.

  1. PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES AND AGRONOMIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF BARBADOS ALOE (ALOE VERA (L. BURM. F. - A REVIEW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara De Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe and America.In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems.

  2. The Relationship between Aerosol Composition and Concentration and Visual Range on Barbados, West Indies: The Impact of African Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Prospero, J.; Zhang, C.; Arimoto, R.

    2006-12-01

    Visual Range (VR) measured at Grantley Adams Airport on Barbados shows a very strong annual cycle with the minimum VR values occurring in June or July. This cycle closely matches the annual cycle of African dust concentrations measured in the trade winds at Barbados (13°15'N, 59°30'W) where observations first began in 1965. In winter, monthly mean VR was typically around 30 km or greater while in summer it frequently dipped below 20 km. This same clear signal is observed in the VR records from near-by islands where the same seasonal cycle of dust would be expected: St. Lucia, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago. We examined the relationship between VR on Barbados and the concentrations of the three major aerosol constituents that we would expect to have the strongest influence on VR: mineral dust, sea salt, and non-sea- salt sulfate (nss-SO4^{=}). We used VR data for the period from 1973, when measurements first began, up to 2006. We found a large discrepancy between the observed VR at the airport and the VR derived from the Koschmieder equation using literature values for the optical properties of the aerosol components; this simple approach would require a much smaller constant than the commonly-used value, 3.912. We further explored the effects of particle size distribution and relative humidity. During boreal summer when VR is lowest, dust is the dominant supramicron aerosol component and it clearly is the major factor in controlling VR. Nonetheless the submicron fraction also has a comparable impact due to its significantly higher light scattering efficiency. During winter, when there is little or no dust, sea salt aerosol and sulfate are dominant. In this report we focus on the various factors that affect visibility on Barbados especially the role of aerosols dominated by supramicrometer particles. We also consider the effects of other factors such as wind speed and precipitation. Finally, we note that the close relationship between summertime VR and dust

  3. Propagation Techniques and Agronomic Requirements for the Cultivation of Barbados Aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.)—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Giuseppe; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; De Lucia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Barbados aloe (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.) has traditionally been used for healing in natural medicine. However, aloe is now attracting great interest in the global market due to its bioactive chemicals which are extracted from the leaves and used in industrial preparations for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food products. Aloe originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it is also now cultivated in warm climatic areas of Asia, Europe, and America. In this review, the most important factors affecting aloe production are described. We focus on propagation techniques, sustainable agronomic practices and efficient post harvesting and processing systems. PMID:27721816

  4. Aerosol arriving on the Caribbean island of Barbados: physical properties and origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wex

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The marine aerosol arriving at Barbados (Ragged Point was characterized during two 3-week long measurement periods in November 2010 and April 2011, in the context of the measurement campaign CARRIBA (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiation and tuRbulence in the trade wInd regime over BArbados. Through a comparison between ground-based and airborne measurements it was shown that the former are representative of the marine boundary layer at least up to cloud base. In general, total particle number concentrations (Ntotal ranged from as low as 100  up to 800 cm−3, while number concentrations for cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN at a supersaturation of 0.26 % ranged from some 10 to 600 cm−3. Ntotal and NCCN depended on the air mass origin. Three distinct types of air masses were found. One type showed elevated values for both Ntotal and NCCN and could be attributed to long-range transport from Africa, by which biomass burning particles from the Sahel region and/or mineral dust particles from the Sahara were advected. The second and third type both had values for NCCN below 200 cm−3 and a clear minimum in the particle number size distribution (NSD around 70 to 80 nm (Hoppel minimum. While for one of these two types the accumulation mode was dominating (albeit less so than for air masses advected from Africa, the Aitken mode dominated the other and contributed more than 50 % of all particles. These Aitken mode particles likely were formed by new particle formation no more than 3 days prior to the measurements. Hygroscopicity of particles in the CCN size range was determined from CCN measurements to be κ  =  0.66 on average, which suggests that these particles contain mainly sulfate and do not show a strong influence from organic material, which might generally be the case for the months during which measurements were made. The average κ could be used to derive NCCN from measured number size distributions, showing that this is a valid

  5. Anthropometric indexes of obesity and hypertension in elderly from Cuba and Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Barbosa, A; Balduino Munaretti, D; Da Silva Coqueiro, R; Ferreti Borgatto, A

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between various anthropometric indexes of obesity with arterial hypertension in elderly from Barbados (Bridgetown) and Cuba (Havana). Cross-sectional data were extracted from the Survey on Health, Aging and Well being in Latin America and the Caribbean (SABE). In Bridgetown and Havana, respectively, 1508 and 1905 subjects ( ≥ 60 years) were examined, and were selected by a controlled sampling design. The occurrence of hypertension was assessed by self-report. Multiple measurements of adiposity were used including body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2)), waist hip ratio (WHR = > 0.95 men; > 0.80 women), waist to height ratio (W/ht. = > 0.50) and waist circumference - WC(L) ( > 88 cm, women; > 102 cm, men) e WC(OK) ( > 90.3 cm, women; > 91.3 cm, men). Binary logistic regression analyses (Odds Ratio) were used to measure strengths of relationships. In the elderly of Bridgetown, the final design (adjusted for age, education, race, smoking, regular physical activity and diabetes) shows that, in men, WC(OK) and W/Ht were associated with hypertension, and in women, WCL and WCOK were the indexes associated. In the Cuban elderly, the final design shows that, with the exception of WHR, all indicators were associated with hypertension. WCOK and W/ht were the indexes most strongly associated with the outcome. The explanatory power of anthropometric indicators when determining the outcome differed between men and women, as well as between cultural groups living in relative proximity (Barbadians and Cubans).

  6. Profiles and behavioral consequences of child abuse among adolescent girls and boys from Barbados and Grenada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel; Sherretts, Nicole; Willmott, Dominic; Jones, Adele D

    2018-05-01

    The current study used latent class analysis to uncover groups of youths with specific abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) profiles in and outside the family, and identify how membership in each abuse group is associated with behavioral outcomes. Data were collected among a sample of male (n = 662; M age  = 13.02 years) and female (n = 689; M age  = 12.95 years) children and adolescents (9-17 years old) from Barbados and Grenada. Self-report surveys were completed by participants in school settings. Three latent classes of child abuse were distinguished among boys, including 'low abuse' (39.2% of the sample), 'physical and emotional abuse high outside/medium in the family' (43.2%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.6%). Among girls, four unique classes were recovered: 'low abuse' (40.7%), 'high physical and emotional abuse outside the family' (7.6%), 'high emotional and moderate physical abuse' (33.9%), and 'high overall abuse' (17.8%). Compared with members of low abuse groups, youths who reported having experienced high/moderate levels of various forms of violence, including those who were abused in multiple ways and across the two settings ('high overall abuse'), were significantly more likely to engage in violent and hostile behavior. Abused and non-abused youths did not differ on non-violent conflict resolution skills. The significance of present findings for future research and practice is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus RNA in semen of a traveller returning from Barbados to the Netherlands with Zika virus disease, March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); R. Mögling (Ramona); J.J.A. van Kampen (Jeroen); T. Langerak (Thomas); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe report the longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in semen of a traveller who developed ZIKV disease after return to the Netherlands from Barbados, March 2016. Persistence of ZIKV RNA in blood, urine, saliva and semen was followed until the loads reached undetectable levels.

  8. Longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus RNA in semen of a traveller returning from Barbados to the Netherlands with Zika virus disease, march 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.D. Pas (Suzan); C.H. Geurts van Kessel (Corine); R. Mögling (Ramona); J.J.A. van Kampen (Jeroen); T. Langerak (Thomas); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe report the longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in semen of a traveller who developed ZIKV disease after return to the Netherlands from Barbados, March 2016. Persistence of ZIKV RNA in blood, urine, saliva and semen was followed until the loads reached undetectable levels.

  9. The Relationship between Socio-Demographics and Stress Levels, Stressors, and Coping Mechanisms among Undergraduate Students at a University in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Nadini; Persaud, Indeira

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to learn about stress experienced by students enrolled in the Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS) at the University of the West Indies (UWI) in Barbados. This research was primarily undertaken to help UWI administrators/academic staff understand and address student stress. One hundred and six FSS students responded to:- (1) student…

  10. Situation Report--Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 15 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Barbados, Finland, German Democratic Republic, Italy, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Sweden, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yogoslavia. Information…

  11. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.

  12. Comment on "Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reefal crest coral Acropora palmata" by N. A. Abdul et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Deschamps, Pierre; Camoin, Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Based on new U-Th ages of corals drilled offshore Barbados, Abdul et al. (2016) have confirmed the existence of the abrupt stratigraphic feature called meltwater pulse 1B (MWP-1B), which they interpret as being due to a very large and global sea level step change dated at about 11.3 kyr before present (approximately 15 m and equivalent to twice the amount of water stored in the present Greenland ice sheet). This contrasts with the Tahiti record, in which MWP-1B is essentially absent or very small, as Carlson and Clark (2012) and Lambeck et al. (2014) also conclude in their recent reviews of deglacial sea levels at the global scale. However, the evidence provided by Abdul et al. and their main conclusions are not convincing as they are affected by the following three main problems, which may explain the apparent discrepancies: Problem #1/Barbados is located in a subduction zone, which was also active throughout the Late Glacial period. Furthermore, the Barbados cores studied by Abdul et al. were drilled on both sides of the extension of a tectonic feature identified at the southern tip of Barbados (South Point) as underlined by several studies of the Barbados stratigraphy. Problem #2/Fossil samples of Acropora palmata may not be reliable sea level markers during rapid and large sea level rises. Indeed, the asexual reproduction strategy of this species may not be optimal to keep up when the water depth is increasing very rapidly. This may in part explain why the living depth of A. palmata at Barbados was significantly greater than 5 m during some periods of the last deglaciation, notably between 14.5 and 14 kyr B.P. and possibly between 14 and 11.5 kyr B.P. Problem #3/The slow glacio-isostatic adjustment and the rapid responses due to gravitational changes of ice and water masses complicate the interpretation of individual relative sea level (RSL) records at specific locations. Therefore, the Barbados and Tahiti record cannot be compared directly in terms of absolute

  13. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist

  14. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Gaur, Uma; Udupa, Alaya; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim

    2017-10-01

    Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students' learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist educators in designing blended teaching

  15. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NKEMCHO OJEH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R and kinesthetic (K] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to preclinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5% and females (60.0%, with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8% followed by kinesthetic (32.5% were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2% and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%. Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might

  16. Uptake of health care services and health status of HIV-infected women diagnosed through antenatal HIV screening in Barbados, 1996-2004 Utilización de los servicios de atención sanitaria y estado de salud de las mujeres seropositivas al VIH diagnosticadas mediante el tamizaje prenatal para el VIH en Barbados, 1996-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Krishna R. Kilaru; Sheila Forde; Ira Waterman

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study utilization of HIV-related health care services and to describe the health status of HIV-infected women diagnosed through antenatal voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for HIV infection in Barbados. METHODS: This is a descriptive study. The study population includes all HIV-infected women in Barbados diagnosed as HIV-infected through VCT for HIV infection during 1996-2004. RESULTS: The median duration of HIV infection from time of diagnosis to the time of this report f...

  17. Detailed Sea Level Record from Barbados Spanning 13,000 to 11,000 Years Before Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Th/U dated reef-crest corals (Acropora palmata) obtained from new Barbados offshore drill cores provide a local sea level reconstruction in unprecedented detail. The time interval, 13,000 to 11,000 years before present (BP), spans the well-studied Younger Dryas pollen zone, a period that has given rise to more than three decades of sensational climate interpretations and popular press. Widely described as a time when Earth's climate reverted to "glacial-like conditions" the various hypotheses that attempt to explain the "cause" of the Younger Dryas climate event have their staunch supporters as well as their critics but there remains little consensus. The Barbados sea level record for this time interval shows that sea level continued to rise during the Younger Dryas, albeit at a slower rate than prior to 13,000 or following 11,000 years BP. The decrease in the rate of sea level rise can simply be explained by the slow expansion of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet beginning 12,800 years BP followed by its faster demise contributing to a period of rapid sea level increase known as Melt Water Pulse 1B. We calculate the ice volume history of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet and it compares favorably to the moraine history and ice models. The Younger Dryas climate event is most often defined by the rapid shifts in atmospheric proxies measured in ice cores from Greenland. The ice core proxies shift into and out of the Younger Dryas climate event in only a few years to a few decades. Abrupt shifts in the climate state associated with the onset and termination of the Younger Dryas as revealed in Greenland Ice cores are not expressed in the smooth Barbados deglacial sea level record. We make the case that these Greenland atmospheric records mark regional atmospheric frontal shifts and changes in air mass sources over an ice sheet that largely did not participate in the deglaciation or sea level change. As proposed decades ago, the warming of the North Atlantic between 14,000 and 13

  18. "Best care on home ground" versus "elitist healthcare": concerns and competing expectations for medical tourism development in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Adams, Krystyna; Bishop, Lisa; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-02-03

    Many countries have demonstrated interest in expanding their medical tourism sectors because of its potential economic and health system benefits. However, medical tourism poses challenges to the equitable distribution of health resources between international and local patients and private and public medical facilities. Currently, very little is known about how medical tourism is perceived among front line workers and users of health systems in medical tourism 'destinations'. Barbados is one such country currently seeking to expand its medical tourism sector. Barbadian nurses and health care users were consulted about the challenges and benefits posed by ongoing medical tourism development there. Focus groups were held with two stakeholder groups in May, 2013. Nine (n = 9) citizens who use the public health system participated in the first focus group and seven (n = 7) nurses participated in the second. Each focus group ran for 1.5 hours and was digitally recorded. Following transcription, thematic analysis of the digitally coded focus group data was conducted to identify cross-cutting themes and issues. Three core concerns regarding medical tourism's health equity impacts were raised; its potential to 1) incentivize migration of health workers from public to private facilities, 2) burden Barbados' lone tertiary health care centre, and 3) produce different tiers of quality of care within the same health system. These concerns were informed and tempered by the existing a) health system structure that incorporates both universal public healthcare and a significant private medical sector, b) international mobility among patients and health workers, and c) Barbados' large recreational tourism sector, which served as the main reference in discussions about medical tourism's impacts. Incorporating these concerns and contextual influences, participants' shared their expectations of how medical tourism should locally develop and operate. By engaging with local

  19. Stigma, discrimination, and HIV/AIDS knowledge among physicians in Barbados Estigma, discriminación y conocimientos sobre el VIH/sida entre los médicos en Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Massiah

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of clinical knowledge of HIV/AIDS that physicians in Barbados have and their attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: In 2000 the Barbados Association of Medical Practitioners conducted a survey in order to assess its members' views on HIV/AIDS issues. Over a two-month period 203 physicians (76% of all those practicing in the country were interviewed. The survey included physicians working in private practice and the public sector. They were surveyed individually concerning their attitudes towards counseling as well as their clinical knowledge, perception of safe practices, fear of occupational exposure, views on ethical issues, experience treating HIV/AIDS patients, and background with HIV/AIDS continuing education. RESULTS: In comparison to physicians who had graduated in later years, physicians who had graduated in 1984 or earlier had seen fewer HIV/AIDS clients, had lower levels of knowledge about the disease, were more likely to test for HIV/AIDS without informed consent, and were less likely to have ever attended a continuing education training course on HIV/AIDS. Overall, knowledge of the clinical indications of HIV/AIDS was low, and 76% of the physicians did not think they had adequate counseling skills. Over 80% of the physicians were comfortable looking after HIV/AIDS patients. While 95% of the physicians would not release HIV test results without a patient's consent, 33% would test, without consent, a seriously ill patient, and 15% would test without consent a patient upon whom they had to perform an invasive procedure if they perceived the patient to be from a high-risk population such as gay men or commercial sex workers. Only 53% of the physicians had attended an HIV/AIDS in-service training program between 1995 and 1999. CONCLUSION: Physician training in Barbados should focus on all aspects of HIV/AIDS care, including clinical and emotional factors. Attendance at such training

  20. Predicción molecular de los triglicéridos de la grasa láctea de oveja por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia en fase inversa

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    Nájera, A. L.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 115 individual peaks were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography of the sheep milk fat. Triglyceride components of the chromatographic peaks were predicted by means of mathematical equations relationing the log k' of the chromatographic peaks to the molecular variables, equivalent carbon number (ECN of the possible triglycerides, and chain length (CL and number of double bounds (DB of each of the fatty acids of the triglyceride. The 12 main fatty acids obtained by gas chromatography of the total triglyceride fraction were used to estimate the triglyceride composition of the sheep milk fat. The triglycerides presenting high random percentages were considered the principal molecular species when more than one triglyceride were predicted in a chromatographic peak. The main estimated triglycerides of the sheep milk fat were C4:0-C16:0-C16:0, C6:0-C14:0-C16:0, C4:0-C14:0-C16:00, C4:0-C16:0-C18:1 and C6:0-C14:0-C18:1.

    El análisis por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia de los triglicéridos de la leche de oveja obtuvo 115 picos individuales. Los triglicéridos componentes de los picos cromatográficos fueron estimados mediante ecuaciones matemáticas que relacionaban el log k' de los picos cromatográficos con las variables moleculares, número equivalente de carbonos (NEC de los posibles triglicéridos, y longitud de cadena (LC y número de dobles enlaces (DE de cada uno de los ácidos grasos del triglicérido. Para la estimación de la composición triglicérica de la grasa láctea se consideraron solamente los 12 ácidos grasos mayoritarios obtenidos en el análisis por cromatografía de gases de la fracción triglicérica total. Los triglicéridos que presentaron altos porcentajes según el cálculo de la composición al azar fueron considerados los principales

  1. EFFECTS OF "SWIM WITH THE TURTLES" TOURIST ATTRACTIONS ON GREEN SEA TURTLE (CHELONIA MYDAS) HEALTH IN BARBADOS, WEST INDIES.

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    Stewart, Kimberly; Norton, Terry; Mohammed, Hamish; Browne, Darren; Clements, Kathleen; Thomas, Kirsten; Yaw, Taylor; Horrocks, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Along the West Coast of Barbados a unique relationship has developed between endangered green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and humans. Fishermen began inadvertently provisioning these foraging turtles with fish offal discarded from their boats. Although initially an indirect supplementation, this activity became a popular attraction for visitors. Subsequently, demand for this activity increased, and direct supplementation or provisioning with food began. Food items offered included raw whole fish (typically a mixture of false herring [Harengula clupeola] and pilchard [Harengula humeralis]), filleted fish, and lesser amounts of processed food such as hot dogs, chicken, bread, or various other leftovers. Alterations in behavior and growth rates as a result of the provisioning have been documented in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine how tourism-based human interactions are affecting the overall health of this foraging population and to determine what potential health risks these interactions may create for sea turtles. Juvenile green sea turtles (n=29) were captured from four sites off the coast of Barbados, West Indies, and categorized into a group that received supplemental feeding as part of a tour (n=11) or an unsupplemented group (n=18) that consisted of individuals that were captured at sites that did not provide supplemental feeding. Following capture, a general health assessment of each animal was conducted. This included weight and morphometric measurements, a systematic physical examination, determination of body condition score and body condition index, epibiota assessment and quantification, and clinical pathology including hematologic and biochemical testing and nutritional assessments. The supplemented group was found to have changes to body condition, vitamin, mineral, hematologic, and biochemical values. Based on these results, recommendations were made to decrease negative behaviors and health impacts for turtles as a result

  2. "The Major Forces that Need to Back Medical Tourism Were … in Alignment": Championing Development of Barbados's Medical Tourism Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Governments around the world have expressed interest in developing local medical tourism sectors, framing the industry as an opportunity for economic growth and health system improvement. This article addresses questions about how the desire to develop a medical tourism sector in a country emerges and which stakeholders are involved in both creating momentum and informing its progress. Presenting a thematic analysis of 19 key informant interviews conducted with domestic and international stakeholders in Barbados's medical tourism sector in 2011, we examine the roles that "actors" and "champions" at home and abroad have played in the sector's development. Physicians and the Barbadian government, along with international investors, the Medical Tourism Association, and development agencies, have promoted the industry, while actors such as medical tourists and international hospital accreditation companies are passively framing the terms of how medical tourism is unfolding in Barbados. Within this context, we seek to better understand the roles and relationships of various actors and champions implicated in the development of medical tourism in order to provide a more nuanced understanding of how the sector is emerging in Barbados and elsewhere and how its development might impact equitable health system development. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Characteristics of HIV-infected childbearing women in Barbados Características de las mujeres con infección por VIH que dan a luz en Barbados

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    Alok Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group of HIV-negative childbearing women. Routine information recorded during antenatal care was obtained from the women's case records. Additional data were collected from interviews with the women. RESULTS: There were 182 HIV-infected women who delivered during the study period, and a group of 202 childbearing women served as controls. In comparison to the control group, the HIV-infected women were younger, more often multiparous, and more likely to have been unemployed at the time of their pregnancy. The HIV-infected women also had had an earlier onset of sexual activity, had had more sexual partners during their lifetime, and were more likely to be involved with an older sexual partner. At the time of giving birth most of the HIV-infected women were asymptomatic for AIDS and were living with either their parents (mother or father or both or the baby's father. In addition, at the time of their six-weeks-postnatal visit, the large majority of the HIV-infected women were involved in caring for their children. The proportion of HIV-infected women who were diagnosed prior to childbirth increased significantly over the study period, rising from 25% during 1986-1990 to 82% during 1996-2000. Slightly over one-fifth of the HIV-infected women had had one or more subsequent pregnancies after they had learned that they were infected. CONCLUSIONS: The early age of sexual activity as well as repeated pregnancies, especially from different and older partners, may have

  4. Teacher Quality Indicators as Predictors of Instructional Assessment Practices in Science Classrooms in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.; Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the self-reported instructional assessment practices of a selected sample of secondary school science teachers in Barbados. The study sought to determine if there were statistically significant differences in the instructional assessment practices of teachers based on their sex and teacher quality (teaching experience, professional qualification and teacher academic qualification). It also sought to determine the extent to which each of these four selected variables individually and jointly affected the teachers' report of their instructional assessment practices. A sample of 55 science teachers from nine secondary schools in Barbados was randomly selected to participate in this study. Data was collected by means of a survey and was analyzed using the means and standard deviations of the instructional assessment practices scores and linear, multiple and binary logistic regression. The results of the study were such that the majority of the sample reported good overall instructional assessment practices while only a few participants reported moderate assessment practices. The instructional assessment practices in the area of student knowledge were mostly moderate as indicated by the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between or among the mean scores of the teachers' reported instructional assessment practices based on sex ( t = 0.10; df = 53; p = 0.992), teaching experience ( F[4,50] = 1.766; p = 0.150), the level of professional qualification (F[3,45] = 0.2117; p = 0.111) or the level of academic qualification (F[2,52] = 0.504; p = 0.607). The independent variables (teacher sex, teaching experience, teacher professional qualification or teacher academic qualification) were not significant predictors of the instructional assessment practices scores. However, teacher sex was a significant predictor of the teachers' report of good instructional assessment practices. The study also found that the joint effect of the

  5. Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reef crest coral Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Younger Dryas climate event occurred during the middle of the last deglacial cycle and is marked by an abrupt shift in the North Atlantic polar front almost to its former glacial position, trending east to west. Using high-precision and high-accuracy U-Th-dated Barbados reef crest coral, Acropora palmata, we generate a detailed sea level record from 13.9 to 9000 years before present (kyr B.P.) and reconstruct the ice volume response to the Younger Dryas cooling. From the mid-Allerød (13.9 kyr B.P.) to the end of the Younger Dryas (11.65 kyr B.P.), rates of sea level rise decreased smoothly from 20 mm yr-1 to 4 mm yr-1, culminating in a 400 year "slow stand" before accelerating into meltwater pulse 1B (MWP-1B). The MWP-1B event at Barbados is better constrained as beginning by 11.45 kyr B.P. and ending at 11.1 kyr B.P. during which time sea level rose 14 ± 2 m and rates of sea level rise reached 40 mm yr-1. We propose that MWP-1B is the direct albeit lagged response of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets to the rapid warming marking the end of the Younger Dryas coinciding with rapid warming in the circum-North Atlantic region and the polar front shift from its zonal to meridional position 11.65 kyr B.P. As predicted by glaciological models, the ice sheet response to rapid North Atlantic warming was lagged by 400 years due to the thermal inertia of large ice sheets. The regional circum-North Atlantic Younger Dryas climate event is elevated to a global response through sea level changes, starting with the global slowdown in sea level rise during the Younger Dryas and culminating with MWP-1B. No meltwater pulses are evident at the initiation of the Younger Dryas climate event as is often speculated.

  6. "That's enough patients for everyone!": Local stakeholders' views on attracting patients into Barbados and Guatemala's emerging medical tourism sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonte, Ronald

    2016-10-07

    Medical tourism has attracted considerable interest within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Governments in the region tout the economic potential of treating foreign patients while several new private hospitals primarily target international patients. This analysis explores the perspectives of a range of medical tourism sector stakeholders in two LAC countries, Guatemala and Barbados, which are beginning to develop their medical tourism sectors. These perspectives provide insights into how beliefs about international patients are shaping the expanding regional interest in medical tourism. Structured around the comparative case study methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 medical tourism stakeholders in each of Guatemala and Barbados (n = 100). To capture a comprehensive range of perspectives, stakeholders were recruited to represent civil society (n = 5/country), health human resources (n = 15/country), public health care and tourism sectors (n = 15/country), and private health care and tourism sectors (n = 15/country). Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded using a collaborative process of scheme development, and analyzed thematically following an iterative process of data review. Many Guatemalan stakeholders identified the Guatemalan-American diaspora as a significant source of existing international patients. Similarly, Barbadian participants identified their large recreational tourism sector as creating a ready source of foreign patients with existing ties to the country. While both Barbadian and Guatemalan medical tourism proponents share a common understanding that intra-regional patients are an existing supply of international patients that should be further developed, the dominant perception driving interest in medical tourism is the proximity of the American health care market. In the short term, this supplies a vision of a large number of Americans lacking adequate health insurance willing to

  7. Dialysis in Barbados: the cost of hemodialysis provision at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital La diálisis en Barbados: el costo de la hemodiálisis en el Queen Elizabeth Hospital

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    Sara A. Adomakoh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the health service cost of hemodialysis delivered at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in St. Michael, Barbados. METHODS: A cost analysis was performed from the viewpoint of the tertiary hospital studied here, using treatment protocols based on current practice for establishing vascular access sites (surgical set-up and dialysis maintenance. Cost and patient data were collected for the period from 1 April 1998 to 31 March 1999. Sixty-four patients were studied and a total of 7 488 hemodialysis sessions were performed in the study period. The costs analyzed were personnel, drug expenditure, supplies (dialysis and nondialysis, inpatient costs, laboratory and other ancillary services, and indirect or overhead costs such as engineering, housekeeping, laundry and administration. RESULTS: The cost per hemodialysis treatment was calculated as US$ 156.64 in the first year and US$ 145.55 in subsequent years. The total cost per patient per year was US$ 18 327.22 in the first year of dialysis including surgical set-up, and US$ 17 029.54 thereafter. Direct costs (determined by patients' utilization of resources and labor costs for physicians and nurses contributed to 80.7% of the total cost. The main expenditures were dialysis-related supplies, labor and overheads. CONCLUSION: These findings are important in the light of limited economic resources available to health services in Caribbean countries coupled with the spiraling prevalence of kidney failure in these countries. Further analyses are recommended to review the provision of renal replacement therapy services in Barbados and to develop plans to expand and optimize services.OBJETIVO: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el costo, para los servicios sanitarios, de la hemodiálisis realizada en el Queen Elizabeth Hospital de St. Michael, Barbados. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un análisis de costos desde el punto de vista del hospital terciario objeto de este

  8. The demise of a major Acropora palmata bank-barrier reef off the southeast coast of Barbados, West Indies

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    MacIntyre, I. G.; Glynn, P. W.; Toscano, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Formerly attributed to human activity, the demise of a bank-barrier reef off southeastern Barbados known as Cobbler’s Reef is now thought to be largely the result of late Holocene, millennial-scale storm damage. Eleven surface samples of the reef crest coral Acropora palmata from nine sites along its 15-km length plot above the western Atlantic sea-level curve from 3,000 to 4,500 cal years ago (calibrated, calendar 14C years). These elevated clusters suggest that the reef complex suffered extensive storm damage during this period. The constant heavy wave action typical of this area and consequent low herbivory maintain conditions favoring algal growth, thereby limiting the reestablishment of post-storm reef framework. Site descriptions and detailed line surveys show a surface now composed mainly of reworked fragments of A. palmata covered with algal turf, macroalgae and crustose coralline algae. The reef contains no live A. palmata and only a few scattered coral colonies consisting primarily of Diploria spp . and Porites astreoides, along with the hydrocoral Millepora complanata. A few in situ framework dates plot at expected depths for normal coral growth below the sea-level curve during and after the period of intense storm activity. The most recent of these in situ samples are 320 and 400 cal years old. Corals of this late period likely succumbed to high turbidity associated with land clearance for sugarcane agriculture in the mid-1600s.

  9. Revised paleoenvironmental analysis of the Holocene portion of the Barbados sea-level record: Cobbler's Reef revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Marguerite A.

    2016-06-01

    Sample elevations corrected for tectonic uplift and assessed relative to local modeled sea levels provide a new perspective on paleoenvironmental history at Cobbler's Reef, Barbados. Previously, 14C-dated surface samples of fragmented Acropora palmata plotted above paleo sea level based on their present (uplifted) elevations, suggesting supratidal rubble deposited during a period of extreme storms (4500-3000 cal BP), precipitating reef demise. At several sites, however, A. palmata persisted, existing until ~370 cal BP. Uplift-corrected A. palmata sample elevations lie below the western Atlantic sea-level curve, and ~2 m below ICE-6G-modeled paleo sea level, under slow rates of sea-level rise, negating the possibility that Cobbler's Reef is a supratidal storm ridge. Most sites show limited age ranges from corals likely damaged/killed on the reef crest, not the mixed ages of rubble ridges, strongly suggesting the reef framework died off in stages over 6500 yr. Reef crest death assemblages invoke multiple paleohistoric causes, from ubiquitous hurricanes to anthropogenic impacts. Comparison of death assemblage ages to dated regional paleotempestological sequences, proxy-based paleotemperatures, recorded hurricanes, tsunamis, European settlement, deforestation, and resulting turbidity, reveals many possible factors inimical to the survival of A. palmata along Cobbler's Reef.

  10. Are primary care practitioners in Barbados following diabetes guidelines? - a chart audit with comparison between public and private care sectors

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    Carter Anne O

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 19% of the population ≥ 40 years of age in Barbados are diabetic. The quality of diabetes primary care is uncertain. Findings Charts of diabetic and hypertensive patients were randomly sampled at all public and 20 private sector primary care clinics. Charts of all diabetic patients ≥ 40 years of age were then selected. Processes of care, and quality targets for blood pressure (BP, fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c were documented. 252 charts of diabetic patients (125 public and 127 private were audited. Patients had the following characteristics: mean age 64 years, female gender 61%, mean duration of diagnosis 9 years, and hypertension diagnosed 78%. Patients had an average of 4.7 clinic visits per year, 66% were prescribed metformin, 68% a sulphonylurea, 25% a statin, 21% insulin, 15% aspirin and 12% a glucosidase inhibitor. Public patients compared to private patients were more likely to be female (77% vs. 46%, p Conclusions Interventions such as body mass assessment, lifestyle advice, screening for retinopathy, monitoring blood glucose control, and achieving BP and glycaemic targets need improvement.

  11. Reply to comment by E. Bard et al. on "Younger Dryas sea level and meltwater pulse 1B recorded in Barbados reef crest coral Acropora palmata" by N. A. Abdul et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortlock, Richard A.; Abdul, Nicole A.; Wright, James D.; Fairbanks, Richard G.

    2016-12-01

    Abdul et al. (2016) presented a detailed record of sea level at Barbados (13.9-9 kyr B.P.) tightly constraining the timing and amplitude during the Younger Dryas and Meltwater Pulse 1B (MWP-1B) based on U-Th dated reef crest coral species Acropora palmata. The Younger Dryas slow stand and the large (14 m) rapid sea level jump are not resolved in the Tahiti record. Tahiti sea level estimates are remarkably close to the Barbados sea level curve between 13.9 and 11.6 kyr but fall below the Barbados sea level curve for a few thousand years following MWP-1B. By 9 kyr the Tahiti sea level estimates again converge with the Barbados sea level curve. Abdul et al. (2016) concluded that Tahiti reefs at the core sites did not keep up with intervals of rapidly rising sea level during MWP-1B. We counter Bard et al. (2016) by showing (1) that there is no evidence for a hypothetical fault in Oistins Bay affecting one of the Barbados coring locations, (2) that the authors confuse the rare occurrences of A. palmata at depths >5 m with the "thickets" of A. palmata fronds representing the reef-crest facies, and (3) that uncertainties in depth habitat proxies largely account for differences in Barbados and Tahiti sea level differences curves with A. palmata providing the most faithful proxy. Given the range in Tahiti paleodepth uncertainties at the cored sites, the most parsimonious explanation remains that Tahiti coralgal ridges did not keep up with the sea level rise of MWP-1B.

  12. Drastic increases in overweight and obesity from 1981 to 2010 and related risk factors: results from the Barbados Children's Health and Nutrition Study.

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    Fernandez, Melissa Anne; Kubow, Stan; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Knight, JaDon; Gaskin, Pamela S

    2015-12-01

    To examine overweight and obesity (OWOB), changes in prevalence and potential risk factors in Barbadian children. A cross-section of students were weighed and measured. The WHO BMI-for-age growth references (BAZ), the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth percentiles were used to determine OWOB prevalence. Harvard weight-for-height-for-age growth standards were used to estimate differences in OWOB prevalence from 1981 to 2010. Samples of parents and students were interviewed to describe correlates of OWOB. Barbados. Public-school students (n 580) in class 3. Based on WHO BAZ, the overall prevalence of OWOB was 34·8 % (95 % CI 30·9, 38·7 %). A trend of higher OWOB prevalence was seen for girls across cut-offs, with significant sex differences noted using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. According to Harvard growth standards, OWOB has increased dramatically, from 8·52 % to 32·5 %. Children were more likely to be OWOB when annual household income was below BBD 9000 (OR=2·69; 95 % CI 1·21, 5·99). Eating dinner with the family every night was associated with a lower prevalence of OWOB (OR=0·56; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·87). The sharp increase of OWOB rates in Barbados warrants attention. Sex disparities in OWOB prevalence may emerge at a young age. Promoting family meals may be a feasible option for OWOB prevention. Understanding familial and sociodemographic factors influencing OWOB will be useful in planning successful intervention or prevention programmes in Barbados.

  13. CD4 cell counts in adults with newly diagnosed HIV infection in Barbados Recuentos de células CD4 en adultos con diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH en Barbados

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    Krishna R. Kilaru

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the absolute CD4 cell counts of all the newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons who presented at the Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU, which serves as the national HIV/AIDS referral and treatment center for the country of Barbados. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study group was comprised of HIV-infected adults who had been diagnosed with HIV infection and referred to the LRU between January and December 2002. All the patients referred to the LRU had a CD4 cell count done at their first visit to the unit, as part of the routine workup to assess their disease status and need for antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: Of the 106 newly diagnosed adults, 62 of them (58.5% were males, who had a median age at presentation of 40 years; the other 44 of them (41.5% were females, and their median age at presentation was 36 years. Nearly one-fifth (18.2% of the females were aged 16-25 years, whereas only 8.1% of the males were in this age group. The majority (57.6% of the study group were diagnosed because they presented with an HIV/AIDS-related illness. Overall, the median CD4 cell count at the time of diagnosis was 183/µL; 52 of 103 adults (50.5% with a newly diagnosed HIV infection had a CD4 cell count that was OBJETIVO: Evaluar los recuentos de células CD4 de toda persona con un diagnóstico reciente de infección por VIH que acudió a la Unidad de Remisión Ladymeade (URL, que es el centro nacional de Barbados para la remisión y el tratamiento de casos de infección por VIH y sida. MÉTODOS: El grupo de estudio se compuso de adultos con infección por VIH en quienes el diagnóstico y la remisión a la URL se habían hecho entre enero y diciembre de 2002. A todos los pacientes remitidos a la URL se les había efectuado un recuento de células CD4 en su primera consulta a la unidad como parte de la serie habitual de pruebas realizadas para determinar en qué estado se encontraba la enfermedad y si había necesidad de administrar antirretrov

  14. Systemic lupus erythematosus in an African Caribbean population: incidence, clinical manifestations, and survival in the Barbados National Lupus Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Cindy; Hennis, Anselm J M; Hambleton, Ian R; Nicholson, George D; Liang, Matthew H

    2012-08-01

    To assess the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the predominantly African Caribbean population of Barbados. A national registry of all patients diagnosed with SLE was established in 2007. Complete case ascertainment was facilitated by collaboration with the island's sole rheumatology service, medical practitioners, and the lupus advocacy group. Informed consent was required for inclusion. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009, there were 183 new cases of SLE (98% African Caribbean) affecting 172 women and 11 men for unadjusted annual incidence rates of 12.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 10.46-14.18) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.42-1.51) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Excluding pediatric cases (ages <18 years), the unadjusted incidence rate among women was 15.14 per 100,000 person-years. The principal presenting manifestations were arthritis (84%), nephritis (47%), pleuritis (41.5%), malar rash (36.4%), and discoid lesions (33.1%). Antinuclear antibody positivity was 95%. The overall 5-year survival rate was 79.9% (95% CI 69.6-87.1), decreasing to 68% in patients with nephritis. A total of 226 persons with SLE were alive at the end of the study for point prevalences of 152.6 (95% CI 132.8-174.5) and 10.1 (95% CI 5.4-17.2) per 100,000 among women and men, respectively. Rates of SLE in Barbadian women are among the highest reported to date, with clinical manifestations similar to African American women and high mortality. Further study of this population and similar populations of West African descent might assist our understanding of environmental, genetic, and health care issues underpinning disparities in SLE. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. U-Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130,000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Fairbanks, R.G. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (USA). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory)

    1990-08-02

    The study of the sea level record during the last glacial cycle has primarily proceeded indirectly by means of oxygen isotope measurements on foraminifera from deep-sea sediments. The direct approach of dating sea level indicators stagnated during the past decade, mainly because the samples required to complete our knowledge of the past glaciations are below the present-day sea level. Using the {sup 14}C ages of Acropora palmata samples collected by drilling offshore the island of Barbados, we report the first detailed chronology for the last deglaciation. This radio-carbon chronology is limited to the past 30 kyr because of the short half-life of {sup 14}C (5,730 yr); we must therefore rely on other dating methods to obtain information for the whole last glacial cycle. During the past four years {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U dating of corals by thermal-ionization mass spectrometry has been shown to be significantly more precise and accurate than the classical {alpha}-counting method. We have used this technique to measure U-Th ages in coral samples from the Barbados collection and from subaerially exposed outcrops. Here we present results bearing on the sea level record for the past 130,000 years; we conclude that the last deglaciation started 3,000 years earlier than previously thought and confirm that there were two surges in melt water at about 11 kyr and 14 kyr BP (before present). (author).

  16. U-Th ages obtained by mass spectrometry in corals from Barbados: sea level during the past 130,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Edouard; Hamelin, Bruno; Fairbanks, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The study of the sea level record during the last glacial cycle has primarily proceeded indirectly by means of oxygen isotope measurements on foraminifera from deep-sea sediments. The direct approach of dating sea level indicators stagnated during the past decade, mainly because the samples required to complete our knowledge of the past glaciations are below the present-day sea level. Using the 14 C ages of Acropora palmata samples collected by drilling offshore the island of Barbados, we report the first detailed chronology for the last deglaciation. This radio-carbon chronology is limited to the past 30 kyr because of the short half-life of 14 C (5,730 yr); we must therefore rely on other dating methods to obtain information for the whole last glacial cycle. During the past four years 230 Th- 234 U dating of corals by thermal-ionization mass spectrometry has been shown to be significantly more precise and accurate than the classical α-counting method. We have used this technique to measure U-Th ages in coral samples from the Barbados collection and from subaerially exposed outcrops. Here we present results bearing on the sea level record for the past 130,000 years; we conclude that the last deglaciation started 3,000 years earlier than previously thought and confirm that there were two surges in melt water at about 11 kyr and 14 kyr BP (before present). (author)

  17. Ovejas apartadas: Sexualidades disidentes, religiosidad y familia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Johnson

    Full Text Available Resumen El artículo se propone analizar las negociaciones entre la creencia y la sexualidad a través de relatos biográficos de dos mujeres que mantienen relaciones sexo-afectivas con otras mujeres y que se identifican como creyentes cristianas. Considerando que las instituciones religiosas en América Latina juegan un rol importante a la hora de prescribir ciertos modos de vivir la sexualidad dentro de la norma familiar, heteronormativa y reproductiva, nos interesa acceder a ese universo de sentidos en el cual se tensionan y negocian los modos de creer y de vivir la sexualidad. Haremos hincapié en la categoría nativa de “cristiano apartado” y se reflexionará sobre el control de la sexualidad en los espacios religiosos y familiares.

  18. Antenatal voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Barbados: success and barriers to implementation Asesoramiento y prueba detectora de VIH de carácter voluntario en el período prenatal en Barbados: resultados y barreras al cumplimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the success of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT for HIV and to identify the barriers to implementation when VCT is offered as a package integrated with antenatal care. METHODS: In this descriptive study we investigated antenatal VCT and HIV testing in all post-parturient women at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Bridgetown, Barbados, who gave birth between April and September 2002. Data were collected retrospectively from the antenatal care record and by recall during one-on-one interview. RESULTS: Of 1 342 women surveyed, 954 (71.1% received antenatal counseling and were offered an HIV test. Of the 954 women offered HIV test after counseling, 914 (95.8% agreed to have the test. Among the women surveyed, 1 106 (82.4% had a documented HIV test, 914 (85.7% were tested after documented pretest counseling, and another 192 (14.3% were tested without documented pretest counseling. Overall, 822 of the 1 342 women surveyed (61.2% had a documented HIV test result in their antenatal case record at the time of delivery. Of the 1 106 women who had a documented HIV test, the test results were unavailable at the time of delivery in only 284 (21.2%. Among the reasons for unavailability of a documented HIV test result, the most common (45.0% was that no test was done, followed by unclear documentation of the result. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-nine percent of surveyed women failed to receive antenatal VCT and this is a cause of concern, for both the high coverage and good quality counseling are key to the overall success and cost effectiveness of the VCT program. Fourteen percent of the women surveyed who did not receive VCT were tested for HIV, a situation that is undesirable because some women may be tested without understanding the full implication of this policy, and as a result the overall impact of VCT may be reduced.OBJETIVO: Determinar los resultados del asesoramiento y de la prueba detectora de infección por VIH aceptados

  19. The impact of the healthcare system in Barbados (provision of health insurance and the benefit service scheme) on the use of herbal remedies by Christian churchgoers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohall, D H; Scantlebury-Manning, T; Cadogan-McLean, C; Lallement, A; Willis-O'Connor, S

    2012-06-01

    To determine the impact of health insurance and the government's Benefit Service Scheme, a system that provides free drugs to treat mostly chronic illnesses to persons aged 16 to 65 years, on the use of herbal remedies by Christian churchgoers in Barbados. The eleven parishes of Barbados were sampled over a six-week period using a survey instrument developed and tested over a four-week period prior to administration. Persons were asked to participate and after written informed consent, they were interviewed by the research team. The data were analysed by the use of IBM SPSS version 19. The data were all nominal, so descriptive statistics including counts, the frequencies, odds ratios and percentages were calculated. More than half of the participants (59.2%) were female, a little less than a third (29.9%) were male, and one tenth of the participants (10.9%) did not indicate their gender The majority of the participants were between the ages of 41 and 70 years, with the age range of 51-60 years comprising 26.1% of the sample interviewed. Almost all of the participants were born in Barbados (92.5%). Approximately 33% of the respondents indicated that they used herbal remedies to treat various ailments including chronic conditions. The odds ratio of persons using herbal remedies and having health insurance to persons not using herbal remedies and having health insurance is 1.01 (95% CI 0.621, 1.632). There was an increase in the numbers of respondents using herbal remedies as age increased. This trend continued until the age group 71-80 years which showed a reduction in the use of herbal remedies, 32.6% of respondents compared with 38.3% of respondents in the 61-70-year category. The data demonstrated that only a third of the study population is using herbal remedies for ailments. Health insurance was not an indicator neither did it influence the use of herbal remedies by respondents. The use of herbal remedies may not be associated with affluence. The reduction in

  20. Tectonic and Sedimentation Interactions in the East Caribbean Subduction Zone: AN Overview from the Orinoco Delta to the Barbados Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent marine geophysical acquisitions and piston-coring allow to better understand the close interactions between the sand-rich Orinoco turbidite system and the compressional structures of the Barbados prism. Because of the morphologic and tectonic control in the east-Caribbean active margin, the Orinoco turbiditic pattern system does not exhibit a classic fan geometry. The sea-floor geometry between the slope of the front of the Barbados prism and the slope of the South-American margin induces the convergence of the turbidite channels toward the abyssal plain, at the front of the accretionary prism. Also, whereas in most passive margins the turbidite systems are organized upstream to downstream as canyon, then channel-levee, then lobes, here, due to the tectonic control, the sedimentary system is organized as channel-levee, then canyons, then channelized lobes. At the edge of the Orinoco platform, the system has multiple sources with several distributaries and downward the channel courses are complex with frequent convergences or divergences that are emphasized by the effects of the undulating seafloor tectonic morphologies associated with active thrust tectonics and mud volcanism. On top of the accretionary prism, turbidite sediments are filling transported piggy-back basins whose timing of sedimentation vs. deformation is complex. Erosion processes are almost absent on the highly subsiding Orinoco platform and in the upper part of the turbidite system. Erosion processes develop mostly between 2000 and 4000 m of water depth, above the compressional structures of the Barbados prism (canyons up to 3 km wide and 300 m deep). In the abyssal plain, turbiditic channels develop on very long distance (> 1000 km) joining the mid-Atlantic channel (sourced mostly by the Amazon), filling several elongated basins corresponding to transform faults (notably the Barracuda Basin), and finally sourcing the Puerto-Rico trench, the deepest morphologic depression of this region

  1. Calibration of the 14C timescale over the past 30,000 years using mass spectrometric U-Th ages from Barbados corals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, E.; Hamelin, B.; Fairbanks, R.G.; Zindler, A.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium-thorium ages obtained by mass spectrometry from corals raised off the island of Barbados confirm the high precision of this technique over at least the past 30,000 years. Comparison of the U-Th ages with 14 C ages obtained on the Holocene samples shows that the U-Th ages are accurate, because they accord with the dendrochronological calibration. Before 9,000 yr BP the 14 C ages are systematically younger than the U-Th ages, with a maximum difference of ∼3,500 yr at ∼20,000 yr BP. The U-Th technique thus provides a way of calibrating the radiocarbon timescale beyond the range of dendrochronological calibration. (author)

  2. De Barbados a Samoa: repaso de los principales hitos de los pequeños estados insulares en desarrollo desde 1994 hasta 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario José Gallego

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Los pequeños Estados insulares en desarrollo precisaban de una voz común que se pudo escuchar por primera vez en Barbados, en 1994, durante la primera Conferencia celebrada para tratar los asuntos propios de estos espacios vulnerables por su tamaño y condición insular. El despegue posterior de este grupo de Estados en la arena internacional hasta la recientemente celebrada tercera Conferencia, en septiembre de 2014 en Samoa, es el tema central del artículo. El repaso a los diferentes momentos clave sucedidos durante estas dos décadas permite constatar los asuntos prioritarios para este grupo de países en cada contexto y sus avances hacia la completa institucionalización de sus asuntos por parte de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas.

  3. The HUPO Brain Proteome project wish list--summary of the 9(th) HUPO BPP Workshop 9-10 January 2008, Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Tribl, Florian; Stephan, Christian; Marcus, Katrin; Hardt, Tanja; Wiltfang, Jens; Martens, Lennart; Desiderio, Dominic; Gutstein, Howard; Park, Young Mok; Meyer, Helmut E

    2008-06-01

    The Human Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) aims at advancing knowledge and the understanding of neurodiseases and aging with the purpose of identifying prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, as well as to push new diagnostic approaches and medications. The participating groups meet in semi-annual workshops to discuss the progress, as well as the needs, within the field of proteomics. The 9(th) HUPO BPP workshop took place in Barbados from 9-10 January, 2008. Discussing the future HUPO BPP Roadmap, the attendees drafted the so called HUPO BPP wish list containing timelines, suggestions and missions. This wish list will be updated regularly and will serve as a guideline for the next phase.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers reported by patients receiving diabetes and hypertension primary health care in Barbados: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams O Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies in the quality of diabetes and hypertension primary care and outcomes have been documented in Barbados. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by people with diabetes and hypertension in Barbados that might contribute to these deficiencies. Methods Five structured focus groups were conducted for randomly selected people with diabetes and hypertension. Results Twenty-one patients (5 diabetic, 5 hypertensive, and 11 with both diseases with a mean age of 59 years attended 5 focus group sessions. Patient factors that affected care included the difficulty in maintaining behaviour change. Practitioner factors included not considering the "whole person" and patient expectations, and not showing enough respect for patients. Health care system factors revolved around the amount of time spent accessing care because of long waiting times in public sector clinics and pharmacies. Society related barriers included the high cost and limited availability of appropriate food, the availability of exercise facilities, stigma of disease and difficulty taking time off work. Attendees were not familiar with guidelines for diabetes and hypertension management, but welcomed a patient version detailing a place to record results, the frequency of tests, and blood pressure and blood glucose targets. Appropriate education from practitioners during consultations, while waiting in clinic, through support and education groups, and for the general public through the schools, mass media and billboards were recommended. Conclusions Primary care providers should take a more patient centred approach to the care of those with diabetes and hypertension. The care system should provide better service by reducing waiting times. Patient self-management could be encouraged by a patient version of care guidelines and greater educational efforts.

  5. Aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in the North Atlantic trades observed during the Barbados aerosol cloud experiment – Part 1: Distributions and variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shallow marine cumulus clouds are by far the most frequently observed cloud type over the Earth's oceans; but they are poorly understood and have not been investigated as extensively as stratocumulus clouds. This study describes and discusses the properties and variations of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed in the North Atlantic trades during a field campaign (Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment- BACEX, March–April 2010, which took place off Barbados where African dust periodically affects the region. The principal observing platform was the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS Twin Otter (TO research aircraft, which was equipped with standard meteorological instruments, a zenith pointing cloud radar and probes that measured aerosol, cloud, and precipitation characteristics.The temporal variation and vertical distribution of aerosols observed from the 15 flights, which included the most intense African dust event during all of 2010 in Barbados, showed a wide range of aerosol conditions. During dusty periods, aerosol concentrations increased substantially in the size range between 0.5 and 10 µm (diameter, particles that are large enough to be effective giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The 10-day back trajectories showed three distinct air masses with distinct vertical structures associated with air masses originating in the Atlantic (typical maritime air mass with relatively low aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer, Africa (Saharan air layer, and mid-latitudes (continental pollution plumes. Despite the large differences in the total mass loading and the origin of the aerosols, the overall shapes of the aerosol particle size distributions were consistent, with the exception of the transition period.The TO was able to sample many clouds at various phases of growth. Maximum cloud depth observed was less than ∼ 3 km, while most

  6. Diabetes and hypertension guidelines and the primary health care practitioner in Barbados: knowledge, attitudes, practices and barriers-a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Anne O

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audits have shown numerous deficiencies in the quality of hypertension and diabetes primary care in Barbados, despite distribution of regional guidelines. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by primary care practitioners in Barbados concerning the recommendations of available diabetes and hypertension guidelines. Methods Focus groups using a moderator's manual were conducted at all 8 public sector polyclinics, and 5 sessions were held for private practitioners. Results Polyclinic sessions were attended by 63 persons (17 physicians, 34 nurses, 3 dieticians, 3 podiatrists, 5 pharmacists, and 1 other, and private sector sessions by 20 persons (12 physicians, 1 nurse, 3 dieticians, 2 podiatrists and 2 pharmacists. Practitioners generally thought they gave a good quality of care. Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council 1995 diabetes and 1998 hypertension guidelines, and the Ministry of Health 2001 diabetes protocol had been seen by 38%, 32% and 78% respectively of polyclinic practitioners, 67%, 83%, and 33% of private physicians, and 25%, 0% and 38% of non-physician private practitioners. Current guidelines were considered by some to be outdated, unavailable, difficult to remember and lacking in advice to tackle barriers. Practitioners thought that guidelines should be circulated widely, promoted with repeated educational sessions, and kept short. Patient oriented versions of the guidelines were welcomed. Patient factors causing barriers to ideal outcome included denial and fear of stigma; financial resources to access an appropriate diet, exercise and monitoring equipment; confusion over medication regimens, not valuing free medication, belief in alternative medicines, and being unable to change habits. System barriers included lack of access to blood investigations, clinic equipment and medication; the lack of human resources in polyclinics; and an uncoordinated

  7. Diabetes and hypertension guidelines and the primary health care practitioner in Barbados: knowledge, attitudes, practices and barriers--a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, O Peter; Carter, Anne O

    2010-12-03

    Audits have shown numerous deficiencies in the quality of hypertension and diabetes primary care in Barbados, despite distribution of regional guidelines. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by primary care practitioners in Barbados concerning the recommendations of available diabetes and hypertension guidelines. Focus groups using a moderator's manual were conducted at all 8 public sector polyclinics, and 5 sessions were held for private practitioners. Polyclinic sessions were attended by 63 persons (17 physicians, 34 nurses, 3 dieticians, 3 podiatrists, 5 pharmacists, and 1 other), and private sector sessions by 20 persons (12 physicians, 1 nurse, 3 dieticians, 2 podiatrists and 2 pharmacists). Practitioners generally thought they gave a good quality of care. Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council 1995 diabetes and 1998 hypertension guidelines, and the Ministry of Health 2001 diabetes protocol had been seen by 38%, 32% and 78% respectively of polyclinic practitioners, 67%, 83%, and 33% of private physicians, and 25%, 0% and 38% of non-physician private practitioners. Current guidelines were considered by some to be outdated, unavailable, difficult to remember and lacking in advice to tackle barriers. Practitioners thought that guidelines should be circulated widely, promoted with repeated educational sessions, and kept short. Patient oriented versions of the guidelines were welcomed. Patient factors causing barriers to ideal outcome included denial and fear of stigma; financial resources to access an appropriate diet, exercise and monitoring equipment; confusion over medication regimens, not valuing free medication, belief in alternative medicines, and being unable to change habits. System barriers included lack of access to blood investigations, clinic equipment and medication; the lack of human resources in polyclinics; and an uncoordinated team approach. Patients faced cultural barriers with

  8. Uptake of health care services and health status of HIV-infected women diagnosed through antenatal HIV screening in Barbados, 1996-2004 Utilización de los servicios de atención sanitaria y estado de salud de las mujeres seropositivas al VIH diagnosticadas mediante el tamizaje prenatal para el VIH en Barbados, 1996-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study utilization of HIV-related health care services and to describe the health status of HIV-infected women diagnosed through antenatal voluntary counseling and testing (VCT for HIV infection in Barbados. METHODS: This is a descriptive study. The study population includes all HIV-infected women in Barbados diagnosed as HIV-infected through VCT for HIV infection during 1996-2004. RESULTS: The median duration of HIV infection from time of diagnosis to the time of this report for the 163 women diagnosed during the study period was 72 months (low range, 9 months; high range, 117 months. Of the 163 women, 102 (62.6% had attended the centralized HIV/AIDS clinic for follow-up (care, treatment, and monitoring, whereas 61 (37.4% had never attended the clinic. The median time lag between diagnosis of HIV infection and first presentation to the HIV/AIDS clinic was 36 months (low range, 1 month; high range, 114 months. Of the HIV-infected women who attended the HIV/AIDS clinic, more than one-fourth had severe immunodeficiency at the time of their first follow-up visit. Of the 53 women undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART at the time of the study, 23 (43.4% began the therapy within three months of their first follow-up visit. CONCLUSIONS: Early HIV diagnosis through antenatal VCT is not enough to ensure that women with HIV will get adequate and timely HIV-related health care. These women suffer significant premature mortality, largely related to inadequate follow-up.OBJETIVOS: Estudiar la utilización de los servicios de atención sanitaria relacionados con el VIH y describir el estado de salud de las mujeres infectadas con este virus, diagnosticadas mediante el asesoramiento y la prueba de detección del VIH de carácter voluntario (APDV durante el período prenatal en Barbados. MÉTODOS: Este es un estudio descriptivo. La población de estudio abarcó a todas las mujeres infectadas por el VIH, diagnosticadas en Barbados

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses and a Newcastle disease virus from wild birds in Barbados: 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kirk O; Lavoie, Marc C; Kim, L Mia; Afonso, Claudio L; Suarez, David L

    2007-09-01

    Zoonotic transmission of an H5N1 avian influenza A virus to humans in 2003-present has generated increased public health and scientific interest in the prevalence and variability of influenza A viruses in wild birds and their potential threat to human health. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza A viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. All of the 16 hemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase influenza subtypes have been isolated from wild birds, but waterfowl of the order Anseriformes are the most commonly infected. Using 9-to-11-day-old embryonating chicken egg culture, virus isolation attempts were conducted on 168 cloacal swabs from various resident, imported, and migratory bird species in Barbados during the months of July to October of 2003 and 2004. Hemagglutination assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to screen all allantoic fluids for the presence of hemagglutinating agents and influenza A virus. Hemagglutination positive-influenza negative samples were also tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is also found in waterfowl. Two influenza A viruses and one NDV were isolated from Anseriformes (40/168), with isolation rates of 5.0% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40), respectively, for influenza A and NDV. Sequence analysis of the influenza A virus isolates showed them to be H4N3 viruses that clustered with other North American avian influenza viruses. This is the first report of the presence of influenza A virus and NDV in wild birds in the English-speaking Caribbean.

  10. Historical and current predictors of self-reported health status among elderly persons in Barbados Sucesos del pasado y del presente que determinan el estado de salud, según autonotificación, de las personas de edad en Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Hambleton

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the relative contribution of past events and of current experiences as determinants of health status among the elderly in the Caribbean nation of Barbados, in order to help develop timely public health interventions for that population. METHODS: The information for this prevalence study was collected in Barbados between December 1999 and June 2000 as part of the "SABE project," a multicenter survey in seven urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean that evaluated determinants of health and well-being in elderly populations (persons 60 and older. We used ordinal logistic regression to model determinants of self-reported health status, and we assessed the relative contribution of historical socioeconomic indicators and of three current modifiable predictor groups (current socioeconomic indicators, lifestyle risk factors, and disease indicators, using simple measures of association and model fit. RESULTS: Historical determinants of health status accounted for 5.2% of the variation in reported health status, and this was reduced to 2.0% when mediating current experiences were considered. Current socioeconomic indicators accounted for 4.1% of the variation in reported health status, lifestyle risk factors for 7.1%, and current disease indicators for 33.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Past socioeconomic experience influenced self-reported health status in elderly Barbadians. Over half of this influence from past events was mediated through current socioeconomic, lifestyle, and disease experiences. Caring for the sick and reducing lifestyle risk factors should be important considerations in the support of the current elderly. In addition, ongoing programs for poverty reduction and increased access to health care and education should be considered as long-term strategies to improve the health of the future elderly.OBJETIVO: Determinar la contribución relativa de sucesos del pasado y experiencias del presente al estado de salud de las

  11. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Unwin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semistructured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF. There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH, other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC; and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence on the nature of the problem, often framed as being

  12. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C; Guell, Cornelia

    2016-06-15

    Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and 'cascading.' Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of individuals needing to take

  13. The Development of Public Policies to Address Non-communicable Diseases in the Caribbean Country of Barbados: The Importance of Problem Framing and Policy Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Samuels, T. Alafia; Hassell, Trevor; Brownson, Ross C.; Guell, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Government policy measures have a key role to play in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The Caribbean, a middle-income region, has the highest per capita burden of NCDs in the Americas. Our aim was to examine policy development and implementation between the years 2000 and 2013 on NCD prevention and control in Barbados, and to investigate factors promoting, and hindering, success. Methods: A qualitative case study design was used involving a structured policy document review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, identified through stakeholder analysis and ‘cascading.’ Documents were abstracted into a standard form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent framework analysis, guided by the multiple streams framework (MSF). There were 25 key informants, from the Ministry of Health (MoH), other government Ministries, civil society organisations, and the private sector. Results: A significant policy window opened between 2005 and 2007 in which new posts to address NCDs were created in the MoH, and a government supported multi-sectoral national NCD commission was established. Factors contributing to this government commitment and funding included a high level of awareness, throughout society, of the NCD burden, including media coverage of local research findings; the availability of policy recommendations by international bodies that could be adopted locally, notably the framework convention on tobacco control (FCTC); and the activities of local highly respected policy entrepreneurs with access to senior politicians, who were able to bring together political concern for the problem with potential policy solutions. However, factors were also identified that hindered multi-sectoral policy development in several areas, including around nutrition, physical activity, and alcohol. These included a lack of consensus (valence) on the nature of the problem, often framed as being predominantly one of

  14. Plant survival of barbados cherry genotypes after frost injury in northern Parana State/ Recuperação de plantas de genótipos de aceroleira afetadas por geada no norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Barbados cherry is a tropical fruit that when cultivated in subtropical areas is exposed to frosts which cause considerable damages to the leaves and can kill plants. The frosts of July 2000 in Northern Paraná State made possible the evaluation of 19 Barbados cherry genotypes propagated through cuttings. A minimum air temperature of –1,3°C was recorded on 17 July at the meteorological station; the minimum ground temperature was around –5,4°C. All plants were severely injured in 100% of leaves. The evaluation was made the following year to the frost, through sprouts status. It was observed that Barbados cherry genotypes present differences in cold hardiness. Some genotypes were killed and others survived, with good vegetation on the next year. The following genotypes presented the best recovery: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ and ‘Lígia.’ The findings are discussed in relation to temperature limits reported in the literature.A aceroleira é uma planta de clima tropical que também tem sido cultivada em áreas subtropicais, ficando com isso sujeita à ocorrência de geadas, que causam danos consideráveis à folhagem e podem levar as plantas à morte. As geadas de julho de 2000 no Norte do Paraná possibilitaram a avaliação de 19 genótipos de acerola, propagados vegetativamente. A temperatura mínima foi de –1,3° C no abrigo meteorológico em 17 de julho, que corresponde a – 5,4 °C na relva. Todas as plantas tiveram danos em 100% das folhas. No ano seguinte à geada, avaliou-se a recuperação das plantas com base na brotação apresentada. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que os genótipos de aceroleira apresentam respostas diferentes à geada, sendo que alguns são levados à morte e outros conseguem se recuperar na estação de crescimento seguinte. Os genótipos que apresentaram melhor recuperação foram: ‘Cícero’, ‘Roseli’, ‘Carolina’ e ‘Lígia’. Os resultados são discutidos em rela

  15. Respuesta Ovulatoria y Calidad de Embriones en Ovejas Katahdin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dr_cluna

    2016-08-17

    Aug 17, 2016 ... structures (TES), transferable embryos (TE), degenerated embryos (DEs) and ... The inclusion of vegetable fats in supplements for cattle and sheep feeding .... Table 2 Means ± SE of embryonic classification in Katahdin ewes ...

  16. Ovejas en pastoreo extensivo suplementadas con extruido de linaza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Vera, Raúl R.; Aguilar, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of extruded linseed on the milk and cheese fatty acid (FA) profiles of ewes under extensive grazing conditions. Over 26 days, a group of nine lactating ewes (Latxa × Milchschaf × Corriedale) in mid-lactation were managed ...

  17. Agreement of 14 August 1996 between the Government of Barbados and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The document contains two parts. Part I stipulates the agreement of Barbados to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I.

  18. Agreement of 14 August 1996 between the Government of Barbados and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document contains two parts. Part I stipulates the agreement of Barbados to accept safeguards on all source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territory, under its jurisdiction or carried out under its control anywhere, for the exclusive purpose of verifying that such material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Part II specifies the procedures to be applied in the implementation of the safeguards provisions of Part I

  19. Las ovejas-lobo y los lobos-ovejas: impresiones etnográficas sobre el mobbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montero Mórtola

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Una conferencia sobre Mobbing, ofrecida en Barcelona por antropólogos, sirve a la autora para elaborar una serie de comentarios e impresiones. El acoso laboral se ha convertido en un tema de actualidad y cada vez está más en los medios de comunicación. El problema tiene unas causas profundas, directamente relacionadas con el tipo de sociedad que estamos construyendo. En ese sentido, la antropología nos proporciona elementos muy útiles para su abordaje y análisis.

  20. Total meltwater volume since the Last Glacial Maximum and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle inferred from relative sea level changes at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf and GIA-induced J˙2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-02-01

    Inference of globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) highly depends on the interpretation of relative sea level (RSL) observations at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf, Australia, which are sensitive to the viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Here we examine the RSL changes at the LGM for Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}), differential RSL for both sites (Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}}) and rate of change of degree-two harmonics of Earth's geopotential due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process (GIA-induced J˙2) to infer the ESL component and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Differential RSL, Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} and GIA-induced J˙2 are dominantly sensitive to the lower-mantle viscosity, and nearly insensitive to the upper-mantle rheological structure and GIA ice models with an ESL component of about (120-130) m. The comparison between the predicted and observationally derived Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} indicates the lower-mantle viscosity higher than ˜2 × 1022 Pa s, and the observationally derived GIA-induced J˙2 of -(6.0-6.5) × 10-11 yr-1 indicates two permissible solutions for the lower mantle, ˜1022 and (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. That is, the effective lower-mantle viscosity inferred from these two observational constraints is (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. The LGM RSL changes at both sites, {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}, are also sensitive to the ESL component and upper-mantle viscosity as well as the lower-mantle viscosity. The permissible upper-mantle viscosity increases with decreasing ESL component due to the sensitivity of the LGM sea level at Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}) to the upper-mantle viscosity, and inferred upper-mantle viscosity for adopted lithospheric thicknesses of 65 and 100 km is (1-3) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜130 m and (4-10) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜125 m. The former solution of (1-3) × 1020

  1. Comprimento de estacas e parte do ramo na formação de mudas de aceroleira Size and part of the branch to be used as barbados cherry cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade rizogênica, a brotação e o vigor de estacas caulinares de aceroleira foram avaliados em condições de casa de vegetação na Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Fortaleza-CE, no período de novembro de 2000 a janeiro de 2001, objetivando determinar a parte do ramo e o tamanho mais apropriado para estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 3x3, correspondendo a três posições no ramo (apical, mediano e basal e três comprimentos de estacas (10; 15 e 20 cm, com três repetições de 10 estacas por parcela. As estacas, colhidas de plantas com 2,5 anos de idade, foram plantadas em tubetes de 288cm³ contendo uma mistura de casca de arroz carbonizada e vermicomposto, na proporção volumétrica de 2:3, e cultivadas por um período de 60 dias sob condições de nebulização intermitente. Avaliaram-se a percentagem de estacas enraizadas, o peso da matéria seca do sistema radicular e parte aérea, o número de folhas, de gemas sem brotação e as ramificações emitidas por estaca. Os resultados indicaram que estacas caulinares com 10 centímetros de comprimento e colhidas da porção mediana dos ramos são mais apropriadas para a produção de mudas de aceroleira por estaquia, sob condições de casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente.The rhizogenic capacitity, sprouting and vigor of cuttings from barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C were evaluated in greenhouse conditions at the EMBRAPA - National Center for Research of Tropical Agroindustry, Fortaleza-CE, from November 2000 to January 2001, aiming to identify the best branch part and size for cuttings preparation. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a 3x3 factorial scheme, corresponding to three positions on the branch (apical, median and basal and three length (10, 15 and 20 cm, with three replications composed by 10 cuttings each, and cultured on tubets of 288 cm³, filled wich a misture

  2. Trends in the patterns of IgM and IgG antibodies in febrile persons with suspected dengue in Barbados, an English-speaking Caribbean country, 2006–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Long-term seroprevalence studies of dengue have provided a measure of the degree of endemicity and future trends in disease prevalence and severity. In this study, we describe the seroprevalence of dengue antibodies in febrile persons with suspected acute dengue in Barbados. It is a retrospective population-based study of all febrile persons with suspected dengue from 2006 to 2013. All of the cases had IgM and IgG antibodies in the blood sample drawn between days 3 and 5 of their illness. Among the 8296 cases that were tested for IgM antibodies, 3037 (36.6% had recent dengue infection. In the age groups 20 years, 23.3%, 39.6% and 35.5% had acute infection, respectively. Of the 7227 cases with documented IgG results, 5473 (75.7% were positive and had a past infection. In the age groups 20 years, 31.2%, 65.2% and 86.6%, respectively, had a past infection (IgG positive. During the first 5 years of life, 10–20% of febrile persons investigated for dengue had a positive IgM and a negative IgG titer, between 5 and 10% had a positive IgM and IgG titer, 5% had a positive IgG and a negative IgM titer, and between 45% and 65% had a negative IgM and a negative IgG titer. Throughout the study period, between 12% and 20% of febrile persons failed to show any evidence of current or previous dengue. In the age groups 20 years, 45.0%, 18.8% and 7.2%, respectively, had no evidence of recent or past dengue (both IgM and IgG negative. Between 37% and 59% of the febrile persons had serological evidence of past dengue in the absence of any current dengue. In conclusion, the pattern of IgG antibodies in this study was comparable to those in countries known to be hyperendemic for dengue. The age of infection is likely to shift to younger adults and children who are more likely to have severe dengue in the future. Keywords: Dengue, Seroprevalence, Febrile, Caribbean

  3. Investigation of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of Malpighia glabra L. (barbados cherry fruit pulp and vitamin C on plant and animal test systems Investigação do efeito citotóxico e mutagênico da polpa da fruta Malpighia glabra L. (acerola e da vitamina C em sistema teste vegetal e animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are important sources of nutrients in human diet, and Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L. is of particular interest due to its high content of antioxidants. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables protect individuals against diseases and cancer, but excessive intake of vitamins may act as pro-oxidant and generate changes in DNA. To evaluate the effect of different in natura (BAN and frozen (BAF Barbados Cherry pulp concentrations and synthetic vitamin C in liquid form (VC on the chromosome level and the cell cycle division, root meristeme cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, were used as test system. In Allium cepa L., BAN, at the highest concentration (0.4 mg.mL-1 and BAF, at the lowest concentration (0.2 mg.mL-1, inhibited cell division, and there was recovery of cell division after the recovery period in water only for BAN. In the Wistar rats, all treatments with Barbados Cherry, either acute or subchronic, were not cytotoxic or mutagenic; only the highest concentration of VC increased significantly the rate of chromosomal abnormalities. The data obtained are important to reinforce the use of Barbados Cherry fruit in the diet.As frutas são importantes fontes de nutrientes na dieta humana e a Acerola (Malpighia glabra L. é de particular interesse devido ao seu alto teor de antioxidantes. Dietas ricas em frutas e legumes protegem os indivíduos contra doenças e câncer, mas a ingestão excessiva de vitaminas pode atuar como pró-oxidante e gerar alterações no DNA. Para avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações da polpa in natura da Acerola (BAN e congelada (BAF, e da vitamina C sintética na forma líquida (VC, em nível cromossômico e sobre o ciclo de divisão celular, foram utilizadas células meristemáticas de raiz de Allium cepa L. e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, Rattus norvegicus, como sistema teste. Em Allium cepa L., BAN, na maior concentração (0,4 mg.mL-1 e BAF

  4. Comparison of Clinical and Laboratory Responses in Sheep and Dogs following Whole-Body Exposures to 250-Kvp X-Rays and Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Etude Comparee Clinique et en Laboratoire, des Reactions de Moutons et de Chiens a la Suite d'une Exposition du Corps Entier a des Rayons X de 250 Kv-Crete et a des Neutrons de Fission; Sravnenie klinicheskikh i laboratornykh dannykh o reaktsii ovets i sobak na obluchenie vsego tela rentgenovskimi luchami pri pikovom napryazhenii 250 Kv i nejtronami spektra deleniya; Estudio Comparado, Clinico y de Laboratorio, de las Reacciones de Ovejas y Perros Consecutivas a la Irradiacion del Cuerpo Entero con Rayos X de 250 KVp y Neutrones de Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaife, M. A.; Boer, J. de; Jones, R. K.; Ichiki, A. T.; Godden, W. R.; Davis, H.; Engel, R. E. [Kirtland AFB, New Mexico (United States)

    1964-05-15

    jour, la mortalite chez les chiens a ete de 50% pour les sujets exposes aux neutrons et de 93% pour les sujets exposes aux rayons X. Chez les moutons, les neutrons ont cause une mortalite de 22% et les rayons X une mortalite de 80%. (author) [Spanish] Los autores expusieron 15 ovejas y 8 perros a una dosis de 400 rad (en el aire) de un espectro pulsante de neutrones de fision y el mismo numero de ovejas y 14 perros a una dosis de 400 r (dosis media, en el aire) de rayos X de 250 kVp. Ademas, emplearon como testigos 7 ovejas y 4 perros sin irradiar. Efectuaron observaciones durante dos semanas, antes de proceder a la exposicion y, luego, a intervalos frecuentes y regulares una vez provocadas las lesiones. En las ovejas, la alteracion clinica mas sistematica fue la perdida total de la lana a los 51 dias de la exposicion. La piel subyacente presentaba un color rosado semejante a la leve erubescencia que se observa a veces en el hombre. Los perros no perdieron el pelo. El numero de polinucleares, neutrofilos, linfocitos y trombocitos disminuyo rapidamente despues de la irradiacion en ambas especies. Solamente en los grupos irradiados con neutrones, alrededor de 24 dias despues de la irradiacion se registro un restablecimiento del numero de globulos blancos. El indice de trombocitos disminuyo en ambas especies, un poco antes en el perro que en la oveja. En ambas especies, a la tercera semana a contar de la irradiacion, se observo que se restablecian los valores normales en los animales expuestos a los neutrones, pero no en aquellos sometidos a la accion de los rayos X. En ambos grupos de perros, al noveno dia se registro una reduccion importante del indice hematocrito, pero no ocurrio lo mismo con ninguno de los grupos de ovejas expuestos. Como parametro para la determinacion de la funcion hematopoyetica, se determinaron los indices de depuracion plasmatica del {sup 59}Fe en los sujetos estudiados. Los autores estudian la posibilidad de aplicar las alteraciones de este

  5. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  6. Calidad de la lana en diversas regiones del cuerpo de las ovejas de raza Corriedale

    OpenAIRE

    Amarilho-Silveira, Fernando; Schneider Lemes, Jaqueline; Gomes Esteves, Roger M

    2015-01-01

    El concepto de calidad de la lana involucra a una serie de factores inherentes a la raza y manejo nutricional, genético y sanitario, reproductivo, siendo el resultado de estos observados en la esquila. Cualquier lana, como materia prima textil, tiene un uso industrial específico y sus defectos pueden limitar sensiblemente su utilidad o elevar sus costos para ponerla en condición para ser manufacturada. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar las características de calidad de la lana en ...

  7. Effect of replacing maize with pride of barbados ( Delonix regia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The five dietary treatments contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement levels of Delonix regia seed meal (DRSM) for maize in a completely randomized design experiment. The parameters investigated during the study were: feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed cost. At the end of the feeding trial, ...

  8. Mitrella albovittata [Gastropoda: Columbellidae]: range extension to Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitrella albovittata Lopes, Coelho & Cardoso, 1965, was originally described from Bahia, Salvador, Itapuã (type locality), Alagoas, Maceió and Rio de Janeiro, Cabo Frio. These three localities are all situated on the east coast of Brasil. Recently, it was found in a dredge sample collected near

  9. Preparados homeopÃticos no manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) e do percevejo barriga-verde Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) na cultura do milho (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiani Alano Modolon

    2013-01-01

    O sistema atual de produÃÃo de milho, proporcionam elevada produtividade ao mesmo tempo que favorece a surtos epidÃmicos pragas, como o percevejo Dichelops melacanthus e a lagarta Spodoptera frugiperda. EstratÃgias de controle convencionais tÃm sido ineficazes atà o momento. O presente estudo teve o objetivo avaliar o impacto de preparados homeopÃticos no desenvolvimento de S. frugiperda e D. melacanthus em plantas de milho. Para estudo do consumo da lagarta S. frugiperda sementes foram trata...

  10. Multibeam collection for AT21-02: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2012-06-01 to 2012-06-17, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. The Barbados Insulin Matters (BIM study: Barriers to insulin therapy among a population-based sample of people with type 2 diabetes in the Caribbean island of Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G. Taylor, Jr.

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Multiple factors related to patient beliefs and attitudes need to be considered and addressed when initiating insulin in order to minimise psychological insulin resistance and delay. Patients using insulin had less negative perceptions than those not on insulin.

  12. Multibeam collection for AT21-04: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2012-07-13 to 2012-07-29, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for MV1110: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2011-09-03 to 2011-10-08, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for KN197-08: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2010-05-22 to 2010-06-24, Bridgetown, Barbados to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Interpersonal violence in three Caribbean countries: Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago Violencia interpersonal en tres países del Caribe: Barbados, Jamaica y Trinidad y Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie Le Franc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This article reports the prevalence of two types of interpersonal violence (IPV (sexual and physical and one type of aggression (psychological in three low-to-middle-income Caribbean countries. It examines IPV among adolescents and young adults as both victims and perpetrators. METHODS: This population-based study compares the experiences of 15-30 year olds in countries at different levels of socioeconomic development. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2 and other behavioral instruments were used to assess the level and characteristics of IPV. RESULTS: Out of 3 401 respondents, 70.9% reported victimization by some form of violence, which was most commonly perpetrated by a relationship partner (62.8%. Sexual violence victimization was reported more commonly by women, and was highest in Jamaica. Significant between-country differences in overall levels of reported physical violence, and psychological aggression, were evident when stratifying by perpetrator type. CONCLUSIONS: The very high levels of reported IPV indicate very high levels of tolerance among victims, and suggest a culture of violence and of adversarial intimate relationships may be well entrenched. The findings support the view that co-occurrence of general interpersonal violence and partner violence may be limited, and that one may not necessarily be a predictor of the other. They also reveal that, among partners, not only are there no gender differentials in victimization by physical violence, but more women than men are self-reporting as perpetrators of this type of IPV.OBJETIVOS: Se informa la prevalencia de dos formas de violencia interpersonal (VIP -la sexual y la física- y de un tipo de agresión -la psicológica- en tres países del Caribe de bajo a mediano ingresos. Se analiza la VIP entre adolescentes y adultos jóvenes, ya sea como víctimas o agresores. MÉTODOS: En este estudio basado en la población se comparan las experiencias de personas de 15 a 30 años de países con diferentes niveles de desarrollo socioeconómico. Se utilizó la escala revisada de tácticas de conflicto (CTS2 y otros instrumentos de análisis conductual para evaluar el nivel y las características de la VIP. RESULTADOS: De las 3 401 personas que respondieron, 70,9% informó haber sido víctima de alguna forma de violencia, más frecuentemente ejercida por sus parejas (62,8%. Las mujeres informaron con mayor frecuencia haber sido víctimas de violencia sexual, y esta fue más frecuente en Jamaica. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los países en cuanto a la violencia física y la agresión psicológica, que se hicieron notables al estratificar por el tipo de agresor. CONCLUSIONES: Los muy elevados niveles informados de VIP indican un alto grado de tolerancia entre las víctimas e indican que se puede estar arraigando una cultura de violencia y de relaciones íntimas basadas en el enfrentamiento. Estos resultados confirman que la ocurrencia simultánea de la violencia interpersonal en general y la violencia de pareja puede ser limitada y que una forma no necesariamente es un factor de predicción de la otra. En las parejas no se observaron diferencias en la victimización según el género y más mujeres que hombres se declararon agresoras en esta forma de VIP.

  16. Copepoda (Siphonostomatoida) associated with Ophiuroidea in Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Barbados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humes, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Three new siphonostomatoid copepods are associated with Ophiuroidea in the tropical western Atlantic. Collocheres vervoorti spec. nov., from Ophiothrix angulata in Jamaica, has an elongate, gently tapered genital double-somite in the female and the second segment of leg 5 has a distal outer notch.

  17. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED IN BARBADOS CHERRY ‘BRS-366 JABURÚ’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Garcia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In foods, the flavor and aroma are very important attributes, thus the main objective of this study was to identify the volatile compounds (VC of the "BRS-366 Jaburú" acerola variety, for which we used the solid phase microextraction method (SPE. The separation and identification of volatile compounds was made using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Three fibers were evaluated, Polydimethylsiloxane / Divinylbenzene (PDMS / DVB, 65 micrometres Divinylbenzene / Carboxen / Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB / CAR / PDMS 50/30 m and polyacrylate (PA 85 uM to compare the extraction of its components. Thirty-three volatile compounds were identified and classified into eight chemical classes: carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, hydrocarbons, phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. The peak areas of each of the extracted compounds were expressed as percentages to indicate the relative concentration of each, of which ethyl acetate is distinguished by being responsible for the fruity aroma notes. Thus, the fiber PDMS / DVB was the best as it enabled to extract a greater amount of volatile compounds

  18. Barbados Oxygen Isotope Data (delta 18O) for the Late Pleistocene

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral-based delta18O time-series derived from measurements made on submerged or drowned coral reef sequence. The core samples used have been described elsewhere (cf....

  19. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compar...

  20. Comparación de dos tratamientos a base de progestágenos para la sincronización de celos ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Urete-Barrera; José Luis Porras-Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la respuesta a dos programas de sincronización de estros en 30 ovejas vacías. Materiales y métodos. Las ovejas fueron seleccionadas por ecografía y distribuidas al azar en tres grupos de 10 ovejas cada uno. Las ovejas de los grupos 1 y 2 recibieron el día 0 un implante auricular con 3 mg de Norgestomet junto con la inyección intramuscular de 1.5 mg de Norgestomet, 2.5 mg de Valerato de Estradiol y una esponja intravaginal con acetato de medroxiprogesterona respectivamente...

  1. Prevalence and correlates of serostatus disclosure in HIV-infected adults attending the follow up and treatment clinic in Barbados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Forde

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the extent of disclosure and factors associated with disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners, we interviewed HIV infected adults attending the centralized HIV clinics seeking medical care for HIV. Methods: The subjects were patients who attended the LRU for primary care and treatment of their HIV infection during the three months period of this study enrolment. Patients were asked to participate in this study after initial clinical care was performed, in a 30-minute standardized interview concerning behavioral, medical, and social history. Results: The study patients had the following characteristics: female, 42.7%; male, 57.3%; singles, 84.5%; married, 11.8%. The median age of respondents was 35 years, and 66.4% were employed. Seventy nine percent were sexually active, and of these 72% had a steady sex partner and 61% had one or more casual partners. Over all 64 (58.2% of those interviewed, had disclosed their HIV status to significant others. Of the sixty three persons who had a steady partner 71.4% had self disclosed their HIV status to one or more steady partners. Of the fifty three persons who had one or more casual partners, 26.4% had self-disclosed their status to one or more casual partners. The most common reasons listed for nondisclosure to spouse or significant other were stigma/discrimination, fear of spread of information, rejection. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that both the knowing and unknowing sexual partners of HIV-infected persons continue to be at risk for HIV transmission.

  2. Condom Use Following a Pilot Test of the Popular Opinion Leader Intervention in the Barbados Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    and if it exhibited effects on condom use in the BDF population. The POL intervention was originally designed to reduce sexual risk behavior in...increase condom use in the BDF. We adapted the POL intervention as an improvement to the peer educator model in the context of the BDF’s ongoing prevention...measuring respondent demographics, detailed questions regarding specific sexual behaviors and condom use, alcohol abuse, and psychoso- cial measurements

  3. ?Best care on home ground? versus ?elitist healthcare?: concerns and competing expectations for medical tourism development in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Rory; Adams, Krystyna; Bishop, Lisa; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many countries have demonstrated interest in expanding their medical tourism sectors because of its potential economic and health system benefits. However, medical tourism poses challenges to the equitable distribution of health resources between international and local patients and private and public medical facilities. Currently, very little is known about how medical tourism is perceived among front line workers and users of health systems in medical tourism ?destinations?. Ba...

  4. Entre ovejas, pastores y perros. Crónica de una intervención artística en clave ANT. Among sheeps, shepherds and dogs. Chronicle of an artistic intervention using an ANT approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carbajo Padilla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es aplicar y probar algunas de la herramientas teóricas desarrolladas por la Teoría del Actor Red sobre una intervención artística centrada en la Competición Internacional de Perros Pastores que se celebra anualmente en Oñati (Gipuzkoa. La primera parte, apoyándose en esta teoría describe los principales agentes que intervienen en el entramando que constituye la competición. La segunda se centra en la descripción y análisis de la intervención artística y algunos de los resultados que de ella se han producido. Por ultimo, se esbozan algunas ideas y críticas que suscitan tanto el análisis de la competición desde la Teoría del Actor Red como el cruce de esta con la práctica artística.

     

    The purpose of this article is to apply and to test some of the theoretical tools developed by Actor Network Theory within an artistic intervention centered on the International Competition of Sheepdogs annually celebrated in Oñati (Gipuzkoa. Based on this theory, the first section describes the principal agents who intervene in the fabric that constitutes the competition. The second section is focused on the description and analysis of the artistic intervention and some of its results. The last section includes some ideas and critiques emerging from the analysis of competition through the lens of Actor Network Theory and its overlaps with an artistic practice.

     

  5. Comportamiento productivo y características de la canal en corderos provenientes de la cruza de ovejas Katahdin con machos de cuatro razas cárnicas especializadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Tatiana Vázquez Soria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño productivo y las características de la canal en corderos procedentes de la cruza de borregas Katahdin (K con sementales Suffolk (S, Texel (T, Charollais (Ch y Dorper (D. Se emplearon 200 borregas que se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cuatro lotes de 50, las cuales fueron inseminadas por laparoscopía con semenfresco. Las crías se pesaron al nacimiento, destete y cada 30 días hasta la matanza. Todos los animales recibieron una dieta integral con 14 % de proteína cruda (PC y 2.9 Mcal EM/kg MS. A los 137±3 días de edad, se sacrificaron 10 corderos de cada tratamiento para valorar en la canal la morfométría, la clasificación, el rendimiento, el pH 24 h, el color en músculo y grasa perirrenal, así como el índice de compacidad de la canal y las dimensiones del músculo L. dorsi. Además, se determinó la composición tisular de la espaldilla. Los datos obtenidos se analizaron como un diseño completamente al azar. Los animales KCh lograron el mayor peso de matanza (46.61±8.50 kg a los 137 días de edad, seguidos por la cruza KD, KS y KT en orden descendente. No se presentaron diferencias (P>0.05 entre KCh, KD y KS en la clasificación, conformación, rendimiento, área del ojo de chuleta e índice de compacidad de la canal, pero todos ellos superaron (P<0.05 a KT en esas mismas variables. Las cruzas KD, KS y KT presentaron mayor porcentaje de músculo (64.72±1.77 % y menor cantidad de grasa (13.83±2.80 % en promedio (P<0.05 que KCh (61.07±2.60 y 18.10±3.30 %, respectivamente.

  6. RESILIENCIA Y CAMBIOS DEL SISTEMA PRODUCTIVO EN LA AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR DE LA NUEVA RURALIDAD EUROPEA: el caso del queso de oveja en la Sierra de Cádiz (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio López Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the strategies resulting in the production of family farming systems in response to imbalances generated by formal regulatory changes. The research methodology was based on ethnography, following techniques features interviews and participant observation fieldwork in social anthropology. This strategy essentially qualitative, allowed us to analyze the consequences of transitions households own products and traditional farming systems, the economics of quality that characterizes the New European Rurality has had a special development in Spain for the strong implementation European Initiatives LEADER I, II and + from 1991. To this end, and based on a complex and systemic perspective, we study different production systems of farming families Cheesecake Sierra de Cádiz, this perspective to analyze the changes that led to generate two different but complementary models: the artisanal and industrial. Our work demonstrates the resilience of family economies of traditional cheesemakers producers, who continue to coexist with new industrial producers in the competitive market for quality food products. The persistence of some and the appearance of others, demonstrates the resilience of rural economies to the new challenges of globalization and the complexity of the new rurality.

  7. Trier : Put k "Manderlai" / Jacob Nillindam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nillindam, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Lars von Trier alustab oma ameerika triloogia teise filmiga "Manderlay", mis on film orjusest, seekord Grace'i rollis Bryce Dallas Howard. Lisatud katkend intervjuust prantsuse näitleja Jean-Marc Barr'iga

  8. Multibeam collection for EW9803: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1998-03-15 to 1998-04-06, Bridgetown, Barbados to Norfolk, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for EW9404: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1994-04-09 to 1994-04-14, Bridgetown, Barbados to Cristobal, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for EW9304: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1993-08-01 to 1993-08-09, Woods Hole, MA to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for EW9802: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1998-02-15 to 1998-03-12, Honolulu, HI to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for EW9206: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-05-27 to 1992-05-31, Cristobal, Panama to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for EW0309: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-10-22 to 2003-11-09, Bridgetown, Barbados to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for EW9902: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1999-02-28 to 1999-03-05, Bridgetown, Barbados to Cristobal, Panama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Multibeam collection for RB0703: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald H. Brown from 2007-05-02 to 2007-05-29, Bridgetown, Barbados to Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  16. Multibeam collection for AT07L32: Multibeam data collected aboard Atlantis from 2003-03-25 to 2003-04-14, Freeport, Bahamas to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  17. Multibeam collection for EW9901: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1999-01-30 to 1999-02-24, Norfolk, VA to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  18. Multibeam collection for EW9210: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-09-29 to 1992-11-09, Bridgetown, Barbados to St. George's, Bermuda

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  19. Changing the game or dropping the ball? : sport as a human capability development for at risk youth in Barbados and St. Lucia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Schmidt Zipp (Sarah)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe field of sport for development and peace (SDP) has flourished in recent decades, with development programmes around the world using sport as a mechanism to support social, economic and health-related development efforts. However, the academic literature on SDP is limited in

  20. Land cover and forest formation distributions for St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Grenada and Barbados from decision tree classification of cloud-cleared satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E.H.; Kennaway, T.A.; Pedreros, D.H.; Clark, M.L.; Marcano-Vega, H.; Tieszen, L.L.; Ruzycki, T.R.; Schill, S.R.; Carrington, C.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite image-based mapping of tropical forests is vital to conservation planning. Standard methods for automated image classification, however, limit classification detail in complex tropical landscapes. In this study, we test an approach to Landsat image interpretation on four islands of the Lesser Antilles, including Grenada and St. Kitts, Nevis and St. Eustatius, testing a more detailed classification than earlier work in the latter three islands. Secondly, we estimate the extents of land cover and protected forest by formation for five islands and ask how land cover has changed over the second half of the 20th century. The image interpretation approach combines image mosaics and ancillary geographic data, classifying the resulting set of raster data with decision tree software. Cloud-free image mosaics for one or two seasons were created by applying regression tree normalization to scene dates that could fill cloudy areas in a base scene. Such mosaics are also known as cloud-filled, cloud-minimized or cloud-cleared imagery, mosaics, or composites. The approach accurately distinguished several classes that more standard methods would confuse; the seamless mosaics aided reference data collection; and the multiseason imagery allowed us to separate drought deciduous forests and woodlands from semi-deciduous ones. Cultivated land areas declined 60 to 100 percent from about 1945 to 2000 on several islands. Meanwhile, forest cover has increased 50 to 950%. This trend will likely continue where sugar cane cultivation has dominated. Like the island of Puerto Rico, most higher-elevation forest formations are protected in formal or informal reserves. Also similarly, lowland forests, which are drier forest types on these islands, are not well represented in reserves. Former cultivated lands in lowland areas could provide lands for new reserves of drier forest types. The land-use history of these islands may provide insight for planners in countries currently considering lowland forest clearing for agriculture. Copyright 2008 College of Arts and Sciences.

  1. Multibeam collection for KN210-04: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2013-03-25 to 2013-05-09, Montevideo, Uruguay to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for KN145L18: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 1996-05-20 to 1996-06-19, Montevideo, Uruguay to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for KN161L04: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2000-02-23 to 2000-03-19, Barbados to Ponta Delgada, Azores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for EW0308: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 2003-10-02 to 2003-10-18, Bergen, Norway to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for KN210-05: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2013-05-14 to 2013-06-19, Bridgetown, Barbados to Woods Hole, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. “Best Care on Home Ground” Versus “Elitist Healthcare”: Concerns and Competing Expectations for Medical Tourism Development in Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Rory; Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many countries have demonstrated interest in expanding their medical tourism sectors because of its potential economic and health system benefits. However, medical tourism poses challenges to the equitable distribution of health resources between international and local patients and private and public medical facilities. Currently, very little is known about how medical tourism is perceived among front line workers and users of health systems in medical tourism ‘destinations’....

  7. Multibeam collection for EW9305: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1993-08-11 to 1993-09-07, Bridgetown, Barbados to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Multibeam collection for RB0601: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald H. Brown from 2006-02-15 to 2006-03-05, Charleston, SC to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  9. Multibeam collection for MV1111: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2011-10-10 to 2011-10-31, Bridgetown, Barbados to Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  10. Multibeam collection for KN189-01: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2007-04-15 to 2007-04-22, Woods Hole, MA to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for KN189-03: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2007-05-28 to 2007-06-11, Bridgetown, Barbados to Reykjavik, Iceland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for KN162L19: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2001-06-25 to 2001-07-22, Las Palmas, Spain to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Multibeam collection for KN197-04: Multibeam data collected aboard Knorr from 2010-02-19 to 2010-03-12, Bridgetown, Barbados to Fortaleza, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  14. Multibeam collection for MV1109: Multibeam data collected aboard Melville from 2011-08-24 to 2011-08-30, Balboa, Panama to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  15. Causes of visual loss and their risk factors: an incidence summary from the Barbados Eye Studies Causas de la pérdida visual y sus factores de riesgo: resumen de la incidencia a partir de los Estudios de Oftalmología de Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Leske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To summarize incidence and risk factors for each main cause of visual loss in an African-Caribbean population and discuss the implications of these data from a public health perspective. METHODS: A nationally representative cohort (n = 4 709; ages 40-84 years at baseline had ophthalmic and other examinations over 9 years. Incidence rates were estimated by the product-limit approach. Risk factors were evaluated from Cox regression models. RESULTS: Average incidence was ~ 0.1% per year for blindness (OBJETIVO: Presentar un resumen de la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de cada causa principal de pérdida de la visión en una población afrocaribeña y examinar las implicaciones de estos datos desde una perspectiva de salud pública. MÉTODOS: En una cohorte representativa al nivel nacional (n = 4 709; edades de 40 a 84 años al inicio se hicieron exploraciones oftálmicas y de otros tipos durante nueve años. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia mediante el método del producto-límite. Los factores de riesgo se evaluaron mediante modelos de regresión de Cox. RESULTADOS: La incidencia promedio fue ~ 0,1% al año para la ceguera (< 6/120 y de 0,7% al año para la visión deficiente (< 6/18 a 6/120, que aumentó de manera pronunciada con la edad (P < 0,05 y afectó a la calidad de vida relacionada (P < 0,05. Las cataratas y el glaucoma de ángulo abierto relacionados con la edad representaron 73,2% de los casos de ceguera, y 8,9% de los casos de retinopatía diabética; las cataratas causaron dos tercios de los casos de visión deficiente. La incidencia media fue de 5,1% al año en todos los cambios del cristalino (opacidades graduables o no graduables o afaquia, y de 0,4% al año en la cirugía de cataratas. La incidencia del glaucoma de ángulo abierto definitivo fue de 0,5% al año (0,9% en el caso de la sospecha o la probabilidad; 53% de los pacientes afectados no era conciente. Las personas que padecían diabetes tenían una incidencia de retinopatía diabética de 4,4% al año. La degeneración macular relacionada con la edad fue muy infrecuente (0,08% al año. Los principales factores de riesgo de las cataratas fueron la edad y la diabetes. La incidencia de glaucoma de ángulo abierto aumentó con la edad, la presión intraocular, los antecedentes familiares, las presiones bajas de perfusión ocular y el grosor más fino de la córnea. El riesgo de retinopatía diabética aumentó con la diabetes de inicio temprano, la duración de la diabetes, el tratamiento con antidiabéticos orales o insulina, el aumento de la presión sistólica o diastólica, y la hiperglucemia. El tratamiento hipotensor redujo el riesgo de retinopatía diabética a la mitad. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de trastornos visuales fue alta y afectó de manera significativa a la calidad de vida. Las cataratas relacionadas con la edad y el glaucoma de ángulo abierto causaron aproximadamente 75% de los casos de ceguera, lo que indica la necesidad de adoptar medidas de salud pública destinadas a aumentar la cirugía de cataratas adecuada y la detección y el tratamiento tempranos del glaucoma de ángulo abierto. El control de la diabetes y la hipertensión ayudaría a prevenir complicaciones relacionadas con la retinopatía diabética y podría reducir el riesgo de cataratas, lo que disminuirá aún más la pérdida de la visión.

  16. Peri-Conceptional undernutrition in twin bearing ewes: Eect on early fetal growth and birth weight / Desnutrición peri-concepcional en ovejas con gestación gemelar: Efecto sobre el crecimiento fetal temprano y peso al nacimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vicente Pérez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 48 Katahdin x Pelibuey multiparous ewes were used to evaluate the eect of nutritional restriction (40 % before (30 d, RT, after (50 d, TR or both periods (80 d, RR compared with a control group on maternal body status, early fetal growth and lamb birth weights. Only twin bearing ewes were selected at d 50 of pregnancy for fetal measurements by ultrasonography and record of birth weight. Compared with control ewes, lower (p < 0.05 weight and body condition score had RT and RR ewes at mating time, likewise, TR and RR ewes at d 50 post-conception. There were mainly dierences between fetuses from control and RT ewes, being higher (p < 0.05 the vesicular, abdominal and fetal area, as well as crown-rump length and birth weight for RT fetuses. In conclusion, preconception undernutrition positively altered the early fetal growth and lamb birth weights in hair ewes pregnant with twins

  17. Problematica del mal de las vacas locas y consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Boj, Olga

    2003-01-01

    El presente trabajo se basa en el estudio sobre una enfermedad que causa una especie de locura en los bovinos denominada encefalitis espongiforme bovina, (EEB) y que también puede afectar al hombre con el nombre de Creutzfeldt-Jakob. La EEB (enfermedad espongiforme bovina) esta vinculada con el scrapie una enfermedad también prionica que se conoce desde hace 250 años y que afecta a las ovejas. Todo comenzó 1883 cuando una vaca tenia los mismos signos clínicos que las ovejas, per...

  18. Secuencias repetidas en el genoma de Echinococcus granulosus : Su utilización para la detección del parásito y estudios de variabilidad genética

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzvit, Mara Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    Para determinar las cepas del parásito existentes en nuestro país, se analizaron quistes hidatidicos provenientes de distintos huéspedes intermediarios y zonas geográficas, mediante el estudio de polimorfismo de longitud de fragmentos de restricción de un gen nuclear y la secuenciación de dos genes mitocondriales. Se detectó la presencia de cuatro cepas: oveja, oveja de Tasmania, camello y cerdo, determinándose además que las tres primeras pueden infectar al hombre. Se realizaron experimentos...

  19. Automated Battle Planning for Combat Models with Maneuver and Fire Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    risk. Black squares block line of sight. Red squares are targetable by both red threats, and tan squares are targetable by only one. The damage... Nicolas Barriga, and Michael Buro. 2015. “Using Lanchester Attrition Laws for Combat Prediction in StarCraft.” In Proceedings of the Eleventh AAAI

  20. Geological map of Uruguay Esc 1,100,000. Piraraja Sheet F-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the geological map of Uruguay Esc.1.100.000 (Piraraja) and the explanatory memoranda which describes the geological , lithological and sedimentological characteristics soils belong to Cenozoic, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Precambrian period.The Pirafja fotoplano is located in Lavalleja and geomorphologically is constituted by the Lavalleja group, the Atlantic socket, Piraraja granite and the Barriga Negra group

  1. Multibeam collection for EW9208: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-07-14 to 1992-08-18, St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands to Bridgetown, Barbados

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for EW9207: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1992-06-06 to 1992-07-06, Bridgetown, Barbados to St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Land cover and forest formation distributions for St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Grenada and Barbados from decision tree classification of cloud-cleared satellite imagery. Caribbean Journal of Science. 44(2):175-198.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.H. Helmer; T.A. Kennaway; D.H. Pedreros; M.L. Clark; H. Marcano-Vega; L.L. Tieszen; S.R. Schill; C.M.S. Carrington

    2008-01-01

    Satellite image-based mapping of tropical forests is vital to conservation planning. Standard methods for automated image classification, however, limit classification detail in complex tropical landscapes. In this study, we test an approach to Landsat image interpretation on four islands of the Lesser Antilles, including Grenada and St. Kitts, Nevis and St. Eustatius...

  4. Exploring the role of the public and private funded primary health care facilities for children in a pluralistic health care setting of Barbados: one of the English Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the complimentary role of the public and the private sector in the primary health care of children in this country. While the private sector has a major role in the curative acute care of children, the public sector plays a pivotal role in the immunization services.

  5. 19 CFR 4.22 - Exemptions from special tonnage taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Bulgaria Burma Canada Chile Colombia... Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay People's Republic of China Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar...

  6. Gestualidad y vacilación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jursich Durán

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Entre el silencio de un pensamiento... Bernardo Camacho. Editorial Oveja Negra, Bogotá, 1986,69 páginas. Lluvia de vientos. Jaime León Castaño. Editorial La Tecla, Bogotá, 1986, 83 páginas

  7. Encefalopatías Subagudas Espongiformes Transmisibles (ESET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Toro González

    2006-12-01

    Como está aceptado que el scrapie ha sido el punto de partida en la cadena de transmisión de lasmás impactantes ESET al comprobarse la transmisión oveja- bovino humano, es comprensible que siga vigente el interés por enriquecer el conocimiento sobre elverdadero origen y patogenia del prúrigo lumbar (4...

  8. Agricultural diversification strategies in small island states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, I.; Gayle, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Across the small island states of the Caribbean, the need for greater agricultural diversification is a constant policy concern, as exemplified by the case of Barbados. Although the cane sugar industry in Barbados remains one of the more cost-efficient in the world, the structures of both the

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madusha, A O. Vol 14, No 1 (2005) - Articles Some Anti-Nutritional and Mineral Contents of Extra-Cotyledonous Deposit of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina Pulcherrima) Abstract · Vol 13, No 2 (2004) - Articles Cyanide Content of Parts of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherima) Grown in Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1116- ...

  10. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Oralia Ortiz Varela; Efrén Viramontes Anaya; Alma Delia Campos Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998), in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006), with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in pres...

  11. Doença celíaca associada à tireoidite de Hashimoto e síndrome de Noonan

    OpenAIRE

    Perez,Mariana Ortega; Ciambelli,Giuliano Serafino; Nigri,Alcinda Aranha; Vieira,Marta Wey; Costa,Clóvis Duarte

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso clínico de uma criança portadora de doença celíaca, tireoidite de Hashimoto e síndrome de Noonan. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: Menina de dez anos e seis meses, branca, apresentando história de diarreia líquida há cinco meses e "aumento da barriga". Ao exame, mostrava peso de 20.580g (p

  12. Celiac disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Noonan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Mariana Ortega; Ciambelli, Giuliano Serafino; Nigri, Alcinda Aranha; Vieira, Marta Wey; Costa, Clóvis Duarte

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso clínico de uma criança portadora de doença celíaca, tireoidite de Hashimoto e síndrome de Noonan. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: Menina de dez anos e seis meses, branca, apresentando história de diarreia líquida há cinco meses e "aumento da barriga". Ao exame, mostrava peso de 20.580g (p

  13. Berimbau: A simple instrument for teaching basic concepts in the physics and psychoacoustics of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilão, Rui C.; Melo, Santino L. S.

    2014-12-01

    We address the production of musical tones by a simple musical instrument of the Brazilian tradition: the berimbau-de-barriga. The vibration physics of the string and of the air mass inside the gourd are reviewed. Straightforward measurements of an actual berimbau, which illustrate the basic physical phenomena, are performed using a PC-based "soundcard oscilloscope." The inharmonicity of the string and the role of the gourd are discussed in the context of known results in the psychoacoustics of pitch definition.

  14. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar, C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat’s milk, 11 from cow’s milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow’s milk and 2 from a mixture of sheep and cow’s milk. Compared to the cow and goat cheese (3.4 and 2.5 g·100g−1, the sheep cheese (3.8 g·100g−1 contained higher contents of C18:1t. The saturated and polyunsatured FA contents were greater in goat cheese than in sheep and cow cheese. The n6/n3 ratio was greater in goat (6.1 cheese than in sheep and cow cheese (3.8 and 5.2. The atherogenicity index was unaffected by cheese type, however, the thrombogenic index was lower in sheep cheese (2.8 than in goat and cow cheese (3.1 and 2.9. The n6/n3 ratio and thrombogenic index were lower in Chilean sheep cheese than in those imported from Europe. The fatty acid profile of cheese can be used to differentiate animal species from which the cheese is made and to some extent the geographical origin that may give some insight as to animal feed and production management.Este estudio fue llevado a cabo para caracterizar el perfil de AG de quesos de oveja que se comercializan en Chile. Cincuenta y ocho quesos fueron recogidos de supermercados de 5 ciudades de Chile de los cuales 34 fueron de oveja, 7 de cabra, 11 de vaca, 4 de mezcla de leche de oveja, cabra y vaca y 2 de mezcla de leche de oveja y vaca. Comparado con quesos de vaca y cabra (3.4 y 2.5 g·100g−1, los quesos de oveja (3.8 g·100g−1 presentaron mayor contenido de C18:1t. Los AG saturados y poliinsaturados tuvieron concentraciones más altas en los quesos de cabra que en los quesos de oveja y vaca. La relación n6/n3 fue más alta en quesos de cabra (6.1 que en quesos de oveja y vaca (3.8 y 5.2. El índice aterogénico no fue afectado por el tipo de queso, sin embargo, el índice trombogénico fue

  15. Fishery Co-Management: A Practical Handbook

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Collaborative Surveys and Analysis in the Sea Egg Fishery of Barbados. ..... While it is useful to have representation of all stakeholders, a line must be drawn or the ...... Plan and prepare handouts and material to be distributed and presented.

  16. African Journals Online: Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ... Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize ... reviews, case reports, research methods papers, short communications, along ... research work, interesting case reports, etc. among medical professionals.

  17. "В кассу" ли новички на рынке инкассо-фирм? / Ярослав Тавгень

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Тавгень, Ярослав

    2010-01-01

    Majanduskriisi ajal Eesti turule tekkinud inkassofirmad ei ole kuigi edukad. Julianus Inkasso ja Intrum juhtide kommentaare. Ettevõtete Barbados Inkasso, Balt Inkasso, Inkasso Partner, IDR-Inkasso, Interimo Inkasso ja Kiir Inkasso tegevusest

  18. 78 FR 41972 - Determination Under Section 107(a) of the William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ...-457) and Delegation of Waiver Authority Pursuant to Section 107(a) of Public Law 110-457, I hereby..., Barbados, Belarus, Burundi, Chad, Comoros, The Gambia, Liberia, Malaysia, Maldives, and Thailand. This...

  19. 1 A Comparison of the ANFIS Model with SARIMA for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-05

    Mar 5, 2015 ... namely seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA) and Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy. Inference System (ANFIS) ... Dharmaratne (1995) applied the ARIMA model to forecast tourist arrivals in Barbados. ..... type of climate. It is observed that ...

  20. OAS :: Coordinating Office for the Offices of the General Secretariat in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Bolivia Brasil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica * Belize * Bolivia * Brasil * Canada * Chile * Colombia * Costa Rica * Cuba * Dominica (Commonwealth of

  1. : tous les projets | Page 403 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: LABOUR MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, RETURN MIGRATION, TOURISM, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, Economic and social development. Région: Canada, North and Central America, Europe, United Kingdom, United States, South America, West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  2. : tous les projets | Page 404 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: LABOUR MIGRATION, BRAIN DRAIN, RETURN MIGRATION, TOURISM, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, Economic and social development. Région: Canada, North and Central America, Europe, United Kingdom, United States, South America, West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados. Programme: Emploi et croissance.

  3. 77 FR 2558 - Identification of Foreign Countries Whose Nationals Are Eligible To Participate in the H-2A and H...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-immigrant worker programs: Argentina Australia Barbados Belize Brazil Bulgaria Canada Chile Costa Rica... change of status from another non-immigrant status to H-2 status, or a change of status from H-2A to H-2B...

  4. Relevance of Riverine Capability for Today’s Portuguese Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Crespo, 537-550. 21 Cann, Brown Waters ofAfrica, 46. 22 Jose Alberto Lopes Carvalheira, "Acyao da Marinha em Aguas Interiores (1961-1971)" [Naval...Lopes Carvalheira, Jose Alberto. "Acyao da Marinha em Aguas Interiores (1961-1971)." [Naval Operations in Inland Waters (1961-1971)]. In the...Americas Country Antigua and Barbados Argentina Aruba Barbados Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Equator Grenada

  5. READING COMPREHENSION. NOTION OF READING AND USE OF MACRORREGLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Montes-Salas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

  6. Sistemas de producción caprina y ovina en la subregión Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Timaure-Jiménez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar los sistemas de producción caprina y ovina de la Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo, se aplicó una metodología de investigación de acción participativa en las comunidades agrícolas del Municipio Simón Bolívar. Se consultaron líderes de la zona, al Equipo Zuliano de Criadores de Cabras y Ovejas, se aplicó un instrumento a 60 productores. La subregión COLM es zona petrolera, sin embargo, persiste la actividad agropecuaria arraigada en forma tradicional. En el Municipio Miranda existe una población de 16.137 caprinos y 7.526 ovejas, en Quisiro se analizaron 30 productores con 2.250 hectáreas, además de 1.300 caprinos y 675 ovinos. En Los Cilantrillos y La Esperanza se estudiaron 30 productores con 320 hectáreas, 375 caprinos y 430 ovejas, ocupando el 1 % del total regional, lo cual es importante por la persistencia e interés de los productores a pesar de las dificultades derivadas de la explotación petrolera. El grupo familiar se muestra participativo en el manejo de rebaños, el 88,3 % de los productores utiliza el pastoreo extensivo, hay tradición familiar, conocimiento de manejo de rebaños que pasa por cada generación, el 56,7 % están inscritos en la Misión Agro-Venezuela, las razas de cabra son principalmente nubian, alpina, criolla, en cuanto a ovejas, persa, mestiza o criolla, los productores trabajan más de 10 horas diarias los 7 días de la semana, el 56,7 % producen queso de cabra a puerta de finca para los mercados locales. Se recomienda continuar con los estudios y análisis participativos para el mejoramiento integral de este sistema productivo.

  7. Estudio del ahorro de energía térmica en una línea de lavado de lana y pelo de alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Reynoso Paredes, Edgar Benjamin; Reynoso Paredes, Edgar Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    El Proyecto se realiza en la Planta de Lavado de la Empresa Michell & Cía. S.A., en la ciudad de Arequipa. En esta planta se realiza el segundo paso del proceso productivo, que es el lavado de la materia prima, la lana de oveja y el pelo de alpaca. Este proceso productivo es muy importante porque se elimina todas las impurezas del material, como son la grasa, polvo mineral, paja, trozos, suciedad, marcado, etc. El objetivo del Proyecto, es un estudio para el ahorco de Energía en el proceso...

  8. Clonación animal: avances y perspectivas.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Chuaire; Magda Carolina Sánchez; María Liliana Franco

    2009-01-01

    Pocos avances han revolucionado tanto la biología del desarrollo como la clonación animal. A partir del nacimiento de la oveja Dolly en 1996, primer clon derivado de un animal adulto, se inició una nueva era científica caracterizada por una creciente desmitificación de las células diferenciadas como entes inmutables en su organización nuclear y estructura cromatínica, y por una mejor comprensión de los mecanismos que regulan el desarrollo. Este trabajo revisará algunos de los logros y de las ...

  9. Entre el irse y el volver. Reconfiguración en las prácticas espaciales de campesinos retornados en Los Montes de María : Caso Vereda Villa Colombia y Borracheras, Departamento de Sucre, Colombia (2004-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina Florido, Byron Giovanny

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo aborda, desde el estudio de caso, los procesos de retorno campesino en la subregión de Los Montes de María. Estos procesos fueron estudiados a partir de la identificación y análisis de las reconfiguraciones en las prácticas espaciales de dos comunidades campesinas que después tres y cuatro años de desplazamiento forzado, deciden en el 2004 y de manera colectiva retornar a sus veredas de origen, a saber: VillaColombia y Borracheras en el municipio de Ovejas, departamento de...

  10. Phylogeographic and population genetic structure of bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) in North American deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalski, Michael R; Sacks, Benjamin N; Gille, Daphne A; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T; Ernest, Holly B; Morrison, Scott A; Boyce, Walter M

    2016-06-09

    de las ovejas del desierto ( Ovis canadensis subespecies) contemporáneas son ambiguos. Para dilucidar esta incertidumbre, llevamos a cabo análisis filogeográficos y de genética de poblaciones entre cinco subespecies de ovejas del suroccidente de Norteamérica. Analizamos 515 pb de secuencia de la región control del ADN mitocondrial y 39 microsatélites en 804 ovejas de 58 localidades. Los análisis filogenéticos revelaron 2 clados altamente divergentes concordantes con ovejas de la Sierra Nevada ( O. c. sierrae ) y de las Montañas Rocosas ( O. c. canadensis ), y demostraron que estas dos subespecies divergieron antes o durante la glaciación de Illinois (315,000-94,000 años). Las ovejas del desierto formaron varios haplogrupos recientemente derivados concordantes con las subespecies de Nelson ( O. c. nelsoni ), México ( O. c. mexicana ) y peninsular ( O. c. cremnobates ). Las estimaciones correspondientes al tiempo de separación efectiva (17,000-3,000 años) y edades de haplogrupos (85,000-72,000 años) son los plazos más probables para las divergencias entre subespecies de ovejas del desierto dentro de la última glaciación máxima. Análisis de redes de haplotipos de unión de medias y análisis bayesianos de líneas de horizonte indicaron que las ovejas del desierto formaron una población históricamente grande y diversa en términos de haplotipos, que luego perdieron gran parte de su diversidad a través de un descenso demográfico. Utilizando datos de microsatélites los análisis DAPC y TESS indicaron agrupamiento genético concordante con la distribución geográfica actual de las tres subespecies. Asimismo, comparaciones de F ST con datos de microsatélites y mitocondriales revelaron índices de fijación significativos entre los grupos genéticos de ovejas del desierto. Concluimos que estas subespecies de ovejas del desierto representan linajes antiguos que probablemente descienden de poblaciones de distintos refugios del Pleistoceno, y que por

  11. El abono mixto y la enmienda calcárea

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía, Pedro Nel

    2013-01-01

    De gran importancia he encontrado tratar sobre este tema que de suyo dará a conocer a grandes rasgos la fuente de riqueza que existe en la "Granja de Termales", en donde el Ministerio de la Economía Nacional posee en la actualidad ochocientos ejemplares ovinos (800). entre machos y hembras, correspondientes a las razas "Merino puro" y los cruces de Merino con la oveja criolla de Boyacá y Marulanda. La fuente de riqueza a que me refiero, es aquella del abono proporcionado por estos anima...

  12. COMPARACIÓN DE MANEJOS PRATENSES DEL CENTRO-SUR DE CHILE UTILIZANDO VALORES BIOINDICADORES DE ELLENBERG

    OpenAIRE

    San Martín, Cristina; Villagra, Johana; Novoa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Se compararon dos manejos pratenses: pastoreo con vacunos y pastoreo con ovejas, en un suelo volcánico, del centro-sur de Chile, con los valores bioindicadores de Ellenberg establecidos para malezas europeas, que forman esas praderas. Se comprobó que el pastoreo con ovinos degrada el suelo y la cubierta vegetal mucho más que el pastoreo con bovinos, lo que se corresponde con las diferencias vegetacionales y edáficas establecidas por un estudio anterior mediante análisis edáficos y fitosocioló...

  13. Efecto de los aceites y semillas en dietas para rumiantes sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos de la leche. Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés L. Martínez Marín; Manuel Pérez Hernández; Luis M. Pérez Alba; Domingo Carrión Pardo; Gustavo Gómez Castro; Ana I. Garzón Sígler

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una revisión del efecto de la adición de aceites y semillas ricos en ácidos grasos insaturados, a la dieta de las hembras rumiantes, sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos de la grasa láctea. Cuando se incluyen aceites y semillas en la dieta, los cambios del perfil de ácidos grasos de la leche ocurren en el mismo sentido en vacas, ovejas y cabras. Algunos de los efectos observados son comunes a todos los aceites y semillas con independencia del ácido graso mayoritario que a...

  14. Hidatidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezudo Cabrera, Maria José

    2016-01-01

    La hidatidosis o equinococosis quística (EQ) es una zoonosis parasitaria causada por el estado larvario del cestodo Echinococcus granulosus (familia Taeniidae). Su ciclo vital incluye perros, ovejas y otros animales, siendo el perro su principal hospedador definitivo, que en su mayoría, proporciona la transmisión de la infección a los seres humanos. La enfermedad tiene distribución mundial, con mayor prevalencia en zonas templadas incluyendo los países del área mediterránea de Europa, norte y...

  15. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course, respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood’s environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  16. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the Census of Marine Life decade and beyond: A proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    German, C.R.; Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Baker, M.C.; Tyler, P.A.; Baco-Taylor, A.; Boetius, A.; Bright, M.; de Siqueira, L.C.; Cordes, E.E.; Desbruyeres, D.; Dubilier, N.; Fisher, C.R.; Fujiwara, Y.; Gaill, F.; Gebruk, A.; Juniper, K.; Levin, L.A.; Lokabharathi, P.A.; Metaxas, A.; Rowden, A.A.; Santos, R.S.; Shank, T.M.; Smith, C.R.; Van Dover, C.L.; Young, C.M.; Waren, A.

    West Africa, encompassing a very large region around the Equator, from 15uS to 30uN. The key sites include the Costa Rica cold seeps, the Gulf of Mexico cold seeps, the ultra-slow spreading Mid Cayman Rise, the Barbados Accretionary Prism, hydrothermal... and those present in the Americas – along the Atlantic margin, the Barbados Accretionary Prism, the Gulf of Mexico and, in the extreme, along the Pacific margin of Costa Rica which would also have Census Chemosynthetic Ecosystem Research & Beyond PLoS ONE...

  17. Caracterização físico-química de filmes comestíveis de amido adicionado de acerola (Malphigia emarginata D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Guimarães Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Edibles films are an alternative to synthetic materials used for packing food products. Barbados cherry is rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. The aim of this study was to characterize and develop films by casting from cassava starch, lyophilized Barbados cherry pulp and glycerol. The films were characterized with respect to thickness, water vapor permeability (WVP, water solubility, vitamin C, carotene and mechanical properties. The interaction of pulp and glycerol reduced film thickness. An increase in pulp concentration up to 60% increased WVP but beyond this concentration reduced both WVP and solubility leading to an increased level of vitamin C and β carotene in the films.

  18. UTILIZACIÓN DE OXITETRACICLINA E HIDROCORTISONA PARA EVITAR ADHERENCIAS EN DISPOSITIVOS INTRAVAGINALES EN OVINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. SOSA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Los dispositivos intravaginales son utilizados para la inducción y sincronización de celos. Los mismos pueden producir adherencia en las paredes de la vagina. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue probar la efi ciencia de la aplicación de antibióticos y corticoide conjuntamente con los dispositivos para evitar adherencias. La experiencia se realizó con 45 ovejas distribuidas en tres grupos: GC dispositivo sin tratamiento, T1 dispositivo más tetraciclina y T2 dispositivo más tetraciclina y corticoide. Siguiendo el protocolo se procedió al retiro de los mismos a los 12 días. Se realizó un test χ2 para evaluar la efectividad del tratamiento. Las ovejas del T2 no presentaron adherencias. En cambio, se observaron distintos grados de adherencias: en el T1 (53 % y en el GC (46 %. Se puede inferir que la utilización de Tetracicilina más hidrocortisona es efi ciente para evitar la vaginitis y por ende la adherencia de los dispositivos y pérdida por disminución de preñeces posteriores al retiro de los dispositivos.

  19. Phospholipid classes and fatty acid composition of ewe’s and goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zancada, L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The content, distribution of individual species, and the fatty acid composition of phospholipids (PL from ewe’s and goat’s milk were analyzed. The binding of enterotoxigenic and uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains to PL and the inhibition of bacterial hemagglutination by PL were addressed using high performance thin-layer chromatography-overlay assays and microtiter plates, respectively. Ovine and caprine milk contained more PL than bovine milk but less than human milk. The profile of individual PL was similar, including sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol in both ovine and caprine milk. Regarding the fatty acid composition, a high content of long-chain fatty acids (more than C16 and unsaturated fatty acids, with C18:1 as the most abundant was found in ovine and caprine milk PL. Ovine milk has longer and less saturated fatty acids while caprine milk has shorter and more saturated ones. Neither the adhesion of any bacterial strains assayed to the individual PL from ovine or caprine milk nor the inhibition of bacterial hemagglutination by PL were observed. These are important constituents of the milk fat globule membrane, but it seems that they do not play a role in the defence of new-borns against bacteria if the results obtained are taken into account.Se ha analizado el contenido, distribución de las especies individuales y la composición en ácidos grasos de los fosfolípidos (FL de la leche de oveja y de cabra. Se ha estudiado también la unión de cepas enterotoxigénicas y uropatogénicas de Escherichia coli a estos compuestos y el efecto de los FL sobre la hemaglutinación provocada por estas bacterias mediante inmunodetección en placa y ensayos en placas multipocillo, respectivamente. La leche de oveja y de cabra contiene más FL que la de vaca, pero menos que la leche humana. El perfil de FL individuales es similar en la leche de oveja y de cabra e incluye

  20. [Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of sections entitled resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os, Mg self-diffusion in spinel and silicate melts, neotectonics: U-Th ages of solitary corals from the California coast, uranium-series evidence on diagenesis and hydrology of carbonates of Barbados, diffusion of H 2 O molecules in silicate glasses, and development of an extremely high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

  1. Defense Management: U.S. Southern Command Demonstrates Interagency Collaboration, but Its Haiti Disaster Response Revealed Challenges Conducting a Large Military Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile , Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica...19The international liaisons at SOUTHCOM include representatives from eight countries— Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile ...Nongovernmental Participants Agua Viva Alliance for Rabies Control FACE Food for the Poor Haiti Resource Development Foundation Hugs Across America

  2. Analyses of Some Studies on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Family Planning in Several Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, New York, NY.

    Research dealing with population and family planning in specific Latin American countries is summarized in this collection of demographic studies. Countries for which information is provided include Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. Each country…

  3. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism dependent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyarra, M.C.; Cote, I.M. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; Gill, J.A. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tinch, R.T. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viner, D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climate Research Unit; Watkinson, A.R. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-03-15

    Climate change may affect important environmental components of holiday destinations, which might have repercussions for tourism-dependent economies. This study documents the importance of environmental attributes in determining the choice and holiday enjoyment of tourists visiting Bonaire and Barbados, two Caribbean islands with markedly different tourism markets and infrastructure. Three hundred and sixteen and 338 participants from Bonaire and Barbados, respectively, completed standardized questionnaires. Warm temperatures, clear waters and low health risks were the most important environmental features determining holiday destination choice. However, tourists in Bonaire thereafter prioritized marine wildlife attributes (i.e. coral and fish diversity and abundance) over other environmental features, whereas tourists in Barbados exhibited stronger preferences for terrestrial features, particularly beach characteristics. The willingness of tourists to revisit these islands was strongly linked to the state of the preferred environmental attributes. More than 80% of tourists in Bonaire and Barbados would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event, respectively, of coral bleaching as a result of elevated sea surface temperatures and reduced beach area as a result of sea level rise. Climate change might have a significant impact on Caribbean tourism economy through alteration of environmental features important to destination selection. Island-specific management strategies, such as focusing resources on the protection of key marine or terrestrial features, may provide a means of reducing the environmental and economic impacts of climate change. (author)

  4. African Journals Online: Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 8 of 8 ... ... Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados .... and other researchers in all countries who wish to make known the results of their research. It publishes original articles; case reports; editorials; seminar and congress reports in relation to human health.

  5. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed

  6. Sharing Time and the Poetic Patterning of Caribbean Independence: The Narrative Architecture of Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Aa, Jef

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the narrative architecture and interactional uptake of a school child's story about independence in Barbados during sharing time. It is found that an institutional focus on standard resources impacts both teachers' and children's sociolinguistic behavior. Ethnopoetic analysis brings out the child's patterned use of narrative…

  7. Utilising "Low Tech" Analytical Frameworks to Analyse Dyslexic Caribbean Students' Classroom Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Stacey

    2007-01-01

    The cognitions of Caribbean students with dyslexia are explored as part of an embedded multiple case study approach to teaching and learning at two secondary schools on the island of Barbados. This exploration employed "low tech" approaches to analyse what pupils had said in interviews using a Miles and Huberman (1994) framework.…

  8. Phytochemical characteristics and in vitro antibacterial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and ethanol stem bark-extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Pride of Barbados) were screened for phyto-constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae using ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adelere, R. A.. Vol 34 (2017) - Articles Haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels of raw Pride of Barbados seedmeal. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 01891731. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  10. Some Anti-Nutritional and Mineral Contents of Extra-Cotyledonous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The edible extra-cotyledonous deposit of Pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherrima) was investigated for some minerals and antinutritional factors. Results obtained showed that while phytohaemagglutinin was absent, vanadium was very low in the extra-cotyledons of this legume. However, oxalate, trypsin inhibitor, ...

  11. Haematology and Serum Indices of Weaner Pigs Fed Raw Pride of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen (16) weaner pigs with an average weight of 3-6kg were used in an 8th weeks feeding trial to evaluate the haematological and serological response of the pigs to four levels of raw pride of barbados based diets. The animals were alloted into four treatments groups comprising four animals per group and two animals ...

  12. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity in pigeon pea germplasm using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANEESHA

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Th, Thailand; It, Italy; B, Barbados; Ta, Taiwan; J, Jamaica; V, Venezuela; UK, United Kingdom; My, Myanmar; U, Uganda; G,. Germany. .... from Orissa (105) and AP (15) do not group with any .... In the present work, comparison between SSAP and ... fied polymorphism) for genetic analysis of sweet potato.

  14. Intertidal and shallow water Cirripedia of the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Southward, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Some 22 taxa of barnacles, including 19 Balanomorpha, are recorded from a large number of Caribbean localities, ranging from S. Florida to Trinidad, and from the Panama Canal Zone to Barbados. Balanus reticulatus Utinomi is recorded for the first time from the region and its morphology compared with

  15. In Their Own Words: Stakeholder Perceptions of the Golf World Cup, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sealy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for the formulation of a sport tourism event policy for the island of Barbados. Although some research has been conducted on the residents’ perceptions of major sporting events including the Olympic Games, smaller but globally significant events such as the Golf World Cup have received little attention from researchers. Less attention has been given to sport events in the Caribbean. This dearth in knowledge has inspired the direction of this study, which is, to explore the stakeholder perceptions of the Golf World Cup which was hosted in Barbados in December 2006. The data collection process adopted included semi-structured interviews with the Barbados tourism private sector. The 65 participants in this study highlighted a diversity of mainly congruent views. Private sector participants contend that the Golf World Cup was socially exclusive and perpetuated social divisions rather than ameliorated them. Many stakeholders felt that the event was culturally alienating and highlighted the failure of the organisers to undertake stakeholder consultations. The findings in this study can make a worthwhile contribution to the marketing, management and design of future events and the direction of policy formulation for sport events on the island of Barbados and the wider Caribbean.

  16. Barbabos Deep-Water Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Stentoft, N.

    1988-01-01

    Deep-water sponges dredged up in two locations off the west coast of Barbados are systematically described. A total of 69 species is recorded, among which 16 are new to science, viz. Pachymatisma geodiformis, Asteropus syringiferus, Cinachyra arenosa, Theonella atlantica. Corallistes paratypus,

  17. Feminist Pedagogy and Social Change: The Impact of the Caribbean Institute in Gender and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charmaine; Jackson-Best, Fatimah

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the utility of a feminist pedagogical framework in establishing and organising the Caribbean Institute in Gender and Development (CIGAD), which is a biennial intensive gender and development training programme that has taken place in Barbados since 1993. To highlight the major impact that CIGAD has had in educating and…

  18. 3 CFR - Waiving the Prohibition on the Use of Economic Support Funds With Respect to Various Parties to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiving the Prohibition on the Use of Economic Support Funds With Respect to Various Parties to the Rome Statute Establishing the International Criminal...) with respect to Barbados, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Ecuador, Kenya, Mali, Mexico, Namibia, Niger...

  19. THE ATMOSPHERIC CYCLING AND AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF MERCURY SPECIES IN THE SOUTH AND EQUATORIAL ATLANTIC OCEAN. (R829796)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of gas-, particle- and precipitation-phases of atmospheric mercury(Hg) were made in the South and equatorial Atlantic Ocean as part of the 1996IOC Trace Metal Baseline Study (Montevideo, Uruguay to Barbados). Total gaseousmercury (TGM) ranged from ...

  20. Atmospheric tritium. Progress report, July 1, 1975--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestlund, H.G.; Mason, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of field equipment for sampling tritium in environmental samples. The performance of prototype tritiated hydrocarbon samples is discussed. Data are presented on the content of tritium in samples of rain water collected in Miami, Florida, Western Samoa, and Barbados during 1975, and tritium compounds in atmospheric samples collected at various world locations during 1975

  1. Short communication Seasonal variations in scrotal circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2017, 47 (No. 4) ... of daylight, conditions during semen collection, and management (Foote, .... (2013), who conducted a study on seven breeds of sheep, including Ile de France ram and Barbados .... This project was supported by King Saud University, Deanship of ...

  2. Qualidade da carcaça e rendimento de cortessuínos com o uso de ractopamina

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Daniela de Souza; Soares,Mónica Alvarado; Steffens,Juliana

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso do aditivo ractopamina sobre os rendimentos dos cortes e a qualidade da carne suína (pH, cor, marmoreio e capacidade de retenção de água). Para os testes, foram utilizados 25 suínos alimentados com 7,5ppm de ractopamina na dieta e 25 suínos sem utilização deste aditivo. Os cortes foram obtidos através do fracionamento da carcaça em partes, sendo elas: pernil, paleta, sobrepaleta, barriga com costela e carré. Para os testes de rendiment...

  3. Archivo histórico de la Casa de Moneda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available El Banco de la República posee una de las colecciones más interesantes a nivel histórico y económico del país: el archivo de la Casa de Moneda que data de 1620. Su descripción y clasificación se comenzó en 1991 teniendo como base la Historia de la Casa de Moneda, de Antonio Barriga Villalba -administrador de la Casa en los años cincuenta-, siendo la única obra que se ha publicado hasta la fecha. La clasificación se ha realizado con base en la Norma general para la descripción archivística elaborada por el Archivo General de la Nación.

  4. Lithostratigraphy, sedimentology and paleography from The Arroyo del Soldado group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Sprechmann, P.; Montana, J.; Martinez, S.

    1998-01-01

    The lithostratigraphy of the Vendian to Lower Cambrian Arroyo del Soldado Group of the Nico Perez Terrane is presented. The Yerbal Formation is defined and the Barriga Negra Formation is included in the Group. The Arroyo del Soldado Group represents a transgressive - regressive sequence developed on a passive continental margin, reaching a thickness of 5000m. The lithofacies succession is mainly explained by the combination of tectonic processes, global climatic - and sea level changes. Its geographic extension allows the determination of the eastern and southern boundaries of the Nico Perez Terrane. The known surface of this Terrane is therefore considerably increased. Several outcroups previously assigned to the Lavalleja Group are in this paper included in the Arroyo del Soldado Group, using sedimentalogical and paleontological criteria

  5. Arroyo del Soldado group: paleontology, dating and Vendian to Lower Cambrian, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaucher, C.; Sprechmann, P.

    1998-01-01

    The fossil content of the Vendian to Lower Cambrian Arroyo del Soldado Group of the Nico Perez Terrane of Uruguay is analysed.Organic walled microfossils represented by acritarchs, eukariotic algae (sensu lato) and iron bacteria are recognized. An updated list of these microfossils is presented, which were are now reported in the Yerbal and Barriga Negra formations.Events of weutrphic conditions were reconstructed. The occurrence of Cloudina riemkeae, the earliest known metazoanwith a mineralized skeleton is communicated for the first time in Uruguay. The organic walled microfossils as well as Cloudina riemkeae are indicative of a Vendian age, whereas the trace fossils of the uppermost unit(Cerro Victoria) suggest the Early Cambrian. This would imply that the Group contains the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. The Arroyo del Soldado Group is correlated with the Jacadiga and Corunba Groups (Brasil) and the Nama Group (Namibia). (author)

  6. Contribuciones al estudio de la Parasitología en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Piedrahita César

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available 1- Myxobolidae parasito de la vesícula biliar de una Rana de los Llanos Orientales (Resumen: Se observó un Myxobolidae, Myxobolus pfeitteri, parásito de la vesícula biliar de Rana palmipes, habitante de los Llanos orientales de Colombia. Se destaca su papel patógeno.  Creemos que es el primer Myxobolidae descrito en Colombia. / 2- Observaciones sobre un Trichomonas sp. (Resumen: Aechmea bromeliaefolia / Greigia Danielii / Guzmania costaricensis / Guzmania diffusa / Guzmania glomerata / Guzmania minor Mez var / Flammea / Pitcairnia Bakeri / Pitcairnia Barrigae / Pitcairnia costata / Pitcairnia diffusa / Pitcairnia excerta / Pitcairnia lepidopetalon / Pitcairnia squarrosa / Pitcairnia squarrosa var. Colorata / Tillandsia hospitalis / Tillandsia pulchella / Vriesia Hodgei.

  7. Remediation of a contaminated soil by Ni+2 after application of biochar prepared from de-inking paper sludge: Influence on enzyme activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascó, G.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Araujo, F.; Guerrero, F.; Méndez, A.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing proportion of recycled fibres are used in paper industries due to their important environmental and economical benefits. A ton of pulp produced from recycled paper requires 60% less energy to manufacture than a ton of bleached virgin kraft pulp [1]. However, removing the ink, clay, coatings and contaminants from waste paper in order to produce recycled paper creates large amounts of de-inking paper sludge (DPS). Nowadays, more than 200000 t of DPS were produced in Spain. DPS can be used as amendment due to their high organic matter [2] but the high C/N ratio and the heavy metal content can limit its use. For this reason, the preparation of biochar obtained from pyrolysis process for water remediation [3] and soil contaminated by heavy metal can be an valorisation alternative. The main objective of this work is to study the influence of the biochar application prepared from de-inking sewage sludge in the soil enzyme activities of a contaminated soil by Ni+2 at two different concentrations. For this reason, an incubation experiment was performed and several enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, b-glucosidase, phosphomoesterase and arylsulphatase) were monitored. The study was completed studying the influence of the biochar application in plant-available metals from soil. [1] Thompson C.G. 1992. Recycled Papers. The Essential Guide, MIT Press, Cambridge. [2] Barriga S., Méndez A., Cámara J., Guerrero F., Gascó G. 2010. Agricultural valorisation of de-inking paper sludge as organic amendment in different soils: Thermal study. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 99: 981-986 [3] Méndez A., Barriga S., Fidalgo J.M., Gascó G. 2009. Adsorbent materials from paper industry waste materials and their use in Cu(II) removal from water. Journal of Hazardous Materials 165: 736-743.

  8. Follicular population and progesterone (P4) plasma concentrations in sheep under different synchronization protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe- Velásquez, LF; Oba, E; Souza, MIL

    2008-01-01

    Los efectos de la prostaglandina (PGF2α) vs CIDR y eCG (gonadotrofina coriónica equina) en la dinámica de la población folicular y su relación con las concentraciones plasmáticas de P4 fueron investigadas en ovejas cíclicas. Fueron utilizadas 14 hembras ovinas de la raza Bergamascia; el Grupo 1 (Gl) se sometió a dos aplicaciones de PGF2α, y, el Grupo 2 (G2) tratado con CIDR durante 14 días siendo que, en el momento de su retirada, se administraron 500 UI de eCG. La dinámica folicular ovárica ...

  9. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  10. Gedanken zu Künstlichen Verformungen von Rionder - und Schafhörnern aus vor- und frügeschichtlicher Zeit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Pöllath

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se han presentado algunos ejemplos de deformaciones prehistóricas y de comienzos de la historia en cuernos de ganado bovino y ovino. En el ganado bovino esas deformaciones en los huesos son muy conocidas y se encuentran principalmente en los informes de Africa del norte. La forma y el motivo de estas deformaciones se pueden deducir a partir de los informes etnológicos modernos sobre las tribus nilóticas y a partir de las descripciones que datan del sglo XIX y principios del XX. En la ovejas, las manipulaciones de la forma de los huesos son muy raras en la prehistoria. Existe un caso extraordinario descrito por primera vez en este artículo que proviene de un asentamiento de principios de la Edad del Hierro en Büyükkaya, en Bogazköy-Hattusa, Anatolia Central

  11. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados

  12. The moderating role of perceived organisational support in breaking the silence of public accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Philmore; Hudaib, Mohammad; Haniffa, Roszaini

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey with public accountants in Barbados on their intention to report a superior’s unethical behaviour. Specifically, it investigates to what extent perceived organisational support (POS) in audit organisations would moderate Barbadian public accountants’ intentions to blow the whistle internally and externally. Results indicate that internal whistle-blowing intentions are significantly influenced by all five individual antecedents (attitudes, perceived b...

  13. Defense Institution Building: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Alliances with the United States Country Name Rio Treaty OAS Antigua and Barbuda X Argentina X X Aruba X Barbados X Belize X Bolivia X Brazil X X...Training advisors (mental skills, cultural knowledge, safety and resilience) Seminars and workshops Workshops Personnel exchanges Deploying advisors...47 Service academy foreign and cultural exchange activities/U.S. Military Academy Foreign Academy Exchange Program Cultural immersion

  14. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Heidrun; Hindle, David; Klaeschen, Dirk; Oncken, O.; Scholl, D.

    2009-01-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the décollement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados...

  15. Family narratives and migration dynamics : Barbadians to Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Chamberlain

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Uses life-story interviews of Barbadian migrant families in both Barbados and the UK to study the family as the tool and the material which creates and shapes historical mentalities and identities. The author shows how the links between family and migration continue to play a role in the motivation of migrants. Also published in Immigrants & Minorities 14(2 1995, p. 153-169

  16. MPL’s Research Program in Navy Related Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    first generation)," Atmospheric Visibility Technical Note 207-A, Visibility Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceano &.raphy, San Diego, CA (1988). 14. R...distances are indicated in meters spondei network (identified by colors), and the array is di- 160 J Acust Sc-c Am, Vol 87. No 1.January 1990 B J Sol ,rn andJ...Hole Oceano - notably in the Barbados Oceanographic Meteorology Experi- graphic Institution measured vertical velocities in excess of 1 ment (BOMEX) in

  17. Industry Study Report 1992-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    are the wild card in any future market performance calculations. While advertised as a one-time exception for the INMARSAT contract, the 1992 decision...chart presenting the Mercedes - Benz Training program. 14-13 The U.S., by contrast, has no program of standardized tests SCHOOL-T -WORK or...Japan for small components, $250 to Britain for advertising and marketing services, and about $50 to Ireland and Barbados for data processing. (Robert

  18. Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social In

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office for Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and the NCI’s Center for Global Health held a workshop entitled “Improving Chronic Disease in the Caribbean through Evidence-based Behavioral and Social Interventions”, which took place in Bridgetown, Barbados from July 21 to 24, 2015. The objectives of the workshop were to encourage the generation of research to more rapidly accelerate chronic disease prevention and management.

  19. Latin America Report No. 2692

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-14

    monetary, fiscal and other measures including currency devaluation and trade protectionism. Also, some countries, especially in Latin America, having ex...petroleum exporters like Nigeria , Mexico and Venezuela which until a year ago seemed to have unlimited resources, are now confronted with serious...sole responsibility of the Barbados Government, have been carried out with the financial assistance of the IMF . "Despite the ill-informed and

  20. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Harassment Policy in Jamaica: The Absence of a National Sexual Harassment Policy, and the Way Forward

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislat...

  1. The Foreign Disclosure and Technical Information System (FORDTIS) User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    INDIA 10 BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY IP CLIPPERTON ISLAND IQ UNITED STATES MISCELLANEOUS PACIFIC ISLANDS (obsolete) IR , IRAN IS ISRAEL IT...CARTIER ISLANDS AU AUSTRIA AV ANGUILLA AY ANTARCTICA BA BAHRAIN BB BARBADOS ’ - ’ BC BOTSWANA BD BERMUDA BE BELGIUM BP...BAHAMAS, THE BG BANGLADESH BH BELIZE BL BOLIVIA BM BURMA BN BENIN (formerly DM) BP SOLOMON ISLANDS BQ NAVASSA ISLAND BR BRAZIL BS BASSAS DA INDIA

  2. Where’s Cap Haitien? Validating the Principles of Peace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-17

    health risks to the military with exposure to disease, specifically malaria and dengue fever. Former members of the FAD’H posed potential security...Co (TACON) C/65 EN (L) (DS) (-) 3/58 MP CO (DS) 1/A/125SIGBN(+) DPSE 22 TPT 221 TPT 223 CATPT-2/416CABN SEC/351 AG CO (POSTAL) (DS) (-) MIST...Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize , Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad

  3. : tous les projets | Page 166 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans les îles des Caraïbes, les changements climatiques ont des effets complexes sur l'accès à l'eau potable et sur d'autres services écosystémiques. Région: Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies. Programme: Climate Change. Financement total : CA$ 1,499,900.00. Gestion durable de l'eau et ...

  4. Helping To Integrate The Visually Challenged Into Mainstream Society Through A Low-Cost Braille Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The visually challenged are often alienated from mainstream society because of their disabilities. This problem is even more pronounced in developing countries which often do not have the resources necessary to integrate this people group into their communities or even help them to become independent. It should therefore be the aim of governments in developing countries to provide this vulnerable people group with access to assistive technologies at a low cost. This paper describes an ongoing project that aims to provide low-cost assistive technologies to the visually challenged in Barbados. As a part of this project a study was conducted on a sample of visually challenged members of the Barbados Association for the Blind and Deaf to determine their ICT skills, knowledge of Braille and their use of assistive technologies. An analysis of the results prompted the design and creation of a low-cost Braille device prototype. The cost of this prototype was about one-half that of a commercially available device and can be used without a screen reader. This device should help create equal opportunities for the visually challenged in Barbados and other developing countries. It should also allow the visually challenged to become more independent.

  5. Sex Feel Good: Enjoyment of Sexual Intercourse by Some Barbadian Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hutchinson Miller Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within Caribbean societies and Barbados in particular issues on human sexuality are approached from a pathological, controlling, and judgmental perspective. These views resist an acknowledgment that children are sexual beings which manifestations are more evident during the teen years. Despite societal resistance, teenage pregnancies and sexual abuse forced societies to deal even if reluctantly with teenage sexuality. Based on Caribbean conservative approach to matters around sexuality it comes as no surprise that concerns around teenage sexuality is concentrated within discussions, discourses and scholarship about reproductive health, sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. Based on the literature researched for Barbados and the rest of the Caribbean teenage sexual desire, and pleasurable sexual intercourses are virtually none-existent. It is the intention with this paper to contribute to scholarship on teenage sexual pleasure within Barbadian society. For its analysis the paper will utilize data collected from a teen sexuality research done during 2011-2012 among two secondary schools in Barbados. The main objective is to demonstrate that Barbadian teenagers are involved and enjoying sexual intercourse and other sexually related activities despite hegemonic discourses of sexual repression and control.

  6. Report on the CSC project group meeting on alternative energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Under its coordinated R and D programme the Commonwealth Science Council in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Affairs, Barbados, organized a meeting to identify suitable projects for inter-country collaboration. Specifically the meeting had three aims: 1. Review present state of activities in alternative energy resources and assess small scale energy needs in the region. 2. Identify specific projects for inter-country collaboration. 3. Draft joint project proposals for such collaboration. A small group of experts (Annex VII) from Britain, Canada, USA and CSC secretariat staff made detailed plans for the Barbados meeting. With a view to assessing real energy needs locally, the Group recommended that a study be undertaken in Barbados prior to the meeting. A report on such a study was presented at the meeting. Member countries were also invited to prepare country papers. In addition, following the planning Group's recommendation, several technical papers were prepared. These covered subjects ranging from conceptual aspects to clarify objectives, assumptions and criteria to a review of all alternative energy technologies

  7. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  8. Desempenho de ovelhas nativas em confinamento recebendo palma-forrageira na dieta na região do semiárido nordestino Performance of native ewes under feedlot system receiving spineless cactus in diet in Brazilian semiarid region

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    Cicília Maria Silva de Souza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso, o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dieta à base de palma forrageira em ovelhas nativas confinadas na região do semiárido nordestino. Foram testadas duas formas de oferecimento da palma-forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica: separada da mistura feno de capim-tifton + concentrado e junto da mistura feno + concentrado. Utilizaram-se 40 fêmeas das raças nativas Barriga-preta, Cara-curta, Cariri e Morada Nova, com peso inicial médio de 36,76 kg, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, com quatro raças e duas estratégias de alimentação. Os genótipos e as estratégias de alimentação influenciaram os consumos médios de fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da fibra em detergente neutro. O genótipo influencia o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar em ovelhas alimentadas com palma forrageira na dieta, uma vez que animais das raças Cariri e Cara-curta apresentam maiores ganhos de peso.The experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the weight gain, intake of nutrients, and the apparent digestibility of diets based on spineless cactus in native ewes in feedlot system in Brazilian semiarid region. Two spineless cactus feeding strategies were evaluated: spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica separated from the Tifton hay + concentrated mixture, and with Tifton hay mixture + concentrate. It was used forty native breed ewes (Barriga Preta, Cara Curta, Cariri and Morada Nova, with average initial body weight of 36.76 kg, distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial scheme (four breed and two feeding strategies. The genotypes and feeding strategies neutral fiber detergent had effect on the average intake of neutral fiber detergent and total digestible nutrient, and on the coefficients of neutral fiber detergent

  9. Fecundación Artificial

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    Ochoa. Fidel

    1939-10-01

    Full Text Available Por Fecundación artificial se entiende, la fecundación de una hembra sin el servicio directo del macho, es decir la introducción al aparato genital femenino, del esperma que se ha recogido por medios artificiales. Esta fecundación, practicada en debidas condiciones, tiene el mismo efecto de la fecundación natural, con las ventajas que veremos más adelante. La fecundación artificial permite explotar un reproductor a su máximum de capacidad, ya que se considera, para no hacer cálculos alegres, que un servicio de un caballo puede servir, diluido, por lo menos para cuatro yeguas, según los autores americanos, y para 10 a 15, según otros autores. El toro y el carnero pueden dar esperma suficiente en un servicio para fecundar de 10 a 12 hembras, según,los americanos, y según otros autores, hasta para 40. Los investigadores rusos han podido fecundar hasta 60 vacas con un solo servicio y han logrado con reproductores valiosos, fecundar 10.263 vacas por toro, a pesar de que éstos sólo han servido, durante un periodo de monta de sólo dos meses. Estos mismos han logrado fecundar artificialmente 2.733 ovejas con un solo carnero, y 1.403 con otro Los investigadores americanos han contado 22 servicios a un carnero vigoroso en un periodo de ocho horas, y durante este tiempo produjo esperma suficiente para haber fecundado 200 ovejas artificialmente. La fecundación artificial sirve para evitar la trasmisión de enfermedades que se contagian por el coito, tales como la durina, enfermedad ésta producida por un tripanosoma que por fortuna no existe entre nosotros. A las estaciones de monta llevan con frecuencia hembras afectadas de enfermedades como la vaginitis granulosa de la vaca, que se contagia al toro y de éste a otras hembras. Como el control sanitario de toda hembra llevada al servicio de un reproductor de estas estaciones de monta no siempre puede efectuarse por dificultades de distinta índole, mediante la fecundación artificial

  10. The role of the canonical biplot method in the study of volatile compounds in cheeses of variable composition

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    González-Martín, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The canonical biplot method (CB is used to determine the discriminatory power of volatile chemical compounds in cheese. These volatile compounds were used as variables in order to differentiate among 6 groups or populations of cheeses (combinations of two seasons (winter and summer with 3 types of cheese (cow, sheep and goat’s milk. We analyzed a total of 17 volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass detection. The compounds included aldehydes and methyl-aldehydes, alcohols (primary, secondary and branched chain, ketones, methyl-ketones and esters in winter (WC and summer (SC cow’s cheeses, winter (WSh and summer (SSh sheep’s cheeses and in winter (WG and summer (SG goat’s cheeses. The CB method allows differences to be found as a function of the elaboration of the cheeses, the seasonality of the milk, and the separation of the six groups of cheeses, characterizing the specific volatile chemical compounds responsible for such differences.El m.todo biplot can.nico (CB se utiliza para determinar el poder discriminatorio de compuestos qu.micos vol.tiles en queso. Los compuestos vol.tiles se utilizan como variables con el fin de diferenciar entre los 6 grupos o poblaciones de quesos (combinaciones de dos temporadas (invierno y verano con 3 tipos de queso (vaca, oveja y cabra. Se analizan un total de 17 compuestos vol.tiles por medio de cromatograf.a de gases acoplada con detecci.n de masas. Los compuestos incluyen aldeh.dos y metil-aldeh.dos, alcoholes (primarios de cadena, secundaria y ramificada, cetonas, metil-cetonas y .steres. Los seis grupos de quesos son, quesos de vaca de invierno (WC y verano (SC; quesos de oveja de invierno (WSh y verano (SSh y quesos de cabra de invierno (WG y verano (SG. El m.todo CB permite la separaci.n de los seis grupos de quesos y encontrar las diferencias en funci.n del tipo y estacionalidad de la leche, caracterizando los compuestos qu.micos vol.tiles espec.ficos responsables de

  11. El Abono Mixto y la Enmienda Calcárea

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    Mejía Pedro Nel

    1941-02-01

    Full Text Available De gran importancia he encontrado tratar sobre este tema que de suyo dará a conocer a grandes rasgos la fuente de riqueza que existe en la "Granja de Termales", en donde el Ministerio de la Economía Nacional posee en la actualidad ochocientos ejemplares ovinos (800. entre machos y hembras, correspondientes a las razas "Merino puro" y los cruces de Merino con la oveja criolla de Boyacá y Marulanda. La fuente de riqueza a que me refiero, es aquella del abono proporcionado por estos animales. No solamente debiera el Gobierno interesarse en el cultivo y sostenimiento del animal por su carne y lana, sino que debiera hacer un esfuerzo por obtener un sistema equitativo y económico de manufacturar el abono orgánico, y una vez sometido a los correspondientes procesos de fermentación, darle facilidad a los papicultores de la zona del páramo para que hagan utilización del producto en sus cultivos. En la “Granja de Termales” haría el Gobierno Nacional una importante labor, de resultados muy directos, estudiando la manera de establecer un sistema práctico y económico de estercoleros en los cuales se pueda hacer una preparación del estiércol por lo menos en un lapso de 3 a 3 meses y medio. Las condiciones del suelo en su parte física y en su contenido de acidez, deja un margen de seguridad al éxito del abono en las zonas donde el cultivo de la papa prospera con perspectivas halagüeñas. La majada de oveja es acreedora a condiciones extraordinarias como fertilizante, factor que induce al pueblo francés a tener una gran predilección de su empleo en las prácticas del sistema intensivo de manejo del vegetal; la gran experiencia de este pueblo en su manejo, es el factor que lo acredita para ser considerado como uno de los mejores fertilizantes de origen orgánico.

  12. Simultatenous determination of diacetyl and acetoin in traditional turkish butter stored in sheep’s rumen (Karinyagi

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    Gokce, R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Commercial Karinyagi (traditionally named karin is made of cows’ milk cream and is produced by filling butter in cleaned sheep’s rumen. The effect of butter storage in sheep’s rumen on the production of diacetyl and acetoin was investigated. These compounds were determined by GC-MS and they are the typical butter flavor commonly found in fermented dairy products. The modified method for the simultaneous extraction of diacetly and acetoin from butter samples was accurate and precise. The recoveries of diacetyl and acetoin were 94.7 and 110.8%, respectively, while the detection limits were 1.83 and 0.51 mg·L-1, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the monitoring of aroma compounds in Karin butter samples during different time intervals. The concentration of acetoin remained stable through 0–50 days while the concentration of diacetyl increased to 33.0 μg·g-1 up to 40 days and remained constant through 40–50 days.El Karinyagi comercial (nombre tradicional Karin está hecho de crema de leche de vaca, y producido llenando con mantequilla el rumen limpio de ovejas. Se ha investigado el efecto del almacenamiento de la mantequilla en el rumen de ovejas sobre la formación de diacetilo y acetoína. Estos compuestos son el típico flavor a mantequilla que se detecta comúnmente en los productos lácteos fermentados y han sido determinados mediante GC-MS. El método modificado para la extracción simultánea de diacetilo y acetoína en mantequilla resultó ser exacto y preciso y las recuperaciones de 94,7 y 110,8 % respectivamente, mientras que los límites de detección fueron 1.83 y 0,51 mg·L-1, respectivamente. El método propuesto se aplicó al control de compuestos aromáticos en Karin y muestras de mantequilla, durante diferentes intervalos de tiempo. La concentración de acetoína se mantuvo estable entre 0–50 días mientras que la concentración de diacetilo aumentó a 33,0 mg·g-1 hasta 40 días y se mantuvo constante

  13. Applied TICs in Education and its correlation in Academic Performance

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    Jenny Maritza Rosero Lozano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we want to determinate the correlation between educational TICS application and the academic effiency in the subject of programmation in Structured languages which lasted 10 months and It was developed with 5 educators, 73 legal representatives and 103 students who belong to the services Technician bachelor, speciality in Informatic applications. It is based in the Constructivism by Jean Piaget, in the techniques focused in the personalized teaching in the significant learning theory by D´ıaz Barriga. The correlation coefficient by Pearson was used for measuring the different variables. The results revealed the low academic effiency of the students in the subject. It motivated the development of a propose which was a ”WEBQUEST”designed in Exelearning that allows to create learning materials which combine text with multimedia elements and It does not require internet to execute the functions with the purpose of facilitating the student body development in its abilities, capacities and skills, the educator can use it as a didatic strategy because It helps to keep an active and creative participation of the students and It allows to the users to acquire knowledge and skills in the computer programms creation. The software was tested and validated by the educational community, It has as a result a big acceptance, good perspectives in its use and the improvement in the students academic effiency.

  14. Pamies Bertrán, Antonio y Rodríguez Simón, Francisca (2005. El lenguaje de los enfermos: Metáfora y fraseología en el habla espontánea de los pacientes. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften; 165 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mironesko Bielova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Regresaba a casa angustiada y descontenta conmigo misma. Después de sufrir un grave accidente de tráfico acudía con frecuencia a las consultas médicas y siempre pasaba lo mismo. La dificultad de expresar todo el abanico de sensaciones dolorosas –tan personales, tan mías– multiplicado por la proverbial paciencia y aguante (atribuidos al carácter ruso, que considera un valor indiscutible no manifestar explícitamente el sufrimiento resultó ser un increíble –pero cierto– obstáculo en mi comunicación con los facultativos. Me consolaba evocando la observación de un escritor ruso de principios de siglo XX que declaraba que es imposible la comprensión humana en general, argumentando esta triste sentencia con un ejemplo: «si te duele la barriga, por mucho que lo expliques a tu prójimo, no le dolerá igual que a ti». En fin, nunca comprenderá tu sufrimiento; entonces, guárdatelo «y vívelo en solitario».

  15. Investigación Crítica: Desafíos y Posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fractalitats en Investigació Crítica (FIC

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available La emergencia de las ciencias sociales está ligada a la constitución de una red de tecnologías, conocimientos, prácticas y discursos para regular y gobernar la sociedad; desarrollando formas de control en el que las ciencias sociales juegan un papel central. La actual sociedad del conocimiento gestiona la producción de conocimiento científico que maximiza las aportaciones coherentes con el pensamiento hegemónico y dificulta el desarrollo de perspectivas críticas (Slaughter y Leslie, 1997, 2001. Las ciencias sociales se encuentran en la paradoja de cuestionar los fundamentos de aquello en que, de un modo u otro, participan constitutivamente. El desarrollo de la sociedad post-fordista y nuestra localización en la barriga del monstruo (Haraway, 1991 plantea la necesidad de una reflexión sobre el contexto, las posibilidades y las formas de un trabajo crítico en el presente marco institucional. Exploramos principios metodológicos y formas de investigación a considerar en el planteamiento de una ?investigación crítica?, a la vez que nos preguntamos por las posibilidades mismas del trabajo académico de carácter crítico.

  16. Chronostratigraphic recognition in Ceara northwest region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, F.R.G.; Kawashita, K.; Brito Neves, B.B. de

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports a geochronological reconaissance through the K-Ar and Rb-Sr methods in a area northeast of the state of Ceara, aiming to suplement and assess the geological mapping 1/250.000. Migmatitic rocks of the basement showed values within the span of the transamazonian cycle. The volcanic-sedimentary complex (Grupo Martinopole) showed pre-brazilian Rb-Sr conventional ages and isochronic ages compatible to the brazilian cycle. Likewise, regional metamorphism of brazilian age (c.a. 610 m.y.) was recorded for the clastic-carbonatic metassedimentary rocks of the Ubajara Group. Fissural intrusives cuts rocks of the Ubajara Group and yielded ages around 580 m.y. For the molasse-type sequence of the brazilian system (Massape and Pacuja formations), the age of the Cambrian regional metamorphism was adopted, 535+-27 m.y., with late events in Ordovician times (Aprazivel Formation). The post tectonic granitic stocks of Meruoca, Mocambo and Serra da Barriga show problems of geochronological grounds, not solved at this stage. The interval between 540-580 m.y. for their emplacement is adopted in the light of the obtained data [pt

  17. Evaluadores de artículos Caldasia Vol. 16 Nros. 76-79

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    Revista Caldasia

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Acero, Arturo / Acosta Alfredo / Aguirre, C. Jaime / Álvarez, Humberto / Andrade, Gonzalo / Arévalo, Isabel / Barrera, Eduardo / Barriga, Ernesto / Bernal, Amanda / Bernal, Rodrigo / Bulla, / M. Germán / Cadena, Albert  / Cala, Plutarco / Campos Martha / Cogollo, Álvaro / Cuadros, Tomas Chamorro, Clara / Churchill, Steven Díaz, Santiago / Duarte, Martha / Dueñas;Hernando / Duque, Santiago / Fernandez, Jose L. / Forero, Eduardo / Franco, Esperanza / Franco, Pilar / Fuertes, Javier / Galeano, Gloria / Galvis, Germán / Gaviria, Elizabeth / Gaviria, Santiago / Gómez, Marcela / González, Favio  / Hernández, C. Jorge / Idrobo, Jesús / La Marca, Enrique / Linares, Mauricio / Londoño, Concha / Lynch,John / Lozano, Gustavo / Lozano, Nubia / Mora, O. Luis E. / Muñoz, Paulina / Murillo, María T. / Orozco, Clara I. / Palacio, Pablo / Pineda, Fabio / Pinto, N. María / Rangel, Orlando / Restrepo, Rubén / Reyes, Carmen / Rueda, Vicente / Ruiz, Pedro M. / Samper, Cristian / Smith, Ernesto / Stiles, Gary / Tchecliakova, Nadya / Turbay, Luisa F. / Uribe, Jaime / Zenner, Ingerborg / Zuluaga,  Silvio

  18. Cross-country differences in the association between diabetes and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Reza Moghani; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2014-01-06

    This study tested possible cross-country differences in the associations between diabetes and activities of daily living (ADLs), and possible confounding / mediating effects of socio-economic status, obesity, and exercise. Data came from Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The study included a total number of 25,372 community sample of adults who were 40 years or older. We used data from community based surveys in seven countries including China, Mexico, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Uruguay. Demographics (age and gender), socio-economic status (education and income), obesity, exercise, and ADL (bath, dress, toilet, transfer, heavy, shopping, meals) were measured. Self-reported data on physician diagnosis of diabetes was the independent variable. We tested if diabetes is associated with ADL, before and after adjusting for socio-economics, obesity, and exercise in each country. Based on Model I (age and gender adjusted model), diabetes was associated with limitation in at least one ADL in Mexico, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, and Uruguay, but not China. Based on Model II that also controlled for education and income, education explained the association between diabetes and limitation in ADL in Mexico and Uruguay. Based on Model III that also controlled for exercise and obesity, in Cuba and Brazil, exercise explained the link between diabetes and limitation in performing ADLs. Thus, the link between diabetes and ADL was independent of our covariates only in Chile and Barbados. There are cross-country differences in the link between diabetes and limitation in ADL. There are also cross-country differences in how socio-economic status, obesity, and exercise explain the above association.

  19. Role of the convergence zone over West Africa in controlling Saharan mineral dust load and transport in the boreal summer

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    Owen M. Doherty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During summer, large amounts of mineral dust are emitted and transported from North Africa over the tropical North Atlantic towards the Caribbean with the exact quantity varying greatly from year to year. Much effort has been made to explain the variability of summer season mineral dust load, for example, by relating dust variability to teleconnection indices such as ENSO and the NAO. However, only weak relationships between such climate indices and the abundance of mineral dust have been found. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the near-surface convergence zone over West Africa in controlling dust load and transport of mineral dust. We apply the ‘Center of Action’ approach to obtain indices that quantify the movement and strength of the convergence zone using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. The latitudinal position of the convergence zone is significantly correlated with the quantity of mineral dust at Barbados over the period 1965–2003 (r=−0.47. A southward displacement of the convergence zone is associated with both increased near-surface flow and decreased precipitation over the dust source regions of the southern Saharan desert, Sahel and Lake Chad. This in turn reduces soil moisture and vegetation, furthering the potential for dust emission. In contrast, the intensity of the convergence zone is not correlated with dust concentration at Barbados. We conclude that the coupling of changes in near-surface winds with changes in precipitation in source regions driven by a southward movement of the convergence zone most directly influence dust load at Barbados and over the tropical North Atlantic during summer.

  20. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

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    Abiodun Adesiyun

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  1. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Collard, François-Xavier; Molinié, Jack; Jeannot, Alexis

    2014-07-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Satellite aerosol products suggest that in spring, there is a comparable transport to northeastern South America. Here we characterize the complete annual cycle of dust transport to the western Atlantic by linking the Barbados record to multiyear records of airborne particulate matter less than 10 µm diameter (PM10) measured in air quality programs at Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guadeloupe. Comparisons of PM10 at these sites with concurrent dust measurements at Barbados demonstrate that high PM10 levels are almost entirely due to dust. Cayenne PM10 peaks in spring in a cycle which is consistent with satellite aerosol optical depth and suggests that the Sahel is the dominant source. The persistent transport of dust during much of the year could impact a wide range of environmental processes over a broad region that extends from the southern United States to the Amazon Basin. Finally, the average 24 h PM10 concentrations at Cayenne and Guadeloupe frequently exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline. Thus soil dust PM10 could be a significant, but generally unrecognized, health factor at western Atlantic sites and also in other relatively remote regions affected by long-range dust from Africa. Because dust emissions and transport are highly sensitive to climate variability, climate change in coming decades could greatly affect a wide range of biogeochemical processes and human health in this region.

  2. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, A; Carson, A; McAdoo, K; Bailey, C

    2000-11-01

    Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2%) and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%). The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4%) belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9%) belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9%) exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%), followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%), ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%), and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%).

  3. Molecular analysis of Salmonella enteritidis isolates from the Caribbean by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun Abiodun

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, between 1987 and 1996 we analyzed Salmonella enteritidis isolates from gastroenteritis cases in four Caribbean countries: Barbados, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. We also determined the resistance of the isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents. Of the 129 isolates of S. enteritidis available for testing, DNA digested by XbaI revealed 13 distinctive PFGE patterns. The most prevalent XbaI PFGE patterns were group 1 (88 of 129 isolates, 68.2% and group 2 (26 of 129, 20.2%. The patterns found among S. enteritidis isolates correlated with the geographical origin of the isolates. Of the 28 isolates from Barbados, 20 of them (71.4% belonged to XbaI PFGE group 2, and of the 93 isolates from Trinidad and Tobago, 78 of them (83.9% belonged to group 1. SpeI digestion of S. enteritidis genome was not as discriminatory as XbaI. Overall, of the 129 isolates, 67 of them (51.9% exhibited resistance to one or more of the 12 antimicrobial agents that we tested. The prevalence of resistance was 53.8% for the S. enteritidis isolates tested from Trinidad and Tobago, 50.0% for those from Barbados, 28.6% for those from Saint Lucia, and 100.0% for one isolate from the island of Saint Kitts. Resistance was highest to triple sulfur (59 of 129 isolates, 45.7%, followed by furadantoin (10 of 129, 7.8%, ampicillin (7 of 129, 5.4%, and carbamycin (5 of 129, 3.9%.

  4. Legislación y control de riesgos de salud en América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Bolis

    2002-01-01

    Este estudio analiza la legislación en Latín América y el Caribe con el propósito de determinar en qué medida contribuyen, o no, a la eliminación de riesgos para la salud. Los países incluidos son: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belice, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, República Dominicana, Trinidad y Tobago, Uruguay y Venezuela. La investigación se centró en las áreas de medicam...

  5. Flavonóides em seleções de acerola (Malpighia sp l.. 1- Teor de antocianinas e flavonóis totais Flavonoids in acerola (Malpighia sp L. selections. 1- Anthocyanins and flavonols content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão de Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Os flavonóides englobam classes de pigmentos naturais encontrados com freqüência nos vegetais. As antocianinas e os flavonóis são compostos que pertencem ao grupo dos flavonóides e são responsáveis pela coloração que varia de vermelho vivo à violeta e de branco à amarelo claro, respectivamente. A cor vermelha da acerola é decorrente da presença de antocianinas. Entretanto, a propagaç ão da aceloreira por sementes tem gerado frutos com coloração que varia de amarelo a vermelho púrpura. Dessa forma, há o interesse em difundir plantas com produção de frutos com coloração vermelho. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o teor de antocianinas e flavonóis totais nas seleções de acerola - Barbados, Coopama, Flor Branca, Inada, Miró e Okinawa. Os frutos foram colhidos nos meses de março a junho/1999, com coloração vermelha uniforme, e analisados quanto aos teores de antocianinas e flavonóis totais. As seleções Inada e Barbados apresentaram os mais altos teores desses pigmentos, quando comparados aos das demais seleções, tornando-as agronomicamente interessantes.The flavonoids comprise a class of natural pigments that are frequently found in vegetables. The anthocyanins and flavonols are compounds which belong to the flavonoids group and they are responsible for red to violet and white to light-yellow coloration, respectively. The anthocyanins pigments are responsible for the red colour of the acerola fruit. However, the seed propagation of acerola trees has grown fruits which present colour variation from yellow to dark red. So, there is interest to spread acerola trees with red colour fruits. This paper aimed to determine the content of total anthocyanins and flavonols in selections of acerola - Barbados, Coopama, Flor Branca, Inada, Miró e Okinawa. Fruits were harvested based on homogeneous red colour, between the months of March and June/1999, and analysed with regard to the content of total anthocyanins and

  6. The Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keechang

    1994-03-01

    This book reports the Daejeon international exposition, Korea, 1993. The first part introduces domestic pavilions such as government pavilion, resources utilization pavilion, electric energy pavilion, currency culture pavilion, residential environmental pavilion, imagination pavilion and nature and life pavilion. The second part has abstract of the international pavilions such as Swiss Confederation, Kingdom of Sweden, French Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Republic of Portugal, Republic of Austria, Holy See of the Roman Pontiff, Azerbaijan Republic, Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Solomon Islands, Republic of Bolivia, Saint Lucia, Barbados, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and European Community.

  7. Death, Memory, text: reading the landscape of remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Simon

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Victorian cemeteries are landscapes which can be 'read' both literally and metaphorically. In this paper, one particular Victorian cemetery, the Barbadoes St Cemetery in Christchurch, New Zealand is considered for the different meanings that can be found in its location, layout, vegetation, tombstones and written inscriptions. The discussion focuses on how these elements of the cemetery landscape relate to the burial traditions of Western Europe, how they expressed particular concerns about death and remembrance in the Victorian era, and how they can be 'read' in the present, in order to explore the relationship between interpretation and transformation in this highly symbolic landscape.

  8. Atlantic Warm Pool Trigger for the Younger Dryas Climate Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.; Teneva, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that variability in the size and heat content of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool impacts circum-North Atlantic climate via the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation mode (Wang et al., 2008). The Atlantic Warm Pool spans the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the western tropical North Atlantic. Barbados is located near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool and coupled ocean models suggest that Barbados remains near the center of the tropical Atlantic Warm Pool under varying wind stress simulations. Measurements of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer in Acropora palmata coral species recovered from cores offshore Barbados, show a 3oC monotonic decrease in sea surface temperature from 13106 ± 83 to 12744 ± 61 years before present (errors given as 2 sigma). This interval corresponds to a sea level rise from 71.4 meters to 67.1 meters below present levels at Barbados. The 3oC temperature decrease is captured in eight A. palmata specimens that are in stratigraphic sequence, 230Th/234U dated, and analyzed for oxygen isotopes. All measurements are replicated. We are confident that this is the warm pool equivalent of the Younger Dryas climate event. The initiation of this temperature drop in the Atlantic Warm Pool predates the Younger Dryas start in Greenland ice cores, reported to start at 12896 ± 138 years (relative to AD 2000) (Rasmussen et al., 2006), while few other Younger Dryas climate records are dated with similar accuracy to make the comparison. Rasmussen, S.O., Andersen, K.K., Svensson, A.M., Steffensen, J.P., Vinther, B.M., Clausen, H.B., Siggaard-Andersen, M.L., Johnsen, S.J., Larsen, L.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Bigler, M., Röthlisberger, R., Fischer, H., Goto-Azuma, K., Hansson, M.E., and Ruth, U., 2006, A new Greenland ice core chronology for the last glacial termination: J. Geophys. Res., v. 111, p. D06102. Wang, C., Lee, S.-K., and Enfield, D.B., 2008, Atlantic Warm Pool acting as a link between Atlantic Multidecadal

  9. Audit committees in West Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Bowrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the regulatory framework governing audit committees (AC of publicly traded companies in the West Indies and examines the extent to which the provisions of these AC regulations are similar to the International Federation of Accountants guidelines for AC. Also, it examines the actual AC policies of publicly traded West Indian firms and determines whether they vary systematically with industry affiliation or firm size. The sample comprised companies traded on Barbados, Jamaica Stock Exchange, and Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchanges in 2002. Larger companies and those in the financial industry provided better audit committee disclosures than their smaller counterparts and those in non-financial industries.

  10. From Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-01-01

    Dear TOJDE Readers,Welcome to the Volume 13 Number: 2 of TOJDE! In this issue, 7 notes for Editor and 22 articles one book review of 57 authors from 12 different countries have been published. These published articles are from, Barbados, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, USA and Zimbabwe.In general, around 13 articles and 4 notes for editors have been published in TOJDE so far. I would like to explain, why this time 22 articles and 8 submission...

  11. Origin of preferential clay particle orientation in faults, and relationships with pore-water flow and water-sediment interactions. Two natural examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaume, P.

    1998-01-01

    Two natural examples are presented of shear deformation associated with thrust faulting in clayey sediments. The first example is the basal decollement fault of the Barbados accretionary prism (Lesser Antilles), drilled during ODP Leg 156. This decollement is an active fault where the relationships between pore-water and deformation can be studied in situ. The second example is the Eocene south-Pyrenean basin (northern Spain), studied by the European Community EBRO Network Working Group. In this case, fluid activity in fossil thrust-faults was studied indirectly through the products of water-sediment interactions. (author)

  12. Risk Management Practices by Barbadian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Wood

    2013-07-01

    The main findings of the paper are: risk managers perceive risk management as critical to their banks’ performance; the types of risks causing the greatest exposures are credit risk, operational risk, country/sovereign risk, interest rate risk and market risk; there was a high level of success with current risk management practices and these practices have evolved over time in line with the changing economic environment and regulatory updates. Overall, the findings suggest strongly that in light of the current depressed economic climate, banks operating in Barbados are indeed risk-focused or might we say “risk intelligent”.

  13. Nursing--a new tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, D N

    1989-01-01

    This year's recipient of the prestigious Christiane Reimann Award, the "Nobel Prize of Nursing", was Dame Nita Barrow, Ambassador to the UN from Barbados, who was recognized for her distinguished accomplishments in nursing and health care over decades and continents. She was also the keynote speaker at ICN's 19th Quadrennial Congress in Seoul, Korea, 28 May-2 June 1989, described by Korean Prime Minister Kang Young Hoon in his address at the opening ceremonies as the "festival of peace and friendship for nurses the world over". Below, her keynote address.

  14. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  15. Perl mineral en agua, suelo, forraje y suero sanguíneo de ovinos en Tlaxcala, México/Mineral prole in water, soil, fodder and sheep blood serum in Tlaxcala, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Muñoz-González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar el perl mineral en muestras de agua, suelo, forraje, alimento concentrado, sales minerales y sangre de 170 ovinos en nueve ranchos del estado de Tlaxcala, México. Los minerales analizados fueron Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na, K y P. El modelo estadístico incluyó el efecto del rancho en todas las variables, para la sangre se determinó el efecto de estado siológico. Hubo diferencias (p < 0.05 entre ranchos en las concentraciones de Mg, Na, K y P en el agua. Los suelos de los ranchos tienen concentraciones diferentes (p ≤ 0.05 de Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na, K y P. Los contenidos de Zn, Mn, Ca, Na y la relación Ca:P fueron mayores (p < 0.05 en las leguminosas que en las gramíneas. Las concentraciones séricas de Zn, Ca y P fueron mayores (p < 0.05 en los corderos que en las ovejas.

  16. La ganadería en Medellín (1450-1550. Propietarios y cabañas

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    Clemente Ramos, Julián

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Livestock raising in the vicinity of Medellin was characterized by the importance of oxen and pigs. In the dehesas, the most numerous animals were cows, but there were also sheep, especially in transhumance. Herds belonged mainly to commoners. The local oligarchy played an essential role as lessors of land. The price of pastures increased in the second half of the 15th century but began to settle down during the first part of the 16th century.La ganadería vecinal de Medellín se caracteriza por la importancia de bueyes y cerdos. En las dehesas, predominan las vacas aunque también hay ovejas, sobre todo trashumantes. La propiedad ganadera está en manos, en su mayor parte, de elites rurales y campesinos. La oligarquía local tiene un papel fundamentalmente rentista. El precio de los pastos experimentó una intensa subida en la segunda mitad del siglo XV, que se suaviza en la primera mitad del siglo XVI.

  17. REPRODUCTIVE BIOTECHNOLOGY IN HORSES

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    Baca-Castex C

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El campo de aplicación de las biotecnologías reproductivas en equinos es muy similar al de humanos: reproducir individuos con barreras fisiológicas y patológicas para reproducirse. A pesar de que la fertilización in vitro en equinos aún no ha dado resultados, otras biotecnologías modernas se han aplicado con éxito, como por ejemplo la aspiración folicular transvaginal para la obtención de ovocitos, la transferencia intraoviductal de ovocitos y la inyección intracitoplasmática de un espermatozoide (ICSI. La clonación en equinos surge en 2003, años después del nacimiento de la oveja Dolly y luego de la clonación de varias especies domésticas. El retraso se debió al limitado desarrollo de las técnicas de reproducción asistida más clásicas, necesarias para una clonación exitosa, como ser la maduración de ovocitos y la producción in vitro de embriones. Cuando estas tecnologías fueron desarrolladas, la aplicación de la clonación se volvió posible y se obtuvieron crías equinas clonadas.

  18. “Por primera vez en mi vida me sentí uruguayo”. Ditadura, matrimonio igualitário, teoria queer e outras lutas LGBT no Uruguai. Memórias e leituras do ativista e professor Diego Sempol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Laverdi

    2016-03-01

    * Diego Sempol é graduado pelo Instituto de Profesores Artigas (IPA, Uruguai, com especialidade em história. Fez pós-graduação em história contemporânea no Instituto Universitário do CLAEH. Atualmente é doutorando em Ciências Sociais pela Universidad Nacional General Sarmiento (IDES, Argentina. É professor e pesquisador junto ao Instituto de Ciência Política (FCS-Udelar, Uruguai. Publicou artigos e libros sobre sexualidade, movimentos sociais e passado recente. Entre os trabalhos recentes destacam-se: “Violence and the emergence of gay and lesbian activism in Argentina, 1983-1990” que compõe o livro The Sexual History of the Global South. Sexual Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America (Wieringa, S. Sivori; H. Zed Books London New York, 2012, De los baños a la calle. Historia del movimiento lésbico, gay trans uruguayo 1984-2013 (Debate, 2013 e De silencios y otras violencias. Políticas Públicas, regulaciones discriminatorias y diversidad sexual (Mides, 2014. Alem disso, é fundador do Colectivo Ovejas Negras e da Federación Uruguaya de la Diversidad Sexual, além de ser coordenador da Área Académica Queer Montevideo. sempoldiego@gmail.com

  19. Activity rhythms and the influence of some environmental variables on summer ungulate behaviour in Ordesa-Monte Perdido National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldezabal, A.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied daily activity rhythms and time-budgets of four large herbivores (cattle, sheep, goats and chamois which form a multi-species grazing system in a summer pastoral unit of the Central Pyrenees. Also, the influence of some environmental variables (altitude, slope and plant cover on the main activities has been appraised. Grazing is the activity to which most time is dedicated in all the species: cattle 48%, sheep 53%, goats 55% and chamois 68%. Cattle is the species with the highest resting rate (41% and sheep is the species spends most time walking (35%. Results suggest the existence of an inverse relationship between body size and grazing time. Cattle show two clear grazing peaks during the day at early morning and late evening. Contrary to this, sheep and chamois show a multimodal pattern, with some peaks for this activity throughout the day. Environmental factors clearly influence cattle and chamois activities. Sheep and goats show a less definite pattern in respect to environmental factors, probably because of their herded condition.

    [es] Se estudian los ritmos de actividad diarios y la distribución del tiempo entre diferentes actividades, de cuatro grandes herbívoros (vacas, ovejas, cabras y rebecos que utilizan durante el verano la misma unidad pastoral (Puerto de Góriz, Parque Nacional de Ordesa en el Pirineo Central. Asimismo, se determina la influencia de diversas variables ambientales (altitud, pendiente y cobertura vegetal sobre la conducta de dichos rumiantes. El pastoreo es la actividad a la que más tiempo dedican todas las especies: vacas 48%, ovejas 53%, cabras 55% y rebecos 68%. El ganado vacuno es la especie que más tiempo dedica al descanso (41% y el ovino el que más tiempo emplea en desplazarse (35%. Los resultados sugieren la existencia de una relación inversa entre tamaño corporal y tiempo dedicado al pastoreo, ya apuntada por otros autores. Vacas y cabras presentan dos períodos máximos de

  20. Molecular detection and identification of Wolbachia in three species of the genus Lutzomyia on the Colombian Caribbean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael José; Cadavid-Restrepo, Gloria; Herrera, Claudia Ximena Moreno; Soto, Sandra I Uribe

    2017-02-28

    The hematophagous habits of insects belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae), as well as their role as biological vectors of Leishmania species, make their presence an indication of infection risk. In the present study, seven species of Lutzomyia were identified and screened for natural infections with Wolbachia. Collection of sand flies was done in an endemic focus of leishmaniasis on the Colombian Caribbean coast (Department of Sucre, Ovejas municipality). DNA collected from Lutzomyia species was evaluated with PCR for wsp gene amplification to screen for bacterial infection. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia was found in three species: Lutzomyia c. cayennensis, Lutzomyia dubitans and Lutzomyia evansi. Two Wolbachia strains (genotypes) were found in Lutzomyia spp. These genotypes were previously unknown in dipteran insects. The wLev strain was found in Lutzomyia dubitans, L. c. cayennensis and L. evansi and the wLcy strain was found only in L. c. cayennensis. Genetic analysis indicated that the Wolbachia strains wLcy and wLev belong to the B Supergroup. This study provides evidence of infections of more than one strain of Wolbachia in L. c. cayennensis.

  1. Disease and intercolonial relations: small pox in the British Caribbean, 1902-1904

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    Pemberton, Rita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of epidemic small pox in the Caribbean at the beginning of the 20th century aggravated the problems inherited from the 19th century posing further challenges for these territories. This study discusses the bitter controversy that it stimulated between Barbados and Trinidad and examines the course of and response to, the disease in both colonies. It is argued that the underlying economic and social implications of the epidemic underscore the relationship between trade and health and demonstrate how regional cooperation was possible even in the midst of rivalry.El brote de la epidemia de viruela en el Caribe a principios del siglo XX intensificó los problemas heredados del siglo XIX, el cual conllevó nuevos retos para estos territorios antillanos. Este ensayo considera la difícil controversia que surgió entre Barbados y Trinidad en relación a dicha epidemia y aborda el transcurso y las maneras en que enfrentaron dicha enfermedad ambas colonias. Se argumenta que las consecuencias económicas y sociales subyacentes a la epidemia revela el carácter de las relaciones comerciales y sanitarias y demuestra cómo aún en medio de rivalidades entre los territorios surgió una colaboración regional entre sus autoridades.

  2. EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: O DESPERTAR DE UMA PROPOSTA CRÍTICA PARA A FORMAÇÃO DO SUJEITO ECOLÓGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira DA SILVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O córrego Barbado, em Cuiabá-MT, a exemplo de outros córregos urbanos, tem sofrido todos os tipos de ações antrópicas, desde obras de canalizações e desvios de seu leito natural, quanto despejos de efluentes domésticos, lixos, destruição de sua mata ciliar e assoreamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da problemática hidroambiental deste córrego, de sua nascente até a sua foz, usando o monitoramento da qualidade de suas aguas por parâmetros físico-químicos, e por meio da análise da percepção dos moradores do seu entorno. Concluiu-se que o córrego Barbado necessita de projetos de recuperação que incluam desde a conscientização dos moradores do seu entorno sobre a sua importância para o meio ambiente, quanto de investimentos no setor de saneamento básico que priorize a coleta e tratamento de efluentes e a coleta de resíduos sólidos dos bairros que o circundam.

  3. Parental history of moderate to severe infantile malnutrition is associated with cognitive deficits in their adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waber, Deborah P; Bryce, Cyralene P; Girard, Jonathan M; Fischer, Laura K; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Galler, Janina R

    2018-04-01

    We compared the IQ and academic achievement of the young adult offspring of parents malnourished in infancy and those of a healthy control group in order to test the hypothesis that the offspring of previously malnourished individuals would show IQ and academic deficits that could be related to reduced parental socioeconomic status. We conducted a group comparison study based on a community sample in Barbados (Barbados Nutrition Study). Participants were adult children ≥16 years of age whose parents had been malnourished during the first year of life (n = 64; Mean age 19.3 years; 42% male) or whose parents were healthy community controls (n = 50; Mean age 19.7 years; 48% male). The primary outcome was estimated IQ (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence); a secondary outcome was academic achievement (Wide Range Achievement Test - Third Edition). Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED with and without adjusting for parental socioeconomic status (Hollingshead Index of Social Position). IQ was reduced in the offspring of previously malnourished parents relative to the offspring of controls (9.8 point deficit; P malnutrition on cognitive function may be transmitted to the next generation; however, this intergenerational effect does not appear to be explained by the reduced socioeconomic status or IQ of the parent generation.

  4. The social relations of bereavement in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ronald; Sutherland, Patsy

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to discuss the various types of behaviors associated with grief and bereavement, and to examine the relationships, consequences, and outcomes of bereavement practices among the various religious and ethnic groups in the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados. The rituals associated with death and grief differs across cultures and is greatly influenced by religious beliefs and traditions. How these rituals are played out depend on the culture of origin and level of acculturation of the various groups into mainstream society. In the Caribbean region, expressions of grief represent religious and cultural traditions that may have a significant impact on social relations, particularly in multi-ethnic and multicultural societies. In the English-speaking Caribbean Islands of Jamaica, Trinidad, Grenada, and Barbados, mourning follows the patterns of traditional religious practices which have remained consistent over time. While families and friends may offer social support before and after burial or cremation, the social aspects of bereavement may also have implications for inter-group relations. Insights into bereavement practices and what it holds for ethnic and religious groups in contemporary Caribbean are presented.

  5. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  6. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m. PMID:25506607

  7. Sr/Ca-Sea surface temperature calibration in the branching Caribbean coral Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Christina D.; Olson, Donna M.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Gruhn, Leah M.; Winter, Amos; Taylor, Frederick W.

    2006-02-01

    We measured Sr/Ca ratios by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in radial and axial growth of modern Caribbean Acropora palmata corals. Comparison of our results with sea surface temperature (SST) allows radial and axial Sr/Ca-SST calibrations of Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 11.30 - 0.07072 × SST (°C) and Sr/Ca (mmol/mol) = 11.32 - 0.06281 x SST (°C), respectively. Application of the calibrations to fossil Acropora palmata from the last glacial maximum in Barbados (Guilderson et al., 1994) imply ~7°C cooler conditions than the present, much larger than the 1-1.5° cooling suggested by modern analog technique foraminifera-based estimates (Trend-Staid and Prell, 2002). If the foraminifera-based estimates are correct, then the excess cooling suggested by the Barbados corals could be explained by a 5% shift in the marine Sr/Ca ratio or an addition of ~20% abiotic secondary aragonite.

  8. Large-scale associations between macroalgal cover and grazer biomass on mid-depth reefs in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I.; Polunin, N.

    2001-05-01

    Since the 1970s, macroalgae have become considerably more abundant on many Caribbean reefs and overfishing of grazing fishes has been implicated as a contributory factor. We explored relationships between algal cover and grazers (biomass of herbivorous fishes and abundance of the sea-urchin Diadema antillarum) on mid-depth reefs (12-15 m) in 19 areas at seven locations in Jamaica, Barbados, Belize, Grand Cayman and Cuba, between April 1997 and April 1998. Diadema antillarum density was never >0.01 m-2, while herbivorous fish biomass (acanthurids and scarids ≥12 cm total length) varied from 2-5 g m-2 in Jamaica to 17.1 g m-2 in Barbados, and was strongly correlated, negatively with macroalgal cover and positively with 'cropped' substratum (sum of 'bare', turf and crustose-coralline substrata) cover. However, overfishing of herbivorous fishes alone cannot explain the widespread abundance of macroalgae, as even on lightly fished reefs, macroalgal cover was mostly >20%. Herbivorous fish populations on those reefs were apparently only able to maintain approximately 40-60% of reef substratum in cropped states, but due to low space-occupation by coral and other invertebrates, 70-90% of substratum was available to algae. The abundance of macroalgae on lightly fished reefs may therefore be a symptom of low coral cover in combination with the continuing absence of Diadema antillarum.

  9. Corporal punishment in elementary education: views of Barbadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S; Payne, M A

    1994-04-01

    Most previous research has suggested that children often express little unconditional disapproval of the use of corporal punishment in schools. However, this might be expected to change when pupils become aware that such treatment is no longer permitted in many countries, or hear it labelled as "abuse." This paper reports on research conducted in elementary schools in the Caribbean island of Barbados, where head teachers (or their authorized deputies) are still permitted by law to use corporal punishment. Findings indicated that approximately three-quarters of pupils surveyed still approved use of corporal punishment with their own age group, although their comments also suggested that a considerable amount of routine (and illegal) "flogging" or "lashing" by regular classroom teachers occurred, which many wished to see stopped. The growing risk of clashes between parents and schools was also identified. While this and other recent studies in Barbados provide little evidence of support for the total abolition of corporal punishment within the educational system, it is hoped that research may have some role to play in exerting pressure on schools to eliminate some of their more ritualized and pedagogically counterproductive practices.

  10. Production, characterization of tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF using agroindustrial wastes, and application in the clarification of grape juice (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Juliana Silva; Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  11. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  12. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  13. Impacto da adubação orgânica sobre a incidência de tripes em cebola Impact of the organic fertilization on onion thrips incidence

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    Paulo Antônio de S. Gonçalves

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a relação entre adubação orgânica e a incidência de Thrips tabaci Lind. em cebola (Allium cepa L, na EE de Ituporanga, entre agosto e dezembro de 1998. Os tratamentos foram determinados de acordo com a necessidade de N para a cultura pela análise de solo. Empregou-se como fonte orgânica diversos adubos fornecendo 75 Kg/ha de N (esterco suíno; adubo Barriga Verde® proveniente de esterco de aves; composto orgânico; esterco de peru; húmus; 37,5 Kg/ha de N (metade da dose normal com esterco de suíno; as testemunhas foram adubação mineral fornecendo 30-120-60 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O e o dobro da dose (60-240-120 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O; e testemunha sem adubação. Nenhum tratamento apresentou incidência de T. tabaci superior à testemunha sem adubo. A adubação mineral em relação à orgânica não favoreceu significativamente a incidência de T. tabaci . O processo de conversão do manejo do solo da área experimental de convencional para orgânico pode ter favorecido a infestação similar do inseto entre tratamentos. No período de maior incidência de T. tabaci, a relação com nutrientes foi descrita por um modelo envolvendo K/Zn, B e N de maneira positiva. A correlação entre nutrientes e T. tabaci não foi linear na maioria das avaliações. A adubação orgânica pode substituir a adubação mineral na cultura da cebola, pois foi possível atingir níveis de produtividade similares para ambos tratamentos.The impact of organic fertilization on the incidence of thrips (Thrips tabaci Lind. on onion was evaluated at Ituporanga Experimental Station in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, from August to December, 1998. The treatments using organic fertilization were based on the N needs determined by previous soil analysis. Using different organic sources were 75.0 Kg/ha of N (swine manure; Barriga Verde® poultry manure; compost; turkey manure; humus; 37.5 Kg/ha of N (swine manure half regular rate; two chemically fertilized

  14. Carcass traits of surubim (“Pseudoplatystoma” spp. evaluated by ultrasound Rendimento de carcaça em surubim ("Pseudoplatystoma" spp. avaliado por ultra-som

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    Daniela Chemim Melo

    2008-12-01

    é de lombo e do filé de barriga. Correlacionaram-se as medidas obtidas pelo ultra-som com aquelas de rendimento de carcaça. O ponto 3 apresentou as melhores correlações para rendimento dos peixes do grupo 1. Pelo ultra-som a área desse corte foi o parâmetro com maiores correlações com: carcaça (0,91, cabeça (0,86, filé de barriga (0,87 e filé de lombo (0,91. O rendimento de carcaça do grupo 1 (70,9% foi superior ao do grupo 2 (66,9%, possivelmente, em razão da maior porcentagem de cabeça destes animais. As equações com melhor predição para rendimento de carcaça e peso dos filés foram as que consideraram as medidas do ponto 3 e o comprimento total, respectivamente. A ultra-sonografia para avaliação de características de carcaça em surubins vivos é uma técnica confiável, o que possibilita a manutenção de peixes com características zootécnicas superiores dentro do plantel.

  15. Decontamination pig carcasses of organic acids with commercial and saline acidified ultraviolet lightDescontaminação de cortes suínos com ácidos orgânicos comerciais, solução salina acidificada e luz ultravioleta

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    Eliane Maria De

    2013-06-01

    carne suína, foram realizados nove tratamentos com misturas de ácidos orgânicos, solução salina acidificada, exposição a luz ultravioleta e água a 80ºC, durante 30 dias de estocagem, de barriga suína, sendo todas as analises realizadas em triplicatas. Foram realizadas contagens de micro-organismos aeróbios mesófilos, psicrotróficos, coliformes totais e fecais, Salmonella, determinação do pH e do número de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBA avaliação sensorial. Evidenciou uma redução da contaminação dos cortes de barriga suína, com mistura de ácidos orgânicos, seguidos da exposição à luz ultravioleta por 1 minuto. Em relação ao pH os tratamentos em que foi adicionada a mistura de ácidos orgânicos apresentaram diferença dos demais tratamentos com exceção do controle. As soluções de ácidos orgânicos não alteraram as características sensoriais da carne suína assada. Através dos experimentos realizados neste estudo, concluiu-se que se pode estabelecer novas propostas como alternativa para a indústria cárnea obtendo um maior controle microbiológico sem alterar as características da matéria prima, aumentando a vida útil e desta forma oferecendo ao consumidor um produto de qualidade e comercialmente seguros.

  16. Doença celíaca associada à tireoidite de Hashimoto e síndrome de Noonan Celiac disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Noonan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ortega Perez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso clínico de uma criança portadora de doença celíaca, tireoidite de Hashimoto e síndrome de Noonan. DESCRIÇÃO DE CASO: Menina de dez anos e seis meses, branca, apresentando história de diarreia líquida há cinco meses e "aumento da barriga". Ao exame, mostrava peso de 20.580g (pOBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical case of a child with celiac disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Noonan syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: A Caucasian girl aged ten years and six months had liquid diarrhea for five months, and a "distended belly". At the physical exam: weight of 20,580g (p<3, length of 114cm (p<3, hydrated, anemic 2+/4+ and conscious. The patient presented triangular facies, apparent ocular hypertelorism, antimongoloid position of the palpebral fissures, ears with low implantation, micrognathia, short neck and pectus excavatum. The abdomen was globular, flaccid and painless; the liver was 2cm below the right costal margin. Lymphedema in right upper limb and lower limb edema was also noted. Laboratory exams showed microcytic and hypochromic anemia, deficit of total proteins, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a 5-year delay in bone age. Abdominal ultrasonography showed the bowel slightly dilated. Due to lymphedema and chronic diarrhea, the initial hypothesis was intestinal lymphangiectasis, which was confirmed by a jejunal biopsy, which also showed celiac disease. The genetic evaluation revealed a 46XX karyotype and a clinical diagnosis of Noonan syndrome. COMMENTS: Different autoimmune diseases can be associated. In this case, the celiac disease and the Hashimoto's thyroiditis are possibly related to the presence of HLA system antigens. However, the association of the celiac disease with the Noonan syndrome is very rare, and this is the third report in the literature.

  17. THE EVALUATION OF LEARNING BASED ON SKILLS AT THE PRESCHOOL LEVEL

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    Oralia Ortiz Varela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is about learning evaluation based on competencies in a mixed group of Preschool level: Melchor Ocampo in Delicias Chihuahua city. The most important theoretical foundations were provided by Casanova (1998, in relation to the assessment, and Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006, with teaching in competencies and didactic strategies. The research objective is to track systematically the evaluation of competencies as well as design and experiment alternatives for evaluation in preschool level. The research methodology was conducted from the qualitative approach, dialectical critical paradigm and an action research method; integral assessment projects were designed, implemented and analyzed. Inquiry processes were performed using the techniques of observation and interview, instruments like the field diary and questionnaire (Hernández et. Al., 2006 and the method of systematization of practice proposed by Gagneten (1987. In the results it was observed that the instruments and techniques used to assess competencies were: observation, field notes, checklists, interviews with children, identification cards, children’s work, immediate group records and other evidence of work. The theoretical knowledge of the assessment of a variety of techniques and instruments to particularize the process, made clear that every teacher requires not only theoretical knowledge, the use of the range of possibilities to get information of the process that children have in their learning, not limited to one of them. It is also needed to develop both the skill and creativity of use, and the vision of what can potentially contribute. It concludes that it is possible to evaluate the 50 competencies that raises the curriculum, by using a evolution folder for each child, making a general school cycle plan, considering the assessment from teaching situations and apply the techniques and instruments at different points in the process, as well as create an awareness of self

  18. Potencial discriminatório de três testadores em "topcrosses" de milho

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    Duarte Iran de Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o potencial de três testadores endogâmicos elites a fim de avaliar e classificar 15 materiais genéticos para a síntese de híbridos. Quarenta e cinco híbridos mais quatro testemunhas foram avaliados em cinco ambientes, no ano agrícola 2000/2001, utilizando delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Foram avaliados os caracteres peso de grãos corrigido, altura de planta e altura de espiga. As estimativas de capacidade geral e específica de combinação foram obtidas pelo modelo de Griffing, adaptado por Vencovsky e Barriga, para análise em delineamento genético fatorial. O rendimento médio obtido entre os cinco ambientes variou de 8,97 t ha-1 a 12,21 t ha-1. Vinte e sete tratamentos superaram a média geral absoluta da melhor testemunha. A análise de variância conjunta revelou efeitos significativos de ambientes, capacidade geral de combinação dos parentais e testadores, capacidade específica de combinação e das interações ambiente x capacidade geral de combinação dos parentais e testadores. Os testadores promoveram uma classificação diferenciada para a base genética avaliada, com destaque para os cruzamentos entre parentais HS1, HS2, HS5 e HT4 com o testador LF e parentais L10 e HS5 com o testador L05.

  19. Não basta gerar, tem que participar?: um estudo sobre a ausência paterna

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    Sabrina Daiana Cúnico

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou conhecer, por meio de uma abordagem qualitativa, quais as possíveis razões para a ausência paterna na vida dos filhos após o rompimento conjugal. Para tanto, foram entrevistados pais que participaram do serviço de mediação familiar e tiveram acordo homologado judicialmente em um Núcleo de Práticas Judiciárias Gratuitas. A pesquisa foi realizada utilizando a técnica de entrevistas semidirigidas de questões abertas, e os resultados analisados por meio da análise de conteúdo temática. Os pais relataram terem se sentido vítimas de um golpe - o golpe da barriga - que teve por objetivo mantêlos em um relacionamento em vias de dissolução. Assim, apresentaram dificuldades em estabelecer um vínculo afetivo com esse filho, visto que amá-lo seria assumir a efetividade de tal golpe. Ademais, foram identificadas semelhanças na história familiar dos participantes que envolviam a paternidade, as quais, por não terem sido problematizadas, não se tornaram objeto de reflexão, o que levou à repetição. Por fim, entende-se que o estudo aponta a importância do cuidado com relação aos efeitos da dissolução conjugal no que tange ao exercício dos papéis parentais, em especial, à paternidade.

  20. EXPOSICIÓN TEMPORAL. ALGUNOS DE LOS PRIMEROS LIBROS MÉDICOS ESCRITOS POR COLOMBIANOS ENTRE 1820-1920.

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    Hugo Armando Sotomayor Tribin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Sexta muestra de la serie “Objetos del trimestre”, que busca mostrar diferentes objetos, fotografías, libros, y documentos del Museo de Historia de la Medicina de la Academia.

    INTRODUCCIÓN

    En la Nueva Granada de principios del siglo XIX solo existía una facultad o escuela de medicina, la del Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, en Bogotá. A partir de 1828 ya existían, en lo que hoy es Colombia, la Escuela de Medicina de la Universidad Central, la escuela de Medicina del Magdalena y el Istmo asentada en Cartagena, y sobrevivían las cátedras de medicina del Rosario y San Bartolomé, con sede en Bogotá; en 1864 se abrió en Bogotá la primera Escuela de Medicina, privada; en esa década de los sesenta del siglo XIX el Estado Soberano del Cauca reanudó y cerró los estudios de medicina en el Colegio del Estado, el Estado Soberano de Boyacá activó en 1869 en el Colegio de Boyacá la cátedra de medicina, de vida breve. A finales del siglo XIX solo existían las facultades de medicina de las universidades Nacional, de Antioquia y de Cartagena, y en 1920 el país seguía teniendo esas tres facultades de medicina en funcionamiento.

    Aunque se logró tener conocimiento de catorce libros, solo se exhiben 10 (uno por autor, a excepción de Nicolás Osorio y Ricaurte con dos, ambos exhibidos, y Luis Cuervo Márquez con dos, solo uno exhibido, con la ausencia de las obras de los autores Ricardo de La Parra, Juan de Dios Tavera Barriga y Gabriel D. Ujueta y el libro de Luis Cuervo Márquez titulado: La fiebre amarilla en el interior de Colombia.

    Sobre el total de los 14 libros, diez están exhibidos y de ellos, tres fueron publicados en lo que iba hasta ese momento del siglo XX: Manual de Higiene y Medicina Infantil, de Barberi; Contribución al estudio de la lepra en Colombia, de Montoya y Flórez, y Geografía Médica y patológica de Colom- bia: contribución al

  1. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

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    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  2. An epidemiological study of rates of illness in passengers and crew at a busy Caribbean cruise port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Cathy Ann; Morris, Euclid; Unwin, Nigel

    2016-04-12

    The Caribbean has one of the largest cruise ship industries in the world, with close to 20 million visitors per year. The potential for communicable disease outbreaks on vessels and the transmission by ship between countries is high. Barbados has one of the busiest ports in the Caribbean. Our aim was to describe and analyse the epidemiology of illnesses experienced by passengers and crew arriving at the Bridgetown Port, Barbados between 2009 and 2013. Data on the illnesses recorded were extracted from the passenger and crew arrival registers and passenger and crew illness logs for all ships and maritime vessels arriving at Barbados' Ports and passing through its territorial waters between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were entered into an Epi Info database and most of the analysis undertaken using Epi Info Version 7. Rates per 100,000 visits were calculated, and confidence intervals on these were derived using the software Openepi. There were 1031 cases of illness from over 3 million passenger visits and 1 million crew visits during this period. The overall event rate for communicable illnesses was 15.7 (95 % CI 14.4-17.1) per 100,000 passengers, and for crew was 24.0 (21.6-26.6) per 100, 000 crew. Gastroenteritis was the predominant illness experienced by passengers and crew followed by influenza. The event rate for gastroenteritis among passengers was 13.7 (12.5-15.0) per 100,000 and 14.4 (12.6, 16.5) for crew. The event rate for non-communicable illnesses was 3.4 per 100,000 passengers with myocardial infarction being the main diagnosis. The event rate for non-communicable illnesses among crew was 2.1 per 100,000, the leading cause being injuries. The predominant illnesses reported were gastroenteritis and influenza similar to previous published reports from around the world. This study is the first of its type in the Caribbean and the data provide a baseline for future surveillance and for comparison with other countries and regions.

  3. La ganadería lanar en Madrid y su tierra durante la Edad Media

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    Tomás Puñal Fernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la ganadería en general y ovina en particular ofrece un campo muy generoso de investigación porque permite conocer muchas de las estructuras socioeconómicas regionales y locales de un país o territorio. En el caso de Madrid dicho estudio es importante por cuanto en el conjunto de las labores agropecuarias del concejo, las ganaderas fueron las que mejor marcaron su desarrollo económico. La tierra madrileña es tierra de ganado, sobre todo lanar, y ello fue el punto de referencia de diversas actividades económicas que iban desde el abastecimiento de carne para la alimentación hasta la obtención de materia prima, lana y pieles, para las industrias textil y del cuero. Para tener una visión más amplia e interdisciplinar el presente estudio se ha hecho desde una doble perspectiva económica y social. Desde la ganadería estante y local a la trashumante, con especial mención a la Mesta y toda su problemática, así como los aspectos cuantitativos derivados del número de ovejas y el tamaño y tipo de los rebaños y sus aspectos fiscales concomitantes. En relación a ello toda la infraestructura de pastos y cañadas. Los aspectos sociales se refieren a los propietarios de ovejas como una oligarquía rural de labradores enriquecidos, así como a los trabajadores del ganado, es decir los pastores, sus contratos, salarios y condiciones de vida. En conjunto el panorama que se ofrece es muy significativo y permite acercarnos un poco más a la realidad socioeconómica del Madrid medieval.The study of the livestock in general and sheep in particular, offers a huge field to research as it allows to know many of the local and regional socioeconomíc structures of a city or country. In the case of Madrid, that study is important because the sheep livestock is, among the rest of the agricultural activities, the main one for its contribution to the economic development. Madrid is a livestock área, mainly for sheep, as the point of

  4. Udder Morphological Traits and Milk Yield of Chilota and Suffolk Down Sheep Breeds Morfología Mamaria y Producción Lechera de las Razas Ovinas Chilota y Suffolk Down

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    María E Martínez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits of the whole udder (circumference, width, height, and length, teats (angle, length and width, udder cistern (teat opening and cistern height, and milk yield were measured over one lactation in a total of 18 ewes (nine Chilota and nine Suffolk Down sheep belonging to the same experimental flock (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile. Analysis of variance showed significant effects for breed, sheep within breed, and stage of lactation. Chilota ewes evidenced greater udder circumference (433 mm, udder length (86 mm, teat opening (96º, and milk yield (947 mL d-1 than Suffolk Down ewes (410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, and 559 mL d-1, respectively. Udder circumference, udder width, udder length, cistern height and teat size significantly decreased throughout lactation. Repeatabilities of all traits were between 0.17 and 0.60; the highest repeatability was for udder circumference. This trait is easy to measure and had a discriminatory value for breed differentiation. In conclusion, Chilota sheep had a dairy aptitude greater than Suffolk Down sheep and similar to Spanish and Mediterranean dairy sheep breeds at beginning of their breeding programs.Los caracteres morfológicos de la ubre (perímetro, anchura, longitud y altura, de los pezones (ángulo de inclinación, longitud y anchura, de las cisternas mamarias (apertura de los pezones y altura de la cisterna y la producción lechera fueron medidos a lo largo de una lactación en un total de 18 ovejas del mismo rebaño (Centro Experimental INIA Butalcura, Chiloé, Chile, nueve de raza Chilota y nueve de raza Suffolk Down. El análisis de varianza mostró efectos significativos de la raza, la oveja dentro de la raza y del estado de lactación sobre las variables estudiadas. La raza Chilota evidenció un mayor perímetro de la ubre (433 mm, longitud de la ubre (86 mm, abertura de los pezones (96º, y producción lechera (947 mL d-1 que la Suffolk Down ( 410 mm, 77 mm, 93º, y 559 m

  5. Encefalopatía Espongiforme Bovina

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    Gonzalo Luque Forero

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available

    En 1986 se comprobó en Inglaterra que una entidad clínica de los bovinos caracterizada por excitabilidad, cambios de comportamiento, hiperestesia, agresividad, resistencia para entrar a la sala de ordeño, correspondía histopatológicamente a una encefalopatía espongiforme, sorprendentemente similar a la del scrapie de ovinos y caprinos y a la de las enfermedades humanas de Creutzfeldt-Jacob (C-J y Kuru. (2

    Esta encefalopatía espongiforme de los bovinos alcanzó proporciones epidémicas; para Febrero de 1990 el total de casos confirmados era de 9.838 procedentes de 5.659 hatos. La situación llevó a la eliminación de miles de cabezas de ganado, a un ritmo de 200 a 300 animales por semana, y a la prohibición del expendio de carne y vísceras de animales infectados para consumo humano. Algunos países de Europa Occidental, Estados Unidos y Canadá aplicaron drásticas medidas para impedir la importación de bovinos provenientes de Inglaterra y sus subproductos. (2,5,7

    La causa más probable de las manifestaciones en los bovinos es que se hayan infectado al consumir alimentos concentrados que contenían proteínas y subproductos ovinos provenientes de ovejas infectadas con el agente del scrapie. Con la circunstancia de que en la década de 1970 se cambió en Inglaterra el sistema de extraer la grasa y la carne de las ovejas por medio de solventes y elevadas temperaturas por un proceso en frío. El período de incubación de la encefalopatía espongiforme de los bovinos está entre los dos y medio y los ocho años. (2,9

    El scrapie es una enfermedad de ovinos y a veces de caprinos, caracterizada por trastornos nerviosos como excitabilidad, tremor de la cabeza, ataxia de los miembros anteriores, incoordinación para la marcha e incapacidad para mantenerse en pie. Hay también intenso prurito cutáneo que lleva a que los animales se froten constantemente contra objetos fijos y se observa además caída de la lana. La

  6. Encefalopatías espongiformes transmisibles: enfermedad crónica desgastante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Reyes-López

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades por encefalopatías espongiformes transmisibles (EET, algunas veces llamadas enfermedades “por priones”, son un grupo de enfermedades raras, incurables, neurodegenerativas y fatales, las cuales afectan a una variedad de mamíferos. En los pasados 20 años, las EET pasaron de ser “las enfermedades de fascinación” a enfermedades difíciles de entender, causantes de pérdidas económicas en el sector ganadero, además de provocar problemas de salud humana. Las EET incluyen Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD y kuru en humanos; scrapi en ovejas, encefalopatía en visón (TME y caquexia crónica del ciervo y alce (CWD. En el ganado, se propuso de manera sugestiva el nombre de “vacas locas” o encefalopatía espongiforme bovina (BSE. La CWD puede ser transmitida indirectamente a animales susceptibles a través de ambientes contaminados, mediante heces o cadáveres descompuestos. En los últimos 5 años, la distribución conocida de CWD en Norte América se extendió, incrementando las dudas sobre el impacto de esta enfermedad en cérvidos de vida libre y la viabilidad de ranchos cinegéticos. En México, no existe evidencia de CWD en venados de vida silvestre o cautiverio, aunque se ha detectado en un condado fronterizo de Nuevo México, EUA. La CWD es considerada una enfermedad exótica y deben de tomarse las medidas pertinentes para evitar su introducción en México.

  7. Réplicas y perfección humana: «Los niños del Brasil» y «GATTACA»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma RODRÍGUEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La posibilidad de la clonación humana se ha convertido en una preocupación social tras la aparición de la oveja Dolly en 1997. Los avances de la genética molecular y de las técnicas de reproducción en los últimos treinta años han planteado una situación que parecía muy lejana tras la clonación de ranas en 1952. La visión cinematográfica de la clonación humana ha oscilado desde el terror de La invasión de los ladrones de cuerpos (1956 a la comicidad de El dormilón (1973. En los últimos años diversas películas, utilizando una aproximación científica más creíble, han analizado negativamente lo que ocurriría si fuera posible. Como para gran parte de la población la única información sobre temas científicos proviene de los medios de comunicación y las películas comerciales, tiene interés su análisis y el de su contexto histórico-científico para valorar el conocimiento de tales temas. Para ilustrarlo se ha escogido Los niños del Brasil (1978 y GATTACA (1997. Ambas películas permiten la exposición de las posibles consecuencias de la clonación humana en un caso particular o como un instrumento socialmente aceptado. Asimismo, plantean el elemento crítico de si la identidad del individuo es consecuencia de un determinismo biológico, social o ambos

  8. El paisaje como archivo del territorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Isabel Prada Llorente

    2004-09-01

    (1 Este trabajo es una parte seleccionada sobre un aspecto muy concreto, como es la escala territorial, de la tesis doctoral “Sayago, evolución histórica y proyección futura de su estructura territorial” leída en la Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura de Madrid en octubre de 2002. (2 Sayago: Posible relación con yacimientos mineros de época celta derivando de la palabra céltica Salliacum. Sus formas medievales serían: Saliago, Salago, Salagu y Sayago (cfr. MARTÍN VISO, 1996. De sayo, sayal, capa o “sagum” celtibérico y lusitano de color pardo, buriel o vellorí de las ovejas llamadas negras. Se pagaban como tributos por los vencidos celtíberos a las tribus romanas. Con el “paño sayal” se confeccionaron (hasta finales del s.XIX, principios del XX, todas las prendas externas de la indumentaria sayaguesa (cfr. Del Brío Mateos, 1998. (3 Escuadro: Topónimo de origen romanizador posiblemente referido a algún tipo de parcelación romana (Informante: Juan Vicent, prehistoriador del C.S.I.C. “Ex-cuadro” o “fuera del cuadro”, según la tradición popular este poblamiento hubiera surgido a raíz de los acompañamientos que las tropas romanas necesitaban para su abastecimiento en todos los aspectos, dejando fuera del recinto en otro lugar, al conjunto de herreros, artesanos, prostitutas, etc. que constituían dicho acompañamiento

  9. Preliminary data on nutritional value of abundant species in supraforestal Pyrenean pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinas, A.

    2006-12-01

    hecho es destacable porque permite un suministro constante de EM para los herbívoros durante todo el período de pastoreo (Julio a Septiembre. Las dicotiledóneas cubren los requerimientos de vacas y ovejas durante el período de pastoreo de todos los nutrientes analizados excepto en P. Las graminoides son deficitarias en EM, P y Mg, y su contenido en CP es un poco justo para las necesidades de las ovejas. Debido a que el régimen alimentario de vacas y ovejas está basado principalmente en las graminoides, los animales podrían estar experimentando un déficit nutricional cuando pastan en los pastos de puerto pirenaicos.

  10. Project Update: RLA/9/081 ''Strengthening Cradle-to-Grave Control of Radioactive Sources in the Caribbean Region''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Why are we concerned about sources? Security, Safety & Health: Security - With sources under control the world is a safer place; Safety - Of people and environment for preservation of economies; Including Health - Sources are invaluable part of modern technological medical treatments. Goiania 1987: Cs-137 Source Small capsule (93 grams of powder); 112,800 people required monitoring; 271 people found contaminated; 4 dead; 7 houses demolished. Objectives and Outcomes - Objective: To protect the people and the environment from potential adverse effects of ionizing radiation while enabling and fostering the safe and secure use of radioactive sources to promote sustainable socioeconomic development. Outcome: Have a national inventory in place in every MS of all (disused) sealed radioactive sources. IAEA Member States participating: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Guyana, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago

  11. Effectiveness of a short-term treatment with progesterone injections on synchrony of lambing and fertility in tropical hair sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Marlon; Ramgattie, Reeza; Siew, Narendra; Singh-Knights, Doolarie; Bourne, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of using a low cost system for delivering progesterone as part of an estrous synchronization protocol in sheep was evaluated. In experiment 1, Barbados Black Belly ewes (n=34) and ewe lambs (n=35; 37.5±0.9 kg) were assigned to be untreated, control animals (C), or to receive PGF(2α) on d0 (PG), or receive two injections of progesterone (200mg, i.m. each) on D -5 and on D -2.5, prior to PGF(2α), on D 0 (2PPG). Treatment with 2PPG increased the proportion of animals lambing to the first service (Psynchronized regardless of physiological state. In conclusion, the two-progesterone injection synchronization protocol may be used as a practical low cost and efficient method of synchronizing estrus to reduce the lambing interval and maximize productivity in tropical breeds of sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Treaty of Tlatelolco enhances the security of the countries of the region by reducing the risk of a nuclear-arms race among them, with all the danger and cost that it would entail, and, as a contribution to the world-wide nuclear non-proliferation regime, it constitutes an important confidence-building measure by ensuring, through its control and verification system, that parties to the Treaty do not posses and will not acquire nuclear weapons. List of parties to the Treaty of Tlatelolco as of 31 July 1989: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil (not full party), Chile (not full party), Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. (Argentina and Dominica have signed the Treaty)

  13. TEWS'98. Final report [5th annual International Science Camp: The Earth We Share 1998, Golden, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mae C. Jemison

    1999-04-06

    The fifth annual International Science Camp The Earth We Share 1998 (TEWS'98) was held at the Colorado School of Mines located in Goldez Colorado. TEWS98 was a four week residential program which focused on providing a meaningful science education experience while developing critical thinking skills. Thirty three students, three teachers, four college interns and the camp administrator lived and worked together while developing solutions to several worldwide problems. These problems are called the Discovery Topics and they are: (1) design the worlds perfect house; (2) how many people can the world hold; and (3) predict the hot stocks for the year 2030. The participants, both students and staff came from different countries all over the world The following countries were represented: The United Kingdom, Sierra Leone (West Africa), Ireland, USA Nigeria, West Indies and Barbados.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  15. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  16. Should cryptocurrencies be included in the portfolio of international reserves held by central banks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Moore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, the central bank is required to hold reserve assets as a means of providing credibility for the value of the fiat currency. These assets can be in the form of gold, foreign exchange or some other internationally recognised reserve asset and are held to permit the country to engage in international transactions. Within recent years, cryptocurrencies have been increasingly utilised for international transactions, and it is possible that the use of these cryptocurrencies might expand in the future. This paper therefore examines the potential role of digital currency balances as part of the portfolio of external assets held by a central bank. Using the case of Barbados, the paper also provides a simulation of the effect holding some proportion of their asset-base would have had on the stability of the foreign reserves as well as the return on the portfolio of assets.

  17. Caribbean alternative energy programme project proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    This is the third report to follow the Project Group Meeting on ALTERNATIVE ENERGY RESOURCES, Barbados, September, 1977. It consists of summaries of projects proposals identified at the Meeting. The first two reports have been previously circulated. The first CSC(77)AER-1 covers the background, proceedings and recommendations resulting from the meeting as well as containing a brief outline of the project proposals. The country papers and technical papers that were presented at the meeting or served as background material, form the second report, CSC(77)AER-2. Copies of the first two reports can be obtained on request to the Commonwealth Science Council. Projects with potential for making significant progress in the short term have been marked with an asterisk

  18. Seasonal radiogenic isotopic variability of the African dust outflow to the tropical Atlantic Ocean and across to the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Abouchami, W.; Galer, S. J. G.; Singh, Satinder Pal; Fomba, K. W.; Prospero, J. M.; Andreae, M. O.

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess the impact of mineral dust on climate and biogeochemistry, it is paramount to identify the sources of dust emission. In this regard, radiogenic isotopes have recently been used successfully for tracing North African dust provenance and its transport across the tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean. Here we present two time series of radiogenic isotopes (Pb, Sr and Nd) in dusts collected at the Cape Verde Islands and Barbados in order to determine the origin of the dust and examine the seasonality of westerly dust outflow from Northern Africa. Aerosol samples were collected daily during two campaigns - February 2012 (winter) and June-July 2013 (summer) - at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO) on the island of São Vicente (16.9°N, 24.9°W). A one-year-long time series of aerosols from Barbados (13.16°N, 59.43°W) - a receptor region in the Caribbean - was sampled at a lower, monthly resolution. Our results resolve a seasonal isotopic signal at Cape Verde shown by daily variations, with a larger radiogenic isotope variability in winter compared to that in summer. This summer signature is also observed over Barbados, indicating similar dust provenance at both locations, despite different sampling years. This constrains the isotope fingerprint of Saharan Air Layer (SAL) dust that is well-mixed during its transport. This result provides unequivocal evidence for a permanent, albeit of variable strength, long-range transport of African dust to the Caribbean and is in full agreement with atmospheric models of North African dust emission and transport across the tropical Atlantic in the SAL. The seasonal isotopic variability is related to changes in the dust source areas - mainly the Sahara and Sahel regions - that are active all-year-round, albeit with variable contributions in summer versus the winter months. Our results provide little support for much dust contributed from the Bodélé Depression in Chad - the "dustiest" place on Earth

  19. STRENGTHENING THE REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING CAPACITIES OF PARENTS WHO HAVE A CHILD WITH A NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY THROUGH A BRIEF, RELATIONSHIP-FOCUSED INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Julie; Glovinsky, Ira P

    2016-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the reflective functioning capacities of caregivers who have a child with a neurodevelopmental disorder between the ages of 2 years 0 months and 6 years 11 months. Children with a neurodevelopmental disorder receive a range of diagnoses, including sutism; however, they all exhibit social communication challenges that can derail social relationships. Forty parent-child dyads in Barbados were randomly assigned to either a developmental individual-difference, relationship-based/floortime(DIR/FT) group (n = 20), or a psychoeducational (wait-list) group (n = 20) with parental reflective functioning measured before and after a 12-week DIR/FT treatment intervention. Results revealed significant gains in parental reflective functioning in the treatment group, as compared to the psychoeducational (wait-list) group, after the 12-week relationship-focused intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. San Jose Accord: energy aid or petroleum-marketing strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-30

    The San Jose Accord was signed in San Jose, Costa Rica on August 3, 1980 by the Presidents of Venezuela and Mexico, whereby the two countries mutually committed to supply the net imported domestic oil consumption of several Central American and Caribbean countries. Countries initially participating in the program are: Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Seven eastern Caribbean countries were to meet on October 7 to petition for inclusion in the Accord, namely: Antigua, St. Kitt/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. The official language of the Accord is presented, and the operative status of the Accord two years after signing is discussed. Specific briefs about some of the individual countries in the Accord are included. The fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries is updated.

  1. New strategic directions for Caribbean CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in the strategy of the Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project emphasize the condom, under the brand name, Panther. Since 1984, CCSMP began marketing their Perle rand of oral contraceptive, since dropped, in Barbados, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Now wider commercial connections are envisioned, with support by CCSMP to promote generic brands. The Panther condom campaign will include an array of mass media, point-of-purchase and sporting event advertising. Pharmacies report that Panther is selling as well as the leading commercial brand. CCSMP is looking to introduce an ultra-thin condom and a vaginal foaming tablet. Market research, involving physicians and users as well as retail audits, indicates that although population in numbers alone is not a serious problem in the Caribbean, early pregnancy is a concern in the area.

  2. Log Books and the Law of Storms: Maritime Meteorology and the British Admiralty in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Simon

    2015-12-01

    This essay contributes to debates about the relationship between science and the military by examining the British Admiralty's participation in meteorological projects in the first half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on attempts to transform Royal Navy log books into standardized meteorological registers that would be of use to both science and the state. The essay begins with a discussion of Admiralty Hydrographer Francis Beaufort, who promoted the use of standardized systems for the observation of the weather at sea. It then examines the application of ships' logs to the science of storms. The essay focuses on the Army engineer William Reid, who studied hurricanes while stationed in Barbados and Bermuda. Reid was instrumental in persuading the Admiralty to implement a naval meteorological policy, something the Admiralty Hydrographer had struggled to achieve. The essay uses the reception and adoption of work on storms at sea to reflect on the means and ends of maritime meteorology in the mid-nineteenth century.

  3. The application of HPLC ESI MS in the investigation of the flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides of a Caribbean Lamiaceae plant with potential for bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Sonia R; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V

    2015-01-01

    As part of an exchange technology program between the government of Barbados and Environment Canada, methanolic and aqueous extracts from the flavonoid-rich Lamiaceae family were characterized using negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The species investigated is part of the Caribbean Pharmacopoeia, and is used for a variety of health issues, including colds, flu, diabetes, and hypertension. The extracts were investigated for structural elucidation of phenolics, identification of chemical taxonomic profile, and evidence of bio-accumulator potential. The methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus yielded rosmarinic acid, ladanein, cirsimaritin, and other methoxylated flavonoids. This genus also shows a tendency to form conjugates with monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. The aqueous extract yielded four isomeric rhamnosides. The formation of conjugates by Plectranthus amboinicus is thus evidence of high bioaccumulator significance.

  4. Draft Mauritius Strategy for the further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States remains the blueprint for small island developing States and the international community to address national and regional sustainable development in small island developing States that takes into account the economic, social and environmental aspects that are the pillars of the holistic and integrated approach to sustainable development. The Programme of Action sets out basic principles as well as specific actions that are required at the national, regional and international levels to support sustainable development in small island developing States. Along with the Barbados Programme of Action, the Rio Principles, the full implementation of Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the outcomes of other relevant major United Nations conferences and summits, including the Monterrey Consensus, all contribute to the sustainable development of small island developing States

  5. Divergence in problem-solving skills is associated with differential expression of glutamate receptors in wild finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Kayello, Lima; Ducatez, Simon; Perillo, Sara; Cauchard, Laure; Howard, Jason T; O'Connell, Lauren A; Jarvis, Erich D; Lefebvre, Louis

    2018-03-01

    Problem solving and innovation are key components of intelligence. We compare wild-caught individuals from two species that are close relatives of Darwin's finches, the innovative Loxigilla barbadensis , and its most closely related species in Barbados, the conservative Tiaris bicolor . We found an all-or-none difference in the problem-solving capacity of the two species. Brain RNA sequencing analyses revealed interspecific differences in genes related to neuronal and synaptic plasticity in the intrapallial neural populations (mesopallium and nidopallium), especially in the nidopallium caudolaterale, a structure functionally analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex. At a finer scale, we discovered robust differences in glutamate receptor expression between the species. In particular, the GRIN2B/GRIN2A ratio, known to correlate with synaptic plasticity, was higher in the innovative L. barbadensis . These findings suggest that divergence in avian intelligence is associated with similar neuronal mechanisms to that of mammals, including humans.

  6. A comparison of the chemical constituents of Barbadian medicinal plants within their respective plant families with established drug compounds and phytochemicals used to treat communicable and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohall, D; Carrington, S

    2012-01-01

    Barbados has a strong base in the practice of folklore botanical medicines. Consistent with the rest of the Caribbean region, the practice is criticized due to lack of evidence on the efficacy and safety testing. The objectives of this review article are i) to categorize and identify plants by their possible indications and their scientific classification and ii) to determine if the chemical constituents of the plants will be able to provide some insight into their possible uses in folklore medicine based on existing scientific research on their chemical constituents and also by their classification. A review of the folklore botanical medicines of Barbados was done. Plants were primarily grouped based on their use to treat particular communicable and non-communicable diseases. Plants were then secondarily grouped based on their families. The chemical profiles of the plants were then compared to established drug compounds currently approved for the conventional treatment of illnesses and also to established phytochemicals. The extensive literature review identified phytochemical compounds in particular plants used in Barbadian folklore medicine. Sixty-six per cent of reputed medicinal plants contain pharmacologically active phytochemicals; fifty-one per cent of these medicinal plants contain phytochemicals with activities consistent with their reported use. Folklore botanical medicine is well grounded on investigation of the scientific rationale. The research showed that fifty-one per cent of the identified medicinal plants have chemical compounds which have been identified to be responsible for its associated medicinal activity. To a lesser extent, approved drug compounds from drug regulatory bodies with similar chemical structure to the bioactive compounds in the plants proved to validate the use of some of these plants to treat illnesses.

  7. On the propagation and decay of North Brazil Current rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Rhein, Monika; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; BöNing, Claus W.

    2010-10-01

    Near the western boundary of the tropical North Atlantic, where the North Brazil Current (NBC) retroflects into the North Equatorial Countercurrent, large anticyclonic rings are shed. After separating from the retroflection region, the so-called NBC rings travel northwestward along the Brazilian coast, until they reach the island chain of the Lesser Antilles and disintegrate. These rings contribute substantially to the upper limb return flow of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by carrying South Atlantic Water into the northern subtropical gyre. Their relevance for the northward transport of South Atlantic Water depends on the frequency of their generation as well as on their horizontal and vertical structure. The ring shedding and propagation and the complex interaction of the rings with the Lesser Antilles are investigated in the ? Family of Linked Atlantic Model Experiments (FLAME) model. The ring properties simulated in FLAME reach the upper limit of the observed rings in diameter and agree with recent observations on seasonal variability, which indicates a maximum shedding during the first half of the year. When the rings reach the shallow topography of the Lesser Antilles, they are trapped by the island triangle of St. Lucia, Barbados and Tobago and interact with the island chain. The model provides a resolution that is capable of resolving the complex topographic conditions at the islands and illuminates various possible fates for the water contained in the rings. It also reproduces laboratory experiments that indicate that both cyclones and anticyclones are formed after a ring passes through a topographic gap. Trajectories of artificial floats, which were inserted into the modeled velocity field, are used to investigate the pathways of the ring cores and their fate after they encounter the Lesser Antilles. The majority of the floats entered the Caribbean, while the northward Atlantic pathway was found to be of minor importance. No prominent

  8. First regional CSM program planned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    6 countries in the English-speaking Caribbean (Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, St. Kitts/Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent) are scheduled to form the 1st regional contraceptive social marketing program. The program will be under the auspices of the Barbados Family Planning Association. By combining resources, contraceptive social marketing should be able to effectively augment family planning activities in smaller countries where individual programs wuld be too costly. The regional program will also determine whether program elements from 1 country in a region are relevant in other countries. The Caribbean region as a whole has experienced a general decline in both crude birth rates and fertility rates during the past 15 years; however, adolescent fertility rates remain high and an average of 46% of the populations of Caribbean countries are under 15 years of age. Although heavy emigration has traditionally curbed population increases, new restrictive immigration laws are expected. Further increases in the working age population will contribute to already high unemployment rates and hinder economic development. The 6 countries selected for the social marketing program are receptive to innovative family planning approaches and have the basic marketing infrastructure required. Community-based distribution programs already in operation in these countries distribute condoms, oral contraceptives, and barrier methods. The success of these programs has plateaued, and there is a need for delivery systems capable of reaching broader segments of the population. The social marketing program will be phased in to ensure local acceptance among national leaders and consumers. The regional program hopes to borrow elements from Jamaica's contraceptive social marketing program to avoid the costs involved in starting a program from scratch. A major innovation will be the use of mass media advertising for contraceptives.

  9. DE LA IDENTIDAD FOLCLÓRICA A LA REIVINDICACIÓN DEL BUEN VIVIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Collin Harguindeguy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Si bien, prácticamente desde los albores de la disciplina, el relativismo cultural prescribía el respeto a las culturas otras, al menos desde hace cuatro décadas, con posterioridad a la reunión de Barbados, buena parte de los antropólogos hemos asumido, como parte de nuestra labor, la revalorización de las culturas étnicas. Esta tarea ha sido abordada tanto desde la academia como desde la antropología aplicada, con proyectos para el rescate del patrimonio cultural. Es más, en parte por nuestra labor, los propios pueblos indios tienden a identificar patrimonio cultural, cultura e identidad. En el artículo se argumenta en torno a la necesidad de superar esta visión folclórica de la cultura y la identidad, para transitar a la revaloración de las lógicas implícitas, como parece hacerlo la propuesta del buen vivir. FOLKLORIC IDENTITY AND RECLAIMING GOOD LIVING Cultural relativism has prescribed respect for other cultures practically since its beginning. In spite of this, at least since the last four decades, following the Barbados Meeting, a large number of anthropologists have taken on the revaluing of ethnic cultures as part of our work. Both academia and applied anthropology have approached this task with projects aiming to retrieve cultural heritage. Furthermore, it is in part due to our work as anthropologists that indigenous peoples have tended to identify cultural heritage, culture and identity. This article addresses the need to overcome a folkloric vision of culture and identity and thus move toward revaluing the implicit logic, as supported by the buen vivir ‘good living’ proposal.  

  10. Economic and other determinants of infant and child mortality in small developing countries: the case of Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, D E

    1996-03-01

    This analysis involves empirically testing a theoretical model among 22 Central American and Caribbean countries during the 1990s that explains differences in infant and child mortality. Explanatory measures capture demographic, economic, health care, and educational characteristics. The model is expected to allow for an assessment of the potential impact of structural adjustment and external debt. It is pointed out that birth rates and child mortality rates followed similar patterns over time and between countries. In this study's regression analyses all variables in the three models that explain infant mortality are exogenous: low birth weight, immunization, gross domestic product per capita, years of schooling for women, population/nurse, and debt as a proportion of gross national product. As nations became richer, infant mortality declined. Infant mortality was lower in countries with high external debt. In models for explaining the birth rate and the child mortality rate, the best fit included variables for debt, real public expenditure on health care, water supply, and malnutrition. Analysis in a simultaneous model for 10 countries revealed that the birth rate and the child mortality rate were more responsive to shocks in exogenous variables in Barbados than in the Dominican Republic, and more responsive in the Dominican Republic than in Guatemala. The impact of each exogenous variable varied by country. In Barbados education was four times more effective in explaining the birth rate than water. In Guatemala, the most effective exogenous variable was malnutrition. Child mortality rates were affected more by multiplier effects. In richer countries, the most important impact on child survival was improved access to safe water, and the most important impact on the birth rate was increased real public expenditure on education per capita. For the poorest countries, findings suggest first improvement in malnutrition and then improvement in safe water supplies

  11. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  12. Caribbean male: macho and insensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    185, 50, and 104 men aged 15-44 years were interviewed, respectively, in Barbados, St. Lucia, and Grenada in three attitudinal studies designed to get an objective look at male attitudes in the region on family planning and human sexuality. Qualitative information was obtained on fertility and contraceptive use, attitudes toward premarital sex, fidelity and relationships, and influences upon male behavior. Men wanted an average of 2.5 children in Barbados, 4 in St. Lucia, and 3.5 in Grenada. Monogamy was not paramount, with 56% of Grenadian men reporting having overlapping sexual relations. There was also a substantial tolerance for illegitimacy, especially among married men and men with post-secondary education. In St. Lucia, relationships are conducted on the man's terms. For example, men may have sexual relationships with multiple women, but it is unacceptable for women to have other men. Most men, however, agreed that fathers should have a say in the upbringing of their children and should visit and support them financially even if the parents do not live together. Many respondents had unstable relationships with their fathers, and a large proportion had not lived with them. 63% of respondents knew their fathers had outside women. Men were aware and supportive of family planning, and generally try to use contraception. 78% of men interviewed in Grenada and 75% of men interviewed in St. Lucia endorse birth control, while 52% of the respondents in St. Lucia practice family planning. Younger, relatively inexperienced men were most typically in need of more knowledge and greater practice of family planning. Family planning programs should be targeted accordingly.

  13. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Clive Landis

    Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  14. Yield and composition of pirarucu fillet in different weight classes = Rendimento e composição do filé de pirarucu em diferentes classes de peso

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    Fabíola Helena dos Santos Fogaça

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fillet yield and quantity of waste generated after processing areimportant for planning and evaluating the growth performance of species and systems of aquaculture production in Brazil. The pirarucu (Arapaima gigas is among the species with desirable characteristics for intensive fish with high market value. The objective was to evaluate the performance of pirarucu fillet in different weight classes: 7.0 to 9.0 kg (group I, 11.0 to 13.0 kg (group II and 14.0 to 17.0 kg (group III. The fillet yield presented no significant difference between groups. The composition showed significantdifferences (p O rendimento de filé e a quantidade de resíduos gerada após o processamento são importantes para o planejamento e a avaliação do desempenho zootécnico de espécies e dos sistemas de produção aquícola brasileiros. O pirarucu (Arapaima gigas está entre as espécies com características desejáveis para piscicultura intensiva e com alto valor de mercado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento do filé de pirarucu em diferentes classes de peso: 7,0 a 9,0 kg (grupo I, 11,0 a 13,0 kg (grupo II e 14,0 a 17,0 kg (grupo III. O rendimento de filé não apresentou diferença significativa entre os grupos avaliados. A composição apresentou diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 para umidade (77,96 a 75,04% e cinzas (2,21 a 2,46%, enquanto os valores de lipídeos e proteína bruta foram similares entreas classes avaliadas. Na avaliação da porcentagem de lipídios por porção (lombo, barriga e cauda houve maior deposição de gordura na parte ventral e no grupo III. Dessa forma, pode-se abater o pirarucu com média de peso entre 7,0 a 9,0 kg, utilizando-se ciclos de produção mais curtos e obtendo-se filés com melhor qualidade por apresentarem menor porcentagem muscular de lipídio.

  15. Qualidade da carcaça e rendimento de cortes suínos com o uso de ractopamina

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    Daniela de Souza Martins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso do aditivo ractopamina sobre os rendimentos dos cortes e a qualidade da carne suína (pH, cor, marmoreio e capacidade de retenção de água. Para os testes, foram utilizados 25 suínos alimentados com 7,5ppm de ractopamina na dieta e 25 suínos sem utilização deste aditivo. Os cortes foram obtidos através do fracionamento da carcaça em partes, sendo elas: pernil, paleta, sobrepaleta, barriga com costela e carré. Para os testes de rendimento de cortes padrão exportação, foram utilizadas 30 carcaças, sendo 15 de cada tratamento. Os resultados dos cortes de pernil e paleta foram expressos pela relação ao peso do corte preparado no padrão comercial, com relação ao peso da parte inteira obtida no momento que antecede a desossa. A utilização de Ractopamina na dieta promoveu redução no rendimento de toucinho de paleta (7,32% e toucinho de carré (11,85% e aumento no rendimento de carré sem toucinho (3,9%. Nos cortes padrão comercial (com a separação de ossos e gorduras, observou-se maior rendimento no pernil (7,46% e na paleta (9,03% com o uso do aditivo. Em relação à qualidade da carne, observou-se que o uso de ractopamina na dieta não teve influência sobre a cor e capacidade de retenção de água e teve influência sobre a redução do marmoreio da carne e pH final. Desta forma, a utilização de ractopamina na dieta suína tem influência sobre o rendimento dos cortes padrão comercial e redução da gordura na carcaça, não exercendo influência negativa sobre a qualidade da carne suína.

  16. Unidad Didáctica; Actitudes hacia la ciencia: la imagen de científico, una propuesta desde la autorregulación

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    Henry Giovanny Ortiz Caro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo se presenta una aproximación conceptual acerca del diseño de unidades didácticas con enfoque CTS, la naturaleza de la ciencia, específicamente la imagen del científico, haciendo énfasis en el diseño de actividades y su evaluación desde la autorregulación, entendiéndose esta como parte de la evaluación formativa que según (Diaz & Barriga, 2002, le permite al estudiante identificar su nivel de aprendizaje, los errores cometidos y de esta manera aprender de los errores, lo que conlleva al niñ@ a ser participe y esté al tanto de sus propios aprendizajes. La unidad didáctica se basa en el cambio de actitudes desfavorables hacia la ciencia y concepciones erróneas hacia el trabajo de los científicos.   Por lo anterior, la unidad didáctica está compuesta por cinco actividades que se desarrollan en cinco sesiones de dos horas por sesión aproximadamente, siguiendo la propuesta de estrategias didácticas realizada por (Jorba & Sanmartí, 1994 quien la divide en cinco tipos de actividades, que son actividades de exploración, introducción a los conceptos, estructuración de los conceptos, aplicación de conceptos en diferentes contextos y evaluación de los conceptos.   Finalmente se realiza una descripción de las actividades propuestas, dejando claro los objetivos de cada una y los resultados esperados después de su aplicación en estudiantes de grado 3 del colegio José Francisco Socarras IED, lo que conlleva a una desmitificación el trabajo de los científicos, la imagen sexista del científico y los intereses y motivaciones en la construcción del conocimiento científico.

  17. Incubação artificial a 28ºC e crescimento inicial de jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare em diferentes temperaturas Artificial incubation at 28ºC and initial growth at different temperatures of Pantanal Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare

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    Elias Nunes Martins

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Vinte ovos de jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare foram submetidos à incubação artificial, à temperatura de 28ºC. Durante a incubação foram abertos três ovos para se verificar sua viabilidade. Obteve-se 94,11% de eclodibilidade, com a eclosão de 16 ovos. Os animais eclodidos foram, em seguida, colocados a duas temperaturas de crescimento: 28 e 32ºC e submetidos à análise morfométrica. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de análises de variância. As características peso do animal e largura da cabeça não apresentaram diferenças (P > 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Circunferência da barriga e largura das narinas tiveram melhores (P Twenty Pantanal Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare eggs were artificially incubated at 28°C. During the incubation, three eggs were opened in order to check their viability. 94.11% of hatchability was detected, with the hatching of 16 eggs. The hatched animals were kept under two different temperatures during growth (28ºC and 32°C, and submitted to morphometrical analysis. The collected data were analyzed according to the analysis of variance. The characteristics of the weight of the animals and the width of the head did not present significant differences (P > 0.05 between the treatments. The circumference of the belly and width of snout at nostrils were the ones that had the best (P < 0.05 results at 28°C. The other characteristics as total length, tail length ,snout-vent length ,head length, eye length, snout length, width of snout at mid-point and distance between limbs showed better results at 32°C. It may be concluded that temperature variation did not influence the gain of weight, but the temperature of 32°C was the best for the general development of the animals.

  18. Microstructural, spectroscopic, and antibacterial properties of silver-based hybrid nanostructures biosynthesized using extracts of coriander leaves and seeds

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    Luna C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Luna,1 Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro,2 Alberto Gómez-Treviño,3 Nuria O Núñez,4 Raquel Mendoza-Reséndez1 1Research Center of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 2Central Laboratory of Analytical Instrumentation, Research Center for Applied Chemistry, Coahuila, Mexico; 3Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; 4Colloidal Materials Research Group, Institute of Materials Science of Seville, Spanish National Research Council, University of Seville, Seville, Spain Abstract: Coriander leaves and seeds have been highly appreciated since ancient times, not only due to their pleasant flavors but also due to their inhibitory activity on food degradation and their beneficial properties for health, both ascribed to their strong antioxidant activity. Recently, it has been shown that coriander leaf extracts can mediate the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles through oxidation/reduction reactions. In the present study, extracts of coriander leaves and seeds have been used as reaction media for the wet chemical synthesis of ultrafine silver nanoparticles and nanoparticle clusters, with urchin- and tree-like shapes, coated by biomolecules (mainly, proteins and polyphenols. In this greener route of nanostructure preparation, the active biocompounds of coriander simultaneously play the roles of reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphological and microstructural studies of the resulting biosynthesized silver nanostructures revealed that the nanostructures prepared with a small concentration of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =5 mM exhibit an ultrafine size and a narrow size distribution, whereas particles synthesized with high concentrations of the precursor Ag salt (AgNO3 =0.5 M are polydisperse and formation of supramolecular structures occurs. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy

  19. The Role of Siliceous Hydrothermal Breccias in the Genesis of Volcanic Massive Sulphide Deposits - Ancient and Recent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. A.; Barriga, F. J.; Fouquet, Y.

    2014-12-01

    hydrothermal deposits, comparison with ancient volcanic massive sulphide deposits is appropriate. The proposed model can explain some of the processes taking place in the early phase of formation of old deposits where equivalent siliceous material is found in the hanging wall of the ore bodies (e.g. Barriga and Fyfe, 1988).

  20. Um olhar sobre as benzedeiras de Juruena (Mato Grosso, Brasil e as plantas usadas para benzer e curar

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    Márcia Regina Antunes Maciel

    Full Text Available O 'benzimento' é forma antiga no tratamento de várias doenças, utilizada na Europa desde a Idade Média. No Brasil, os benzedores surgiram a partir do século XVII. Interpretações dos conhecimentos, uso tradicional dos recursos vegetais e manejo realizado por benzedores, raizeiros e parteiras são fonte de pesquisa nos estudos etnobotânicos. Benzedores indicam plantas para efeito de cura ou como amuletos protetores, com a presença destas formas de uso da flora na cultura popular. Este estudo foi realizado em Juruena, Mato Grosso, com aplicação de técnicas de observação participante, entrevistas semi-estruturadas (questões abertas/fechadas gravadas e amostras intencionais e a realizção de coleta de material botânico, depositado no Herbário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT. Teve o objetivo de compreender a importância das benzedeiras, identificar etnobotanicamente as plantas utilizadas, formas de prescrição e manipulação. Foram entrevistadas quatro benzedeiras no período de setembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003, as quais demonstraram um conhecimento etnobotânico expressivo. Estas benzem, preparam e receitam chás, garrafadas, banhos e ungüentos. As enfermidades tratadas foram agrupadas em duas categorias: doenças físicas (dorde-dente, dor-de-barriga, verminoses, cobreiro, arca-caída, rendidura, erisipela etc e doenças espirituais (quebranto, mau-olhado, pessoas carregadas, encosto. Foram relatadas 87 etnoespécies, distribuídas em 31 famílias botânicas, dentre as quais se salientam erva-de-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus MIq., quina-do-mato (Strychnos sp St.Hil., ipê-roxo (Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., guiné (Petiveria alliacea L. e comigo-ninguém-pode (Dieffenbachia picta L. A medicina popular praticada pelas benzedeiras vem ao encontro dos anseios das pessoas que buscam alívio para seus males, com valores e heran

  1. Cloridrato de ractopamina em dietas para suínos em terminação = Ractopamine hidrochloride in diets for finishing pigs

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    Matheus Soares da Silva Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o uso de ractopamina em diferentes niveis de inclusao na dieta para suinos em terminacao. Foram utilizados 50 suinos hibridos comerciais com peso inicial de 74,08 (1,42 kg, aleatoriamente distribuidos em cinco blocos casualizados. Havia dois animais em cada parcela experimental, macho e femea, alimentados com dieta suplementada com ractopamina (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ppm durante 28 dias. Foram avaliados desempenho e caracteristicas de carcaca dos animais. A ractopamina melhorou odesempenho, espessura de toucinho, profundidade, area de olho de lombo e rendimento de carne na carcaca, porem sem influenciar no consumo de racao, rendimento de cortes e qualidade da barriga. Exceto a dose de 0 ppm, nao houve diferenca entre as doses de ractopamina utilizadas. O modelo de regressao Linear Response Plateau, aplicado nas variaveis onde houve significancia, estimou o ponto otimo de suplementacao deste aditivo entre 4,09 a 5,14 ppm. Houve aumento de 6,09% no indice de bonificacao quando foi utilizado o nivel de 5 ppm de ractopamina. Conclui-se que a ractopamina e eficaz em melhorar odesempenho e as caracteristicas de carcaca de suinos em terminacao.The present work was carried out to evaluate different inclusion levels of ractopamine in diets for finishing pigs. Fifty animals with initial weight of 74.08 (1.42 kg selected for high meat deposition were used, randomly allotted in five blocks. Each experimental unit had two animals, barrow and gilt, fed diets with ractopamine (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm for 28 days. Growth performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Ractopamine improved final weight, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, loin eye area and lean tissue yield, but did not influence feed intake, cut yields and belly quality. No differences were found among the doses of ractopamine utilized. The optimum level of supplementation of this additive, as estimated by the Linear

  2. Contribuição ao estudo do mal de cadeiras na Ilha de Marajó

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    Geth Jansen

    1941-01-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado de inspeções feitas à ilha de Marajó o autor assinala: 1º O mal de cadeiras continua existindo na ilha de Marajó sob a forma enzoótica, ao contrário do que pensavam os criadores, julgando-o extinto. As doenças designadas por estes como "barriga inchada" e "mormo seco", responsaveis pela grande mortalidade dos equinos, foram identificadas pelo autor como tal de cadeiras. 2º O autor considera indispensável para a pesquisa do trypanosoma o processo de inoculação em animais de laboratório, tendo utilizado para esse fim camondongos e ratos brancos. 3º Os surtos epizoóticos anuais coincidem com a época das chuvas, ocasião em que surgem os insetos hematófagos, o que faz pensar no papel desses últimos como transmissores. 4º Os cavalos podem atravessar o ano com trypanosomas no sangue e em estado de saude aparente, constituindo assim depositários do mal de cadeiras. 5º O extermínio da capivara, em consequência do seu aproveitamento econômico não modificou o carater endêmico da doença na ilha de Marajó. 6º O autor observou que os trypanosomas no tubo digestivo de Stomoxys e Tabanideos, ao cabo de 8 horas, apresentavam com movimentos diminuidos e em formas arrendondadas, não conseguindo inoculações positivas com esse material. 7º A saliva de um morcego do gênero Desmodus, que se infectou no laboratório, alimentando-se em animal doente, colhida de modo a evitar lesões da mucosa e consequente contaminação pelos trypanosomas do sangue circulante, mostrou-se incapaz de infectar, por inoculação, animais sensiveis. Este mesmo morcego não transmitiu a doença a um cão, o qual sugou durante 80 dias. Recentemente (1941 empregando um exemplar do gênero Desmodus, também infectado experimentalmente por alimentação em animal de laboratório, conseguimos transmitir o Trypanosoma equinum a uma cobaia normal. Este assunto será ventilado posteriormente.

  3. Contenido mineral de forrajes en predios de ovinocultores del estado de Yucatán

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    Erick F. Vivas May

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue establecer un diagnóstico del contenido de cinco minerales en forrajes que crecen en predios de ovinocultores en el Estado de Yucatán durante la época de lluvias. Se muestrearon 50 predios de 47 municipios. Se recolectaron 88 muestras de forrajes. Se determinó el contenido de Ca, K, Fe, Cu y Zn mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica; Se les calculó su promedio y parámetros de dispersión. El modelo estadístico de análisis incluyó los efectos de zona de muestreo, tipo de suelo, tipo de forraje, interacciones y error aleatorio. El contenido de minerales fue 0.53±0.41 % Ca, 0.51±0.24 % K, 12.8± 10.1 ppm Cu, 251±147 ppm Fe y 27.6±12.6 ppm Zn. El porcentaje de suficiencia en relación al requerimiento para ovejas de 40 kg de peso, en lactación temprana amamantando un cordero ovino fue 34, 48, 27.8 y 57.7% para el Ca, K, Cu y Zn respectivamente. Casi ningún forraje fue deficiente en Fe. Respecto a la zona, el contenido de Ca y Zn fue mayor (P<0.05 en la Poniente y Oriente respectivamente. El efecto del tipo de suelo únicamente se detectó en los Cambisoles, los cuales tuvieron una mayor cantidad de Cu (P<0.05. El forraje de agostadero fue el más abundante en Ca, Cu y Zn (P<0.05. Se concluye que se detectaron deficiencias de Ca, K, Cu y Zn, en cambio, el Fe se encontró en niveles elevados. La formulación y elaboración de suplementos minerales destinados a ovinos en el Estado de Yucatán deberá incluir estos minerales, estando libres de Fe.

  4. Gestión del conocimiento: mayor producción y competitividad. Perspectivas para los sistemas de producción ovino-caprinos

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    Óscar Ospina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los ovinos se presentan hoy día en Colombia como una de las especies promisorias para el sector pecuario, con un despertar en la actividad que se manifiesta con un incremento del inventario, que según Faostat (datos debatibles, ha pasado de 2’400.000 cabezas en el año 2000 a 3’400.000 para el 2008; por su lado, las cabras han pasado de 1’200.000 a 1’300.000 cabezas en el mismo periodo, creciendo, aunque con un ritmo menor que el de las ovejas. Según esta base de datos, la misma tendencia se observa en el consumo per cápita de carne ovino-caprina que partiendo de 270 g/persona/año para el 2000 llega a 370 g/persona/año para el 2008. Este crecimiento en el inventario y el consumo per cápita del ovino-caprino impulsa la necesidad de aprovechar no solo las ventajas comparativas, sino también la generación de ventajas competitivas que lleven a la ovino-cultura y la caprino-cultura colombiana por el camino de la competitividad y la globalización, aprovechando las oportunidades en el mercado nacional y de exportación. El eficaz aprovechamiento de dichas ventajas implica la incorporación de los datos, la información y el conocimiento como factores de producción dentro de un proceso ordenado, bajo el marco de un sistema de “gestión de conocimiento”. El presente documento trata los fundamentos teóricos sobre los cuales se discute la manera como los datos, la información y el conocimiento se transforman en productividad y competitividad; se tratan los temas del “Big-Bang”, la entropía y neguentropía, la complejidad, la teoría de sistemas, la teoría del conocimiento, la epistemología, el management, la economía del conocimiento, la planeación estratégica, la espiral del conocimiento en las organizaciones, y la gestión del conocimiento, procurando algunas aproximaciones al sector agropecuario y la contextualización de la gestión del conocimiento en la ovino-cultura y caprino-cultura colombiana.

  5. Detección de coproantígenos para el diagnóstico de echinococosis canina en la zona fronteriza de La Quiaca-Villazón

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    Natalia Casas

    Full Text Available Las técnicas de inmunodiagnóstico basadas en la identificación de antígenos parasitarios en las heces secas de los perros han sido desarrolladas para la vigilancia de la echinococosis canina. En la región fronteriza de La Quiaca-Villazón, se encontraron las condiciones ambientales que favorecerían el ciclo del parásito, dada la presencia del hospedador definitivo (perro y de hospedadores intermediarios (ovejas y cabras. La actividad más importante de la Puna es la cría de ovinos y camélidos; la faena se realiza en el campo y a manos del dueño de los ovinos, y no se aplican medidas preventivas de sanidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la presencia de caninos parasitados por Echinococcus granulosus en esta región. Durante el año 2006 se recolectaron 168 muestras de materia fecal. En La Quiaca se tomaron muestras de las siguientes localidades: Barrios (área semirrural, Santa Catalina, Yavi Chico, El Portillo, Pumahuasi y Cara Cara (zonas rurales y La Quiaca (área urbana. En Villazón se seleccionó el área urbana y el área semirrural de Ojo de Agua, Lampaya y Matancillas. Las muestras se analizaron por la prueba de copro-ELISA y copro-Western blot. Las localidades de San Francisco y Barrios tuvieron una prevalencia de 14,3 % y 6,7 %, respectivamente. En Villazón se encontró un 3,4 % de prevalencia en el área urbana. En Lampaya se encontró un 30 % de prevalencia. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de implementar estrategias para el control de la hidatidosis, tanto a nivel urbano como rural, para evitar el aumento y la dispersión de la echinococosis en la región.

  6. Requerimientos energéticos de ovinos de pelo en las regiones tropicales de Latinoamérica. Revisión

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    Alfonso Juventino Chay-Canul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los ovinos de pelo juegan un papel importante en la producción animal en las regiones tropicales; sin embargo, sus requerimientos nutricionales no se han determinado en la misma medida que los de las razas de lana. Debido a las condiciones ambientales de las regiones tropicales (clima, calidad y disponibilidad de alimentos, es razonable la hipótesis de que los requerimientos de energía metabolizable (EM y la eficiencia de utilización de la EM pueden ser diferentes entre los ovinos de razas de pelo y de lana. La información disponible en ovinos de pelo muestra una gran discrepancia en cuanto a las necesidades de energía. Con base en datos de la literatura disponible para hembras ovinas, el requerimiento de EM para mantenimiento (EMm fue de 419±129 kJ/kg PC0.75 (media ± desviación estándar y para machos fue 388±123 kJ/kg BW0.75. El requerimiento de energía neta para la ganancia de peso (ENg varió de 8.75 a 14.06 kJ/g (11.63±1.86 kJ/g. Las eficiencias de utilización de la EM para el mantenimiento (km y la ganancia de peso (kg fueron de 0.66±0.023 y 0.42±0.044, respectivamente. Esta revisión también indicó que la información es escasa para ovejas adultas en diferentes etapas fisiológicas (mantenimiento, lactancia y gestación. Se requiere más trabajo de investigación con relación a la estimación de las necesidades de energía de los ovinos de pelo, con el fin de hacer ajustes a los modelos existentes de alimentación, con el objetivo de predecir la respuesta de los animales con la condición que prevalece en los trópicos (tipo de animal, medio ambiente y alimentos disponibles.

  7. PRESENCIA DE Wolbachia y Leishmania EN UNA POBLACION DE Lutzomyia evansi PRESENTE EN LA COSTA CARIBE DE COLOMBIA

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    Rafael J. Vivero-Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia evansi es importante en salud pública por su participación en la trasmisión de la leishmaniasis visceral y cutánea en la costa caribe de Colombia. Diversos estudios se han desarrollado sobre la poblaciones naturales de Lutzomyia evansi, sin embargo pocos estudios han explorado en profundidad la detección de microorganismos simbióticos (ej. Wolbachia y de manera simultánea la presencia de Leishmania sp.. El endosimbionte Wolbachia ha sido propuesto en la actualidad como control biológico de insectos vectores de diversas enfermedades tropicales. En el presente estudio el ADN de tres especies del género Lutzomyia colectadas en el municipio de Ovejas (Departamento de Sucre fue evaluado para detectar la infección natural por la bacteria Wolbachia y la presencia de parásitos del género Leishmania. El ADN total de 176 individuos adultos y 34 inmaduros (larvas y pupas de Lu. evansi, fue utilizado para evaluar la detección de Wolbachia mediante amplificación por PCR del gen WSP (Proteína Mayor de la Superficie de Wolbachia y la infección por Leishmania mediante amplificación por PCR de segmentos de los genes HPSN70 (Proteína de Choque Térmico. Se encontró un grupo de machos infectado de forma natural por Wolbachia y nueve grupos de hembras con infección natural por Leishmania, todos pertenecientes a Lutzomyia evansi. El análisis filogenético de la secuencia del gen WSP de Wolbachia indica la ubicación de la cepa detectada dentro del supergrupo B (haplogrupo wLeva y su relación con haplotipos previamente reportados de Lutzomyia evansi y Lutzomya dubitans. Una región de 418 pb del gen HSP-70N fue secuenciada y mostró similaridad con secuencias de Leishmania luego de realizar el análisis en BlastN. Se confirma la presencia de Wolbachia en poblaciones silvestres de machos de L. evansi y la infección natural por Leishmania spp. en hembras de la misma especie cuya infección por Wolbachia resulto negativa.

  8. Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains for their use as starter cultures in Algerian olive fermentations

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    Mokhbi, Abdelouahab

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate some technological traits of L. plantarum strains previously isolated from fermented olives. For this purpose, 11 strains were tested for their in vitro antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH values, acidifying activity, proteolytic activity, haemolytic activity, lactic acid and exopolysaccharide production and resistance to freeze-drying .Collectively, the strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested and showed survival at pH 2. Most strains showed high (1.035 ± 0.29 to 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l ± sd of lactic acid or medium (0.556 ± 0.29 to 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l ±sd acidification activity with good proteolytic activity (1.49 ± 0.25 to 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tyrosine. None of the strains produced exopolysaccharides or haemolysis in sheep's blood.El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunos aspectos tecnológicos de cepas de L. plantarum previamente aisladas de aceitunas fermentadas. Para este propósito, 11 cepas fueron usadas para estudiar su susceptibilidad a antibióticos in vitro, resistencia a valores de pH bajos, actividad acidificante, proteolítica, y hemolítica, producción de ácido láctico y exopolisacáridos, y resistencia a la liofilización. En general, las cepas fueron susceptibles a la mayoría de los antibióticos ensayados y mostraron supervivencia a pH 2. La mayoría de las cepas mostraron una actividad de acidificación alta (1.035 ± 0.29 a 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l de ácido láctico o media (0.556 ± 0.29 a 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l con una buena actividad proteolítica (1.49 ± 0.25 a 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tirosina. Ninguna de las cepas produjo exopolisacáridos o hemolisis en sangre de oveja.

  9. Disponibilidad de biomasa y hábitos alimenticios de ovinos en un sistema silvopastoril con Leucaena leucocephala, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Y Cynodon nlemfuensis

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    Bernardino Candelaria-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del pastoreo a los 50, 60 y 70 días en época de lluvias y seca con nortes que son los frentes fríos, que corresponden de octubre a enero junto con la disponibilidad, calidad de biomasa y hábitos alimenticios de ovinos en un sistema silvopastoril de pasto estrella (Cynodon nlemfuensis, tulipán (Hibiscus rosasinensis y leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala. Para cada tratamiento se utilizaron 2 parcelas de 8x24 m y 6 ovejas adultas raza pelibuey. La disponibilidad de biomasa en leucaena y tulipán se evaluó mediante cosecha total de 20 a 40 plantas por tratamiento. El pasto estrella se midió antes y después del pastoreo. Las 3 especies se separaron en componentes morfológicos, y se determinó proteína cruda y fibra detergente neutra en las hojas. Los hábitos de los ovinos se determinaron mediante observación directa. La disponibilidad de biomasa total, consumo por grupo y utilización del pasto estrella fueron mayores a los 70 días y en la época de lluvias. La proporción de hoja de las 3 especies fue mayor a los 50 días; por efecto de la época, fue más abundante en lluvias, nortes y seca para estrella, leucaena y tulipán, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de PC no varió (p>0,05 por efecto de frecuencia ni época de pastoreo. El mayor tiempo de consumo estuvo destinado a pasto estrella, tulipán y leucaena. Los diseños favorecieron los sistemas silvopastoriles multiasociados pues potenciaron los efectos positivos de sus relaciones. Las frecuencias de pastoreo se ajustaron a la época del año, bajo un modelo de manejo mixto de pastoreo y podas, para mejor utilización de la biomasa.

  10. Ractopamine hydrochloride in formulated rations for barrows or gilts from 94 to 130 kg Cloridrato de ractopamina em rações formuladas para suínos machos castrados ou para fêmeas na fase dos 94 aos 130 kg

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    Nikolas de Oliveira Amaral

    2009-08-01

    ínos, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2, composto de três níveis de ractopamina e dois sexos. Não houve interação significativa entre a ractopamina e o sexo para as variáveis analisadas. Observou-se, nos animais que receberam ractopamina, maior peso final, ganho de peso médio diário e conversão alimentar. As fêmeas apresentaram menor peso final, consumo médio diário de ração e conversão alimentar. Para rendimento de carcaça, área de olho-de-lombo e rendimento de carne na carcaça, o nível de 10 ppm foi superior ao controle. A ractopamina, independentemente do nível utilizado, reduziu a espessura de toucinho e melhorou o rendimento de filezinho, pernil e carne no pernil. As fêmeas apresentaram maior rendimento de carne na carcaça, menor espessura de toucinho, maior flexibilidade da barriga e menor espessura de toucinho da barriga. As carcaças de suínos sob suplementação com ractopamina apresentaram melhor índice de bonificação, receita bruta e receita líquida. Houve redução no custo total e aumento no índice de bonificação das carcaças das fêmeas, o que melhorou a receita líquida. Dessa forma, a suplementação com 5 ppm de ractopamina é suficiente para melhorar o desempenho, a composição de carcaça e o rendimento de cortes da carcaça de suínos machos castrados e fêmeas. Além disso, a suplementação com 5 ou 10 ppm de ractopamina, nas condições estudadas, é economicamente viável, e o abate de fêmeas aos 130 kg, mais rentável que o de machos castrados.

  11. NRC (2001 equations to predict the energy value of agroindustry byproducts in Brazilian northeast Equações do NRC (2001 para predição do valor energético de co-produtos da agroindústria no nordeste brasileiro

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    Arturo Bernardo Selaive Villarroel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fractions of carbohydrates and protein, and energy value estimative based in NRC (2001 equations, of agroindustry byproducts of cashew, passion fruit, melon, anatto seeds, pineapple and barbados cherry were evaluated. NRC (2001 equations were used to predict the energy value of the passion fruit, pineapple and barbados cherry using “in vivo” data. Carbohydrates fraction A + B1 ranged from 20.00 to 52.21% of the total carbohydrates, for melon and anatto seeds, respectively. Cashew and barbados cherry presented close values for the fraction B2 (11.88 and 14.25% and C (52.69 and 59.45% and, approximately three times lower of fraction B2 than the passion fruit and the pineapple (47.93 and 45.38%. It was concluded that the analyses of the fractions of carbohydrates and protein should be a laboratorial routine, since it consists in a simple analysis, inexpensive and allows the establishment of mechanicists parameters for feed evaluations. The observed values of TDN of ingredients and those predicted by NRC (2001 equations were similar, being appropriate to predict the energy value of feeds in Brazilian conditions.Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar as frações de carboidratos e proteínas, e estimar o valor energético a partir das equações do NRC (2001 dos co-produtos da agroindústria do caju, maracujá, melão, urucum, abacaxi e acerola. Foi realizada a avaliação das equações do NRC (2001 para predição do valor energético do maracujá, abacaxi e acerola, a partir de dados in vivo. A fração A + B1 dos carboidratos variou de 20,00 a 52,21% dos carboidratos totais, para melão e urucum, respectivamente. O caju e a acerola apresentaram valores próximos para a fração B2 (11,88 e 14,25% e C (52,69 e 59,45% e, aproximadamente, três vezes menos fração B2 que o maracujá e o abacaxi (47,93 e 45,38%. O valor A da fração protéica (NNP variou de 5,01 a 33,02% para melão e urucum, respectivamente. A fração C da proteína foi menor

  12. Biogeography and potential exchanges among the atlantic Equatorial belt cold-seep faunas.

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    Karine Olu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Like hydrothermal vents along oceanic ridges, cold seeps are patchy and isolated ecosystems along continental margins, extending from bathyal to abyssal depths. The Atlantic Equatorial Belt (AEB, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Gulf of Guinea, was one focus of the Census of Marine Life ChEss (Chemosynthetic Ecosystems program to study biogeography of seep and vent fauna. We present a review and analysis of collections from five seep regions along the AEB: the Gulf of Mexico where extensive faunal sampling has been conducted from 400 to 3300 m, the Barbados accretionary prism, the Blake ridge diapir, and in the Eastern Atlantic from the Congo and Gabon margins and the recently explored Nigeria margin. Of the 72 taxa identified at the species level, a total of 9 species or species complexes are identified as amphi-Atlantic. Similarity analyses based on both Bray Curtis and Hellinger distances among 9 faunal collections, and principal component analysis based on presence/absence of megafauna species at these sites, suggest that within the AEB seep megafauna community structure is influenced primarily by depth rather than by geographic distance. Depth segregation is observed between 1000 and 2000 m, with the middle slope sites either grouped with those deeper than 2000 m or with the shallower sites. The highest level of community similarity was found between the seeps of the Florida escarpment and Congo margin. In the western Atlantic, the highest degree of similarity is observed between the shallowest sites of the Barbados prism and of the Louisiana slope. The high number of amphi-atlantic cold-seep species that do not cluster according to biogeographic regions, and the importance of depth in structuring AEB cold-seep communities are the major conclusions of this study. The hydrothermal vent sites along the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR did not appear as "stepping stones" for dispersal of the AEB seep fauna, however, the south MAR and off axis regions

  13. Establishing national noncommunicable disease surveillance in a developing country: a model for small island nations

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    Angela M. Rose

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the surveillance model used to develop the first national, population-based, multiple noncommunicable disease (NCD registry in the Caribbean (one of the first of its kind worldwide; registry implementation; lessons learned; and incidence and mortality rates from the first years of operation. Methods Driven by limited national resources, this initiative of the Barbados Ministry of Health (MoH, in collaboration with The University of the West Indies, was designed to collect prospective data on incident stroke and acute myocardial infarction (MI (heart attack cases from all health care facilities in this small island developing state (SIDS in the Eastern Caribbean. Emphasis is on tertiary and emergency health care data sources. Incident cancer cases are obtained retrospectively, primarily from laboratories. Deaths are collected from the national death register. Results Phased introduction of the Barbados National Registry for Chronic NCDs (“the BNR” began with the stroke component (“BNR–Stroke,” 2008, followed by the acute MI component (“BNR–Heart,” 2009 and the cancer component (“BNR–Cancer,” 2010. Expected case numbers projected from prior studies estimated an average of 378 first-ever stroke, 900 stroke, and 372 acute MI patients annually, and registry data showed an annual average of about 238, 593, and 349 patients respectively. There were 1 204 tumors registered in 2008, versus the expected 1 395. Registry data were used to identify public health training themes. Success required building support from local health care professionals and creating island-wide registry awareness. With spending of approximately US$ 148 per event for 2 200 events per year, the program costs the MoH about US$ 1 per capita annually. Conclusions Given the limited absolute health resources available to SIDS, combined surveillance should be considered for building a national NCD evidence base. With prevalence

  14. Detailed Tropical Sea Level Record Spanning the Younger Dryas Chronozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, N. A.; Mortlock, R. A.; Wright, J. D.; Fairbanks, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Variability in sea level is a fundamental measure of past changes in continental ice volume and provides an important benchmark to test climate change hypotheses. Records of the most recent deglaciation show two pulses of accelerated sea-level rise (Meltwater Pulses 1A and 1B) separated by an interval of slower sea level rise. The Younger Dryas chronozone falls within the interval between MWP 1A and 1B. It was first described over 100 years ago and remains one of the most studied periods in Earth’s history. The Younger Dryas was originally constrained with 14C dating to the interval between 11,000 and 10,000 14C years BP, which converts to 13,000 to 11,640 calendar years BP. The climatic expression of the Younger Dryas was most pronounced in the circum North Atlantic where climate proxies returned in some regions to near glacial values. Interpretations of the Younger Dryas’ significance range from a catastrophic global cooling event accompanied by Northern hemisphere ice sheet growth to simply regional changes in ocean and air mass mixing zones confined mainly to the North Atlantic. A detailed sea level record containing the interval from the end of MWP 1A to the beginning of MWP 1B (~14,000 to 11,300 years BP) was generated using 26 new U/Th dates from our 2007 Barbados offshore drilling expedition combined with our 1988 expedition measurements. 16 of these dates fall within the Younger Dryas Chronozone. Younger Dryas sea level positions were based on Acropora palmata samples from 3 overlapping and contemporaneous offshore drill cores (RGF 12 and BBDS 9 & 10) and corrected for minor tectonic uplift. From 14,000 to 11,300 years BP, sea level rose from ~81 to 56.5 m below present sea level with an initial rate of 10 m/kyr that decreased smoothly to <5 m/kyr at the base of MWP 1B. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, sea level was at 69 m below present and rose 8 m by the end of this interval. In the context of the Barbados sea level record, the Younger Dryas

  15. An epidemiological study of rates of illness in passengers and crew at a busy Caribbean cruise port

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    Cathy Ann Marshall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean has one of the largest cruise ship industries in the world, with close to 20 million visitors per year. The potential for communicable disease outbreaks on vessels and the transmission by ship between countries is high. Barbados has one of the busiest ports in the Caribbean. Our aim was to describe and analyse the epidemiology of illnesses experienced by passengers and crew arriving at the Bridgetown Port, Barbados between 2009 and 2013. Methods Data on the illnesses recorded were extracted from the passenger and crew arrival registers and passenger and crew illness logs for all ships and maritime vessels arriving at Barbados’ Ports and passing through its territorial waters between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were entered into an Epi Info database and most of the analysis undertaken using Epi Info Version 7. Rates per 100,000 visits were calculated, and confidence intervals on these were derived using the software Openepi. Results There were 1031 cases of illness from over 3 million passenger visits and 1 million crew visits during this period. The overall event rate for communicable illnesses was 15.7 (95 % CI 14.4–17.1 per 100,000 passengers, and for crew was 24.0 (21.6–26.6 per 100, 000 crew. Gastroenteritis was the predominant illness experienced by passengers and crew followed by influenza. The event rate for gastroenteritis among passengers was 13.7 (12.5–15.0 per 100,000 and 14.4 (12.6, 16.5 for crew. The event rate for non-communicable illnesses was 3.4 per 100,000 passengers with myocardial infarction being the main diagnosis. The event rate for non-communicable illnesses among crew was 2.1 per 100,000, the leading cause being injuries. Conclusions The predominant illnesses reported were gastroenteritis and influenza similar to previous published reports from around the world. This study is the first of its type in the Caribbean and the data provide a baseline for future surveillance

  16. Cross-country variation in additive effects of socio-economics, health behaviors, and comorbidities on subjective health of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-02-21

    This study explored cross-country differences in the additive effects of socio-economic characteristics, health behaviors and medical comorbidities on subjective health of patients with diabetes. The study analyzed data from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The participants were 9,179 adults with diabetes who were sampled from 15 countries (i.e. China, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, United States, Mexico, Argentina, Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Uruguay, India, Ghana, South Africa, and Russia). We fitted three logistic regressions to each country. Model I only included socio-economic characteristics (i.e. age, gender, education and income). In Model II, we also included health behaviors (i.e. smoking, drinking, and exercise). Model III included medical comorbidities (i.e. hypertension, respiratory disease, heart disease, stroke, and arthritis), in addition to the previous blocks. Our models suggested cross-country differences in the additive effects of socio-economic characteristics, health behaviors and comorbidities on perceived health of patients with diabetes. Comorbid heart disease was the only condition that was consistently associated with poor subjective health regardless of country. Countries show different profiles of social and behavioral determinants of subjective health among patients with diabetes. Our study suggests that universal programs that assume that determinants of well-being are similar across different countries may be over-simplistic. Thus instead of universal programs that use one protocol for health promotion of patients in all countries, locally designed interventions should be implemented in each country.

  17. Behaviour and production traits correlation of five breeds of sheep

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    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Information about correlations among behavioral traits and production traits may facilitate using easily measured traits to be used as alternative criteria for indirect selection to improve other traits in sheep. The purpose of this study was to estimate correlations among behavioral and production traits of five breeds of sheep. A total of 128 head of weaned lambs and 168 ewes with nursing lambs of five breeds were used in this study, i.e. Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC. Temperament was assessed in a test arena, for subsequent association with growth rate and ewe productivity. Analysis of variance of production and behavioral traits among breeds was carried out using PROC GLM of SAS software Ver. 9.0. PROCCORR was used to estimate correlations among production and behavioral variables. Weaned lambs that were more docile towards the observer had higher daily gains. Ewes that bleated more frequently when separated from their lamb had higher lamb weaning weights and lamb survival than ewes bleating fewer times under the same conditions. In BC ewes, a positive correlation was observed between frequency of bleats and lamb survival.

  18. Atmospheric tritium. Progress report, 1 April 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostlund, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    Data are reported from regular, twice or three times weekly, sampling of atmospheric HTO and HT at stations in Miami, FL; Mauna Loa, HI; Fairbanks, AK; and Baring Head, N.Z. In addition, sampling has begun in Miami also for tritium bound in lower hydrocarbons, here called CH 3 T. In December 1974--January 1975, and again in January--February 1976, sampling was performed on board a ship en route from California to McMurdo (Antarctic). The data show a gentle, slight dilution of HT southwards from about 52 at/mg at 36 0 N to about 40 at/mg in New Zealand and south. During the period of this Data Report, the laboratory also participated in Project Airstream. Five series of stratospheric sampling flights were made, the programmed area of coverage of each was from 10 0 S latitude to 75 0 N latitude, and altitudes between 12 km and 19 km. The data are not included in this report, but will be published at an early date. In cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/World Meteorological Organization Isotopes-in-Precipitation Network, monthly composite rain samples were measured for Miami, Barbados, and Western Samoa

  19. Intercontinental Transport and Climatic Impact of Saharan and Sahelian Dust

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    N'Datchoh Evelyne Touré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sahara and Sahel regions of Africa are important sources of dust particles into the atmosphere. Dust particles from these regions are transported over the Atlantic Ocean to the Eastern American Coasts. This transportation shows temporal and spatial variability and often reaches its peak during the boreal summer (June-July-August. The regional climate model (RegCM 4.0, containing a module of dust emission, transport, and deposition processes, is used in this study. Saharan and Sahelian dusts emissions, transports, and climatic impact on precipitations during the spring (March-April-May and summer (June-July-August were studied using this model. The results showed that the simulation were coherent with observations made by the MISR satellite and the AERONET ground stations, within the domain of Africa (Banizoumba, Cinzana, and M’Bour and Ragged-point (Barbados Islands. The transport of dust particles was predominantly from North-East to South-West over the studied period (2005–2010. The seasonality of dust plumes’ trajectories was influenced by the altitudes reached by dusts in the troposphere. The impact of dusts on climate consisted of a cooling effect both during the boreal summer and spring over West Africa (except Southern-Guinea and Northern-Liberia, Central Africa, South-America, and Caribbean where increased precipitations were observed.

  20. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.; Klaeschen, D.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Scholl, D.

    2009-01-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the d??collement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados, where a uniform, continuous d??collement reflector has been imaged. In our study area, the plate interface reveals a spatially irregular, nonlinear pattern characterized by the morphological relief of subducted seamounts and thicker than average patches of underthrust sediment. The underthrust sediment is associated with a low velocity zone as determined from wide-angle data. Active underplating is not resolved, but likely contributes to the uplift of the large bivergent wedge that constitutes the forearc high. Our profile is located 100 km west of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake. The heterogeneous d??collement zone regulates the friction behavior of the shallow subduction environment where the earthquake occurred. The alternating pattern of enhanced frictional contact zones associated with oceanic basement relief and weak material patches of underthrust sediment influences seismic coupling and possibly contributed to the heterogeneous slip distribution. Our seismic images resolve a steeply dipping splay fault, which originates at the d??collement and terminates at the sea floor and which potentially contributes to tsunami generation during co-seismic activity. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demba B. Jallow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks. The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period. Ambient temperature had significant (p0.05 effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality.

  2. Checklist of fossil decapod crustaceans from tropical America. Part I: Anomura and Brachyura

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    Javier Luque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of fossil crustaceans from the tropics has increased considerably during recent decades, thanks to novel findings and the re-examination of museum specimens. However, several previous records have been misidentified, numerous museum specimens have never been reported, and many new discoveries are yet to be published. Here, we present a detailed, up-to-date, and revised checklist for every marine, terrestrial, or freshwater fossil decapod crustacean occurrence from tropical America known to us, including their age, geographic occurrences, and related literature. We recognize the occurrence of at least 32 superfamilies, 69 families, 190 genera, and 415 species of brachyurans (‘true’ crabs, and anomurans (‘false’ crabs, hermit crabs, squat lobsters, and allies, several of them previously unknown. The checklist comprises records from three main geographic regions: 1 northern South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela; 2 Central America and southern North America (Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, Mexico, southern and central Florida; and 3 the Caribbean Islands + Bermuda (Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bonaire, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominican Republic, The Grenadines, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Bartélemy, Saint Martin, Trinidad. Previous findings, new occurrences, and the revised systematic placement for several problematic/misidentified records, indicate that the fossil record of anomurans and brachyurans in tropical America is more diverse than previously envisioned, with a considerable degree of endemism at the genus- and species-levels.

  3. The relationship between diver experience levels and perceptions of attractiveness of artificial reefs - examination of a potential management tool.

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    Anne E Kirkbride-Smith

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs are increasingly used worldwide as a method for managing recreational diving since they have the potential to satisfy both conservation goals and economic interests. In order to help maximize their utility, further information is needed to drive the design of stimulating resources for scuba divers. We used a questionnaire survey to explore divers' perceptions of artificial reefs in Barbados. In addition, we examined reef resource substitution behaviour among scuba divers. Divers expressed a clear preference for large shipwrecks or sunken vessels that provided a themed diving experience. Motives for diving on artificial reefs were varied, but were dominated by the chance of viewing concentrated marine life, increased photographic opportunities, and the guarantee of a 'good dive'. Satisfaction with artificial reef diving was high amongst novices and declined with increasing experience. Experienced divers had an overwhelming preference for natural reefs. As a management strategy, our results emphasize the capacity of well designed artificial reefs to contribute towards the management of coral reef diving sites and highlight a number of important areas for future research. Suggested work should validate the present findings in different marine tourism settings and ascertain support of artificial reefs in relationship to level of diver specialization.

  4. Late Pleistocene and Holocene meltwater events in the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, R.Z.; Osterman, L.; Curry, W.B.; Phillips, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometer 14C dated stable isotope data from Neogloboquadrina pachyerma in cores raised from the Mendeleyev Ridge and slope provide evidence for significant influx of meltwater to the western Arctic Ocean during the early part of marine oxygen isotope stage 1 (OIS 1) and during several intervals within OIS 3. The strongest OIS 3 meltwater event occurred before ca. 45 ka (conventional radiocarbon age) and was probably related to the deglaciation at the beginning of OIS 3. Major meltwater input to the western Arctic Ocean during the last deglaciation coincides closely with the maximum rate of global sea-level rise as determined from the Barbados sea-level record, demonstrating a strong link between the global record and changes in the central Arctic Ocean. OIS 2, which includes the last glacial maximum, is very condensed or absent in the cores. Abundance and ??13C values for N. pachyderma in the middle part of OIS 3 are similar to modern values, indicating high productivity and seasonal ice-free areas along the Arctic margin at that time. These records indicate that the Arctic Ocean was a source of heat and moisture to the northern polar atmosphere during parts of OIS 3.

  5. DNA Methylation Signatures of Early Childhood Malnutrition Associated With Impairments in Attention and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Cyril J; Fischer, Laura K; Kundakovic, Marija; Garg, Paras; Jakovcevski, Mira; Dincer, Aslihan; Amaral, Ana C; Ginns, Edward I; Galdzicka, Marzena; Bryce, Cyralene P; Ratner, Chana; Waber, Deborah P; Mokler, David; Medford, Gayle; Champagne, Frances A; Rosene, Douglas L; McGaughy, Jill A; Sharp, Andrew J; Galler, Janina R; Akbarian, Schahram

    2016-11-15

    Early childhood malnutrition affects 113 million children worldwide, impacting health and increasing vulnerability for cognitive and behavioral disorders later in life. Molecular signatures after childhood malnutrition, including the potential for intergenerational transmission, remain unexplored. We surveyed blood DNA methylomes (~483,000 individual CpG sites) in 168 subjects across two generations, including 50 generation 1 individuals hospitalized during the first year of life for moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition, then followed up to 48 years in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Attention deficits and cognitive performance were evaluated with the Connors Adult Attention Rating Scale and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Expression of nutrition-sensitive genes was explored by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in rat prefrontal cortex. We identified 134 nutrition-sensitive, differentially methylated genomic regions, with most (87%) specific for generation 1. Multiple neuropsychiatric risk genes, including COMT, IFNG, MIR200B, SYNGAP1, and VIPR2 showed associations of specific methyl-CpGs with attention and IQ. IFNG expression was decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats showing attention deficits after developmental malnutrition. Early childhood malnutrition entails long-lasting epigenetic signatures associated with liability for attention and cognition, and limited potential for intergenerational transmission. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Submarine groundwater discharge as an integral environmental "currency" limiting population and development within the ecosphere of small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Ruth

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from oceanic islands has been estimated to contribute over a third of the global SGD due to orographic precipitation, short aquifer pathways and poorly developed surface drainage. This seepage of groundwater across the sea floor connects land and coastal ocean resources, and is hereby proposed as a parameter to evaluate the interconnections between coastal environmental quality and coastal populations and development. Relatively few islands have been studied, but SGD is typically found to be an important, and often the only, source of nutrients to coastal waters. Freshwater and its pollutant load are delivered to the coastal zone via SGD with consequent impacts on tourism and fisheries thus linking the land-based and marine economic sectors. The characteristics of SGD were investigated on Barbados, Guam and Bimini, islands all of, at least partly, carbonate origin, This study evaluates the similarities and differences between these islands and assesses the applicability of using SGD as a parameter within a population--development--environment model. Model scenarios can be used to explore the integrated coastal impacts of wastewater treatment practices and changes in seasonal rainfall due to climate change. This study also presents novel analytical methods for SGD field data.

  7. Turning coo-coo

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    Richard Price

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The pairing of commeal and okra, which pops up everywhere in the Caribbean, nicely captures the amalgam of African and American resources that has produced so much of the region's cultures, and bears witness to the earliness of culinary creolization - on both sides of the Atlantic. Corn(maize is, of course, native to the New World, and okra (gumbo to the Old. The Dictionary of Jamaican English includes back-to-back entries on oka and okra - the former from a Yoruba word for corn, though in Jamaica it refers to a cassava mush served with an okra sauce (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:328. And while the Ewe word kukü means "corn dumpling" (Cassidy & Le Page 1967:135, its Caribbean cognates generally signal the presence of okra - as in Bahamian cuckoo soup (Holm 1982: 55. Just to the north in the United States, that classic of southern cuisine, fried okra, is made by coating the pods in cornmeal before dropping them in the bacon drippings. At the southern end of the Caribbean, the Brazilian dish called angu (from Yoruba - see Schneider 1991:14 is made with cornmeal (or cassava-flour; its Saramaka namesake (angu, though made with rice- or banana-flour, is usually served with an okra sauce. And in Barbados, cornmeal and okra comprise the essential ingredients of a national culinary tradition, which we will spell coo-coo.2

  8. Definición de medicamento genérico: ¿un fin o un medio? Análisis de la regulación en 14 países de la Región de las Américas Defining generic drugs: an end or a means? Analysis of regulations in 14 countries in the Region of the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Vacca González

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar la situación y las tendencias regulatorias relacionadas con los medicamentos competidores en 14 países de América Latina y el Caribe. MÉTODOS: Entre julio de 2004 y abril de 2005 se colectó la información sobre las regulaciones y políticas nacionales que establecían o contenían la definición de medicamento genérico y de los términos asociados en 14 países de América Latina y el Caribe (Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú y Venezuela. Además, se recabó información sobre los incentivos para registrar y producir medicamentos competidores, la promoción del uso de la denominación común internacional (DCI, la regulación de los estudios de bioequivalencia y la sustitución de los medicamentos prescritos por alternativas de menor precio al público. RESULTADOS: Se observaron tres tendencias regulatorias: los países que favorecen la financiación de medicamentos competidores, la promoción extendida del uso de la DCI y no ponen restricciones a la sustitución de medicamentos innovadores por competidores (Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador y Paraguay; los que cuentan con un esquema orientado a la demostración de la equivalencia terapéutica, es decir, los países restringen la sustitución de los medicamentos originales mediante una lista de medicamentos competidores autorizados que deben prescribirse bajo su DCI y llevar rótulos distintivos (Brasil, México, Panamá y Venezuela; y los que se encuentran en una etapa incipiente de su proceso de regulación (Barbados, Bolivia, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Perú. Esta variedad ocasiona dificultades en la caracterización de los mercados farmacéuticos y puede generar segmentaciones ficticias. CONCLUSIONES: Los esfuerzos de armonización deberán tomar en cuenta la posible relación entre las definiciones adoptadas por los países, el desarrollo de los mercados farmac

  9. Life in Darwin's dust: intercontinental transport and survival of microbes in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbushina, Anna A; Kort, Renate; Schulte, Anette; Lazarus, David; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Broughton, William J; Favet, Jocelyne

    2007-12-01

    Charles Darwin, like others before him, collected aeolian dust over the Atlantic Ocean and sent it to Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in Berlin. Ehrenberg's collection is now housed in the Museum of Natural History and contains specimens that were gathered at the onset of the Industrial Revolution. Geochemical analyses of this resource indicated that dust collected over the Atlantic in 1838 originated from the Western Sahara, while molecular-microbiological methods demonstrated the presence of many viable microbes. Older samples sent to Ehrenberg from Barbados almost two centuries ago also contained numbers of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Many diverse ascomycetes, and eubacteria were found. Scanning electron microscopy and cultivation suggested that Bacillus megaterium, a common soil bacterium, was attached to historic sand grains, and it was inoculated onto dry sand along with a non-spore-forming control, the Gram-negative soil bacterium Rhizobium sp. NGR234. On sand B. megaterium quickly developed spores, which survived for extended periods and even though the numbers of NGR234 steadily declined, they were still considerable after months of incubation. Thus, microbes that adhere to Saharan dust can live for centuries and easily survive transport across the Atlantic.

  10. Qualitative assessment of silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis in various plants: a photobiological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Usha Rani, Pathipati; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2010-06-01

    The development of rapid and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, the extracellular production of Ag and Au nanoparticles was carried out from the leaves of the plants, Tridax procumbens L. (Coat buttons), Jatropa curcas L. (Barbados nut), Calotropis gigantea L. (Calotropis), Solanum melongena L. (Eggplant), Datura metel L. (Datura), Carica papaya L. (Papaya) and Citrus aurantium L. (Bitter orange) by the sunlight exposure method. Qualitative comparisons of the synthesized nanoparticles between the plants were measured. Among these T. procumbens, J. curcas and C. gigantea plants synthesized <20 nm sized and spherical-shaped Ag particles, whereas C. papaya, D. metel and S. melongena produced <20 nm sized monodispersed Au particles. The amount of nanoparticles synthesized and its qualitative characterization was done by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for structural confirmation. Further analysis carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), provided evidence for the presence of amino groups, which increased the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles.

  11. Qualitative assessment of silver and gold nanoparticle synthesis in various plants: a photobiological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekharreddy, Pala; Usha Rani, Pathipati; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2010-01-01

    The development of rapid and ecofriendly processes for the synthesis of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, the extracellular production of Ag and Au nanoparticles was carried out from the leaves of the plants, Tridax procumbens L. (Coat buttons), Jatropa curcas L. (Barbados nut), Calotropis gigantea L. (Calotropis), Solanum melongena L. (Eggplant), Datura metel L. (Datura), Carica papaya L. (Papaya) and Citrus aurantium L. (Bitter orange) by the sunlight exposure method. Qualitative comparisons of the synthesized nanoparticles between the plants were measured. Among these T. procumbens, J. curcas and C. gigantea plants synthesized <20 nm sized and spherical-shaped Ag particles, whereas C. papaya, D. metel and S. melongena produced <20 nm sized monodispersed Au particles. The amount of nanoparticles synthesized and its qualitative characterization was done by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for structural confirmation. Further analysis carried out by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), provided evidence for the presence of amino groups, which increased the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students: insights into the wider English-speaking Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Bachew, Raecho; Bodie, Dalecia; Leach, Richanna; Morris, Kevin; Sherma, Glenderia

    2014-02-01

    Mental illness is a significant contributor to global disease burden and this is expected to increase over the coming decades. Traditionally mental illness has not been well understood by the general public, resulting in poor attitudes towards persons with mental illness and stigmatization. Such conditions are common in the Caribbean where less than 5% of the health budget is allocated to mental illness. To assess knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students within the English-speaking Caribbean. A self-report questionnaire was adapted from previous studies designed to measure knowledge and attitudes of mental illness. Students were sampled from the University of the West Indies campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago. Responses were collected from 673 persons with a response rate of 84%. While participants were agreed that particular diseases were mental illnesses, overall knowledge scores were low. Knowledge was higher among those persons who knew someone with a mental illness. Attitude scores were suggestive of stigmatization, with drug abuse and schizophrenia seen in a particularly poor light. These results suggest that widespread educational campaigns need to be implemented across the region, designed to both increase knowledge about mental illness and reduce discrimination towards persons suffering with mental illness.

  13. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.; Klaeschen, D.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Scholl, D.

    2009-11-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the décollement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados, where a uniform, continuous décollement reflector has been imaged. In our study area, the plate interface reveals a spatially irregular, nonlinear pattern characterized by the morphological relief of subducted seamounts and thicker than average patches of underthrust sediment. The underthrust sediment is associated with a low velocity zone as determined from wide-angle data. Active underplating is not resolved, but likely contributes to the uplift of the large bivergent wedge that constitutes the forearc high. Our profile is located 100 km west of the 2006 Java tsunami earthquake. The heterogeneous décollement zone regulates the friction behavior of the shallow subduction environment where the earthquake occurred. The alternating pattern of enhanced frictional contact zones associated with oceanic basement relief and weak material patches of underthrust sediment influences seismic coupling and possibly contributed to the heterogeneous slip distribution. Our seismic images resolve a steeply dipping splay fault, which originates at the décollement and terminates at the sea floor and which potentially contributes to tsunami generation during co-seismic activity.

  14. METHODS OF TAXATION IN THE TAX HAVENS. EXAMPLES OF TAXATION IN THE BAHAMAS, BERMUDA AND THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We should never trust appearances: "the drum, with all the noise it makes is not only filled with wind"[1]. This old oriental proverb perfectly illustrates our proposal regarding the "true false" tax havens. Only at the beginning of this century, learned before firms to exercise their activity in the national territory, returned to international trade. The continuous search for new outlets to escape the growing production, export them first and then they were implanted overseas sales platforms and then installing production. Zero Haven sites or havens with zero tax consisting essentially of small economies, the British colonies (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, dependent territories of the Commonwealth (Bermuda or territories became independent (Antigua, Bahamas 1963 or Vanuatu 1980. Our study will analyze tax havens most common: Bahamas, Bermuda or the Cayman Islands, where we find all models of reception that can be viewed in other areas zero-haven: International Business Companies (Antigua, the Virgin Islands, Nevis exemption schemes to insurance companies or banks (Barbados, Vanuatu. The subject of tax evasion subject of much debate, targeting both the domestic economic space and the world. Unlike their concerns globally, domestic concerns to reduce tax evasion resumes, especially on taxation of small businesses, avoiding knowingly scope of tax havens.

  15. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Sta Maria, Inna Mikaella P; Garcia, James Rainier M; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  16. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kendrich C Fontanilla

    Full Text Available The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  17. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe’s classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing “snappy answers to stupid questions,” in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. Methods We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). Results We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users’ current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Conclusion Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated. PMID:19969574

  18. Holiday review. Snappy answers to stupid questions: an evidence-based framework for responding to peer-review feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Hoffman, Steven J

    2009-12-08

    Authors are inundated with feedback from peer reviewers. Although this feedback is usually helpful, it can also be incomprehensible, rude or plain silly. Inspired by Al Jaffe's classic comic from Mad Magazine, we sought to develop an evidenced-based framework for providing "snappy answers to stupid questions," in the hope of aiding emerging academics in responding appropriately to feedback from peer review. We solicited, categorized and analyzed examples of silly feedback from peer reviewers using the grounded theory qualitative research paradigm from 50 key informants. The informants represented 15 different professions, 33 institutions and 11 countries (i.e., Australia, Barbados, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA). We developed a Scale of Silliness (SOS) and a Scale of Belligerence (SOB) to facilitate the assessment of inadequate peer-review feedback and guide users in preparing suitable responses to it. The SOB score is tempered by users' current mood, as captured by the Mood Reflective Index (MRI), and dictates the Appropriate Degree of Response (ADR) for the particular situation. Designed using the highest quality of (most easily accessible anecdotal) evidence available, this framework may fill a significant gap in the research literature by helping emerging academics respond to silly feedback from peer reviewers. Although use of the framework to its full extent may have negative consequences (e.g., loss of promotion), its therapeutic value cannot be understated.

  19. Histórico da expansão urbana e ocorrência de inundações na cidade de Cuiabá-MT / History of urban expansion and occurrence of flooding in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Carlos Martins de Menezes Filho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined documents that recorded floods in the municipality of Cuiabá between 1970 and 2010. The steps of research encompassed printed and digital media, municipal civil defense and the collection of the Central Library of the municipality of Cuiabá. The main goal of this study was to establish a relationship between urban sprawl and incidence of floods in the municipality. Fifty-one flood events were recorded, concentrated in the months from December to April, with an average of 1.28 occurrences per year in the period analyzed. The expansion of the urban area in the early 60’s has favored the disordered occupation of land use and the increase of urban floods, either by the intense waterproofing as well as by channeling of urban streams, as observed in the Prainha and Barbado streams. The results revealed that the urbanization of the capital of Mato Grosso State has influenced in increasing the frequency of floods and their impacts have caused in losses of material and human nature.

  20. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2016-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) and skin bleaching. Methods A total of 1226 university participants (ages 18–30 years and 63.4% female) from three Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Barbados, and Grenada) provided data for the current analysis. They all completed self-reported measures of general demographic information along with the short screening scale for posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV), childhood trauma, and skin bleaching questions. Results The prevalence of skin bleaching in our study was 25.4%. Our findings showed that individuals who bleached their skin were more likely to have been abused as children (21.6% versus 13.5%, pbleaching (Indirect Effect=0.03, p0.05) and depressive (Indirect Effect=0.005, p>0.05) symptoms did not. Conclusion The presence of trauma symptoms and childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) may increase the likelihood of skin bleaching. Findings suggest that further exploration is needed to ascertain if the presence of skin bleaching warrants being also screened for trauma. PMID:27019771

  1. Can We Use Single-Column Models for Understanding the Boundary Layer Cloud-Climate Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Gesso, S.; Neggers, R. A. J.

    2018-02-01

    This study explores how to drive Single-Column Models (SCMs) with existing data sets of General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs, with the aim of studying the boundary layer cloud response to climate change in the marine subtropical trade wind regime. The EC-EARTH SCM is driven with the large-scale tendencies and boundary conditions as derived from two different data sets, consisting of high-frequency outputs of GCM simulations. SCM simulations are performed near Barbados Cloud Observatory in the dry season (January-April), when fair-weather cumulus is the dominant low-cloud regime. This climate regime is characterized by a near equilibrium in the free troposphere between the long-wave radiative cooling and the large-scale advection of warm air. In the SCM, this equilibrium is ensured by scaling the monthly mean dynamical tendency of temperature and humidity such that it balances that of the model physics in the free troposphere. In this setup, the high-frequency variability in the forcing is maintained, and the boundary layer physics acts freely. This technique yields representative cloud amount and structure in the SCM for the current climate. Furthermore, the cloud response to a sea surface warming of 4 K as produced by the SCM is consistent with that of the forcing GCM.

  2. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  3. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) and skin bleaching. A total of 1226 university participants (ages 18-30 years and 63.4% female) from three Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Barbados, and Grenada) provided data for the current analysis. They all completed self-reported measures of general demographic information along with the short screening scale for posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV), childhood trauma, and skin bleaching questions. The prevalence of skin bleaching in our study was 25.4%. Our findings showed that individuals who bleached their skin were more likely to have been abused as children (21.6% versus 13.5%, p0.05) and depressive (Indirect Effect=0.005, p>0.05) symptoms did not. The presence of trauma symptoms and childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) may increase the likelihood of skin bleaching. Findings suggest that further exploration is needed to ascertain if the presence of skin bleaching warrants being also screened for trauma.

  4. Basic ESR studies on recent corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Ralf; Barabas, Michael; Mangini, Augusto

    Experiments on recent corals ( Acropora palmata, Barbados) were carried out to study the dating relevant properties of the characteristic ESR signals. Highly resolved signal growth curves (55 aliquots of a sieve fraction 125-250 μm) were obtained by γ-irradiation in small steps up to 20 kGy. The signal growth curve of the 'dating signal' at g = 2.0006 can only be approximated by a single exponential saturation function in a certain dose range. Thus, ADs derived with this function tend to be overestimated. A better analytical description by two different functions was tested. Isothermal annealing experiments were carried out at various temperatures before and after irradiation with a definite γ-dose respectively. The thermal decay of the dating signal is not 1st order. Furthermore, the decay process is strongly influenced by the decay of the traps themselves. The behaviour of the signals at g = 2.0057 and g = 2.0031 was compared with that of the dating signal. A surprising result was the growth of the signal at g = 2.0057 with γ-irradiation.

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of alginate lyase and cellulase co-produced by Exiguobacterium species Alg-S5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Bidyut R

    2017-05-01

    In an effort to screen out the alginolytic and cellulolytic bacteria from the putrefying invasive seaweed Sargassum species accumulated off Barbados' coast, a potent bacterial strain was isolated. This bacterium, which simultaneously produced alginate lyase and cellulase, was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. Alg-S5 via the phylogenetic approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase exhibited maximal enzymatic activity at pH 7.5 and at 40°C and 45°C, respectively. The K m and V max values recorded as 0.91mg/mL and 21.8U/mg-protein, respectively, for alginate lyase, and 10.9mg/mL and 74.6U/mg-protein, respectively, for cellulase. First order kinetic analysis of the thermal denaturation of the co-produced alginate lyase and cellulase in the temperature range from 40°C to 55°C revealed that both the enzymes were thermodynamically efficient by displaying higher activation energy and enthalpy of denaturation. These enzymatic properties indicate the potential industrial importance of this bacterium in algal biomass conversion. This appears to be the first report on assessing the efficacy of a bacterium for the co-production of alginate lyase and cellulase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Health Equity Impacts of Medical Tourism in the Caribbean: The Need to Provide Actionable Guidance Regarding Balancing Local and Foreign Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is a practice where individuals cross international borders with the intention of privately purchasing healthcare. Caribbean countries are increasingly entering into the medical tourism market, which presents both opportunities and dangers. Our previous fieldwork shows that medical tourism requires host countries to balance the interests of private developers and domestic actors, including those accessing healthcare locally. Discussions with stakeholders in Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Barbados and St Lucia demonstrate concrete instances of this problem. Firstly, medical tourism can enhance training and employment opportunities for domestic health-workers. In doing so, it may exacerbate the inequitable distribution of these workers between the public and private sectors. Secondly, the expansion of private medical services can provide locals with more care options. These facilities may also crowd out existing local operators and price out local consumers. Thirdly, medical tourism is hailed as potentially cross-subsidizing and strengthening the local public health system. It may also heighten health inequities and distract local attention from the needs of the public health sector. Caribbean stakeholders are aware of the promise and dangers of medical tourism. However, they lack clear advice from medical tourism researchers about how to navigate these issues, and specifically balancing local and foreign interests. We call on researchers to shift focus from highlighting the theoretical problems associated with medical tourism to providing concrete guidance to stakeholders in a position to decide whether or not to pursue medical tourism development and to shape this development when it takes place.

  7. Increasing Public Access to University Qualifications: Evolution of The University of the West Indies Open Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the evolution of The University of the West Indies’ Open Campus (UWIOC, which is expected to expand service and increase access to the underserved communities of the Eastern Caribbean. At present, UWI, which caters to the needs of the 16 far flung countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, has not been able to fully serve these countries, the UWI-12, in a way that is commensurate with their developmental needs. Historically, the institution has been dominated by campus-based education, and its three campuses have been poles of attraction for scholars and scholarship to the significant advantage of the countries in which they are located: Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Barbados. The University’s creation of an open campus, a fourth campus, enables it to expand its scope, enhance its appeal, and improve the efficiency of its services to individuals, communities, and countries. This new campus, a merger of UWI’s Outreach sector, which comprises the School of Continuing Studies, the Tertiary Level Institute Unit, and The UWI Distance Education Centre, will have a physical presence in each contributing country and will function as a network of real and virtual modes to deliver education and training to anyone with access to Internet facilities.

  8. Permeability-Porosity Relationships of Subduction Zone Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, K.; Screaton, E.; Bekins, B.; Aiello, I.

    2008-12-01

    Permeability-porosity relationships for sediments from Northern Barbados, Costa Rica, Nankai, and Peru subduction zones were examined based on their sediment type and grain size distribution. Greater correlation was observed between permeability and porosity for siliciclastic sediments, diatom oozes, and nannofossil chalk than for nannofossil oozes. For siliciclastic sediments, grouping of sediments by clay content yields relationships that are generally consistent with results from other marine settings and suggest decreasing permeability for a given porosity as clay content increases. Correction of measured porosities for smectite content generally improves the quality of permeability-porosity relationships. The relationship between permeability and porosity for diatom oozes may be controlled by the amount of clay present in the ooze, causing diatom oozes to behave similarly to siliciclastic sediments. For a given porosity the nannofossil oozes have higher permeability values by 1.5 orders of magnitude than the siliciclastic sediments. However, the use of a permeability-porosity relation may not be appropriate for unconsolidated carbonates such as nannofossil oozes. This study provided insight to the effects of porosity correction for smectite, variations in lithology and grain size in permeability-porosity relationships. However, further progress in delineating controls on permeability will require more careful and better documented permeability tests on characterized samples.

  9. North American Tropospheric Ozone Profiles from IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study, 2004, 2006): Ozone Budgets, Polution Statistics, Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Miller, S. K.; Oltmans, S. J.; Cooper, O. R.; Tarasick, D. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Taubman, B. F.; Joseph, E.; Baumgardner, D.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G. A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Lefer, B.; Forbes, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Leblanc, T.; Dubey, M.; Minschwaner, K.

    2007-12-01

    During INTEX-B (both Milagro and IMPEX phases in Spring 2006) and during the summer TEXAQS- 2006/GOMACCS period, the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-06) coordinated ozonesonde launches over North America for Aura overpasses. IONS-06 supported aircraft operations and provided profiles for ozone budgets and pollution transport, satellite validation and evaluation of models. In contrast to IONS-04, IONS-06 had a greater range (all but one 2004 IONS site plus a dozen in California, New Mexico, Mexico City, Barbados and southwestern Canada), yielding more than 700 profiles. Tropospheric pollution statistics to guide Aura satellite retrievals and contrasts in UT-LS (upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric) ozone between 2004 and 2006 are presented. With IONS-04 dominated by low-pressure conditions over northeastern North America, UT ozone originated 25% from the stratosphere [Thompson et al., 2007a,b] with significant amounts from aged or relatively fresh pollution and lightning [Cooper et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2006]. Both IONS-04 and IONS-06 summer periods displayed a persistent UT ozone maximum [Cooper et al., 2007] over the south-central US. March 2006 IONS sondes over Mexico manifested persistent UT/LS gravity wave influence and more sporadic pollution. Regional and seasonal contrasts in IONS-06 ozone distributions are described. intexb/ions06.html

  10. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  11. Fairmont Hotels and Resorts : hospitality, tradition, environmental stewardship and energy savings go hand in hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinault, K. [Fairmont Hotels and Resorts, Toronto, ON (Canada). Design and Construction

    2003-06-01

    Headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Fairmont Hotels and Resorts Inc. operates 81 world-class luxury hotels and resorts in Canada, United States, Mexico, Bermuda, Barbados and the United Arab Emirates. In 1990, Fairmont Hotels launched a green program for all its Canadian hotels as part of its commitment to become a world leader in establishing environmental practices for the hotel industry. Fairmont's policies for energy efficiency, water conservation, purchasing and waste minimization have won international awards. The energy efficiency measures benefit both the company and society through savings in operating costs and reducing carbon dioxide emissions, thereby helping Canada meets its international obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Electricity makes up the greatest part of the hotel chain's huge energy bills, costing more than $29 million annually. The remainder of the energy bill consists of natural gas, propane, water, steam and kitchen fuel costs. Many of Fairmont's hotels are historic properties whose physical layout present greater challenges than retrofitting new construction. The retrofits so far have included improvements in lighting fixtures, laundry facilities, HVAC systems, parking garages and boiler rooms. Since 1998, energy retrofits at Fairmont hotels across Canada have resulted in substantial energy savings. 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monceau, Karine; Cézilly, Frank; Moreau, Jérôme; Motreuil, Sébastien; Wattier, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  13. Colonisation and diversification of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita in the Antilles: phylogeography, contemporary gene flow and morphological divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Monceau

    Full Text Available Caribbean avifaunal biogeography has been mainly studied based on mitochondrial DNA. Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser Antilles (LA. Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands and six LA islands (Saint Barthélemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados. Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.

  14. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  15. Use of coconut meal in slaughter pig diets Uso de farelo de coco nas dietas de suínos para abate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    2009-09-01

    abate e das carcaças quente e fria, a receita e margem bruta por carcaça, a porcentagem de perda de peso por resfriamento, os rendimentos das carcaças quente e fria e dos principais cortes (pernil, carré, paleta, barriga + costela, sobrepaleta, a espessura do toucinho, a área de olho de lombo, o comprimento de carcaça e a relação carne:gordura. Conclui-se que é possível incluir 22,8 % de farelo de coco nas dietas de suínos para abate, com a substituição parcial do farelo residual de milho e do farelo de soja.

  16. Qualidade de cortes de suínos recebendo ractopamina na ração em diferentes programas alimentares = Quality of pork cuts from swine receiving ractopamine as ration in different feed programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a suplementação de ractopamina associada à restrição alimentar em rações com elevado teor de lisina sobre a composição de cortes suínos. Foram utilizados 30 suínos machos castrados (peso 107,2 ± 6,2 kg, recebendo as dietas experimentais durante28 dias pré-abate. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados em fatorial 2 x 2 + 1 (dois níveis de ractopamina – 0 ou 5 ppm – em rações com 1,03% de lisina total; fornecidas à vontade ou 15% de restrição, e um tratamento controle, ad libitum, semractopamina, contendo 0,8% de lisina total com seis repetições. Os cortes foram obtidos da carcaça esquerda resfriada. Foram avaliados o rendimento do filezinho (RFIL, as porcentagens de carne no pernil (PCPER, a paleta (PCPAL, a sobrepaleta (PCSOP e o carré (PCCAR e a espessura (EB, a flexibilidade (FB, a quantidade de carne (QCB, agordura (QGB e a relação carne:gordura (RCGB da barriga. A ractopamina aumentou o RFIL, PCPER, PCPAL, PCSOP, PCCAR e RCGB quando comparada com rações sem ractopamina e 1,03% de lisina. Comparado ao controle, a ractopamina aumentou o PCCAR e a RCGB; diminuiu o QGB e, quando associada à restrição, aumentou a PCPER. A restrição diminuiu a FB. O uso de ractopamina aumenta a porcentagem de carne nos cortessuínos e a restrição alimentar diminui a FB.This study evaluated the supplementation of ractopamine associated with feeding restriction in diets with high lysine content on the composition of pork cuts. Thirty barrows (107.2 ± 6.2 kg were utilized, receiving the experimental diets during 28 days before slaughter. The randomized block design was applied in a 2 x 2 + 1factorial (two levels of ractopamine – 0 or 5 ppm – in rations with 1.03% of total lysine; ad libitum or 15% feed restriction; and a control treatment, ad libitum, without ractopamine, with 0.8% of total lysine with six replicates. The cuts were obtained from the left chilled carcass. The tenderloin percentage

  17. The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit (Ceará, Brazil) new petrographic, geochemistry and isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, César Ulisses Vieira; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Parente, Clóvis Vaz; Oliveira, Claudinei Gouveia de; Cavalcanti, José Adilson Dias; Nogueira Neto, José de Araújo

    2016-10-01

    The Itataia phosphate-uranium deposit is located in Santa Quitéria, in central Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. Mineralization has occurred in different stages and involves quartz leaching (episyenitization), brecciation and microcrystalline phase formation of concretionary apatite. The last constitutes the main mineral of Itatiaia uranium ore, namely collophane. Collophanite ore occurs in massive bodies, lenses, breccia zones, veins or episyenite in marble layers, calc-silicate rocks and gneisses of the Itataia Group. There are two accepted theories on the origin of the earliest mineralization phase of Itataia ore: syngenetic (primary) - where the ore is derived from a continental source and then deposited in marine and coastal environments; and epigenetic (secondary) - whereby the fluids are of magmatic, metamorphic and meteoric origin. The characterization of pre- or post-deformational mineralization is controversial, since the features of the ore are interpreted as deformation. This investigation conducted isotopic studies and chemical analyses of minerals in marbles and calc-silicate rocks of the Alcantil and Barrigas Formations (Itataia Group), as well as petrographic and structural studies. Analysis of the thin sections shows at least three phosphate mineral phases associated with uranium mineralizaton: (1) A prismatic fluorapatite phase associated with chess-board albite, arfvedsonite and ferro-eckermannite; (2) a second fluorapatite phase with fibrous radial or colloform habits that replaces calcium carbonate in marble, especially along fractures, with minerals such as quartz, chlorite and zeolite also identified in calc-silicate rocks; and (3) an younger phosphate phase of botryoidal apatite (fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite) related with clay minerals and probably others calcium and aluminum phosphates. Detailed isotopic analysis carried out perpendicularly to the mineralized levels and veins in the marble revealed significant variation in isotopic

  18. La Trascendencia de la Biomedicina de altura en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Guerra García

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En Bogotá ha existido interés en estudios sobre el efecto de la altura en el hombre; así el trabajo del Dr. Francisco Gnecco Mozo, premiado por esta Academia en 1936 trató sobre “El trabajo del corazón en Bogotá”. En él Gnecco refuta a Corpas y también a Barriga con sus estudios pioneros de 1910 Y 1925 (Tesis de Grado de la Facultad de Medicina; en su conclusión, Gnecco, afirma “El corazón a la altura de Bogotá ha condicionado su trabajo tan fisiológicamente, que resulta sensiblemente igual al del nivel de! mar”. En 1941, Alfonso Bonilla Naar presentó su tesis para el doctorado en medicina y cirugía sobre “Fisiopatología de las alturas” y fue calificado de meritorio; en ella reconoce el aporte de la Escuela Peruana y de Carlos Monge Medrano.

    El tema era estudiado en las alturas del Perú y fue presentado también como tesis en la Facultad de Medicina de Bogotá por Hernán Torres; sin embargo no hay referencia alguna sobre los trabajos realizados en países vecinos, evidencia de la dificultad de comunicación de la época.

    La vida en la altura


    En los diversos continentes hay montañas elevadas, que el hombre las ha considerado en muy diversas maneras; así, dice Sarton que en Europa “los rigores y peligros alpinos habían inducido a las mentes medievales a creer que las altas montañas eran morada de gnomos y demonios. En ésto habían avanzado menos que los budistas en la India, la China y el Japón, quienes consideraban sagradas las montañas y construían templos en sus laderas o en las mismas cumbres”. Las primeras expediciones alpinas comenzaron muy tímidamente en el Siglo XIV pero no cobraron importancia antes del Siglo XVI. El primer hombre que subió a las montañas para entender el misterioso clip que prevalece en las elevadas altitudes y para observar la forma de las montañas y de las plantas y animales que las habitan, fue Leonardo Da Vinci

  19. Comportamiento productivo de reproductoras ovinas en un sistema silvopastoril Productive performance of ewes in a silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar el comportamiento de los indicadores productivos en ovejas Pelibuey en un sistema silvopastoril, se realizó una investigación con 44 reproductoras en la Estación Experimental «Indio Hatuey». Los animales recibieron durante todo el período forraje de guinea y leucaena, con una oferta de 1 y 2 kg/animal/día, respectivamente; en la etapa de cubrición recibieron hollejo de cítrico a razón de 0,350 kg/animal/día y durante el último tercio de la gestación y los primeros 30 días posparto se suministró concentrado (0,04 kg/animal/día. Se determinó la condición corporal y el peso vivo de las madres durante la etapa de cubrición, el parto y a los 30 días posparto. Además se analizó la influencia del tipo de parto (sencillo y doble en el peso de las crías al nacer y a los 30 días de nacidas, y en la ganancia media diaria (gmd. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (pIn order to study the performance of productive indicators of Pelibuey ewes in a silvopastoral system, a study was conducted with 44 ewes at the Experimental Station «Indio Hatuey». The animals received Guinea grass and leucaena forage throughout the period, with a supply of 1 and 2 kg/animal/day, respectively; in the mating stage they received citrus pulp at a rate of 0,350 kg/animal/day and during the last third of pregnancy and the first 30 days postpartum concentrate was supplied (0,04 kg/animal/day. The body condition and live weight of the ewes were determined during the mating stage, parturition and 30 days postpartum. In addition, the influence of parturition type (single and double on the weight of the lambs at birth and 30 days after being born, and on the mean daily gain, was analyzed. Significant differences were found (p<0,05 in live weight (31,4; 32,9 and 30,5 kg and body condition (3,7; 3,5 and 3,0; while in the indicator hematocrit no significant differences were found. The parturition type had effect on the weight at

  20. Echinococcus granulosus: biological comparison of cattle isolates from endemic regions of Argentina and Spain Echinococcus granulosus: comparación biológica de aislados de bovinos de regiones endémicas de Argentina y España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Andresiuk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we have compared cattle isolates of Echinococcus granulosus from Argentina and Spain. The aim was to compare and determine if there exist phenotypic and genetic differences within E. granulosus cattle isolates between an endemic area of Spain (where the disease is mainly restricted to a sheep-dog cycle and an endemic area of Argentina (where cattle are the most abundant intermediate hosts. The Spanish samples were previously identified as G1 genotype. The Argentinean samples were also identified as G1, but some variants were found for the cytochrome c oxidase-1 (CO1 and NADH dehydrogenase-1 (ND1 mitochondrial genes. When comparing the cyst features and the morphology of the larval rostellar hooks in both regions, some differences were found. The morphometric analyses of the larval rostellar hooks showed the existence of two distinct clearly separated groups (one corresponding to the Argentinean samples and the other to the Spanish ones. In conclusion, there are some genetic and phenotypic differences within E. granulosus cattle isolates from Argentina and Spain. Probably these differences, more important from an epidemiological point of view, are related to different steps in the disease control in both countries. Further studies involving other epidemiological, morphometric and molecular data, including other types of livestock, would contribute to clarify and expand the present work.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar si existen diferencias fenotípicas y genéticas entre los aislados de Echinococcus granulosus de origen bovino provenientes de dos regiones geográficas donde la hidatidosis es endémica, una de España (donde predomina el ciclo perro-oveja y una de Argentina (donde el bovino es el hospedador intermediario más importante. Las muestras españolas fueron previamente identificadas como pertenecientes al genotipo G1. Las muestras argentinas también correspondían al genotipo G1, pero entre ellas se

  1. Probiotic characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from traditional butter made from camel milk in arid regions (Sahara of Algeria

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    Meriem, Kaid Harche

    2008-09-01

    , vancomicina y clindamicina, pero resistentes a tetraciclina y kanamicina. Dichas cepas mostraron una rápida actividad acidificante (0,921 y 1,075 mmol/l de ácido láctico, respectivamente, una buena actividad proteolítica (5,45 y 3,49 mg/l de tirosina a las 72 h, respectivamente y un alto porcentaje de supervivencia después de liofilización. Ninguna de las cepas produjo polisacáridos o hemolisina en sangre de oveja.

  2. Estudio del foco en un caso de fasciolosis humana en Neuquén A focus study from a case of human fascioliasis in Neuquén

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    Diana Rubel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue realizar un estudio de foco relacionado con un caso de fasciolosis humana ocurrido en abril de 2002 en Loncopué, Neuquén, Argentina. La confirmación diagnóstica se efectuó en mayo de 2002 por el test de ELISA. En noviembre de 2002 se realizó un muestreo en el área rural donde se ubicaba la vivienda de la paciente, ya restablecida, y se le tomó una nueva muestra de sangre. El suero de la paciente continuó reactivo para antígenos de Fasciola hepatica. Se muestrearon plantas de berro para detectar metacercarias. Se recolectaron caracoles en cuatro canales de riego conectados a un canal principal. Los caracoles fueron trasladados vivos para su identificación, medición y examen de infección. Se recolectaron 35 muestras fecales de ganado de cría. No se observaron metacercarias en las hojas de berro examinadas (n=222. Se recolectaron 130 caracoles identificados como Lymnaea viatrix y 2 de 101 ejemplares (2% estaban infectados con larvas de F. hepatica. Las prevalencias en el ganado adulto fueron: 100% (10/10 para caprinos, 82% (9/11 para ovinos y 86% (6/7 para bovinos. El número de huevos eliminados por las cabras (mediana = 20.7; Q1=6.2; Q3=34.5 y ovejas (4, 18, 13 infectadas, resultó mayor que el eliminado por vacas (0.3; 0.3; 1.7 (pAn epidemiological focal study was performed in Loncopué, Neuquén, Argentina, in November 2002 to detect the origin of the infection in a human case of fascioliasis confirmed by an indirect-ELISA test, six months before the study. Thirty five individual fecal samples were taken from domestic livestock, and watercress plants and snails were collected from the irrigation ditches connected to a main canal in the surroundings of the patient’s house. A new blood sample was taken from the already recovered patient. The patient was still seropositive to Fasciola hepatica antigens. No metacercariae were found in the 222 watercress leaves checked. All the snails collected (n=130 were

  3. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

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    Carolina E. Rosenberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales

  4. Airborne observations of cloud properties on HALO during NARVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Heike; Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation processes is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate and weather predictions. To validate model predictions of convective processes over the Atlantic ocean, usually satellite data are used. However, satellite products provide just a coarse view with poor temporal resolution of convective maritime clouds. Aircraft-based observations offer a more detailed insight due to lower altitude and high sampling rates. The research aircraft HALO (High Altitude Long Range Research Aircraft) is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). With a ceiling of 15 km, and a range of 10,000 km and more than 10 hours it is able to reach remote regions and operate from higher altitudes than most other research aircraft. Thus, it provides the unique opportunity to exploit regions of the atmosphere that cannot be easily accessed otherwise. Measurements conducted on HALO provide more detailed insights than achievable from satellite data. Therefore, this measurement platform bridges the gap between previous airborne measurements and satellites. The payload used for this study consists of, amongst others, a suite of passive microwave radiometers, a cloud radar, and a water vapor DIAL. To investigate cloud and precipitation properties of convective maritime clouds, the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) campaign was conducted in winter 2013/2014 out of Barbados and Keflavik (Iceland). This campaign was one of the first that took place on the HALO aircraft. During the experiment's two parts 15 research flights were conducted (8 flights during NARVAL-South out of Barbados to investigate trade-wind cumuli and 7 flights out of Keflavik with focus on mid-latitude cyclonic systems). Flight durations were between five and nine hours, amounting to roughly 118 flight hours overall. 121 dropsondes were deployed. In fall 2016 two additional aircraft campaigns with the same payload will take place: The

  5. Falls among elderly persons in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans Las caídas en ancianos de América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses

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    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for falls among community-dwelling elders in Latin America and the Caribbean and among elderly Mexican-Americans in the southwestern United States. METHODS: Data for the study came from a project called Health, Well-Being, and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (the "SABE project" (surveys from seven cities, with a total of 9 765 subjects and from the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (H-EPESE (1 483 subjects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of falls across the seven SABE cities and the H-EPESE ranged from 21.6% in Bridgetown, Barbados, to 34.0% in Santiago, Chile. In multiple logistic regression analyses, female gender, increased age, high depressive symptoms, and having any functional limitations were significant independent risk factors for falls in most of the cities studied as well as among the elderly Mexican-Americans. In several of the cities, significant risk factors also included diabetes, urinary incontinence, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of falls had a large variation among the countries studied. Some of the risk factors that we identified could be modified so as to help prevent falls in older people in these populations. The factors deserving attention include depressive symptoms, functional limitations, diabetes, and urinary incontinence.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de caídas y de sus factores de riesgo en ancianos que habitan en el seno de la comunidad en América Latina y el Caribe y en ancianos mexicanoestadounidenses que viven en la zona sudoeste de Estados Unidos. MÉTODOS: Los datos usados para el estudio procedieron del proyecto Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento en América Latina y el Caribe (proyecto "SABE" (encuestas en siete ciudades que abarcaron a un total de 9 765 personas y de las Poblaciones Hispanas Establecidas para Estudios

  6. Encuesta Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE: metodología de la encuesta y perfil de la población estudiada The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE" survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population

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    Cecilia Albala

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento reseña la metodología de la encuesta SABE y los desafíos que impone a la sociedad en general y a los servicios de salud en particular el rápido envejecimiento de la población en América Latina y el Caribe. La Región esta envejeciendo a un ritmo que no se ha observado en el mundo desarrollado, y la evaluación de problemas de salud y discapacidad indica que los adultos mayores están envejeciendo con más limitaciones funcionales y peor salud que sus semejantes en países desarrollados. Además, las redes familiares están cambiando rápidamente y tienen menos capacidad de suplir la falta de protección social institucional. El estudio multicéntrico SABE se creó con el objetivo de evaluar el estado de salud de las personas adultas mayores de siete ciudades de América Latina y el Caribe: Buenos Aires, Argentina; Bridgetown, Barbados; La Habana, Cuba; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; México, D.F., México y São Paulo, Brasil. La encuesta SABE establece el punto de partida para la investigación sistemática del envejecimiento en zonas urbanas de la Región de América Latina y el Caribe. Se recomienda que estudios de estas características y con este ánimo comparativo se extiendan a otros países, zonas y regiones, para enriquecer el conocimiento sobre las personas adultas mayores.This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey (known as the "SABE survey", and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than

  7. Diversidade arbórea das florestas alto montanas no Sul da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil Tree diversity of high montane forests in Southern Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

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    Francisco Haroldo Feitosa do Nascimento

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A região do extremo Sul da Chapada Diamantina abriga as maiores altitudes do Nordeste brasileiro. Situam-se nessas serras as maiores elevações da região Nordeste, entre elas, o Pico do Barbado (2.033 m.s.n.m.. Dois dos rios mais importantes da Bahia nascem nestas serras: o Rio de Contas e o Rio Paramirim. A região é bem conhecida botanicamente, porém, este foi o primeiro inventário quantitativo realizado enfocando as formações florestais. Comparou-se a composição florística de 12 fragmentos de floresta montana, entre 1.350 e 1.750 m.s.n.m., tendo sido amostrados os indivíduos com PAP> 8 cm. Registrou-se a presença de 116 espécies em 84 gêneros de 48 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae (N=20 e Lauraceae (N=10. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Ocotea (N=7, Myrcia (N=5, Eugenia (N=4 e Miconia (N=4. A maioria das espécies apresentou padrão de distribuição amplo, mas foram encontradas espécies comuns a formações florestais de altitude do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil, como Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae e Weinmannia paulliniifolia Pohl (Cunnoniacae. A flora dos fragmentos estudados compartilha baixo número de espécies com as formações estacionais deciduais do entorno da Chapada Diamantina, indicando que estas florestas são únicas e merecem atenção especial, para sua conservação.The southernmost region of Chapada Diamantina, nearest to Rio de Contas harbours the highest peaks of the Brazilian northeastern region, including Pico do Barbado (2,033 m.a.s.l. and the source of the two important rivers in Bahia state (Rio de Contas and Rio Paramirim. The region is well known botanically. This was the first quantitative study to survey the floristic composition of 12 fragments of montane forests (1,350 m.a.s.l. to 1750 m.a.s.l. including trees > 8 cbh. A total of 117 species, 84 genera and 48 families were found. The richest families were Myrtaceae (N=20 and Lauraceae (N

  8. “De Beach Belong to We!” Socio-economic Disparity and Islanders’ Rights of Access to the Coast in a Tourist Paradise

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    Christine Toppin-Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean islands share a history of plantation economy in which the "1%" not only controlled the natural resources and economies of the region, but also owned the majority of the "99%" who were enslaved. This disparity in wealth approximated a racial divide in the society, as the wealthy minority was predominantly "white" while the dispossessed majority was mainly non-whites. While the coastlands were always of importance in these export-oriented agricultural colonies, beach and backshore lands unsuitable for agriculture were less so, often being utilized for boatyards/fishing depots, cemeteries and "tenantries" or squatter settlements housing the landless. Since World War II, and particularly since the Cuban revolution in 1960, beach-oriented tourism has become the leading economic activity in most Caribbean countries. Competition for coastal resources has generally been resolved in favour of foreign currency, transferring much coastal property to foreign ownership and increasingly shutting off the local population's access to the sea. As the majority of foreign investors and tourists are white, this also has racial connotations. This paper examines the legal and administrative responses to the challenges that this situation presents which have been adopted by the Anglo-Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS, with particular reference to the islands of Jamaica, Barbados, Tobago and some of the member countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS. Las islas del Caribe comparten una historia de economía basada en plantaciones, en el que el 1% de la población controlaba los recursos naturales y la economía de la región, y al 99% restante, que vivía esclavizado. Esta diferencia en la riqueza traía consigo una división racial en la sociedad, ya que la minoría rica era principalmente "blanca", mientras que la mayoría desposeía era principalmente "no blanca". Mientras que las tierras costeras tenían siempre

  9. Proposed methodology for monitoring antiretroviral drugs price negotiations in Latin America and the Caribbean Propuesta de metodología para monitorear la negociación de precios de los medicamentos antirretrovirales en América Latina y el Caribe

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    Claudia G. S. Osorio-de-Castro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The spread of HIV/AIDS challenges governments to provide antiretroviral (ARV treatment at affordable prices, and various initiatives have been developed with that intent. In Latin America and the Caribbean, four subregional negotiations were conducted during 2002-2005 to reduce drug prices and thus broaden access to ARVs. Studies were carried out to monitor the negotiations, and the development of a monitoring methodology was recommended. The objective of the current study was to develop and describe a potential methodology for monitoring ARV price negotiations. METHODS: The study, carried out in 2006-2007, consisted of a design phase and validation phase. The design phase included an extensive literature review and development of a theoretical framework. Validation was performed using health professional consensus and pilot studies in three countries-Barbados, Honduras, and Peru-representing the Caribbean, Central American, and Andean subregions. RESULTS: The results included a detailed logic model and a 40-indicator framework. Both were tested in the field. Indicators were evaluated for feasibility, pertinence, and sensitivity, based on the outcome of the pilot study. CONCLUSIONS: This monitoring methodology is designed to help countries self-evaluate progress toward implementation of ARV price negotiations. The results of the pilot study indicate that its implementation in the field helped elucidate the ARV price negotiation process by identifying local conditions and indirectly measuring countries' negotiating capacities.OBJETIVO: La diseminación del VIH/sida exige de los gobiernos suministrar el tratamiento antirretroviral (ARV a precios asequibles y se han desarrollado varias iniciativas con ese fin. En América Latina y el Caribe se han realizado cuatro negociaciones subregionales entre 2002 y 2005 para reducir los precios de los medicamentos y así ampliar el acceso a los ARV. Se han realizado estudios para monitorear las

  10. Isotopic provenance analysis and terrane tectonics: a warning about sediment transport distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    temporary storage. Sediment from the Amazon River can be found in the Barbados trench. transported ∼2000 km northward by near shore currents after more than 2500 km by the Amazon River from source. It's interesting to note that while large fluvial systems are helpful for transporting sediment very large distances, it is also possible by other mechanisms. Both the Bengal fan and the Barbados sediment have been transported at least 1500 km by purely marine sediment transport mechanisms. Similar transport distances occur in the Hikurangi submarine channel off the eastern coast of New Zealand (Lewis, 1999). There fine sands are transported ∼2000 km northward into the Kermadec trench by sediment gravity flow and deep water currents. Such modern examples of long distance sediment transport should be kept in mind when interpreting details of terrane translation. The possibility that the fine grained fraction may have been transported 2000-3000 km from their source makes their provenance of very little use when attempting to resolve controversies where distances of tectonic translation are on the same order of magnitude (Insular and Torlesse Superterranes). Thus detailed histories of terrane translation are best developed using coarse rather than fine size tractions. Gravels are transported over 10s to 100s of kilometers rather than the 1000s of kilometers possible for fine grained sediments. In addition, more detailed isotopic and geochemical provenance analysis is possible due to the larger grain size available allowing more specific characterization of the source area. However, truly effective characterization of sediment source rocks can only be accomplished as part of multidisciplinary research projects that would include provenance analysis by a variety of methods combined with basin analysis to understand facies relations and sediment dispersal paths. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  11. Genetic variants demonstrating flip-flop phenomenon and breast cancer risk prediction among women of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Qian, Frank; Zheng, Yonglan; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Zheng, Wei; Blot, William; Nathanson, Katherine L; Hennis, Anselm; Nemesure, Barbara; Ambs, Stefan; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated the performance of existing breast cancer risk prediction models among women of African ancestry. In replication studies of genetic variants, a change in direction of the risk association is a common phenomenon. Termed flip-flop, it means that a variant is risk factor in one population but protective in another, affecting the performance of risk prediction models. We used data from the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in the African diaspora (The Root consortium), which included 3686 participants of African ancestry from Nigeria, USA, and Barbados. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed from the published odds ratios (ORs) of four sets of susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Discrimination capacity was measured using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Flip-flop phenomenon was observed among 30~40% of variants across studies. Using the 34 variants with consistent directionality among previous studies, we constructed a PRS with AUC of 0.531 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.512-0.550), which is similar to the PRS using 93 variants and ORs from European ancestry populations (AUC = 0.525, 95% CI: 0.506-0.544). Additionally, we found the 34-variant PRS has good discriminative accuracy in women with family history of breast cancer (AUC = 0.586, 95% CI: 0.532-0.640). We found that PRS based on variants identified from prior GWASs conducted in women of European and Asian ancestries did not provide a comparable degree of risk stratification for women of African ancestry. Further large-scale fine-mapping studies in African ancestry populations are desirable to discover population-specific genetic risk variants.

  12. Metatheatre and representation of the indiano in a Suarez de Deza's mojiganga

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    Marcela Beatriz Sosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:This work is part of the research we are doing on the metatheatre’s proceedings and its relationship with the social imaginary in the Spanish brief theatre of the 17th. This theatre, because of its location on the boundaries of fiction, has many times a concentration of metatheatrical elements, such as occurs with the mojiganga The weddings, for Palace, by Vicente Suárez de Deza. The metatheatrical perspective of three handsome men, who play roles and simulate to come from Indias, joins other grotesque components: the old man, la dueña and specially the brides played by three bearded ones. We’ll make relation between those metatheatrical components and social representations, circulating in Spanish society of the 17th, about the Other, el indiano, notorious behind the superficial effect of humor. Resumen:Este trabajo se enmarca en la investigación que estamos realizando sobre las variantes del metateatro y su relación con el imaginario social en el teatro breve español del siglo XVII.  Este, por su emplazamiento en los bordes de la ficción, posee frecuentemente una concentración de elementos metateatrales, como ocurre con la mojiganga Los casamientos, para Palacio de Vicente Suárez de Deza. La perspectiva teatral de los tres galanes, quienes componen roles y fingen provenir de las Indias, se une a otros componentes grotescos: el vejete, la dueña y particularmente, las novias desempeñadas por tres barbados. Vincularemos dichos componentes metateatrales con las representaciones sociales que se tenían en la metrópoli española del siglo XVII de ese «otro», el indiano, perceptibles al trasluz del epidérmico efecto de comicidad. 

  13. Leading Causes of Cancer Mortality - Caribbean Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Quesnel-Crooks, Sarah; Sherman, Recinda; Joseph, Rachael; Kohler, Betsy; Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Ivey, Marsha A; Edwards, Brenda K; Mery, Les; Gawryszewski, Vilma; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-12-16

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide (1); in 2012, an estimated 65% of all cancer deaths occurred in the less developed regions of the world (2). In the Caribbean region, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, with an estimated 87,430 cancer-related deaths reported in 2012 (3). The Pan American Health Organization defines the Caribbean region as a group of 27 countries that vary in size, geography, resources, and surveillance systems.* CDC calculated site- and sex-specific proportions of cancer deaths and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for 21 English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, the United States, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands [USVI]), using the most recent 5 years of mortality data available from each jurisdiction during 2003-2013. The selection of years varied by availability of the data from the countries and territories in 2015. ASMR for all cancers combined ranged from 46.1 to 139.3 per 100,000. Among males, prostate cancers were the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by lung cancers; the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to prostate cancer ranged from 18.4% in Suriname to 47.4% in Dominica, and the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to lung cancer ranged from 5.6% in Barbados to 24.4% in Bermuda. Among females, breast cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths, ranging from 14.0% of cancer deaths in Belize to 29.7% in the Cayman Islands, followed by cervical cancer. Several of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the Caribbean can be reduced through primary and secondary preventions, including prevention of exposure to risk factors, screening, early detection, and timely and effective treatment.

  14. Cervical cancer screening programs: technical cooperation in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, D B

    1996-12-01

    This article presents the findings and recommendations of the evaluation of a project that aimed to decrease mortality from cervical cancer in the Caribbean. The Cervical Cancer Control Project was initiated in 1990 in 10 countries in the Caribbean with a total population of 850,000. The project was directed at women aged 25-69 years and sought to increase cervical screening. The production of education materials was based on a KAP survey conducted in Barbados and Grenada. Findings indicate that Pap smears were more popular among young, better educated women. Men contributed to decision making on reproductive health issues, but women would follow the advice of health professionals. The following informative materials were produced: brochures on prevention, public service announcements, and posters. A follow-up survey indicated little impact of the IEC campaign to increase screenings. Training materials were produced that aimed to assure the quality in performance of Pap smear procedures among health workers. Laboratory-based cervical cytology registries were established that were compatible with PAHO/WHO systems. Quality control in laboratories was reinforced by meetings with pathologists and by exploration of the use of semi-automated cytology screening systems. Meetings were conducted in 1996 to assess whether project goals had been met. It was recommended that cost-benefit studies be conducted in order to prove to policy makers that there was a need to invest in screening programs. It was recommended that community and women's groups be encouraged to participate in awareness creation. Recruitment of the target population should be more flexible and involve possible use of mobile clinics in the workplace and communities. Simple, accurate information needs to be communicated through all available channels, including social marketing. Clinicians need to learn to manage their time and to prioritize their work load.

  15. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A.; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O.; Flores, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion

  16. Rocky desertification in Southwest China: Impacts, causes, and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongcheng; Lian, Yanqing; Qin, Xiaoqun

    2014-05-01

    Rocky desertification, which is relatively less well known than desertification, refers to the processes and human activities that transform a karst area covered by vegetation and soil into a rocky landscape. It has occurred in various countries and regions, including the European Mediterranean and Dinaric Karst regions of the Balkan Peninsula, Southwest China on a large scale, and alarmingly, even in tropical rainforests such as Haiti and Barbados, and has had tremendous negative impacts to the environment and social and economic conditions at local and regional scales. The goal of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the impacts, causes, and restoration measures of rocky desertification based on decades of studies in the southwest karst area of China and reviews of studies in Europe and other parts of the world. The low soil formation rate and high permeability of carbonate rocks create a fragile and vulnerable environment that is susceptible to deforestation and soil erosion. Other natural processes related to hydrology and ecology could exacerbate rocky desertification. However, disturbances from a wide variety of human activities are ultimately responsible for rocky desertification wherever it has occurred. This review shows that reforestation can be successful in Southwest China and even in the Dinaric Karst region when the land, people, water, and other resources are managed cohesively. However, new challenges may arise as more frequent droughts and extreme floods induced by global climate change and variability may slow the recovery process or even expand rocky desertification. This review is intended to bring attention to this challenging issue and provide information needed to advance research and engineering practices to combat rocky desertification and to aid in sustainable development.

  17. Calidad de los datos de salud ocupacional en América Latina y el Caribe The quality of occupational health data in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Work-related accidents and illnesses cause significant economic and social losses in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the lack of reliable and systematized data on that situation makes it harder for health authorities and business operators to make decisions and for workers and the general public to take steps to improve working conditions, reduce risks, and prevent those accidents and illnesses. To address that concern, the Program on Workers' Health of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO coordinated the Project on Systematizing Basic Data on Workers' Health in the Countries of the Americas. A report on the project issued in August 1998 contains results, conclusions, and recommendations based on data collected from 10 countries of the Region: Barbados, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. The data were systematized and presented in 42 tables that allowed comparisons among the countries and evaluations of the situation in any one of the countries. Data from countries with adequate record keeping made it clear that many persons work in sectors with high rates of accidents and chronic disease. The research also found it is often hard to analyze trends and changes in labor mortality and morbidity and the conditions that increase the frequency of accidents and occupational diseases. That is because countries and institutions use a variety of approaches to classify, diagnose, and report diseases and occupational injuries, and also frequently modify their criteria. As a follow-up to this research, PAHO is working to compile more specific information on occupational health in the countries of the Region, through an approach that would improve the quality of the information and make it easier to compare the data that is collected.

  18. Coccolithophore export production and seasonal variation from a trans-Atlantic array of sediment trap moorings (NW Africa to Caribbean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, C. V.; Baumann, K. H.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Fischer, G.; Korte, L.; Stuut, J. B. W.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we contribute to disclose the ecology and seasonal variability of coccolithophores, to improve their use as proxies for environmental variability in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To this aim, the coccolithophore export fluxes and species composition were investigated from a trans-Atlantic array of sediment trap moorings from NW Africa (Cape Blanc) into the Caribbean (Barbados) (i.e., CB at 20°N/52ºW: M1 at 12ºN/23ºW; M2 at 14ºN/37ºW; M4 at 12ºN/49ºW). Each of the sediment trap devices was deployed at 1200 m depth, sampling settling particles at two-week intervals, and covering a full year (Oct. 2012 to Oct. 2013). First results show important contrasts between both ends of the trans-Atlantic array: total coccolith fluxes were much higher in the oligotrophic station M4 (western part of the basin) than in the highly productive waters off Cape Blanc (eastern edge of the basin), mostly due to the overwhelming dominance of the deep photic layer species Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus. Off Cape Blanc, higher abundances of the placolith-bearing species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa spp. were found, more typical of the upper photic layer, while F. profunda decreases in relative abundance and G. flabellatus is almost absent, in comparison to M4. The presence of trans-Atlantic ecological gradients in terms of species diversity and prevalence of K- and r-selected species will be discussed with respect to the prevailing environmental conditions during the monitored period, including Saharan-dust deposition and the influence of the Amazon River plume.This study is part of ongoing multidisciplinary research in the study area, in the context of the projects "DUSTRAFFIC" and "TRAFFIC - Transatlantic Fluxes of Saharan Dust".

  19. Increasing Shore-based Participation of Scientists & Students in Telepresence-enabled Nautilus Expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L. C.; Raineault, N.; Carey, S.; Eberli, G. P.; John, B. E.; Cheadle, M. J.; German, C. R.; Mirmalek, Z.; Pallant, A.

    2016-02-01

    As the US oceanographic research fleet shrinks, reducing seagoing opportunities for scientists and students, remote participation in cruises via telepresence will become increasingly vital. The Nautilus Exploration Program is improving the experience of shoreside participants through the development of new tools and methodologies for connecting them to expeditions in real time increasing accessibility to oceanographic cruises. The Scientist Ashore Program is a network of scientists around the world who participate in Exploration Vessel Nautilus expeditions from their own labs or homes. We have developed a suite of collaboration tools to allow scientists to view video and data in real time, as well as to communicate with ship-based and other shore-based participants to enable remote participation in cruises. Post-cruise, scientists and students may access digital data and biological and geological samples from our partner shore-based repositories: the University of Rhode Island Inner Space Center, Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, and URI Marine Geological Samples Lab. We present examples of successful shore-based participation by scientists and students in Nautilus expeditions. In 2013, Drs. Cheadle and John stood watch 24/7 with ten undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wyoming, recording geologic features and samples, during a cruise to the Cayman Rise. The Straits of Florida & Great Bahama Bank cruise was co-led by Dr. Eberli at the University of Miami in 2014, greatly complementing existing data. That same year, the ISC hosted four early career scientists and their twelve undergraduate students who led dives from shore in collaboration with Dr. Carey, Lead Scientist at sea on the Kick'em Jenny Volcano & the Barbados Mud Volcanoes cruise. In 2015, 12 Scientists Ashore worked in collaboration with the ship-based team on the exploration of Galapagos National Park, and more than 20 are working with OET on post-cruise data & sample analysis.

  20. [Gender, equality, and health services access: an empirical approximation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Elsa

    2002-01-01

    This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1) the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2) the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems.

  1. Concentrations of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Associated with African Dust Air Masses in Mali, Cape Verde, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mohammed, Azad; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-01-01

    Every year, billions of tons of fine particles are eroded from the surface of the Sahara Desert and the Sahel of West Africa, lifted into the atmosphere by convective storms, and transported thousands of kilometers downwind. Most of the dust is carried west to the Americas and the Caribbean in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Dust air masses predominately impact northern South America during the Northern Hemisphere winter and the Caribbean and Southeastern United States in summer. Dust concentrations vary considerably temporally and spatially. In a dust source region (Mali), concentrations range from background levels of 575 micrograms per cubic meter (mu/u g per m3) to 13,000 mu/u g per m3 when visibility degrades to a few meters (Gillies and others, 1996). In the Caribbean, concentrations of 200 to 600 mu/u g per m3 in the mid-Atlantic and Barbados (Prospero and others, 1981; Talbot and others, 1986), 3 to 20 mu/u g per m3 in the Caribbean (Prospero and Nees, 1986; Perry and others, 1997); and >100 mu/u g per m3 in the Virgin Islands (this dataset) have been reported during African dust conditions. Mean dust particle size decreases as the SAL traverses from West Africa to the Caribbean and Americas as a result of gravitational settling. Mean particle size reaching the Caribbean is <1 micrometer (mu/u m) (Perry and others, 1997), and even finer particles are carried into Central America, the Southeastern United States, and maritime Canada. Particles less than 2.5 mu/u m diameter (termed PM2.5) can be inhaled deeply into human lungs. A large body of literature has shown that increased PM2.5 concentrations are linked to increased cardiovascular/respiratory morbidity and mortality (for example, Dockery and others, 1993; Penn and others, 2005).

  2. Family planning costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Government sponsored family planning programs have had major success in declining birth rates in Barbados, China, Cuba, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand. Non- government programs have had similar success in Brazil and Colombia. These programs have been estimated as preventing over 100 million births in China and 80 million in India. Research indicates that family planning programs can produce a 30-50% drop in fertility. Family planning information and some contraceptives can be best distributed through community organizations. Research also indicates male opposition has been a major factor in wider acceptance of family planning. Surveys indicate that 50% of the woman who want no additional children are not using any birth control. Many governments do not have the resource and money to implement programs. In the developing countries if those who were able to prevent the unwanted births had birth control, the population increases in those countries would have been 1.3% versus 2.2%. In earlier family planning programs foreign assistance paid over 80% of the cost, and national governments 20%; today this is reversed. The World Bank estimates that for major improvements in population growth and women's health, $7 billion will be needed yearly by the year 2000. The countries that have had the similar goals in development of human resources, social services, health, and education. They have attended to the status of women, female employment, and maternal and child health. Estimates are that 1.3 billion couples and individuals will need family planning services by the year 2000, and this will be a formidable task. This key elements of successful family planning programs are community participation, decentralization, and training.

  3. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprinting of transatlantic dust derived from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wancang; Balsam, William; Williams, Earle; Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng

    2018-03-01

    Long-range transport of African dust plays an important role in understanding dust-climate relationships including dust source areas, dust pathways and associated atmospheric and/or oceanic processes. Clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions can be used as geochemical fingerprints to constrain dust provenance and the pathways of long-range transported mineral dust. We investigated the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of surface samples along four transects bordering the Sahara Desert. The transects are from Mali, Niger/Benin/Togo, Egypt and Morocco. Our results show that the Mali transect on the West African Craton (WAC) produces lower εNd (εNd-mean = -16.38) and εHf (εHf-mean = -9.59) values than the other three transects. The Egyptian transect exhibits the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (87Sr/86Srmean = 0.709842), the highest εHf (εHf-mean = -0.34) and εNd values of the four transects. Comparison of the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic values from our North African samples to transatlantic African dust collected in Barbados demonstrates that the dust's provenance is primarily the western Sahel and Sahara as well as the central Sahel. Summer emission dust is derived mainly from the western Sahel and Sahara regions. The source of transatlantic dust in spring and autumn is more varied than in the summer and includes dust not only from western areas, but also south central areas. Comparison of the Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprints between the source and sink of transatlantic dust also suggests that a northwestward shift in dust source occurs from the winter, through the spring and into the summer. The isotopic data we develop here provide another tool for discriminating changes in dust archives resulting from paleoenvironmental evolution of source regions.

  4. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Kiel

    Full Text Available We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema. In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large

  5. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  6. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects (n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  7. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  8. In-vitro regeneration of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivars Barbados 46 (B46), Natal Coimbatore 339 (NC0339), Ragna, local sugarcane cultivar (LSC) and Kenana (Kn) series sourced from Kyebi, Akorley, Subriso, Jejeti and the University of Ghana Agriculture Research Station, Kpong, were evaluated for sterilisation, multiplication and rooting. An efficient double sterilisation protocol was achieved by immersing axillary buds pre-treated with Goldazim (active ingredient carbendazim) in 0.2% mercuric chloride for 7 minutes followed by 0.1 % mercuric chloride for 3 minutes. At this optimal sterilisation regime, 70% of the cultured buds were decontaminated. However, post sterilisation survival required the incorporation of 0.002g/L and 0.001g/L of amphotericin Band cefotaxime respectively in the culture medium indicating that the contaminants were endophytic. Evaluation for multiple shoot induction was conducted using Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salts (MS) medium supplemented with 25g/L sucrose, 2mg/L IAA, 2mg/L GA 3 , 3g/L activated charcoal and varying concentrations (mg/L) of BAP or kinetin. The response of the cultivars to shoot induction varied with Ragna producing the highest number of shoots (2.17) on 5mg/L BAP indicating genotypic differences. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at a concentration of 5mg/L induced the highest frequency (65%) of roots in all the cultivars tested. Post-flask acclimatization and survival of plantlets was high and independent of the age at which regenerated plantlets were transferred to the plant barn for weaning. This procedure could therefore be useful for regenerating sugarcane plantlets as well as provide target tissues for genetic transformation studies (au).

  9. Providers’ perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Johnston

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. Objective: To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. Design: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Results: Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1 unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2 international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3 internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4 promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1 the high expense of market entry, 2 poor sector-wide planning, and 3 structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. Conclusion: There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public

  10. Birth planning in Cuba: a basic human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J M

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of birth planning in Cuba and strategies that are relevant to nurses in the communities of Cuba. Cuba reduced its crude birth rate by 40% from 1964-75 without formal family planning programs and resources. By 1975, Cuba had achieved the lowest birth rate in Latin America (21/1000) except Barbados (19/1000). By 1978, Cuba's crude birth rate declined to a low of 15.3/1000. The demographic transition in Cuba has been a process of equalization by: 1) community participation to ensure basic human rights for everyone, 2) increasing the status of women while providing child care centers, 3) providing equal availability of health care services including contraceptive services, sterilization, and abortion, and 4) focusing on individual birth choice, not on limiting population growth. Emphasis in Cuba for reducing fertility has been put on literacy, education, and infant mortality. The illiteracy rate in 1961 decreased from 20% to 4%. Infant mortality decreased from 38.8/1000 live births in 1970 to 22.3/1000 in 1978. 1/3 of Cuban women were participating fully in the labor force in 1978. Polyclinics have been established as preventive care medical centers throughout Cuba and health care is free. Family planning options are integrated into routine primary health care at polyclinics and assure equal access to the total Cuban population. Abortion is freely available and increased to 61/1000 in 1976. The implications for nursing are that: 1) the traditional work of nurses places them in a key position to help extend basic human rights beyond current levels, 2) nurses can initiate discussions of birth planning with women and men in a variety of settings, and 3) nurses can increase case-finding related to birth planning needs both in health care classes or within established groups in the community.

  11. Reported cases of selected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The number of reported cases of measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough for the period of January 1, 1994 to the date of the last report is presented in tabular form by country with a comparison for the same epidemiological period in 1993. The countries included are Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, and the US. The figures for measles are given as reported and as confirmed. In some countries, the reported number of cases of measles decreased from 1993 figures (Venezuela 5275 vs. 6060, Paraguay 26 vs. 958, Brazil 272 vs. 958, Canada 30 vs. 38), but, in others, the figure increased from 1993 (Mexico 47 vs. 21, the US 155 vs. 86). There were no reported cases of poliomyelitis for either year in any country. The figures for tetanus are divided into nonneonatal and neonatal. In Brazil the number of nonneonatal cases decreased to 360 from 371 in 1993, and the number of neonatal cases decreased to 28 from 65. In Mexico, nonneonatal cases decreased to 28 from 45, but neonatal cases increased to 23 from 20 in 1993. The number of cases of diphtheria cases in Brazil decreased to 28 from 65 in the same period of 1993. The number of cases of whooping cough decreased to 431 from 1651 in Brazil and to 51 from 70 in Mexico. However, the number of cases in Canada increased to 1047 from 784.

  12. Fluids in Convergent Margins: What do We Know about their Composition, Origin, Role in Diagenesis and Importance for Oceanic Chemical Fluxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, M.; Elderfield, H.; Martin, J. B.

    1991-05-01

    The nature and origin of fluids in convergent margins can be inferred from geochemical and isotopic studies of the venting and pore fluids, and is attempted here for the Barbados Ridge, Nankai Trough and the convergent margin off Peru. Venting and pore fluids with lower than seawater Cl- concentrations characterize all these margins. Fluids have two types of source: internal and external. The three most important internal sources are: (1) porosity reduction; (2) diagenetic and metamorphic dehydration; and (3) the breakdown of hydrous minerals. Gas hydrate formation and dissociation, authigenesis of hydrous minerals and the alteration of volcanic ash and/or the upper oceanic crust lead to a redistribution of the internal fluids and gases in vertical and lateral directions. The maximum amount of expelled water calculated can be ca. 7 m3 a-1 m-1, which is much less than the tens to more than 100 m3 a-1 m-1 of fluid expulsion which has been observed. The difference between these figures must be attributed to external fluid sources, mainly by transport of meteoric water enhanced by mixing with seawater. The most important diagenetic reactions which modify the fluid compositions, and concurrently the physical and even the thermal properties of the solids through which they flow are: (1) carbonate recrystallization, and more importantly precipitation; (2) bacterial and thermal degradation of organic matter; (3) formation and dissociation of gas hydrates; (4) dehydration and transformation of hydrous minerals, especially of clay minerals and opal-A; and (5) alteration, principally zeolitization and clay mineral formation, of volcanic ash and the upper oceanic crust.

  13. Nurses' engagement in AIDS policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M S; Mill, J; Muller, C E; Kahwa, E; Etowa, J; Dawkins, P; Hepburn, C

    2013-03-01

    A multidisciplinary team of 20 researchers and research users from six countries - Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa - are collaborating on a 5-year (2007-12) program of research and capacity building project. This program of research situates nurses as leaders in building capacity and promotes collaborative action with other health professionals and decision-makers to improve health systems for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) nursing care. One of the projects within this program of research focused on the influence of workplace policies on nursing care for individuals and families living with HIV. Nurses are at the forefront of HIV prevention and AIDS care in these countries but have limited involvement in related policy decisions and development. In this paper, we present findings related to the barriers and facilitators for nurses' engagement in policymaking. A participatory action research design guided the program of research. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 51 nurses (unit managers, clinic and healthcare managers, and senior nurse officers) for interviews. Participants expressed the urgent need to develop policies related to AIDS care. The need to raise awareness and to 'protect' not only the workers but also the patients were critical reason to develop policies. Nurses in all of the participating countries commented on their lack of involvement in policy development. Lack of communication from the top down and lack of information sharing were mentioned as barriers to participation in policy development. Resources were often not available to implement the policy requirement. Strong support from the management team is necessary to facilitate nurses involvement in policy development. The findings of this study clearly express the need for nurses and all other stakeholders to mobilize nurses' involvement in policy development. Long-term and sustained actions are needed to address

  14. Qualitative Research in an International Research Program: Maintaining Momentum while Building Capacity in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Mill RN, PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are knowledgeable about issues that affect quality and equity of care and are well qualified to inform policy, yet their expertise is seldom acknowledged and their input infrequently invited. In 2007, a large multidisciplinary team of researchers and decision-makers from Canada and five low- and middle-income countries (Barbados, Jamaica, Uganda, Kenya, and South Africa received funding to implement a participatory action research (PAR program entitled “Strengthening Nurses' Capacity for HIV Policy Development in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.” The goal of the research program was to explore and promote nurses' involvement in HIV policy development and to improve nursing practice in countries with a high HIV disease burden. A core element of the PAR program was the enhancement of the research capacity, and particularly qualitative capacity, of nurses through the use of mentorship, role-modeling, and the enhancement of institutional support. In this article we: (a describe the PAR program and research team; (b situate the research program by discussing attitudes to qualitative research in the study countries; (c highlight the incremental formal and informal qualitative research capacity building initiatives undertaken as part of this PAR program; (d describe the approaches used to maintain rigor while implementing a complex research program; and (e identify strategies to ensure that capacity building was locally-owned. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and opportunities and provide an informal analysis of the research capacity that was developed within our international team using a PAR approach.

  15. A focus on the consumer: social marketing for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaire, L E

    1985-01-01

    Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles to advance a social cause, issue, behavior, product, or service. Social marketing has added a framework to social efforts that heretofore lacked organization and has inspired projects that otherwise might never have been initiated. In the US, social marketing techniques have been particularly successful in the health field. Although advertising and other communications are central to social marketing, the discipline also depends upon other elements of what is termed the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. Social marketing is a cyclical process involving 6 steps: analysis; planning; development, testing, and refining elements of the plan; implementation; assessment of in-market effectiveness; and feedback. In developing countries, health has similarly been the greatest beneficiary to date of applied social marketing techniques. Family planning programs and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) projects have used social marketing techniques effectively in numerous developing countries. Social marketing has been even more widely applied in the sale of contraceptives in developing countries. Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs are well established in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Nepal, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Egypt. More recently programs have been established in Honduras, Guatemala, Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) is a project funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) and is working with existing CSM programs and helping to launch new CSM programs. CSM programs are successfully functioning as legitimate marketing organizations in developing countries and are using local private sector resources in the process. Program results are encouraging. Social marketing requires both experience and sensitivity to local conditions. Many developing countries now have their own marketing resources

  16. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in Mono Amine Oxidase A (MAO-A Gene as a genetic marker for aggressiveness in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the population, there are aggressive sheep in a small number which requires special management those specific animal house and routine management. The purpose of this study was to identify the variation of DNA marker SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism as a genetic marker for the aggressive trait in several of sheep breed. The identification of point mutations in exon 8 of MAO-A gene associated with aggressive behavior in sheep may be further useful to become of DNA markers for the aggressive trait in sheep. Five of sheep breed were used, i.e.: Barbados Black belly Cross sheep (BC, Composite Garut (KG, Local Garut (LG, Composite Sumatra (KS and St. Cross Croix (SC. Duration of ten behavior traits, blood serotonin concentrations and DNA sequence of exon 8 of MAO-A gene from the sheep aggressive and nonaggressive were observed. PROC GLM of SAS Ver. 9.0 program was used to analyze variable behavior and blood serotonin concentrations. DNA polymorphism in exon 8 of MAO-A gene was analyzed using the MEGA software Ver. 4.0. The results show that the percentage of the aggressive rams of each breed was less than 10 percent; except for the KS sheep is higher (23%. Based on the duration of behavior, aggressive sheep group was not significantly different with non aggressive sheep group, except duration of care giving and drinking behavior. It is known that concentration of blood serotonin in aggressive and non aggressive rams was not significantly different. The aggressive trait in sheep has a mechanism or a different cause like that occurs in mice and humans. In this study, aggressive behavior in sheep was not associated with a mutation in exon 8 of MAO-A gene.

  17. Providers' perspectives on inbound medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean: factors driving and inhibiting sector development and their health equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Cerón, Alejandro; Labonté, Ronald; Snyder, Jeremy; Núñez, Emanuel O; Flores, Walter G

    2016-01-01

    Many governments and health care providers worldwide are enthusiastic to develop medical tourism as a service export. Despite the popularity of this policy uptake, there is relatively little known about the specific local factors prospectively motivating and informing development of this sector. To identify common social, economic, and health system factors shaping the development of medical tourism in three Central American and Caribbean countries and their health equity implications. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Mexico, Guatemala, and Barbados with 150 health system stakeholders. Participants were recruited from private and public sectors working in various fields: trade and economic development, health services delivery, training and administration, and civil society. Transcribed interviews were coded using qualitative data management software, and thematic analysis was used to identify cross-cutting issues regarding the drivers and inhibitors of medical tourism development. Four common drivers of medical tourism development were identified: 1) unused capacity in existing private hospitals, 2) international portability of health insurance, vis-a-vis international hospital accreditation, 3) internationally trained physicians as both marketable assets and industry entrepreneurs, and 4) promotion of medical tourism by public export development corporations. Three common inhibitors for the development of the sector were also identified: 1) the high expense of market entry, 2) poor sector-wide planning, and 3) structural socio-economic issues such as insecurity or relatively high business costs and financial risks. There are shared factors shaping the development of medical tourism in Central America and the Caribbean that help explain why it is being pursued by many hospitals and governments in the region. Development of the sector is primarily being driven by public investment promotion agencies and the private health sector seeking

  18. Coral ages and island subsidence, Hilo drill hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Ingram, B.L.; Ludwig, K. R.; Clague, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    A 25.8-m-thick sedimentary section containing coral fragments occurs directly below a surface lava flow (the ???1340 year old Panaewa lava flow) at the Hilo drill hole. Ten coral samples from this section dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon and five by thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) 230Th/U methods show good agreement. The calcareous unit is 9790 years old at the bottom and 1690 years old at the top and was deposited in a shallow lagoon behind an actively growing reef. This sedimentary unit is underlain by a 34-m-thick lava flow which in turn overlies a thin volcaniclastic silt with coral fragments that yield a single 14C date of 10,340 years. The age-depth relations of the dated samples can be compared with proposed eustatic sea level curves after allowance for island subsidence is taken. Island subsidence averages 2.2 mm/yr for the last 47 years based on measurements from a tide gage near the drill hole or 2.5-2.6 mm/yr for the last 500,000 years based on the ages and depths of a series of drowned coral reefs offshore from west Hawaii. The age-depth measurements of coral fragments are more consistent with eustatic sea levels as determined by coral dating at Barbados and Albrolhos Islands than those based on oxygen isotopic data from deep sea cores. The Panaewa lava flow entered a lagoon underlain by coral debris and covered the drill site with 30.9 m of lava of which 11 m was above sea level. This surface has now subsided to 4.2 m above sea level, but it demonstrates how a modern lava flow entering Hilo Bay would not only change the coastline but could extensively modify the offshore shelf.

  19. Leptospira seroprevalence in animals in the Caribbean region: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Nicola; Rajeev, Sreekumari

    2018-06-01

    This systematic review summarises the data published on the Leptospira seroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean region. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review provided Leptospira seroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St. Lucia, St. Maarten, and St. Vincent) in a variety of animal species. Reviewing the literature highlighted the limited amount of data available from limited number of islands. Many of the studies conducted have recorded seroprevalences based on variable and small samples sizes. Besides, serovar panels used for MAT were not consistent between studies. The review indicates that the Leptospira exposure in a given geographic location may change with time and climatic and environmental conditions, and highlights the need to conduct continual surveillance in tropical countries where the climate supports the survival of Leptospira in the environment. Specific attention must be given to standardization of MAT panels and protocols and providing training across laboratories involved in testing. Further, animal and environment testing to isolate and identify circulating Leptospira spp. in a geographic region must actively be pursued. This knowledge is important to implement geographically specific control programs, as risk factors of Leptospira transmission is favoured by various factors such as change in climatic conditions, urbanization, encroachment of wildlife inhabitation, import/export of animals, increase in adventure travel, and water related recreational activities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The New Aphrodite school on Disasters Food and Poverty organized by CIMA Research Foundation and University of Genova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, G.

    2009-04-01

    CIMA is a Research Foundation which aim is to advance science and engineering in environmentally related fields, focusing on public health and safety, civil protection and the preservation of terrestrial and water-related ecosystems. This aim is accomplished through scientific research, technology transfer and high level training services. Here we present the "New Aphrodite school on Disasters Food and Poverty" jointly managed by CIMA Foundation, and the University of Genova. The school is organized to provide to international students, professionals and government officials, mainly from poor or developing countries, formation for the management, prediction and prevention of natural and man made disasters. The expertise of the teachers, mainly CIMA's researchers, comes from a long term support of CIMA Foundation to the Italian Civil Protection in developing the advanced national system for risk prediction, prevention and management. The school is organized in two levels. The first level includes an international master of science degree in "Environmental Engineering: Sustainable Development and Risk Management", which classes are given in English, and a master for professional and government officials in "Disasters, food and poverty". The second level includes an international Ph.D. programme in "Information sciences and technologies for system monitoring and environmental risk management". Short training courses for international government official are periodically organized. At present the school is organizing short courses for officials of Civil Protections of Venezuela, Barbados and Mozambique. The philosophy underlying the teaching activities is to promote a multi-disciplinary approach to disaster mitigation, prevention and prediction. Special focus is on the potential of high-tech low-cost technologies for rapid communication and disaster monitoring, such as satellite based technologies. Such technologies are seen as the best way to support the development

  1. ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Dally

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la tasa de ovulación, parición, tamaño de la camada y supervivencia embrionaria, 225 borregas de siete genotipos se examinaron mediante endoscopio 7-8 días después de su cruza. Como resultado se encontró que un mayor número de ovulaciones unilaterales sencillas y dobles procedieron del ovario derecho (P0.05. Por otra parte, no se encontró diferencia en la supervivencia embrionaria (P>0.01 al comparar entre ovulaciones sencillas, dobles y triples (69.8%, 76.0% y 63.0%, respectivamente ni entre las ovulaciones unilaterales y bilaterales. La línea cuatera Targhee seleccionada (TW produjo las camadas más numerosas (media = 2.0±1.4 mientras que el rebaño Targhee comercial produjo las menos numerosas. La línea ½ Targhee, ¼ Barbados, ¼ Dorset mostró la tasa de parición mayor (94%, seguida de la Polypay (87%, sin encontrarse diferencia (P>0.05 entre estas dos líneas. Se concluye que: el ovario derecho es más activo que el izquierdo en cuanto a la producción de óvulos, de entre los genotipos estudiados; las ovulaciones dobles fueron más frecuentes que las sencillas y triples, y la línea cuatera Targhee seleccionada produjo las camadas más numerosas en comparación con el hato comercial Targhee o sus cruzas.

  2. Diabetes in the English-speaking Caribbean La diabetes en el Caribe de habla inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Hennis

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Rates of diabetes mellitus in the English-speaking Caribbean have been rising in recent years, and they are projected to continue climbing in the new millennium. Prevalence rates across countries of the African diaspora mirror levels of Western acculturation, and available data emphasize the importance of obesity as a modifiable risk factor. The population-based Barbados Eye Studies have provided new information about the burden of ocular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and lens opacities. Diabetes was shown to increase the risk of lens opacities, and 14% of prevalent cataract was attributed to diabetes. Persons with type 1 diabetes were particularly at increased risk of retinopathy, as a result of longer durations of illness and poor glycemic control. Other Caribbean studies have suggested that glycemic control in patients evaluated in various clinical settings is suboptimal, which raises important concerns about quality of care. Diabetics are at increased risk of mortality compared with nondiabetics, and that mortality risk increases with higher baseline levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, even among nondiabetics. These data highlight the need for urgent attention to public health and clinical strategies to prevent diabetes in unaffected persons as well as to prevent or reduce the burden of complications among those who are affected. Among the measures that should be adopted to stem the flood of diabetes in the Caribbean region are lifestyle interventions to promote better nutrition and to increase exercise; patient education, particularly about the central role of diabetes self-management; and the multidisciplinary team approach in the provision of care.Las tasas de diabetes mellitus en los países del Caribe de habla inglesa se han venido incrementando en los últimos años y se espera que continúen aumentando en el nuevo milenio. Las tasas de prevalencia en los países receptores de la diáspora africana reflejan los niveles

  3. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available -Gesa Mackenthun, Stephen Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions: The wonder of the New World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. ix + 202 pp. -Peter Redfield, Peter Hulme ,Wild majesty: Encounters with Caribs from Columbus to the present day. An Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992. x + 369 pp., Neil L. Whitehead (eds -Michel R. Doortmont, Philip D. Curtin, The rise and fall of the plantation complex: Essays in Atlantic history. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xi + 222 pp. -Roderick A. McDonald, Hilary McD.Beckles, A history of Barbados: From Amerindian settlement to nation-state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xv + 224 pp. -Gertrude J. Fraser, Hilary McD.Beckles, Natural rebels; A social history of enslaved black women in Barbados. New Brunswick NJ and London: Rutgers University Press and Zed Books, 1990 and 1989. ix + 197 pp. -Bridget Brereton, Thomas C. Holt, The problem of freedom: Race, labor, and politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832-1938. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1991. xxxi + 517 pp. -Peter C. Emmer, A. Meredith John, The plantation slaves of Trinidad, 1783-1816: A mathematical and demographic inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. xvi + 259 pp. -Richard Price, Robert Cohen, Jews in another environment: Surinam in the second half of the eighteenth century. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1991. xv + 350 pp. -Russell R. Menard, Nigel Tattersfield, The forgotten trade: comprising the log of the Daniel and Henry of 1700 and accounts of the slave trade from the minor ports of England, 1698-1725. London: Jonathan Cape, 1991. ixx + 460 pp. -John D. Garrigus, James E. McClellan III, Colonialism and science: Saint Domingue in the old regime. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1992. xviii + 393 pp. -Lowell Gudmundson, Richard H. Collin, Theodore Roosevelt's Caribbean: The Panama canal, the Monroe doctrine, and the Latin American context. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University

  4. In Vivo and Air Dosimetry of Fission-Spectrum Neutrons; Dosimetrie In Vivo et dans l'Air du Spectre des Neutrons de Fission; Dozimetriya v vozdukhe i dozimetriya In Vivo nejtronov spektra deleniya; Dosimetria In Vivo y en el Aire de Neutrones de un Espectro de Fision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobley, T. S.; Engel, R. E.; Godden, W. R. [Kirtland Airforce Base, New Mexico (United States); Penikas, V. T. [AFIT, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, with Duty Station at University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1964-03-15

    laterales a une distance mediane de 200 cm ou de 175 cm du centre de l ' assemblage critique. La dose de neutrons mesuree dans l ' air etait de 161 {+-} 5 ,5 rad a 200 cm et de 242 {+-} 16.6 rad a 175 cm. A ces distances, la dose gamma etait respectivement de 33 {+-} 2,4 et 42 {+-} 2,5 r. Les doses d'entree et de sortie ainsi que la dose a l ' insertion variaient selon l'elevation de temperature due aux bouffees de neutrons, la distance du reacteur, l 'orientation des feuilles par rapport au reacteur et l'epaisseur et la composition de tissus attenuants. (author) [Spanish] Con el proposito de evaluar la configuracion de la dosis profunda durante la exposicion a neutrones de un espectro de fisionalos autores han ideado un metodo de dosimetria neutronica in vivo que aplicaron a ovejas. Utilizaron para estos estudios un reactor pulsante analogo al GODIVA II del Laboratorio Cientifico de Los Alamos. Dicho conjunto funciona de forma de producir impulsos de 50 {mu}s de amplitud, medida a la mitad de la altura maxima, y un ascenso de temperatura del combustible de unos 100 Degree-Sign C. Ademas, prepararon 'apositos ' subcutaneos que contienen una lamina de oro recubierta de cadmio, una lamina de oro sin recubrir y tres dosimetros de varilla de vidrio, termoluminiscentes, en un recipiente de plomo al litio revestido de vidrio. Estos apositos se introdujeron en el tejido subcutaneo, a ambos lados del cuerpo, y sirvieron para medir el flujo integrado de neutrones termicos y la dosis gamma, a medida que la irradiacion neutronica se aplica 'lateralmente'. Los apositos abdominales se prepararon en forma semejante a los subcutaneos; constan de una esfera de boro que contiene laminas de umbral de fision (Pu, Np, U) recubiertas de cadmio, una pastilla de azufre y los mismos tres tipos de dosimetros que forman parte del aposito subcutaneo. El aposito dosimetrico se sujeto al pilar anterior del rumen del animal 18 h antes de someterlo a la exposicion. En la memoria se describe la tecnica de

  5. Doença celíaca: avaliação da obediência à dieta isenta de glúten e do conhecimento da doença pelos pacientes cadastrados na Associação dos Celíacos do Brasil (ACELBRA Celiac disease: evaluation of compliance to a gluten-free diet and knowledge of the disease in celiac patients registered at the Brazilian Celiac Association (BCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia SDEPANIAN

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Racional — A obediência à dieta isenta de glúten previne a ocorrência de complicações malignas e não-malignas. Objetivo - Avaliar a obediência à dieta isenta de glúten e o conhecimento teórico acerca da doença celíaca e seu tratamento pelos pacientes cadastrados na Associação dos Celíacos do Brasil (ACELBRA. Métodos - Foi enviado por correio um questionário a respeito da obediência à dieta isenta de glúten e do conhecimento teórico da doença celíaca e seu tratamento a 584 membros cadastrados na ACELBRA. Resultados - Dos 534 (91,4% questionários recebidos, foram analisados 529 (90,6%. Quanto à obediência à dieta, 69,4% dos pacientes responderam que nunca ingerem glúten e 29,5% que não obedecem à dieta. A proporção de pacientes que ingerem glúten freqüentemente ou sem restrição alguma é maior entre aqueles com idade igual ou maior a 21 anos (17,7% do que os com idade menor (9,9%. A freqüência de obediência à dieta foi maior quando o intervalo de tempo em que foi estabelecido o diagnóstico da doença foi inferior a 5 anos. O intestino delgado foi assinalado como o principal órgão afetado na doença celíaca por 82% dos pacientes. Os principais sintomas assinalados foram diarréia (96,6%, emagrecimento (93,4%, barriga inchada (90,4%, anemia (68,1% e vômitos (59,6%. Apenas 59,0% concordaram com a existência de predisposição genética. Segundo 90,4% das respostas, a doença é permanente e 96,2% assinalaram que a dieta deve ser totalmente isenta de glúten; 67,1% responderam que o glúten é uma proteína que está presente, segundo 92,1% dos inquéritos, no trigo, centeio, cevada e aveia. Observou-se maior proporção de obediência à dieta quando há conhecimento da doença e dieta. A biopsia de intestino delgado foi considerada necessária por apenas 67,5% dos pacientes, observando-se maior freqüência de obediência à dieta nos pacientes que realizaram pelo menos uma biopsia de intestino delgado

  6. The application of Legacy Cycles in the development of Earth Science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K.; Abernathy, E.; Negrito, K.; McCall, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Institute for Geophysics in the Jackson School of Geosciences at The University of Texas at Austin actively contributes to K-12 education, including the development of rigorous Earth and Space Science curriculum designed for secondary school learning environments. Here we report on our efforts to apply an innovative new pedagogical approach, the Legacy Cycle, to scientific ocean drilling paleoclimate data from fossil corals collected offshore Barbados in 2006 and to the creation of a high school water resources education program for Texas high school students supported by a grant from the Texas Water Development Board. The Legacy Cycle makes use of the Internet and computer technology to engage students in extended inquiry learning. A series of inquiry activities are organized around a set of three driving questions, or challenges. Students mimic the work of scientists by generating ideas to address a given challenge, listening to multiple perspectives from experts on the topic, researching a set of sub-questions and revising their original ideas, testing their mettle with labs and quizzes, and finally composing a project or paper that answers the original challenge. The technology makes it easy for students to move through the challenges and the organizational framework since there are hyperlinks to each of the sections (and to reach the other challenges) at the bottom of each webpage. Students' final work is posted to the Internet for others to see, and in this way they leave behind their legacy. Our Legacy Cycle activities use authentic hydrologic, water quality, geochemical, geophysical data, as well as remotely sensed data such as is collected by satellites. They are aligned with the U.S. National Science Education Standards, the new Ocean, Climate and Earth Science Literacy Principles (in development), and the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Earth and Space Science. The work represents a collaboration involving teachers from The University of

  7. Atmospheric dust contribution to budget of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles. The Mount Cameroon volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, E.; Chabaux, F. J.; Innocent, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles is developed today for constraining time scale of soil and weathering profile formation (e.g., Chabaux et al., 2008). These studies require the understanding of U-series nuclides sources and fractionation in weathering systems. For most of these studies the impact of aeolian inputs on U-series nuclides in soils is usually neglected. Here, we propose to discuss such an assumption, i.e., to evaluate the impact of dust deposition on U-series nuclides in soils, by working on present and paleo-soils collected on the Mount Cameroon volcano. Recent Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic analyses performed on these samples have indeed documented significant inputs of Saharan dusts in these soils (Dia et al., 2006). We have therefore analyzed 238U-234U-230Th nuclides in the same samples. Comparison of U-Th isotopic data with Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data indicates a significant impact of the dust input on the U and Th budget of the soils, around 10% for both U and Th. Using Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of Saharan dusts given by Dia et al. (2006) we estimate U-Th concentrations and U-Th isotope ratios of dusts compatible with U-Th data obtained on Saharan dusts collected in Barbados (Rydell H.S. and Prospero J.M., 1972). However, the variations of U/Th ratios along the weathering profiles cannot be explained by a simple mixing scenario between material from basalt and from the defined atmospheric dust pool. A secondary uranium migration associated with chemical weathering has affected the weathering profiles. Mass balance calculation suggests that U in soils from Mount Cameroon is affected at the same order of magnitude by both chemical migration and dust accretion. Nevertheless, the Mount Cameroon is a limit case were large dust inputs from continental crust of Sahara contaminate basaltic terrain from Mount Cameroon volcano. Therefore, this study suggests that in other contexts were dust inputs are lower, or the bedrocks more concentrated in U and Th

  8. Spatial distribution of insecticide resistance in Caribbean populations of Aedes aegypti and its significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlins Samuel C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To monitor resistance to insecticides, bioassays were performed on 102 strains of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L. from 16 countries ranging from Suriname in South America and through the chain of Caribbean Islands to the Bahamas, where the larvicide temephos and the adulticide malathion have been in use for 15 to 30 years. There was wide variation in the sensitivity to the larvicide in mosquito populations within and among countries. Mosquito strains in some countries such as Antigua, St. Lucia, and Tortola had consistently high resistance ratios (RR to temephos, ranging from 5.3 to 17.7. In another group of countries-e.g., Anguilla and Curaçao-mosquitoes had mixed levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 2.5-10.6, and in a third group of countries, including St. Kitts, Barbados, Jamaica, and Suriname, mosquitoes had consistently low levels of resistance to temephos (RR = 1- 4.6 (P < 0.05. On occasion significantly different levels of resistance were recorded from neighboring A. aegypti communities, which suggests there is little genetic exchange among populations. The impact of larval resistance expressed itself as reduced efficacy of temephos to kill mosquitoes when strains were treated in the laboratory or in the field in large container environments with recommended dosages. Although a sensitive strain continued to be completely controlled for up to 7 weeks, the most resistant strains had 24% survival after the first week. By week 6, 60% to 75% of all resistant strains of larvae were surviving the larval period. Responses to malathion in adult A. aegypti varied from a sensitive population in Suriname (RR = 1.3 to resistant strains in St. Vincent (RR = 4.4, Dominica (RR = 4.2, and Trinidad (RR = 4.0; however, resistance was generally not on the scale of that observed to temephos in the larval stages and had increased only slightly when compared to the levels that existed 3 to 4 years ago. Suggestions are made for a pesticide usage policy

  9. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Collins, J R; Hensley, E L; Wheaton, J E

    1999-04-01

    Hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly) were used to evaluate 3 methods of estrus synchronization for use with transcervical artificial insemination (TAI). To synchronize estrus, ewes (n = 18) were treated with PGF2alpha (15 mg, im) 10 d apart, with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices containing 300 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18), or with intravaginal sponges containing 500 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18). On the day of the second PGF2alpha injection or at CIDR or sponge removal, sterile rams were placed with the ewes. Jugular blood samples were collected from the ewes at 6-h intervals until the time of ovulation, and daily for 16 d after estrus (Day 0). Plasma was harvested and stored at -20 degrees C until LH, and progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. There was no difference (P>0.10) in time to estrus among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. All of the ewes in the CIDR group and 94.4% of the sponge treated ewes exhibited estrus by 36 h after ram introduction, while only 72.2% of PGF2alpha-treated ewes showed signs of estrus by this time (P0.10) among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. The time to the preovulatory LH surge was similar (P>0.10) among CIDR, PGF2alpha and sponge treated ewes. Progesterone levels through Day 16 after the synchronized estrus were not different (P>0.10) among treatment groups. Hair sheep ewes (n = 23) were synchronized using PGF2alpha and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after the second injection. The conception rate to TAI was 2/23 (8.7%) and produced 3 ram lambs. In a subsequent trial, 17 ewes were synchronized with CIDR devices and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after CIDR removal, resulting in a conception rate of 52.9% (9/17). It is possible to synchronize estrus in hair sheep using either CIDRs, sponges or PGF2alpha. Even though there were no significant differences in the timing of ovulation or the LH surge among the treatment groups, a

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Frederick H. Smith; Caribbean Rum: A Social and Economic History (Franklin W. Knight Stephan Palmié; Wizards and Scientists: Explorations in Afro-Cuban Modernity and Tradition (Julie Skurski Miguel A. De la Torre; The Quest for the Cuban Christ: A Historical Search (Fernando Picó L. Antonio Curet, Shannon Lee Dawdy & Gabino La Rosa Corzo (eds.; Dialogues in Cuban Archaeology (David M. Pendergast Jill Lane; Blackface Cuba, 1840-1895 (Arthur Knight Hal Klepak; Cuba’s Military 1990-2005: Revolutionary Soldiers during Counter-Revolutionary Times (Antoni Kapcia Lydia Chávez (ed.; Capitalism, God, and a Good Cigar: Cuba Enters the Twenty-First Century (Ann Marie Stock Diane Accaria-Zavala & Rodolfo Popelnik (eds.; Prospero’s Isles: The Presence of the Caribbean in the American Imaginary (Sean X. Goudie Alexandra Isfahani-Hammond (ed.; The Masters and the Slaves: Plantation Relations and Mestizaje in American Imaginaries (Danielle D. Smith David J. Weber; Bárbaros: Spaniards and Their Savages in the Age of Enlightenment (Neil L. Whitehead Larry Gragg; Englishmen Transplanted: The English Colonization of Barbados, 1627-1660 (Richard S. Dunn Jon F. Sensbach; Rebecca’s Revival: Creating Black Christianity in the Atlantic World (Aaron Spencer Fogleman Jennifer L. Morgan; Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery (Verene A. Shepherd Jorge Luis Chinea; Race and Labor in the Hispanic Caribbean: The West Indian Immigrant Worker Experience in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico, 1800-1850 (Juan José Baldrich Constance R. Sutton (ed.; Revisiting Caribbean Labour: Essays in Honour of O. Nigel Bolland (Mary Chamberlain Gert Oostindie; Paradise Overseas: The Dutch Caribbean: Colonialism and its Transatlantic Legacies (Bridget Brereton Allan Pred; The Past Is Not Dead: Facts, Fictions, and Enduring Racial Stereotypes (Karen Fog Olwig James C. Riley; Poverty and Life Expectancy: The Jamaica

  11. Níveis de mercúrio em peixes consumidos pela comunidade indígena de Sai Cinza na Reserva Munduruku, Município de Jacareacanga, Estado do Pará, Brasil Mercury levels in fish consumed by the Sai Cinza indigenous community, Munduruku Reservation, Jacareacanga County, State of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson da Silva Brabo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo consiste em avaliar os níveis de mercúrio no pescado consumido pela comunidade indígena de Sai Cinza (Reserva Munduruku no Estado do Pará, e associá-los com os hábitos de consumo da população. Um total de oitenta espécimes de peixes foram capturados. As determinações de Hg foram realizadas por absorção atômica. A concentração média de Hg nas espécies carnívoras foi de 0,293 µg/g (DP = 0,104 enquanto nas não carnívoras foi de 0,112 µg/g (DP = 0,036. As espécies referidas como de maior consumo ente os 330 indivíduos entrevistados foram: tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã e caratinga. As espécies com concentrações mais elevadas de Hg foram tucunaré e traíra, que estão entre os peixes mais consumidos. A freqüência de consumo constitui-se num fator importante na avaliação de risco de contaminação por mercúrio em comunidades que não têm outras alternativas de alimentação.This study evaluated fish consumption and mercury levels in fish consumed by an indigenous community in the State of Pará. Eighty fish samples were collected (barbado, surubim, traíra, tucunaré, piranha, aruanã, caratinga, aracu, mandiá, jandiá, and pacu. Mercury analysis was performed using a Mercury Analyzer HG-3500. Average mercury concentration in carnivorous species was 0.293 µg/g (SD = 0.104, while in non-carnivorous species it was 0.112 µg/g (SD = 0.036. Brazilian legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit of 0.5 µg/g for fish consumption. No significant correlation was found between fish length or weight and mercury concentration. Types of fish most frequently consumed by the community were tucunaré, pacu, jaraqui, traíra, aracu, matrinchã, and caratinga. Carnivorous species, especially tucunaré and traíra, amongst the most frequently eaten, had higher mercury levels than non-carnivorous species. Frequency of consumption is crucial to assess the risk of mercury contamination in

  12. The Açu Reef morphology, distribution, and inter reef sedimentation on the outer shelf of the NE Brazil equatorial margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento Silva, Luzia Liniane; Gomes, Moab Praxedes; Vital, Helenice

    2018-05-01

    Submerged reefs, referred to as the Açu Reefs, have been newly observed on both sides of the Açu Incised Valley on the northeastern equatorial Brazilian outer shelf. This study aims to understand the roles of shelf physiography, its antecedent morphologies, and its inter reef sedimentation on the different development stages of the biogenic reef during last deglacial sea-level rise. The data sets consist of side-scan sonar imagery, one sparker seismic profile, 76 sediment samples, and underwater photography. Seven backscatter patterns (P1 to P7) were identified and associated with eleven sedimentary carbonate and siliciclastic facies. The inherited relief, the mouth of the paleo incised valley, and the interreef sediment distribution play major controls on the deglacial reef evolution. The reefs occur in a depth-limited 25-55 m water depth range and in a 6 km wide narrow zone of the outer shelf. The reefs crop out in a surface area over 100 km2 and occur as a series of NW-SE preferentially orientated ridges composed of three parallel ridge sets at 45, 35, and 25 m of water depth. The reefs form a series of individual, roughly linear ridges, tens of km in length, acting as barriers in addition to scattered reef mounds or knolls, averaging 4 m in height and grouped in small patches and aggregates. The reefs, currently limited at the transition between the photic and mesophotic zones, are thinly covered by red algae and scattered coral heads and sponges. Taking into account the established sea-level curves from the equatorial Brazilian northeastern shelf / Rochas Atoll and Barbados, the shelf physiography, and the shallow bedrock, the optimal conditions for reef development had to occur during a time interval (11-9 kyr BP) characterized by a slowdown of the outer shelf flooding, immediately following Meltwater Pulse-1B. This 2 kyr short interval provided unique conditions for remarkable reef backstepping into distinct parallel ridge sets. Furthermore, the Açu Reefs

  13. New Geochronology and Radiometric Age Dates Improve the Definition and Continuity of Accreted Tectonic Terranes of Northern Venezuela and the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, M.; Mann, P.; Audemard, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    arc and flanking Aves ridge to the west and Tobago-Barbados ridge to the east. Previous models to explain the extension along the GAC-South America suture in western Venezuela invoke slab breakoff following the collision. In the Lesser Antilles the purposed model is slab rollback that led to abandonment of the Aves Ridge as a remnant arc and formation of the modern Lesser Antilles arc.

  14. Information Seeking in Social Media: A Review of YouTube for Sedentary Behavior Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily; Intzandt, Brittany; MacDougall, Alicia; Saunders, Travis J

    2015-01-20

    The global prevalence of sedentary lifestyles is of grave concern for public health around the world. Moreover, the health risk of sedentary behaviors is of growing interest for researchers, clinicians, and the general public as evidence demonstrates that prolonged amounts of sedentary time increases risk for lifestyle-related diseases. There is a growing trend in the literature that reports how social media can facilitate knowledge sharing and collaboration. Social sites like YouTube facilitate the sharing of media content between users. The purpose of this project was to identify sedentary behavior content on YouTube and describe features of this content that may impact the effectiveness of YouTube for knowledge translation. YouTube was searched on a single day by 3 independent reviewers for evidence-based sedentary behavior content. Subjective data (eg, video purpose, source, and activity type portrayed) and objective data (eg, number of views, comments, shares, and length of the video) were collected from video. In total, 106 videos met inclusion criteria. Videos were uploaded from 13 countries around the globe (ie, Australia, Barbados, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Kenya, New Zealand, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States). The median video length was 3:00 minutes: interquartile range (IQR) 1:44-5:40. On average, videos had been on YouTube for 15.0 months (IQR 6.0-27.5) and had been viewed 239.0 times (IQR 44.5-917.5). Videos had remarkably low numbers of shares (median 0) and comments (median 1). Only 37.7% (40/106) of videos portrayed content on sedentary behaviors, while the remaining 66 videos portrayed physical activity or a mix of behaviors. Academic/health organizations (39.6%, 42/106) and individuals (38.7%, 41/106) were the most prevalent source of videos, and most videos (67.0%, 71/106) aimed to educate viewers about the topic. This study explored sedentary behavior content available on YouTube. Findings demonstrate that

  15. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

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    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  16. Prevalence and phenotype of diabetes and prediabetes using fasting glucose vs HbA1c in a Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Nigel; Howitt, Christina; Rose, Angela Mc; Samuels, T Alafia; Hennis, Anselm Jm; Hambleton, Ian R

    2017-12-01

    Both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and for diabetes by the World Health Organization. The ADA guidance is influential on clinical practice in many developing countries, including in the Caribbean and Latin America. We aimed to compare the prevalence and characteristics of individuals identified as having diabetes and prediabetes by FPG and HbA1c in a predominantly African ancestry Caribbean population. A representative population-based sample of 1234 adults (≥25 years of age) resident in Barbados was recruited. Standard methods with appropriate quality control were used to collect data on height, weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids and history of diagnosed diabetes, and to measure fasting glucose and HbA1c. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes (n = 192) were excluded from the analyses. Diabetes was defined as: FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%; prediabetes as: FPG ≥5.6 to prediabetes was higher by HbA1c compared to FPG: 41.7% (37.9, 45.6) vs 15.0% (12.8, 17.5). Overall 558 individuals had prediabetes by either measure, but only 107 on both. HbA1c, but not FPG, was significantly higher in women than men; and FPG, but not HbA1c, was significantly associated with raised triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol. The agreement between FPG and HbA1c defined hyperglycaemia is poor. In addition, there are some differences in the phenotype of those identified, and HbA1c gives a much higher prevalence of prediabetes. The routine use of HbA1c for screening and diagnosis in this population would have major implications for clinical and public health policies and resources. Given the lack of robust evidence, particularly for prediabetes, on whether intervention in the individuals identified would improve outcomes, this approach to screening and diagnosis cannot be currently recommended for this population.

  17. A cross-sectional study of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in a Caribbean population: combining objective and questionnaire data to guide future interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Howitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current understanding of population physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour in developing countries is limited, and based primarily on self-report. We described PA levels using objective and self-report methods in a developing country population. Methods PA was assessed in a cross-sectional, representative sample of the population of Barbados (25–54 years, using a validated questionnaire (RPAQ and individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing monitors. The RPAQ collects information on recalled activity in 4 domains: home, work, transport, and leisure. Physical inactivity was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO guidelines; sedentary lifestyle was defined as being sedentary for 8 h or more daily; PA overestimation was defined as perceiving activity to be sufficient, when classified as ‘inactive’ by objective measurement. Results According to objective estimates, 90.5 % (95 % CI: 83.3,94.7 of women and 58.9 % (48.4,68.7 of men did not accumulate sufficient activity to meet WHO minimum recommendations. Overall, 50.7 % (43.3,58.1 of the population was sedentary for 8 h or more each day, and 60.1 % (52.8,66.9 overestimated their activity levels. The prevalence of inactivity was underestimated by self-report in both genders by 28 percentage points (95 % CI: 18,38, but the accuracy of reporting differed by age group, education level, occupational grade, and overweight/obesity status. Low PA was greater in more socially privileged groups: higher educational level and higher occupational grade were both associated with less objectively measured PA and more sedentary time. Variation in domain-specific self-reported physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE by educational attainment was observed: higher education level was associated with more leisure activity and less occupational activity. Occupational PA was the main driver of PAEE for women and men according to self

  18. The Late Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the Southern Shelf of the Strait of Istanbul (Sea of Marmara, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Abuş, Eren

    2013-04-01

    The sea level changes in the northern shelf (Istanbul) of the Sea of Marmara and the sources of sedimentary packages at the southern exist of the Strait of Istanbul have been an ongoing debate the past decade. This study aims to enlighten both the sea level oscillations since ~125 ky before present and the structure of aforesaid sedimentary sequence, Unit 2, near Kurbaǧalı River observed in high resolution sparker seismic sections using global sea level change curves. Contary to Hiscott et al. (2002), Gökaşan et al. (2005), and Eriş et al. (2007) preferring the global sea level change curve in Fairbanks (1989) so as to explain the age interval of the sequence, we introduced the curve in Bard et al. (1990) presented the 230Th - 234U ages of Acropora palmata samples collected from the offshore of the island of Barbados, where Fairbanks (1989) submits the first chronology using the limited 14C ages. Therefore, the deposition of the Unit 2 was considered as 10 - 9 ky before present by Hiscott et al. (2002), as 12 - 11±1.1 ky BP by Gökaşan et al. (2005), and as 6.4 - 3.2 ky BP by Eriş et al. (2007). Having applied this calibration to our study, the age interval of the Unit 2 was calculated as 11.5 ky before present. In previous studies, Unit 2 was presented as prograding deltaic deposits of the Kurbaǧalı River yet our studies illustrates that the stream current of Kurbaǧalı River is not capable of supporting adequate sediment input, which is about 1.5 x 8.5 kilometers when the thickness and rate of propagation of Unit 2 are considered. Thanks to high resolution seismic sections and bathymetry, we firstly introduce that the Unit 2 is a point-bar structure forming as a product of the meandering regime at the southern exit of the Bosphorus.

  19. The role of skeletal micro-architecture in diagenesis and dating of Acropora palmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiak, P. J.; Andersen, M. B.; Hendy, E. J.; Potter, E. K.; Johnson, K. G.; Penkman, K. E. H.

    2016-06-01

    . Significantly, the best-preserved material in the fossil specimen yields a U-series age of 165 ± 8 ka, recording a paleo sea-level of -35 ± 7 msl during the MIS 6.5 interstadial on Barbados.

  20. A data-calibrated distribution of deglacial chronologies for the North American ice complex from glaciological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Lev; Dyke, Arthur S.; Neal, Radford M.; Peltier, W. R.

    2012-01-01

    Past deglacial ice sheet reconstructions have generally relied upon discipline-specific constraints with no attention given to the determination of objective confidence intervals. Reconstructions based on geophysical inversion of relative sea level (RSL) data have the advantage of large sets of proxy data but lack ice-mechanical constraints. Conversely, reconstructions based on dynamical ice sheet models are glaciologically self-consistent, but depend on poorly constrained climate forcings and sub-glacial processes. As an example of a much better constrained methodology that computes explicit error bars, we present a distribution of high-resolution glaciologically-self-consistent deglacial histories for the North American ice complex calibrated against a large set of RSL, marine limit, and geodetic data. The history is derived from ensemble-based analyses using the 3D MUN glacial systems model and a high-resolution ice-margin chronology derived from geological and geomorphological observations. Isostatic response is computed with the VM5a viscosity structure. Bayesian calibration of the model is carried out using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in combination with artificial neural networks trained to the model results. The calibration provides a posterior distribution for model parameters (and thereby modeled glacial histories) given the observational data sets that takes data uncertainty into account. Final ensemble results also account for fits between computed and observed strandlines and marine limits. Given the model (including choice of calibration parameters), input and constraint data sets, and VM5a earth rheology, we find the North American contribution to mwp1a was likely between 9.4 and 13.2 m eustatic over a 500 year interval. This is more than half of the total 16 to 26 m meltwater pulse over 500 to 700 years (with lower values being more probable) indicated by the Barbados coral record (Fairbanks, 1989; Peltier and Fairbanks, 2006) if one assumes a