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Sample records for outlet plenum mixing

  1. Coolant mixing in the LMFBR outlet plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.B.; Golay, M.W.

    1977-06-01

    Small scale experiments involving water flows are used to provide mean flow and turbulence field data for LMFBR outlet plenum flows. Measurements are performed at Reynolds Number (Re) values of 33000 and 70000 in a 1/15-scale FFTF geometry and at Re = 35000 in a 3/80-scale CRBR geometry. The experimental behavior is predicted using two different turbulence model computer programs, TEACH-T and VARR-II. It is found that the qualitative nature of the flow field within the plenum depends strongly upon the distribution of the mean inlet velocity field, upon the degree of inlet turbulence, and upon the turbulence momentum exchange model used in the calculations. It is found in the FFTF geometry that the TEACH-T predictions are better than that of VARR-II, and in the CRBR geometry neither code provides a good prediction of the observed behavior. From the sensitivity analysis, it is found that the production and dissipation of turbulence are the dominant terms in the transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent energy dissipation rate, and the diffusion terms are relatively small. From the same study a new set of empirical constants for the turbulence model is evolved for the prediction of plenum flows

  2. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, December 1, 1975--February 29, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is summarized in the following task areas: assessment of available data, experimental water mixing investigations, analytic model development, and analytical and experimental investigation of velocity and temperature fields in outlet plenum flow mixing

  3. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Progress report, March 1, 1977--May 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.; Golay, M.W.; Wolf, L.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is summarized in the following tasks: (1) bundle flow studies (wrapped and bare rods); (2) subchannel flow studies (bare rods); (3) LMFBR outlet plenum flow mixing; and (4) theoretical determination of local temperature fields in LMFBR fuel rod bundles

  4. Coolant mixing in LMFBR rod bundles and outlet plenum mixing transients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.; Cheng, S.K.; Basehore, K.

    1984-08-01

    This project principally undertook the investigation of the thermal hydraulic performance of wire wrapped fuel bundles of LMFBR configuration. Results obtained included phenomenological models for friction factors, flow split and mixing characteristics; correlations for predicting these characteristics suitable for insertion in design codes; numerical codes for analyzing bundle behavior both of the lumped subchannel and distributed parameter categories and experimental techniques for pressure velocity, flow split, salt conductivity and temperature measurement in water cooled mockups of bundles and subchannels. Flow regimes investigated included laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and mixed convection conditions. Forced convections conditions were emphasized. Continuing efforts are underway at MIT to complete the investigation of the mixed convection regime initiated here. A number of investigations on outlet plenum behavior were also made. The reports of these investigations are identified

  5. Analytical model for transient fluid mixing in upper outlet plenum of an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.W.; Agrawal, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    A two-zone mixing model based on the lumped-parameter approach was developed for the analysis of transient thermal response in the outlet plenum of an LMFBR. The maximum penetration of core flow is used as the criterion for dividing the sodium region into two mixing zones. The model considers the transient sodium temperature affected by the thermal expansion of sodium, heat transfer with cover gas, heat capacity of different sections of metal and the addition of by-pass flow into the plenum. The results of numerical calculations indicate that effects of flow stratification, chimney height, metal heat capacity and by-pass flow are important for transient sodium temperature calculation. Thermal expansion of sodium and heat transfer with the cover gas do not play any significant role on sodium temperature

  6. Stratification in SNR-300 outlet plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, R.

    1983-01-01

    In the inner outlet plenum of the SNR-300 under steady state conditions a large toroidal vortex is expected. The main flow passes through the gap between dipplate and shield vessel to the outer annular space. Only 3% of the flow pass the 24 emergency cooling holes, situated in the shield vessel. The sodium leaves the reactor tank through the 3 symmetrically arranged outlet nozzles. For a scram flow rates and temperatures are decreased simultaneously, so it is expected, that stratification occurs in the inner outlet plenum. A measure of stratification effects is the Archimedes Number Ar, which is the relation of buoyancy forces (negative) to kinetic energy. (The Archimedes Number is nearly identical with the Richardson Number). For values Ar>1 stratification can occur. Under the assumption of stratification the code TIRE was developed, which is only applicable for the period of time after some 50 sec after scram. This code serves for long term calculations. As the equations are very simple, it is a very fast code which gives the possibility to calculate transients for some hours real time. This code mainly has to take into account the pressure difference between inner plenum and outlet annulus caused by geodatic pressure. That force is in equilibrium with the pressure drop over the gap and holes in the shield vessel. For more detailed calculations of flow pattern and temperature distribution the code MIX and INKO 2T are applied. MIX was developed and validated at ANL, INKO 2T is a development of INTERATOM. INKO 2T is under validation. Mock up experiments were carried out with water to simulate the transient behavior of the SNR-300 outlet plenum. Calculations obtained by INKO 2T for steady state and the transient are shown for the flow pattern. Results of measurements also prove that stratification begins after about 30 sec. Measurements and detailed calculations show that it is admissible to use the code TIRE for the long term calculations. Calculations for a scram

  7. Upper plenum mixing in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Parameswaran, V.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the emergency core cooling injection into the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor has been formulated and implemented into the TRACB02 computer program. The model consists of a spray model and a submerged jet model. The submerged jet model is used when the spray nozzles are covered by a two-phase mixture, and the spray model is used when the nozzles are uncovered. The upper plenum model has been assessed by comparison to an upper plenum mixing test in the Steam Sector Test Facility. It is found that the model accurately predicts the phenomena in the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor

  8. Validation of turbulence models for LMFBR outlet plenum flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.B.; Golay, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Small scale experiments involving water flows are used to provide mean flow and turbulence field data for LMFBR outlet plenum flows. Measurements are performed at Reynolds number (Re) values of 33000 and 70000 in a 1/15 - scale FFTF geometry and at Re = 35000 in a 3/80-scale CRBR geometry. The experimental behavior is predicted using two different two-equation turbulence model computer programs, TEACH-T and VARR-II. It is found that the qualitative nature of the flow field within the plenum depends strongly upon the distribution of the mean inlet flow field, importantly also upon the degree of inlet turbulence, and also upon the turbulent momentum exchange model used in the calculations. In the FFTF geometry, the TEACH-T predictions agree well with the experiments. 7 refs

  9. Interferometric investigation of turbulently fluctuating temperature in an LMFBR outlet plenum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.; Golay, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    A novel optical technique is described for the measurement of turbulently fluctuating temperature in a transparent fluid flow. The technique employs a Mach-Zehnder interferometer of extremely short field and a simple photoconductive diode detector. The system produces a nearly linear D.C. electrical analog of the turbulent temperature fluctuations in a small, 1 mm 3 volume. The frequency response extends well above 2500 Hz, and can be improved by the choice of a more sophisticated photodetector. The turbulent sodium mixing in the ANL 1 1 / 15 -scale FFTF outlet plenum is investigated with a scale model outlet mixing plenum, using flows of air. The scale design represents a cross section of the ANL outlet plenum, so that the average recirculating flow inside the test cell is two dimensional. The range of the instrument is 120 0 F above the ambient air temperature. The accuracy is generally +-5 0 F, with most of the error due to noise originating from building vibrations and room noise. The power spectral density of the fluctuating temperature has been observed experimentally at six different stations in the flow. A strong 300 Hz component is generated in the inlet region, which decays as the flow progresses along streamlines. The effect of the inlet Reynolds number and the temperature difference between the inlet flows on the power spectral density has also been investigated. Traces of the actual fluctuating temperature are included for the six stations

  10. Analysis of transient thermal response in the outlet plenum of an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.W.

    1976-05-01

    A two-zone mixing model based on the lumped-parameter approach was developed for the analysis of transient thermal response in the upper outlet plenum of an LMFBR. The one-dimensional turbulent jet flow equations were solved to determine the maximum penetration of the core flow. The maximum penetration is used as the criterion for dividing the sodium region into two mixing zones. The lumped-parameter model considers the transient sodium temperature affected by the thermal expansion of sodium, heat transfer with cover gas, heat capacity of different sections of metal and the addition of bypass flow into the plenum. Numerical calculations were performed for two cases. The first case corresponds to a normal scram followed by flow coast-down. The second case represents the double-ended pipe rupture at the inlet of cold leg followed by reactor scram. The results indicate that effects of flow stratification, chimney height, metal heat capacity and bypass flow are important for transient sodium temperature calculation. Thermal expansion of sodium and heat transfer with the cover gas does not play any significant role on sodium temperature. This two-zone mixing model will be a part of the thermohydraulic transient code SSC

  11. Measurement of heat and momentum eddy diffusivities in recirculating LMFBR outlet plenum flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, V.P.; Golay, M.W.

    1978-06-01

    An optical technique has been developed for the measurement of the eddy diffusivity of heat in a transparent flowing medium. The method uses a combination of two established measurement tools: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer for the monitoring of turbulently fluctuating temperature and a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) for the measurement of turbulent velocity fluctuations. The technique is applied to the investigation of flow fields characteristic of the LMFBR outlet plenum. The study is accomplished using air as the working fluid in a small scale Plexiglas test section. Lows are introduced into both the 1 / 15 scale FFTF outlet plenum and the 3 / 80 scale CRBR geometry plenum at inlet Reynolds numbers of 22,000. Measurements of the eddy diffusivity of heat and the eddy diffusivity of momentum are performed at a total of 11 measurement stations. Significant differences of the turbulence parameters are found between the two geometries, and the higher chimney structure of the CRBR case is found to be the major cause of the distinction. Spectral intensity studies of the fluctuating electronic analog signals of velocity and temperature are also performed. Error analysis of the overall technique indicates an experimental error of 10% in the determination of the eddy diffusivity of heat and 6% in the evaluation of turbulent momentum viscosity. In general it is seen that the turbulence in the cases observed is not isotropic, and use of isotropic turbulent heat and momentum diffusivities in transport modelling would not be a valid procedure

  12. Development of thermal mixing enhancement method for lower plenum of the High Temperature Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradecka, Malwina Joanna, E-mail: malgrad@gmail.com; Woods, Brian G., E-mail: brian.woods@oregonstate.edu

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Coolant mixing in lower plenum might be insufficient and pose operational issues. • Two mixing methods were developed to lower the coolant temperature variation. • The methods resulted with reduction of the temperature variation by 60% and 71%. - Abstract: The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the most mature Gen IV reactor concepts under development today. The High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) at Oregon State University is a test facility that supports the R&D needs for HTGRs. This study focuses on the issue of helium mixing after the core section in the HTTF, the results of which are generally applicable in HTGRs. In the HTTF, hot helium jets at different temperatures are supposed to uniformly mix in the lower plenum (LP) chamber. However, the level of mixing is not sufficient to reduce the peak helium temperature before the hot jet impinges the LP structure, which can cause issues with structural materials and operational issues in the heat exchanger downstream. The maximum allowable temperature variation in the outlet duct connected to the lower plenum is defined as 40 K (±20 K from the average temperature), while the CFD simulations of this study indicate that the reference design suffers temperature variations in the duct as high as 100 K. To solve this issue, the installation of mixing-enhancing structures within the outlet duct were proposed and analyzed using CFD modeling. We show that using either an optimized “Kwiat” structure (developed in this study) or a motionless mixer installed in the outlet duct, the temperature variations can be brought dramatically, with acceptable increases in pressure drop. The optimal solution appears to be to install double motionless mixers with long blades in the outlet duct, which brings the temperature variation into the acceptable range (from 100 K down to 18 K), with a resulting pressure drop increase in the HTTF loop of 0.73 kPa (6% of total pressure drop).

  13. Development of thermal mixing enhancement method for lower plenum of the High Temperature Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradecka, Malwina Joanna; Woods, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coolant mixing in lower plenum might be insufficient and pose operational issues. • Two mixing methods were developed to lower the coolant temperature variation. • The methods resulted with reduction of the temperature variation by 60% and 71%. - Abstract: The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the most mature Gen IV reactor concepts under development today. The High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) at Oregon State University is a test facility that supports the R&D needs for HTGRs. This study focuses on the issue of helium mixing after the core section in the HTTF, the results of which are generally applicable in HTGRs. In the HTTF, hot helium jets at different temperatures are supposed to uniformly mix in the lower plenum (LP) chamber. However, the level of mixing is not sufficient to reduce the peak helium temperature before the hot jet impinges the LP structure, which can cause issues with structural materials and operational issues in the heat exchanger downstream. The maximum allowable temperature variation in the outlet duct connected to the lower plenum is defined as 40 K (±20 K from the average temperature), while the CFD simulations of this study indicate that the reference design suffers temperature variations in the duct as high as 100 K. To solve this issue, the installation of mixing-enhancing structures within the outlet duct were proposed and analyzed using CFD modeling. We show that using either an optimized “Kwiat” structure (developed in this study) or a motionless mixer installed in the outlet duct, the temperature variations can be brought dramatically, with acceptable increases in pressure drop. The optimal solution appears to be to install double motionless mixers with long blades in the outlet duct, which brings the temperature variation into the acceptable range (from 100 K down to 18 K), with a resulting pressure drop increase in the HTTF loop of 0.73 kPa (6% of total pressure drop).

  14. Numerical simulation and geometry optimization of hot-gas mixing in lower plenum of high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hang; Wang Jie; Laurien, E.

    2010-01-01

    The lower plenum in high temperature gas-cooled reactor was designed to mix the gas of different temperatures from the reactor core. Previous researches suggest the current geometry of the lower plenum to be improved for better mixing capability and lower pressure drop. In the presented work, a series of varied geometries were investigated with numerical simulation way. The choice of appropriate mesh type and size used in the geometry variation was discussed with the reference of experimental data. The original thin ribs in the current design were merged into thicker ones, and a junction located at the starting end of the outlet pipe was introduced. After comparing several potential optimization methods, an improved geometry was selected with the merged ribs increasing the pre-defined mixing coefficient and the junction reducing the pressure drop. Future work was discussed based on the simulation of real reactor case. The work shows a direction for design improvements of the lower plenum geometry. (authors)

  15. Analysis research on mixing characteristics of lower plenum of Qinshan phase Ⅱ NPP by CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Huihui; He Peifeng; Lu Chuan; Zhang Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    The flowing and mixing characteristics of the lower plenum of Qinshan Phase n NPP were analyzed by CFD method. The calculation results were compared with the results of the reactor hydraulic simulation test. On core inlet mass flow distributions, both upwind and high resolution advection schemes show good agreements with test results. While on lower plenum mixing characteristics, the calculation results from either upwind or high resolution advection schemes show relatively large differences to the test data. Relatively, upwind advection schemes predict better anticipations on maximum and minimum mixing factors. Furthermore, whether or not considering helix flow by main pump is the most possible key factor that leads to difference between CFD calculation and test results. (authors)

  16. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactor`s upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

  17. CFD predictions of standby liquid control system mixing in lower plenum of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, Christopher; Skarda, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamics analysis of BWR lower plenum. • Mixing and stratification of the standby liquid control system injection. • Scoping study highlights the expected flow paths and limitations of experiments. - Abstract: During an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) scenario in certain boiling water reactor (BWR) systems, a standby liquid control system (SLCS) is used to inject a sodium pentaborate solution into the reactor system in order to quickly shut down (scram) the reactor without the use of the control rods. Some BWR designs utilize a SLCS that injects through a set of nozzles on a vertical pipe in the peripheral region of the lower plenum of the reactor vessel. During the scenario, system water levels are reduced and natural circulation flow rates down through the jet pump nozzles and up into the core are a small fraction of the rated system flow. It is during this period that the SLCS flows are considered. This work outlines some initial scoping studies completed by the staff at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). An attempt at benchmarking the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach using a set of available test data from a small facility is outlined. Due to our lack of information related to specific details of the facility geometry along with the limited data available from the test, the benchmark exercise produced only a qualitative basis for selecting turbulence models and mesh density. A CFD model simulating a full-scale reactor system is developed for the lower plenum of a representative BWR/4 design and SLCS flows and mixing are studied under a range of flow conditions. The full-scale BWR simulation builds upon the lessons learned from the benchmark exercise. One challenge for this work is the large size of the domain and the relatively small size of the geometric details such as flow passages and gaps. The geometry is simplified to make meshing feasible by eliminating some of the small features. The

  18. CATHARE2 analysis on the loss of residual heat removal system during mid-loop operation : pressurizer and SGI outlet plenum manways open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young Jong; Chang, Won Pyo.

    1997-06-01

    The present study is to analyze the BETHSY test 6.9c using CATHARE2 v1.3u. BETHSY test 6.9c simulates plant conditions following loss of residual heat removal system under mid-loop operation. The configuration is that the pressurizer and steam generator outlet plenum manways are opened as vent paths in order to protect the system from overpressurization by removing the steam generated in the core. Most of the important physical phenomena are observed in the experiment have been predicted reasonably by the CATHARE2 code. Since the differential pressure between the pressurizer and the surge line is overestimated, the peak pressure in the upper plenum is predicted higher than the experimental value by 11 kPa and occurrence is delayed by 210s. Also earlier core uncovery is predicted, mainly due to overprediction of the manway flows. The analysis results are demonstrated that opening of the pressurizer and the steam generator outlet plenum manways is effective to prevent the core uncovery by only gravity feed injection. Although some disagreements found in detailed phenomena, the prediction of the overall system behavior by the code does not deviate from the experimental results unacceptably. The core bypass flowrate is found to be very sensitive to mass distribution in the core and the system behaviors are strongly affected by phase separation modeling under low pressure and particularly stratified flow condition. the main purpose of the present study is to understand physical phenomena under the accident and to assess the capability of CATHARE2 prediction for enhancement of reliability in actual plant analyses. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs., 41 figs

  19. Experimental and CFD Studies of Coolant Flow Mixing within Scaled Models of the Upper and Lower Plenums of NGNP Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Anand, Nk [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-03-30

    A 1/16th scaled VHTR experimental model was constructed and the preliminary test was performed in this study. To produce benchmark data for CFD validation in the future, the facility was first run at partial operation with five pipes being heated. PIV was performed to extract the vector velocity field for three adjacent naturally convective jets at statistically steady state. A small recirculation zone was found between the pipes, and the jets entered the merging zone at 3 cm from the pipe outlet but diverged as the flow approached the top of the test geometry. Turbulence analysis shows the turbulence intensity peaked at 41-45% as the jets mixed. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1000 frames were sufficient to measure statistically steady state. The results were then validated by extracting the flow rate from the PIV jet velocity profile, and comparing it with an analytic flow rate and ultrasonic flowmeter; all flow rates lie within the uncertainty of the other two methods for Tests 1 and 2. This test facility can be used for further analysis of naturally convective mixing, and eventually produce benchmark data for CFD validation for the VHTR during a PCC or DCC accident scenario. Next, a PTV study of 3000 images (1500 image pairs) were used to quantify the velocity field in the upper plenum. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1500 frames were sufficient to precisely estimate the flow. Subsequently, three (3, 9, and 15 cm) Y-lines from the pipe output were extracted to consider the output differences between 50 to 1500 frames. The average velocity field and standard deviation error that accrued in the three different tests were calculated to assess repeatability. The error was varied, from 1 to 14%, depending on Y-elevation. The error decreased as the flow moved farther from the output pipe. In addition, turbulent intensity was calculated and found to be high near the output. Reynolds stresses and turbulent intensity were used to validate the data by

  20. Experimental and CFD Studies of Coolant Flow Mixing within Scaled Models of the Upper and Lower Plenums of NGNP Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Yassin; Anand, Nk

    2016-01-01

    A 1/16th scaled VHTR experimental model was constructed and the preliminary test was performed in this study. To produce benchmark data for CFD validation in the future, the facility was first run at partial operation with five pipes being heated. PIV was performed to extract the vector velocity field for three adjacent naturally convective jets at statistically steady state. A small recirculation zone was found between the pipes, and the jets entered the merging zone at 3 cm from the pipe outlet but diverged as the flow approached the top of the test geometry. Turbulence analysis shows the turbulence intensity peaked at 41-45% as the jets mixed. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1000 frames were sufficient to measure statistically steady state. The results were then validated by extracting the flow rate from the PIV jet velocity profile, and comparing it with an analytic flow rate and ultrasonic flowmeter; all flow rates lie within the uncertainty of the other two methods for Tests 1 and 2. This test facility can be used for further analysis of naturally convective mixing, and eventually produce benchmark data for CFD validation for the VHTR during a PCC or DCC accident scenario. Next, a PTV study of 3000 images (1500 image pairs) were used to quantify the velocity field in the upper plenum. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that 1500 frames were sufficient to precisely estimate the flow. Subsequently, three (3, 9, and 15 cm) Y-lines from the pipe output were extracted to consider the output differences between 50 to 1500 frames. The average velocity field and standard deviation error that accrued in the three different tests were calculated to assess repeatability. The error was varied, from 1 to 14%, depending on Y-elevation. The error decreased as the flow moved farther from the output pipe. In addition, turbulent intensity was calculated and found to be high near the output. Reynolds stresses and turbulent intensity were used to validate the data by

  1. Numerical Simulation of Two-branch Hot Gas Mixing at Reactor Outlet of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Pengefei; Zhou Yangping; Li Fu; Shi Lei; He Heng

    2014-01-01

    A series of two-branch model experiment has been finished to investigate the thermal mixing efficiency of the HTR-PM reactor outlet. This paper introduces the numerical simulation on the design of thermal mixing structure of HTR-PM and the test facility with Fluent software. The profiles of temperature, pressure and velocity in the mixing structure design and the test facility are discussed by comparing with the model experiment results. The numerical simulation results of the test facility have good agreement to the experiment results. In addition, the thermal-fluid characters obtained by numerical simulation show the thermal mixing structure of HTR-PM has similarity with the test facility. Finally, it is concluded that the thermal mixing design at HTR-PM reactor outlet can fulfilled the requirements for high thermal mixing efficiency and appropriate pressure drop. (author)

  2. Experiment study on thermal mixing performance of HTR-PM reactor outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yangping, E-mail: zhouyp@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, the Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hao, Pengfei [School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Fu; Shi, Lei [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, the Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Feng [School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Dong, Yujie; Zhang, Zuoyi [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, the Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-09-15

    A model experiment is proposed to investigate the thermal mixing performance of HTR-PM reactor outlet. The design of the test facility is introduced, which is set at a scale of 1:2.5 comparing with the design of thermal mixing structure at HTR-PM reactor outlet. The test facility using air as its flow media includes inlet pipe system, electric heaters, main mixing structure, hot gas duct, exhaust pipe system and I&C system. Experiments are conducted on the test facility and the values of thermal-fluid parameters are collected and analyzed, which include the temperature, pressure and velocity of the flow as well as the temperature of the tube wall. The analysis results show the mixing efficiency of the test facility is higher than that required by the steam generator of HTR-PM, which indicates that the thermal mixing structure of HTR-PM fulfills its design requirement.

  3. Effect of spacer grid mixing vanes on coolant outlet temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemae, Tommi; Lahtinen, Tuukka; Brandt, Tellervo; Toppila, Timo [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland). Nuclear Competence Center

    2012-08-15

    In Loviisa VVER-440-type NPP the coolant outlet temperature of the hot subchannel is constantly monitored during the operation. According to the authority requirement the maximum subchannel outlet temperature must not exceed the saturation temperature. Coolant temperature distribution inside the fuel assembly is affected by the efficiency of the coolant mixing. In order to enhance the coolant mixing the fuel manufacturer is introducing the additional mixing vanes on the fuel bundle spacer grids. In the paper the effect of the different mixing vane modifications is studied with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Goal of the modelling is to find vane modifications with which sufficient mixing is reached with acceptable increase in the spacer grid pressure loss. The results of the studies are discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  4. Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICONE 15

    2007-04-01

    Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.

  5. Requirements for the GCFR plenum streaming experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.G.; Rouse, C.A.; Hamilton, C.J.

    1980-09-01

    This report gives the experiment objectives and generic descriptions of experimental configurations for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) plenum shield experiment. This report defines four experiment phases. Each phase represents a distinct area of uncertainty in computing radiation transport from the GCFR core to the plenums, through the upper and lower plenum shields, and ultimately to the prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) liner: (1) the shield heterogeneity phase; (2) the exit shield simulation phase; (3) the plenum streaming phase; and (4) the plenum shield simulation phase

  6. Hydraulics in the RPV lower-plenum of EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barois, G.; Goreaud, N.; Nicaise, N.

    2001-01-01

    The in-core instrumentation penetrations of the European Pressurised water Reactor (EPR) have been removed from RPV-bottom to RPV-head, leaving empty the lower plenum of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel). In a lower plenum with no internal structure, huge vortices may appear, with negative consequences, such as high disturbance of the core inlet flow distribution, and high increase of the RPV pressure loss. FRAMATOME ANP developed a specific Flow Distribution Device (FDD), annular shaped, located in the RPV lower plenum below the core support plate, which prevents huge vortices from appearing and guarantees a satisfying flow distribution at core inlet in normal operating conditions. The design of the FDD has been optimised with a numerical approach, using the 3-D CFD-code STAR-CD, previously qualified on scale mockup tests. The model developed represents the EPR RPV from the cold leg to core inlet. Thus, the flow distribution at core inlet, the mixing between loop-flows upstream core inlet and the pressure loss in the lower plenum can be evaluated. The optimised FDD provides satisfying performances for all these relevant functional items. (author)

  7. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs

  8. Melt jet fragmentation and oxidation in the lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, G.

    2001-01-01

    During the late phases of a PWR Severe Accident, the core materials discharge into the lower plenum in which water is still present. In that case, we are then concerned by the possible occurrence of a Steam Explosion which may endanger the vessel structure and by the following cooling of the melt debris. So, we have two possible ways of vessel rupture: a mechanical one following an energetic Steam Explosion and a thermal one due to insufficient debris cooling. Both types of problems are linked with the degree of fragmentation of the core material during its penetration into the water of the lower plenum. One of the most likely mode of discharge consists in corium streams or jets. The fragmentation will build a corium-water mixture (the pre-mixing sequence) which, under certain circumstances, may undergo a fine fragmentation sequence leading to an energetic Steam Explosion (the explosion sequence). Whatever the occurrence of a Steam Explosion, the resulting debris will accumulate at the bottom of the Reactor Vessel and the cooling of such a ''debris bed'' is known to be highly dependant of the granulometry and build up of the debris bed which are linked with the previous sequence of corium fragmentation and dispersion. In CEA, the MC3D Code has been developed to deal with all these phenomena. (author)

  9. Mitigation of thermal transients by tube bundle inlet plenum design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1984-06-01

    A multiphase program aimed at investigating the importance of thermal buoyancy to LMFBR steam-generator and heat-exchanger thermal hydraulics under low-flow transient conditions is being conducted in the Argonne Mixing Components Test Facility (MCTF) on a 60 0 sector shell-side flow model of the Westinghouse straight-tube steam generator being developed under the US/DOE large-component development program. A series of shell-side constant-flow thermal-downramp transient tests have been conducted focusing on the phenomenon of thermal-buoyancy-induced-flow channeling. In addition, it was discovered that a shell-inlet flow-distribution plenum can play a significant role in mitigating the severity of a thermal transient entering a steam generator or heat exchanger

  10. Gratiae plenum: Latin, Greek and the Cominform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Movrin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of classics in the People’s Republic of Slovenia after World War II was dominated by the long shadow of the Coryphaeus of the Sciences, Joseph Stalin. Since 1945, the profile of the discipline was determined by the Communist Party, which followed the Soviet example, well-nigh destroying the classical education in the process. Fran Bradač, head of Classics at the University of Ljubljana, was removed for political reasons; the classical gymnasium belonging to the Church was closed down; Greek was struck from the curriculum of the two remaining state classical gymnasia; Latin, previously a central subject at every gymnasium, was severely reduced in 1945, only to disappear entirely in 1946. The classicists who continued to teach were forced to take ‘reorientation courses’ which enabled them to teach Russian and other more suitable subjects. By 1949, only two out of the 42 classicists employed by the Ministry of Education were actually teaching Latin. The Classics department at the university, where only two students were studying in 1949, was on the brink of closure.  Paradoxically, the classical tradition was saved by Stalin’s attack on the same Party. The Cominform conflict in 1948 astonished the Yugoslav communists and pushed them towards a tactical détente with the West, prompting a revision of some of their policies, including education. The process was led by the top echelons of the Party — such as Milovan Djilas, head of the central Agitprop, Boris Kidrič, in charge of Yugoslav economy, and Edvard Kardelj, the Party’s chief ideologue — during the Third Plenum of the Central Committee Politburo in Belgrade in December 1949. Their newly discovered love of Latin and Greek, documented in the minutes of the Politburo Plenum, was overseen only by the discriminating eye of Josip Broz Tito. Classical gymnasia were revived, Latin was reintroduced to some of the other gymnasia, students returned to study classics at the

  11. Application of mesh free lattice Boltzmann method to the analysis of very high temperature reactor lower plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2011-11-15

    Inside a helium-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) lower plenum, hot gas jets from upper fuel channels with very high velocities and temperatures and is mixed before flowing out. One of the major concerns is local hot spots in the plenum due to inefficient mixing of the helium exiting from differentially heated fuel channels and it involves complex fluid flow physics. For this situation, mesh-free technique, especially Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), is thus of particular interest owing to its merit of no mesh generation. As an attempt to find efficiency of the method in such a problem, 3 dimensional flow field inside a scaled test model of the VHTR lower plenum is computed with commercial XFLOW code. Large eddy simulation (LES) and classical Smagorinsky eddy viscosity (EV) turbulence models are employed to investigate the capability of the LBM in capturing large scale vortex shedding. (orig.)

  12. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  13. Numerical investigation of flow characteristics in a prototypical lower plenum of a prismatic VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Alice; Narula, Manmeet; Abdou, Mohamed; Tsai, Peter; Ando, Yuya

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to obtain insights into the flow behavior, as well as to develop predictive capability with regards to the flow and thermal mixing, that occurs in the lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) concept. In this paper, numerical modeling has been used to capture qualitative phenomena observed during an experiment performed at INL, using a finite volume, thermo-fluid solver system, 'SC/Tetra' from CRADLE. The choice of the correct turbulence model is critical to accurately predict the flow in the VHTR lower plenum. Four different turbulence models have been used in this study and the flow predictions are significantly different. A trail of marker particles and fluid temperature as a passive scalar have been used to qualitatively study the flow characteristics, specifically the turbulent mixing of water jets. The quantitative experimental data, when available, will be used to compare and improve on the available turbulence models. Preliminary numerical modeling has been carried out to address the issue of hot streaking and buoyancy effects of hot helium jets in the lower plenum. (author)

  14. Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows during Normal Operation and Pressurized Conduction Cooldown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn E McCreery; Keith G Condie

    2006-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. The present document addresses experimental modeling of flow and thermal mixing phenomena of importance during normal or reduced power operation and during a loss of forced reactor cooling (pressurized conduction cooldown) scenario. The objectives of the experiments are, 1), provide benchmark data for assessment and improvement of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, and, 2), obtain a better understanding of related phenomena, behavior and needs. Physical models of VHTR vessel upper and lower plenums which use various working fluids to scale phenomena of interest are described. The models may be used to both simulate natural convection conditions during pressurized conduction cooldown and turbulent lower plenum flow during normal or reduced power operation.

  15. Optimization of inlet plenum of A PBMR using surrogate modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Moon; Kim, Kwang-Yong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of present work is to optimize the design of inlet plenum of PBMR type gas cooled nuclear reactor numerically using a combining of three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis and surrogate modeling technique. Shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is used as a turbulence closure. Three geometric design variables are selected, namely, rising channel diameter to plenum height ratio, aspect ratio of the plenum cross section, and inlet port angle. The objective function is defined as a linear combination of uniformity of three-dimensional flow distribution term and pressure drop in the inlet plenum and rising channels of PBMR term with a weighting factor. Twenty design points are selected using Latin-hypercube method of design of experiment and objective function values are obtained at each design point using RANS solver. (author)

  16. Improved plenum pressure gradient facemaps for PKL reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.A.; Hamm, L.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report documents the development of improved plenum pressure gradient facemaps* for PKL Mark 16--31 and Mark 22 reactor charges. These new maps are based on the 1985 L-area AC flow tests. Use of the L-area data base for estimating C-area plenum pressure gradient maps is inappropriate because the nozzle geometry plays a major role in determining the shape of the plenum pressure profile. These plenum pressure gradient facemaps are used in the emergency cooling system (ECS) and in the flow instability (FI) loss of coolant accident (LOCA) limits calculations. For the ECS LOCA limits calculations, the maps are used as input to the FLOWZONE computer code to determine the average flow within a flowzone during normal operating conditions. For the FI LOCA limits calculations, the maps are used as plenum pressure boundary conditions in the FLOWTRAN computer code to determine the maximum pre-incident assembly flow within a flowzone. These maps will also be used for flowzoning and transient protection limits analyses

  17. Plenum separator system for pool-type nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a plenum separator system for pool-type nuclear reactors which substantially lessens undesirable thermal effects on major components. A primary feature of the invention is the addition of one or more intermediate plena, containing substantially stagnant and stratified coolant, which separate the hot and cold plena and particularly the hot plena from critical reactor components. This plenum separator system also includes a plurality of components which together form a dual pass flow path annular region spaced from the reactor vessel wall by an annular gas space. The bypass flow through the flow path is relatively small and is drawn from the main coolant pumps and discharged to an intermediate plenum

  18. Experiments on the lower plenum response during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Robert E.; Hammersley, Robert J.; Klopp, George T.; Merilo, Mati

    2004-01-01

    Severe accident evaluations for nuclear reactors consider the response when the core materials have been overheated sufficient to melt and change geometry. One possible consequence of this is that molten core debris could drain into the lower plenum, as occurred in the TMI-2 accident. Given this state, several physical processes need to be analyzed, i.e. the extent of debris particulation and cooling, the potential for thermal attack of lower plenum structures, the thermal transient of the RPV and the potential for external cooling of the RPV lower head. These are important and complex processes, the evaluations of which need to be guided by well founded experiments. To support the development of the MAAP codes, recent experiments have been performed on specific issues such as: 1. the response of lower head penetrations submerged in a high temperature melt, 2. the net steam generation rate when molten debris drains into the lower plenum, 3. the formation of a contact resistance when molten debris drains through water and contacts the RPV wall and 4. the potential for external cooling of the RPV lower head. This paper discusses these experiments and their results. More importantly, it discusses how these are used in formulating models to represent the lower plenum response in the MAAP codes. (author)

  19. Two-phase flow in the upper plenum of a boiling water nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Hernan

    2003-01-01

    The end part of the Emergency Core Spray System (ECSS) of the Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is situated in the Upper Plenum. It consists of a pipe network equipped with water injection nozzles. In case of Lost-of-Coolant Accidents (LOCAs), the ECSS should maintain the core covered by water and, at the same time, rapidly cool and decompress the reactor by means of cold water injection. In similar reactors, some welds belonging to the ECSS support have, after a period of time, shown crack indications. Inspection, repair or replacement of these welds is time consuming and expensive. For this reason, it has now been decided to permanently remove the end part of the ECSS and to replace it by water injection in the Downcomer. However, this removal should not be accompanied by undesirable effects like an increase in the moisture of the steam used for operating the turbines. To investigate the effect of this removal on the steam moisture, a CFD analysis of the two-phase flow in the Upper Plenum of Unit 3, with and without ECSS, has been carried out by means of a two-phase Euler model in FLUENT 6.0. The inlet conditions are given by an analysis of the core kinetics and thermal hydraulics by mean of the POLCA-code. The outlet conditions, i. e. the steam separator pressure drops, are given by empirical correlations from the experiments carried out at the SNORRE facility. The predicted the mass flow-rates to each separator, together with empirical correlations for the moisture content of the steam leaving the separators and the steam dryer, indicate a slight decrease in the steam moisture when the ECSS is removed. Also, a minor decrease in pressure losses over the Upper Plenum is achieved with this removal. On the other hand, rounding the sharp edges of the inlet openings to the steam separators at the shroud cover may give a large reduction in pressure losses

  20. Upper plenum dump during reflood in PWR loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Griffith, Peter.

    1981-01-01

    Upper plenum dump during reflood in a large break loww-of-coolant accident of PWR is studied with the emergency core coolant injection into the upper plenum in addition to the cold leg. Transient experiments were carried out by injecting water into the upper plenum and the simple analysis based on a one-dimensional model was done using the drift flux model in order to investigate the conditions under which water dump through the core occurs during reflood. The most significant result is an upper plenum dump occurs when the pressure (hydrostatic head) in the upper plenum is greater than that in the lower plenum. Under those circumstances the flow regime isco-current down flow in which the upper plenum is rapidly emptied. On the other hand, when the upper plenum pressure (hydrostatic head) is less than the lower plenum pressure (hydrostatic head), the co-current down flow is not realized but a counter-current flow occurs. With subcooled water injection to the upper plenum, co-current down flow is realized even when the upper plenum hydrostatic head is less than the lower plenum hydrostatic head. The importance of this effect varies according to the magnetude of water subcooling. (author)

  1. Modeling study of deposition locations in the 291-Z plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, L.A.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    The TEMPEST (Trent and Eyler 1991) and PART5 computer codes were used to predict the probable locations of particle deposition in the suction-side plenum of the 291-Z building in the 200 Area of the Hanford Site, the exhaust fan building for the 234-5Z, 236-Z, and 232-Z buildings in the 200 Area of the Hanford Site. The Tempest code provided velocity fields for the airflow through the plenum. These velocity fields were then used with TEMPEST to provide modeling of near-floor particle concentrations without particle sticking (100% resuspension). The same velocity fields were also used with PART5 to provide modeling of particle deposition with sticking (0% resuspension). Some of the parameters whose importance was tested were particle size, point of injection and exhaust fan configuration

  2. Development Of An Experiment For Measuring Flow Phenomena Occurring In A Lower Plenum For VHTR CFD Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; K.G. Condie; G. E. Mc Creery; H. M. Mc Ilroy

    2005-09-01

    The objective of the present report is to document the design of our first experiment to measure generic flow phenomena expected to occur in the lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) concept. In the process, fabrication sketches are provided for the use of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) analysts wishing to employ the data for assessment of their proposed codes. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. One aspect of the complex flow in a prismatic VHTR is being addressed: flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue). Current prismatic VHTR concepts were examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses were applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentum-dominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other.

  3. Molten material relocation into the lower plenum: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This report, prepared by the task group 'Degraded Core Cooling' (DCC) for the CSNI, summarizes the experimental and theoretical knowledge of molten material relocation from a degraded core to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel under the main severe accident scenarios envisaged for both PWRs and BWRs, and boundary conditions. Consequences of movement of material to the lower head are considered with respect to the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure. The following models are reviewed: SCDAP/RELAP5, ICARE/CATHARE, ATHLET-CD/KESS, MELCOR, MAAP4, ESCADRE, etc.

  4. MRI of thoracic outlet syndrome in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Batmanabane, Vaishnavi [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Muthusami, Prakash [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Borschel, Gregory H. [The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-09-15

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle as it passes from the upper thorax to the axilla. The neurovascular bundle can be compressed by bony structures such as the first rib, cervical ribs or bone tubercles, or from soft-tissue abnormalities like a fibrous band, muscle hypertrophy or space-occupying lesion. Thoracic outlet syndrome commonly affects young adults but can be seen in the pediatric age group, especially in older children. Diagnosis is based on a holistic approach encompassing clinical features, physical examination findings including those triggered by various maneuvers, electromyography, nerve conduction studies and imaging. Imaging is performed to confirm the diagnosis, exclude mimics and classify thoracic outlet syndrome into neurogenic, arterial, venous or mixed causes. MRI and MR angiography are useful in this process. A complete MRI examination for suspected thoracic outlet syndrome should include the assessment of anatomy and any abnormalities using routine sequences, vessel assessment with the arms in adduction by MR angiography and assessment of dynamic compression of vessels with abduction of the arms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the anatomy of the thoracic outlet, causes of thoracic outlet syndrome, the MR imaging techniques used in its diagnosis and the principles of image interpretation. (orig.)

  5. MRI of thoracic outlet syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavhan, Govind B.; Batmanabane, Vaishnavi; Muthusami, Prakash; Towbin, Alexander J.; Borschel, Gregory H.

    2017-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is caused by compression of the neurovascular bundle as it passes from the upper thorax to the axilla. The neurovascular bundle can be compressed by bony structures such as the first rib, cervical ribs or bone tubercles, or from soft-tissue abnormalities like a fibrous band, muscle hypertrophy or space-occupying lesion. Thoracic outlet syndrome commonly affects young adults but can be seen in the pediatric age group, especially in older children. Diagnosis is based on a holistic approach encompassing clinical features, physical examination findings including those triggered by various maneuvers, electromyography, nerve conduction studies and imaging. Imaging is performed to confirm the diagnosis, exclude mimics and classify thoracic outlet syndrome into neurogenic, arterial, venous or mixed causes. MRI and MR angiography are useful in this process. A complete MRI examination for suspected thoracic outlet syndrome should include the assessment of anatomy and any abnormalities using routine sequences, vessel assessment with the arms in adduction by MR angiography and assessment of dynamic compression of vessels with abduction of the arms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the anatomy of the thoracic outlet, causes of thoracic outlet syndrome, the MR imaging techniques used in its diagnosis and the principles of image interpretation. (orig.)

  6. Flow distribution in the inlet plenum of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadamakar, H.P.; Patwardhan, A.W.; Padmakumar, G.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Various flow distribution devices have been studied to make the flow distribution uniform in axial as well as tangential direction. → Experiments were performed using Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). → CFD modeling has been carried out to give more insights. → Various flow distribution devices have been compared. - Abstract: The flow distribution in a 1/5th and 1/8th scale models of inlet plenum of steam generator (SG) has been studied by a combination of experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The distribution of liquid sodium in the inlet plenum of the SG strongly affects the thermal as well as mechanical performance of the steam generator. Various flow distribution devices have been used to make the flow distribution uniform in axial as well as tangential direction in the window region. Experiments have been conducted to measure the radial velocity distribution using Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) under a variety of conditions. CFD modeling has been carried out for various configurations to give more insight into the flow distribution phenomena. The various flow distribution devices have been compared on the basis of a non-uniformity index parameter.

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in the Upper Plenum of Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seokki; Lee, Taeho; Kim, Dongeun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sungho [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The important parameters in the thermal striping are the frequency and the amplitude of the temperature fluctuation. Since the sodium used as coolant in the PGSFR has a high thermal conductivity, the temperature fluctuation can be easily transferred to the solid walls of the components in the upper plenum. To remedy these problems, numerical studies are performed in the present study to analyze the thermal striping for possible improvement of the design and safety of the reactor. For the numerical works, Chacko et al. performed LES for the experiment by Nam and Kim, and found that the LES can produce the oscillation of temperature fluctuation properly, while the realizable k - ε model predicts the amplitude and frequency of the temperature fluctuation very poorly indicating that the LES method is an appropriate calculation method for the thermal striping. In this paper, the simulation of thermal striping in the upper plenum of PGSFR is performed using the LES method. The WALE eddy viscosity model by Nicoud and Ducros built in CFX-13 commercial code is employed for the LES eddy viscosity model. The numerical investigation of the thermal striping is performed with the LES method using the CFX-13 commercial code, where the solution domain is the upper plenum of the PGSFR. As the first step, dozens of monitoring points are set to locations that are anticipated to cause thermal striping. Then, the temperature fluctuations were calculated along with the time-averaged variables such as the velocity and temperature. From these results we have obtained the following conclusions. At the side wall of IHX, a slight fluctuation is observed, but it seems that there is no risk of thermal striping. The flows from the reactor core are not mixed when reaching the UIS. So both the first and second plates need to be considered. Among the first grid plate regions, the shape region is the weakest region for thermal striping. The second weakest region for thermal striping is the shape

  8. Fracture mechanics evaluation of LOFT lower plenum injection nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Reuter, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis to establish whether or not a leak-before-break concept would apply to the LOFT lower plenum injection nozzle is described. The analysis encompassed the structure from the inlet side of valve V-2170 to the lower plenum nozzle-to-reactor vessel weld on the left side of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). The defect that was assumed to exist was of such a size that the probability of its being missed by the applicable inspection technique was near zero. The Inconel 600 nozzle forging with an initial assumed defect size of 0.64 cm (0.25 in.) deep would behave as follows: (1) the axially oriented defect would result in leak before rupture (the number of cycles to rupture was 11,000), (2) the circumferentially oriented defect would result in a rupture before leak. The number of cycles to failure would be in excess of 14,000. Based on the conservative assumption that the thermal stresses were membrane stresses as opposed to a bending stress, the following were found. For the Inconel 82 weld metal (thickness of 1.3 cm [0.53 in.]) and AISI 316 SST valve body, with an initial assumed defect of 0.25 cm (0.1 in.), the crack would grow through the thickness in a minimum of 3950 cycles and to a critical rupture crack length of 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in an additional 80 cycles. The Inconel 82 weld metal at the shell body (thickness of 9.7 cm or 3.8 in.) with an assumed defect 1.3 cm (0.5 in.) deep would fail in 334 cycles. Calculations made assuming a linear stress gradient instead of the above-mentioned flat distribution through the wall indicated that the number of stress cycles increased to 2200

  9. AGU hydrology publication outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeze, R. Allan

    In recent months I have been approached on several occasions by members of the hydrology community who asked me which of the various AGU journals and publishing outlets would be most suitable for a particular paper or article that they have prepared.Water Resources Research (WRR) is the primary AGU outlet for research papers in hydrology. It is an interdisciplinary journal that integrates research in the social and natural sciences of water. The editors of WRR invite original contributions in the physical, chemical and biological sciences and also in the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. The editor for the physical sciences side of the journal is Donald R. Nielson, LAWR Veihmeyer Hall, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616. The editor for the policy sciences side of the journal is Ronald G. Cummings, Department of Economics, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131

  10. IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY PROGRAM TO OBTAIN BENCHMARK DATA ON THE FLOW PHENOMENA IN A SCALED MODEL OF A PRISMATIC GAS-COOLED REACTOR LOWER PLENUM FOR THE VALIDATION OF CFD CODES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-01-01

    The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a typical prismatic gas-cooled (GCR) reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A detailed description of the model, scaling, the experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that are presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic GCR design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal undeveloped, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet flow is also presented

  11. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, T.; Grunwald, G.; Rohde, U.

    1998-10-01

    For the analysis of boron dilution transients and main steam like break scenarios the modelling of the coolant mixing inside the reactor vessel is important. The reactivity insertion due to overcooling or deboration depends strongly on the coolant temperature and boron concentration. The three-dimensional flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of PWR's was calculated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (CFX-4). Calculations were performed for the PWR's of SIEMENS KWU, Westinghouse and VVER-440 / V-230 type. The following important factors were identified: exact representation of the cold leg inlet region (bend radii etc.), extension of the downcomer below the inlet region at the PWR Konvoi, obstruction of the flow by the outlet nozzles penetrating the downcomer, etc. The k-ε turbulence model was used. Construction elements like perforated plates in the lower plenum have large influence on the velocity field. It is impossible to model all the orifices in the perforated plates. A porous region model was used to simulate perforated plates and the core. The porous medium is added with additional body forces to simulate the pressure drop through perforated plates in the VVER-440. For the PWR Konvoi the whole core was modelled with porous media parameters. The velocity fields of the PWR Konvoi calculated for the case of operation of all four main circulation pumps show a good agreement with experimental results. The CFD-calculation especially confirms the back flow areas below the inlet nozzles. The downcomer flow of the Russian VVER-440 has no recirculation areas under normal operation conditions. By CFD calculations for the downcomer and the lower plenum an analytical mixing model used in the reactor dynamic code DYN3D was verified. The measurements, the analytical model and the CFD-calculations provided very well agreeing results particularly for the inlet region. The difficulties of analytical solutions and the uncertainties of turbulence

  12. Final report on 3-D experiment project air-water upper plenum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, J.K.; Mohr, C.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are presented from upper plenum air-water reflood behavior testing performed as part of the program to investigate three-dimensional aspects of PWR LOCA research. Tests described were performed at near ambient temperature and pressure in a plexiglass vessel which included the important features of the upper core and upper plenum regions corresponding to a single fuel bundle in both Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Trojan) and Kraftwerk Union (KKU) PWR designs. The data included observed two-phase flow characteristics, particularly with regard to countercurrent flow, and cinematography of the characteristic upper plenum flow patterns

  13. Design of pellet surface grooves for fission gas plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, T.J.; Jones, L.R.; Macici, N.; Miller, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the Canada deuterium uranium pressurized heavy water reactor, short (50-cm) Zircaloy-4 clad bundles are fueled on-power. Although internal void volume within the fuel rods is adequate for the present once-through natural uranium cycle, the authors have investigated methods for increasing the internal gas storage volume needed in high-power, high-burnup, experimental ceramic fuels. This present work sought to prove the methodology for design of gas storage volume within the fuel pellets - specifically the use of grooves pressed or machined into the relatively cool pellet/cladding interface. Preanalysis and design of pellet groove shape and volume was accomplished using the TRUMP heat transfer code. Postirradiation examination (PIE) was used to check the initial design and heat transfer assumptions. Fission gas release was found to be higher for the grooved pellet rods than for the comparison rods with hollow or unmodified pellets. This had been expected from the initial TRUMP thermal analyses. The ELESIM fuel modeling code was used to check in-reactor performance, but some modifications were necessary to accommodate the loss of heat transfer surface to the grooves. It was concluded that for plenum design purposes, circumferential pellet grooves could be adequately modeled by the codes TRUMP and ELESIM

  14. Effects of lower plenum flow structure on core inlet flow of ABWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shun; Abe, Yutaka; Kaneko, Akiko; Watanabe, Fumitoshi; Tezuka, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of coolant flow structure at a lower plenum of an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) in which there are many structures is very important in order to improve generating power. Although the simulation results by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes can predict such complicated flow in the lower plenum, it is required to establish the database of flow structure in lower plenum of ABWR experimentally for the benchmark of the CFD codes. In the model of the lower plenum, we measured velocity profiles with LDV and PIV. And differential pressure of constructed model is measured with differential pressure instrument. It was identified that the velocity and differential pressure profiles also showed the tendency to be flat in the core inlet. Moreover, vortexes were observed around side entry orifice by PIV measurement. (author)

  15. Experimental Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a VHTR Lower Plenum Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Keith G. Condie; Glenn E. McCreery; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2006-06-01

    The Very-High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of six reactor technologies chosen for further development by the Generation IV International Forum. In addition this system is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. In preparation for the thermal-hydraulics and safety analyses that will be required to confirm the performance of the NGNP, work has begun on readying the computational tools that will be needed to predict the thermal-hydraulics conditions and safety margins of the reactor design. Meaningful feasibility studies for VHTR designs will require accurate, reliable predictions of material temperatures which depend upon the thermal convection in the coolant channels of the core and other components. Unfortunately, one-dimensional system codes for gas-cooled reactors typically underpredict these temperatures, particularly for reduced power operations and hypothesized accident scenarios. Likewise, most turbulence models in general-purpose CFD codes also underpredict these temperatures. Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) fluid dynamics experiments have been designed and built to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of CFD solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing and turbulence models for typical VHTR plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties.

  16. Estimated Uncertainties in the Idaho National Laboratory Matched-Index-of-Refraction Lower Plenum Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald M. McEligot; Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Ryan C. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for typical Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use optical techniques, primarily particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the INL MIR flow system. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The objective of the present report is to develop understanding of the magnitudes of experimental uncertainties in the results to be obtained in such experiments. Unheated MIR experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique, which will not even handle constant properties properly. This report addresses the general background, requirements for benchmark databases, estimation of experimental uncertainties in mean velocities and turbulence quantities, the MIR experiment, PIV uncertainties, positioning uncertainties, and other contributing measurement uncertainties

  17. Intake plenum volume and its influence on the engine performance, cyclic variability and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Intake manifold connects the intake system to the intake valve of the engine and through which air or air-fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder. Details of the flow in intake manifolds are extremely complex. Recently, most of engine companies are focused on variable intake manifold technology due to their improvement on engine performance. This paper investigates the effects of intake plenum volume variation on engine performance and emissions to constitute a base study for variable intake plenum. Brake and indicated engine performance characteristics, coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure (COV imep ) as an indicator for cyclic variability, pulsating flow pressure in the intake manifold runner, and CO, CO 2 and HC emissions were taken into consideration to evaluate the effects of different plenum volumes. The results of this study showed that the variation in the plenum volume causes an improvement on the engine performance and the pollutant emissions. The brake torque and related performance characteristics improved pronouncedly about between 1700 and 2600 rpm by increasing plenum volume. Additionally, although the increase in the plenum volume caused the mixture leaner due to the increase in the intake runner pressure and lean mixtures inclined to increase the cyclic variability, a decrease was interestingly observed in the COV imep

  18. Effects of upper plenum injection on thermo-hydrodynamic behavior under refill and reflood phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Akira; Osakabe, Masahiro

    1984-12-01

    In order to investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in core under simultaneous ECC water injection into the upper plenum and the intact cold leg during the refill and reflood phases of a PWR-LOCA, Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 were performed by using Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) with the injection of saturated and 67K subcooled water into the upper plenum, respectively, under the same cold leg injection condition. The following major findings were obtained by examining these test results. (1) Although the core was cooled by the fall back water from the upper plenum into the core during the period of high injection rate into the upper plenum, the core was cooled mainly by the bottom flooding after the BOCREC (Bottom of core recovery). (2) The possible fall back flow rate estimated with a CCFL correlation rapidly decreased after the BOCREC because of the increase of steam generation rate in core. (3) Continuous fall back of subcooled water was not observed even under the condition with large upper plenum injection rate of subcooled water and with steam outflow through the lower plenum into the downcomer. The fall back was intermittently limited by the rapid increase of upward steam flow which was generated in the core due to the evaporation of the fall back water. (4) The rising of liquid level in the lower plenum was suppressed by the pressurization in core due to the evaporation of fall back water before the BOCREC and therefore the beginning of bottom reflood was delayed. Some selected data from Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 are also included in this report. (author)

  19. Design of a new SI engine intake manifold with variable length plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.; Akin, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intake plenum length/volume on the performance characteristics of a spark-ignited engine with electronically controlled fuel injectors. Previous work was carried out mainly on the engine with carburetor producing a mixture desirable for combustion and dispatching the mixture to the intake manifold. The more stringent emission legislations have driven engine development towards concepts based on electronic-controlled fuel injection rather than the use of carburetors. In the engine with multipoint fuel injection system using electronically controlled fuel injectors has an intake manifold in which only the air flows and, the fuel is injected onto the intake valve. Since the intake manifolds transport mainly air, the supercharging effects of the variable length intake plenum will be different from carbureted engine. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of constituting a base study to design a new variable length intake manifold plenum. Engine performance characteristics such as brake torque, brake power, thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption were taken into consideration to evaluate the effects of the variation in the length of intake plenum. The results showed that the variation in the plenum length causes an improvement on the engine performance characteristics especially on the fuel consumption at high load and low engine speeds which are put forward the system using for urban roads. According to the test results, plenum length must be extended for low engine speeds and shortened as the engine speed increases. A system taking into account the results of the study was developed to adjust the intake plenum length.

  20. Validation Studies for Numerical Simulations of Flow Phenomena Expected in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic VHTR Reference Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The final design of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants (Gen IV) has not yet been established. The VHTR may be either a prismatic (block) or pebble bed type. It may be either gas-cooled or cooled with an as yet unspecified molten salt. However, a conceptual design of a gas-cooled VHTR, based on the General Atomics GT-MHR, does exist and is called the prismatic VHTR reference design, MacDonald et al [2003], General Atomics [1996]. The present validation studies are based on the prismatic VHTR reference design. In the prismatic VHTR reference design, the flow in the lower plenum will be introduced by dozens of turbulent jets issuing into a large crossflow that must negotiate dozens of cylindrical support columns as it flows toward the exit duct of the reactor vessel. The jets will not all be at the same temperature due to the radial variation of power density expected in the core. However, it is important that the coolant be well mixed when it enters the power conversion unit to ensure proper operation and long life of the power conversion machinery. Hence, it is deemed important to be able to accurately model the flow and mixing of the variable temperature coolant in the lower plenum and exit duct. Accurate flow modeling involves determining modeling strategies including the fineness of the grid needed, iterative convergence tolerance, numerical discretization method used, whether the flow is steady or unsteady, and the turbulence model and wall treatment employed. It also involves validation of the computer code and turbulence model against a series of separate and combined flow phenomena and selection of the data used for the validation. The present report describes progress made to date for the task entitled ''CFD software validation of jets in crossflow'' which was designed to investigate the issues pertaining to the validation process

  1. Proposed retrofit of HEPA filter plenums with injection and sampling manifolds for in-place filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretthold, J.K. [EG& G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The importance of testing HEPA filter exhaust plenums with consideration for As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) will require that new technology be applied to existing plenum designs. HEPA filter testing at Rocky Flats has evolved slowly due to a number of reasons. The first plenums were built in the 1950`s, preceding many standards. The plenums were large, which caused air dispersal problems. The systems were variable air flow. Access to the filters was difficult. The test methods became extremely conservative. Changes in methods were difficult to make. The acceptance of new test methods has been made in recent years with the change in plant mission and the emphasis on worker safety.

  2. Integral analysis of debris material and heat transport in reactor vessel lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, K.Y.; Henry, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    An integral, fast-running, two-region model has been developed to characterize the debris material and heat transport in the reactor lower plenum under severe accident conditions. The debris bed is segregated into the oxidic pool and an overlying metallic layer. Debris crusts can develop on three surfaces: the top of the molten pool, the RPV wall, and the internal structures. To account for the decay heat generation, the crust temperature profile is assumed to be parabolic. The oxidic debris pool is homogeneously mixed and has the same material composition, and hence the same thermophysical properties, as the crusts, while the metallic constituents are assumed to rise to the top of the debris pool. Steady-state relationships are used to describe the heat transfer rates, with the assessment of solid or liquid state, and the liquid superheat in the pool being based on the average debris temperature. Natural convection heat transfer from the molten debris pool to the upper, lower and embedded crusts is calculated based on the pool Rayleigh number with the conduction heat transfer from the crusts being determined by the crust temperature profile. The downward heat flux is transferred to the lowest part of the RPV lower head through a crust-to-RPV contact resistance. The sideward heat flux is transferred to the upper regions of the RPV lower head as well as to the internal structures. The upward heat flux goes to the metal layer, water, or available heat sink structures above. Quenching due to water ingression is modeled separately from the energy transfer through the crust. The RPV wall temperature distribution and the primary system pressure are utilized to estimate challenges to the RPV integrity. ((orig.))

  3. Empirical method to calculate Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) inlet plenum transient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    Sodium flow enters the CRBR inlet plenum via three loops or inlets. An empirical equation was developed to calculate transient temperatures in the CRBR inlet plenum from known loop flows and temperatures. The constants in the empirical equation were derived from 1/4 scale Inlet Plenum Model tests using water as the test fluid. The sodium temperature distribution was simulated by an electrolyte. Step electrolyte transients at 100 percent model flow were used to calculate the equation constants. Step electrolyte runs at 50 percent and 10 percent flow confirmed that the constants were independent of flow. Also, a transient was tested which varied simultaneously flow rate and electrolyte. Agreement of the test results with the empirical equation results was good which verifies the empirical equation

  4. ECC delivery to lower plenum under downcomer injection part 2. RELAP5 assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Young Seok; Shin, An Dong; Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the capability of the thermal-hydraulic codes, RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 gamma, in predicting the steam-water interaction and the related ECC delivery to lower plenum under downcomer injection condition during refill phase is evaluated using the experimental data of the UPTF Test 21A. The facility is modeled in detail, and the test condition simulated for code calculations. The calculation result is compared with the applicable measurement data and discussed for the pressure response, ECC bypass behavior, lower plenum delivery, global water mass distribution, and local behavior in downcomer

  5. Influence of graphite discs, chamfers, and plenums on temperature distributions in high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranger, A.; Tayal, M.; Singh, P.

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the desirability to increase the fuel burnups in CANDU reactors from 7-9 GW.d/t to 21 GW.d/t. At high burnups, one consideration in fuel integrity is fission gas pressure, which is predicted to reach about 13 MPa. The gas pressure can be kept below the coolant pressure (about 10 MPa) via a variety of options such as bigger chamfers, deeper dishes, central hole, and plenums. However, it is important to address the temperature perturbations produced by the bigger chamfers and plenums which in turn, affect the gas pressure. Another consideration in fuel integrity is to reduce the likelihood of fuel failures via environmentally assisted cracking. Insertion of graphite discs between neighbouring pellets will lower the pellet temperatures, hence, lower fission gas release and lower expansion of the pellet. Therefore, it is desired to quantify the effect of graphite discs on pellet temperatures. Thermal analyses of different fuel element geometries: with and without chamfers, graphite discs, and plenums were performed. The results indicate that the two-dimensional distributions of temperatures due to the presence of chamfers, graphite discs, or plenums can have a significant impact on the integrity of high burnup fuel as we have been able to quantify in this paper

  6. Reduction of sound transmission across plenum windows by incorporating an array of rigid cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S. K.

    2018-02-01

    The potential improvement of plenum window noise reduction by installing rigid circular cylinder arrays into the window cavity is investigated numerically using the finite-element method in this study. A two-dimensional approach is adopted. The sound transmission characteristics and propagation within the plenum window are also examined in detail. Results show that the installation of the cylinders in general gives rise to broadband improvement of noise reduction across a plenum window regardless of the direction of sound incidence. Such acoustical performance becomes better when more cylinder columns are installed, but it is suggested that the number of cylinder rows should not exceed two. Results also show that the cylinder positions relative to the nodal/anti-nodal planes of the acoustic modes are crucial in the noise reduction enhancement mechanisms. Noise reduction can further be enhanced by staggering the cylinder rows, such that each cylinder row supports the development of a different acoustic mode. For the simple cylinder arrangements considered in this study, the traffic noise reduction enhancement observed in this study can be as high as 4-5 dB, which is already comparable to or higher than the maximum achieved by installing sound absorption into a plenum window.

  7. Potential for HEPA filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Fretthold, J.K. [Rocky Flats Safe Sites of Colorado, Golden, CO (United States); Slawski, J.W. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for BEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. A fire in a four-stage, BEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of BEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenums, additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Juan Camilo; Acosta, Mauricio Fernando; Uribe Jorge Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome in a young man, diagnosed with upper limb arteriography, leading to repeated arterio-arterial emboli originating from a post-stenotic subclavian artery aneurysm. It is of our interest due to its low incidence and the small number of cases reported that have been diagnosed by arteriography. The thoracic outlet is the path through which vascular and neural structures goes from the neck to the axilla, and it has three anatomical strictures, that when pronounced, can compress the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels, leading to different symptoms and signs.

  9. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  10. Summary report of incineration plenum fire: Building 771, July 2, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretthold, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    At about 1100 on July 2, 1980, a temperature rise above normal was recorded on charts monitoring operation of the incinerator in Room 149, Building 771. The plenum overheat alarm sounded at 1215, emergency actions initiated, and the fire was extinguished and mop-up began at about 1300. Investigation determined that the fire in the plenum was caused by a heat rise in the system, a deteriorated bypass valve on the No. 3 heat exchanger (KOH scrubber), nitration of the urethane seal on the HEPA filter media to the filter frame, and accumulation of metallic fines on the filter media. It was concluded that the management system responded properly, except for the ring- down system to activate the Emergency Operations Center

  11. A CFD Study on Inlet Plenum Flow Field of Pebble Bed Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Won Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-01-01

    High temperature gas cooled reactor, largely divided into two types of PBR (Pebble Bed Reactor) and PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor), has becomes great interest of researchers in connection with the hydrogen production. KAERI has started a project to develop the gas cooled reactor for the hydrogen production and has been doing in-depth study for selecting the reactor type between PBR and PMR. As a part of the study, PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) was selected as a reference PBR reactor for the CFD analysis and the flow field of its inlet plenum was simulated with computational fluid dynamics program CFX5. Due to asymmetrical arrangement of pipes to the inlet plenum, non-uniform flow distribution has been expected to occur, giving rise to non-uniform power distribution at the core. Flow fields of different arrangement of inlet pipes were also investigated, as one of measures to reduce the non-uniformity

  12. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  13. Determining Bond Sodium Remaining in Plenum Region of Spent Nuclear Driver Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D.; Li, S.X.

    2008-01-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) treats spent nuclear fuel using an electro-chemical process that separates the uranium from the fission products, sodium thermal bond, and cladding materials (REF 1). Upon immersion into the ER electrolyte, the sodium used to thermally bond the fuel to the clad jacket chemically reacts with the UCl3 in the electrolyte producing NaCl and uranium metal. The uranium in the spent fuel is separated from the cladding and fission products by taking advantage of the electro-chemical potential differences between uranium and the other fuel components. Assuming all the sodium in the thermal bond is converted to NaCl in the ER, the difference between the cumulative bond sodium mass in the fuel elements and the cumulative sodium mass found in the driver ER electrolyte inventory provides an upper mass limit for the sodium that migrated to the upper gas region, or plenum section, of the fuel element during irradiation in the reactor. The plenums are to be processed as metal waste via melting and metal consolidation operations. However, depending on the amount of sodium in the plenums, additional processing may be required to remove the sodium before metal waste processing

  14. Effect of cross-flow direction of coolant on film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchao Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of cross-flow directions of an internal coolant on film cooling performance, the discharge coefficients and film cooling effectiveness with one inlet and double outlet hole injections were simulated. The numerical results show that two different cross-flow directions of the coolant cause the same decrease in the discharge coefficients as that in the case of supplying coolant by a plenum. The different proportion of the mass flow out of the two outlets of the film hole results in different values of the film cooling effectiveness for three different cases of coolant supplies. The film cooling effectiveness is the highest for the case of supplying coolant by the plenum. At a lower blowing ratio of 1.0, the film cooling effectiveness with coolant injection from the right entrance of the passage is higher than that from the left entrance of the passage. At a higher blowing ratio of 2.0, the opposite result is found.

  15. Spatial accessibility to physical activity facilities and to food outlets and overweight in French youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R; Chaix, B; Weber, C; Schweitzer, B; Charreire, H; Salze, P; Badariotti, D; Banos, A; Oppert, J-M; Simon, C

    2012-07-01

    Some characteristics of the built environment have been associated with obesity in youth. Our aim was to determine whether individual and environmental socio-economic characteristics modulate the relation between youth overweight and spatial accessibility to physical activity (PA) facilities and to food outlets. Cross-sectional study. 3293 students, aged 12 ± 0.6 years, randomly selected from eastern France middle schools. Using geographical information systems (GIS), spatial accessibility to PA facilities (urban and nature) was assessed using the distance to PA facilities at the municipality level; spatial accessibility to food outlets (general food outlets, bakeries and fast-food outlets) was calculated at individual level using the student home address and the food outlets addresses. Relations of weight status with spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to food outlets were analysed using mixed logistic models, testing potential direct and interaction effects of individual and environmental socio-economic characteristics. Individual socio-economic status modulated the relation between spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to general food outlets and overweight. The likelihood of being overweight was higher when spatial accessibility to urban PA facilities and to general food outlets was low, but in children of blue-collar-workers only. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for being overweight of blue-collar-workers children compared with non-blue-collar-workers children was 1.76 (1.25-2.49) when spatial accessibility to urban PA facilities was low. This OR was 1.86 (1.20-2.86) when spatial accessibility to general food outlets was low. There was no significant relationship of overweight with either nature PA facilities or other food outlets (bakeries and fast-food outlets). These results indicate that disparities in spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to general food outlets may amplify the risk of overweight in socio

  16. Study of thermal-hydraulic characteristics in an LMFBR intermediate plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, M.; Naohara, N.; Kinoshita, I.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental studies using water and liquid metal were conducted in order to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of an LMFBR intermediate plenum. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the effect of natural convection on the temperature field and to validate the prediction method of temperature profile in a thermally stratified cavity. The experimental results indicated that the effect of the natural convection on flow velocity and heat transfer in the cavity is reduced with increasing the modified stratification parameter. The calculation by FEM code and a simple 1-D model are effective to predict the temperature profile in the cavity

  17. Thermophysical, hydrodynamic and mechanical aspects of molten core relocation to lower plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Huh, Chang Wook [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on molten material relocation into the lower plenum. Consequences of movement of material to the lower head are considered with regard to the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure from both thermal hydraulic and mechanical standpoints. The models are applied to evaluating various in-vessel retention strategies for the Korean Standard Power Plant (KSNPP) reactor. The results are summarized in terms of thermal response of the reactor vessel from the very relevant severe accident management perspective. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (Author)

  18. Measurement of two-phase flow at the core upper plenum interface under simulated reflood conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.G.; Combs, S.K.; Bagwell, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Objectives of the Instrument Development Loop program were to simulate flows at the core/upper plenum interface during the reflood phase of a LOCA and to develop instruments for measuring mass-flows at this interface. A tie plate drag body was developed and tested successfully, and the data obtained were shown to be equivalent to pressure drops. The tie-plate drag body gave useful measurements in pure downflow, and the drag/turbine combination correlates with mass flow for high upflow

  19. Thermophysical, hydrodynamic and mechanical aspects of molten core relocation to lower plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Y; Huh, Chang Wook [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on molten material relocation into the lower plenum. Consequences of movement of material to the lower head are considered with regard to the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure from both thermal hydraulic and mechanical standpoints. The models are applied to evaluating various in-vessel retention strategies for the Korean Standard Power Plant (KSNPP) reactor. The results are summarized in terms of thermal response of the reactor vessel from the very relevant severe accident management perspective. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. Critical heat flux of water in vertical tubes with an upper plenum and a closed bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Chae; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted for vertical round tubes with an upper plenum and a closed bottom to investigate CHF behavior and CHF onset location under the counter-current condition. The measured CHF values are well predicted by general Wallis type flooding correlations. A 1-D steady state analytical flooding model for thermosyphon by El-Genk and Saber was assessed with the data and the liquid film thickness at the liquid entrance was calculated. The CHF onset position becomes different with L/D and D, and liquid entrance geometry affects only CHF values not CHF onset positions

  1. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  2. Effect of upper plenum water accumuration on reflooding phenomena under forced-feed flooding in SCTF Core-I tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Sobajima, Makoto; Iwamura, Takamichi; Osakabe, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    1983-07-01

    Large Scale Reflood Test Program has been performed under contract with the Atomic Energy Bureau of Science and Technology Agency of Japan since 1976. The Slab Core Test Program is a part of the Large Scale Reflood Test Program along with the Cylindrical Core Test Program. Major purpose of the Slab Core Test Program is to investigate two-dimensional, thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in the core and the effect of fluid communication between the core and the upper plenum on the reflood phenomena in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. A significant upper plenum water accumulation was observed in the Base Case Test Sl-01 which was carried out under forced-feed flooding condition. To investigate the effects of upper plenum water accumulation on reflooding phenomena, accumulated water is extracted out of the upper plenum in Test Sl-03 by full opening of valves for extraction lines located just above the upper core support plate. This report presents this effect of upper plenum water accumulation on reflooding phenomena through the comparison of Tests Sl-01 and Sl-03. In spite of full opening of valves for upper plenum water extraction in Test Sl-03, a little water accumulation was observed which is of the same magnitude as in Test Sl-01 for about 200 s after the beginning of reflood. From 200 s after the beginning of reflood, however, the upper plenum water accumulation is much less in Test Sl-03 than in Test Sl-01, showing the following effects of upper plenum water accumulation. In Test Sl-03, (1) the two-dimensionality of horizontal fluid distribution is much less both above and in the core, (2) water carryover through hot leg and water accumulation in the core are less, (3) quench time is rather delayed in the upper part of the core by less water fall back from the upper plenum, and (4) difference in the core thermal behavior and core heat transfer are not significant in the middle and lower part of the core. (author)

  3. PIV Experiments to Measure Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a VHTR Lower Plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Richard R. Schultz; Daniel Christensen; Robert J. Pink; Ryan C. Johnson

    2006-09-01

    A report of experimental data collected at the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Laboratory in support of contract DE-AC07-05ID14517 and the INL Standard Problem on measurements of flow phenomena occurring in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic VHTR concept reactor to assess CFD code is presented. Background on the experimental setup and procedures is provided along with several samples of data obtained from the 3-D PIV system and an assessment of experimental uncertainty is provided. Data collected in this study include 3-dimensional velocity-field descriptions of the flow in all four inlet jets and the entire lower plenum with inlet jet Reynolds numbers (ReJet) of approximately 4300 and 12,400. These investigations have generated over 2 terabytes of data that has been processed to describe the various velocity components in formats suitable for external release and archived on removable hard disks. The processed data from both experimental studies are available in multi-column text format.

  4. Deformation and collapse of zircaloy fuel rod cladding into plenum axial gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfennigwerth, P.L.; Gorscak, D.A.; Selsley, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    To minimize support structure, blanket and reflector fuel rods of the thoria urania-fueled Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) were designed with non-freestanding Zircaloy-4 cladding. An analytical model was developed to predict deformation of unirradiated cladding into axial gaps of fuel rod plenum regions where it is unsupported. This model uses the ACCEPT finite element computer program to calculate elastic-plastic deformation of cladding due to external pressure. The finite element is 20-node, triquadratic, isoparametric, and 3-dimensional. Its curved surface permits accurate modeling of the tube geometry, including geometric nonuniformities such as circumferential wall thickness variation and initial tube out-of-roundness. Progressive increases in axial gap length due to cladding elongation and fuel stack shrinkage are modeled, as are deformations of fuel pellets and stainless steel support sleeves which bound plenum axial gaps in LWBR type blanket fuel rods. Zircaloy-4 primary and secondary thermal creep representations were developed from uniaxial creep testing of fuel rod tubing. Creep response to multi-axial loading is modeled with a variation of Hill's formulation for anisotropic materials. Coefficients accounting for anisotropic thermal creep in Zircaloy-4 tubes were developed from creep testing of externally pressurized tubes having fixed axial gaps in the range 2.5 cm to 5.7 cm and radial clearances over simulated fuel pellets ranging from zero to 0.089 mm. (orig./RW)

  5. Socioeconomic determinants of exposure to alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world.

  6. Development of whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT. 4. Incorporation of three-dimensional upper plenum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2003-03-01

    The thermal-hydraulic analysis computer program ACT is under development for the evaluation of detailed flow and temperature fields in a core region of fast breeder reactors under various operation conditions. The purpose of this program development is to contribute not only to clarifying thermal hydraulic characteristics that cannot be revealed by experiments due to measurement difficulty but also to performing rational safety design and assessment. This report describes the incorporation of a three-dimensional upper plenum model to ACT and its verification study as part of the program development. To treat the influence of three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in a upper plenum on the in-core temperature field, the multi-dimensional general purpose thermal-hydraulic analysis program AQUA, which was developed and validated at JNC, was applied as the base of the upper plenum analysis module of ACT. AQUA enables to model the upper plenum configuration including immersed heat exchangers of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS). In coupling core analysis module that consists of the fuel-assembly and the inter-wrapper gap calculation parts with the upper plenum module, different types of computation mesh systems were jointed using the staggered quarter assembly mesh scheme. A coupling algorithm among core, upper plenum and heat transport system modules, which can keep mass, momentum and energy conservation, was developed and optimized in consideration of parallel computing. ACT was applied to analyzing a sodium experiment (PLANDTL-DHX) performed at JNC, which simulated the natural circulation decay heat removal under DRACS operation conditions for the program verification. From the calculation result, the validity of the improved program was confirmed. (author)

  7. Investigation of the coolability of a continuous mass of relocated debris to a water-filled lower plenum. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Wolf, J.R.; Chavez, S.A.; Condie, K.G.; Hagrman, D.L.; Carmack, W.J.

    1994-09-01

    This report documents work performed to support the development of an analytical and experimental program to investigate the coolability of a continuous mass of debris that relocates to a water-filled lower plenum. The objective of this program is to provide an adequate data base for developing and validating a model to predict the coolability of a continuous mass of debris relocating to a water-filled lower plenum. The model must address higher pressure scenarios, such as the TMI-2 accident, and lower pressure scenarios, which recent calculations indicate are more likely for most operating LWR plants. The model must also address a range of possible debris compositions

  8. Development of Lower Plenum Molten Pool Module of Severe Accident Analysis Code in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Donggun; Kim, Dong-Ha; Park, Rae-Jun; Bae, Jun-Ho; Shim, Suk-Ku; Marigomen, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    To simulate a severe accident progression of nuclear power plant and forecast reactor pressure vessel failure, we develop computational software called COMPASS (COre Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software) for whole physical phenomena inside the reactor pressure vessel from a core heat-up to a vessel failure. As a part of COMPASS project, in the first phase of COMPASS development (2011 - 2014), we focused on the molten pool behavior in the lower plenum, heat-up and ablation of reactor vessel wall. Input from the core module of COMPASS is relocated melt composition and mass in time. Molten pool behavior is described based on the lumped parameter model. Heat transfers in between oxidic, metallic molten pools, overlying water, steam and debris bed are considered in the present study. The models and correlations used in this study are appropriately selected by the physical conditions of severe accident progression. Interaction between molten pools and reactor vessel wall is also simulated based on the lumped parameter model. Heat transfers between oxidic pool, thin crust of oxidic pool and reactor vessel wall are considered and we solve simple energy balance equations for the crust thickness of oxidic pool and reactor vessel wall. As a result, we simulate a benchmark calculation for APR1400 nuclear power plant, with assumption of relocated mass from the core is constant in time such that 0.2ton/sec. We discuss about the molten pool behavior and wall ablation, to validate our models and correlations used in the COMPASS. Stand-alone SIMPLE program is developed as the lower plenum molten pool module for the COMPASS in-vessel severe accident analysis code. SIMPLE program formulates the mass and energy balance for water, steam, particulate debris bed, molten corium pools and oxidic crust from the first principle and uses models and correlations as the constitutive relations for the governing equations. Limited steam table and the material properties are provided

  9. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.; Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J.

    2015-09-01

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  10. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  11. Study on cooling model for debris in lower plenum and countermeasures for prevention of focusing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Zhonghua; Yu Hongxing; Jiang Guangming

    2008-01-01

    From the basic energy conservation equations and experimental or empirical correlations, an intact model is constructed for the thermal calculation of the core debris in the lower plenum. For verification of this model, the results of two calculations for AP600 and AP1000 plants are compared with those presented in relevant literature. The analysis highlights on the impact of the decay heat power density and the focusing effect. In order to mitigate the focusing effect, it is proposed in this paper to change the lower head profile from hemisphere to parabola. The results show that this change of lower head profile can change the heat flux distribution of the debris, and mitigate the focusing effect. (authors)

  12. TRIO a general computer code for reactor 3-D flows analysis. Application to a LMFBR hot plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaud, J.P.; Rouzaud, P.

    1985-09-01

    TRIO is a code developed at CEA to investigate general incompressible 2D and 3D viscous flows. Two calculations are presented: the lid driven cubic cavity at Re=400; steady state (velocity and temperature field) of a LMFBR hot plenum, carried out in order to prepare the calculation of a cold shock consecutive to a reactor scram. 8 refs., 26 figs.

  13. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  14. Alcohol outlets, social disorganization, and robberies: accounting for neighborhood characteristics and alcohol outlet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J; Freiburger, Tina L

    2015-05-01

    We estimated spatially lagged regression and spatial regime models to determine if the variation in total, on-premise, and off-premise alcohol outlet(1) density is related to robbery density, while controlling for direct and moderating effects of social disorganization.(2) Results suggest that the relationship between alcohol outlet density and robbery density is sensitive to the measurement of social disorganization levels. Total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with robbery density when social disorganization variables were included separately in the models. However, when social disorganization levels were captured as a four item index, only the association between off-premise alcohol outlets and robbery density remained significant. More work is warranted in identifying the role of off-premise alcohol outlets and their characteristics in robbery incidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 14 CFR 23.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 23.977 Section 23.977... tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This... damage any fuel system component. (b) The clear area of each fuel tank outlet strainer must be at least...

  16. Development of a solenoid actuated planar valveless micropump with single and multiple inlet-outlet arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; George, D.; Sajeesh, P.; Manivannan, P. V.; Sen, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We report a planar solenoid actuated valveless micropump with multiple inlet-outlet configurations. The self-priming characteristics of the multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropump are studied. The filling dynamics of the micropump chamber during start-up and the effects of fluid viscosity, voltage and frequency on the dynamics are investigated. Numerical simulations for multiple inlet-multiple outlet micropumps are carried out using fluid structure algorithm. With DI water and at 5.0 Vp-p, 20 Hz frequency, the two inlet-two outlet micropump provides a maximum flow rate of 336 μl min-1 and maximum back pressure of 441 Pa. Performance characteristics of the two inlet-two outlet micropump are studied for aqueous fluids of different viscosity. Transport of biological cell lines and diluted blood samples are demonstrated; the flow rate-frequency characteristics are studied. Viability of cells during pumping with multiple inlet multiple outlet configuration is also studied in this work, which shows 100% of cells are viable. Application of the proposed micropump for simultaneous pumping, mixing and distribution of fluids is demonstrated. The proposed integrated, standalone and portable micropump is suitable for drug delivery, lab-on-chip and micro-total-analysis applications.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the VHTR Lower Plenum Standard Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Schultz, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is promoting the resurgence of nuclear power in the U. S. for both electrical power generation and production of process heat required for industrial processes such as the manufacture of hydrogen for use as a fuel in automobiles. The DOE project is called the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) and is based on a Generation IV reactor concept called the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which will use helium as the coolant at temperatures ranging from 450 C to perhaps 1000 C. While computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has not been used for past safety analysis for nuclear reactors in the U.S., it is being considered for safety analysis for existing and future reactors. It is fully recognized that CFD simulation codes will have to be validated for flow physics reasonably close to actual fluid dynamic conditions expected in normal and accident operational situations. To this end, experimental data have been obtained in a scaled model of a narrow slice of the lower plenum of a prismatic VHTR. The present report presents results of CFD examinations of these data to explore potential issues with the geometry, the initial conditions, the flow dynamics and the data needed to fully specify the inlet and boundary conditions; results for several turbulence models are examined. Issues are addressed and recommendations about the data are made

  18. Current collector design for closed-plenum polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, F. A.; Attingre, C.; Kucernak, A. R.; Brett, D. J. L.

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a non-isothermal, single-phase, three-dimensional model of the effects of current collector geometry in a 5 cm2 closed-plenum polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell constructed using printed circuit boards (PCBs). Two geometries were considered in this study: parallel slot and circular hole designs. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package was used to account for species, momentum, charge and membrane water distribution within the cell for each design. The model shows that the cell can reach high current densities in the range of 0.8 A cm-2-1.2 A cm-2 at 0.45 V for both designs. The results indicate that the transport phenomena are significantly governed by the flow field plate design. A sensitivity analysis on the channel opening ratio shows that the parallel slot design with a 50% opening ratio shows the most promising performance due to better species, heat and charge distribution. Modelling and experimental analysis confirm that flooding inhibits performance, but the risk can be minimised by reducing the relative humidity of the cathode feed to 50%. Moreover, overheating is a potential problem due to the insulating effect of the PCB base layer and as such strategies should be implemented to combat its adverse effects.

  19. Upper plenum break LOCA investigation in the ISB-VVER and PSB-VVER facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinkov, V. N.; Melikhov, O. I.; Lipatov, I. A.; Nikonov, S. M.; Dremin, G. I.; Galchanskaya, S. A.; Gashenko, M. P.; Rovnov, A. A.; Kapustin, A. V.; Elkin, I. V. [EREC, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The capability to define the actual NPP transient/accident scenario depends to a great extent on facilities' scaling and reliability of the system thermalhydraulic codes which, in turn, are assessed against the experimental data taken in the same facilities. At the present time, it is received fact that the rigorous modeling of the cumulative set of all thermalhydraulic processes in the plant primary and secondary sides during accident is unfeasible. Therefore, the extrapolation of the facilities loops behavior to the actual systems constitutes a fundamental problem in this area. In the paper, some aspects for the problem have been discussed in the course of comparative analysis of the data derived from the 11 % upper plenum break LOCA tests performed in the PSB-VVER and ISB-VVER integral test facilities under the close scenarios. Both facilities, PSB-VVER and ISB-VVER, are modeled the same VVER-1000 reactor in different scales. The thermalhydraulic behavior of the primary systems in both facilities has been discussed in the paper, and shown to be similar. Also, the attention has been focused upon the discrepancies in the significant variables trends. The discrepancies are shown to be caused by influence of peculiarities of the facilities hardware and due to the scale factor. The scaling study is an important aspect of the thermalhydraulic codes verification procedure. Being qualified against the experimentally simulated accident sequence in two test facilities of different scales, the thermalhydraulic codes will be capable of evaluation of the prototype behavior to greater accuracy.

  20. Modeling for evaluation of debris coolability in lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yu; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Hideo; Hirano, Masashi

    2003-01-01

    Effectiveness of debris cooling by water that fills a gap between the debris and the lower head wall was estimated through steady calculations in reactor scale. In those calculations, the maximum coolable debris depth was assessed as a function of gap width with combination of correlations for critical heat flux and turbulent natural convection of a volumetrically heated pool. The results indicated that the gap with a width of 1 to 2 mm was capable of cooling the debris under the conditions of the TMI-2 accident, and that a significantly larger gap width was needed to retain a larger amount of debris within the lower plenum. Transient models on gap growth and water penetration into the gap were developed and incorporated into CAMP code along with turbulent natural convection model developed by Yin, Nagano and Tsuji, categorized in low Reynolds number type two-equation model. The validation of the turbulent model was made with the UCLA experiment on natural convection of a volumetrically heated pool. It was confirmed that CAMP code predicted well the distribution of local heat transfer coefficients along the vessel inner surface. The gap cooling model was validated by analyzing the in-vessel debris coolability experiments at JAERI, where molten Al 2 O 3 was poured into a water-filled hemispherical vessel. The temperature history measured on the vessel outer surface was satisfactorily reproduced by CAMP code. (author)

  1. Studies of flow stratification in the hot plenum of an LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P; Hickmott, S [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories, Berkeley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom)

    1983-07-01

    The paper reviews work at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories on the extent and effects of buoyancy in the hot plenum of an LMFBR. It summarizes the experimental, theoretical and numerical work has has been conducted to aid the understanding of the complex transient flows which occur following a reactor trip. The experimental work has been conducted in small-scale idealised geometries which isolate the essential features of the reactor flows and is not intended to provide detailed design data. An integral theory has been devised to describe the thermal hydraulics of negatively-buoyant jets. The predictions are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results and emphasize the need to correctly represent the inlet velocity and temperature profiles. Some preliminary calculations with a transient, two-dimensional, finite-element code are compared with the experimental results. These calculations reproduce the overall features of the flows but not the details of the stratified interface. The development of turbulence models for stratified flows is seen as a fruitful area for further research. (author)

  2. Numerical study of hot-leg ECC injection into the upper plenum of a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.; Rivard, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    In certain pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, emergency core coolant (ECC) is injected through the hot legs into the upper plenum. The condensation of steam on this subcooled liquid stream reduces the pressure in the hot legs and upper plenum and thereby affects flow conditions throughout the reactor. In the present study, we examine countercurrent steam-water flow in the hot leg to determine the deceleration of the ECC flow that results from an adverse pressure gradient and from momentum exchange from the steam by interfacial drag and condensation. For the parameters examined in the study, water flow reversal is observed for a pressure drop of 22 to 32 mBar over the 1.5 m hot leg. We have also performed a three-dimensional study of subcooled water injection into air and steam environments of the upper plenum. The ECC water is deflected by an array of cylindrical guide tubes in its passage through the upper plenum. Comparisons of the air-water results with data obtained in a full scale experiment shows reasonable agreement, but indicates that there may be too much resistance to horizontal flow about the columns because of the use of a stair-step representation of the cylindrical guide tube cross section. Calculations of flow past single columns of stair-step, square and circular cross section do indicate excessive water deeentrainment by the noncircular column. This has prompted the use of an arbitrary mesh computational procedure to more accuratey represent the circular cross-section guide tubes. 15 figures

  3. Prediction of corium debris characteristics in lower plenum of a nordic BWR in different accident scenarios using MELCOR code - 15367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phung, V.A.; Galushin, S.; Raub, S.; Goronovski, A.; Villanueva, W.; Koeoep, K; Grishchenko, D.; Kudinov, P.

    2015-01-01

    Severe accident management strategy in Nordic boiling water reactors (BWRs) relies on ex-vessel core debris coolability. The mode of corium melt release from the vessel determines conditions for ex-vessel accident progression and threats to containment integrity, e.g., formation of a non-coolable debris bed and possibility of energetic steam explosion. In-vessel core degradation and relocation is an important stage which determines characteristics of corium debris in the vessel lower plenum, such as mass, composition, thermal properties, timing of relocation, and decay heat. These properties affect debris reheating and remelting, melt interactions with the vessel structures, and possibly vessel failure and melt ejection mode. Core degradation and relocation is contingent upon the accident scenario parameters such as recovery time and capacity of safety systems. The goal of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the impact of the accident scenarios and timing of the events on core relocation phenomena and resulting properties of the debris bed in the vessel lower plenum of Nordic BWRs. In this study, severe accidents in a Nordic BWR reference plant are initiated by a station black out event, which is the main contributor to core damage frequency of the reactor. The work focuses on identifying ranges of debris bed characteristics in the lower plenum as functions of the accident scenario with different recovery timing and capacity of safety systems. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR coupled with GA-IDPSA is used in this work. GA-IDPSA is a Genetic Algorithm-based Integrated Deterministic Probabilistic Safety Analysis tool, which has been developed to search uncertain input parameter space. The search is guided by different target functions. Scenario grouping and clustering approach is applied in order to estimate the ranges of debris characteristics and identify scenario regions of core relocation that can lead to significantly different debris bed

  4. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility's process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-2 1). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases

  5. Decontamination and demolition of a former plutonium processing facility's process exhaust system, firescreen, and filter plenum buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFrate, P.J. Jr.; Stout, D.S.; Elliott, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Project has decontaminated, demolished, and decommissioned a process exhaust system, two filter plenum buildings, and a firescreen plenum structure at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). The project began in August 1995 and was completed in January 1996. These high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums and associated ventilation ductwork provided process exhaust to fume hoods and glove boxes in TA-21 Buildings 2 through 5 when these buildings were active plutonium and uranium processing and research facilities. This paper summarizes the history of TA-21 plutonium and uranium processing and research activities and provides a detailed discussion of integrated work process controls, characterize-as-you-go methodology, unique engineering controls, decontamination techniques, demolition methodology, waste minimization, and volume reduction. Also presented in detail are the challenges facing the LANL Decommissioning Project to safely and economically decontaminate and demolish surplus facilities and the unique solutions to tough problems. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the integrated work package concept to control work through all phases

  6. Double-outlet right ventricle revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ameneh; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L; Fricker, F Jay; Anderson, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Double-outlet right ventricle is a form of ventriculoarterial connection. The definition formulated by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease is based on hearts with both arterial trunks supported in their greater part by a morphologically right ventricle. Bilateral infundibula and ventricular septal defects are highly debated criteria. This study examines the anatomic controversies surrounding double-outlet right ventricle. We show that hearts with double-outlet right ventricle can have atrioventricular-to-arterial valvular continuity. We emphasize the difference between the interventricular communication and the zone of deficient ventricular septation. The hearts examined were from the University of Florida in Gainesville; Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, St Petersburg, Fla; and Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, Ill. Each specimen had at least 75% of both arterial roots supported by the morphologically right ventricle, with a total of 100 hearts examined. The morphologic method was used to assess anatomic features, including arterial-atrioventricular valvular continuity, subarterial infundibular musculature, and the location of the hole between the ventricles. Most hearts had fibrous continuity between one of the arterial valves and an atrioventricular valve, with bilateral infundibula in 23%, and intact ventricular septum in 5%. Bilateral infundibula are not a defining feature of double-outlet right ventricle, representing only 23% of the specimens in our sample. The interventricular communication can have a posteroinferior muscular rim or extend to become perimembranous (58%). Double-outlet right ventricle can exist with an intact ventricular septum. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 178.345-11 - Tank outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unloading of lading, as distinguished from outlets such as manhole covers, vents, vapor recovery devices... away from the loading/unloading outlet. The actuating mechanism must be corrosion-resistant and...

  8. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  9. Power source with spark-safe outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsesarenko, N P; Alekhin, A V

    1982-01-01

    The invention refers to the technique of electrical monitoring and control in systems operating in a spark-safe medium (for example, in coal mines). A more accurate area of application is mobile objects with autonomous source of electricity (mine diesel locomotives, battery electric locomotives etc.). The purpose of the invention is to simplify and to improve the reliability of the planned device, and also to expand the area of application for conditions when it is powered from an autonomous generator of direct voltage. This goal is achieved because the power source with spark-safe outlet (the source contains a thyristor of advance disconnection, connected by anode to the delimiting throttle, one outlet of which is connected to the capacitor included between the controlling electrode and the anode of the thyristor, and the capacitor is connected through the resistor parallel to the outlet clamps of the source, while the thyristor of emergency protection connected parallel to the inlet clamps of the power source) is additionally equipped with a current sensor, hercon, transistor key (included in series in the power circuit) and optron, whose emitter is connected parallel to the current sensor connected in series to the inlet of the power source, while the receiver of the optron is connected in a circuit for controlling the thyristor of emergency protection. Hercon is built into the core of the delimiting throttle and is connected to the circuit for controlling the transistor key.

  10. Analysis of the Sales Promotion in Choice Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    HUMPOLCOVÁ, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is aimed at sales promotion in a retail outlet. The main aim of this thesis is evaluate the current state of sales promotion in a selected retail outlet and based on the analysis of the current state of sales promotion in the outlet to try to propose some measures of improve.

  11. 14 CFR 25.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 25.977 Section 25.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must— (1) For...

  12. 14 CFR 29.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 29.977 Section 29.977... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel strainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must— (1) For...

  13. 14 CFR 27.977 - Fuel tank outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel tank outlet. 27.977 Section 27.977... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.977 Fuel tank outlet. (a) There must be a fuel stainer for the fuel tank outlet or for the booster pump. This strainer must— (1) For...

  14. Alcohol Outlet Density and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nonmetropolitan College Town: Accounting for Neighborhood Characteristics and Alcohol Outlet Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing evidence of an ecological association between alcohol outlet density and intimate partner violence. It is reasonable to assume, however, that not all types of alcohol outlets contribute equally to criminal behavior, and to date, most ecological studies have been of large urban cities. Using Bloomington, Indiana, block groups as units of analysis and controlling for several structural characteristics associated with violence rates, I estimated spatially lagged regression models to determine if the variation in alcohol outlet density, including total outlets and disaggregating by on- and off-premise outlets, is related to intimate partner violence density. Results suggested that total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. On-premise alcohol outlet density was not significantly associated with intimate partner violence density. These results not only extend the geographic scope of this relationship beyond large metropolitan areas but also have important policy implications.

  15. Simulation experiments of small break LOCA in upper plenum joint pipe for 5 MW heating test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Jinhai; Jiang Shengyao; Zhang Youjie; Tong Yunxian; Sun Shusen; Yao Meisheng

    1988-12-01

    A simulation experiment of small break LOCA is introduced, which was caused by the breakdown of a small size or middle size pipe located at upper plenum, or by unexpected opening the safety valve. In the tests, the system pressure, temperature, void fraction and total loss of water were studied. The results showed that the total loss of water was nearly 20% of initial loading water. It means under this condition the 5MW low temperature heating reactor being built in Institute of Nnclear Engergy Technology of Tsinghua University is safe

  16. Three-dimensional calculation of the flow in the cold plenum of the Fast Breeder Reactor 1500 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabard, J.P.; Daubert, O.; Gregoire, J.P.; Hemmerich, P.

    1987-01-01

    To solve thermalhydraulics problems which are rising for example on the various parts of nuclear reactors, several departments of the Direction des Etudes et Recherches are developing the N3S code, three-dimensional code using the finite element method. First, this paper presents the basic equations (Navies-Stokes with turbulence modelling and coupled with the thermal equation) and well suited algorithms to solve them. The industrial adequacy of the code is clearly demonstrated through the application to the computation of the flow in the cold plenum of the Fast Breeder Reactor 1500 MW on a mesh of about 20000 velocity nodes [fr

  17. Patterning of neighbourhood food outlets and longitudinal associations with children's eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Leech, Rebecca M; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2018-06-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between typologies of neighbourhood food environment and dietary patterns among 10-12 year-old children. Baseline data were collected in 2003 and follow-up data in 2006 from children in Melbourne or Geelong. Parents completed a food frequency questionnaire at both time points. 'Healthful' and 'energy-dense' dietary pattern scores were computed. A Geographic Information System was used to determine the presence or absence of food outlets (cafés/restaurant; fast food; supermarkets/grocery stores; convenience store; greengrocer; and butcher, seafood or poultry retailer) within an 800 m road network buffer of home. Three typologies were identified: 1-variety of food outlets, including those selling core/fresh foods (n = 96); 2-café/restaurant and convenience (n = 160); 3-few types of outlets (n = 208). Latent class analysis was used to identify underlying unobservable typologies of neighbourhood food outlet availability. Linear mixed models were fitted to determine cross-sectional (n = 439) and longitudinal (n = 173) associations between the three identified neighbourhood typologies and each (log-transformed) dietary pattern, accounting for clustering within families and schools. There was little evidence of cross-sectional associations. The longitudinal analyses showed that compared to those with a variety of food outlets, those with few types had 25% lower scores for the healthful dietary pattern (p < 0.05) three years later. For optimal dietary patterns, availability of a variety of food outlets close to home, particularly those where core/fresh foods are available, may be important. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Creys-Malville nuclear plant. Simulation of the cold plenum thermal-hydraulics. 12 zone model presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulot, J.P.

    1990-05-01

    The CRUSIFI code has been developed by SEPTEN (Engineering and Construction Division) with SICLE software during 1983-1985 in order to study the CREYS-MALVILLE dynamic behavior. At the time, the version was based on project data (version 2.3). It includes a 2 zones model for the cold plenum thermal-hydraulics, modelling which does not allow to reproduce accurately dissymetries apt to occur as well in usual operating (hydraulic dissymetries bound to one or many systems out of order), as during incidentally operating (hydraulic dissymetries bound to primary pump working back or thermal dissymetries after a transient on one or many secondary loops). Moreover, a 2 zones model cannot simulate axial temperature gradients which appear during double stratification phenomenon (upper and lower part of the plenum) produced by alternating thermal shock. A 12 zones model (4 sectors with 3 axial zones each) such as model developed by R$DD (Research and Development Division) allows to satisfy correctly these problems. This report is a specification of the chosen modelling. This model is now operational after qualifying with experimental transients on mockup and reactor. It is to-day connected with the EDF general operating code CRUSIFI (calibrating version 3.0). It could be easily integrated in a four loops plant modelling such as the CREYS-MALVILLE simulator in a four loops plant modelling such as the CREYS-MALVILLE simulator under construction at the present time by THOMSON

  19. RELAP/MOD3.2 Assessment Using an 11% Upper Plenum Break Experiment in the PSB Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayless, P.D.

    2003-01-17

    The RELAP/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed using an 11% upper plenum break experiment in the PSB test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center. This work was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's International Nuclear Safety Program, and is part of the effort addressing the capability of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to model transients in Soviet-designed reactors. Designated VVER Standard Problem PSBV1, the test addressed several important phenomena related to VVER behavior that the code needs to simulate well. The code was judged to reasonably model the phenomena of two-phase flow natural circulation in the primary coolant system, asymmetric loop behavior, leak flow, loop seal clearance in the cold legs, heat transfer in a covered core, heat transfer in a partially covered core, pressurizer thermal-hydraulics, and integral system effects. The code was judged to be in minimal agreement with the experiment data for the mixture level and entrainment in the core, leading to a user recommendation to assess the sensitivity of transient calculations to the interphase drag modeling in the core. No judgments were made for the phenomena of phase separation without mixture level formation, mixture level and entrainment in the steam generators, pool formation in the upper plenum, or flow stratification in horizontal pipes because either the phenomenon did not occur in the test or there were insufficient measurements to characterize the behavior.

  20. RELAP/MOD3.2 Assessment Using an 11% Upper Plenum Break Experiment in the PSB Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    The RELAP/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed using an 11% upper plenum break experiment in the PSB test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center. This work was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's International Nuclear Safety Program, and is part of the effort addressing the capability of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to model transients in Soviet-designed reactors. Designated VVER Standard Problem PSBV1, the test addressed several important phenomena related to VVER behavior that the code needs to simulate well. The code was judged to reasonably model the phenomena of two-phase flow natural circulation in the primary coolant system, asymmetric loop behavior, leak flow, loop seal clearance in the cold legs, heat transfer in a covered core, heat transfer in a partially covered core, pressurizer thermal-hydraulics, and integral system effects. The code was judged to be in minimal agreement with the experiment data for the mixture level and entrainment in the core, leading to a user recommendation to assess the sensitivity of transient calculations to the interphase drag modeling in the core. No judgments were made for the phenomena of phase separation without mixture level formation, mixture level and entrainment in the steam generators, pool formation in the upper plenum, or flow stratification in horizontal pipes because either the phenomenon did not occur in the test or there were insufficient measurements to characterize the behavior

  1. RELAP-5/MOD 3.2 Assessment Using an 11% Upper Plenum Break Experiment in the PSB Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Bayless

    2003-01-01

    The RELAP/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed using an 11% upper plenum break experiment in the PSB test facility at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center. This work was performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's International Nuclear Safety Program, and is part of the effort addressing the capability of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to model transients in Soviet-designed reactors. Designated VVER Standard Problem PSBV1, the test addressed several important phenomena related to VVER behavior that the code needs to simulate well. The code was judged to reasonably model the phenomena of two-phase flow natural circulation in the primary coolant system, asymmetric loop behavior, leak flow, loop seal clearance in the cold legs, heat transfer in a covered core, heat transfer in a partially covered core, pressurizer thermal-hydraulics, and integral system effects. The code was judged to be in minimal agreement with the experiment data for the mixture level and entrainment in the core, leading to a user recommendation to assess the sensitivity of transient calculations to the interphase drag modeling in the core. No judgments were made for the phenomena of phase separation without mixture level formation, mixture level and entrainment in the steam generators, pool formation in the upper plenum, or flow stratification in horizontal pipes because either the phenomenon did not occur in the test or there were insufficient measurements to characterize the behavior.

  2. Experimental study on breakup and fragmentation behavior of molten material jet in complicated structure of BWR lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Ryusuke; Abe, Yutaka; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the state of reactor pressure vessel of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, it is important to clarify the breakup and fragmentation of molten material jet in the lower plenum of boiling water reactor (BWR) by a numerical simulation. To clarify the effects of complicated structures on the jet behavior experimentally and validate the simulation code, we conduct the visualized experiments simulating the severe accident in the BWR lower plenum. In this study, jet breakup, fragmentation and surrounding velocity profiles of the jet were observed by the backlight method and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. From experimental results using the backlight method, it was clarified that jet tip velocity depends on the conditions whether complicated structures exist or not and also clarified that the structures prevent the core of the jet from expanding. From measurements by the PIV method, the surrounding velocity profiles of the jet in the complicated structures were relatively larger than the condition without structure. Finally, fragment diameters measured in the present study well agree with the theory suggested by Kataoka and Ishii by changing the coefficient term. Thus, it was suggested that the fragmentation mechanism was mainly controlled by shearing stress. (author)

  3. Operativ behandling af thoracic outlet syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Peter; Stiasny, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    of the brachial plexus. At surgery, we found and severed a fibrous band that compressed the inferior trunk. Postoperatively, the pain subsided and fine hand movements improved. One patient had no cervical rib, however, in the two other cases we found rudimentary cervical ribs. Magnetic resonance imaging......We present three cases with longstanding true neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. All patients had aching pain in the shoulder, arm and ulnar border of the hand. On examination, we found atrophy of the hand muscles. Electromyography revealed signs of compromised function of the inferior trunk...

  4. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of thoracic outlet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik Gustaw

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The superior thoracic aperture is a place particularly vulnerable to the occurrence of tissue conflict and the development of a number of neurovascular changes carrying a risk of upper limb dysfunction. The triggering factor in this case is the pressure on the nerve vascular elements brought about by too large muscles of the chest and neck, clavicle fracture and dislocation of the upper ribs, anomalies in the form of ribs, in the neck, or by apex of the lung tumors. Each anatomical anomaly may be a cause of a number of lesions and lead to the development of the disease. Due to the nature of the oppressed structures, there are two basic groups: neurogenic and vascular. The most common variant giving clinical symptoms is neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. In this, the compression ratio, the brachial plexus, and for this reason, the vascular surface of the upper limb dysfunction is often overlooked. However, the vascular variant, and especially arterial sub-variant, is very dangerous because it can give complications even in the form of aneurysms, and even upper limb ischemia. The aim of the study is to present the most common changes in the thoracic outlet causing functional disorders of the upper limb.

  5. Temperature measurements at the LMFBR core outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argous, J.P.; Berger, R.; Casejuane, R.; Fournier, C.; Girard, J.P.

    1980-04-01

    Over the last few years the temperature sensors used to measure the subassembly outlet temperature in French designed LMFBRs have been modified, basically in an effort to reduce the dispersion of the chromel-alumel thermocouple time constant, and to extend the frequency spectrum of the measurement signals by adding a steel electrode to from a stainless steel-sodium thermocouple. The result of this evolution is the temperature probe immersed in sodium which will be used in the SUPER PHENIX reactor. This paper describes the tests already completed or in progress on this probe. It also presents measurement data on the two basic probe parameters: the thermoelectric power of the stainless steel-sodium thermocouple and the time constant of the chromel-alumel thermocouple

  6. Electrical Power Quality - What's Behind the Outlet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford

    2017-09-01

    Although we may consider the power outlets in our homes to be nearly ideal voltage sources, a variety of influences in and around the home can cause departures from the nominal 60 Hz, 110-120 V root-mean-square (rms) of the North American grid. Even without instrumentation, we can see that a large motor starting from rest can be sufficient to cause lights to dim momentarily (voltage sag). This dimming is due to the inrush current drawn by a stationary motor, which may be several times the current drawn at operating speed. We prepared a voltage monitoring system using a voltage divider, the construction details of which we omit in the interest of safety.

  7. Fundamental validation of simulation method for thermal stratification in upper plenum of fast reactors. Analysis of sodium experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Shuji; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Sugahara, Akihiro; Ohki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analyses have been carried out for a sodium experiment in a relatively simple axis-symmetric geometry using a commercial CFD code in order to validate simulating methods for thermal stratification behavior in an upper plenum of sodium-cooled fast reactor. Detailed comparison between simulated results and experimental measurement has demonstrated that the code reproduced fairly well the fundamental thermal stratification behaviors such as vertical temperature gradient and upward movement of a stratification interface when utilizing high-order discretization scheme and appropriate mesh size. Furthermore, the investigation has clarified the influence of RANS type turbulence models on phenomena predictability; i.e. the standard k-ε model, the RNG k-ε model and the Reynolds Stress Model. (author)

  8. Estimate of LOCA-FI plenum pressure uncertainty for a five-ring RELAP5 production reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griggs, D.P.

    1993-03-01

    The RELAP5/MOD2.5 code (RELAP5) is used to perform best-estimate analyses of certain postulated Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) in SRS production reactors. Currently, the most limiting DBA in terms of reactor power level is an instantaneous double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) loss of coolant accident (LOCA). A six-loop RELAP5 K Reactor model is used to analyze the reactor system behavior dozing the Flow Instability (FI) phase of the LOCA, which comprises only the first 5 seconds following the DEGB. The RELAP5 K Reactor model includes tank and plenum nodalizations having five radial rings and six azimuthal sectors. The reactor system analysis provides time-dependent plenum and tank bottom pressures for use as boundary conditions in the FLOWTRAN code, which models a single fuel assembly in detail. RELAP5 also performs the system analysis for the latter phase of the LOCA, denoted the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase. Results from the RELAP analysis are used to provide boundary conditions to the FLOWTRAN-TF code, which is an advanced two-phase version of FLOWTRAN. The RELAP5 K Reactor model has been tested for LOCA-FI and Loss-of-Pumping Accident analyses and the results compared with equivalent analyses performed with the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 code (TRAC). An equivalent RELAP5 six-loop, five-ring, six-sector L Reactor model has been benchmarked against qualified single-phase system data from the 1989 L-Area In-Reactor Test Program. The RELAP5 K and L Reactor models have also been subjected to an independent Quality Assurance verification

  9. CFD Analysis on a Core Outlet Flow through the Fuel Alignment Plant of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. I.; Bae, Y. M.; Kim, K. K.

    2014-01-01

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations were performed to confirm the core flow distribution for SMART, which acquired standard design approval in 2012. In this paper, CFD simulation is also used to calculate the pressure distribution of a core outlet, a Fuel Alignment Plate (FAP), for SMART. In SMART, the fluid discharged from the Steam Generator comes into a Flow Mixing Header Assembly (FMHA), and is rearranged and split into a very fine size. The FMHA is greatly important for enhancing the flow distribution of a downcomer during a normal operation, transient, and even accidents. Then, the fluid discharged from the FMHA flows into the core upstream through flow skirt holes. The Low Core Support Plate (LCSP) reallocates the flow introducing into the inlet core from the core upstream. The deviation of flow distribution becomes smaller or almost disappears by LCSP holes having relatively large loss coefficient compared to the downstream flow deviation. In an open core, the flow deviation at the core inlet region is diminished by cross flow as it goes upward. Near the core outlet, the flow distribution can be distorted by the influence of a Fuel Alignment Plate (FAP) installed above the fuels. In this paper, the effect of the core outlet flow structure such as the FAP holes of SMART is investigated. Before the calculation, the influences of mesh size and turbulence models are inspected. CFD simulations were performed to investigate the effect of FAP flow holes on the core outlet flow of SMART. As a preliminary study, the dependency of the mesh size and turbulence models was tested; a fine grid was applied, the effect of which is negligible, and the core outlet flow is not sensitive to the turbulence models. In brief, the flow resistance of FAP is less than 15% of that of the fuel assemblies. The flow resistance deviation between two flow path patterns is less than 1% of that of active core. Even two flow path patterns located at the downstream location of the

  10. Benign Strictures of the Esophagus and Gastric Outlet: Interventional Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho Young [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Benign strictures of the esophagus and gastric outlet are difficult to manage conservatively and they usually require intervention to relieve dysphagia or to treat the stricture-related complications. In this article, authors review the non-surgical options that are used to treat benign strictures of the esophagus and gastric outlet, including balloon dilation, temporary stent placement, intralesional steroid injection and incisional therapy

  11. Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Duodenal Lipoma in an Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Duodenal Lipoma in an Adult. ... Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Although, peptic ulcer disease remains the most common benign cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), duodenal lipomas remain a rare, but possible cause of GOO and could pose a diagnostic challenge, especially in ...

  12. Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case report and review of literature. ... Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center; we, therefore, present this case to describe the challenges faced with diagnosis, treatment, ...

  13. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  14. Off-premise alcohol outlet characteristics and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Aleksandra J; Pridemore, William Alex

    2014-07-01

    There is considerable evidence of an association between alcohol outlet density and violence. Although prior research reveals the importance of specific characteristics of bars on this association and that the relationship between bar density and violence may be moderated by these characteristics, there are few similar studies of the characteristics of off-premise outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores). We examined whether immediate environment, business practice, staff, and patron characteristics of off-premise alcohol outlets are associated with simple and aggravated assault density. Cross-sectional design using aggregate data from 65 census block groups in a non-metropolitan college town, systematic social observation, and spatial modeling techniques. We found limited effects of immediate environment, business practice, staff, and patron characteristics on simple assault density and no effect on aggravated assault density. Only two out of 17 characteristics were associated with simple assault density (i.e., nearby library and male patrons). This is the first study to examine the association between several off-premise alcohol outlet characteristics and assault. Our findings suggest that where the off-premise outlets are located, how well the immediate environment is maintained, what types of beverages the outlets sell, who visits them, and who works there matter little in their association with violence. This suggests the importance of outlet density itself as a primary driver of any association with violence. Public policies aimed at reducing alcohol outlet density or clustering may be useful for reducing violence.

  15. Ectopic Pancreas Causing Partial Gastric Outlet Obstruction: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction, perhaps rarer still among Africans. Although the entity is known, the diagnostic challenges are enormous, especially in the poor‑resource environment. Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center;.

  16. 2D/3D program. Upper plenum test facility - UPTF. Test No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Test No.1 was a quasi-steady state, separate effect test involving the UPTF-System with blocked break valves and blocked pump simulators. Initially the test vessel, the cold and hot leg nozzels as well as the pump seals were completely filled witht hot water in this test. This test was designed to investigate the fluid-fluid mixing phenomena and the development of the fluid and wall temperature fields in the cold leg and downcomer region of a PWR. The experiment was performed by injecting a cold water stream into one cold leg of UPTF while the system was initially filled with stagnant hot water. (orig.)

  17. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan, William K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alcohol is more likely than any other drug to be involved in substance-related violence. In 2000 violence-related and self-directed injuries accounted for an estimated $37 billion and $33 billion in productivity losses and medical treatment, respectively. A review of emergency department data revealed violence and clinically identified trauma-related injuries have the strongest correlation among alcohol-dependent injuries. At the environmental level there is a relationship between alcohol outlet density and violent crime. A limited number of studies have examined the relationship between alcohol outlet type and the components of violent crime. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the aggregate components of violent crime and alcohol outlet density by type of outlet.Methods: For this study we used Washington, D.C. census tract data from the 2000 census to examine neighborhood characteristics. Alcohol outlet, violent crime, and population-level data for Washington, D.C. were drawn from various official yet publicly available sources. We developed an analytic database to examine the relationship between alcohol outlet category and four types of violent crime. After estimating spatial correlation and determining spatial dependence, we used a negative binomial regression analysis to assess the alcohol availability-violent crime association, while controlling for structural correlates of violence.Results: Independent of alternative structural correlates of violent crime, including the prevalence of weapons and illicit drugs, community-level alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with assaultive violence. Outlets were significantly related to robbery, assault, and sexual offenses. In addition, the relationship among on-premise and off-premise outlets varied across violent crime categories.Conclusion: In Washington, D.C., alcohol outlet density is significantly associated with the violent crimes. The

  18. The geography of Fast Food outlets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberly L; Cade, Janet; Clarke, Graham P

    2010-05-01

    The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF) or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  19. The Geography of Fast Food Outlets: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna K. Fraser

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The availability of food high in fat, salt and sugar through Fast Food (FF or takeaway outlets, is implicated in the causal pathway for the obesity epidemic. This review aims to summarise this body of research and highlight areas for future work. Thirty three studies were found that had assessed the geography of these outlets. Fourteen studies showed a positive association between availability of FF outlets and increasing deprivation. Another 13 studies also included overweight or obesity data and showed conflicting results between obesity/overweight and FF outlet availability. There is some evidence that FF availability is associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake. There is potential for land use policies to have an influence on the location of new FF outlets. Further research should incorporate good quality data on FF consumption, weight and physical activity.

  20. Map-based prediction of organic carbon in headwater streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temnerud, J.; von Brömssen, C.; Fölster, J.; Buffam, I.; Andersson, J.-O.; Nyberg, L.; Bishop, K.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the great abundance and ecological importance of headwater streams, managers are usually limited by a lack of information about water chemistry in these headwaters. In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the prediction of the chemistry of upstream headwaters (size interquartile range (IQR)) of headwater stream TOC for a given catchment, based on a large number of candidate variables including sub-catchment characteristics from GIS, and measured river chemistry at the catchment outlet. The best candidate variables from the PLS models were then used in hierarchical linear mixed models (MM) to model TOC in individual headwater streams. Three predictor variables were consistently selected for the MM calibration sets: (1) proportion of forested wetlands in the sub-catchment (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC), (2) proportion of lake surface cover in the sub-catchment (negatively correlated with headwater stream TOC), and (3) river outlet TOC (positively correlated with headwater stream TOC). Including river outlet TOC improved predictions, with 5-15 % lower prediction errors than when using map information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offer information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwater stream chemistry.

  1. MRI findings in thoracic outlet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aralasmak, Ayse; Sharifov, Rasul; Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay [Bezmialem Vakif University, Department of Radiology, Fatih/Istanbul (Turkey); Cevikol, Can; Karaali, Kamil; Senol, Utku [Akdeniz University, Department of Radiology, Antalya (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    We discuss MRI findings in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). A total of 100 neurovascular bundles were evaluated in the interscalene triangle (IS), costoclavicular (CC), and retropectoralis minor (RPM) spaces. To exclude neurogenic abnormality, MRIs of the cervical spine and brachial plexus (BPL) were obtained in neutral. To exclude compression on neurovascular bundles, sagittal T1W images were obtained vertical to the longitudinal axis of BPL from spinal cord to the medial part of the humerus, in abduction and neutral. To exclude vascular TOS, MR angiography (MRA) and venography (MRV) of the subclavian artery (SA) and vein (SV) in abduction were obtained. If there is compression on the vessels, MRA and MRV of the subclavian vessels were repeated in neutral. Seventy-one neurovascular bundles were found to be abnormal: 16 arterial-venous-neurogenic, 20 neurogenic, 1 arterial, 15 venous, 8 arterial-venous, 3 arterial-neurogenic, and 8 venous-neurogenic TOS. Overall, neurogenic TOS was noted in 69%, venous TOS in 66%, and arterial TOS in 39%. The neurovascular bundle was most commonly compressed in the CC, mostly secondary to position, and very rarely compressed in the RPM. The cause of TOS was congenital bone variations in 36%, congenital fibromuscular anomalies in 11%, and position in 53%. In 5%, there was unilateral brachial plexitis in addition to compression of the neurovascular bundle. Severe cervical spondylosis was noted in 14%, contributing to TOS symptoms. For evaluation of patients with TOS, visualization of the brachial plexus and cervical spine and dynamic evaluation of neurovascular bundles in the cervicothoracobrachial region are mandatory. (orig.)

  2. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  3. Transient Air-Water Flow and Air Demand following an Opening Outlet Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, the dam-safety guidelines call for an overhaul of many existing bottom outlets. During the opening of an outlet gate, understanding the transient air-water flow is essential for its safe operation, especially under submerged tailwater conditions. Three-dimensional CFD simulations are undertaken to examine air-water flow behaviors at both free and submerged outflows. The gate, hoisted by wire ropes and powered by AC, opens at a constant speed. A mesh is adapted to follow the gate movement. At the free outflow, the CFD simulations and model tests agree well in terms of outlet discharge capacity. Larger air vents lead to more air supply; the increment becomes, however, limited if the vent area is larger than 10 m2. At the submerged outflow, a hydraulic jump builds up in the conduit when the gate reaches approximately 45% of its full opening. The discharge is affected by the tailwater and slightly by the flow with the hydraulic jump. The flow features strong turbulent mixing of air and water, with build-up and break-up of air pockets and collisions of defragmented water bodies. The air demand rate is several times as much as required by steady-state hydraulic jump with free surface.

  4. Analysis of turbulent natural convection heat transfer in a lower plenum during external cooling using the COSMO code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, H.; Sawatari, Y.; Imada, T.

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of a large volumetrically heated melt pool is important to evaluate the feasibility of in-vessel retention by external flooding as an accident management. The COSMO (Coolability Simulation of Molten corium during severe accident) code has been developed at NUPEC to simulate turbulent natural convection heat transfer with internal heat source. The COSMO code solves thermal hydraulic conservation equations with turbulent model and can simulate melting and solidification process. The standard k-ε model has a limitation to describe the turbulent natural convection in the very high Rayleigh number condition (10 16 -10 17 ) assumed to occur in a lower plenum of RPV during a severe accident. This limitation results from the assumption of an analogy of momentum and energy transfer phenomena in the standard model. In this paper the modified turbulent model in which the turbulent number is treated, as a function of the flux Richardson number derived from the experiment, has been incorporated and verified by using the BALI experiments. It was found that the prediction of averaged Nusselt number became better than that of the standard model. In order to extend the COSMO code to the actual scale analysis under the external flooding conditions, more realistic boundary condition derived from the experiments should be treated. In this work the CHF correlation from ULPU experiment or the heat transfer coefficient correlation from CYBL experiment have been applied. The preliminary analysis of an actual scale analysis has been carried out under the condition of the TMI-2 accident. (author)

  5. Experimental system description for air-water CCFL tests of the 161-rod FLECHT-SEASET test vessel upper plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogdall, S.P.; Anderson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    A series of countercurrent flow limiting (CCFL) experiments has been performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. in the Steam-Air-Water (SAW) test facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on behalf of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Tests were performed in a mockup of the vessel for the 161-Rod Systems Effects Test (SET) facility of the FLECHT-SEASET program, conducted by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Westinghouse and the NRC will use the test results to provide a CCFL correlation to predict the flooding behavior in the upper plenum of the SET vessel. This paper presents a description of the experimental system and the test conduct, including data validation and uncertainty analysis. The test objectives centered on experimentally obtaining coefficients in the Wallis correlation for flooding with the specific vessel geometry. The test conditions and vessel configuration are described and the design of the test loop, instrumentation, and data acquisition are discussed. The establishment of a test point and the resultant data are described

  6. Simulation and uncertainties of the heat transfer from a heat-generating DEBRIS bed in the lower plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, K.; Trambauer, K.

    1999-01-01

    The findings of the TMI-2 post-accident analyses indicated that internal cooling mechanisms may have a considerable potential to sustain the vessel integrity after a relocation of core material to the lower plenum, provided that water is continuously available in the RPV. Numerous analytical and experimental research activities are currently underway in this respect. This paper illustrates some major findings of the experimental work on internal cooling mechanisms and describes the limitations and the uncertainties in the simulation of the heat transfer processes. Reference is made especially to the joint German DEBRIS/ RPV research program, which encompasses the experimental investigation of the thermal-hydraulics in gaps, of the heat transfer within a particulate debris bed, and of the high temperature performance of vessel steel, as well as the development of simulation models for the heat transfer in the lower head and the structural response of the RPV. In particular, the results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are presented, which have been carried out at GRS using an integral model that describes the major phenomena governing the long-term integrity of the reactor vessel. The investigation of a large-scale relocation indicated that the verification of a gap cooling mechanism as an inherent mechanism is questionable in terms of a stringent probabilistic uncertainty criterion, as long as the formation of a large molten pool cannot be excluded. (author)

  7. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Pyy, L.; Telkkae, J.

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn't be

  8. 7 CFR 993.108 - Non-human consumption outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption outlet means any livestock feeder or manufacturer of inedible syrup, industrial alcohol, animal... FR 8278, Sept. 2, 1961; 26 FR 8483, Sept. 9, 1961] Effective Date Note: At 70 FR 30613, May 27, 2005...

  9. Methodological Approaches to Locating Outlets of the Franchise Retail Network

    OpenAIRE

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-01-01

    Methodical approaches to selecting strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets are presented. The main stages in the assessment of strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets have been determined and the evaluation criteria have been suggested. Since such selection requires consideration of a variety of indicators and directions of the assessment, the author proposes a scale of evaluation, which ...

  10. Issues of Exercising the Right to Defence amid the Explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Voltornist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the explanations of the Plenum of the Supreme Court No. 29 dated June 30, 2015 “On application of laws by the courts ensuring the right to defense in criminal proceedings”. The author details the applied aspects of certain provisions of the aforementioned document within the criminal procedure legislation and estimates their significance for the judicial and investigative practice

  11. Study on in-vessel thermohydraulics phenomena of sodium-cooled fast reactors. 3. Numerical investigation for thermal stratification phenomena in the upper plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2002-06-01

    A large-scale sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor in the feasibility studies on commercialized fast reactors has a feature of consideration of thorough simplified and compacted systems and components design to realize drastic economical improvements. Therefore, special attentions should be paid to thermohydraulic designs for gas entrainment behavior from free surface, flow-induced vibration of in-vessel components, thermal stratification in the plenum, thermal shock for various structures due to high-speed coolant flows, nonsymmetrical coolant flows, etc. in the reactor vessel. In-vessel thermohydraulic analyses were carried out using a multi-dimensional code AQUA to understand the thermal stratification characteristics in the upper plenum, and to investigate trade-off relations between gas entrainment and thermal stratification phenomena on in-vessel structures for the elimination of gas entrainment possibility. From the analysis, the following results were obtained. (1) Dummy plug insertion to a slit of the upper core structure is one of the effective measures to stabilize the in-vessel flow patterns and to mitigate in-vessel thermal shocks. (2) Though flow guide device such as a baffle ring attached to reactor vessel wall is an effective measure to eliminate impinging jet to dipped plate, rising characteristics of the thermal stratification interface are affected by the baffle ring devise. (3) Thermal stratification characteristics are not influenced very much by the installation of a partial inner barrel to the dipped plate, which is an effective measure to reduce the horizontal flow velocity components at free surface. (4) Labyrinth structures to the gap between the reactor vessel wall and the outer dipped plate have direct effects upon in-vessel thermal shock characteristics including thermal stratification phenomena due to the closing of flow path between the upper plenum and the free surface plenum. (author)

  12. Reflooding phenomena of German PWR estimated from CCTF [Cylindrical Core Test Facility], SCTF [Slab Core Test Facility] and UPTF [Upper Plenum Test Facility] results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Y.; Iguchi, T.; Sugimoto, J.

    1988-09-01

    The reflooding behavior in a PWR with a combined injection type ECCS was studied by comparing the test results from Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF), Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) and Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). Core thermal-hydraulics is discussed mainly based on SCTF test data. In addition, the water accumulation behavior in hot legs and the break-through characteristics at tie plate are discussed

  13. The 3D thermal-hydraulic numerical simulation for the fuel zone outlet of China experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Xiuli; Yang Hongyi; Yang Fuchang

    2008-01-01

    Detailed 3D thermal-hydraulic numerical analyses to the fuel zone outlet are actualized with the STAR-CD CFD code. The performance of sodium mixing is studied and detailed velocity and temperature distribution are obtained in this region which will offer foundations and references to study the rationality of temperature monitoring-spot arrangement and to assess the effect of temperature fluctuations to control rod guide tubes in this region, and so on. (authors)

  14. Analysis of turbulent natural convection heat transfer in a lower plenum during external cooling using the COSMO code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, H. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sawatari, Y.; Imada, T. [Fuji Research Institute Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-01

    The behavior of a large volumetrically heated melt pool is important to evaluate the feasibility of in-vessel retention by external flooding as an accident management. The COSMO (Coolability Simulation of Molten corium during severe accident) code has been developed at NUPEC to simulate turbulent natural convection heat transfer with internal heat source. The COSMO code solves thermal hydraulic conservation equations with turbulent model and can simulate melting and solidification process. The standard k-{epsilon} model has a limitation to describe the turbulent natural convection in the very high Rayleigh number condition (10{sup 16}-10{sup 17}) assumed to occur in a lower plenum of RPV during a severe accident. This limitation results from the assumption of an analogy of momentum and energy transfer phenomena in the standard model. In this paper the modified turbulent model in which the turbulent number is treated, as a function of the flux Richardson number derived from the experiment, has been incorporated and verified by using the BALI experiments. It was found that the prediction of averaged Nusselt number became better than that of the standard model. In order to extend the COSMO code to the actual scale analysis under the external flooding conditions, more realistic boundary condition derived from the experiments should be treated. In this work the CHF correlation from ULPU experiment or the heat transfer coefficient correlation from CYBL experiment have been applied. The preliminary analysis of an actual scale analysis has been carried out under the condition of the TMI-2 accident. (author)

  15. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laranjeira Ronaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.

  16. A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael

    2011-05-01

    A small number of studies have identified a positive relationship between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence. These studies have all been based on cross-sectional data and have been limited to the assessment of ecological correlations between outlet density and domestic violence rates. This study provides the first longitudinal examination of this relationship. Cross-sectional time-series using aggregated data from small areas. The relationships between alcohol outlet density and domestic violence were assessed over time using a fixed-effects model. Controls for the spatial autocorrelation of the data were included in the model. The study uses data for 186 postcodes from within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia for the years 1996 to 2005. Alcohol outlet density measures for three different types of outlets (hotel/pub, packaged liquor, on-premise) were derived from liquor licensing records and domestic violence rates were calculated from police-recorded crime data, based on the victim's postcode. Alcohol outlet density was associated significantly with rates of domestic violence, over time. All three licence categories were positively associated with domestic violence rates, with small effects for general (pub) and on-premise licences and a large effect for packaged liquor licences. In Melbourne, the density of liquor licences is positively associated with rates of domestic violence over time. The effects were particularly large for packaged liquor outlets, suggesting a need for licensing policies that pay more attention to o off-premise alcohol availability. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Simulation of a proposed emergency outlet from Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2002-01-01

    each compartment. The storage compartments--five for Devils Lake and one for Stump Lake--were connected by bridge openings, culverts, or natural channels that restricted mixing between compartments. A numerical algorithm was developed to calculate inflow and outflow from each compartment. Sulfate loads for the storage compartments first were calculated using the assumptions that no interaction occurred between the bottom sediments and the water column and no wind- or buoyancy-induced mixing occurred between compartments. However, because the fitted sulfate loads did not agree with the estimated sulfate loads, which were obtained from recorded sulfate concentrations, components were added to the sulfate mass-balance model to account for the flux of sulfate between bottom sediments and the lake and for mixing between storage compartments. Mixing between compartments can occur during periods of open water because of wind and during periods of ice cover because of water-density differences between compartments. Sulfate loads calculated using the sulfate mass-balance model with sediment interaction and mixing between compartments closely matched sulfate loads computed from historical concentrations. The water and sulfate mass-balance models were used to calculate potential future lake levels and sulfate concentrations for Devils Lake and Stump Lake given potential future values of monthly precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Potential future inputs were generated using a scenario approach and a stochastic approach. In the scenario approach, historical values of precipitation, evaporation, and inflow were repeated in the future for a particular sequence of historical years. In the stochastic approach, a statistical time-series model was developed to randomly generate potential future inputs. The scenario approach was used to evaluate the effectiveness of various outlet alternatives, and the stochastic approach was used to evaluate the hydrologic and water

  18. The Role at Rehabilitation in Treatment of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hosseinian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thoracic outlet syndrome is a complex disorder caused by neurovascular irritation in the region of the thoracic outlet. The syndrome have been said to be mainly due to anomalous structures in the thoracic outlet, treatment for thoracic outlet syndrome varies among different institutions, and there has not been any standard program. In general conservative and surgical treatment can be do if necessary. Materials & Methods: The rehabilitation program consists of exercise and physiotherapy and brace designed to hold the posture in which thoracic outlet is enlarged. Exercise program was designed simple enough to be performed in the daily living or during work after minimal training and isometric exercises of Serratus anterior, Levator Scapulae and Erector Spinae muscles to be performed in one posture: flexion and elevation of scapular girdle and correction position of upper-thoracic spine. During 7 years, 131 cases of (T.O.S. were evaluated that 26 cases (20% have operated and 84 cases (64% have treated with conservative treatment and 21 cases (16% have been candidate for surgery but they didn't accepted. Results: All of the cases have treated with conservative treatment for four months. 84 cases responded well and no further treatment was needed. 47 cases were not satisfied with. The outcome of their treatment, that 26 cases have operated and 21 cases have not accepted the operation and continued the conservative treatment, they have had pain and slightly disability. 23 cases of operated group responded well and they have resumed to work, one case has had neuropraxia for about one year. Conclusion: Most cases of thoracic outlet syndrome (T.O.S. can be treated conservatively. Surgically treatment is indicated only in cases severe enough to make them disable to work. It is better all the patients undergo conservative treatment for at least four months then will decided for surgical treatment.

  19. Numerical investigation of the coolant mixing during fast deboration transients for VVER-440 type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, T.; Rhode, U.

    2000-01-01

    The VVER-440 (440 MW) V-230 was considered for analyzing the flow field and mixing processes. The V-230 has no elliptical sieve plate in the lower plenum. Previously, the 3D flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of the VVER-440 reactor have been calculated by means of the CFD code CFX-4 for operational conditions. The CFX-calculations were compared with the experimental data and the analytical mixing model. In this paper, CFD calculations for the start-up of the first main coolant pump in a VVER-440 type reactor are reported about. This scenario is important in case that there is a plug of lower borated water in one of the primary coolant loops. (orig.)

  20. Correlation of Steam Generator Mixing Parameters for Severe Accident Hot-Leg Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yehong; Guentay, Salih [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, CH-5232 (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Steam generator inlet plenum mixing phenomenon with hot-leg counter-current natural circulation during a PWR station blackout severe accident is one of the important processes governing which component will fail first as a result of thermal challenge from the circulating gas with high temperature and pressure. Since steam generator tube failure represents bypass release of fission product from the reactor to environment, study of inlet plenum mixing parameters is important to risk analysis. Probability distribution functions of individual mixing parameter should be obtained from experiments or calculated by analysis. In order to perform sensitivity studies of the synergetic effects of all mixing parameters on the severe accident-induced steam generator tube failure, the distribution and correlation of these mixing parameters must be known to remove undue conservatism in thermal-hydraulic calculations. This paper discusses physical laws governing three mixing parameters in a steady state and setups the correlation among these mixing parameters. The correlation is then applied to obtain the distribution of one of the mixing parameters that has not been given in the previous CFD analysis. Using the distributions and considering the inter-dependence of the three mixing parameters, three sensitivity cases enveloping the mixing parameter uncertainties are recommended for the plant analysis. (authors)

  1. Using marine sediment archives to reconstruct past outlet glacier variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Camilla Snowman; Straneo, Fiamma; Ribergaard, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Ice-rafted debris in fjord sediment cores provides information about outlet glacier activity beyond the instrumental time period. It tells us that the Helheim Glacier, Greenland’s third most productive glacier, responds rapidly to short-term (3 to 10 years) climate changes....

  2. Gas pressure in bubble attached to tube circular outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, A; Gay, Cyprien; Maestro, A; Drenckhan, W; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    In the present Supplementary notes to our work ``Arresting bubble coarsening: A two-bubble experiment to investigate grain growth in presence of surface elasticity'' (accepted in EPL), we derive the expression of the gas pressure inside a bubble located above and attached to the circular outlet of a vertical tube.

  3. Gastrojejunostomy for gastric outlet obstruction in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty patients were discharged from hospital having resumed normal eating. Their median survival after surgery was 9 months. Conclusion. Gastrojejunostomy offers worthwhile palliation and may prolong survival in a significant group of patients with irresectable gastric carcinoma and gastric outlet obstruction. South African ...

  4. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v...

  5. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.; Breward, C. J. W.; Howell, P. D.; Oliver, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown

  6. Publication Outlets for School Psychology Faculty: 2010 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulac, David; Johnson, Natalie D.; Ushijima, Shiho C.; Schneider, Maryia M.

    2016-01-01

    Many school psychology faculty are required to publish for purposes of retention and promotion. It is useful to have an understanding of the different outlets for scholarly publications. In the present study, we investigated the peer-reviewed journals in which school psychology faculty were published between 2010 and 2015, the number of articles…

  7. Predictive factors of bladder outlet obstruction following the tension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Elghamrawi

    On the other hand, multivariate analysis indicated that Qmax was the only factor independently related to postoperative bladder outlet obstruction after TVTO (p = 0.002, odds ratio = 0.658, 95% CI for odds ratio 0.507–0.855). Discussion. Stress urinary incontinence defined as the involuntary loss of urine during increases in ...

  8. “Clavicular duplication causing thoracic outlet obstruction”: Unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 22‑year‑old female student reported with features of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome mainly involving C8‑T1 components of the brachial plexus, seemingly originating from involvement in costo‑clavicular space. Radiograph of the shoulder revealed clavicular duplication. Neuro‑physiological studies corroborated the ...

  9. Velocities of antarctic outlet glaciers determined from sequential Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Thomas R.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Lucchitta, Baerbel K.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 91.0 percent of the volume of present-day glacier ice on Earth is in Antarctica; Greenland contains about another 8.3 percent of the volume. Thus, together, these two great ice sheets account for an estimated 99.3 percent of the total. Long-term changes in the volume of glacier ice on our planet are the result of global climate change. Because of the relationship of global ice volume to sea level (± 330 cubic kilometers of glacier ice equals ± 1 millimeter sea level), changes in the mass balance of the antarctic ice sheet are of particular importance.Whether the mass balance of the east and west antarctic ice sheets is positive or negative is not known. Estimates of mass input by total annual precipitation for the continent have been made from scattered meteorological observations (Swithinbank 1985). The magnitude of annual ablation of the ice sheet from calving of outlet glaciers and ice shelves is also not well known. Although the velocities of outlet glaciers can be determined from field measurements during the austral summer,the technique is costly, does not cover a complete annual cycle,and has been applied to just a few glaciers. To increase the number of outlet glaciers in Antarctica for which velocities have been determined and to provide additional data for under-standing the dynamics of the antarctic ice sheets and their response to global climate change, sequential Landsat image of several outlet glaciers were measured.

  10. Improvement of seawater booster pump outlet check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuning; Du Yansong; Huang Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Conventional island seawater booster pump set of QNPC 310 MWe unit are very important in the whole circulating cooling system, and the integrate function of seawater booster pump outlet check valve is the foundation of steady operation of the seawater booster pump set. The article mainly introduce that through the analyses to the reason to the problem that the seawater booster pump outlet check valve of QNPC 310 MWe unit appeared in past years by our team, and considering the influence of operation condition and circumstance, the team improve the seawater booster pump outlet check valve from swing check valve to shuttle check valve which operate more appropriately in the system. By the test of continuous practice, we make further modification to the inner structure of shuttle check valve contrapuntally, and therefore we solve the problem in seawater booster pump outlet check valve fundamentally which has troubled the security of system operation in past years, so we realize the aim of technical improvement and ensure that the system operate in safety and stability. (authors)

  11. Report of an adult with double-outlet right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera E, Ana G; Florez C, Marina; Delgado de B, Jorge A and others

    2001-01-01

    The case of a 22 -year- old woman with a diagnosis of congenital heart disease, N Y H A class I, who complaints palpitations. By echocardiography, angiography and magnetic resonance imaging a diagnosis of double-outlet right ventricle was done. She was intervened for correction, creating an interventricular tunnel connecting the left ventricle to the aorta through the ventricular septal defect

  12. Endoscopic stenting versus operative gastrojejunostomy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasegaram, Manju D; Eslick, Guy D; Mansfield, Clare O; Liem, Han; Richardson, Mark; Ahmed, Sulman; Cox, Michael R

    2012-02-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction represents a terminal stage in pancreatic cancer. Between 5% and 25% of patients with pancreatic cancer ultimately experience malignant gastric outlet obstruction. The aim in palliating patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction is to reestablish an oral intake by restoring gastrointestinal continuity. This ultimately improves their quality of life in the advanced stages of cancer. The main drawback to operative bypass is the high incidence of delayed gastric emptying, particularly in this group of patients with symptomatic obstruction. This study aimed to compare surgical gastrojejunostomy and endoscopic stenting in palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction, acknowledging the diversity and heterogeneity of patients with this presentation. This retrospective study investigated patients treated for malignant gastric outlet obstruction from December 1998 to November 2008 at Nepean Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Endoscopic duodenal stenting was performed under fluoroscopic guidance for placement of the stent. The operative patients underwent open surgical gastrojejunostomy. The outcomes assessed included time to diet, hospital length of stay (LOS), biliary drainage procedures, morbidity, and mortality. Of the 45 participants in this study, 26 underwent duodenal stenting and 19 had operative bypass. Comparing the stenting and operative patients, the median time to fluid intake was respectively 0 vs. 7 days (P < 0.001), and the time to intake of solids was 2 vs. 9 days (P = 0.004). The median total LOS was shorter in the stenting group (11 vs. 25 days; P < 0.001), as was the median postprocedure LOS (5 vs. 10 days; P = 0.07). Endoscopic stenting is preferable to operative gastrojejunostomy in terms of shorter LOS, faster return to fluids and solids, and reduced morbidity and in-hospital mortality for patients with a limited life span.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic mixing in the split-core ANS reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorning, R.J.J.

    1988-01-01

    A design has been proposed for the advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor that incorporates a split core, one purpose of which is to create a mixing plenum between the upper and lower cores. It was hoped that in addition to introducing various desirable neutronics features, such as decreasing the fast neutron flux contamination of thermal and cold neutron beams located in the reactor midplane, this mixing plenum would make possible higher operating powers by lowering the maximum core temperature. This lower temperature was to be achieved as a result of the mixing, of the hot D 2 O coolant exiting the upper-core channels, and the cold D 2 O leaving the large upper core bypass. It was expected that this mixing would bring about a significantly reduced lower core maximum coolant inlet temperature. The authors have carried out large-scale computer calculations to determine the extent to which this mixing occurs in current split-core design geometry, which does not incorporate baffles, mixing devices, or other design features introduced to enhance mixing. The large-scale self-consistent calculations summarized here indicate that innovative design ideas to enhance mixing will be necessary if the split-core concept is to achieve the amount of thermal mixing needed to make possible significantly higher power operation and corresponding higher flux sources

  14. Experimental optimization of temperature distribution in the hot-gas duct through the installation of internals in the hot-gas plenum of a high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henssen, J.; Mauersberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    The flow conditions in the hot-gas plenum and in the adjacent hot-gas ducts and hot-gas pipes for the high-temperature reactor project PNP-1000 (nuclear process heat project for 1000 MW thermal output) have been examined experimentally. The experiments were performed in a closed loop in which the flow model to be analyzed, representing a 60deg sector of the core bottom of the PNP-1000 with connecting hot-gas piping and diverting arrangements, was installed. The model scale was approx. 1:5.6. The temperature and flow velocity distribution in the hot-gas duct was registered by means of 14 dual hot-wire flowmeters. Through structural changes and/or the installation of internals into the hot-gas plenum of the core bottom offering little flow resistance coolant gas temperature differentials produced in the core could be reduced to such an extent that a degree of mixture amounting to over 80% was achieved at the entrance of the connected heat exchanger systems. Thereby the desired goal of an adequate degree of mixture of the hot gas involving an acceptable pressure loss was reached. (orig.)

  15. Characterising and comparing drug-dispensing practices at animal health outlets in the Rift Valley, Kenya: an exploratory analysis (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, L E; Ongeri, W; Asena, K; Thrusfield, M V

    2016-12-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted in the Rift Valley of Kenya to characterise drug-dispensing practices amongst staff at animal health outlets and to explore perceptions of veterinary medicines amongst pastoralists and farmers. Forty structured questionnaires were administered to staff at animal health outlets, including franchise outlets of 'Sidai Africa Ltd.', and two focus group discussions were facilitated to explore the perceptions of local animal health services by a Maasai pastoralist group and a dairy farmer cooperative. Differences were detected in the characteristics of Sidai outlets, agrovets, pharmacies and dukas. A greater proportion of Sidai outlet staff selected drugs based on principles of responsible drug use than staff at other types of outlet, and technical qualifications and training were associated with responsible drug use. Across all outlet types, staff knowledge and training gaps were identified, including in the correct administration of medicines. The majority of drug sales are accompanied by verbal advice to farmers. Members of the Maasai pastoralist group were concerned about accidental self-medication, withdrawal periods, drug residues and the misuse of drugs due to a lack of quality information and advice. The dairy farmer group raised similar concerns, reporting under-dosing as a common mistake amongst farmers. This study concludes that current knowledge, attitudes and practices of many service providers and livestock owners in the sale, purchase and use of veterinary medicines present risks of drug misuse and therefore the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. There is a clear demand from livestock keepers for accessible, affordable and quality animal health services and products in Kenya, and animal health practitioners have the potential to provide increased support to livestock-based livelihoods and act as stewards of our existing portfolio of animal and human medicines.

  16. OPERABILITY RATE OF DISTAL GASTRIC CANCER AND THE EFFECT OF GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN THE OPERABILITY RATE AND POSTOPERATIVE OUTCOME- A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh T. R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stomach cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. 1 Except in countries where screening for stomach cancer is prevalent, most of the distal stomach tumours are diagnosed at advanced stage. Gastric outlet obstruction is usually believed to be a sign of locally-advanced disease. Complete surgical removal of the disease (R0 is the only potentially curative treatment for resectable gastric cancer. The aim of the study is to finda The operability rate of gastric cancer in our institution and the incidence of Gastric Outlet Obstruction (GOO in patients undergoing gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer. b To compare the postoperative outcome in patients with gastric outlet obstruction and those without gastric outlet obstruction. c To see if the histology of the tumour has any role in the development of GOO. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study. The study includes patients who were admitted with carcinoma stomach and underwent operative or nonoperative treatment in our institution during 2013 to 2015. RESULTS Overall operability rate was 45.8%. Operable patients in the GOO group were 47%. Operability in the no outlet obstruction group were 45%. Data shows a slightly increased predilection for GOO in diffuse and mixed type of tumours (statistically not significant. Intestinal tumours had significant rate of anaemia compared to diffuse tumours (p <0.005. Overall mortality was 6.7%. Mortality is higher in the GOO group (8.8%. CONCLUSION (a. Operability rate of distal gastric cancer in our institution is 45.8%. (b. Incidence of gastric outlet obstruction in patients undergoing gastrectomy is 38.2%. (c. Presence of gastric outlet obstruction does not influence operability rate (47% vs. 45%. (d. Morbidity and mortality after distal radical gastrectomy is comparable in both groups. (e. Both intestinal and diffuse histology have equal incidence of GOO. (f. Chronic blood loss and incidence of anaemia is more in

  17. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  18. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  19. Boundary conditions for free surface inlet and outlet problems

    KAUST Repository

    Taroni, M.

    2012-08-10

    We investigate and compare the boundary conditions that are to be applied to free-surface problems involving inlet and outlets of Newtonian fluid, typically found in coating processes. The flux of fluid is a priori known at an inlet, but unknown at an outlet, where it is governed by the local behaviour near the film-forming meniscus. In the limit of vanishing capillary number Ca it is well known that the flux scales with Ca 2/3, but this classical result is non-uniform as the contact angle approaches π. By examining this limit we find a solution that is uniformly valid for all contact angles. Furthermore, by considering the far-field behaviour of the free surface we show that there exists a critical capillary number above which the problem at an inlet becomes over-determined. The implications of this result for the modelling of coating flows are discussed. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  20. Simulation of water flows in multiple columns with small outlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Yong Kweon; Li, Zi Lu; Jeong, Jong Hyun; Lee, Jun Hee

    2006-01-01

    High-pressure die casting such as thixocasting and rheocasting is an effective process in the manufacturing automotive parts. Following the recent trend in the automotive manufacturing technologies, the product design subject to the die casting becomes more and more complex. Simultaneously the injection speed is also designed to be very high to establish a short cycle-time. Thus, the requirement of the die design becomes more demanding than ever before. In some cases the product's shape can have multiple slender manifolds. In such cases, design of the inlet and outlet parts of the die is very important in the whole manufacturing process. The main issues required for the qualified products are to attain gentle and uniform flow of the molten liquid within the passages of the die. To satisfy such issues, the inlet cylinder ('bed cylinder' in this paper) must be as large as possible and simultaneously the outlet opening at the end of each passage must be as small as possible. However these in turn obviously bring additional manufacturing costs caused by re-melting of the bed cylinder and increased power due to the small outlet-openings. The purpose of this paper is to develop effective simulation methods of calculation for fluid flows in multiple columns, which mimic the actual complex design, and to get some useful information which can give some contributions to the die-casting industry. We have used a commercial code CFX in the numerical simulation. The primary parameter involved is the size of the bed cylinder. We will show how the very small opening of the outlet can be treated with the aid of the porous model provided in the code. To check the validity of the numerical results we have also conducted a simple experiment by using water

  1. Infantile myofibromatosis: a most unusual cause of gastric outlet obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Kellie; Murphy, Robyn; Thresher, Caroline; Jacir, Nabil; Bergman, Kerry [Morristown Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Morristown, NJ (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Non-bilious vomiting in the newborn is common. Etiologies include both surgical and medical conditions. Gastroesophageal reflux, soy or milk protein allergy, and prostaglandin-induced foveolar hyperplasia are among the medical causes. Surgical entities include gastric antral webs, pre-ampullary duodenal and pyloric atresia, and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We report the unique case of an 8-day-old girl who presented with gastric outlet obstruction secondary to infantile myofibromatosis. (orig.)

  2. Computer supervision of the core outlet sodium temperatures of FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, C.

    1976-01-01

    Safety monitoring of the fast breeder test reactor at Kalpakkam (India) is achieved by a CDPS-on-line dual computer system which is dedicated to plant supervision. The on-line subsystem scans and supervises all the 170 core thermocouple signals every second. Organisation of the reactor core instruments, supervision of mean sodium outlet temperature and mean temperature drop across the core, detection of plugging of a fuel assembly are explained. (A.K.)

  3. Expiry of medicines in supply outlets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyanzi, Josephine Katabaazi; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Oria, Hussein; Kamba, Pakoyo Fadhiru

    2010-02-01

    The expiry of medicines in the supply chain is a serious threat to the already constrained access to medicines in developing countries. We investigated the extent of, and the main contributing factors to, expiry of medicines in medicine supply outlets in Kampala and Entebbe, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of six public and 32 private medicine outlets was done using semi-structured questionnaires. The study area has 19 public medicine outlets (three non-profit wholesalers, 16 hospital stores/pharmacies), 123 private wholesale pharmacies and 173 retail pharmacies, equivalent to about 70% of the country's pharmaceutical businesses. Our findings indicate that medicines prone to expiry include those used for vertical programmes, donated medicines and those with a slow turnover. Awareness about the threat of expiry of medicines to the delivery of health services has increased. We have adapted training modules to emphasize management of medicine expiry for pharmacy students, pharmacists and other persons handling medicines. Our work has also generated more research interest on medicine expiry in Uganda. Even essential medicines expire in the supply chain in Uganda. Sound coordination is needed between public medicine wholesalers and their clients to harmonize procurement and consumption as well as with vertical programmes to prevent duplicate procurement. Additionally, national medicine regulatory authorities should enforce existing international guidelines to prevent dumping of donated medicine. Medicine selection and quantification should be matched with consumer tastes and prescribing habits. Lean supply and stock rotation should be considered.

  4. Female outlet obstruction constipation: assessment with MR defecography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Jiang Tao; Yang Xinqing; Peng Peng; Wang Wenchuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Using MR defecography to assess the morphological and functional anorectal anomalies related to female outlet obstruction constipation, and evaluate the joint disease of' anterior and mid pelvic. Methods: One hundred and seven female patients, aged 20 to 84 years (average, 55 years), were diagnosed as outlet obstruction constipation based on clinical symptoms and signs. They all received MR defecography in our institution. The high compliance homemade balloon was inserted into rectum to simulate stool. Then relevant measurements were obtained during rest, squeezing and straining, respectively. Results: In all the 107 cases, 70 (65.4%) presented rectocele on dynamic MRI; 28 (26.2%) presented anismus; 60 (56.1%) presented cystocele; 59 presented vaginal or cervical prolapse(55.1%); and, 54 (50.5%) presented descending perineum. In 85 females (79.4%) multiple disorders were detected, involving more than one pelvic compartment. Conclusion: MR defecography allowed to accurately evaluate the morphological and functional anorectal anomalies related to female outlet obstruction constipation, and the joint disease of anterior and mid pelvic. (authors)

  5. Antral hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Ozer, Ender; Rakici, Halil; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2014-01-01

    Gastric polyps are usually found incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examinations. These polyps are generally benign, with hyperplasia being the most common. While gastric polyps are often asymptomatic, they can cause gastric outlet obstruction. A 64 years-old female patient presented to our polyclinic with a history of approximately 2 months of weakness, occasional early nausea, vomiting after meals and epigastric pain. A polypoid lesion of approximately 25mm in diameter was detected in the antral area of the stomach, which prolapsed through the pylorus into the duodenal bulbus, and subsequently caused gastric outlet obstruction, as revealed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of the patient. The polyp was retrieved from the pyloric canal into the stomach with the aid of a tripod, and snare polypectomy was performed. Currently, widespread use of endoscopy has led to an increase in the frequency of detecting hyperplastic polyps. While most gastric polyps are asymptomatic, they can cause iron deficiency anemia, acute pancreatitis and more commonly, gastric outlet obstruction because of their antral location. Although there are no precise principles in the treatment of asymptomatic polyps, polyps >5mm should be removed due to the possibility of malignant transformation. According to the medical evidence, polypectomy is required for gastric hyperplastic polyps because of the risks of complication and malignancy. These cases can be successfully treated endoscopically. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. 16 CFR Appendix E to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(4) Table-Status of Company-Owned Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. E Appendix E to Part... 5Outlets Reacquired From Franchisees Column 6Outlets Closed Column 7Outlets Sold to Franchisees Column...

  7. Geographic Accessibility Of Food Outlets Not Associated With Body Mass Index Change Among Veterans, 2009-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Wing, Coady; Matthews, Stephen A; Jones, Kelly; Tong, Hao; Powell, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, various levels of government in the United States have adopted or discussed subsidies, tax breaks, zoning laws, and other public policies that promote geographic access to healthy food. However, there is little evidence from large-scale longitudinal or quasi-experimental research to suggest that the local mix of food outlets actually affects body mass index (BMI). We used a longitudinal design to examine whether the proximity of food outlets, by type, was associated with BMI changes between 2009 and 2014 among 1.7 million veterans in 382 metropolitan areas. We found no evidence that either absolute or relative geographic accessibility of supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, or mass merchandisers was associated with changes in an individual's BMI over time. While policies that alter only geographic access to food outlets may promote equitable access to healthy food and improve nutrition, our findings suggest they will do little to combat obesity in adults. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Heat sources for glacial ice melt in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord: The role of subglacial freshwater discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Mortensen, John; Lennert, Kunuk

    2015-01-01

    The melting of tidewater outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes significantly to global sea level rise. Accelerated mass loss is related to melt-processes in front of calving glaciers, yet the role of ocean heat transports is poorly understood. Here we present the first direct...... of the area near the glacier showed that ice melt was mainly due to ocean heat transport and that direct plume-associated melt was only important in periods with high meltwater discharge rates of ~100 m3 s−1. Ocean mixing outside of the plume area was thus the primary heat source for melting glacier ice....

  9. Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulations of Flows across Staggered Tube Bundle for a VHTR Lower Plenum Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeon Kyeong; Park, Jong Woon

    2013-01-01

    In this work, behavior of unsteady and oscillating flow through a typical tube bundle array are analyzed by unsteady computations: 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the results are compared with existing experimental data. In order to confirm appropriateness and limitations of CFD applications in the Korean VHTR design, two types of unsteady computations are performed such as 2D unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for the existing tube bundle array. The velocity component profiles are compared with the experimental data and it is concluded that the URANS with the standard k-ω model is reasonably appropriate for cost-effective VHTR lower plenum analysis. Nevertheless, if more accurate results are needed, the LES-Smagorinsky computation is recommended considering limitations in the time averaged RANS in capturing small eddies

  10. Experimental and computational studies of thermal mixing in next generation nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Douglas Tyler

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is a proposed next generation nuclear power plant. The VHTR utilizes helium as a coolant in the primary loop of the reactor. Helium traveling through the reactor mixes below the reactor in a region known as the lower plenum. In this region there exists large temperature and velocity gradients due to non-uniform heat generation in the reactor core. Due to these large gradients, concern should be given to reducing thermal striping in the lower plenum. Thermal striping is the phenomena by which temperature fluctuations in the fluid and transferred to and attenuated by surrounding structures. Thermal striping is a known cause of long term material failure. To better understand and predict thermal striping in the lower plenum two separate bodies of work have been conducted. First, an experimental facility capable of predictably recreating some aspects of flow in the lower plenum is designed according to scaling analysis of the VHTR. Namely the facility reproduces jets issuing into a crossflow past a tube bundle. Secondly, extensive studies investigate the mixing of a non-isothermal parallel round triple-jet at two jet-to-jet spacings was conducted. Experimental results were validation with an open source computational fluid dynamics package, OpenFOAMRTM. Additional care is given to understanding the implementation of the realizable k-a and Launder Gibson RSM turbulence Models in OpenFOAMRTM. In order to measure velocity and temperature in the triple-jet experiment a detailed investigation of temperature compensated hotwire anemometry is carried out with special concern being given to quantify the error with the measurements. Finally qualitative comparisons of trends in the experimental results and the computational results is conducted. A new and unexpected physical behavior was observed in the center jet as it appeared to spread unexpectedly for close spacings (S/Djet = 1.41).

  11. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  12. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, T; Grunwald, G

    1998-10-01

    The behavior of PWRs during cold water or boron dilution transients is strongly influenced by the distribution of coolant temperature and boron concentration at the core inlet. This distribution is the needed input to 3-dimensional neutron kinetics to calculate the power distribution in the core. It mainly depends on how the plugs of cold or unborated water formed in a single loop are mixed in the downcomer and in the lower plenum. To simulate such mixture phenomena requires the application of 3-dimensional CFD (computational fluid dynamics) codes. The results of the simulation have to be validated against mixture experiments at scaled facilities. Therefore, in the framework of a research project funded by BMBF, the institute creates a 1:5 mixture facility representing first the geometry of a German pressurized water reactor and later the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) geometry. The calculations are based on the CFD Code CFX-4. (orig.)

  13. PPOOLEX experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A.

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet carried out with the PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a vertical DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Four reference experiments with a straight pipe and ten with the Forsmark type collar were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the effect of a blowdown pipe outlet collar design on loads caused by chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. During the experiments the initial temperature level of the condensation pool water was either 20-25 or 50-55 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 400 to 1200 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 142 to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with 20-25 deg. C pool water, even 10 times higher pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe in the case of the straight pipe than with the collar. In this respect, the collar design worked as planned and removed the high pressure spikes from the blowdown pipe. Meanwhile, there seemed to be no suppressing effect on the loads due to the collar in the pool side in this temperature range. Registered loads in the pool were approximately in the same range (or even a little higher) with the collar as with the straight pipe. In the experiments with 50-55 deg. C pool water no high pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe either with the straight pipe or with the collar. In this case, more of the suppressing effect is probably due to the warmer pool water than due to the modified pipe outlet. It has been observed already in the earlier experiments with a straight pipe in the POOLEX and PPOOLEX facilities that warm pool water has a diminishing effect on

  14. Plasmatron with expanding channel of outlet electrode and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinnov, V.F.; Isakajev, E.Kh.; Ivanov, P.P.; Sinkevich, O.A.; Tyuftyaev, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    A serious industrial application is found for the plasmatron with expanding channel of outlet electrode - hardening and nitriding surface treatment of railway wheels. Several plasma installations are under operation at the engine houses of Moscow Railways. More than 12 000 wheel sets have been treated up to now. Results are evident: wheel life doubles due to plasma treatment. The plasmatron developed essentially in an empiric way is now under heavy investigation both theoretically and experimentally. High precision measurements of nitrogen emission spectra are expected to be used directly for accurate calculation of radiation heat loss term in a quasi-one dimensional flow code. (Authors)

  15. Measurement of unsteady airflow velocity at nozzle outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszko, René; Machů, Mário

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with a method of measuring and evaluating the cooling air flow velocity at the outlet of the flat nozzle for cooling a rolled steel product. The selected properties of the Prandtl and Pitot sensing tubes were measured and compared. A Pitot tube was used for operational measurements of unsteady dynamic pressure of the air flowing from nozzles to abtain the flow velocity. The article also discusses the effects of air temperature, pressure and relative air humidity on air density, as well as the influence of dynamic pressure filtering on the error of averaged velocity.

  16. PPOOLEX experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with a modified blowdown pipe outlet carried out with the PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through a vertical DN200 blowdown pipe to the condensation pool. Four reference experiments with a straight pipe and ten with the Forsmark type collar were carried out. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study the effect of a blowdown pipe outlet collar design on loads caused by chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. During the experiments the initial temperature level of the condensation pool water was either 20-25 or 50-55 deg. C. The steam flow rate varied from 400 to 1200 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 142 to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with 20-25 deg. C pool water, even 10 times higher pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe in the case of the straight pipe than with the collar. In this respect, the collar design worked as planned and removed the high pressure spikes from the blowdown pipe. Meanwhile, there seemed to be no suppressing effect on the loads due to the collar in the pool side in this temperature range. Registered loads in the pool were approximately in the same range (or even a little higher) with the collar as with the straight pipe. In the experiments with 50-55 deg. C pool water no high pressure pulses were measured inside the blowdown pipe either with the straight pipe or with the collar. In this case, more of the suppressing effect is probably due to the warmer pool water than due to the modified pipe outlet. It has been observed already in the earlier experiments with a straight pipe in the POOLEX and PPOOLEX facilities that warm pool water has a diminishing effect on

  17. Outlet temperature measurement correction of Gd fuel assemblies at Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurickova, M.

    2008-01-01

    In year 2006 we started data processing from the Dukovany NPP operating history database that contained data from the old measurement system VK3 and the new Scorpio-VVER. The work has been done in cooperation with the reactor physicists at Dukovany NPP. Obtained data from database were compared with calculated parameters from 3D diffusion macrocode Mobydick. During the data processing it was found that the Gd fuel assemblies have different time plot of measured assembly outlet temperature compared to the non-Gd fuel assemblies. Experimental studies in RRC KI found that there is insufficient coolant mixing in the region from the fuel bundle to the fuel assembly thermocouple. Due to this fact the thermocouple measure temperature is systematically higher than real temperature. There are two methods to solve this problem. The first method analyses the flow and heat transfer in the region from the fuel bundle to the fuel assembly thermocouple - this method is developed in Skoda JS. The second method statistically studies differences between the measured and calculated temperature by the Mobydick code using the operational history database. Our study is focused on the second method. Several calculation methods for the correction of measured assembly outlet temperature were developed. All correction methods were applied to the measured temperatures from the Dukovany NPP operating history database and the methods were mutually compared. In near future it is planned to compare results of our chosen correction method with modeling method, which is developing in Skoda JS and it is planned to validate both of them. Consequently, the one of these correction methods will be implemented in the modernized Scorpio-VVER for Dukovany NPP. (author)

  18. Complot test section outlet CFD optimization (pre - test and dimensioning)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profir, M. M.; Moreau, V.; Kennedy, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the FP7 MAXSIMA European project, the COMPLOT (COMPonent LOop Testing) LBE experimental facility is employed for thermal-hydraulic experiments aimed to test and qualify, among other components, a buoyancy driven safety/control rods (SR/CR) system, as key components for the safe operation of the MYRRHA reactor. This paper focuses mainly on a simplified CFD representation of the SR test section outlet in order to optimise it for the testing program. Parametric cases, associated with different positions of the SR assembly have been set up and analysed. A quasi-static analysis has been performed for each case, accounting for the LBE volume displaced by the insertion of the SR bundle, by introducing appropriately positioned additional mass sources. Velocity and pressure fields, as well as pressure drop magnitudes and mass flow rates through relevant guide tube hole outlets have been calculated and compared. The CFD analysis proved that the outer boundary of the test section does not impact the expected performance of the SR (rapid transient downward insertion). Preliminary simulations reproducing the timely repositioning of the SR/CR in COMPLOT using procedures of automatic volume mesh regeneration, consistently with the rod imposed displacement, are illustrated. (authors)

  19. Methodological Approaches to Locating Outlets of the Franchise Retail Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygorenko Tetyana M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Methodical approaches to selecting strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets are presented. The main stages in the assessment of strategic areas of managing the future location of franchise retail network outlets have been determined and the evaluation criteria have been suggested. Since such selection requires consideration of a variety of indicators and directions of the assessment, the author proposes a scale of evaluation, which allows generalizing and organizing the research data and calculations of the previous stages of the analysis. The most important criteria and sequence of the selection of the potential franchisees for the franchise retail network have been identified, the technique for their evaluation has been proposed. The use of the suggested methodological approaches will allow the franchiser making sound decisions on the selection of potential target markets, minimizing expenditures of time and efforts on the selection of franchisees and hence optimizing the process of development of the franchise retail network, which will contribute to the formation of its structure.

  20. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  1. Antral hyperplastic polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtkaya-Yapicier Ozlem

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperplastic polyps are the most common polypoid lesions of the stomach. Rarely, they cause gastric outlet obstruction by prolapsing through the pyloric channel, when they arise in the prepyloric antrum. Case presentation A 62-year-old woman presented with intermittent nausea and vomiting of 4 months duration. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 30 mm prepyloric sessile polyp causing intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. Following submucosal injection of diluted adrenaline solution, the polyp was removed with a snare. Multiple biopsies were taken from the greater curvature of the antrum and the corpus. Rapid urease test for Helicobacter pylori yielded a negative result. Histopathologic examination showed a hyperplastic polyp without any evidence of malignancy. Biopsies of the antrum and the corpus revealed gastritis with neither atrophic changes nor Helicobacter pylori infection. Follow-up endoscopy after a 12-week course of proton pomp inhibitor therapy showed a complete healing without any remnant tissue at the polypectomy site. The patient has been symptom-free during 8 months of follow-up. Conclusions Symptomatic gastric polyps should be removed preferentially when they are detected at the initial diagnostic endoscopy. Polypectomy not only provides tissue to determine the exact histopathologic type of the polyp, but also achieves radical treatment.

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of Cigarette Prices in Military Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher Keith; Hyder, Melissa L.; Poston, Walker S. C.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Williams, Larry N.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a longitudinal assessment of tobacco pricing in military retail outlets, including trends within each service branch. Methods. We determined the price of a single pack of Marlboro Red cigarettes at military retail stores located in the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii and at their nearest Walmarts in spring 2011 and 2013 (n = 128 for pairs available at both assessments). Results. The average difference between cigarettes sold in military retail outlets and Walmarts decreased from 24.5% in 2011 to 12.5% in 2013. The decrease was partially attributable to significant price decreases at Walmarts. The largest increases in cigarette prices occurred on naval installations. Potential savings at stores on several installations remained substantial in 2013; the largest approached $6 per pack. Stores on 17 military installations decreased cigarette prices during the study period. Conclusions. Tobacco can be purchased in military retail stores at substantial savings over civilian stores. If tobacco pricing is to cease to be an incentive for use among personnel, a revised military tobacco pricing policy is needed. PMID:24524503

  3. Laboratory services series: an electrical outlet and corded equipment inspection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.A.

    1976-04-01

    A research and development laboratory has thousands of electrical outlets providing power to laboratories, offices, shops, and service areas. These outlets provide power for a wide variety of portable equipment and tools that are equipped with cord and plug. Electric safety requires a periodic check of outlet grounding capability and continuing inspection and repair of corded equipment. Personnel, equipment, reports, procedures, and schedule requirements are reported

  4. Bacteriological Analysis and Hygine Level of Food Outlets within Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim TA; Akenroye OM; Osabiya OJ

    2013-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of three major food outlets in Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, was assessed using standard bacteriological methods. Swabs of hands of food vendors, table and plates in these outlets were assessed for total bacterial count, total coliform count and total E. coli count. A total of 789 bacterial colonies were isolated from hands of food handlers, tables and plates used for eating in the outlets. Eleven genera of bacteria were isolated and identified, they were; klebsiell...

  5. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Creel, Jennifer S; Sharkey, Joseph R; McIntosh, Alex; Anding, Jenna; Huber, J Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may ...

  6. A GIS Application to Explore Postal Retail Outlet Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Trubint

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of GIS in solving a wide variety of problems in postal operations is expanding. This approach provides the development and usage of new methods in spatial data analysis, as support in achieving a better quality of the decision-making process. The use of location analysis model based on GIS software is implemented in solving the Belgrade postal retail outlet problem. One of the most important experiences of model implementation is that the local environmental conditions have a significant impact on strategic as well as operational approach. A portion of the material included in the paper has resulted from the Serbian PTT and CPC (Canada Post Corporation joint project Location Analysis.

  7. Supraclavicular scalenectomy for thoracic outlet syndrome--functional outcomes assessed using the DASH scoring system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate supraclavicular scalenectomy ± cervical rib excision for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), employing Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scoring for functional assessment post-decompression.

  8. [Total pollution features of urban runoff outlet for urban river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Bing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; He, Qiang; Liu, Ping

    2009-11-01

    The urban stormwater runoff discharged to urban river, especially to rainfall source river, cannot be ignored. In this study, the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen city in a typical southern city of China is taken as the research object. In order to guide the pollution control for urban river, the eighteen rainfall events were monitored, and the total pollution features of the urban runoff outlet for this urban river were analyzed and discussed by using the process of pollutographs, the identifying to first flush, event mean concentration (EMC), etc. Results show that the concentrations of COD, SS, TN, TP and BOD5 are ten times more than the grade V of the environmental quality standards for surface water during the runoff time; the pollution caused by heavy metals (Cr, Ge, Cu, Hg and As) in runoff at a typical rainfall event is serious; the average and range of pollutant concentration at this runoff outlet in study area are evidently higher than at Shapingba in Chongqing city of China and at Silerwood in Canada, but are lower than at Shilipu in Wuhan city of China. The first flushes of COD, SS, BOD5, especially COD and SS, are evident, but the TN and TP are not. The average EMC of COD, TN, TP and BOD5 are 224.14, 571.15, 5.223, 2.04, 143.5 mg/L, respectively. To some extent, the EMC of COD is about two times of the value of the near cities, Macao and Zhuhai. The EMC of TN and TP are obviously higher than Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai. To compared with foreign counties, the EMC of the study area in Shenzhen is obviously much higher than the cities of Korean, USA and Canada. So the total pollution caused by the urban surface runoff in study area is serious and necessary to be treated.

  9. Program plan for correction of US instrument degradation or failure in the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, G.S.; Chen, Y.S.; Shotkin, L.M.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents, as of September, 1986, the investigation of the failure or degradation of some of the advanced two-phase flow instruments supplied by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to the German Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF). These instruments include Tie-Plate Drag Bodies (DBs), Breakthrough Detectors (BTDs), Loop Drag Disc (DD) paddles, Fluid Distribution Grid (FDG) sensors, and Liquid Level Detector (LLD) sensors. The exact causes for these instrument degradations or failures are not known, but several potential causes have been identified. For DBs and BTDs, the primary mechanism for the degradation appears to be a leakage in the Inconel 600 strain gage encapsulation and the subsequent burnout of the strain gage elements. Excessive loads appear to be the cause of the degradation or failure of the drag discs. The degradation cause for most of the FDGs and LLDs may be either steam/water erosion or mechanical abrasion of the sapphire sensor tips. However, some of the FDG tips were found to be cracked also. The corrective actions are being directed towards identification of the primary causes for the instrument degradation or failure and methods of preventing recurrance and toward minimizing the impact on the test program. All possible action items are being reviewed to arrange them in terms of priority and the likelihood of success so that the best results can be obtained under the constraints of a fixed amount of resources and limited time

  10. PBDOWN: A computer code for simulation of core material discharge and expansion in the upper coolant plenum in a hypothetical unprotected loss of flow accident in a LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The report gives a description of the code PBDOWN (Pool Blow Down), its equations, input specifications and subroutines and it lists the input and output for some samples. Besides that some analysis results for the SNR-300 are discussed, that were obtained with this code. PBDOWN is an integral blow-down and expansion code, which simulates core material discharge and expansion into a sodium filled upper coolant plenum after build-up of vapour pressures in an unprotected loss of flow accident. The model includes the effect of sodium entrainment into an expending bubble of fuel or steel vapour with various assumptions for the heat transfer and vaporization of the entrained sodium droplets. The expanding vapour bubble is connected to the discharging pool via an orifice of a given size through which a time dependent ejection is simulated using quasi-stationary blow down correlations. The model allows bounding analysis of the possible influence of sodium vapour as a secondary working fluid, that is activated outside the pool on the overall expansion energy and discharge

  11. Benchmark Analyses of Sodium Natural Convection in the Upper Plenum of the Monju Reactor Vessel. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2008-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    The IAEA supports Member States in the area of advanced fast reactor technology development by providing a major fulcrum for information exchange and collaborative research programmes. The IAEA’s activities in this field are mainly carried out within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), which assists in the implementation of corresponding IAEA support, and ensures that all technical activities are in line with expressed needs of Member States. Among this broad range, the IAEA proposes and establishes coordinated research projects (CRPs), aimed at improving Member State capability in fast reactor design and analysis. An important opportunity to perform collaborative research activities was provided by the system startup tests carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) in the prototype loop type sodium cooled fast reactor Monju, in particular a turbine trip test performed in December 1995. As the JAEA opened the experimental dataset to international collaboration in 2008, the IAEA launched the CRP on Benchmark Analyses of Sodium Natural Convection in the Upper Plenum of the Monju Reactor Vessel. The CRP, together with eight institutes from seven States, has contributed to improving capabilities in sodium cooled fast reactors simulation through code verification and validation, with particular emphasis on thermal stratification and natural circulation phenomena

  12. Neighbourhood fast food outlets and obesity in children and adults: the CLAN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, David A; Timperio, Anna F; Salmon, Jo A; Baur, Louise; Giles-Corti, Billie; Roberts, Rebecca J; Jackson, Michelle L; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Ball, Kylie

    2008-01-01

    We examined associations between density of and proximity to fast food outlets and body weight in a sample of children (137 aged 8-9 years and 243 aged 13-15 years) and their parents (322 fathers and 362 mothers). Children's measured and parents' self-reported heights and weights were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Locations of major fast food outlets were geocoded. Bivariate linear regression analyses examined associations between the presence of any fast food outlet within a 2 km buffer around participants' homes, fast food outlet density within the 2 km buffer, and distance to the nearest outlet and BMI. Each independent variable was also entered into separate bivariate logistic regression analyses to predict the odds of being overweight or obese. Among older children, those with at least one outlet within 2 km had lower BMI z-scores. The further that fathers lived from an outlet, the higher their BMI. Among 13-15-year-old girls and their fathers, the likelihood of overweight/obesity was reduced by 80% and 50%, respectively, if they had at least one fast food outlet within 2 km of their home. Among older girls, the likelihood of being overweight/obese was reduced by 14% with each additional outlet within 2 km. Fathers' odds of being overweight/obese increased by 13% for each additional kilometre to the nearest outlet. While consumption of fast food has been shown to be associated with obesity, this study provides little support for the concept that exposure to fast food outlets in the local neighbourhood increases risk of obesity.

  13. Out-of-home food outlets and area deprivation: case study in Glasgow, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummins Steven

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a popular belief that out-of-home eating outlets, which typically serve energy dense food, may be more commonly found in more deprived areas and that this may contribute to higher rates of obesity and related diseases in such areas. Methods We obtained a list of all 1301 out-of-home eating outlets in Glasgow, UK, in 2003 and mapped these at unit postcode level. We categorised them into quintiles of area deprivation using the 2004 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and computed mean density of types of outlet (restaurants, fast food restaurants, cafes and takeaways, and all types combined, per 1000 population. We also estimated odds ratios for the presence of any outlets in small areas within the quintiles. Results The density of outlets, and the likelihood of having any outlets, was highest in the second most affluent quintile (Q2 and lowest in the second most deprived quintile (Q4. Mean outlets per 1,000 were 4.02 in Q2, 1.20 in Q4 and 2.03 in Q5. With Q2 as the reference, Odds Ratios for having any outlets were 0.52 (CI 0.32–0.84 in Q1, 0.50 (CI 0.31 – 0.80 in Q4 and 0.61 (CI 0.38 – 0.98 in Q5. Outlets were located in the City Centre, West End, and along arterial roads. Conclusion In Glasgow those living in poorer areas are not more likely to be exposed to out-of-home eating outlets in their neighbourhoods. Health improvement policies need to be based on empirical evidence about the location of fast food outlets in specific national and local contexts, rather than on popular 'factoids'.

  14. Internet cigarette vendors make tax-free claims and sell cigarettes cheaper than retail outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Williams, Rebecca S; Gammon, Doris G; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to (1) assess whether promotion of tax-free sales among Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) changed between 2009 and 2011, (2) determine which types of ICVs are most likely to promote tax-free sales (eg, US-based, international or mixed location ICVs), and (3) compare the price of cigarettes advertised in ICVs to prices at brick-and-mortar retail outlets. We analysed data from the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to assess promotion of tax-free sales and the price of Marlboro cigarette cartons. We used Nielsen scanner data from 2009, 2010 and 2011 to measure the price of Marlboro cartons in US grocery stores. The odds of ICVs claiming tax-free status were higher in 2011 than in 2009 (OR=1.58, ponline, compared to $52.73 in US grocery stores. We estimated that in 2011, a pack-a-day smoker living in an area with high cigarette prices would save $1508 per year buying cigarettes online. ICVs commonly promote tax-free sales, and cigarettes are cheaper online compared to US grocery stores. Better enforcement of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act is needed to address tax-free cigarette sales among ICVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Internet cigarette vendors make tax-free claims and sell cigarettes cheaper than retail outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Gammon, Doris G.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to (1) assess whether promotion of tax-free sales among Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) changed between 2009 and 2011, (2) determine which types of ICVs are most likely to promote tax-free sales (e.g., US-based, international, or mixed location ICVs), and (3) compare the price of cigarettes advertised in ICVs to prices at brick-and-mortar retail outlets. Methods We analyzed data from the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 to assess promotion of tax-free sales and the price of Marlboro cigarette cartons. We used Nielsen scanner data from 2009, 2010, and 2011 to measure the price of Marlboro cartons in US grocery stores. Findings The odds of ICVs claiming tax-free status were higher in 2011 than in 2009 (odds ratio (OR)=1.58, ponline, compared to $52.73 in US grocery stores. We estimated that in 2011, a pack-a-day smoker living in an area with high cigarette prices would save $1,508 per year buying cigarettes online. Conclusions ICVs commonly promote tax-free sales, and cigarettes are cheaper online compared to US grocery stores. Better enforcement of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act is needed to address tax-free cigarette sales among ICVs. PMID:26490844

  16. Seasonal variability of the circulation system in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord, Godthåbsfjord (64°N)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, John; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Lennert, Kunuk

    2014-01-01

    Many tidewater outlet glacier fjords surround the coast of Greenland, and their dynamics and circulation are of great importance for understanding the heat transport toward glaciers from the ice sheet. Thus, fjord circulation is a critical aspect for assessing the threat of global sea level rise...... due to melting of the ice sheet. However, very few observational studies describe the seasonal dynamics of fjord circulation. Here we present the first continuous current measurements (April–November) from a deep mooring deployed in a west Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord. Four distinct...... circulation phases are identified during the period, and they are related to exchange processes with coastal waters, tidal mixing, and melt processes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. During early summer, warm intermediate water is transported toward the glacier at an average velocity of about 7 cm s−1. In late...

  17. Remaining Life Estimation Of Secondary Superheater Outlet On Industrial Electrical Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedardjo; Andryansyah; Arhatari, B.D.; Natsir, Muhammad; Triyadi, Ari; Farokhi

    2001-01-01

    Remaining life estimation of secondary superheater header outlet (SSHO) on industrial electrical boiler has been carried out. Estimation conducted by the observation of microstructure cavitation development based on Neubauer and Wedel theory. The result is available for isolated cavitation development present yet. That Secondary Superheater Outlet component is in good condition after 14 years operated and predicted could be operated for 36 years again

  18. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (contamination by faecal coliforms was not detected in 47% of the samples, tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, it was concluded that (1) contamination by faecal coliforms may occur due to improper handling of ice cubes at the food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption.

  19. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  20. Survey of Publication Outlets in Early Childhood Education: Descriptive Data, Review Processes, and Advice to Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodei, Michelle L.; Jalongo, Mary Renck; Myers, Jacqueline; Onchwari, Jacqueline; Gargiulo, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Publishing outlets in the field of early childhood vary widely in terms of emphasis on theory, practice, and research as they relate to the care and education of the very young; these outlets also have different readerships (i.e., primarily for teachers, the teachers of their teachers, or the fellow scholars/researchers). Included in the mixture…

  1. Validation of presence of supermarkets and fast-food outlets in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field.......We examined the quality of food outlet addresses provided by secondary sources and determined whether they could be physically located in the field....

  2. The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2010-11-01

    To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 lower super-output areas. Children aged 3-14 years who lived within the Leeds metropolitan boundaries (n=33,594). The number of fast food outlets per area and the distance to the nearest fast food outlet from the child's home address. The weight status of the child: overweight, obese or neither. 27.1% of the children were overweight or obese with 12.6% classified as obese. There is a significant positive correlation (pfood outlets and higher deprivation. A higher density of fast food outlets was significantly associated (p=0.02) with the child being obese (or overweight/obese) in the generalised estimating equation model which also included sex, age and deprivation. No significant association between distance to the nearest fast food outlet and overweight or obese status was found. There is a positive relationship between the density of fast food outlets per area and the obesity status of children in Leeds. There is also a significant association between fast food outlet density and areas of higher deprivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on partial overheat of the isolated phase busbar outlet box in Qinshan NPP phase Ⅱ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fangxuan; Zhang Jian; Zeng Limin; Bao Yanxing; Zhang Lie; Yang Yuemin

    2013-01-01

    This paper recommended the structure of the isolated phase busbar outlet box installed in Qinshan II. The study on partial overheat of the outlet box shows that the ultimate causes are the loss of concentrated eddy current and short of cooling. So the improvement principles of 'distributing eddy current, cutting off inductive circle current and strengthening of ventilation' were determined. A new structure test outlet box was designed and manufactured, and the temperature rising experiment was carried out. Some alterations were made in the new structure outlet box, e.g. isolating materials were added between side plates of the upper outlet box, and also between the upper and lower outlet box. Two cooling blowers were added to the upper outlet box. After putting into operation, the hot-spot temperature of the new outlet box was greatly lowered down. Thus the operation environment was improved, and the operation safety ensured. It can be useful references for analyzing and dealing with similar problems. (authors)

  4. Shopper Loyalty to Whom? Chain Versus Outlet Loyalty in the Context of Store Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, Arjen; Gijsbrechts, E.

    2014-01-01

    When patronizing stores, consumers may exhibit loyalty not only to a retail chain but also to a specific outlet. This distinction is important in a dynamic retail environment: if a store changes ownership, chain loyalty makes customers inclined to seek out another outlet of the former chain, whereas

  5. Shopper loyalty to whom? Chain versus outlet loyalty in the context of store acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lin, A.I.J.G.; Gijsbrechts, E.

    When patronizing stores, consumers may exhibit loyalty not only to a retail chain but also to a specific outlet. This distinction is important in a dynamic retail environment: if a store changes ownership, chain loyalty makes customers inclined to seek out another outlet of the former chain, whereas

  6. Experimental evaluation of blockage ratio and plenum evacuation system flow effects on pressure distribution for bodies of revolution in 0.1 scale model test section of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed altitude wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard R.; Harrington, Douglas E.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the slotted test section of the 0.1-scale model of the proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel to evaluate wall interference effects at tunnel Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.95 on bodies of revolution with blockage rates of 0.43, 3, 6, and 12 percent. The amount of flow that had to be removed from the plenum chamber (which surrounded the slotted test section) by the plenum evacuation system (PES) to eliminate wall interference effects was determined. The effectiveness of tunnel reentry flaps in removing flow from the plenum chamber was examined. The 0.43-percent blockage model was the only one free of wall interference effects with no PES flow. Surface pressures on the forward part of the other models were greater than interference-free results and were not influenced by PES flow. Interference-free results were achieved on the aft part of the 3- and 6-percent blockage models with the proper amount of PES flow. The required PES flow was substantially reduced by opening the reentry flaps.

  7. Salt Marshes as Monitors of Late Holocene Outlet Glacier Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, L. M.; Woodroffe, S.; Long, A. J.; Milne, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    New proxy sea-level records extracted from salt marshes in the vicinity of Jakobshavn Isbrae (Pakitsoq; 69.51°N, 50.74°W) and at previous sites in central western Greenland (Sisimiut; 66.47°N, 53.61°W and Aasiaat; 68.69°N, 52.88°W) are analyzed with respect to their ability to act as proximal tide gauges detecting mass balance changes in nearby outlet glaciers associated with the transition from the Little Ice Age ("LIA", 1400-1850AD) to the Industrial Period (>1850AD). Data at Pakitsoq demonstrate that sea-level rose at a rate of 3.5 ±1.7 mm/yr prior to 1850AD and slowed to 0.3 ±0.6mm/yr thereafter, producing a slowdown in sea level of 3.2 ± 1.8 mm/yr. A similar slowdown, occurring at 1600AD, is observed at Aasiaat and Sisimiut. We interpret these observed changes using a glacial isostatic adjustment model of sea-level change truncated at degree and order 4096, with an aim to determine if the sea-level data can be used to place constraints on changes in Jakobshavn Isbrae and/or Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (Nuuk fjord) during this period. Modelled sea level at Pakitsoq is insensitive to the location of thickening (thinning) associated with grounding line advance (retreat) and the rate of advance and retreat but is sensitive to the change point in time between periods of growth associated with LIA expansion (sea level rise) and the onset of 19th century recession (sea level fall) of Jakobshavn Isbrae. We conclude that the change in sea-level rate observed at Pakitsoq circa 1850AD marks the onset of post LIA retreat of this outlet glacier. Conversely, the modelled sea-level response to the retreat of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia from its LIA maximum at ca. 1761AD is below the detection threshold of the salt marsh record at Sisimiut.

  8. Pathways of warm water to the Northeast Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Janin; Timmermann, Ralph; Kanzow, Torsten; Arndt, Jan Erik; Mayer, Christoph; Schauer, Ursula

    2015-04-01

    The ocean plays an important role in modulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet by delivering heat to the marine-terminating outlet glaciers surrounding the Greenland coast. The warming and accumulation of Atlantic Water in the subpolar North Atlantic has been suggested to be a potential driver of the glaciers' retreat over the last decades. The shelf regions thus play a critical role for the transport of Atlantic Water towards the glaciers, but also for the transfer of freshwater towards the deep ocean. A key region for the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream. This large ice stream drains the second-largest basin of the Greenland Ice Sheet and feeds three outlet glaciers. The largest one is Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden (79°N-Glacier) featuring an 80 km long floating ice tongue. Both the ocean circulation on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland and the circulation in the cavity below the ice tongue are weakly constrained so far. In order to study the relevant processes of glacier-ocean interaction we combine observations and model work. Here we focus on historic and recent hydrographic observations and on the complex bathymetry in the Northeast Greenland shelf region, which is thought to steer the flux of warm Atlantic water onto the continental shelf and into the sub-ice cavity beneath the 79°N-Glacier. We present a new global topography data set, RTopo-2, which includes the most recent surveys on the Northeast Greenland continental shelf and provides a detailed bathymetry for all around Greenland. In addition, RTopo-2 contains ice and bedrock surface topographies for Greenland and Antarctica. Based on the updated ocean bathymetry and a variety of hydrographic observations we show the water mass distribution on the continental shelf off Northeast Greenland. These maps enable us to discuss possible supply pathways of warm modified Atlantic waters on the continental shelf and thus potential ways of heat

  9. Study of mixed convection in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhou; Chen Yan

    1995-01-01

    The mixed convection phenomena in the sodium pool of fast reactor have been studied systematically by the two dimensional modeling method. A generalized concept of circumferential line in the cylindrical coordinates was proposed to overcome the three dimensional effect induced by the pool geometry in an analysis of two dimensional modeling. A method of sub-step in time was developed for solving the turbulent equations. The treatments on the boundary condition for the auxiliary velocity field have been proposed, and the explanation of allowing the flow function method to be used in the flow field in presence of a mass source term was given. As examples of verification, the experiments were conducted with water flow in a rectangular cavity. The results from theoretical analysis were applied to the numerical computation for the mixed convection in the cavity. The mechanism of stratified flow in the cavity was studied. A numerical calculation was carried out for the mixed convection in hot plenum of a typical fast reactor

  10. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubesic Tony H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase.

  11. Laboratory determination of normal operating flow rates with enlarged outlet fittings -- BDF reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.

    1960-02-02

    Experiments have been conducted in the Hydraulics Laboratory, at the request of IPD`s Mechanical Development-A Operation, to determine the energy losses of various enlarged outlet fitting combinations. These experiments were conducted an steady state runs and allow the determination of the normal operating point (flow rate) of a reactor process channel under selected conditions of front header pressure and fuel charge. No attempt is made to make a mechanical or economic evaluation of the particular fitting combinations, although observations were noted which might bear on this evaluation. It is very important for the reader to bear in mind that changing outlet fittings will definitely affect the reactor tube power limits and outlet vater temperature limits. The size of the outlet fittings largely determines the present outlet temperature limits of the old reactors. The flow characteristics of these present fittings cause some degree of pressurization to suppress boiling on the fuel charge and also cause dual Panellit trip protection for certain flow changes and for power surges. Enlargement of the outlet fittings may actually reduce the allowable outlet coolant temperature limits. Since these effects cannot be determined on the apparatus used in these experiments, a complete discussion of this point is not included in this report. However, the seriousness of these effects should be known and carefully analyzed before a final selection of enlarged outlet fittings in made. This report will be one of a series. New reports in the series will be issued as data are obtained for other such outlet fitting combinations or for new concepts of outlet fitting assemblies such as the new nozzle being developed by C. E. Trantz for use on F-reactor stuck gunbarrel tubes.

  12. Tobacco outlet density and tobacco knowledge, beliefs, purchasing behaviours and price among adolescents in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Helena; Shortt, Niamh K; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard J; Pearce, Jamie R

    2018-06-01

    Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies. In this study we use path analysis to assess how outlet density in the home environment is related to adolescent tobacco knowledge, beliefs, retail purchases and price in Scotland. We assessed 22,049 13 and 15 year old respondents to the nationally representative cross-sectional 2010 Scottish School Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey. Outlet density was based on Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register, 2012, data. A spatially-weighted Kernel Density Estimation measure of outlet density within 400 m of respondents' home postcode was grouped into tertiles. The analysis considered whether outlet density was associated with the number of cigarette brands adolescents could name, positive beliefs about smoking, whether smokers purchased cigarettes from shops themselves or through adult proxies and perceived cost of cigarettes. Models were stratified by adolescent smoking status. The path analyses indicated that outlet density was not associated with most outcomes, but small, significant direct effects on knowledge of cigarette brands among those who had never smoked were observed. With each increase in outlet density tertile the mean number of brands adolescents could name rose by 0.07 (mean = 1.60; SD = 1.18; range = 4). This suggests greater outlet densities may have affected adolescents' knowledge of cigarette brands but did not encourage positive attitudes to smoking, purchases from shops or lower cigarette

  13. Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O; Mundy, Monica E; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To compare the retail distribution and density per population of electronic and conventional cigarettes in smoke-free communities with and without e-cigarette restrictions. A cross-sectional study with field observations of retail tobacco stores. Two Central Kentucky counties with 100% smoke-free workplace regulations; counties selected on the basis of whether e-cigarette use was restricted. Fifty-seven tobacco retailers in two counties, including conventional retailers and stand-alone e-cigarette stores. Type and location of store and products sold; addresses of stores and schools geocoded with ArcGIS. Bivariate comparisons between counties, rates and confidence intervals for frequency of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette stores per population. Fifty-three percent of tobacco retailers sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability did not differ by whether smoke-free regulation covered e-cigarettes. Rates of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette distributors per 10,000 were 8.29 and 4.40, respectively, in the two-county area. Of the 40 schools, 88% had a tobacco retailer and 68% had an e-cigarette distributor within 1 mile. In this exploratory study, e-cigarette use restriction was not related to store availability. For a relatively new product, e-cigarettes were readily available in retail outlets and close to schools.

  14. Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in female: etiology and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.A.; Ahuja, K.; Shaikh, G.S.; Soomro, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the etiology and management outcome of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in female. Methodology: From 2009 to 2012, 37 females with a mean age of 40 (range 20-65) were investigated for etiology and management outcome of BOO. Typical complaints were slow urinary flow, difficulty in emptying bladder, frequency of micturition and urgency. Mean duration of symptoms was 6 month. Results: 15 women were confirmed as atrophic urethritis, 5 had functional bladder, 3 had urethral caruncle, 5 had cystocele, 7 had complete procedentia of uterus, and 2 had impacted urethral stone. Cystoscopy was performed in all patients to exclude other pathology like vesical stone and bladder growth. 12 patients were referred to Gynecology due to complete procedentia of uterus and cystocele. Three cases of urethral caruncle were treated by excision and biopsy, 2 patients with urethral stone were treated by endoscopic push back and litholapaxy while 5 required conservative treatment and 15 cases of atrophic urethritis were kept on Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Conclusion: BOO is uncommon in female and management depends upon the etiology. (author)

  15. Detention Outlet Retrofit Improves the Functionality of Existing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Provide a stormwater management device for States and watershed management organizations. By discharging excess stormwater runoff at rates that more frequently exceed the critical flow for stream channel erosion, conventional detention basins often contribute to the escalated levels of instability that are common in urban and suburban streams and can be detrimental to aquatic habitat and water quality, as well as adjacent property and infrastructure. However, these ubiquitous assets, valued at ca. $600,000/km2 in a representative suburban watershed in Northern Kentucky, are ideal candidates to aid in reversing such cycles of channel degradation because improving their functionality would not necessarily require property acquisition or heavy construction. The objective of this research was to develop a simple, cost-effective device that could be installed in detention basin outlets to reduce the erosive power of the relatively frequent, but otherwise erosive, storm events (e.g. ~ ≤ 2-yr recurrence) and provide a passive bypass to maintain flood control performance during infrequent storms (e.g. 100-yr recurrence). Results from a pilot installation show that the Detain H2O device can not only meet these goals, but can also contribute to reduced flashiness and prolonged baseflows in receiving streams. When scaling the strategy across a watershed, these results suggest that substantial gains in water quality and stream channel stability could b

  16. Sneutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Y.

    1997-10-01

    In supersymmetric models with nonvanishing Majorana neutrino masses, the sneutrino and antisneutrino mix. The conditions under which this mixing is experimentally observable are studied, and mass-splitting of the sneutrino mass eigenstates and sneutrino oscillation phenomena are analyzed

  17. Business models in commercial media markets: Bargaining, advertising, and mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Thöne, Miriam; Rasch, Alexander; Wenzel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We consider a product and a media market and show how a change in the business model employed by the media platforms affects consumers, producers (or advertisers), and price negotiations for advertisements. On both markets, two firms differentiated á la Hotelling compete for consumers. On the media market, consumers can mix between the two outlets whereas on the product market, consumers have to decide for one supplier. With pay-tv, as opposed to free-to-air, mixing by consumers disappears, p...

  18. Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schoof

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.

  19. Gastric Outlet Obstruction Palliation: A Novel Stent-Based Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha M. Rueth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO after esophagectomy is a morbid outcome and significantly hinders quality of life for end-stage esophageal cancer patients. In the pre-stent era, palliation consisted of chemotherapy, radiation, tumor ablation, or stricture dilation. In the current era, palliative stenting has emerged as an additional tool; however, migration and tumor ingrowth are ongoing challenges. To mitigate these challenges, we developed a novel, hybrid, stent-based approach for the palliative management of GOO. We present a patient with esophageal cancer diagnosed with recurrent, metastatic disease 1 year after esophagectomy. She developed dehydration and intractable emesis, which significantly interfered with her quality of life. For palliation, we dilated the stenosis and proceeded with our stent-based solution. Using a combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic approach, we placed a 12-mm silicone salivary bypass tube across the pylorus, where it kinked slightly because of local tumor biology. To bridge this defect and ensure luminal patency, we placed a nitinol tracheobronchial stent through the silicone stent. Clinically, the patient had immediate relief from her pre-operative symptoms and was discharged home on a liquid diet. In conclusion, GOO and malignant dysphagia after esophagectomy are significant challenges for patients with end-stage disease. Palliative stenting is a viable option, but migration and tumor ingrowth are common complications. The hybrid approach presented here provides a unique solution to these potential pitfalls. The flared silicone tube minimized the chance of migration and impaired tumor ingrowth. The nitinol stent aided with patency and overcame the challenges of the soft tube. This novel strategy achieved palliation, describing another endoscopic option in the treatment of malignant GOO.

  20. Availability of healthier options in traditional and nontraditional rural fast-food outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Alex

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food prepared away from home has become increasingly popular to U.S. families, and may contribute to obesity. Sales have been dominated by fast food outlets, where meals are purchased for dining away from home or in the home. Although national chain affiliated fast-food outlets are considered the main source for fast food, fast foods are increasingly available in convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores. In rural areas, these nontraditional fast-food outlets may provide most of the opportunities for procurement of fast foods. Methods Using all traditional and nontraditio nal fast-food outlets identified in six counties in rural Texas, the type and number of regular and healthiermenu options were surveyed using on-site observation in all food venues that were primarily fast food, supermarket/grocery store, and convenience store and compared with 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Results Traditional fast-food outlets represented 84 (41% of the 205 opportunities for procurement of fast food; 109 (53.2% were convenience stores and 12 (5.8% supermarkets/grocery stores. Although a s imilar variety of regular breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées were available in traditional fast-food outlets and convenience stores, the variety of healthier breakfast and lunch/dinner entrées was significantly greater in fast food outlets. Compared with convenience stores, supermarkets/grocery stores provided a greater variety of regular and healthier entrées and lunch/dinner side dishes. Conclusion Convenience stores and supermarkets/grocery stores more than double the potential access to fast foods in this rural area than traditional fast-food outlets alone; however, traditional fast food outlets offer greater opportunity for healthier fast food options than convenience stores. A complete picture of fast food environment and the availability of healthier fast food options are essential to understand environmental influences on diet and health

  1. Combustor nozzles in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul; Stewart, Jason Thurman; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2017-09-12

    A micro-mixer nozzle for use in a combustor of a combustion turbine engine, the micro-mixer nozzle including: a fuel plenum defined by a shroud wall connecting a periphery of a forward tube sheet to a periphery of an aft tubesheet; a plurality of mixing tubes extending across the fuel plenum for mixing a supply of compressed air and fuel, each of the mixing tubes forming a passageway between an inlet formed through the forward tubesheet and an outlet formed through the aft tubesheet; and a wall mixing tube formed in the shroud wall.

  2. RANS simulation of the thermal mixing in HTTF LP during normal operation conditions – High Temperature Test Facility at Oregon State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradecka, Malwina J.; Woods, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Since High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors are being considered as the most promising design of upcoming IV Gen reactors, key research areas were identified to address safety aspects of this design. A number of simulations and experiments need to be conducted in this field. In this paper, thermal-hydraulics aspects of coolant flow through Lower Plenum (LP) of HTGR were considered, specifically flow characteristics to identify the risk of temperature stratification in LP and hot spotting on LP floor. Local temperature gradients can cause material degradation. As the power profile is non-uniform across the core, jets of coolant exit the core region at different temperatures and enter the LP impinging on LP floor causing hot spots at LP structure and temperature stratification. To address those issues numerical simulation and an experiment are being developed. The numerical simulation provides coolant flow velocity and temperature fields. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mixing phenomenon in the LP due to risk of the hot streaking and thermal stratification phenomena during normal operation of HTTF. The following aspect are being examined: identification of gas flow behavior in lower plenum of HTTF based on CFD simulations, identification of hot streaking issue in the HTTF lower plenum using CFD tools, and computational investigation of gas mixing efficiency. This paper includes a description of experimental setup of HTTF, guidance for LP CFD modeling, and the results and analysis of CFD simulation. (author)

  3. The “School Foodshed”: schools and fast-food outlets in a London borough

    OpenAIRE

    Caraher, M.; Lloyd, S.; Madelin, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the location of fast-food outlets around secondary schools and the influence of fast-food availability on the food choices of school children in an inner-London borough. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A number of methods including: mapping of outlets relative to schools; sampling food; gathering data on secondary school food policies; observing food behaviour in fast food outlets and focus groups with young people. Findings were fed bac...

  4. Impact of remodeling and rehabilitation of irrigation outlets on water distribution of a canal in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodla, H.; Latif, M.

    2009-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate water distribution along a distributary canal located in the southern part of the Punjab Province. It is a large size distributary having 353 cusecs of authorized discharge. This distributary was subjected to a series of problems including but not limited to (i) withdrawal of water by illegal means, (ii) design and construction flaws in the outlets, (iii) improper selection of the type of outlets and many others. The outlets were intentionally designed wrongly by using fictitious hydraulics data to provide undue benefits to the irrigators. During construction, setting of the outlets was also intentionally fixed at lower level than the designed. Investigations were carried out to evaluate hydraulic performance of all the outlets of the channel. Based on the observed data capacity statements of all the outlets were revised. The outlets were redesigned on the basis of actual hydraulic data of each outlet. Most of the non-modular outlets (Pipe and Scratchley) were converted to semi-modular outlets (OFRB and APM). With implementation of new and modified design of the outlets at the site, equity of water distribution has been improved. The results revealed that design of the outlets had a significant impact on equitable distribution of water along the distribution. (author)

  5. 16 CFR Appendix B to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(1) Table-Systemwide Outlet Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. B Appendix B to Part 436—Sample... 1Outlet Type Column 2Year Column 3Outlets at the Start of the Year Column 4Outlets at the End of the Year...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Item 20(3) Table-Status of Franchise Outlets D Appendix D to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES... Item 20(3) Table—Status of Franchise Outlets Status of Franchise Outlets For years 2004 to 2006 Column...

  7. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet. [Particle Image Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Pyy, L.; Telkkae, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn

  8. Bladder outlet obstruction due to a small midline prostatic cyst - diagnostic imaging and interventional radiological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueppe, T.; Kopka, L.; Friedrich, M.; Kuehn, M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a rare case of a bladder outlet obstruction due to a midline prostatic cyst. In the following clinical apperance, diagnostic imaging and therapy by CT-guided punction are reported. Differential diagnosis and therapy are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. 5 CFR 591.217 - In which outlets does OPM collect prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... data collection areas, accessibility by road, physical size, advertising, and other characteristics that reflect sales volume. To the extent practical, OPM prices like items in the same types of outlets...

  10. Is there an association between home-tobacco outlet proximity and smoking status in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; K Seid, Abdu; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    and/or tobacco outlets on smoking habits for the first time in a population based survey in Denmark. Method: Data came from the 2011 Danish national alcohol and drug survey of the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research of Aarhus University (response rate 64%) and registries of Statistics Denmark were...... between residing close to a tobacco outlet and the prevalence of current and previous smoking. However, no significant association was found between distance from residence to tobacco outlets and smoking habits. Discussion: The prevalence of current smokers (24%) is in accordance with the 2011 annual......Abstract It is well established that exposure to point-of-sale tobacco promotion or impulse purchases and access to and distance to tobacco outlets are related to youth and adult smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of distance from residence to the nearest alcohol...

  11. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  12. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  13. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fixture, wiring device, or similar item, including each separately installed connection and junction box... used. (d) As appropriate, each outlet-box or junction-box installation must meet the following...

  14. The ICS-'BPH' Study: uroflowmetry, lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder outlet obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynard, J. M.; Yang, Q.; Donovan, J. L.; Peters, T. J.; Schafer, W.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Osawa, D.; Lim, A. T.; Abrams, P.

    1998-01-01

    To explore the relationship between uroflow variables and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS): to define performance statistics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values) for maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) with respect to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) at various

  15. Numerical analysis of temperature fluctuation in core outlet region of China experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Huanjun; Xu Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature fluctuation in core outlet region of China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) was numerically simulated by the CFD software Star CCM+. With the core outlet temperatures, flows etc. under rated conditions given as boundary conditions, a 1/4 region model of the reactor core outlet region was established and calculated using LES method for this problem. The analysis results show that while CEFR operates under rated conditions, the temperature fluctuation in lower part of core outlet region is mainly concentrated in area over the edge components (steel components, control rod assembly), and one in upper part is remarkable in area above all the components. The largest fluctuation amplitude is 19 K and the remarkable frequency is below 5 Hz, and it belongs to typically low frequency fluctuation. The conclusion is useful for further experimental work. (authors)

  16. Study on in-vessel thermohydraulics phenomena of sodium-cooled fast reactors. 1. Numerical investigation for the rationalization of hydrodynamics in the upper plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2002-02-01

    A large-scale sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor in feasibility studies on commercialized fast reactors has a tendency of consideration of thorough simplified and compacted system designs to realize drastic economical improvements. Therefore, special attention should be paid to thermohydraulic designs for a gas entrainment behavior from free surfaces, a flow-induced vibration of in-vessel components, a thermal shock for various structures due to high-speed coolant flows, nonsymmetrical coolant flows, etc. in the reactor vessel. In-vessel thermohydraulic analyses were carried out using a multi-dimensional code AQUA to understand the thermohydraulic characteristics in the upper plenum, and to investigate suitable in-vessel structure for the elimination of gas entrainment possibility. From the analysis, the following results were obtained. (1) It is difficult to rationale in-vessel flow patterns through adjustments of porous ratio and pressure loss for a hold down plate and baffle plates installed in an upper core structure. (2) Dummy plug insertion to a slit of the upper core structure is one of effective measures to stabilize in-vessel flow patterns. (3) Flow guide devices such as a baffle ring and a partial inner barrel are also effective measures to eliminate impinging jet to a dipped plate (D/P) and to reduce horizontal flow velocity components at free surface. (4) Installations of labyrinth structures to a R/V - D/P gap is successful for decreasing of free surface horizontal flows. (5) Gap closing of an in-vessel fuel pot and two cold trap components has the effects of reductions for free surface horizontal flows and for the difference of free surface levels. Following future investigations are important preventive measures against the gas entrainment from the free surface. (1) Flattening of spatial axial velocity distributions at the R/V - D/P gap. (2) Alleviation measures of vortex concentration at free surface. (3) Separation measures of 3-dimensional vortex

  17. Analysis of the VVER Standard Problem INSC-PSBV1 '11% Coolant Leak from Upper Plenum' with RELAP5/MOD3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, O.; Melikhov, V.; Parfenov, Yu.; Gavritenkova, O.; Lipatov, I.; Elkin, I.; Bayless, P.

    2004-01-01

    Analyses of a loss-of-coolant experiment carried out at the PSB-VVER test facility with the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code have been performed independently by analysts at the Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (EREC) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The PSB-VVER facility is a full-height scale model of a VVER 1000 reactor that is approximately 1/300 scale in volume and power. VVER Standard Problem INSC-PSBV1 represents an 11% leak from the upper plenum of the PSB-VVER facility, simulating the rupture of one of the accumulator injection lines. The safety-significant thermalhydraulic phenomena occurring in VVER type reactors addressed by this experiment were identified in the test validation matrix. Most of the phenomena of the validation matrix were reasonably simulated by RELAP5/MOD3.2 in both calculations. The major differences between the test and the calculations were the timing of the core heatup, and the thermal response to the accumulator injection cycles in both calculations. The INEEL calculation had a more extensive axial heatup, with most of the core experiencing small heat-ups. The accumulator injection was more effective in quenching the core in the test than in the INEEL calculation. This difference is attributed to the liquid distribution in the core, rather than to the heat transfer models in the code. The code calculation had a more uniform axial distribution of the liquid in the core, and the accumulator injection did not have much impact on the core liquid inventory. In the EREC calculation, only one heatup of the cladding temperature was observed for upper and middle section of the fuel rods before the final heatup. The small heat-ups were not reproduced in EREC calculation. The difference could be attributed to differences in liquid distribution, namely the core region in the EREC calculation contains more liquid over most of the transient than in the experiment. The distribution of liquid in the core in

  18. Ice-ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauché, N.; Hubbard, A.; Gascard, J.-C.; Box, J. E.; Bates, R.; Koppes, M.; Sole, A.; Christoffersen, P.; Patton, H.

    2014-08-01

    Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estimation from Rink and Store glaciers, two major marine outlets draining the western sector of the GrIS during 2009 and 2010. We characterise the main water bodies present and interpret their interaction with their respective calving fronts. We identify two distinct processes of ice-ocean interaction which have distinct spatial and temporal footprints: (1) homogenous free convective melting which occurs across the calving front where AW is in direct contact with the ice mass, and (2) localised upwelling-driven melt by turbulent subglacial runoff mixing with fjord water which occurs at distinct injection points across the calving front. Throughout the study, AW at 2.8 ± 0.2 °C was consistently observed in contact with both glaciers below 450 m depth, yielding homogenous, free convective submarine melting up to ~200 m depth. Above this bottom layer, multiple interactions are identified, primarily controlled by the rate of subglacial fresh-water discharge which results in localised and discrete upwelling plumes. In the record melt year of 2010, the Store Glacier calving face was dominated by these runoff-driven plumes which led to a highly crenulated frontal geometry characterised by large embayments at the subglacial portals separated by headlands which are dominated by calving. Rink Glacier, which is significantly deeper than Store has a larger proportion of its submerged calving face exposed to AW, which results in a uniform, relatively flat overall frontal geometry.

  19. The Outlet Patch: Gastric Heterotopia of the Colo-rectum and Anus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Abul Ala Syed Rifat; Vieth, Michael; Khararjian, Armen; Khandakar, Binny; Lam-Himlin, Dora; Heydt, David; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Venbrux, Henry J; Byrnes, Kathleen; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Barker, Norman; Yuan, Songyang; Montgomery, Elizabeth

    2018-04-18

    Gastric heterotopia (GH) has been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract. However, the colorectal region is an extremely rare location for it. We describe the clinicopathologic features of GH of the colon, rectum, and anus. We identified 33 cases in 20 males and 13 females (median age 54 years; range, 4 months to 73 years). Sites included the rectum (N=26), anus (N=4), ileocecal junction (N=1), ascending colon (N=1) and descending colon (N=1). Presenting symptoms(N=27) included hematochezia (41%) and altered bowel habits (4%); 15 patients (55%) were asymptomatic. On colonoscopy (N=31), all appeared as solitary lesions, (median size 6.5 mm, range 2 mm - 55 mm), either as polyps (61%), raised erythematous patches (23%), an ulcer(10%), within a rectal diverticulum (3%), or a hemorrhoid (3%). Patients were managed by polypectomy. One with an associated carcinoma in the area of GH underwent resection. No morbidity related to GH itself was reported following excision. Histologically, heterotopic gastric mucosa was oxyntic type (85%), mixed oxyntic and non-oxyntic type (12%), and not specified (3%). In 5 patients a pyloric gland adenoma (PGA) arose from heterotopic gastric mucosa, two of which contained a focus of invasive adenocarcinoma. One case had associated surface foveolar type low-grade dysplasia. Another had associated adenocarcinoma arising from the heterotopic mucosa. One example harbored Helicobacter pylori organisms. We highlight the features of GH in the distal GIT - the 'outlet patch'. Association with PGA, surface dysplasia and adenocarcinoma suggests that lower tract GH can undergo neoplastic transformation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Transvaginal Mesh and Transanal Resection to Treat Outlet Obstruction Constipation Caused by Rectocele

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yang; Yu, Yongjun; Zhang, Xipeng; Li, Yuwei

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of transvaginal mesh repair (TVMR) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in treating outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele. Material/Methods Patients who had outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele were retrospectively analyzed and 39 patients were enrolled the study. Patients were assigned to either the TVMR or STARR group. Postoperative factors such as complications, pain, recurrence rate...

  1. Beyond Supermarkets: Food Outlet Location Selection in Four U.S. Cities Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Guilkey, David K; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-03-01

    Understanding what influences where food outlets locate is important for mitigating disparities in access to healthy food outlets. However, few studies have examined how neighborhood characteristics influence the neighborhood food environment over time, and whether these relationships differ by neighborhood-level income. Neighborhood-level data from four U.S. cities (Birmingham, AL; Chicago, IL; Minneapolis, MN; Oakland, CA) from 1986, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011 were used with two-step econometric models to estimate longitudinal associations between neighborhood-level characteristics (z-scores) and the log-transformed count/km 2 (density) of food outlets within real estate-derived neighborhoods. Associations were examined with lagged neighborhood-level sociodemographics and lagged density of food outlets, with interaction terms for neighborhood-level income. Data were analyzed in 2016. Neighborhood-level income at earlier years was negatively associated with the current density of convenience stores (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.16, -0.38, prestaurant density in low-income neighborhoods (10th percentile of income: β= -0.17, 95% CI= -0.34, -0.002, p=0.05), and the density of smaller grocery stores across all income levels (β= -0.27, 95% CI= -0.45, -0.09, p=0.003). There was a lack of policy-relevant associations between the pre-existing food environment and the current density of food outlet types, including supermarkets. Socioeconomically disadvantaged and minority populations may attract "unhealthy" food outlets over time. To support equal access to healthy food outlets, the availability of "less healthy" food outlets types may be relatively more important than the potential lack of supermarkets or full-service restaurants. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and genetic influences on alcohol use: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Deutsch, Arielle R; Piasecki, Thomas M

    2018-05-07

    Genetic influences on alcohol involvement are likely to vary as a function of the 'alcohol environment,' given that exposure to alcohol is a necessary precondition for genetic risk to be expressed. However, few gene-environment interaction studies of alcohol involvement have focused on characteristics of the community-level alcohol environment. The goal of this study was to examine whether living in a community with more alcohol outlets would facilitate the expression of the genetic propensity to drink in a genetically-informed national survey of United States young adults. The participants were 2434 18-26-year-old twin, full-, and half-sibling pairs from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Participants completed in-home interviews in which alcohol use was assessed. Alcohol outlet densities were extracted from state-level liquor license databases aggregated at the census tract level to derive the density of outlets. There was evidence that the estimates of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol use varied as a function of the density of alcohol outlets in the community. For example, the heritability of the frequency of alcohol use for those residing in a neighborhood with ten or more outlets was 74% (95% confidence limits = 55-94%), compared with 16% (95% confidence limits = 0-34%) for those in a neighborhood with zero outlets. This moderating effect of alcohol outlet density was not explained by the state of residence, population density, or neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics. The results suggest that living in a neighborhood with many alcohol outlets may be especially high-risk for those individuals who are genetically predisposed to frequently drink.

  3. The roles of outlet density and norms in alcohol use disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, J; Balzer, L; Galea, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Background: Alcohol outlet density and norms shape alcohol consumption. However, due to analytic challenges we do not know: (a) if alcohol outlet density and norms also shape alcohol use disorder, and (b) whether they act in combination to shape disorder. Methods: We applied a new targeted minimum loss-based estimator for rare outcomes (rTMLE) to a general population sample from New York City (N= 4000) to examine the separate and combined relations of neighborhood...

  4. The association of alcohol outlet density with illegal underage adolescent purchasing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Livingston, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that greater community densities of alcohol sales outlets are associated with greater alcohol use and problems, the mechanisms are unclear. The present study examined whether density was associated with increased purchasing of alcohol by adolescents younger than the legal purchase age of 18 in Australia. The number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 population was identified within geographic regions in Victoria, Australia. A state-representative student survey (N = 10,143) identified adolescent reports of purchasing alcohol, and multilevel modeling was then used to predict the effects for different densities of outlet types (packaged, club, on-premise, general, and overall). Each extra sales outlet per 10,000 population was associated with a significant increase in the risk of underage adolescent purchasing. The strongest effect was for club density (odds ratio = 1.22) and packaged (takeaway) outlet density (odds ratio = 1.12). Males, older children, smokers, and those with substance-using friends were more likely to purchase alcohol. One mechanism by which alcohol sales outlet density may influence population rates of alcohol use and related problems is through increasing the illegal underage purchasing of alcohol. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using public health and community partnerships to reduce density of alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Sparks, Michael; Yang, Evelyn; Schwartz, Randy

    2013-04-11

    Excessive alcohol use causes approximately 80,000 deaths in the United States each year. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recommends reducing the density of alcohol outlets - the number of physical locations in which alcoholic beverages are available for purchase either per area or per population - through the use of regulatory authority as an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. We briefly review the research on density of alcohol outlets and public health and describe the powers localities have to influence alcohol outlet density. We summarize Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density: An Action Guide, which describes steps that local communities can take to reduce outlet density and the key competencies and resources of state and local health departments. These include expertise in public health surveillance and evaluation methods, identification and tracking of outcome measures, geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, community planning and development of multisector efforts, and education of community leaders and policy makers. We illustrate the potential for partnerships between public health agencies and local communities by presenting a contemporary case study from Omaha, Nebraska. Public health agencies have a vital and necessary role to play in efforts to reduce alcohol outlet density. They are often unaware of the potential of this strategy and have strong potential partners in the thousands of community coalitions nationwide that are focused on reducing alcohol-related problems.

  6. The prospects of making small retail outlets in the Townships aggressively competitive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malefane Johannes Lebusa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, township Small Retail Outlets were mostly established for survival and operated under a generally closed market system where the competition was not very strong. However, with the advent of democracy many people lost their formal income through retrenchments and out of desperation, many of these people opened Small Retail Outlets thus most of the existing and new entrants into the township market were unskilled or semiskilled labourers with little or no formal skills in business or entrepreneurship. Such efforts were rarely guided by any specific and informed strategy of identifying and exploiting a gap in the market. With the consolidation of the free market system under democracy, big brand businesses such as Shoprite Checkers and Small Retail Outlets of foreign nationals with different strategies entered and competed in this township market. With fewer formal skills in business and entrepreneurship, the owners of the Small Retail Outlets struggled to compete and thrive under these relatively new economic conditions. Given this situation, I conducted semi-structured interviews with fifteen of these traditional Small Retail Outlets to find out and better understand the challenges they face and the skills that might be needed to aggressively compete in this space. Based on these findings and understandings, I further examined these issues and suggest infusions of specific entrepreneurship skills that could develop their aggressive competitiveness. Keywords: entrepreneurship, competitiveness, small retail outlets, shopping complexes, innovation

  7. Proposed model for fuel-coolant mixing during a core-melt accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    If complete failure of normal and emergency coolant flow occurs in a light water reactor, fission product decay heat would eventually cause melting of the reactor fuel and cladding. The core melt may then slump into the lower plenum and later into the reactor cavity and contact residual liquid water. A model is proposed to describe the fuel-coolant mixing process upon contact. The model is compared to intermediate scale experiments being conducted at Sandia. The modelling of this mixing process will aid in understanding three important processes: (1) fuel debris sizes upon quenching in water, (2) the hydrogen source term during fuel quench, and (3) the rate of steam production. Additional observations of Sandia data indicate that the steam explosion is affected by this mixing process

  8. Continuous precipitation of mineral products: influence of mixing conditions on the co-precipitation of cerium-zirconium mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Patrizio, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    An automated experimental set-up with rapid mixers is used to study the influence of mixing conditions on the co-precipitation of cerium-zirconium mixed oxides. The intensity of mixing is controlled by the inlet flow rates of the reacting solutions. An engulfment model is used to estimate a mixing time from the measurement of a segregation index by the Villermaux-Dushman reaction system. Three geometries of Hartridge Roughton mixers are compared. Mixing performance is better when a separate mixing chamber upstream of a narrower outlet pipe is present. A better mixing decreases the maximal reducibility temperature of the material and increases the crystal strains of the particles calcined at 1100 C. This is probably due to a better homogenization of the particles content. The important incorporation of nitrates in the particle at the outlet of the mixers shows precipitation occurs while the mixing process is not finished. This experimental result was confirmed by numerical simulation and an estimation of sur-saturations during the mixing process. (author)

  9. Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandzia, Claudia; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    In this guidebook most of the known and used in practice methods for achieving mixing air distribution are discussed. Mixing ventilation has been applied to many different spaces providing fresh air and thermal comfort to the occupants. Today, a design engineer can choose from large selection...

  10. The impact of the tobacco retail outlet environment on adult cessation and differences by neighborhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Pearson, Jennifer L; Xiao, Haijun; Vallone, Donna; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of tobacco retail outlets on cessation outcomes over time among non-treatment-seeking smokers and assessed differences by neighborhood poverty and individual factors. Observational longitudinal cohort study using geospatial data. We used generalized estimating equations to examine cessation outcomes in relation to the proximity and density of tobacco retail outlets near the home. Eight large Designated Media Areas across the United States. A total of 2377 baseline smokers followed over three waves from 2008 to 2010. Outlet addresses were identified through North American Industry Classification System codes and proximity and density measures were constructed for each participant at each wave. Outcomes included past 30-day abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes. Smokers in high poverty census tracts living between 500 m and 1.9 km from an outlet were over two times more likely to be abstinent than those living fewer than 500 m from an outlet (P < 0.05). Density within 500 m of home was associated with reduced abstinence [odds ratio (OR) = 0.94; confidence interval (CI) = 0.90, 0.98) and lower pro-cessation attitudes (Coeff = -0.07, CI = -0.10, -0.03) only in high poverty areas. In low poverty areas, density within 500 m was associated with greater pro-cessation attitudes (OR = 0.06; CI = 0.01, 0.12). Gender, education and heaviness of smoking did not moderate the impact of outlet proximity and density on cessation outcomes. In the United States, density of tobacco outlets within 500 m of the home residence appears to be negatively associated with smoking abstinence and pro-cessation attitudes only in poor areas. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Optimization of gas mixing system of premixed burner based on CFD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tian-Hu; Liu, Feng-Guo; You, Xue-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New multi-ejectors gas mixing system for premixed combustion burner is provided. • Two measures are proposed to improve the flow uniformity at the outlet of GMS. • Small improvement of uniformity induces significant decrease of pollutant emission. • Uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of ejector increases 234.2% and 2.9%. • Uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of ejectors increases 1.9% and 2.2%. - Abstract: The optimization of gas mixing system (GMS) of premixed burner is presented by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is proved experimentally to have strong influence on pollutant emission. To improve the uniformity at the outlet of GMS, the eleven distribution orifice plates and a diversion plate are introduced. The quantified analysis shows that the uniformity at the outlet of GMS is improved significantly. With applying the distribution orifice plates, the uniformity of velocity and fuel–gas mixing of single ejector is increased by 234.2% and 2.9%, respectively. With applying the diversion plate, the uniformity of flow rate and fuel–gas mixing of different ejectors is increased by 1.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The optimal measures and geometrical parameters provide an applicable guidance for the design of commercial premixed burner

  12. Simulation of mixing effects in a VVER-1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich Bieder; Gauthier Fauchet; Sylvie Betin; Nikola Kolev; Dimitar Popov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The work presented has been performed in the framework of the OECD/NEA thermalhydraulic benchmark V1000CT-2. This benchmark is related to fluid mixing in the reactor vessel during a MSLB accident scenario in a VVER-1000 reactor. The purpose of the first exercise is to test the capability of CFD codes to represent the coolant mixing in the reactor vessel, in particular in the downcomer and the lower plenum. Coolant mixing in a VVER-1000 V320 reactor was investigated in plant experiments during the commissioning of Kozloduy Unit 5 and 6. Starting from nearly symmetric states, asymmetric loop operation in different combinations was caused by disturbing the steam flow from one or more steam generators. Non-uniform and asymmetric loop flow mixing in the reactor vessel has been observed in the event of asymmetric loop operation. For certain flow patterns there is a shift (swirl) of the main loop flows with respect to the cold leg axes. This azimuthal shift as well as mixing coefficients from cold legs to the fuel assembly inlets have been measured. The presented reference problem is a pure TH problem with given boundary conditions and power distributions. During a stabilization phase, the thermal power of the reactor was 281 MW i.e. 9.36% of the nominal power according to primary balance. Then, a transient was initiated by closing the steam isolation valve of the steam generator one (SG-1) and isolating SG-1 from feed water. The coolant temperature in the cold and hot legs of Loop no 1 rose by 13-13.5 C. After about 20 minutes a stabilized state was reached which is considered as 'final state'. This final state has been analysed with the Trio-U code. Trio-U is a CFD code developed by the CEA Grenoble, aimed to supply an efficient computational tool to simulate transient thermalhydraulic mono-phase turbulent flows encountered in nuclear systems as well as in industrial processes. For the presented study, a LES approach was used. Therefore

  13. Understanding the Role of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania's Health System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Embrey

    Full Text Available People in many low-income countries access medicines from retail drug shops. In Tanzania, a public-private partnership launched in 2003 used an accreditation approach to improve access to quality medicines and pharmaceutical services in underserved areas. The government scaled up the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO program nationally, with over 9,000 shops now accredited. This study assessed the relationships between community members and their sources of health care and medicines, particularly antimicrobials, with a specific focus on the role ADDOs play in the health care system.Using mixed methods, we collected data in four regions. We surveyed 1,185 households and audited 96 ADDOs and 84 public/nongovernmental health facilities using a list of 17 tracer drugs. To determine practices in health facilities, we interviewed 1,365 exiting patients. To assess dispensing practices, mystery shoppers visited 306 ADDOs presenting one of three scenarios (102 each about a child's respiratory symptoms.Of 614 household members with a recent acute illness, 73% sought outside care-30% at a public facility and 31% at an ADDO. However, people bought medicines more often at ADDOs no matter who recommended the treatment; of the 581 medicines that people had received, 49% came from an ADDO. Although health facilities and ADDOs had similar availability of antimicrobials, ADDOs had more pediatric formulations available (p<0.001. The common perception was that drugs from ADDOs are more expensive, but the difference in the median cost to treat pneumonia was relatively minimal (US$0.26 in a public facility and US$0.30 in an ADDO. Over 20% of households said they had someone with a chronic condition, with 93% taking medication, but ADDOs are allowed to sell very few chronic care-related medicines. ADDO dispensers are trained to refer complicated cases to a health facility, and notably, 99% of mystery shoppers presenting a pneumonia scenario received an

  14. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  15. Proximity to Fast-Food Outlets and Supermarkets as Predictors of Fast-Food Dining Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Jessica K; Duncan, Dustin T; Elbel, Brian

    2016-08-01

    This study used cross-sectional data to test the independent relationship of proximity to chain fast-food outlets and proximity to full-service supermarkets on the frequency of mealtime dining at fast-food outlets in two major urban areas, using three approaches to define access. Interactions between presence of a supermarket and presence of fast-food outlets as predictors of fast-food dining were also tested. Residential intersections for respondents in point-of-purchase and random-digit-dial telephone surveys of adults in Philadelphia, PA, and Baltimore, MD, were geocoded. The count of fast-food outlets and supermarkets within quarter-mile, half-mile, and 1-mile street network buffers around each respondent's intersection was calculated, as well as distance to the nearest fast-food outlet and supermarket. These variables were regressed on weekly fast-food dining frequency to determine whether proximity to fast food and supermarkets had independent and joint effects on fast-food dining. The effect of access to supermarkets and chain fast-food outlets varied by study population. Among telephone survey respondents, supermarket access was the only significant predictor of fast-food dining frequency. Point-of-purchase respondents were generally unaffected by proximity to either supermarkets or fast-food outlets. However, ≥1 fast-food outlet within a 1-mile buffer was an independent predictor of consuming more fast-food meals among point-of-purchase respondents. At the quarter-mile distance, ≥1 supermarket was predictive of fewer fast-food meals. Supermarket access was associated with less fast-food dining among telephone respondents, whereas access to fast-food outlets were associated with more fast-food visits among survey respondents identified at point-of-purchase. This study adds to the existing literature on geographic determinants of fast-food dining behavior among urban adults in the general population and those who regularly consume fast food. Copyright

  16. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction or...

  17. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Examining the interaction between food outlets and outdoor food advertisements with primary school food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mat; Pearce, Jamie; Day, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Schools are commonly seen as a site of intervention to improve children's nutrition, and prevent excess weight gain. Schools may have limited influence over children's diets; however, with home and community environments also exerting an influence within schools. This study considered the environment of food outlets and outdoor food advertisements surrounding four case study primary schools in New Zealand, and the impact of that external environment on within-school food environments. The shortest travel route between school and home addresses, and the number of food outlets and advertisements passed on that route, was calculated for each student. Interviews with school management were conducted. The schools with a higher percentage of students passing food outlets and advertisements considered that their presence impacted on efforts within schools to improve the food environment. Limiting students' exposure to food outlets and outdoor food adverts through travel route planning, reducing advertising, or limiting the location of food outlets surrounding schools could be explored as intervention options to support schools in promoting nutrition.

  19. Validation of commercial business lists as a proxy for licensed alcohol outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Heather A; Gabrielli, Joy; Sargent, James D

    2017-05-19

    Studies of retail alcohol outlets are restricted to regions due to lack of U.S. national data. Commercial business lists (BL) offer a possible solution, but no data exists to determine if BLs could serve as an adequate proxy for license data. This paper compares geospatial measures of alcohol outlets derived from a commercial BL with license data for a large US state. We validated BL data as a measure of off-premise alcohol outlet density and proximity compared to license data for 5528 randomly selected California residential addresses. We calculated three proximity measures (Euclidean distance, road network travel time and distance) and two density measures (kernel density estimation and the count within a 2-mile radius) for each dataset. The data was acquired in 2015 and processed and analyzed in 2015 and 2016. Correlations and reliabilities between density (correlation 0.98; Cronbach's α 0.97-0.99) and proximity (correlations 0.77-0.86; α 0.87-0.92) measures were high. For proximity, BL data matched license in 55-57% of addresses, overstated distance in 19%, and understated in 24-26%. BL data can serve as a reliable proxy for licensed alcohol outlets, thus extending the work that can be performed in studies on associations between retail alcohol outlets and drinking outcomes.

  20. Geocoding routinely collected administrative data to measure access to alcohol outlets in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fry

    2017-04-01

    All authorities were able to provide an actual or approximate license issue date, allowing us to summarise the number of outlets annually. Several authorities were unable to provide precise outlet closure dates, so the date of the last interaction with the outlet was used to generate an approximate end date. One-half of the unitary authorities were able to provide the On/Off sales status of outlets, and 9 were able to provide opening hours. From these data we were able to geocode 53% (range 28% to 72% by local authority using GIS, the remaining 47% were matched using Google products to verify and extract a precise geographic location. Conclusions The collation and processing of retrospective alcohol outlet data was successfully completed to enable the building of a longitudinal exposure dataset. There was considerable variation between the unitary authorities in the quality of address data, and data related to the availability of alcohol, for example opening hours. The lack of address structure required us to devise a manual address matching process to capture the addresses that could not be geocoded. To aid future data linkage based evaluations to provide policy evidence in a timely manner, local government datasets should use standardised data fields, including addresses and Point-of-Capture address verification.

  1. Bursting Events in Pressure Flushing with Expanding Bottom Outlet Channel within Dam Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila Tofighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, large dams in the world, due to the high amount of sediments in the reservoir, especially around the intake, have operational problems. One of the solutions for this problem is pressure flushing. In this type of flushing, a mixture of water and sediment is removed from bottom outlets form dam reservoir and a funnel shaped crater is created in the vicinity of the outlet opening. In laboratory experiments carried out in this study, pressure flushing with the expansion of bottom outlet within the reservoir and its statistical analysis of bursting events were investigated. The structure of the turbulent flow is not fully understood due to their complexity and random nature. Klein et al. Introduced the turbulence bursting in this kind of flow and Nezo and Nakagora suggested that the events resulting from turbulence bursting has a significant effect of transferring the sediment particles. Materials and Methods: For the purposes of this study, the experiments were conducted with a physical model with 7m length, 1.4m width, and 1.5m height, consisting of three parts namely the inlet of the model, the main reservoir, and settling basin. The main reservoir of the model was 5m long and the sediments were placed within this part of the model. The sediment particles were non-cohesive silica with uniform size and with median diameter (d50 1.15mm and geometrics standard deviation (σg 1.37. Experiments carried out with different discharges and water depths above the bottom outlet in different expansion size of outlet channel in constant sediment level of 20cm above the center of the outlet channel. The model was slowly filled with water until the water surface elevation reached to a desired level. The bottom outlet was manually opened, after a while sedimentwere discharged with the water flow in very high concentrations through the outlet channel (sudden discharge and a funnel shaped crater was formed in front of it. After the run of

  2. KORELASI PENGGUNAAN BAHASA INGGRIS DALAM PENAMAAN FACTORY OUTLET (FO DI BANDUNG TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gartika Rahmasari

    2016-03-01

        Abstrak - Bahasa Inggris merupakan bahasa yang memiliki prestise atau kedudukan yang tinggi, bahkan di Indonesia yang memiliki bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa nasional. Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa internasional mendapatkan apresiasi lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan bahasa Indonesia, khususnya di bidang pariwisata. Bandung sebagai salah satu tujuan pariwisata, khususnya wisata kuliner dan tujuan belanja, tidak terkecuali mendapat pengaruh yang besar dalam hal penggunaan bahasa Inggris. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari penggunaan sejumlah nama Factory Outlet yang ada di Bandung, yang hampir sebagian besar menggunakan bahasa Ingris atau serapan bahasa Inggris sebagai “brand” atau nama yang digunakan oleh Factory Outlet yang tersebar di seluruh Bandung. Jurnal ini merupakan study literatur yang meneliti tentang hubungan penggunaan bahasa Asing dalam nama Factory Outlet  (FO terhadap keputusan pembelian. Yang menjadi responden yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa Ilmu Komunikasi, Universitas Telkom sebanyak 55 responden, dengan rentang usia 17-20 tahun. Dari hasil penelitian, diketahui bahwa secara umum, penggunaan bahasa Inggris dalam penamaan Factory Outlet (FO mempengaruhi keputusan responden untuk berbelanja ke FO tersebut.   Kata Kunci: Keputusan Pembelian, Factory Outlet, FO, Bahasa Inggris.

  3. Evaluation of the RELAP5/MOD3 multidimensional component model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, E.T.; Rens, T.E.; Coffield, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Accurate plenum predictions, which are directly related to the mixing models used, are an important plant modeling consideration because of the consequential impact on basic transient performance calculations for the integrated system. The effect of plenum is a time shift between inlet and outlet temperature changes to the particular volume. Perfect mixing, where the total volume interacts instantaneously with the total inlet flow, does not occur because of effects such as inlet/outlet nozzle jetting, flow stratification, nested vortices within the volume and the general three-dimensional velocity distribution of the flow field. The time lag which exists between the inlet and outlet flows impacts the predicted rate of temperature change experienced by various plant system components and this impacts local component analyses which are affected by the rate of temperature change. This study includes a comparison of two-dimensional plenum mixing predictions using CFD-FLOW3D, RELAP5/MOD3 and perfect mixing models. Three different geometries (flat, square and tall) are assessed for scalar transport times using a wide range of inlet velocity and isothermal conditions. In addition, the three geometries were evaluated for low flow conditions with the inlet flow experiencing a large step temperature decrease. A major conclusion from this study is that the RELAP5/MOD3 multidimensional component model appears to be adequately predicting plenum mixing for a wide range of thermal-hydraulic conditions representative of plant transients

  4. Heat transfer from the evaporator outlet to the charge of thermostatic expansion valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langmaack, Lasse Nicolai; Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard

    2006-01-01

    outlet with a special mounting strap. The heat transfer is quite complex because it takes place both directly through the contact points between bulb and pipe and indirectly through the mounting strap The TXV has to react to temperature changes at the evaporator outlet. Therefore, the dynamic behavior...... of the valve (and thereby the whole refrigeration system) depends greatly on the heat transfer between the evaporator outlet tube and the charge in the bulb. In this paper a model for the overall heat transfer between the pipe and the charge is presented. Geometrical data and material properties have been kept...... been found to predict the time constant for the temperature development in the bulb within 1-10 %. Furthermore it has been found that app. 20% of the heat transfer takes place trough the mounting strap....

  5. The influence of cooling water outlet of the Ringhals power plant on the coastal fish colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, E.

    1988-03-01

    Fish abundance has been monitored with fyke nets in 1976-1987 at the cooling-water outlet from the Ringhals nuclear power plant at the Swedish west coast and in a reference area. Judging from the dependence of the catches on temperature, Myoxocephalus scorpius, Zoarces viviparus, Gadus morhua and Platichtys flesus can be classified as cold-water species and Symphodus melops, Ctenolabrus rupestris, Carci nus maenas and Anguilla anguilla as warm-water species. As a rule the warm-water species were more and the cold-water fishes less abundant in the outlet area than in the reference area. The catch of the economically important Anguilla was about three times greater in the heated area. A lower abundance than expected of Ctenolabrus and Myoxocephalus at the outlet may be caused by a loss of eggs and larvae in the cooling-water system. (author)

  6. Ayurvedic medicine in Mauritius: Profile of Ayurvedic outlet, use, sale, distribution, regulation and importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaheebocus, Naailah; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2017-02-02

    Ayurvedic medicine (AM) is a legalised alternative traditional medical system in the multicultural tropical island of Mauritius. A panoply of Ayurvedic specialised shops/centres involved in the provision of Ayurvedic services hereafter termed as 'outlets' operates in different regions of the island and is extensively exploited by a significant number of Mauritians. Nonetheless, there is currently no study geared towards studying the status of AM and profile of Ayurvedic outlets in Mauritius and there is undoubtedly a dearth of standardized regulatory framework governing the practice of AM in Mauritius. The present study attempts to study the profile of Ayurvedic outlets, sale, distribution, regulation and importation of AM in Mauritius. To evaluate the characteristics profile of Ayurvedic shops/clinics/pharmacies/centres, to document common Ayurvedic products used in the treatment and management of diseases, and to analyse existing regulatory control of AM in Mauritius. Ayurvedic outlets were identified using a random approach. Once permission granted, outlets were visited where face-to-face interviews with Ayurvedic practitioners/directors/dispensers were undertaken using a semi-structured questionnaire. The characteristics of the outlets with respect to the type of business registration, procurement and dispensing of products, registration and qualification of personnels employed amongst others were studied. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 10 was used to classify common AM dispensed to patients. Additionally, information was sought from local authorities pertaining to existing legislation governing the importation and regulation of AM in Mauritius. A total of 16 Ayurvedic outlets ('pharmacies' (n=3), clinics (n=2), shops (n=5) and centres (n=6)) was surveyed. Six outlets dispensed AM strictly on prescription only after consultation with an onsite full-time employed registered Ayurvedic practitioner. Seven outlets offered AM both on prescription

  7. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  8. Gastric diverticulum causing gastric outlet obstruction in the setting of duodenal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashis Mukherjee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal obstruction due to duodenal atresia occurs in 1 in 10,000 live births and is the most common type of intestinal obstruction in neonates [1–3]. Gastric outlet obstruction in the newborn period from causes other than hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is very uncommon [3]. Potential etiologies include gastric volvulus, antral web, and duplication cysts. Gastric diverticula in the infant is even more rare, with only a few case reports published, and only one describes a gastric diverticulum in the presence of a duodenal atresia [4–8]. In this report, we describe the first case of a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gastric diverticulum in the presence of duodenal atresia. Keywords: Duodenal atresia, Gastric diverticulum, Gastric outlet obstruction

  9. Malignant gastric outlet obstruction managed by endoscopic stenting: a prospective single-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Adamsen, Sven; Wøjdemann, Morten

    2008-01-01

    -to-treat principle. All patients were offered endoscopic stenting. Oral intake before and after stenting was assessed using the gastric outlet obstruction score system (GOOSS). Various lengths of duodenal Hanaro(R) self-expanding nitinol stents were delivered through a therapeutic endoscope. Outcome criteria were......Objective. Endoscopic stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction was chosen as the primary strategy by which to palliate this complication, which is dominated by weight loss and anorexia. Advanced upper gastrointestinal tract cancers present late and life expectancy is limited. Only smaller...... multicentre studies point to endoscopic stenting as superior to surgery in terms of clinical outcome and cost. Material and methods. Forty-five consecutive patients with gastric outlet obstruction as a result of advanced upper GI-tract malignancy were enrolled in accordance with the intention...

  10. Surf zone entrainment, along-shore transport, and human health implications of pollution from tidal outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, S. B.; Kim, J. H.; Jones, B. H.; Jenkins, S. A.; Wasyl, J.; Cudaback, C.

    2005-10-01

    Field experiments and modeling studies were carried out to characterize the surf zone entrainment and along-shore transport of pollution from two tidal outlets that drain into Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, popular public beaches in southern California. The surf zone entrainment and near-shore transport of pollutants from these tidal outlets appears to be controlled by prevailing wave conditions and coastal currents, and fine-scale features of the flow field around the outlets. An analysis of data from dye experiments and fecal indicator bacteria monitoring studies reveals that the along-shore flux of surf zone water is at least 50 to 300 times larger than the cross-shore flux of surf zone water. As a result, pollutants entrained in the surf zone hug the shore, where they travel significant distances parallel to the beach before diluting to extinction. Under the assumption that all surf zone pollution at Huntington Beach originates from two tidal outlets, the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets, models of mass and momentum transport in the surf zone approximately capture the observed tidal phasing and magnitude of certain fecal indicator bacteria groups (total coliform) but not others (Escherichia coli and enterococci), implying the existence of multiple sources of, and/or multiple transport pathways for, fecal pollution at this site. The intersection of human recreation and near-shore pollution pathways implies that, from a human health perspective, special care should be taken to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants from land-side sources of surface water runoff, such as tidal outlets and storm drains.

  11. Catchment power and the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to the outlet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Sklar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The delivery of water, sediment, and solutes by catchments is influenced by the distribution of source elevations and their travel distances to the outlet. For example, elevation affects the magnitude and phase of precipitation, as well as the climatic factors that govern rock weathering, which influence the production rate and initial particle size of sediments. Travel distance, in turn, affects the timing of flood peaks at the outlet and the degree of sediment size reduction by wear, which affects particle size distributions at the outlet. The distributions of elevation and travel distance have been studied extensively but separately, as the hypsometric curve and width function. Yet a catchment can be considered as a collection of points, each with paired values of elevation and travel distance. For every point, the ratio of elevation to travel distance defines the mean slope for transport of mass to the outlet. Recognizing that mean slope is proportional to the average rate of loss of potential energy by water and sediment during transport to the outlet, we use the joint distribution of elevation and travel distance to define two new metrics for catchment geometry: "source-area power", and the corresponding catchment-wide integral "catchment power". We explore patterns in source-area and catchment power across three study catchments spanning a range of relief and drainage area. We then develop an empirical algorithm for generating synthetic source-area power distributions, which can be parameterized with data from natural catchments. This new way of quantifying the three-dimensional geometry of catchments can be used to explore the effects of topography on the distribution on fluxes of water, sediment, isotopes, and other landscape products passing through catchment outlets, and may provide a fresh perspective on problems of both practical and theoretical interest.

  12. Abandonment of the low level outlet structure at the McGregor South Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, D.L; Murray, T.K. [Klohn-Crippen Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Soutar, B.M. [Alberta Transportation, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Carseland-Bow River Headworks (CBRH) is a major multi-purpose water delivery system, situated in southern Alberta. It supplies water to 87,000 hectares of agricultural land and several municipalities. The system was originally built starting in 1909. It consists of diversion works on the Bow River, 65 kilometres of canal, and the McGregor and Little Bow reservoirs. In the 1950s, the system was rehabilitated by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA), and Travers Reservoir was added in 1954. In 1973, ownership and operation of the CBRH system was turned over to Alberta Environment. In 2001, Alberta Transportation implemented a major program to rehabilitate and upgrade the CBRH system. This program included increasing the capacity of the canals and structures, and upgrading the dams to meet current dam safety guidelines. The project involved raising the north and south dams, providing an auxiliary spillway to accommodate the probable maximum flood (PMF), and rehabilitating the existing reservoir inlet and low level outlet structures. This paper discussed the abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure located within the south dam. The paper discussed the existing dams and outlet structure as well as the south dam and outlet structure. The abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure was discussed in terms of general construction; demolition; upstream conduits and gatewell; and downstream conduit. Several illustrations and photographs of the dam and the demolition were presented. It was concluded that the in-place abandonment of the existing low level outlet structure at the McGregor South Dam provides significant advantages, including eliminating the need to construct and remove an extensive cofferdam within the reservoir. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Effects of inlet/outlet configurations on the electrostatic capture of airborne nanoparticles and viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jaesung; Akin, Demir; Bashir, Rashid

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by capture and detection of airborne biological agents in real time with a cantilever biosensor without introducing the agents into liquids, we present the effects of inlet/outlet configurations of a homemade particle collector on the electrostatic capture of airborne 100 nm diameter nanoparticles under swirling gas flows. This particle collector has three different inlet/outlet configurations: forward inlet/outlet (FO), backward inlet/outlet (BO) and straight inlet/outlet (SO) configurations. We also present the electrostatic capture of Vaccinia viruses using the same particle collector and compare these virus measurements with the nanoparticle cases. The most particles were collected in the FO configuration. The numbers of particles captured in the BO and SO configurations were close within their standard deviations. For all the three configurations tested, the number of particles captured in the center electrode C was much smaller than those captured in the other electrodes at a flow rate of 1.1 l min −1 and an applied potential of 2 kV. Using a commercial CFD code FLUENT, we also simulated the effects of the three inlet/outlet configurations on the particle capture in terms of particle trajectories, velocities and travel times. This simulation was in a good agreement with measurements that the FO configuration is the most favorable to particle capture among the tested configurations at a flow rate of 1.1 l min −1 . The effects of particle diameters on the capture will also be discussed. This collector can be used for real-time monitoring of bioaerosols along with cantilever biosensors

  14. Proximity of off-premise alcohol outlets and heavy alcohol consumption: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Subramanian, S V; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi

    2013-09-01

    Availability of alcohol has been associated with alcohol consumption in cross-sectional studies. We examined longitudinally whether change in proximity to off-premise (i.e., no consumption on the premises) beer and liquor outlets is associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Distances from 54,778 Finnish Public Sector study participants' homes to the nearest off-premise beer and liquor outlets were calculated using Global Positioning System-coordinates. Between-individual analyses were used to study the effects of distance to the nearest outlet on heavy alcohol use, and within-individual analyses to study the effects of a change in distance on change in heavy use. Mean follow-up time in 2000-2009 was 6.8 (standard deviation 2.0) years. In a between-individual analysis, decrease from ≥500 m to alcohol use in women (odds ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.44), but not in men. In a within-individual analysis decrease from 500 m to 0m in log-transformed continuous distance to the nearest beer outlet increased the odds of heavy alcohol consumption in women by 13% (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). For the corresponding change in distance to liquor outlet the increase was 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.09). Change in distance from home to the nearest off-premise alcohol outlet affects the risk of heavy alcohol consumption in women. This evidence supports policies that restrict physical availability of alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical Approaches Used to Assess the Equity of Access to Food Outlets: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Karen E; Thornton, Lukar E; Cerin, Ester; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Inequalities in eating behaviours are often linked to the types of food retailers accessible in neighbourhood environments. Numerous studies have aimed to identify if access to healthy and unhealthy food retailers is socioeconomically patterned across neighbourhoods, and thus a potential risk factor for dietary inequalities. Existing reviews have examined differences between methodologies, particularly focussing on neighbourhood and food outlet access measure definitions. However, no review has informatively discussed the suitability of the statistical methodologies employed; a key issue determining the validity of study findings. Our aim was to examine the suitability of statistical approaches adopted in these analyses. Searches were conducted for articles published from 2000-2014. Eligible studies included objective measures of the neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood-level socio-economic status, with a statistical analysis of the association between food outlet access and socio-economic status. Fifty-four papers were included. Outlet accessibility was typically defined as the distance to the nearest outlet from the neighbourhood centroid, or as the number of food outlets within a neighbourhood (or buffer). To assess if these measures were linked to neighbourhood disadvantage, common statistical methods included ANOVA, correlation, and Poisson or negative binomial regression. Although all studies involved spatial data, few considered spatial analysis techniques or spatial autocorrelation. With advances in GIS software, sophisticated measures of neighbourhood outlet accessibility can be considered. However, approaches to statistical analysis often appear less sophisticated. Care should be taken to consider assumptions underlying the analysis and the possibility of spatially correlated residuals which could affect the results.

  16. Statistical Approaches Used to Assess the Equity of Access to Food Outlets: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Lamb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInequalities in eating behaviours are often linked to the types of food retailers accessible in neighbourhood environments. Numerous studies have aimed to identify if access to healthy and unhealthy food retailers is socioeconomically patterned across neighbourhoods, and thus a potential risk factor for dietary inequalities. Existing reviews have examined differences between methodologies, particularly focussing on neighbourhood and food outlet access measure definitions. However, no review has informatively discussed the suitability of the statistical methodologies employed; a key issue determining the validity of study findings. Our aim was to examine the suitability of statistical approaches adopted in these analyses.MethodsSearches were conducted for articles published from 2000-2014. Eligible studies included objective measures of the neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood-level socio-economic status, with a statistical analysis of the association between food outlet access and socio-economic status.ResultsFifty-four papers were included. Outlet accessibility was typically defined as the distance to the nearest outlet from the neighbourhood centroid, or as the number of food outlets within a neighbourhood (or buffer. To assess if these measures were linked to neighbourhood disadvantage, common statistical methods included ANOVA, correlation, and Poisson or negative binomial regression. Although all studies involved spatial data, few considered spatial analysis techniques or spatial autocorrelation.ConclusionsWith advances in GIS software, sophisticated measures of neighbourhood outlet accessibility can be considered. However, approaches to statistical analysis often appear less sophisticated. Care should be taken to consider assumptions underlying the analysis and the possibility of spatially correlated residuals which could affect the results.

  17. Factors Influencing Demand for a Producer-Owned Beef Retail Outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Cevallos, Edgar

    2004-01-01

    As the farm-to-retail price spread continues to grow, come cattle producers a beginning to consider integrating into the retail sector. Such a venture would require large investments in capital with uncertain return. This study seeks to determine the potential success of a stand-alone retail outlet selling “all natural†beef in an affluent area of Jackson, MS. Using choice-based conjoint analysis, demand for the new retail outlet is modeled as a function of the beef price at the store, dis...

  18. Isolated Cervical Rib Fracture: A Rare Etiology of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Ahmad Dar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated fracture of a cervical rib is a very rare entity and usually presents as a painless swelling or as thoracic outlet syndrome. We describe a case of a 45-year-old woman with history of fall two months back. She presented with symptoms of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome for one month. Isolated left cervical rib fracture was documented on X-ray cervical spine. Her fractured cervical rib was resected through a supraclavicular approach, and symptoms resolved completely in the postoperative period.

  19. Sodium steam generator within which are inlet and outlet ducts with pipe bundles in vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The sodium steam generator with internal flow ducts for inlet and outlet to a vessel are provided as pipe bundles in the form of helically wound concentric layers terminating in inlet and outlet connections with chambers, characterised in that within the vessel, the pipe pieces which are connected to the pipe windings with the said vessel are arranged in substantially radially aligned rows so that each row measured in the circumferential direction at least on one side is at a spacing from the following row sufficiently large that between the rows or groups of rows an open sector is provided. (G.C.)

  20. Mixed parentage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Appel, Helene; Singla, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increase in cross border intimate relationships and children of mixed parentage, there is little mention or scholarship about them in the area of childhood and migrancy in the Nordic countries. The international literature implies historical pathologisation, contestation and current...... of identity formation in the . They position themselves as having an “in-between” identity or “ just Danes” in their every day lives among friends, family, and during leisure activities. Thus a new paradigm is evolving away- from the pathologisation of mixed children, simplified one-sided categories...

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of the coolant mixing during fast deboration transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, T.; Rohde, U.; Weiss, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    For the analysis of boron dilution transients and main steam line break scenarios the modeling of the coolant mixing inside the reactor vessel is important, because the reactivity insertion strongly depends on boron acid concentration or the coolant temperature distribution. Calculations for steady state flow conditions for the WWER-440 were performed with a CFD code (CFX-4). For this calculation the RPV from the cold legs inlet through the downcomer, the lower plenum and the lower core support plate was nodulized in detail. The comparison with experimental data and analytical mixing model which is implemented in the neutron kinetic code DYN3D showed a good agreement for near-nominal conditions (all MCPs are running). The comparison between the CFD-results and the analytical model revealed differences for MSLB conditions[1]. (Authors)

  2. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  3. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  4. Requirements under decree 430 UJD for unit outlet and standby power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanco, K.

    2012-01-01

    At present, the nuclear power plants are only sufficient resources, which can cover a huge demand for electricity. Concentration so huge power in one place require adequate security from the perspective lead power outlet and standby power supply of reactor unit. (Author)

  5. Alcohol outlets near schools in a midsize Romanian city. Prevalence and chararteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Reijlink, Lian M.J.; van Dalen, Wim E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: alcohol availability is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol use, and subsequent harm. Alcohol outlets near schools are an important indicator of three types of availability related to adolescent alcohol use; physical (number), economic (price), and legal (compliance with

  6. Biomass bale stack and field outlet locations assessment for efficient infield logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvested hay or biomass are traditionally baled for better handling and they are transported to the outlet for final utilization. For better management of bale logistics, producers often aggregate bales into stacks so that bale-hauling equipment can haul multiple bales for improved efficiency. Obje...

  7. Mass balance of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers - 2000–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howat, I.M.; Ahn, Y.; Joughin, I.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of Greenland's three largest outlet glaciers, Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq and Jakobshavn Isbræ, accounted for a substantial portion of the ice sheet's mass loss over the past decade. Rapid changes in their discharge, however, make their cumulative mass-change uncertain. We derive monthly

  8. Benefits and limitations of animal models in partial bladder outlet obstruction for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Chiba, Hiroki; Higuchi, Madoka; Ouchi, Mifuka; Togo, Mio; Moriya, Kimihiko; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    The functions of the lower urinary tract have been investigated for more than a century. Lower urinary tract symptoms, such as incomplete bladder emptying, weak urine stream, daytime urinary frequency, urgency, urge incontinence and nocturia after partial bladder outlet obstruction, is a frequent cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The use of animal models is absolutely imperative for understanding the pathophysiological processes involved in bladder dysfunction. Surgical induction has been used to study lower urinary tract functions of numerous animal species, such as pig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, rat and mouse, of both sexes. Several morphological and functional modifications under partial bladder outlet obstruction have not only been observed in the bladder, but also in the central nervous system. Understanding the changes of the lower urinary tract functions induced by partial bladder outlet obstruction would also contribute to appropriate drug development for treating these pathophysiological conditions. In the present review, we discuss techniques for creating partial bladder outlet obstruction, the characteristics of several species, as well as issues of each model, and their translational value. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  9. Method for determining the outlet temperature of fuel assemblies unsupplied with thermometer in WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miko, S.; Kalya, Z.; Hamvas, I.

    1987-09-01

    The paper outlines a method for the evaluation of the outlet temperatures of fuel assemblies unsupplied with thermometer in WWER-440 reactors. The process is based on interpolation of directly measured assembly temperatures. A quantitative comparison of the errors of described algorithm to those of standard plant-computer interpolation rutine is also presented. (author)

  10. A hydrologic regression sediment-yield model for two ungaged watershed outlet stations in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, O.M.; Smith, S.E.; Shrestha, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A hydrologic regression sediment-yield model was established to determine the relationship between water discharge and suspended sediment discharge at the Blue Nile and the Atbara River outlet stations during the flood season. The model consisted of two main submodels: (1) a suspended sediment discharge model, which was used to determine suspended sediment discharge for each basin outlet; and (2) a sediment rating model, which related water discharge and suspended sediment discharge for each outlet station. Due to the absence of suspended sediment concentration measurements at or near the outlet stations, a minimum norm solution, which is based on the minimization of the unknowns rather than the residuals, was used to determine the suspended sediment discharges at the stations. In addition, the sediment rating submodel was regressed by using an observation equations procedure. Verification analyses on the model were carried out and the mean percentage errors were found to be +12.59 and -12.39, respectively, for the Blue Nile and Atbara. The hydrologic regression model was found to be most sensitive to the relative weight matrix, moderately sensitive to the mean water discharge ratio, and slightly sensitive to the concentration variation along the River Nile's course

  11. 7 CFR 987.56 - Outlets for utility and cull dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., utility dates and cull dates may be disposed of without inspection, but only in feed, non-table syrup... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outlets for utility and cull dates. 987.56 Section 987... DATES PRODUCED OR PACKED IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Disposition of Other...

  12. Positioning invasive versus noninvasive urodynamics in the assessment of bladder outlet obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, Michiel; Oelke, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide evidence of promising tests to noninvasively diagnose bladder outlet obstruction (800) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recent findings Pressure-flow studies are usually performed to prove BOO prior to prostatectomy. However, pressure-flow studies are invasive,

  13. Effect of short-term outlet obstruction on rat bladder nerve density and contractility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, M. M.; Chichester, P.; Michel, M. C.; Levin, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    1 The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between innervation density and contractile responses to field stimulation and exogenous agonists at early time points after induction of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in rats. 2 When compared with sham-operated animals, 1, 3 and 7

  14. The Effect of Bladder Outlet Obstruction on alpha(1)- and beta-Adrenoceptor Expression and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Frazier, Elfaridah P.; Vrydag, Wim; Alewijnse, Astrid E.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To explore possible changes in expression and/or function of alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor subtypes as a cause for bladder dysfunction in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Methods: BOO was induced in rats by partial urethral ligature. Contraction and relaxation experiments

  15. Consideration of hot channel factors in design for providing operating margins on coolant channel outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.; Surendar, C.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR) are horizontal pressure tube reactors using natural uranium oxide fuel in the form of short (495 mm) clusters. The fuel clusters in the Zr-Nb pressure tubes are cooled by high pressure, high temperature and subcooled circulating heavy water. Coolant flow distribution to individual channels is designed to match the power distribution so as to obtain uniform coolant outlet temperature. However, during operation, the coolant outlet temperature in individual channels deviate from their nominal value due to: tolerances in process design; effects of grid frequency on the pump speed; deviation in channel powers from the nominal values due to on-power fuelling and movement of reactivity devices, and so on. Thus an operating margin, between the highest permissible and nominal coolant outlet temperatures, is required taking into account various hot channel factors that contribute to higher coolant outlet temperatures. The paper discusses the methodology adopted to assess various hot channel factors which would provide optimum operating margins while ensuring sub-cooling. (author)

  16. Parallel segmented outlet flow high performance liquid chromatography with multiplexed detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzuli, Michelle; Terry, Jessica M.; Shalliker, R. Andrew; Conlan, Xavier A.; Barnett, Neil W.; Francis, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Multiplexed detection for liquid chromatography. •‘Parallel segmented outlet flow’ distributes inner and outer portions of the analyte zone. •Three detectors were used simultaneously for the determination of opiate alkaloids. -- Abstract: We describe a new approach to multiplex detection for HPLC, exploiting parallel segmented outlet flow – a new column technology that provides pressure-regulated control of eluate flow through multiple outlet channels, which minimises the additional dead volume associated with conventional post-column flow splitting. Using three detectors: one UV-absorbance and two chemiluminescence systems (tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) and permanganate), we examine the relative responses for six opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids under conventional and multiplexed conditions, where approximately 30% of the eluate was distributed to each detector and the remaining solution directed to a collection vessel. The parallel segmented outlet flow mode of operation offers advantages in terms of solvent consumption, waste generation, total analysis time and solute band volume when applying multiple detectors to HPLC, but the manner in which each detection system is influenced by changes in solute concentration and solution flow rates must be carefully considered

  17. Self-expandable metal stents for malignant gastric outlet obstruction: A pooled analysis of prospective literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halsema, Emo E.; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Fockens, Paul; van Hooft, Jeanin E.

    2015-01-01

    To provide an overview of the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placement for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO). A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed of the literature published between January 2009 and March 2015. Only prospective studies that

  18. Endoscopic magnetic gastroenteric anastomosis for palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction: a prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, Jeanin E.; Vleggaar, Frank P.; Moine, Olivier Le; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Voermans, Rogier P.; Costamagna, Guido; Devière, Jacques; Siersema, Peter D.; Fockens, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background: Palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction remains challenging. Although there are 2 established treatment options, ie, surgical gastrojejunostomy and endoscopic duodenal stent insertion, there is an ongoing search for a technique that would combine the safety and rapid effect of

  19. A CLINICAL STUDY ON GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION IN A SOUTH INDIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric outlet obstruction is defined as a clinical and patho - physiological consequence of any disease process that produces a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying which may be extrinsic or intrinsic. Gastric outlet obstruction can be a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract has been a sensitive and specific investigation to study the status of gastric outlet - the pylorus and has enabled early detection of lesions of both stomach a nd duodenum. We undertook a prospective clinical study regarding incidence, etiology, investigation and management of cases of Gastric outlet obstruction in adults in a period of three years. In our study the m ost common cause of GOO is Carcinoma stomach a ntral region 46.6% , duodenal ulcer 33.3% , corrosive acid ingestion sequel 8.3%, peri ampullary carcinoma 6.6%, Ca pancreas 3.3%% , cholangio Carcinoma 1.6%. Males are more commonly involved in a ratio of M: F=3:1. Surgical procedures done varied from defini tive resections to palliative bypass or feeding jejunostomy for enteral feeding

  20. Parallel segmented outlet flow high performance liquid chromatography with multiplexed detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camenzuli, Michelle [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney (Parramatta), Sydney, NSW (Australia); Terry, Jessica M. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Shalliker, R. Andrew, E-mail: r.shalliker@uws.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney (Parramatta), Sydney, NSW (Australia); Conlan, Xavier A.; Barnett, Neil W. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Francis, Paul S., E-mail: paul.francis@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia)

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Multiplexed detection for liquid chromatography. •‘Parallel segmented outlet flow’ distributes inner and outer portions of the analyte zone. •Three detectors were used simultaneously for the determination of opiate alkaloids. -- Abstract: We describe a new approach to multiplex detection for HPLC, exploiting parallel segmented outlet flow – a new column technology that provides pressure-regulated control of eluate flow through multiple outlet channels, which minimises the additional dead volume associated with conventional post-column flow splitting. Using three detectors: one UV-absorbance and two chemiluminescence systems (tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) and permanganate), we examine the relative responses for six opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids under conventional and multiplexed conditions, where approximately 30% of the eluate was distributed to each detector and the remaining solution directed to a collection vessel. The parallel segmented outlet flow mode of operation offers advantages in terms of solvent consumption, waste generation, total analysis time and solute band volume when applying multiple detectors to HPLC, but the manner in which each detection system is influenced by changes in solute concentration and solution flow rates must be carefully considered.

  1. 77 FR 74454 - Media Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Outlets for Publication of Legal and Action Notices in the Southern Region AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Deciding Officers in the Southern Region will publish notice of decisions... newspapers listed in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this notice. The Southern Region consists of...

  2. Designing vertical shafts for mines with deepening and outlet of rock to the operating level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, Ye.M.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements for designing the cross sections of central shafts are examined, as well as those for determining the productivity of lifts and equipment of the shafts with a condition of use in a subsequent technological layout of their deepening with outlet of the rock to the operating level. Typical cross sections of skip and cellular shafts are given.

  3. Local concentration of fast-food outlets is associated with poor nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Greenberg, Emily; Murphy, Jillian B; DiFazio, Lindsay A; Youra, Kathryn R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of the local availability of fast-food restaurant locations with diet and obesity. We geocoded addresses of survey respondents and fast-food restaurant locations to assess the association between the local concentration of fast-food outlets, BMI, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The survey was conducted in Genesee County, Michigan. There were 1345 individuals included in this analysis, and the response rate was 25%. The Speak to Your Health! Community Survey included fruit and vegetable consumption items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, height, weight, and demographics. We used ArcGIS to map fast-food outlets and survey respondents. Stepwise linear regressions identified unique predictors of body mass index (BMI) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Survey respondents had 8 ± 7 fast-food outlets within 2 miles of their home. Individuals living in close proximity to fast-food restaurants had higher BMIs t(1342) = 3.21, p food availability, which may constrain the success of nutrition promotion efforts. Efforts to decrease the local availability of unhealthy foods as well as programs to help consumers identify strategies for obtaining healthy meals at fast-food outlets may improve health outcomes.

  4. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fone David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1 alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2 alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3 Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4 alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1 multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2 spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics

  5. Access to food retail outlets in County Durham, UK: a pragmatic cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; Wright, Tim

    2015-02-26

    Strong links exist between deprivation, obesity, and dietary quality. Increasing interest has focussed on the concept of access to food and so-called food deserts, defined by a policy working group of the UK Low Income Project Team in 1995 as "areas of relative exclusion where people experience physical and economic barriers to accessing healthy food". We aimed to establish the accessibility of food retail outlets in County Durham, a county in north-east England, UK, considering physical access, affordability, and food range and quality. In a pragmatic cross-sectional study in County Durham, we used information from town surveys and food business databases to locate and identify food retail outlets. The prevalence of deprivation, obesity, retail outlets, takeaway outlets, and ratio of retail to takeaway outlets was mapped, to establish local food access, and any associations with deprivation and obesity. The times taken to travel from residences to supermarkets using private car and public transport were also measured. 400 members of the community participated in eight focus groups and commissioned on-street surveys. Focus group transcripts were reviewed alongside the on-street survey responses to identify key issues. Most residents shopped at least weekly for food (n=368, 92%), used a supermarket for their main food shop (372, 93%), travelled for up to 15 min (340, 85%), and used a car for transport (188, 47%). Many survey respondents indicated high levels of satisfaction with food retail outlets (average rating 8·7 out of 10 for agreement with the statement "Overall I am satisfied with the shop where I do my main food shopping"), although financial constraints and transport inconvenience were identified as barriers. Difficulties with food shopping were more widely described in focus groups, and many individuals felt that local shopping provision had declined, with an emergent excess of takeaway outlets. Food retail access was reduced for the disabled, full

  6. Approach to the HTGR core outlet temperature measurements in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.; Rodriguez, C.

    1982-06-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) constructed at Fort St. Vrain Colorado (330 MWe) used Geminol thermocouples to measure the primary coolant temperature at the core outlet. The primary coolant (helium) is heated by the graphite core to temperatures in the range of 700 deg. to 750 deg. C. The combination of the high temperature, high flow rate and radiation at the core outlet area makes it difficult to obtain accurate temperature measurements. The Geminol thermocouples installed in the Fort St. Vrain reactor have provided accurate data for several years of power operation without any failures. The indicated temperature of the core outlet thermocouples agrees with a ''traversing'' thermocouple measurement to within +-2 deg. C. The Geminol thermocouple wire was provided by the Driver-Harris Company and is similar to the chromel versus alumel thermocouple. Geminol wire is no longer distributed and on future designs, chromel versus alumel wire will be used. The next large HTGR design, which is being performed with funding support from the United States Department of Energy, will incorporate replaceable thermocouples. The thermocouples used in the Fort St. Vrain reactor were permanently installed and large in diameter (6.35 mm) to insure good reliability. The replaceable thermocouples to be used in the next large reactor will be smaller in diameter (3.18 mm). These replaceable thermocouples will be inserted into the core outlet area through long curved guide tubes that are permanently installed. These guide tubes are as long as 18 meters and must be curved to reach the core outlet regions. Tests were conducted to prove that the thermocouples could be inserted and removed through the long curved guide tubes. (author)

  7. Flow visualization study of two phase flow in a single bend outlet feeder pipe and horizontal annulus of outlet end-fitting of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supa-Amornkul, S.; Lister, D.H.; Steward, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' In CANDU-6 reactors, the pressurized high-temperature coolant flows through 380 fuel channels passing horizontally through the core. Each end of a fuel channel has a stainless steel annular end-fitting connected to a carbon steel feeder pipe. The outlet coolant, which is at 310 o C with up to 0.30 steam voidage, turns through 90 o as it passes from flow in the annular end-fitting to pipe flow in the feeder via a Grayloc connector. Since 1996, several CANDU stations have reported excessive corrosion of their outlet feeder pipes; especially between the first metre, which consisted of single or double bends. Early studies related the attack to the hydrodynamics of the coolant and verified that it was a type of flow accelerated corrosion. In order to understand the hydrodynamics of the coolant in the outlet feeders by flow-visualization, a full-scale transparent test section simulating the geometry and orientation of an outlet feeder bend with its upstream annular end-fitting were fabricated. The feeder consisted of a 54 mm inside diameter acrylic pipe with a 73 o bend, connecting to an acrylic simulation of a Grayloc flanged fitting and annular end-fitting. The annular end-fitting consisted of an inner pipe, 110 mm outer diameter, and an outer pipe, 150 mm inner diameter, both 190.7 cm long in length. The tests were performed with water and air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The maximum water volumetric flow rate was 19 L/s and the volume fraction of air varied from 0.05 to 0.56. The phase distributions within the feeder pipe and along the length of the annulus were investigated with a digital video recorder. Size, concentration and velocity of the air bubbles at particular locations were studied with a high-speed digital still camera and a high-speed digital video camera. Phase distributions and variations in bubble size with velocity were determined. Particular attention was paid to the flow pattern at the inside of the bend, where a CFD

  8. Flow visualization study of two phase flow in a single bend outlet feeder pipe and horizontal annulus of outlet end-fitting of a CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supa-Amornkul, S.; Lister, D.H.; Steward, F.R. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: h796e@unb.ca; dlister@unb.ca; fsteward@unb.ca

    2005-07-01

    'Full text:' In CANDU-6 reactors, the pressurized high-temperature coolant flows through 380 fuel channels passing horizontally through the core. Each end of a fuel channel has a stainless steel annular end-fitting connected to a carbon steel feeder pipe. The outlet coolant, which is at 310{sup o}C with up to 0.30 steam voidage, turns through 90{sup o} as it passes from flow in the annular end-fitting to pipe flow in the feeder via a Grayloc connector. Since 1996, several CANDU stations have reported excessive corrosion of their outlet feeder pipes; especially between the first metre, which consisted of single or double bends. Early studies related the attack to the hydrodynamics of the coolant and verified that it was a type of flow accelerated corrosion. In order to understand the hydrodynamics of the coolant in the outlet feeders by flow-visualization, a full-scale transparent test section simulating the geometry and orientation of an outlet feeder bend with its upstream annular end-fitting were fabricated. The feeder consisted of a 54 mm inside diameter acrylic pipe with a 73{sup o} bend, connecting to an acrylic simulation of a Grayloc flanged fitting and annular end-fitting. The annular end-fitting consisted of an inner pipe, 110 mm outer diameter, and an outer pipe, 150 mm inner diameter, both 190.7 cm long in length. The tests were performed with water and air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The maximum water volumetric flow rate was 19 L/s and the volume fraction of air varied from 0.05 to 0.56. The phase distributions within the feeder pipe and along the length of the annulus were investigated with a digital video recorder. Size, concentration and velocity of the air bubbles at particular locations were studied with a high-speed digital still camera and a high-speed digital video camera. Phase distributions and variations in bubble size with velocity were determined. Particular attention was paid to the flow pattern at the inside

  9. Parity mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The field of parity mixing in light nuclei bears upon one of the exciting and active problems of physics--the nature of the fundamental weak interaction. It is also a subject where polarization techniques play a very important role. Weak interaction theory is first reviewed to motivate the parity mixing experiments. Two very attractive systems are discussed where the nuclear physics is so beautifully simple that the experimental observation of tiny effects directly measures parity violating (PV) nuclear matrix elements which are quite sensitive to the form of the basic weak interaction. Since the measurement of very small analyzing powers and polarizations may be of general interest to this conference, some discussion is devoted to experimental techniques

  10. A temporal analysis of the spatial clustering of food outlets around schools in Christchurch, New Zealand, 1966 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Peter L; Pearce, Jamie R; Pearson, Amber L

    2015-01-01

    To explore changes in urban food environments near schools, as potential contributors to the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Addresses of food premises and schools in 1966, 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2006 were geo-coded. For each year, the number and proportion of outlets by category (supermarket/grocery; convenience; fast-food outlet) within 800 m of schools were calculated. The degree of spatial clustering of outlets was assessed using a bivariate K-function analysis. Food outlet categories, school level and school social deprivation quintiles were compared. Christchurch, New Zealand. All schools and food outlets at 10-year snapshots from 1966 to 2006. Between 1966 and 2006, the median number of supermarkets/grocery stores within 800 m of schools decreased from 5 to 1, convenience stores decreased from 2 to 1, and fast-food outlets increased from 1 to 4. The ratio of fast-food outlets to total outlets increased from 0·10 to 0·67. The clustering of fast-food outlets was greatest within 800 m of schools and around the most socially deprived schools. Over the 40-year study period, school food environments in Christchurch can be characterized by increased densities of fast-food outlets within walking distance of schools, especially around the most deprived schools. Since the 1960s, there have been substantial changes to the food environments around schools which may increasingly facilitate away-from-home food consumption for children and provide easily accessible, cheap energy-dense foods, a recognized contributor to the rise in prevalence of overweight and obesity among young people.

  11. From Medical to Recreational Marijuana Sales: Marijuana Outlets and Crime in an Era of Changing Marijuana Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gaidus, Andrew; Tam, Christina; Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    A movement from medical to recreational marijuana use allows for a larger base of potential users who have easier access to marijuana, because they do not have to visit a physician before using marijuana. This study examines whether changes in the density of marijuana outlets were related to violent, property, and marijuana-specific crimes in Denver, CO during a time in which marijuana outlets began selling marijuana for recreational, and not just medical, use. We collected data on locations of crimes, marijuana outlets and covariates for 481 Census block groups over 34 months (N = 16,354 space-time units). A Bayesian Poisson space-time model assessed statistical relationships between independent measures and crime counts within "local" Census block groups. We examined spatial "lag" effects to assess whether crimes in Census block groups adjacent to locations of outlets were also affected. Independent of the effects of covariates, densities of marijuana outlets were unrelated to property and violent crimes in local areas. However, the density of marijuana outlets in spatially adjacent areas was positively related to property crime in spatially adjacent areas over time. Further, the density of marijuana outlets in local and spatially adjacent blocks groups was related to higher rates of marijuana-specific crime. This study suggests that the effects of the availability of marijuana outlets on crime do not necessarily occur within the specific areas within which these outlets are located, but may occur in adjacent areas. Thus studies assessing the effects of these outlets in local areas alone may risk underestimating their true effects.

  12. Availability of illicit tobacco in small retail outlets before and after the implementation of Australian plain packaging legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to assess change in the availability of illicit tobacco in small mixed business retail outlets following the December 2012 introduction of plain packaging in Australia. 303 small retail outlets were visited in June and September 2012 (baseline months), and in December 2012 and February, April and July 2013. Fieldworkers requested a particular low-cost brand of cigarettes and then pressed the retailer for an 'even cheaper' brand. The cheapest pack of cigarettes offered was purchased and later examined to assess any divergence from prescribed Australian packaging regulations. The price paid was compared with tax liability and recommended retail price for the particular brand and pack size. In a sub-set of 179 stores, fieldworkers then asked the retailer about availability of unbranded (chop-chop) tobacco. Thirteen (2.2%) of 598 packs purchased pre-plain packaging were either non-compliant with Australian health warnings and/or suspiciously priced. Four packs (1.3%) of 297 met either or both criteria in the December implementation month, and five (0.6%) of 878 did so in the three collection months following implementation. Chop-chop was offered upon enquiry on 0.6% (n=2) of 338 occasions prior to implementation, 0.6% (n=1) of 170 occasions in the December 2012 implementation month, and 0.6% (n=3) of 514 occasions postimplementation. The likelihood of a 'positive' response (either an offer to sell or information about where unbranded tobacco may be purchased) did not differ across preimplementation, during-implementation and postimplementation waves. Overall, packs judged likely to be illicit were sold in response to requests for cheapest available packs on fewer than one percent of occasions. Offers to sell unbranded tobacco were rare. No change in availability of illicit tobacco was observed following implementation of plain packaging. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  13. Unsteady single-phase natural circulation flow mixing prediction using CATHARE three-dimensional capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Anis Bousbia; Vlassenbroeck, Jacques [Bel V - Subsidiary of the Belgian Federal Agency for Nuclear Contro, Brussels (Belize)

    2017-04-15

    Coolant mixing under natural circulation flow regime constitutes a key parameter that may play a role in the course of an accidental transient in a nuclear pressurized water reactor. This issue has motivated some experimental investigations carried out within the OECD/NEA PKL projects. The aim was to assess the coolant mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel downcomer and the core lower plenum under several asymmetric steady and unsteady flow conditions, and to provide experimental data for code validations. Former studies addressed the mixing phenomenon using, on the one hand, one-dimensional computational approaches with cross flows that are not fully validated under transient conditions and, on the other hand, expensive computational fluid dynamic tools that are not always justified for large-scale macroscopic phenomena. In the current framework, an unsteady coolant mixing experiment carried out in the Rossendorf coolant mixing test facility is simulated using the three-dimensional porous media capabilities of the thermal–hydraulic system CATHARE code. The current study allows highlighting the current capabilities of these codes and their suitability for reproducing the main phenomena occurring during asymmetric transient natural circulation mixing conditions.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Distributions of KFC and McDonald’s Outlets in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yikang Rui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has become one of the most important markets for international fast-food chains over the past decade. To study the regional spread of KFC and McDonald’s outlets in Chinese cities, the correlation of their distributions and degree of market expansion were explored and compared to analyze both the local and the global spatial autocorrelations. A geographically weighted Poisson regression model was also used to examine the influence of demographic, economic, and geographic factors on their spatial distributions. The findings of this comparative study reveal the site selection criteria at the city level by studying the differences and similarities in outlet distributions for KFC and McDonald’s. The presented results can guide other chains to enhance business location planning and formulate regional development policy.

  15. CFD Study of Industrial FCC Risers: The Effect of Outlet Configurations on Hydrodynamics and Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C. Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC riser reactors have complex hydrodynamics, which depend not only on operating conditions, feedstock quality, and catalyst particles characteristics, but also on the geometric configurations of the reactor. This paper presents a numerical study of the influence of different riser outlet designs on the dynamic of the flow and reactor efficiency. A three-dimensional, three-phase flow model and a four-lump kinetic scheme were used to predict the performance of the reactor. The phenomenon of vaporization of the liquid oil droplets was also analyzed. Results showed that small changes in the outlet configuration had a significant effect on the flow patterns and consequently, on the reaction yields.

  16. Radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Woo Sun; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Park, Sung Hye

    2013-03-01

    Gastric adenomyoma is a rare tumour-like lesion composed of glandular components and smooth muscle bundles. We report a case of gastric adenomyoma in a 1-week-old neonate who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported with gastric adenomyoma and a unique case demonstrating radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a young infant. At US, the lesion was seen as an asymmetrical mass-like wall-thickening of the pylorus. Upper gastrointestinal series showed findings similar to those seen in a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We suggest that gastric adenomyoma should be included in the causes of gastric outlet obstruction in neonates even though it is rare in young children.

  17. Influence of the outlet air temperature on the thermohydraulic behaviour of air coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Emila M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the optimal process conditions for the operation of air coolers demands a detailed analysis of their thermohydraulic behaviour on the one hand, and the estimation of the operating costs, on the other. One of the main parameters of the thermohydraulic behaviour of this type of equipment, is the outlet air temperature. The influence of the outlet air temperature on the performance of air coolers (heat transfer coefficient overall heat transfer coefficient, required surface area for heat transfer air-side pressure drop, fan power consumption and sound pressure level was investigated in this study. All the computations, using AirCooler software [1], were applied to cooling of the process fluid and the condensation of a multicomponent vapour mixture on two industrial devices of known geometries.

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalida M. Svastisalee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n=6,096 with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (n=80. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:  1.02–2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:  1.03–190. Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:  0.99–3.21. Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.

  19. Cosmogenic nuclides constrain surface fluctuations of an East Antarctic outlet glacier since the Pliocene.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.S.; Norton, K.P.; Mackintosh, A.N.; Anderson, J.T.H.; Kubik, P.; Vockenhuber, C.; Wittman, H.; Fink, D.; Wilson, G.S.; Golledge, N.R.; McKay, R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding past changes in the Antarctic ice sheets provides insight into how they might respond to future climate warming. During the Pliocene and Pleistocene, geological data show that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet responded to glacial and interglacial cycles by remaining relatively stable in its interior, but oscillating at its marine-based margin. It is currently not clear how outlet glaciers, which connect the ice sheet interior to its margin, responded to these orbitally-paced climate...

  20. Outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Gaku; Yoshida, Hideo; Sakoda, Naoya; Hattori, Shigeru; Kawabata, Takuya; Saiki, Munehiro; Fujita, Yasufumi; Yunoki, Keiji; Hisamochi, Kunikazu; Mine, Yoshinari

    2017-06-01

    Prosthetic valve fracture is a serious complication and may arise in patient post-valve replacement. We experienced an outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of a Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve. We performed an emergency redo mitral valve replacement and successfully retrieved the fractured strut and escaped leaflet from superficial femoral artery and the abdominal aorta. The patient showed an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  1. Are Customers Satisfied With Healthier Food Options At South African Fast-Food Outlets?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael C. Cant; Ricardo Machado; Melanie Gopaul

    2014-01-01

    Fast-food consumption has been a staple for many people; however, due to rising health concerns, there has been an increasing interest in the consumption of healthier food both in South Africa and elsewhere. Many consumers are demanding better quality foods that offer nutritional benefits. This global trend has led to fast-food outlets adding healthier food options to their menus. Limited literature exists on customer satisfaction with regards to the food quality of these healthier food optio...

  2. Marketing Communications Research On Food & Beverage Outlets Of Moevenpick Hotel Saigon

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang Minh, Tam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to conduct a marketing communications research on Food & Beverage Outlets of Moevenpick hotel Saigon. Besides, a short description of consumer rating on F&B service quality was other mission specifically assigned by the commissioned party. The research provided general information about both targeted potential customers from surrounding areas and current hotel guest and restaurant diner. Next was the analysis derived from the customer survey’s result, the ran...

  3. Global consolidation of industries and business failures: insights from brick-and-mortar and online outlets

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah-Amoah, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Although online platforms are increasingly seen as a linchpin for firms competing in the 21st century, our understanding of competition between the traditional brick-and-mortar and online outlets, and how this can lead to different types of business failures, remains limited. In the light of the disjointed nature of the current streams of research, we propose an integrated framework that classifies the differential effects of online and brick-and-mortar competition. Based on a review of the l...

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Distributions of KFC and McDonald’s Outlets in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yikang Rui; Huang Huang; Min Lu; Bao Wang; Jiechen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has become one of the most important markets for international fast-food chains over the past decade. To study the regional spread of KFC and McDonald’s outlets in Chinese cities, the correlation of their distributions and degree of market expansion were explored and compared to analyze both the local and the global spatial autocorrelations. A geographically weighted Poisson regression model was also used to examine the influence of demographic, economic, and geographic factors...

  5. Simulation of inlet and outlet riser break sequences in the N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolander, M.A.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1988-02-01

    This report documents work performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in support of the Westinghouse Hanford Company safety analyses of the N Reactor. The RELAP5/MOD2 computer code was used in analyzing two hypothetical transients. The computer code was modified specifically to simulate the refill behavior in the N Reactor process tubes. The transients analyzed were a double-ended rupture of an inlet riser column and a double-ended rupture of an outlet riser column

  6. Rapid Holocene thinning of outlet glaciers followed by readvance in the western Ross Embayment, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. S.; Whitmore, R.; Mackintosh, A.; Norton, K. P.; Eaves, S.; Stutz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating Antarctic deglaciation following the LGM provides an opportunity to better understand patterns, mechanisms and drivers of ice sheet retreat. In the Ross Sea sector, geomorphic features preserved on the seafloor indicate that streaming East Antarctic outlet glaciers once extended >100 km offshore of South Victoria Land prior to back-stepping towards their modern configurations. In order to adequately interpret the style and causes of this retreat, the timing and magnitude of corresponding ice thickness change is required. We present new constraints on ice surface lowering from Mawson Glacier, an outlet of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that flows into the western Ross Sea. Surface-exposure (10Be) ages from samples collected in elevation transects above the modern ice surface reveal that rapid thinning occurred at 5-8 ka, broadly coeval with new ages of grounding-line retreat at 6 ka and rapid thinning recorded at nearby Mackay Glacier at 7 ka. Our data also show that a moraine formed near to the modern ice margin of Mawson Glacier at 0.8 ka, which, together with historical observations, indicates that glaciers in this region readvanced during the last thousand years. We argue that 1) the accelerated thinning of outlet glaciers was driven by local grounding-line retreat through overdeepened basins during the early-mid Holocene, and 2) the glaciers subsequently readvanced, possibly linked to late Holocene sea-ice expansion, before retreating to their current positions. Our work demonstrates that these outlet glaciers were closely coupled to environmental and topography-induced perturbations near their termini throughout the Holocene.

  7. Mean energy of ions at outlet of a type Ecr plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Gonzalez D, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is described the calculations to mean energy of the ions in the extraction zone of a type Ecr plasma source considering the presence of a metallic substrate. This zone is characterized by the existence of a divergent magnetic field. It is showed that mean energy is function as the distance between the outlet and substrate as the value of the external magnetic field. (Author)

  8. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  9. Transvaginal Mesh and Transanal Resection to Treat Outlet Obstruction Constipation Caused by Rectocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Yu, Yongjun; Zhang, Xipeng; Li, Yuwei

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of transvaginal mesh repair (TVMR) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in treating outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who had outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele were retrospectively analyzed and 39 patients were enrolled the study. Patients were assigned to either the TVMR or STARR group. Postoperative factors such as complications, pain, recurrence rate, and operative time were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS Total effective rate was 100% in both groups. No long-term chronic pain occurred and discomfort rate of tenesmus was higher in the STARR group than in the TVMR group. Postoperative defecography showed that the rectocele depth was significantly reduced, and the prolapse of the rectal mucosa and the lower rectal capacity was also decreased. Four cases had mesh exposure in the TVMR group and 2 cases in the STARR group had anastomotic bleeding after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS For outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele, TVMR and STARR both obtained satisfactory results. Although TVMR is complex with longer operative time and hospitalization period, its long-term effect is better than that of STARR.

  10. [Eleven Patients with Gastric Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy after Stent Placement for Gastric Outlet Obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shunji; Nakagawa, Tomo; Konishi, Ken; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Takeshi; Yamada, Terumasa

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metallic stents is reportedly effective for gastric outlet obstructions due to advanced gastric cancer, and is less invasive than gastrojejunostomy. For patients who have good performance status, we administer chemotherapy after stent placement, although the safety and feasibility of this chemotherapy have not yet been discussed in full. Between 2011 and 2015, 15 patients at our institution underwent endoscopic gastroduodenal stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer. Eleven of these patients were administered chemotherapy after stent placement. In our case series, we did not observe any specific adverse event caused by stent placement plus chemotherapy. Adverse events after chemotherapy included anemia of CTCAE Grade 3 in 7 patients. Stent-in-stent placement was needed in 2 patients. Neither stent migration nor perforation was observed. Therefore, chemotherapy after stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer was considered safe and feasible. Stent placement is useful not only as palliative care for patients with terminal-stage disease, but also as one of the multimodal therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  11. Noise and DC balanced outlet temperature signals for monitoring coolant flow in LMFBR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, M.

    1977-01-01

    Local cooling disturbances in LMFBR fuel elements may have serious safety implications for the whole reactor core. They have to be detected reliably in an early stage of their formation therefore. This can be accomplished in principle by individual monitoring of the coolant flow rate or the coolant outlet temperature of the sub-assemblies with high precision. In this paper a method is proposed to increase the sensitivity of outlet temperature signals to cooling disturbances. Using balanced temperature signals provides a means for eliminating the normal variations from the original signals which limit the sensitivity and speed of response to cooling disturbances. It is shown that a balanced signal can be derived easily from the original temperature signal by subtracting an inlet temperature and a neutron detector signal with appropriate time shift. The method was tested with tape-recorded noise signals of the KNK I reactor at Karlsruhe. The experimental results confirm the theoretical predictions. A significant reduction of the uncertainty of measured outlet temperatures was achieved. This enables very sensitive and fast response monitoring of coolant flow. Furthermore, it was found that minimizing the variance of the balanced signal offers the possibility for a rough determination of the heat transfer coefficient of the fuel rods during normal reactor operation at power. (author)

  12. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method. Susqueda Dam case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-07-01

    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  13. Application of the PROMETHEE technique to determine depression outlet location and flow direction in DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tien-Yin; Lin, Wen-Tzu; Lin, Chao-Yuan; Chou, Wen-Chieh; Huang, Pi-Hui

    2004-02-01

    With the fast growing progress of computer technologies, spatial information on watersheds such as flow direction, watershed boundaries and the drainage network can be automatically calculated or extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). The stubborn problem that depressions exist in DEMs has been frequently encountered while extracting the spatial information of terrain. Several filling-up methods have been proposed for solving depressions. However, their suitability for large-scale flat areas is inadequate. This study proposes a depression watershed method coupled with the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEEs) theory to determine the optimal outlet and calculate the flow direction in depressions. Three processing procedures are used to derive the depressionless flow direction: (1) calculating the incipient flow direction; (2) establishing the depression watershed by tracing the upstream drainage area and determining the depression outlet using PROMETHEE theory; (3) calculating the depressionless flow direction. The developed method was used to delineate the Shihmen Reservoir watershed located in Northern Taiwan. The results show that the depression watershed method can effectively solve the shortcomings such as depression outlet differentiating and looped flow direction between depressions. The suitability of the proposed approach was verified.

  14. Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids vs traditional surgery for outlet obstructive constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yang; Liu, Qing; Wen, Hao

    2015-07-14

    To compare the clinical efficacies of two surgical procedures for hemorrhoid rectal prolapse with outlet obstruction-induced constipation. One hundred eight inpatients who underwent surgery for outlet obstructive constipation caused by internal rectal prolapse and circumferential hemorrhoids at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 2012 to June 2013 were prospectively included in the study. The patients with rectal prolapse hemorrhoids with outlet obstruction-induced constipation were randomly divided into two groups to undergo either a procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) (n = 54) or conventional surgery (n = 54; control group). Short-term (operative time, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative urinary retention, postoperative perianal edema, and postoperative pain) and long-term (postoperative anal stenosis, postoperative sensory anal incontinence, postoperative recurrence, and postoperative difficulty in defecation) clinical effects were compared between the two groups. The short- and long-term efficacies of the two procedures were determined. In terms of short-term clinical effects, operative time and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the PPH group than in the control group (24.36 ± 5.16 min vs 44.27 ± 6.57 min, 2.1 ± 1.4 d vs 3.6 ± 2.3 d, both P hemorrhoids.

  15. Transvaginal Mesh and Transanal Resection to Treat Outlet Obstruction Constipation Caused by Rectocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Yu, Yongjun; Zhang, Xipeng; Li, Yuwei

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of transvaginal mesh repair (TVMR) and stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) in treating outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele. Material/Methods Patients who had outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele were retrospectively analyzed and 39 patients were enrolled the study. Patients were assigned to either the TVMR or STARR group. Postoperative factors such as complications, pain, recurrence rate, and operative time were compared between the 2 groups. Results Total effective rate was 100% in both groups. No long-term chronic pain occurred and discomfort rate of tenesmus was higher in the STARR group than in the TVMR group. Postoperative defecography showed that the rectocele depth was significantly reduced, and the prolapse of the rectal mucosa and the lower rectal capacity was also decreased. Four cases had mesh exposure in the TVMR group and 2 cases in the STARR group had anastomotic bleeding after the surgery. Conclusions For outlet obstruction constipation caused by rectocele, TVMR and STARR both obtained satisfactory results. Although TVMR is complex with longer operative time and hospitalization period, its long-term effect is better than that of STARR. PMID:28146137

  16. Frequency, triggering factors and possible consequences of mass movements on outlet glaciers in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Margeirsson, Guðbjörn

    2016-04-01

    During the last 15 years several mass movements of various size and origin, e.g. rock avalanches, rock slides and debris slides have been observed to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland. This should not come as a surprise in this type of glacial environment, but in a way it does. When looking at the history only few mass movements are recorded to have fall on outlet glaciers in Iceland, during the decades before the year 2000 or since 1960. This "lack of mass movements" can be explained by the fact that fewer observations and monitoring were done in the past, but is it so or are we seeing increasing activity? Looking at the distribution of the known mass movements, two activity periods cam be identified. The former one around 1970 and the second one starting around 2000 and is still ongoing. Both of these periods are characterized by warmer climate leading to retreating phases of glaciers. Two larger mass movements are known from these two retreating periods. The former one occurred in January 1967. Then a large rockslide fell on the snout and into the glacial lake of the Steinholtsjökull outlet glacier in the northern side of the Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. The rockslide broke up the snout of the glacier and caused large floodwave bursting down the Steinholtsdalur valley transporting large volume of sediments down its path. The later one occurred in 2007, when a large rockavalanche fell on the Morsárjökull outlet glacier, in the southern side of the Vatnajökull ice cap. The avalanche debris covered around 1/5 of the glacier surface. Today the retreat and thinning of glaciers in Iceland are extremely rapid. The consequences of such a rapid retreat are e.g. unstable valley slopes surrounding the outlet glaciers, both in loose sediments and bedrock, thawing of mountain permafrost and not least formation of glacial lakes in front of the rapid retreating ice margins. Such conditions can become extremely hazardous, as seen by the above mentioned examples, both

  17. Greater access to fast-food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, C; Parsons, C; Godfrey, K; Robinson, S; Harvey, N C; Inskip, H; Cooper, C; Baird, J

    2016-03-01

    A healthy diet positively influences childhood bone health, but how the food environment relates to bone development is unknown. Greater neighbourhood access to fast-food outlets was associated with lower bone mass among infants, while greater access to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher bone mass at 4 years. Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long-term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. One thousand one hundred and seven children participating in the Southampton Women's Survey, UK, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and 4 and/or 6 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant's neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast-food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Neighbourhood exposure to fast-food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β = -0.23 (z-score): 95% CI -0.38, -0.08) and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β = -0.17 (z-score): 95% CI -0.32, -0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at 4 and 6 years (β = 0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β = 0.13(z-score): 95% CI -0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at 4 years, but not at 6 years. The neighbourhood food environment that pregnant mothers and young children are exposed may affect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in

  18. Albanian and UK Consumers’ Perceptions of Farmers’ Markets and Supermarkets as Outlets for Organic Food: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina-Evera Qendro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elicit UK and Albanian consumers’ perceptions of food outlets in order to understand their views on supermarkets and farmers’ markets as outlets for organic food. A qualitative research methodology was chosen as the best way to get an in-depth understanding of how consumers of these two different countries understand and evaluate buying organic food from two different food outlets. This exploratory research is a first step to find out how and why organic food is being bought in supermarkets and farmers’ markets. The results show that respondents associated organic with vegetables and fruit, that taste good, are healthy, and are free of pesticides and hormones. The importance of motives varies between the outlets they prefer for buying organic food. An interesting finding is the fact that Albanian respondents refer to the farmers’ markets as the villagers’ market.

  19. Simulation of coolant mixing in pressure vessel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, T.

    2003-06-01

    The work was aimed at the experimental investigation and numerical simulation of coolant mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of PWRs. Generally, the coolant mixing is of relevance for two classes of accident scenarios - boron dilution and cold water transients. For the investigation of the relevant mixing phenomena, the Rossendorf test facility ROCOM has been designed. ROCOM is a 1:5 scaled Plexiglas trademark model of the PWR Konvoi allowing conductivity measurements by wire mesh sensors and velocity measurements by the LDA technique. The CFD calculations were carried out with the CFD-code CFX-4. For the design of the facility, calculations were performed to analyze the scaling of the model. It was found, that the scaling of 1:5 to the prototype meets both: physical and economical demands. Flow measurements and the corresponding CFD calculations in the ROCOM downcomer under steady state conditions showed a Re number independency at nominal flow rates. The flow field is dominated by recirculation areas below the inlet nozzles. Transient flow measurements with high performance LDA-technique showed in agreement with CFX-4 results, that in the case of the start up of a pump after a laminar stage large vortices dominate the flow. In the case of stationary mixing, the maximum value of the averaged mixing scalar at the core inlet was found in the sector below the inlet nozzle, where the tracer was injected. At the start-up case of one pump due to a strong impulse driven flow at the inlet nozzle the horizontal part of the flow dominates in the downcomer. The injection is distributed into two main jets, the maximum of the tracer concentration at the core inlet appears at the opposite part of the loop where the tracer was injected. Additionally, the stationary three-dimensional flow distribution in the downcomer and the lower plenum of a VVER-440/V-230 reactor was calculated with CFX-4. The comparison with experimental data and an analytical mixing model showed a

  20. Alcohol outlet densities and alcohol price: the British Columbia experiment in the partial privatization of alcohol sales off-premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treno, Andrew J; Ponicki, William R; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply-demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  1. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test whether observed differences in fast-food consumption and obesity by fast-food outlet exposure are moderated by educational attainment. Design: In a population-based cohort of 5958 adults aged 29–62 y in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, we used educational attainment–stratified regression models to estimate the food-frequency questionnaire–derived consumption of energy-dense “fast foods” (g/d) typically sold in fast-food restaurants and measured body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) across geographic information system–derived home and work fast-food exposure quartiles. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity (BMI ≥30) and calculated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) on an additive scale. Participant data were collected during 2005–2013 and analyzed in 2015. Results: Greater fast-food consumption, BMI, and odds of obesity were associated with greater fast-food outlet exposure and a lower educational level. Fast-food consumption and BMI were significantly different across education groups at all levels of fast-food outlet exposure (P fast-food outlet exposure amplified differences in fast-food consumption across levels of education. The relation between fast-food outlet exposure and obesity was only significant among those who were least educated (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.87; RERI = 0.88), which suggested a positive additive interaction between education and fast-food outlet exposure. Conclusion: These findings suggest that efforts to improve diets and health through neighborhood-level fast-food outlet regulation might be effective across socioeconomic groups and may serve to reduce observed socioeconomic inequalities in diet and obesity. PMID

  2. Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoine, Thomas; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Brage, Søren; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-06-01

    Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors. The purpose of this study was to test whether observed differences in fast-food consumption and obesity by fast-food outlet exposure are moderated by educational attainment. In a population-based cohort of 5958 adults aged 29-62 y in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, we used educational attainment-stratified regression models to estimate the food-frequency questionnaire-derived consumption of energy-dense "fast foods" (g/d) typically sold in fast-food restaurants and measured body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) across geographic information system-derived home and work fast-food exposure quartiles. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds of obesity (BMI ≥30) and calculated relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) on an additive scale. Participant data were collected during 2005-2013 and analyzed in 2015. Greater fast-food consumption, BMI, and odds of obesity were associated with greater fast-food outlet exposure and a lower educational level. Fast-food consumption and BMI were significantly different across education groups at all levels of fast-food outlet exposure (P fast-food outlet exposure amplified differences in fast-food consumption across levels of education. The relation between fast-food outlet exposure and obesity was only significant among those who were least educated (OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.87; RERI = 0.88), which suggested a positive additive interaction between education and fast-food outlet exposure. These findings suggest that efforts to improve diets and health through neighborhood-level fast-food outlet regulation might be effective across socioeconomic groups and may serve to reduce observed socioeconomic inequalities in diet and obesity.

  3. Pemilihan food outlet sebagai faktor risiko berat badan lebih anak usia sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Tegalsari Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Renny Evelyn Hartono; BJ. Istiti Kandarina; Siti Helmyati

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTIntroduction: Overweight and obesity are conditions resulting from an imbalance of calories in the body that occur in a long time and cause more deaths than underweight. One of factors related is food pattern, which also infl uenced the selection of food outlets. Surabaya is an urban area so it has many types and characteristic s of food outlet. Elementary school (4, 5, 6) do not really depend on their parents, so their food consumption and physical activity began to vary. Objectives:...

  4. Utilization of Cupping Therapy in the Treatment of Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Collegiate Pitcher: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Cage

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present a clinical case detailing the effectiveness of dry cupping therapy in treating thoracic outlet syndrome. The utilization of dry cupping therapy on a 20-year-old collegiate baseball pitcher with diagnosed thoracic outlet syndrome is presented. Background: Thoracic outlet syndrome is a relatively rare musculoskeletal condition affecting 1/100,000 patients annually. Dry cupping therapy is an ancient therapeutic modality that utilizes various means of suction with the goal of decompressing myofascial layers. Treatment: Following diagnosis, patient was successfully treated in two weeks using dry cupping therapy. The patient experienced no further incidence of thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms and was able to complete the remainder of his competitive season. Uniqueness: The patient’s thoracic outlet syndrome was diagnosed at an early stage, leading to the need of clearance from a vascular specialist before returning to competition. To the author’s knowledge, there are currently no published case reports detailing the use of cupping therapy to treat thoracic outlet syndrome. Conclusion: Cupping therapy may be a viable treatment option when seeking to address tight musculature. Further research needs to be conducted to determine optimal parameters for cupping therapy as a therapeutic modality.

  5. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  6. Neutron radiography experiments for verification of soluble boron mixing and transport modeling under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlang, M.M.; Feltus, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The use of neutron radiography for visualization of fluid flow through flow visualization modules has been very successful. Current experiments at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor serve to verify the mixing and transport of soluble boron under natural flow conditions as would be experienced in a pressurized water reactor. Different flow geometries have been modeled including holes, slots, and baffles. Flow modules are constructed of aluminum box material 1 1/2 inches by 4 inches in varying lengths. An experimental flow system was built which pumps fluid to a head tank and natural circulation flow occurs from the head tank through the flow visualization module to be radio-graphed. The entire flow system is mounted on a portable assembly to allow placement of the flow visualization module in front of the neutron beam port. A neutron-transparent fluor-inert fluid is used to simulate water at different densities. Boron is modeled by gadolinium oxide powder as a tracer element, which is placed in a mixing assembly and injected into the system a remotely operated electric valve, once the reactor is at power. The entire sequence is recorded on real-time video. Still photographs are made frame-by-frame from the video tape. Computers are used to digitally enhance the video and still photographs. The data obtained from the enhancement will be used for verification of simple geometry predictions using the TRAC and RELAP thermal-hydraulic codes. A detailed model of a reactor vessel inlet plenum, downcomer region, flow distribution area and core inlet is being constructed to model the APGOO plenum. Successive radiography experiments of each section of the model under identical conditions will provide a complete vessel / core model for comparison with the thermal-hydraulic codes

  7. Neutron radiography experiments for verification of soluble boron mixing and transport modeling under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltus, M.A.; Morlang, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of neutron radiography for visualization of fluid flow through flow visualization modules has been very successful. Current experiments at the Penn State Breazeale Reactor serve to verify the mixing and transport of soluble boron under natural flow conditions as would be experienced in a pressurized water reactor. Different flow geometries have been modeled including holes, slots, and baffles. Flow modules are constructed of aluminum box material 1 1/2 inches by 4 inches in varying lengths. An experimental flow system was built which pumps fluid to a head tank and natural circulation flow occurs from the head tank through the flow visualization module to be radiographed. The entire flow system is mounted on a portable assembly to allow placement of the flow visualization module in front of the neutron beam port. A neutron-transparent fluorinert fluid is used to simulate water at different densities. Boron is modeled by gadolinium oxide powder as a tracer element, which is placed in a mixing assembly and injected into the system by remote operated electric valve, once the reactor is at power. The entire sequence is recorded on real-time video. Still photographs are made frame-by-frame from the video tape. Computers are used to digitally enhance the video and still photographs. The data obtained from the enhancement will be used for verification of simple geometry predictions using the TRAC and RELAP thermal-hydraulic codes. A detailed model of a reactor vessel inlet plenum, downcomer region, flow distribution area and core inlet is being constructed to model the AP600 plenum. Successive radiography experiments of each section of the model under identical conditions will provide a complete vessel/core model for comparison with the thermal-hydraulic codes

  8. Dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of thoracic outlet syndrome by anatomically adapted tube current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastora, I.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Remy, J.; Suess, C.; Scherf, C.; Guillot, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of the thoracic outlet by on-line tube-current control. Prospectively, 114 patients undergoing spiral CT angiography of the subclavian artery for thoracic outlet arterial syndromes were evaluated with and without tube-current modulation at the same session (scanning parameters for the two successive angiograms, one in the neutral position and one after the postural maneuver): 140 kV; 206 mA; scan time 0.75 s; collimation 3 mm; pitch = (1). The dose reduction system was applied in the neutral position in the first 92 consecutive patients and after postural maneuver in the remaining 22 consecutive patients. Dose reduction and image quality were analyzed in the overall study group (group 1; n = 114). The influence of the arm position was assessed in 44 of the 114 patients (group 2), matched by the transverse diameter of the upper thorax. The mean dose reduction was 33 % in group 1 (range 22-40 %) and 34 % in group 2 (range 26-40 %). In group 2 the only difference in image quality was a significantly higher frequency of graininess on low-dose scans compared with reference scans whatever the patient's arm position, graded as minimal in 38 of the 44 patients (86 %). When the low-dose technique was applied after postural maneuver in group 2: (a) the mean dose reduction was significantly higher (35 vs 32 % in the neutral position; p = 0.006); (b) graininess was less frequent (82 vs 91 % in the neutral position); and (c) the percentage of graininess graded as minimal was significantly higher (83 vs 70 % in the neutral position; p = 0.2027). On-line tube-current modulation enables dose reduction on high-quality, diagnostic spiral CT angiograms of the thoracic outlet and should be applied during data acquisition in the neutral position and after postural maneuver for optimal use. (orig.)

  9. Dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of thoracic outlet syndrome by anatomically adapted tube current modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastora, I.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Remy, J. [Dept. of Radiology, University Center Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Medical Research Group, Lille (France); Suess, C.; Scherf, C. [Siemens Medical Systems, Forcheim (Germany); Guillot, J.P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Center Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dose reduction in spiral CT angiography of the thoracic outlet by on-line tube-current control. Prospectively, 114 patients undergoing spiral CT angiography of the subclavian artery for thoracic outlet arterial syndromes were evaluated with and without tube-current modulation at the same session (scanning parameters for the two successive angiograms, one in the neutral position and one after the postural maneuver): 140 kV; 206 mA; scan time 0.75 s; collimation 3 mm; pitch = (1). The dose reduction system was applied in the neutral position in the first 92 consecutive patients and after postural maneuver in the remaining 22 consecutive patients. Dose reduction and image quality were analyzed in the overall study group (group 1; n = 114). The influence of the arm position was assessed in 44 of the 114 patients (group 2), matched by the transverse diameter of the upper thorax. The mean dose reduction was 33 % in group 1 (range 22-40 %) and 34 % in group 2 (range 26-40 %). In group 2 the only difference in image quality was a significantly higher frequency of graininess on low-dose scans compared with reference scans whatever the patient's arm position, graded as minimal in 38 of the 44 patients (86 %). When the low-dose technique was applied after postural maneuver in group 2: (a) the mean dose reduction was significantly higher (35 vs 32 % in the neutral position; p = 0.006); (b) graininess was less frequent (82 vs 91 % in the neutral position); and (c) the percentage of graininess graded as minimal was significantly higher (83 vs 70 % in the neutral position; p = 0.2027). On-line tube-current modulation enables dose reduction on high-quality, diagnostic spiral CT angiograms of the thoracic outlet and should be applied during data acquisition in the neutral position and after postural maneuver for optimal use. (orig.)

  10. Outlet Glacier-Ice Shelf-Ocean Interactions: Is the Tail Wagging the Dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizek, B. R.; Walker, R. T.; Rinehart, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    While the massive interior regions of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets are presently ``resting quietly", the lower elevations of many outlet glaciers are experiencing dramatic adjustments due to changes in ice dynamics and/or surface mass balance. Oceanic and/or atmospheric forcing in these marginal regions often leads to mass deficits for entire outlet basins. Therefore, coupling the wagging tail of ice-ocean interactions with the vast ice-sheet reservoirs is imperative for accurate assessments of future sea-level rise. To study ice-ocean dynamic processes, we couple an ocean-plume model that simulates ice-shelf basal melting rates based on temperature and salinity profiles combined with plume dynamics associated with the geometry of the ice-shelf cavity (following Jenkins, 1991 and Holland and Jenkins, 1999) with a two-dimensional, isothermal model of outlet glacier-ice shelf flow (as used in Alley et al., 2007; Walker et al., 2008; Parizek et al., in review). Depending on the assigned temperature and salinity profiles, the ocean model can simulate both water-mass end-members: either cold High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) or relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW), as well as between-member conditions. Notably, the coupled system exhibits sensitivity to the initial conditions. In particular, melting concentrated near the grounding line has the greatest effect in forcing grounding-line retreat. Retreat is further enhanced by a positive feedback between the ocean and ice, as the focused melt near the grounding line leads to an increase in the local slope of the basal ice, thereby enhancing buoyancy-driven plume flow and subsequent melt rates.

  11. Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Placement in Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bing-Wei; Lee, Kuei-Chuan; Hsieh, Yun-Cheng; Li, Chung-Pin; Chao, Yee; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Malignant gastric outlet obstruction is a late complication of intraabdominal malignancy. Self-expandable metallic stent placement has been a safe palliative treatment to relieve obstructive symptoms. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of metallic stents in our patients and analyzed the clinical outcome of different brands. Seventy-one patients with inoperable gastric outlet obstruction receiving WallFlex enteral stents (WallFlex group) or Bonastents (Bonastent group) since April 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. The overall technical and clinical success rates of stent placement were 100% and 93%, respectively. The baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes including procedure-related complications, restenosis, and reintervention rates were comparable between the 2 groups. However, the Bonastent group had a higher rate of stent fracture than the WallFlex group (13.3% vs 0%, P = 0.03). The mean duration of overall stent patency was 132.7 days. The mean duration of survival was 181.9 days. Resumption of regular diet or low residual diet at day 7 after stent insertion predicted stent patency (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.28, P = 0.01). Cancer with gastric origin (HR: 0.25, P = 0.045) and poststent chemotherapy (HR: 0.38, P = 0.006) predicted lower mortality; however, peritoneal carcinomatosis (HR: 3.09, P = 0.04) correlated with higher mortality. Metallic stent placement is a safe and effective method for relieving gastric outlet obstruction. Except higher rate of stent fracture in the Bonastent group, there is no significant difference in clinical outcomes between the Bonastent group and the WallFlex group. PMID:26200641

  12. Combined diurnal variations of discharge and hydrochemistry of the Isunnguata Sermia outlet, Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graly, Joseph; Harrington, Joel; Humphrey, Neil

    2017-05-01

    In order to examine daily cycles in meltwater routing and storage in the Isunnguata Sermia outlet of the Greenland Ice Sheet, variations in outlet stream discharge and in major element hydrochemistry were assessed over a 6-day period in July 2013. Over 4 days, discharge was assessed from hourly photography of the outlet from multiple vantages, including where midstream naled ice provided a natural gauge. pH, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment, and major element and anion chemistry were measured in samples of stream water collected every 3 h.Photography and stream observations reveal that although river width and stage have only slight diurnal variation, there are large diurnal changes in discharge shown by the doubling in width of what we term the active channel, which is characterized by large standing waves and fast flow. The concentration of dissolved solutes follows a sinusoidal diurnal cycle, except for large and variable increases in dissolved solutes during the stream's waning flow. Solute concentrations vary by ˜ 30 % between diurnal minima and maxima. Discharge maxima and minima lag temperature and surface melt by 3-7 h; diurnal solute concentration minima and maxima lag discharge by 3-6 h.This phase shift between discharge and solute concentration suggests that during high flow, water is either encountering more rock material or is stored in longer contact with rock material. We suggest that expansion of a distributed subglacial hydrologic network into seldom accessed regions during high flow could account for these phenomena, and for a spike of partial silicate reaction products during waning flow, which itself suggests a pressure threshold-triggered release of stored water.

  13. A porcine model of bladder outlet obstruction incorporating radio-telemetered cystometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Matthew B; Herndon, Claude D; Cain, Mark P; Rink, Richard C; Kaefer, Martin

    2007-07-01

    To present a novel porcine model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) with a standardized bladder outlet resistance and real-time ambulatory radio-telemetered cystometry, as BOO is a common condition with many causes in both adults and children, with significant morbidity and occasional mortality, but attempts to model this condition in many animal models have the fundamental problem of standardising the degree of outlet resistance. BOO was created in nine castrated male pigs by dividing the mid-urethra; outflow was allowed through an implanted bladder drainage catheter containing a resistance valve, allowing urine to flow across the valve only when a set pressure differential was generated across the valve. An implantable radio-telemetered pressure sensor monitored the pressure within the bladder and abdominal cavity, and relayed this information to a remote computer. Four control pigs had an occluded bladder drainage catheter and pressure sensor placed, but were allowed to void normally through the native urethra. Intra-vesical pressure was monitored by telemetry, while the resistance valve was increased weekly, beginning with 2 cmH2O and ultimately reaching 10 cmH2O. The pigs were assessed using conventional cystometry under anaesthesia before death, and samples conserved in formalin for haematoxylin and eosin staining. The pigs had radio-telemetered cystometry for a median of 26 days. All telemetry implants functioned well for the duration of the experiment, but one pig developed a urethral fistula and was excluded from the study. With BOO the bladder mass index (bladder mass/body mass x 10 000) increased from 9.7 to 20 (P = 0.004), with a significant degree of hypertrophy of the detrusor smooth muscle bundles. Obstructed bladders were significantly less compliant than control bladders (8.3 vs 22.1 mL/cmH2O, P = 0.03). Telemetric cystometry showed that there was no statistically significance difference in mean bladder pressure between obstructed and control pigs

  14. Gastric Outlet Obstruction Caused by Foley Catheter: A Complication when Substituting for Commercial Gastrostomy Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda B. Lewis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG for long-term enteral feeding is well established and commonly used. While the technique is relatively safe and simple, the gastrostomy tube itself may deteriorate or malfunction, requiring a replacement tube. We present a case of a 58-year-old woman who was found to have gastric outlet obstruction from the inflated balloon of a Foley catheter being used as a replacement for her PEG tube. This case illustrates a potential complication of using a Foley catheter in place of commercially available gastrostomy tubes.

  15. Quantitative detection of I-131 at the inlet and outlet of the Giessen municipality sewage works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leib, J.; Crecelius, R.; Pfeiff, H.; Faengewisch, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the sampling time, the mean quantities of the radioactive iodine delivered to the sewage works were measured to be 66 p.c. at the inlet and 28 p.c. at the outlet. Error sources of the procedure adopted for the study are assessment only of the overall inflow to the sewage treatment plant during sampling time, and lacking exactness of values for the detention period of the radioactive iodine in the sewage plant. Dispersion calculations made in addition to water examinations showed that the mean radiation dose as a result of the iodine discharges is far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./PW) [de

  16. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Volleyball Player Due to Nonunion of the First Rib Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttmann, Kathleen T; Satiani, Bhagwan; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Fracture of the first rib with ensuing callus formation is a rare cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. We report a case of a 17-year-old female volleyball player who presented with months of chronic arm pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated nonunion fracture of the first rib. Physical therapy had been unsuccessful in relieving the pain, and surgical management was performed with resection of the first rib through a transaxillary approach with complete resolution of symptoms. Inflammation surrounding such fractures may destroy tissue planes, making dissection more technically difficult.

  17. Flue gas moisture capacity calculation at the outlet of the condensation heat recovery unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result, study equation has been obtained which determine the flue gas moisture capacity at the outlet of the condensation heat recovery unit with an error of less than 1%. It possible to at the temperature of the flue gas below the dew point and the known air-fuel ratio efficient. The equation can be used to calculate plants operating on products of gas combustion without Use of tables and programs for calculating the water-vapor saturation pressure.

  18. Sudden increase in tidal response linked to calving and acceleration at a large Greenland outlet glacier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Juan, Julia; Elósegui, Pedro; Nettles, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    strongly with the step-like increases in glacier speed and longitudinal strain rate associated with glacial earthquakes. The enhanced response to the ocean tides may be explained by a temporary disruption of the subglacial drainage system and a concomitant reduction of the friction at the ice......Large calving events at Greenland's largest outlet glaciers are associated with glacial earthquakes and near-instantaneous increases in glacier flow speed. At some glaciers and ice streams, flow is also modulated in a regular way by ocean tidal forcing at the terminus. At Helheim Glacier, analysis...

  19. Comercio móvil: comparativa experimental, tienda especializada en moda Vs tienda outlet

    OpenAIRE

    Ausín Rodríguez, Noelia

    2014-01-01

    El comercio electrónico y en concreto, el comercio móvil, se están consolidando como nuevas formas de adquisición de productos y servicios. En este trabajo, se estudiarán los hábitos de los consumidores en la búsqueda de información sobre productos y servicios, así como en la compra, desde distintos dispositivos. A su vez, se realizará una comparativa experimental simulando la compra a través de la APP de una tienda especializada en moda (Zara) y la APP de una tienda outlet (Privalia), ...

  20. Mathematical, numerical and experimental analysis of the swirling flow at a Kaplan runner outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, S.; Ciocan, T.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Cervantes, M.; Nilsson, H.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents a novel mathematical model for a-priori computation of the swirling flow at Kaplan runners outlet. The model is an extension of the initial version developed by Susan-Resiga et al [1], to include the contributions of non-negligible radial velocity and of the variable rothalpy. Simple analytical expressions are derived for these additional data from three-dimensional numerical simulations of the Kaplan turbine. The final results, i.e. velocity components profiles, are validated against experimental data at two operating points, with the same Kaplan runner blades opening, but variable discharge.

  1. Consumer Preferences for Animal Source Foods in Uganda: Quality, Retail Forms and Retail Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Mtimet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a rapid consumer survey undertaken in Uganda. The survey aimed at identifying preferred quality and safety attributes, retail forms and retail outlets for major livestock products and by type of consumers. Results of the survey, combined with nationally representative household datasets, allows description of both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of the developing market for animal-source foods, which is anticipated to provide major business opportunities for small-scale livestock producers in the short and medium terms.

  2. Mathematical, numerical and experimental analysis of the swirling flow at a Kaplan runner outlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntean, S; Ciocan, T; Susan-Resiga, R F; Cervantes, M; Nilsson, H

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a novel mathematical model for a-priori computation of the swirling flow at Kaplan runners outlet. The model is an extension of the initial version developed by Susan-Resiga et al [1], to include the contributions of non-negligible radial velocity and of the variable rothalpy. Simple analytical expressions are derived for these additional data from three-dimensional numerical simulations of the Kaplan turbine. The final results, i.e. velocity components profiles, are validated against experimental data at two operating points, with the same Kaplan runner blades opening, but variable discharge.

  3. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Caused by Hydatid Cyst of the First Rib-Rare But Important

    OpenAIRE

    Levy Faber, Dan; Best, Lael-Anson; Militianu, Daniela; Ben Nun, Alon

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid cysts are usually located in the liver and lungs. Skeletal echinococcosis is relatively rare and that of the rib is exceptional. Less than 50 cases of costal echinococcosis have been reported in the literature so far. To our knowledge, only one case report of thoracic outlet syndrome due to echinococcal cyst in the first rib was described in 1995. Accurate pre-operative diagnosis is important but may be challenging in some cases. Reported here is a case of echinococcosis of the first ...

  4. Ranking of conventional X-ray diagnosis and phlebography in the thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Beltz, L.

    1991-01-01

    The compression of the neurovascular bundle of the upper limb (thoracic outlet syndrome, TOS) can be caused by osseous, muscular, fibrous, tumorous and habitual abnormalities of the cervicothoracic junction. Osseous causes can be shown in a conventional x-ray of the cervi cothoracic junction. In about 40% of the cases there is a venous stenosis which can be proved by means of phlebography in a special patient position (provocation position). The type of stenosis and location provides information on the cause of it. We examined 34 patients. (orig.) [de

  5. A cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between tobacco and alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Niamh K; Tisch, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Mitchell, Richard; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Hill, Sarah; Collin, Jeff

    2015-10-05

    There is a strong socio-economic gradient in both tobacco-and alcohol-related harm. One possible factor contributing to this social gradient may be greater availability of tobacco and alcohol in more socially-deprived areas. A higher density of tobacco and alcohol outlets is not only likely to increase supply but also to raise awareness of tobacco/alcohol brands, create a competitive local market that reduces product costs, and influence local social norms relating to tobacco and alcohol consumption. This paper examines the association between the density of alcohol and tobacco outlets and neighbourhood-level income deprivation. Using a national tobacco retailer register and alcohol licensing data this paper calculates the density of alcohol and tobacco retail outlets per 10,000 population for small neighbourhoods across the whole of Scotland. Average outlet density was calculated for neighbourhoods grouped by their level of income deprivation. Associations between outlet density and deprivation were analysed using one way analysis of variance. There was a positive linear relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and outlets for both tobacco (p sales alcohol (p sales and on-sales alcohol outlets. The social gradient evident in alcohol and tobacco supply may be a contributing factor to the social gradient in alcohol- and tobacco-related disease. Policymakers should consider such gradients when creating tobacco and alcohol control policies. The potential contribution to public health, and health inequalities, of reducing the physical availability of both alcohol and tobacco products should be examined in developing broader supply-side interventions.

  6. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen: associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svastisalee, Chalida M; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Powell, Lisa M; Due, Pernille

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark. The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model. In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

  7. Have drivers at alcohol outlets changed their behavior after the new traffic law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel B. De Boni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In an attempt to reduce high levels of traffic crashes, a new legislation was approved in Brazil in 2008. This study aimed to assess behavioral change among drivers who had drunk at alcohol outlets (AO after implementation of the law. Method: A three-stage probability sampling survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Individuals seen leaving AOs after drinking were approached (n=3,018. Selected drivers (n=683 answered a structured interview, were breathalyzed, and had saliva specimens collected for drug screening. Results: Overall, 60.3% (SE 4.5 of drivers reported they did not change their behavior. Among those who reported behavioral changes, most reported drinking less as their main strategy toward safer driving behavior. Variables independently associated with behavior change included having drunk at a high outlet density area (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.1-2.8] and having a favorable opinion about the law (OR 4.3 [2.1-8.9]. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that awareness of the law has not been enough to promote behavioral change. As most drivers had a favorable opinion of the law and this variable was found to be the strongest predictor of behavior change, efforts to better integrate education and enforcement seem to be pivotal and might be well received by the population.

  8. A Numerical Analysis of Droplet Breakup in Asymmetric T-Junctions with Different Outlet Pressure Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Way Lee; Han, Arum; Sadr, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Droplet splitting is the breakup of a parent droplet into two or more daughter droplets of desired sizes. It is done to improve production efficiency and investigational capacity in microfluidic devices. Passive splitting is the breakup of droplets into precise volume ratios at predetermined locations without external power sources. In this study, a 3-D simulation was conducted using the Volume-of-Fluid method to analysis the breakup process of a droplet in asymmetric T-junctions with different outlet arm lengths. The arrangement allows a droplet to be split into two smaller droplets of different sizes, where the volumetric ratio of the daughter droplets depends on the length ratios of the outlet arms. The study identified different breakup regimes such as primary, transition, bubble and non-breakup under different flow conditions and channel configurations. Furthermore, a close analysis to the primary breakup regimes were done to determine the breakup mechanisms at various flow conditions. The analysis show that the breakup mechanisms in asymmetric T-junctions is different than a regular split. A pseudo-phenomenological model for the breakup criteria was presented at the end. The model was an expanded version to a theoretically derived model for the symmetric droplet breakup. The Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Founda- tion), under Grant NPRP 5-671-2-278, supported this work.

  9. Field validation of food outlet databases: the Latino food environment in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Albrecht, Sandra S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining valid, reliable measures of food environments that serve Latino communities is important for understanding barriers to healthy eating in this at-risk population. The primary aim of the study was to examine agreement between retail food outlet data from two commercial databases, Nielsen TDLinx (TDLinx) for food stores and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B) for food stores and restaurants, relative to field observations of food stores and restaurants in thirty-one census tracts in Durham County, NC, USA. We also examined differences by proportion of Hispanic population (Spanish language. One hundred and seventy-four food stores and 337 restaurants in Durham County, NC, USA. We found that overall sensitivity of food store listings in TDLinx was higher (64 %) than listings in D&B (55 %). Twenty-five food stores were characterized by auditors as Latino food stores, with 20 % identified in TDLinx, 52 % in D&B and 56 % in both sources. Overall sensitivity of restaurants (68 %) was higher than sensitivity of Latino restaurants (38 %) listed in D&B. Sensitivity did not differ substantially by Hispanic composition of neighbourhoods. Our findings suggest that while TDLinx and D&B commercial data sources perform well for total food stores, they perform less well in identifying small and independent food outlets, including many Latino food stores and restaurants.

  10. Exclusive double outlet right ventricle with atrioventricular concordance and pulmonary stenosis. Results of reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, J; Fontan, F; Choussat, A; Caianiello, G; Fernandez, G

    1988-01-01

    Double outlet right ventricle associated with atrioventricular concordance, pulmonary stenosis and situs solitus of the atria is a subset of double outlet right ventricle related through the surgical treatment. From 1974 to 1985, 14 patients, 5 males, 9 females (mean age 8.9 years, range 13 months-22 years) were operated upon. All patients had infundibular stenosis and normal or large pulmonary arteries. The apex of the heart was to the right in 2 patients, the right and left ventricles were superior and inferior in 2 patients and 1 patient had both anomalies. The ventricular septal defect was subaortic in 11 patients (aorto-mitral discontinuity in 5) and non-committed in 3 patients. Three patients had 2 ventricular septal defects. The aorta was anterior in 3 patients and to the right of the pulmonary artery in 11 patients. All patients, through a transventricular and transatrial approach, had a reconstructive surgery. In 3 patients, an aortic homograft valved conduit was used. One patient had the ventricular septal defect enlarged. There was one early death (7.1%) from high residual right ventricle pressure and no late death. One patient had a transient atrioventricular block. One patient was reoperated upon for a residual ventricular septal defect. All survivors had a good clinical result. Re-evaluation in 8 patients confirmed excellent haemodynamics: the right ventricle to pulmonary artery pressure gradient decreased from 80 mm Hg (range 60-95) preoperatively to 24 mm Hg (range 3-32) postoperatively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Bilateral Upper Extremity DVT in a 43-Year-Old Man: Is It Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadoun Jabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent deep venous thrombosis, involving bilateral upper extremities, is an extremely rare phenomenon. We are presenting a 43-year-old man who was diagnosed with left upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT and was treated with anticoagulation and surgical decompression in 2004. 9 years later, he presented with right arm swelling and was diagnosed with right UEDVT using US venous Doppler. Venogram showed compression of the subclavian vein by the first rib, diagnosing thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS. He was treated with anticoagulation and local venolysis and later by surgical decompression of the subclavian vein. Bilateral UEDVT, as mentioned above, is an extremely rare condition that is uncommonly caused by TOS. To our knowledge, we are reporting the first case of bilateral UEDVT due to TOS. Diagnosis usually starts with US venous Doppler to detect the thrombosis, followed by the gold standard venogram to locate the area of obstruction and lyse the thrombus if needed. The ultimate treatment for TOS remains surgical decompression of the vascular bundle at the thoracic outlet.

  12. Quantifying the Impacts of Outlet Control Structures on Lake Hydrology and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, B. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    There have been limited studies of the impacts of lake level control structures on stream ecology and lake property erosion. We examine the influence of historical lake level management strategies on Higgins Lake in Michigan, which is regionally known for recreation, fisheries, and scenery. Lake control structures have potentially increased shoreline erosion and seasonally-reduced flow through the outlets, likely impacting fish habitat. Concerns over these issues spurred local land owners to seek a study on the possible hydrologic and ecological impacts of the removal or modification of the control structure. Bathymetry maps are fundamental to understanding and managing lake ecosystems. From the 1930's through the 1950's, these maps were developed for thousands of Michigan inland lakes using soundings lowered through holes cut in winter lake ice. Increased land use change and alterations of lake outlets have likely modified erosion and sedimentation rates of these lake systems. Our research includes bathymetry surveys of Higgins Lake using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and side-scan sonar. The new higher-resolution bathymetry serves as the basis for simulating impacts of potential changes in lake management, on a verity of inpoint including shoreline position and fish habitat.

  13. Epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuma Sakaguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete or asymmetrical conjoined twins are extremely rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of epigastric heteropagus associated with an omphalocele and double outlet right ventricle. The cystic legion of the epigastrium was detected in our patient by an ultrasound scan at 28 weeks' gestation. He was born at 37 weeks' gestation by scheduled caesarean section. A parasite with an incomplete head and lower limb was attached to the epigastrium of the autosite. Surgical separation of the parasite and silo placement for an omphalocele was successfully performed on the 4th day of life. He underwent secondary surgical closure of the omphalocele on the 10th day. For treatment of the cardiac anomaly, he underwent an operation of Blalock–Taussig shunt because of pulmonary artery stenosis at the age of 3 months and correction of double outlet right ventricle at the age of 10 months. At the 20-month follow-up, he was alive and showed a normal growth pattern.

  14. Investigation of coolant mixture in pressurized water reactors at the Rossendorf mixing test facility ROCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, G.; Hoehne, T.; Prasser, H.M.; Richter, K.; Weiss, F.P.

    1999-01-01

    During the so-called boron dilution or cold water transients at pressurized water reactors too weakly borated water or too cold water, respectively, might enter the reactor core. This results in the insertion of positive reactivity and possibly leads to a power excursion. If the source of unborated or subcooled water is not located in all coolant loops but in selected ones only, the amount of reactivity insertion depends on the coolant mixing in the downcomer and lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Such asymmetric disturbances of the coolant temperature or boron concentration might e.g. be the result of a failure of the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) or of a main steam line break (MSLB) that does only affect selected steam generators (SG). For the analysis of boron dilution or MSLB accidents coupled neutron kinetics/thermo-hydraulic system codes have been used. To take into account coolant mixing phenomena in these codes in a realistic manner, analytical mixing models might be included. These models must be simple and fast running on the one hand, but must well describe the real mixing conditions on the other hand. (orig.)

  15. PPOOLEX experiments on thermal stratification and mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2009-08-15

    The results of the thermal stratification experiments in 2008 with the PPOOLEX test facility are presented. PPOOLEX is a closed vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. Extra temperature measurements for capturing different aspects of the investigated phenomena were added before the experiments. The main purpose of the experiment series was to generate verification data for evaluating the capability of GOTHIC code to predict stratification and mixing phenomena. Altogether six experiments were carried out. Heat-up periods of several thousand seconds by steam injection into the dry well compartment and from there into the wet well water pool were recorded. The initial water bulk temperature was 20 deg. C. Cooling periods of several days were included in three experiments. A large difference between the pool bottom and top layer temperature was measured when small steam flow rates were used. With higher flow rates the mixing effect of steam discharge delayed the start of stratification until the pool bulk temperature exceeded 50 deg. C. The stratification process was also different in these two cases. With a small flow rate stratification was observed only above and just below the blowdown pipe outlet elevation. With a higher flow rate over a 30 deg. C temperature difference between the pool bottom and pipe outlet elevation was measured. Elevations above the pipe outlet indicated almost linear rise until the end of steam discharge. During the cooling periods the measurements of the bottom third of the pool first had an increasing trend although there was no heat input from outside. This was due to thermal diffusion downwards from the higher elevations. Heat-up in the gas space of the wet well was quite strong, first due to compression by pressure build-up and then by heat conduction from the hot dry well compartment via the intermediate floor and test vessel walls and by convection from the upper layers of the hot pool water. The gas space

  16. PPOOLEX experiments on thermal stratification and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.

    2009-08-01

    The results of the thermal stratification experiments in 2008 with the PPOOLEX test facility are presented. PPOOLEX is a closed vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. Extra temperature measurements for capturing different aspects of the investigated phenomena were added before the experiments. The main purpose of the experiment series was to generate verification data for evaluating the capability of GOTHIC code to predict stratification and mixing phenomena. Altogether six experiments were carried out. Heat-up periods of several thousand seconds by steam injection into the dry well compartment and from there into the wet well water pool were recorded. The initial water bulk temperature was 20 deg. C. Cooling periods of several days were included in three experiments. A large difference between the pool bottom and top layer temperature was measured when small steam flow rates were used. With higher flow rates the mixing effect of steam discharge delayed the start of stratification until the pool bulk temperature exceeded 50 deg. C. The stratification process was also different in these two cases. With a small flow rate stratification was observed only above and just below the blowdown pipe outlet elevation. With a higher flow rate over a 30 deg. C temperature difference between the pool bottom and pipe outlet elevation was measured. Elevations above the pipe outlet indicated almost linear rise until the end of steam discharge. During the cooling periods the measurements of the bottom third of the pool first had an increasing trend although there was no heat input from outside. This was due to thermal diffusion downwards from the higher elevations. Heat-up in the gas space of the wet well was quite strong, first due to compression by pressure build-up and then by heat conduction from the hot dry well compartment via the intermediate floor and test vessel walls and by convection from the upper layers of the hot pool water. The gas space

  17. A cross sectional study investigating the association between exposure to food outlets and childhood obesity in Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Claire; Frearson, Anna; Taylor, Adam; Radley, Duncan; Cooke, Carlton

    2014-12-06

    Current UK policy in relation to the influence of the 'food environment' on childhood obesity appears to be driven largely on assumptions or speculations because empirical evidence is lacking and findings from studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of food outlets and the proximity of food outlets in the same sample of children, without solely focusing on fast food. Cross sectional study over 3 years (n = 13,291 data aggregated). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each participant, overweight and obesity were defined as having a BMI >85(th) (sBMI 1.04) and 95(th) (sBMI 1.64) percentiles respectively (UK90 growth charts). Home and school neighbourhoods were defined as circular buffers with a 2 km Euclidean radius, centred on these locations. Commuting routes were calculated using the shortest straight line distance, with a 2 km buffer to capture varying routes. Data on food outlet locations was sourced from Leeds City Council covering the study area and mapped against postcode. Food outlets were categorised into three groups, supermarkets, takeaway and retail. Proximity to the nearest food outlet in the home and school environmental domain was also investigated. Age, gender, ethnicity and deprivation (IDACI) were included as covariates in all models. There is no evidence of an association between the number of food outlets and childhood obesity in any of these environments; Home Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.11 (95% CI = 0.95-1.30); School Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 1.00 (95% CI 0.87 - 1.16); commute Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 0.1.00 (95% CI 0.83 - 1.20). Similarly there is no evidence of an association between the proximity to the nearest food outlet and childhood obesity in the home (OR = 0.77 [95% CI = 0.61 - 0.98]) or the school (OR = 1.01 [95% CI 0.84 - 1.23]) environment. This study provides little support for the notion that exposure to food outlets in the home, school and commuting neighbourhoods increase the risk of obesity

  18. Associations between childhood obesity and the availability of food outlets in the local environment: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura J; Joyce, Sarah; Carter, Shannon; Yun, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Examine whether individual-level childhood obesity is related to residential availability of fast food and healthy food outlets. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Perth, Western Australia. A total of 1850 children aged 5 to 15 years in 2005-2010 who participated in the Western Australian Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System survey. Geographical Information Systems were used to calculate a range of measures of fast food and healthy food outlet access and availability. For example, distance to nearest and access and density measures within 800 m and 3 km of each child's residence were all tested. Multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for individual-level sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviors. An increasing number of healthy food outlets within 800 m of a child's home was associated with a significantly reduced risk of being overweight/obese in all models tested. After controlling for age, physical activity, time spent sedentary, weekly takeaway consumption, area disadvantage, and count of fast food outlets, each additional healthy food outlet within 800 m was associated with a 20% decrease in the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese (odds ratio: .800, 95% confidence intervals: .686-.933). The local food environment around children's homes has an independent effect on child weight status. These findings highlight the importance of the built environment as a potential contributor towards child health, which should be considered when developing community health promotion programs.

  19. The impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on pump in reversal based hydraulic turbine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, F X; Yang, J H; Wang, X H; Zhang, R H; Li, C E

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, in order to research the impact of inlet angle and outlet angle of guide vane on hydraulic turbine performance, a centrifugal pump in reversal is adopted as turbine. A numerical simulation method is adopted for researching outer performance and flow field of turbine. The results show: inlet angle has a crucial role to turbine, to the same flow, there is a noticeable decline for the efficiency and head of turbine with the inlet angle increases. At the best efficiency point(EFP),to a same inlet angle, when the inlet angle greater than inlet angle, velocity circulation in guide vane outlet decreases, which lead the efficiency of turbine to reduce, Contrarily, the efficiency rises. With the increase of inlet angle and outlet angle, the EFP moves to the big flow area and the uniformity of pressure distribution becomes worse. The paper indicates that the inlet angle and outlet angle have great impact on the turbine performance, and the best combination exists for the inlet angle and outlet angle of the guide vane.

  20. Study of thermal stratification and mixing using PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, B.; Szijarto, R.; Aszodi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant uses the REMIX code for the calculation of the coolant mixing in case of the use of high pressure injection system while stagnating flow is present. The use of the code for Russian type WWER-440 reactors needs strict conservative approach, and in several cases the accuracy and the reserves to safety margins cannot be determined now. In order to quantify and improve these characteristics experimental validation of the code is needed. An experimental program has been launched at Institute of Nuclear Techniques with the aim of investigating thermal stratification processes and the mixing of plumes in simple geometries. With the comparison and evaluation of measurement and computational fluid dynamics result computational models can be validated. For the experiments a simple hexahedral plexiglas tank (250 x 500 x 100 mm - H x L x D) was fabricated with five nozzles attached, which can be set up as inlets or outlets. With different inlet and outlet setups and temperature differences thermal stratification, plume mixing may be investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry. In the paper comparison of Particle Image Velocimetry measurements carried out on the plexiglas tank and the results of simulations will be presented. For the calculations the ANSYS CFX three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used. (Authors)

  1. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  2. Fluid mixing III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnby, N.

    1988-01-01

    Covering all aspects of mixing, this work presents research and developments in industrial applications, flow patterns and mixture analysis, mixing of solids into liquids, and mixing of gases into liquids

  3. Premixer assembly for mixing air and fuel for combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2016-12-13

    A premixer assembly for mixing air and fuel for combustion includes a plurality of tubes disposed at a head end of a combustor assembly. Also included is a tube of the plurality of tubes, the tube including an inlet end and an outlet end. Further included is at least one non-circular portion of the tube extending along a length of the tube, the at least one non-circular portion having a non-circular cross-section, and the tube having a substantially constant cross-sectional area along its length

  4. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  5. R/S analysis based study on long memory about CODMn in Poyang Lake Inlet and Outlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili

    2018-02-01

    Rescaled range analysis (R/S) is applied to the long memory behavior analysis of water CODMn series in Poyang Lake Inlet and Outlet in China. The results show that these CODMn series are characterized by long memory, and the characteristics have obvious differences between the Lake Inlet and Outlet. Our findings suggest that there was an obvious scale invariance, namely CODMn series in Lake Inlet for 13 weeks and CODMn in Lake Outlet for 17 weeks. Both displayed a two-power-law distribution and a similar high long memory. We made a preliminary explanation for the existence of the boundary point tc , using self-organized criticality. This work can be helpful to improvement of modelling of lake water quality.

  6. Experimental research on pressure fluctuation and vibration in a mixed flow pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Houlin; Wang, Wenbo [National Research Center of Pumps and Pumping System Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Zhou, Xiaohua [Gree Electric Appliance Inc. of Zhuhai, Zhuhai (China)

    2016-01-15

    To study the pressure fluctuation and vibration in mixed flow pumps, we chose a mixed flow pump with specific speed of 436.1 to measure. The time domains and frequency domain at each monitoring point on diffuser and outlet elbow were analyzed, as well as the vibration frequency domain characteristics at the impeller outlet and near the motor. The results show that the peak value of pressure fluctuation peak decreased gradually with the increase of flow rate. The pressure fluctuation of each monitoring point had periodicity, and the frequency domain dominated by blade passing frequency and multiple shaft frequency. The vibration frequency of each monitoring point occurred at shaft frequency and its multiple shaft frequency. The dominant frequency and the second frequency were distributed in shaft frequency and double shaft frequency.

  7. Tobacco retail outlet restrictions: health and cost impacts from multistate life-table modelling in a national population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Cleghorn, Christine L; van der Deen, Frederieke S; Cobiac, Linda J; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nghiem, Nhung; Blakely, Tony; Wilson, Nick

    2016-09-22

    Since there is some evidence that the density and distribution of tobacco retail outlets may influence smoking behaviours, we aimed to estimate the impacts of 4 tobacco outlet reduction interventions in a country with a smoke-free goal: New Zealand (NZ). A multistate life-table model of 16 tobacco-related diseases, using national data by sex, age and ethnicity, was used to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and net costs over the remainder of the 2011 NZ population's lifetime. The outlet reduction interventions assumed that increased travel costs can be operationalised as equivalent to price increases in tobacco. All 4 modelled interventions led to reductions of >89% of current tobacco outlets after the 10-year phase-in process. The most effective intervention limited sales to half of liquor stores (and nowhere else) at 129 000 QALYs gained over the lifetime of the population (95% UI: 74 100 to 212 000, undiscounted). The per capita QALY gains were up to 5 times greater for Māori (indigenous population) compared to non-Māori. All interventions were cost-saving to the health system, with the largest saving for the liquor store only intervention: US$1.23 billion (95% UI: $0.70 to $2.00 billion, undiscounted). These tobacco outlet reductions reduced smoking prevalence, achieved health gains and saved health system costs. Effects would be larger if outlet reductions have additional spill-over effects (eg, smoking denormalisation). While these interventions were not as effective as tobacco tax increases (using the same model), these and other strategies could be combined to maximise health gain and to maximise cost-savings to the health system. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mixing ratio sensor of alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-07

    In order to improve combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing and change the condition of control depending upon the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, the above mixing ratio has so far been detected by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, in case when a light emitting diode is used for the light source above, two kinds of sensors are further needed. Concerning the two kinds of sensors above, this invention offers a mixing ratio sensor for the alcohol mixed fuel which can abolish a temperature sensor to detect the environmental temperature by making a single compensatory light receiving element deal with the compensation of the amount of light emission of the light emitting element due to the temperature change and the compensation of the critical angle caused by the temperature change. (6 figs)

  10. Radiological evaluation of double-outlet right ventricle - An analysis of cinecardioangiography in 44 cases -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheong Hee; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Double-outlet right ventricle is defined as follows: both great arteries arise completely or nearly completely from the right ventricle; neither semilunar valve is in fibrous continuity with either atrioventricular valve; and usually a ventricular septal defect is present and the only outlet from the left ventricle. A total of 44 cases of double-outlet right ventricle is analyzed, in which cineangiocardiographies were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital in recent 4 year and 6 months, with specific reference to the segmental combinations, the height of conus, the relationship of great arteries, the location of ventricular septal defects, and associated anomalies. The results were as follows; 1. Among 44 cases, 36 cases had normal cardiac position, 4 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus 2 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus, 1 case had levocardia with situs inversus, and another 1 case had mesocardia with situs ambiguus. 2. Segmental sets were [S,D,D] in 36 cases, [I,L,L] in 3 cases, [I,D,D] in 2 cases, [S,D,L], [S,L,L] and [A,D,D] in 1 case respectively. 3. All cases had bilateral conus. Aortic valve rings were same level as pulmonary valve rings in 25 cases, lower than pulmonary valve rings in 17 cases in which 15 cases were type A., and higher than pulmonary valve rings in 2 cases. 4. The relation of the great arteries were normal in 15 cases, side-by-side in 13 cases, dextromalposition in 13 cases, and levomal position in 3 cases. 5. The position of the ventricular septal defects with respect to the origins of the great arteries is subaortic (type A and type B) in 23 cases, subpulmonary (type C) in 13 cases, doubly committed (type D) in 3 cases, and uncommitted (type E) in 5 cases. 6. Associated cardiac malformations are pulmonary stenosis in 24 which had all cases of type A and type E, aortic stenosis in 6 which were only in type C, left SVC in 6, abnormality of atrioventricular valve in 5, single coronary artery

  11. 3D Printing in Surgical Management of Double Outlet Right Ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Shi-Joon; van Arsdell, Glen S

    2017-01-01

    Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heterogeneous group of congenital heart diseases that require individualized surgical approach based on precise understanding of the complex cardiovascular anatomy. Physical 3-dimensional (3D) print models not only allow fast and unequivocal perception of the complex anatomy but also eliminate misunderstanding or miscommunication among imagers and surgeons. Except for those cases showing well-recognized classic surgical anatomy of DORV such as in cases with a typical subaortic or subpulmonary ventricular septal defect, 3D print models are of enormous value in surgical decision and planning. Furthermore, 3D print models can also be used for rehearsal of the intended procedure before the actual surgery on the patient so that the outcome of the procedure is precisely predicted and the procedure can be optimally tailored for the patient's specific anatomy. 3D print models are invaluable resource for hands-on surgical training of congenital heart surgeons.

  12. 3D Printing in Surgical Management of Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Joon Yoo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Double outlet right ventricle (DORV is a heterogeneous group of congenital heart diseases that require individualized surgical approach based on precise understanding of the complex cardiovascular anatomy. Physical 3-dimensional (3D print models not only allow fast and unequivocal perception of the complex anatomy but also eliminate misunderstanding or miscommunication among imagers and surgeons. Except for those cases showing well-recognized classic surgical anatomy of DORV such as in cases with a typical subaortic or subpulmonary ventricular septal defect, 3D print models are of enormous value in surgical decision and planning. Furthermore, 3D print models can also be used for rehearsal of the intended procedure before the actual surgery on the patient so that the outcome of the procedure is precisely predicted and the procedure can be optimally tailored for the patient’s specific anatomy. 3D print models are invaluable resource for hands-on surgical training of congenital heart surgeons.

  13. Policy coherence, integration, and proportionality in tobacco control: Should tobacco sales be limited to government outlets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Patricia A; Hiilamo, Heikki; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-08-01

    Multiple factors, including marijuana decriminalization/legalization, tobacco endgame discourse, and alcohol industry pressures, suggest that the retail regulatory environment for psychoactive or addictive substances is a dynamic one in which new options may be considered. In most countries, the regulation of tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol is neither coherent, nor integrated, nor proportional to the potential harms caused by these substances. We review the possible consequences of restricting tobacco sales to outlets run by government-operated alcohol retail monopolies, as well as the likely obstacles to such a policy. Such a move would allow governments more options for regulating tobacco sales, and increase coherence, integration, and proportionality of substance regulation. It might also serve as an incremental step toward an endgame goal of eliminating sales of commercial combustible tobacco.

  14. Three-dimensional stereology as a tool for evaluating bladder outlet obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Wijk, Jasper; Van Der Wijk, Jan; Horn, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective. In a pilot study we evaluated whether implementation of a novel 3D stereologic technique can prove that bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is associated with morphologic changes in the bladder wall. Material and methods. Ten males (mean age 69.7 years; range 58-84 years) with lower urinary...... tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of BOO and five controls (mean age 48.6 years; range 43-53 years) without LUTS were studied. All participants underwent a full examination, including determination of the International Prostate Symptom Score, laboratory analysis and a urodynamic evaluation. A cold....... Conclusions. This pilot study shows that, even with the implementation of subtle morphometric techniques, there seems to be no relationship between the severity of BOO and bladder wall morphology. It is possible that interstitial collagen in the bladder wall increases with age. It seems that bladder wall...

  15. Epidemiology and etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia and bladder outlet obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant D Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is a histological diagnosis associated with unregulated proliferation of connective tissue, smooth muscle and glandular epithelium. BPH may compress the urethra and result in anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO; BOO may present as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, infections, retention and other adverse events. BPH and BOO have a significant impact on the health of older men and health-care costs. As the world population ages, the incidence and prevalence of BPH and LUTS have increased rapidly. Although non-modifiable risk factors - including age, genetics and geography - play significant roles in the etiology of BPH and BOO, recent data have revealed modifiable risk factors that present new opportunities for treatment and prevention, including sex steroid hormones, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, diet, physical activity and inflammation. We review the natural history, definitions and key risk factors of BPH and BOO in epidemiological studies.

  16. Preoperative Duplex Scanning is a Helpful Diagnostic Tool in Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Megan S; Likes, Kendall C; Mirza, Serene; Cao, Yue; Cohen, Anne; Lum, Ying Wei; Freischlag, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic role of venous and arterial duplex scanning in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Retrospective review of patients who underwent duplex ultrasonography prior to first rib resection and scalenectomy (FRRS) for NTOS from 2005 to 2013. Abnormal scans included ipsilateral compression (IC) with abduction of the symptomatic extremity (>50% change in subclavian vessel flow), contralateral (asymptomatic side) compression (CC) or bilateral compression (BC). A total of 143 patients (76% female, average age 34, range 13-59) underwent bilateral preoperative duplex scanning. Ipsilateral compression was seen in 44 (31%), CC in 12 (8%), and BC in 14 (10%). Seventy-three (51%) patients demonstrated no compression. Patients with IC more often experienced intraoperative pneumothoraces (49% vs. 25%, P duplex ultrasonography can assist in NTOS diagnosis. Ipsilateral compression on abduction often correlates with Adson testing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Obesity and the built environment: does the density of neighborhood fast-food outlets matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Cardinal, Bradley J; Bosworth, Mark; Johnson-Shelton, Deb

    2009-01-01

    Examine variation in obesity among older adults relative to the joint influences of density of neighborhood fast food outlets and residents' behavioral, psychosocial, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and multilevel design. Census block groups, used as a proxy for neighborhoods, within the metropolitan region's Urban Growth Boundary in Portland, Oregon. A total of 1221 residents (mean age, 65 years) recruited randomly from 120 neighborhoods (48% response rate). A geographic information system-based measure of fast food restaurant density across 120 neighborhoods was created. Residents within the sampled neighborhoods were assessed with respect to their body mass indices (BMI), frequency of visits to local fast food restaurants, fried food consumption, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables, household income, and race/ethnicity. Multilevel logistic regression analyses. Significant associations were found between resident-level individual characteristics and the likelihood of being obese (BMI > or = 30) for neighborhoods with a high-density of fast food restaurants in comparison with those with a low density: odds ratios for obesity, 95% confidence intervals (CI), were 1.878 (CI, 1.006-3.496) for weekly visits to local fast food restaurants; 1.792 (CI, 1.006-3.190) for not meeting physical activity recommendations; 1.212 (CI, 1.057-1.391) for low confidence in eating healthy food; and 8.057 (CI, 1.705-38.086) for non-Hispanic black residents. Increased density of neighborhood fast food outlets was associated with unhealthy lifestyles, poorer psychosocial profiles, and increased risk of obesity among older adults.

  18. Three-dimensional printing enhances preparation for repair of double outlet right ventricular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liyun; Zhou, Sijie; Fan, Taibing; Li, Bin; Liang, Weijie; Dong, Haoju

    2018-01-01

    To assess the clinical value of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for treatment strategies for complex double outlet right ventricle (DORV). Twenty-five patients with complex double outlet right ventricle were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups: 3D printing group (eight patients) and a non-3-D printing control group (17 patients). The cardiac images of patients in the 3D printing group were transformed to Digital Imaging and Communications and were segmented and reconstructed to create a heart model. No cardiac models were created in the control group. A Pearson coefficient analysis was used to assess the correlation between measurements of 3D printed models and computed tomography angiography (CTA) data. Pre-operative assessment and planning were performed with 3D printed models, and then operative time and recovery time were compared between the two groups. There was good correlation (r = 0.977) between 3D printed models and CTA data. Patients in the 3D printing group had shorter aortic cross-clamp time (102.88 vs 127.76 min, P = 0.094) and cardiopulmonary bypass time (151.63 vs 184.24 min; P = 0.152) than patients in the control group. Patients with 3D printed models had significantly lower mechanical ventilation time (56.43 vs 96.76 h, P = 0.040) and significantly shorter intensive care unit time (99.04 vs 166.94 h, P = 0.008) than patients in the control group. 3D printed models can accurately demonstrate anatomic structures and are useful for pre-operative treatment strategies in DORV. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy versus duodenal stenting in unresectable gastric cancer with gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sa-Hong; Son, Sang-Yong; Jung, Do-Hyun; Lee, Chang-Min; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    To compare the outcome between laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy (LapGJ) and duodenal stenting (DS) in terms of oral intake, nutritional status, patency duration, effect on chemotherapy and survival. Medical records of 115 patients, who had LapGJ or duodenal stent placement between July 2005 and September 2015 in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, have been reviewed retrospectively. Oral intake was measured with Gastric Outlet Obstruction Scoring System. Serum albumin and body weight was measured as indicators of nutritional status. The duration of patency was measured until the date of reintervention. Chemotherapy effect was calculated after the procedures. Survival period and oral intake was analyzed by propensity score matching age, sex, T-stage, comorbidities, and chemotherapy status. Forty-three LapGJ patients and 58 DS patients were enrolled. Improvement in oral intake was shown in LapGJ group versus DS group (88% vs. 59%, P = 0.011). Serum albumin showed slight but significant increase after LapGJ (+0.75 mg/dL vs. -0.15 mg/dL, P = 0.002); however, there was no difference in their body weight (+5.1 kg vs. -1.0 kg, P = 0.670). Patients tolerated chemotherapy longer without dosage reduction after LapGJ (243 days vs . 74 days, P = 0.006) and maintained the entire chemotherapy regimen after the procedure longer in LapGJ group (247 days vs. 137 days, P = 0.042). LapGJ showed significantly longer survival than DS (220 vs. 114 days, P = 0.004). DS can provide faster symptom relief but LapGJ can provide improved oral intake, better compliance to chemotherapy, and longer survival. Therefore, LapGJ should be the first choice in gastric outlet obstruction patients for long-term and better quality of life.

  20. Compensatory Paracrine Mechanisms That Define The Urothelial Response to Injury in Partial Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassuk, James; Lendvay, Thomas S.; Sweet, Robert; Han, Chang-Hee; Soygur, Tarkan; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Plaire, J. Chadwick; Charleston, Jay S.; Charleston, Lynne B.; Bagai, Shelly; Cochrane, Kimberly; Rubio, Eric; Bassuk, James A.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2007-06-21

    Diseases and conditions affecting the lower urinary tract are a leading cause of dysfunctional sexual health, incontinence, infection, and kidney failure. The growth, differentiation, and repair of the bladder's epithelial lining are regulated, in part, by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 and -10 via a paracrine cascade originating in the mesenchyme (lamina propria) and targeting the receptor for FGF-7 and -10 within the transitional epithelium (urothelium). The FGF-7 gene is located at the 15q15-q21.1 locus on chromosome 15 and four exons generate a 3.852-kb mRNA. Five duplicated FGF-7 gene sequences that localized to chromosome 9 were predicted not to generate functional protein products, thus validating the use of FGF-7-null mice as an experimental model. Recombinant FGF-7 and -10 induced proliferation of human urothelial cells in vitro and transitional epithelium of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice in vivo.To determine the extent that induction of urothelial cell proliferation during the bladder response to injury is dependent on FGF-7, an animal model of partial bladder outlet obstruction was developed. Unbiased stereology was used to measure the percentage of proliferating urothelial cells between obstructed groups of wild-type and FGF-7-null mice. The stereological analysis indicated that a statistical significant difference did not exist between the two groups, suggesting that FGF-7 is not essential for urothelial cell proliferation in response to partial outlet obstruction. In contrast, a significant increase in FGF-10 expression was observed in the obstructed FGF-7-null group, indicating that the compensatory pathway that functions in this model results in urothelial repair.

  1. Continuous mixing of solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raouf, M.S.

    1963-01-01

    The most important literature on theoretical aspects of mixing solids was reviewed.

    Only when the mixed materials showed no segregation it was possible to analyse the mixing process quantitatively. In this case the mixture could be described by the 'χ' Square test. Longitudinal mixing could be

  2. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  3. Mixing phenomena of interest to boron dilution during small break LOCAs in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Cheng, Z.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of mixing phenomena related to boron dilution during small break loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs)in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Boron free condensate can accumulate in the cold leg loop seals when the reactor is operating in a reflux/boiler-condenser mode. A problem may occur when subsequent change in flow conditions such as loop seal clearing or re-establishment of natural circulation flow drive the diluted water in the loop seals into the reactor core without sufficient mixing with the highly borated water in the reactor downcomer and lower plenum. The resulting low boron concentration coolant entering the core may cause a power excursion leading to fuel failure. The mixing processes associated with a slow moving stream of diluted water through the loop seal to the core are examined in this paper. Bounding calculations for boron concentration of coolant entering the core during a small break LOCA in a typical Westinghouse-designed four-loop plant are also presented

  4. The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Liang, Wenbin; Meuleners, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the combined effects of alcohol sales, outlet numbers and trading hours on alcohol-related harms. This study aimed to test whether associations: (i) exist between alcohol-related emergency department (ED) injuries and alcohol sales and counts of outlets; (ii) vary between on- and off-premises outlets; and (iii) vary by trading hours conditions [extended trading permits (ETP) versus standard hours]. Panel study using 117 postcodes over 8 years (2002-10): 936 data points. Perth, Australia. ED injury presentations, aggregated to postcode-level. Alcohol-related injuries were identified using time-based surrogate measures: night injuries (n=51,241) and weekend night injuries (n=30,682). Measures of alcohol availability included number of outlets with standard and extended trading hours and mean sales per postcode. Negative binomial regression modelling with random effects was used to examine associations between availability and alcohol-related injury, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. (i) Night injuries were associated significantly with counts of on-premises outlets [incident rate ratio (IRR)=1.046; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.014-1.078] and sales per off-premises outlet (IRR=1.019; 95% CI=1.004-1.035); (ii) counts of on-premises outlets were positively associated with alcohol-related injury while counts of off-premises outlets indicated a negative association; and (iii) weekend night injuries increased by about 5% per on-premises outlet with an ETP (IRR=1.049; 95% CI=1.015-1.084) and by less than 1% for outlets with standard trading hours (IRR=1.008; 95% CI=1.004-1.013). Regions of Perth, Australia with greater off-premises alcohol sales and counts of on-premises alcohol outlets, particularly those with extended trading hours, appear to have higher levels of alcohol-related injuries. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Two-branch Gas Experiments for Hot Gas Mixing of HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Hao Pengefei; He Heng; Li Fu; Shi Lei

    2014-01-01

    A model experiment is proposed to investigate the hot gas mixing efficiency of HTR-PM reactor outlet. The test facility is introduced which is set at a scale of 1:2.5 comparing with the design of thermal mixing structure at HTR-PM reactor outlet. The test facility using air as its flow media includes inlet pipe system, electric heaters, main body of test facility, hot gas duct, exhaust pipe system and I&C system. Two-branch gas experiments are conducted on the test facility and the values of thermal-fluid parameters are collected and analyzed which include the temperature, pressure and velocity of the flow as well as the temperature of the tube wall. The analysis result shows the mixing efficiency is higher than the requirement of thermal mixing by steam generator even with conservative assumption which indicates that the design of hog gas mixing structure of HTR-PM fulfills the requirement for thermal mixing at two-branch working conditions. (author)

  6. Numerical Research about Influence of Blade Outlet Angle on Flow-Induced Noise and Vibration for Centrifugal Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailing Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid numerical method was used to calculate the flow-induced noise and vibration of the centrifugal pump in the paper. The unsteady flows inside the centrifugal pumps with different blade outlet angles were simulated firstly. The unsteady pressure on the inner surface of the volute and the unsteady force applied on the impeller were analyzed. Then the vibration of the volute and sound field were calculated based on an acoustic-vibro-coupling method. The results show that the pump head has increased 7% while the hydraulic efficiency decreased 11.75% as blade outlet angles increased from 18° to 39°. The amplitude of pressure fluctuation at the first blade passing frequency has decreased but increased at the second-order blade passing frequency as the angle growing. The total fluctuation power near volute tongue goes up about 12% every 3° increment of blade outlet angle. The results also show that vibrating-velocity of the volute at second-order blade passing frequency is much higher than at other frequencies, and the velocity increases rapidly as blade outlet angle varies from 18° to 39°. At the same time, the sound pressure level outside the pump has increased about 8.6 dB when the angle increased from 18° to 39°.

  7. The position of the left and right ventricular outlets during septation. A comparison of chicken and rat development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J. A.; Lamers, W. H.; Los, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the relative position of the outflow tracts of chicken and rat hearts with respect to the ventricles during septation. For this purpose the position of the left and right ventricular outlet including the aortic and pulmonary valve primordia and the left and right

  8. Highly temporally resolved response to seasonal surface melt of the Zachariae and 79N outlet glaciers in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathmann, N. M.; Hvidberg, C. S.; Solgaard, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The seasonal response to surface melting of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream outlets, Zachariae and 79N, is investigated using new highly temporally resolved surface velocity maps for 2016 combined with numerical modelling. The seasonal speed-up at 79N of 0.15km/yr is suggested to be driven by ...

  9. Dirty money: an investigation into the hygiene status of some of the world's currencies as obtained from food outlets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriesekoop, F.; Russel, C.; Alvarez-Mayorga, B.; Aidoo, K.; Yuan, Q.; Scannell, A.; Beumer, R.R.; Jiang, X.; Barro, N.; Otokunefor, K.; Smith-Arnold, C.; Heap, A.; Chen, J.; Iturriage, M.H.; Hazeleger, W.C.; DesLandes, J.; Kinley, B.; Wilson, K.; Menz, G.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 1280 banknotes were obtained from food outlets in 10 different countries (Australia, Burkina Faso, China, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States), and their bacterial content was enumerated. The presence of bacteria on banknotes

  10. Lateral sphincteromyotomy in patients with outlet obstruction after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease and short-segment disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, Hanne N; Jensen, Susanne I; Qvist, Niels

    2002-01-01

    The results of lateral sphincteromyotomy (LSM) including the external sphincter in patients with severe outlet obstruction (OO) and constipation refractory to medical treatment after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease (HD) or with short-segment disease were evaluated. The parents filled out a det...

  11. Male bladder outlet obstruction : Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway? ICI-RS 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, Kevin; Drake, Marcus J; Gammie, Andrew; Djurhuus, Jens C; Rosier, Peter F W M; Abrams, Paul; Harding, Christopher

    The diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male is dependent on measurements of pressure and flow made during urodynamic studies. The procedure of urodynamics and the indices used to delineate BOO are well standardized largely as a result of the work of the International Continence

  12. Urodynamic and clinical effects of terazosin therapy in symptomatic patients with and without bladder outlet obstruction: a stratified analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, W. P.; Rosier, P. F.; Caris, C. T.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate clinical and urodynamic changes in patients with and without bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and to compare the clinical and urodynamic results of terazosin treatment between patients with and without BOO. In a prospective study, 97 patients who completed a full screening program

  13. 16 CFR Appendix F to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(5) Table-Projected New Franchised Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Item 20(5) Table-Projected New Franchised Outlets F Appendix F to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. F Appendix F to Part...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix C to Part 436 - Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Item 20(2) Table-Transfers of Franchised Outlets C Appendix C to Part 436 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Pt. 436, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  15. Coolant mixing in pressurized water reactors. Pt. 1. Feasibility of closed analytical solutions and simulation of the mixing with CFX-4. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, G.; Hoehne, T.; Prasser, H.M.; Rohde, U.

    2001-10-01

    The project was aimed at the analytical and numerical simulation of coolant mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of PWRs. Generally, the coolant mixing is of relevance for two classes of accident scenarios - boron dilution and cold water transients. For the investigation of the relevant mixing phenomena, the Rossendorf test facility ROCOM has been designed. ROCOM is a 1:5 scaled Plexiglas trademark model of the PWR Konvoi allowing velocity measurements by the LDA technique. Design and construction of the ROCOM facility including the measurement equipment were performed in a second part of the project. For the design of the facility, CFD calculations were performed to analyze the scaling of the model. It was found, that the scaling of 1:5 to the prototype meets both: physical and economical demands. A theoretical 2D-model of the downcomer flow was developed based on the potential theory. The coolant inlet is represented by mass sources. Potential vortices were superposed to describe large scale recirculations. However, the method requires an a-priory knowledge of the location and intensity of the vorticity sources. Therefore, the main goal of the project was the numerical simulation of the coolant mixing of different PWRs. The temperature and boron concentration fields established by the coolant mixing during nominal and transient flow conditions in the pressure vessel of the PWR Konvoi and the Russian type WWER-440 were investigated. The calculations were carried out with the CFD-code CFX 4. The results of the CFD calculation are found in the final report. The report is based on the Ph.D. work of T. Hoehne. (orig.) [de

  16. Mixing ratio sensor for alcohol mixed fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Shigeru; Matsubara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-24

    In order to improve the combustion efficiency of an internal combustion engine using gasoline-alcohol mixed fuel and to reduce harmful substance in its exhaust gas, it is necessary to control strictly the air-fuel ratio to be supplied and the ignition timing. In order to detect the mixing ratio of the mixed fuel, a mixing ratio sensor has so far been proposed to detect the above mixing ratio by casting a ray of light to the mixed fuel and utilizing a change of critical angle associated with the change of the composition of the fluid of the mixed fuel. However, because of the arrangement of its transparent substance in the fuel passage with the sealing material in between, this sensor invited the leakage of the fluid due to deterioration of the sealing material, etc. and its cost became high because of too many parts to be assembled. In view of the above, in order to reduce the number of parts, to lower the cost of parts and the assembling cost and to secure no fluid leakage from the fuel passage, this invention formed the above fuel passage and the above transparent substance both concerning the above mixing ratio sensor in an integrated manner using light transmitting resin. (3 figs)

  17. A Study of Two Fluids Mixing in a Helical-Type Micromixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y H; Chang, M; Lin, K H

    2006-01-01

    The mixing behavior of two fluids in a passive micromixer with Y-type inlet and helical fluid channel, along with herringbone grooves etched on the base of the fluid channel, was studied with computer simulation technique and experiments. The mixing of pure water and acetone solution under different Reynolds numbers and acetone concentrations were investigated. An image inspection method using the variance in contrast of the image gray level as the measurement parameter was adopted to calculate the mixing efficiency distribution. Inspection results show that the mixing efficiency is decreased with the increase of the concentration of the acetone solution, but the mean mixing efficiency around the outlet can reach to a value of 90% even the Reynolds numbers of the fluids were as low as Re = 1, and the best efficiency for the case of Re = 10 is over 98%. The results show that the proposed micromixer is possible applied to the field of biomedical diagnosis

  18. Engineering geology model of the Crater Lake outlet, Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand, to inform rim breakout hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stefan C. W.; Kennedy, Ben M.; Villeneuve, Marlène C.

    2018-01-01

    Mt. Ruapehu, in the central North Island of New Zealand, hosts a hot acidic Crater Lake over the active volcanic vent with a surface elevation of c. 2530 m.a.s.l. Volcanic activity and other montane processes have previously resulted in catastrophic releases of some or all of the c. 10 Mm3 of water retained in the lake, creating serious hazards downstream. A major lahar in March 2007 exposed a 10 m high face representative of the rock units impounding the lake, providing an opportunity to conduct both field and laboratory analysis to characterise the rock mass conditions at the outlet to assess the stability of the outlet area. This paper presents an engineering geology model of Crater Lake outlet. Our model shows three andesitic geological units at the outlet, each with different geological histories and physical and mechanical properties, which impact its stability. Geotechnical methods used to characterise the outlet include laboratory testing of the strength, stiffness, porosity and unit weight, and field-based rock mass characterisation using the geological strength index (GSI) and rock mass rating (RMR). Field observations, geomorphology mapping, historic and contemporary photographs, and laboratory results are combined to create cross sections that provide key information for establishing the engineering geology model. The units are recognised in what is informally termed the Crater Lake Formation: i) The upper surface layer is a c. 2 m thick sub-horizontal dark grey lava unit (Armoured Lava Ledge) with sub-horizontal cooling joints spaced at 0.2 m to 2.0 m intervals. The intact rock has a porosity range of 15-27%, density range of 1723-2101 kg/m3, GSI range of 45-75, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) range of 19-48 MPa. ii) Below this, and outcropping down the majority of the outlet waterfall is a poorly sorted breccia unit composed of block and matrix material (Lava Breccia). The blocks range from 0.1 m to 0.8 m in diameter with an average porosity

  19. Evaluation of Partial Cut-out of Sacroiliac Screws From the Sacral Ala Slope via Pelvic Inlet and Outlet View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Hamilton, Ryan; Li, Ming; Ebraheim, Nabil A; He, Xianfeng; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Limei

    2015-12-01

    An anatomic and radiographic study of placement of sacroiliac screws. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of partial cut-out of sacroiliac screws from the sacral ala slope via inlet and outlet view. The partial cut-out of sacroiliac screws from the superior surface of sacral ala can jeopardize the L5 nerve root, which is difficult to identify on the pelvic inlet and outlet views. Computed tomography images of 60 patients without pelvic ring deformity or injury were used to measure the width (on inlet view) and height (on outlet view) of the sacral ala. The angle of the sacral ala slope was measured on lateral view. According to the measured parameters, the theoretical safe trajectories of screw placement were calculated using inverse trigonometric functions. Under fluoroscopic guidance, a sacroiliac screw was placed close to the midline on both inlet and outlet views, including posterosuperior, posteroinferior, anterosuperior, and anteroinferior regions to the midline. The incidence of screw partial cut-out from the superior surface of sacral ala was identified. The measured widths and heights of the sacral alas were 28.1 ± 2.8 and 29.8 ± 3.1 mm, respectively. The average angle between the superior aspect of the S1 vertebral body and the superior aspect of the sacral ala was 37.2 ± 2.5 degrees. The rate of partial cut-out of the screws from the superior surface of sacral ala slope was 12.5% (5/40) in posterosuperior, 0% (0/40) in posteroinferior, 70% (28/40) in anterosuperior, and 20% (8/40) in anteroinferior. To avoid the risk of partial cut-out from sacroiliac screw placement, more precise description should be added to the conventional description: the sacroiliac screws should be placed at the inferior half portion on outlet view and at the posterior half portion on inlet view. 4.

  20. Vendor-to-vendor education to improve malaria treatment by private drug outlets in Bungoma District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makama Sammy

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Private outlets are the main suppliers of uncomplicated malaria treatment in Africa. However, they are so numerous that they are difficult for governments to influence and regulate. This study's objective was to evaluate a low-cost outreach education (vendor-to-vendor programme to improve the private sector's compliance with malaria guidelines in Bungoma district, Kenya. The cornerstone of the programme was the district's training of 73 wholesalers who were equipped with customized job aids for distribution to small retailers. Methods Six months after training the wholesalers, the programme was evaluated using mystery shoppers. The shoppers posed as caretakers of sick children needing medication at 252 drug outlets. Afterwards, supervisors assessed the outlets' knowledge, drug stocks, and prices. Results The intervention seems to have had a significant impact on stocking patterns, malaria knowledge and prescribing practices of shops/kiosks, but not consistently on other types of outlets. About 32% of shops receiving job aids prescribed to mystery shoppers the approved first-line drug, sulfadoxine-pyremethamine, as compared to only 3% of the control shops. In the first six months, it is estimated that 500 outlets were reached, at a cost of about $8000. Conclusions Changing private sector knowledge and practices is widely acknowledged to be slow and difficult. The vendor-to-vendor programme seems a feasible district-level strategy for achieving significant improvements in knowledge and practices of shops/kiosks. However, alternate strategies will be needed to influence pharmacies and clinics. Overall, the impact will be only moderate unless national policies and programmes are also introduced.

  1. Study on the natural air cooling design of electronic equipment casings: Effects of the height and size of outlet vent on the flow resistances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M; Hatakeyama, T; Kibushi, R; Inoue, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of the outlet vent size and the distance between the outlet vent location and the power heater position on the flow resistance in natural-air-cooled electronic equipment casings. An experiment was carried out using a simple model casing simulated for the practical natural-air-cooled casing which is composed of 4 side walls, a top plate and bottom plate which has an inlet opening. A power heater to served as a power dissipation unit was placed at its open bottom. An outlet opening was set on one of the side walls. The opening area, the height of the outlet and the heater location were varied. The experimental results were analyzed using the flow resistance coefficient K which was related to the distance between the outlet vent and the power heater position and the heat removal from the outlet vent, and K values were plotted against a pair of Reynolds numbers Re and the outlet vent porosity β which is defined as the ratio of outlet vent open area to the top surface area of the casing.

  2. Detection and Repair of Ligament Cracks in a 109mm Thick Superheater Outlet Header

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Conventional thermal power station boilers are constructed of drums and a series of headers which are interconnected with many hundreds of tubes. Typically feed water enters the boiler at about 250 deg C at a pressure of around 250 bar with steam outlet temperatures of 540 deg C and a pressure of 170 bar. Superheater outlet headers may be subjected to quite arduous conditions during service. Not only are they exposed to high pressure stresses but also to high thermal stresses due to varying thermal gradients through the section thickness particularly at start up and during two shift operation. The area that is exposed to the greatest thermal gradients is the narrow ligament that exists between the tube hole penetrations in the header bore. In the mid the 1980's industry wide surveys found cracking in a large percentage (25-50%) of headers after 15 years of service. Detection and sizing of ligament cracking and estimates of the rate of growth are therefore a major consideration especially in plant that is two shifted. In order to manage the risk both remote visual and ultrasonic inspection are performed during each major unit overhaul. Conclusion: Ultrasonic techniques used for this inspection need to be carefully evaluated with respect to their effectiveness. Conventional pulse echo is capable of detection but using for example a technique such as AS2207 level 1 will not show the defect size. Time of flight diffraction has shown itself to be effective in accurately sizing ligament cracking. However the complex geometry of header ligaments appears to cause a narrowing of the beam with the effect that crack tip responses can be concentrated at the centre of the ligament. Therefore great care needs to be taken during data interrogation because errors in sizing can occur. Wherever possible both 'B' and 'D' scan data should be collected. It appears that the greatest accuracy is obtained with respect to defect growth from the B scan image. With respect to the welding a

  3. Introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private medicine retail outlets: A systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoor Visser

    Full Text Available Many patients with malaria-like symptoms seek treatment in private medicine retail outlets (PMR that distribute malaria medicines but do not traditionally provide diagnostic services, potentially leading to overtreatment with antimalarial drugs. To achieve universal access to prompt parasite-based diagnosis, many malaria-endemic countries are considering scaling up malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs in these outlets, an intervention that may require legislative changes and major investments in supporting programs and infrastructures. This review identifies studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs and examines study outcomes and success factors to inform scale up decisions.Published and unpublished studies that introduced malaria RDTs in PMRs were systematically identified and reviewed. Literature published before November 2016 was searched in six electronic databases, and unpublished studies were identified through personal contacts and stakeholder meetings. Outcomes were extracted from publications or provided by principal investigators.Six published and six unpublished studies were found. Most studies took place in sub-Saharan Africa and were small-scale pilots of RDT introduction in drug shops or pharmacies. None of the studies assessed large-scale implementation in PMRs. RDT uptake varied widely from 8%-100%. Provision of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for patients testing positive ranged from 30%-99%, and was more than 85% in five studies. Of those testing negative, provision of antimalarials varied from 2%-83% and was less than 20% in eight studies. Longer provider training, lower RDT retail prices and frequent supervision appeared to have a positive effect on RDT uptake and provider adherence to test results. Performance of RDTs by PMR vendors was generally good, but disposal of medical waste and referral of patients to public facilities were common challenges.Expanding services of PMRs to include malaria diagnostic

  4. What motivates antibiotic dispensing in accredited drug dispensing outlets in Tanzania? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillip, Angel; Embrey, Martha; Shekalaghe, Elizabeth; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine; Kimatta, Suleiman; Liana, Jafary; Rutta, Edmund; Valimba, Richard; Chalker, John

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania introduced the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program more than a decade ago. Previous evaluations have generally shown that ADDOs meet defined standards of practice better than non-accredited outlets. However, ADDOs still face challenges with overuse of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARI) and simple diarrhea, which contributes to the emergence of drug resistance. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of ADDO owners and dispensers toward antibiotic dispensing and to learn how accreditation has influenced their dispensing behavior. The study used a qualitative approach. We conducted in-depth interviews with ADDO owners and dispensers in Ruvuma and Tanga regions where the government implemented the ADDO program under centralized and decentralized approaches, respectively; a secondary aim was to compare differences between the two regions. Findings indicate that the ADDO program has brought about positive changes in knowledge of dispensing practices. Respondents were able to correctly explain treatment guidelines for ARI and diarrhea. Almost all dispensers and owners indicated that unnecessary use of antibiotics contributed to antimicrobial resistance. Despite this knowledge, translating it to appropriate dispensing practice is still low. Dispensers' behavior is driven by customer demand, habit ("mazoea"), following inappropriate health facility prescriptions, and the need to make a profit. Although the majority of dispensers reported that they had intervened in situations where customers asked for antibiotics unnecessarily, they tended to give in to clients' requests. Small variations were noted between the two study regions; for example, some dispensers in Ruvuma reported sending clients with incorrect prescriptions back to the health facility, a practice that may reflect regional differences in ADDO implementation and in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training. Dispensers in rural settings reported more challenges

  5. A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harparkash; Goodman, Catherine; Thompson, Eloise; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Masanja, Irene; Kachur, S Patrick; Abdulla, Salim

    2008-01-01

    Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania. We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine), 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nearly one quarter (23.8%) of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone. Substandard antimalarial formulations were widely

  6. A nationwide survey of the quality of antimalarials in retail outlets in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harparkash Kaur

    Full Text Available Retail pharmaceutical products are commonly used to treat fever and malaria in sub-Saharan African countries. Small scale studies have suggested that poor quality antimalarials are widespread throughout the region, but nationwide data are not available that could lead to generalizable conclusions about the extent to which poor quality drugs are available in African communities. This study aimed to assess the quality of antimalarials available from retail outlets across mainland Tanzania.We systematically purchased samples of oral antimalarial tablets from retail outlets across 21 districts in mainland Tanzania in 2005. A total of 1080 antimalarial formulations were collected including 679 antifol antimalarial samples (394 sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and 285 sulfamethoxypyrazine/pyrimethamine, 260 amodiaquine samples, 63 quinine samples, and 51 artemisinin derivative samples. A systematic subsample of 304 products was assessed for quality by laboratory based analysis to determine the amount of the active ingredient and dissolution profile by following the published United States Pharmacopoeia (USP monogram for the particular tablet being tested. Products for which a published analytical monogram did not exist were assessed on amount of active ingredient alone. Overall 38 or 12.2% of the samples were found to be of poor quality. Of the antifolate antimalarial drugs tested 13.4% were found to be of poor quality by dissolution and content analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Nearly one quarter (23.8% of quinine tablets did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution and quantification analysis. Quality of amodiaquine drugs was relatively better but still unacceptable as 7.5% did not comply within the tolerance limits of the dissolution analysis. Formulations of the artemisinin derivatives all contained the stated amount of active ingredient when analysed using HPLC alone.Substandard antimalarial formulations were

  7. Mixed Convection in Technological Reservoir of Thermal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Geniy V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mixed convection of a viscous incompressible fluid in an open rectangular reservoir with inlet and outlet of mass with considering nonuniform heat sink at the external borders of the solution domain is solved. The region of the solution was limited by two vertical and by one horizontal walls of finite thickness and one free surface. The flat nonstationary mixed convection within the framework of Navier-Stokes model is examined for liquid and thermal conductivity for solid walls. Distributions of hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures with different intensity of heat sink on the outer contour of the cavity show a change in the intensity of heat sink on the region boundaries of the solution leads to scale changes in the structure of flow and temperature fields of the liquids.

  8. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  9. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Eva R; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  11. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  12. THE MARKETING MIX OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU FELICIA

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the marketing mix and the necessity of the marketing mix optimization. In the marketing mix a particularly important issue is to choose the best combination of its variables, this lead to the achievement objectives, in time. Choosing the right marketing mix is possible only by reporting information to some clear benchmarks, these criteria a related to the objective of the company at the time of analyze. The study shows that the companies must give a great importance to opti...

  13. Investigating Public Perception of Occupational Therapy: An Environmental Scan of Three Media Outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy E

    Using a phenomenological approach, this study investigated visibility and perception of the profession of occupational therapy in three media outlets. Content analysis occurred on LexisNexis Academic (LNA), Google Images, and Twitter platforms. Analysis of LNA identified the prevalence of articles about occupational therapy in domestic newspapers and similar media avenues, MaxQDA qualitative software coded Google Images from a search on occupational therapy, and AnalyzeWords evaluated Twitter feeds of four health care professions for presence and tone in a social media context. Results indicate that although occupational therapy is 100 years old, its presence in news and online platforms could be stronger. This study suggests that a clear professional identity for occupational therapy practitioners must be strategically communicated through academic and social platforms. Such advocacy promotes the profession, meets the next iteration of occupational therapy's professional vision, and allows occupational therapy to remain a prominent and formidable stakeholder in today's health care marketplace. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  14. Calorie-labelling in catering outlets: acceptability and impacts on food sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charoula K; Lean, Michael E J; Hankey, Catherine R

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is the biggest challenge facing preventive medicine. Calorie-labelling has been suggested as a way of changing the architecture of an 'obesogenic' environment without limiting consumer choice. This study examined the effect of calorie-labelling on sales of food items at catering outlets on a city-centre university campus. Sales data were collected for two consecutive months in 2013 on three UK university sites (two with calorie-labelling during second month, one control) and analysed with chi-square 'Goodness-of-Fit' tests. A questionnaire seeking consumers' views and use of the calorie-labelling was administered and analysed at group-level with chi-square tests. In intervention vs control sites, total sales of all labelled items fell significantly (-17% vs -2%, p<0.001) for the month with calorie-labelling. Calorie-labelling was associated with substantially reduced sales of high-calorie labelled items, without any compensatory changes in unlabelled alternative items. Among 1166 student- and 646 staff-respondents, 56% reported using the calorie-labels, 97% of them to make lower-calorie choices. More females (63%) than males (40%) reported being influenced by calorie-labels when choosing foods (p=0.01). This study provides evidence, beyond that from single-meal exposures, for the acceptability of meal calorie-labelling and its potential as an effective low-cost anti-obesity measure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning Team Review 2016-0001: Installing Outlets for Programmatic Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunwoody, John Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Kimberly Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bridgewater, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Frank X. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brenner, Andrew Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Ted T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Henderson, Kevin C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gordon, Lloyd Baumgardner [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blumberg, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilburn, Dianne Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of a Learning Team is to transfer and communicate the information into operational feedback and improvement. We want to pay attention to the small things that go wrong because they are often early warning signals and may provide insight into the health of the whole system. An ESR was placed in the October of 2015 to move/install a number of 120V and 208V outlets in 455-104B to support programmatic furnace needs. Electrical design review was completed for ESR 22217 on February 22, 2016 and a Design Change Form completed describing the modification needed as: demolish 1 existing receptacle and circuit leaving conduit and jbox for use to install new receptacle and 5 new receptacles/circuits are required and one existing receptacle is to be relocated, listed under FSR 149229. The FSR scope of work was written:: Please have the Electricians come out to perform demolition (1ea.), installation (6ea.)& relocation (1ea.) of receptacles / circuits. ESR 22217 & DCF-16-35-0455-1281 is in place for this work. Coordinate final receptacle locations with Laboratory Resident. Contact John Dunwoody or O-MC for this information. WO# 545580-01 was signed on April 20, 2016.: Electricians to perform demolition, installation, & relocation of receptacles / circuits PER attached DCF-16-0455-1281-SK-1.

  16. Computing Air Demand Using the Takagi–Sugeno Model for Dam Outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zounemat-Kermani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS was developed using the subtractive clustering technique to study the air demand in low-level outlet works. The ANFIS model was employed to calculate vent air discharge in different gate openings for an embankment dam. A hybrid learning algorithm obtained from combining back-propagation and least square estimate was adopted to identify linear and non-linear parameters in the ANFIS model. Empirical relationships based on the experimental information obtained from physical models were applied to 108 experimental data points to obtain more reliable evaluations. The feed-forward Levenberg-Marquardt neural network (LMNN and multiple linear regression (MLR models were also built using the same data to compare model performances with each other. The results indicated that the fuzzy rule-based model performed better than the LMNN and MLR models, in terms of the simulation performance criteria established, as the root mean square error, the Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency, the correlation coefficient and the Bias.

  17. Urethral orifice hyaluronic acid injections: a novel animal model of bladder outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongquan; Xiong, Zhiyong; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Zhansong; Lu, Gensheng

    2015-02-21

    We produced a novel model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) by periurethral injection of hyaluronic acid and compared the cystometric features, postoperative complications, and histopathological changes of that model with that of traditional open surgery. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Fifteen rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml hyaluronic acid at 5, 7, and 12 o'clock around the urethral orifice. Another fifteen rats underwent traditional open partial proximal urethral obstruction surgery, and 10 normal rats used as controls. After 4 weeks, filling cystometry, postoperative complications, and histopathological features were evaluated in each group. Three rats were also observed for 12 weeks after hyaluronic acid injection to evaluate the long-term effect. Hyaluronic acid periurethral injection caused increased maximum cystometric capacity, maximum bladder pressure, micturition interval, and post-void residual urine volume compared with control (p injection group had significantly shorter operative time, less incidence of incision infection and bladder stone formation compared with the surgery group (p injection and surgery bladders; these were not observed in the control group. Bladder weight and thickness of smooth muscle in the injection and surgery groups were significantly greater than those in the control group (p injection or control groups. Rats periurethrally injected hyaluronic acid were stable the compound was not fully absorbed in any rat after 12 weeks. Hyaluronic acid periurethral injection generates a simple, effective, and persistent animal model of BOO with lower complications, compared with traditional surgery.

  18. Performance improvement of a PEMFC system controlling the cathode outlet air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-10

    This paper presents a stationary and dynamic study of the advantages of using a regulating valve for the cathode outlet flow in combination with the compressor motor voltage as manipulated variables in a fuel cell system. At a given load current, the cathode input and output flow rate determine the cathode pressure and stoichiometry, and consequently determine the oxygen partial pressure, the generated voltage and the compressor power consumption. In order to maintain a high efficiency during operation, the cathode output regulating valve has to be adjusted to the operating conditions, specially marked by the current drawn from the stack. Besides, the appropriate valve manipulation produces an improvement in the transient response of the system. The influence of this input variable is exploited by implementing a predictive control strategy based on dynamic matrix control (DMC), using the compressor voltage and the cathode output regulating valve as manipulated variables. The objectives of this control strategy are to regulate both the fuel cell voltage and oxygen excess ratio in the cathode, and thus, to improve the system performance. All the simulation results have been obtained using the MATLAB-Simulink environment. (author)

  19. Forecasts of methane concentration at the outlet of the longwall with caving area - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badura, Henryk; Bańka, Piotr; Musioł, Dariusz; Wesołowski, Marek

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of methane hazard and prevention undertaken in the N-6 longwall of seam 330/2 in “Krupiński" coal mine. On the basis of methane concentration measurements conducted with the use of telemetric system, time series of the average and maximum methane concentration at the outlet of the longwall area were generated. It was ascertained that they exhibit a strong autocorrelation. Based on a series of the average methane concentration, a time series of ventilation methane content was created and a total methane content was calculated with the use of methane flow rate measurements in the demethanization system. It was ascertained that dependence between methane concentration and output on the examined day and on the previous day is weak and also that the dependence between methane concentration and air flow rate is very weak. Dependencies between ventilation methane content, total methane content and demethanization efficiency were also investigated. Based on forecasting models [1] developed earlier by H. Badura, forecasts have been made to predict the average and maximum methane concentrations. The measured values f methane concentration show a high level of accordance with forecasted ones.

  20. Double Outlet Right Ventricle With Intact Ventricular Septum: Avulsion or Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sabarinath; Kumar, C J Ashok; Mathew, Thomas; Venkateshwarn, S; Jayakumar, K; Dharan, Baiju S

    2016-03-01

    Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is almost always associated with a ventricular septal defect. The variant of DORV with intact ventricular septum is very uncommon and may be associated with fetal demise or death immediately after birth. Reports of successful palliation of these patients to the stage of superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (bidirectional Glenn shunt) are rare. We describe the case of a child with DORV with intact ventricular septum who underwent successful palliation. This condition often provides a diagnostic, interventional, and surgical challenge. Patients generally require either balloon atrial septostomy or surgical atrial septectomy for survival, with the addition of a Blalock-Tausig shunt or pulmonary artery band depending on the pulmonary blood flow. Very few patients survive to a Glenn procedure. For those who do survive, a decision must be made regarding the management of the hypertensive and hypoplastic left ventricle (LV) and associated mitral regurgitation. The LV can be excluded by either mitral valve avulsion or closure (exclusion) of the mitral valve with a patch. The choice of the technique should be carefully made and depends in part on the size of the LV. In our patient, who was successfully palliated by bidirectional Glenn shunt, the LV was managed by means of mitral valve avulsion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Retailing of Processed Dairy and Grain Products in Mali: Evidence from a City Retail Outlet Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Theriault

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many sub-Saharan African countries, Mali is experiencing an unprecedented rate of urbanization and, with it, changes to its agri-food system. As more people live in urban areas, the demand for processed foods has been increasing rapidly. These changes have important implications for food and nutrition security. Yet, little is known about the scale and scope of the retailing of processed foods. To better understand this segment, we conducted a city retail outlet inventory of processed dairy and cereal foods in 2016. The main findings are that: (1 food availability is greater in the capital, high-income neighborhoods, and supermarkets; (2 there is a high prevalence of imported foods; (3 added sugar and vegetable fats are listed as a top-three ingredient in a quarter of processed products, highlighting issues related to healthfulness; (4 price premiums are paid for products that are imported from Europe, use improved packaging, and are retailed in supermarkets. Taken together, our findings indicate that the transformation in the Malian agri-food system is still at an early stage. The growing demand for processed foods presents economic opportunities for Malian farmers and processors, especially if they can improve product quality, packaging, and distribution.

  2. Cigarette advertising and promotional strategies in retail outlets: results of a statewide survey in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N; Lee, R E; Halvorson, S

    2001-06-01

    To examine the extent and types of cigarette advertising materials in stores and to assess tobacco company compliance with the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA). A cross-sectional analysis of a random sample of 586 stores that sold cigarettes. US state of California. Trained data collectors classified cigarette advertising materials by type (signs, displays, functional items), location (interior or exterior), and placement (below 3 feet (1 m) or near candy). California retail outlets featured 17.2 (SD 16.1) tobacco advertising materials on average, and 94% of stores featured at least some advertising. About 85% of these were within 4 feet (1.3 m) of the counter. About 50% of the stores had ads at or below 3 feet, and 23% had cigarette product displays next to candy. In violation of the MSA, 3% of stores featured signs with cartoons and 11% had large exterior signs. Tobacco companies are aggressively using stores to market cigarettes. Moreover, the spirit of the MSA-to protect children from cigarette advertising-has not been realised. Future studies should monitor industry use of this venue and assess the impact of exposure to cigarette advertising materials in stores on adult smokers and youth.

  3. Development of neural network driven fuzzy controller for outlet sodium temperature of DHX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okusa, Kyoichi; Endou, Akira; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Ozawa, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    Fuzzy controls are capable to exquisitely control non-linear dynamic systems in wide operating range, using linguistic description to define the control law. However the selection and the definition of the fuzzy rules and sets require a tedious trial and error process based on experience. As a method to overcome this limitation, a neural network driven fuzzy control (NDF), where the learning capability of the neural network (NN) is used to build the fuzzy rules and sets, is presented in this paper. In the NDF control the IF part of a fuzzy control is represented by a multilayer NN while the THEN part is represented by a series of multilayer NNs which calculate the desirable control action. In this work the usual stepwise variable reduction method, used for the selection of the input variable in the THEN part NN, is replaced with a learning algorithm with forgetting mechanism that realizes the automatic reduction of the variables and the tuning up of all the fuzzy control law i.e. the membership function. The NDF has been successfully applied to control the outlet sodium temperature of a dump heat exchanger (DHX) of a FBR plant

  4. Effects of nitric oxide inhibitors in mice with bladder outlet obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy Lancia Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the lower urinary tract changes in mice treated with L-NAME, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, or aminoguanidine, a competitive inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, after 5 weeks of partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO, in order to evaluate the role of constitutive and non-constitutive NOS in the pathogenesis of this experimental condition. Materials and Methods C57BL6 male mice were partially obstructed and randomly allocated into 6 groups: Sham, Sham + L-NAME, Sham + aminoguanidine, BOO, BOO + L-NAME and BOO + aminoguanidine. After 5 weeks, bladder weight was obtained and cystometry and tissue bath contractile studies were performed. Results BOO animals showed increase of non-voiding contractions (NVC and bladder capacity, and also less contractile response to Carbachol and Electric Field Stimulation. Inhibition of NOS isoforms improved bladder capacity and compliance in BOO animals. L-NAME caused more NVC, prevented bladder weight gain and leaded to augmented contractile responses at muscarinic and electric stimulation. Aminoguanidine diminished NVC, but did not avoid bladder weight gain in BOO animals and did not improve contractile responses. Conclusion It can be hypothesized that chronic inhibition of three NOS isoforms in BOO animals leaded to worsening of bladder function, while selective inhibition of iNOS did not improve responses, what suggests that, in BOO animals, alterations are related to constitutive NOS.

  5. Does bladder outlet obstruction affect distance between the ureteric orifices in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Özden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many morphological changes occur in the bladder due to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO in pa-tients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. In the present study we evaluated the relationship between in-terureteric distance (IUD of the orifices and BOO in BPH patients.Materials and methods: Thirty-seven consecutive pa-tients with lower urinary tract symptoms at the urology polyclinic included in the study. Patients divided into 2 groups according to maximal flow rate (Qmax. The first group constituted of 18 patients with Qmax 15ml/s. The IUD measurement was performed with Doppler ultrasonography.Results: There was no significant difference between the groups regarding mean age and prostate volume. Mean IUD in the first group was 32.7±5.4 mm and mean IUD in the second group was 31.5±5.1 mm. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the IUD.Conclusions: Data obtained from the study revealed that measurement of IUD with Doppler ultrasonography not significantly related to BOO.

  6. Exceptional retreat of Novaya Zemlya's marine-terminating outlet glaciers between 2000 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Carr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novaya Zemlya (NVZ has experienced rapid ice loss and accelerated marine-terminating glacier retreat during the past 2 decades. However, it is unknown whether this retreat is exceptional longer term and/or whether it has persisted since 2010. Investigating this is vital, as dynamic thinning may contribute substantially to ice loss from NVZ, but is not currently included in sea level rise predictions. Here, we use remotely sensed data to assess controls on NVZ glacier retreat between 1973/76 and 2015. Glaciers that terminate into lakes or the ocean receded 3.5 times faster than those that terminate on land. Between 2000 and 2013, retreat rates were significantly higher on marine-terminating outlet glaciers than during the previous 27 years, and we observe widespread slowdown in retreat, and even advance, between 2013 and 2015. There were some common patterns in the timing of glacier retreat, but the magnitude varied between individual glaciers. Rapid retreat between 2000 and 2013 corresponds to a period of significantly warmer air temperatures and reduced sea ice concentrations, and to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO. We need to assess the impact of this accelerated retreat on dynamic ice losses from NVZ to accurately quantify its future sea level rise contribution.

  7. Active water exchange and life near the grounding line of an Antarctic outlet glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Shin; Sawagaki, Takanobu; Fukuda, Takehiro; Aoki, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    The grounding line (GL) of the Antarctic ice sheet forms the boundary between grounded and floating ice along the coast. Near this line, warm oceanic water contacts the ice shelf, producing the ice sheet's highest basal-melt rate. Despite the importance of this region, water properties and circulations near the GL are largely unexplored because in-situ observations are difficult. Here we present direct evidence of warm ocean-water transport to the innermost part of the subshelf cavity (several hundred meters seaward from the GL) of Langhovde Glacier, an outlet glacier in East Antarctica. Our measurements come from boreholes drilled through the glacier's ∼400-m-thick grounding zone. Beneath the grounding zone, we find a 10-24-m-deep water layer of uniform temperature and salinity (-1.45 °C; 34.25 PSU), values that roughly equal those measured in the ocean in front of the glacier. Moreover, living organisms are found in the thin subglacial water layer. These findings indicate active transport of water and nutrients from the adjacent ocean, meaning that the subshelf environment interacts directly and rapidly with the ocean.

  8. Velocity profile of water vapor inside a cavity with two axial inlets and two outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, José; Ruiz Chavarría, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    To study the dynamics of Breath Figure phenomenon, a control of both the rate of flow and temperature of water vapor is required. The experimental setup widely used is a non hermetically closed chamber with cylindrical geometry and axial inlets and outlets. In this work we present measurements in a cylindrical chamber with diameter 10 cm and 1.5 cm height, keeping a constant temperature (10 °C). We are focused in the velocity field when a gradient of the temperatures is produced between the base plate and the vapor. With a flux of water vapor of 250 mil/min at room temperature (21 °C), the Reynolds number measured in one inlet is 755. Otherwise, the temperatures of water vapor varies from 21 to 40 °C. The velocity profile is obtained by hot wire anemometry. We identify the stagnations and the possibly instabilities regions for an empty plate and with a well defined shape obstacle as a fashion sample. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  9. Cognitive and Affective Uses of a Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Facebook Support Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kimberly K

    2014-09-01

    There are currently many disease-specific groups on Facebook in which patients may take an active part (Greene, Choudhry, Kilabuk, & Shrank, 2011). Although uses and gratifications of patient-disease groups have begun to be identified for chronic diseases, rare diseases have been omitted, even though they collectively affect roughly 30 million people in the United States and 350 million people worldwide. This study is a content analysis of one Facebook rare disease patient group, the Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS) Awareness group. All wall posts were recorded and content analyzed for cognitive and affective categories and subcategories between October 9, 2011 (date of site origin), and May 1, 2012. Analysis of cognitive needs indicated TOS patients used the site more to share information about their own TOS symptoms and journey with diagnosis than to seek information. Analysis of affective needs found patients were more likely to use the site to give support and encouragement to others than to express concerns and complaints. The complaints they did express were primarily related to their frustration with the general medical community's perceived inability to diagnose and understand their disease or to question a specific doctor's diagnosis/recommendation. Results point to needs specific to TOS patients that uses and gratifications research can help clarify.

  10. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Honda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO or gastric pneumatosis (GP. In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  11. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  12. Effect of inlet and outlet flow conditions on natural gas parameters in supersonic separation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    Full Text Available A supersonic separator has been introduced to remove water vapour from natural gas. The mechanisms of the upstream and downstream influences are not well understood for various flow conditions from the wellhead and the back pipelines. We used a computational model to investigate the effect of the inlet and outlet flow conditions on the supersonic separation process. We found that the shock wave was sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature. The shock position shifted forward with a higher inlet or back pressure. It indicated that an increasing inlet pressure declined the pressure recovery capacity. Furthermore, the shock wave moved out of the diffuser when the ratio of the back pressure to the inlet one was greater than 0.75, in which the state of the low pressure and temperature was destroyed, resulting in the re-evaporation of the condensed liquids. Natural gas would be the subsonic flows in the whole supersonic separator, if the mass flow rate was less than the design value, and it could not reach the low pressure and temperature for the condensation and separation of the water vapor. These results suggested a guidance mechanism for natural gas supersonic separation in various flow conditions.

  13. Unsteady Flow Dynamics and Acoustics of Two-Outlet Centrifugal Fan Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, I. Y. W.; Leung, R. C. K.; Law, A. K. Y.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, a centrifugal fan design with two flow outlets is investigated. This design aims to provide high mass flow rate but low noise performance. Two dimensional unsteady flow simulation with CFD code (FLUENT 6.3) is carried out to analyze the fan flow dynamics and its acoustics. The calculations were done using the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS) approach in which effects of turbulence were accounted for using κ-ɛ model. This work aims to provide an insight how the dominant noise source mechanisms vary with a key fan geometrical paramters, namely, the ratio between cutoff distance and the radius of curvature of the fan housing. Four new fan designs were calculated. Simulation results show that the unsteady flow-induced forces on the fan blades are found to be the main noise sources. The blade force coefficients are then used to build the dipole source terms in Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H) Equation for estimating their noise effects. It is found that one design is able to deliver a mass flow 34% more, but with sound pressure level (SPL) 10 dB lower, than the existing design .

  14. Combustion Dynamic Characteristics Identification in a 9-point LDI Combustor Under Choked Outlet Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2017-01-01

    Combustion dynamics data were collected at the NASA Glenn Research Center's CE-5 flame tube test facility under combustor outlet choked conditions. Two 9-point Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection (SV-LDI) configurations were tested in a rectangular cuboid combustor geometry. Combustion dynamic data were measured at different engine operational conditions up to inlet air pressure and temperature of 24.13 bar and 828 K, respectively. In this study, the effects of acoustic cavity resonance, precessing vortex core (PVC), and non-uniform thermal expansion on the dynamic noise spectrum are identified by comparing the dynamic data that collected at various combustor inlet conditions along with combustor geometric calculations. The results show that the acoustic cavity resonance noises were seen in the counter-rotating pilot configuration but not in the co-rotating pilot configuration. Dynamic pressure noise band at around 0.9 kHz was only detected at the P'41 location (9.8 cm after fuel injector face) but not at the P'42 location (29 cm after the fuel injector face); the amplitude of this noise band depended on the thermal expansion ratio (T4/T3). The noise band at around 1.8 kHz was found to depend on the inlet air pressure or the air density inside the combustor. The PVC frequency was not observed in these two configurations.

  15. On-line, proximate analysis of ground beef directly at a meat grinder outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, T; Nilsen, B N; Tøgersen, G; Hammond, R P; Hildrum, K I

    1996-07-01

    The fat, moisture and protein contents of ground beef were determined on-line by a diffuse reflectance near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy instrument at the outlet of a meat grinder. Beef samples in the range of 6.2-21.7% fat, 59.6-72.9% moisture and 18.1-20.7% protein were studied. Calibrations from samples ground with hole diameters of 4, 8, 13 or 19 mm in the grinder plate were validated. In addition, calibrations of combinations of these samples from the different hole diameters were validated. Prediction errors, expressed as root mean square error of cross validation of the beef samples, were 0.73-1.50% for fat, 0.75-1.33% for moisture and 0.23-0.32% for protein, depending on the hole diameter of the grinder plate. Calibrations from samples ground with the smallest hole diameters gave lowest prediction errors. The present prediction error results are only slightly higher compared to reported prediction error results using conventional at- and off-line NIR instruments. It is concluded that the on-line NIR prediction results were acceptable for samples ground with grinder plates of 4, 8 or 13 mm hole diameter.

  16. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  17. Evaluating Capability of Devils Lake Emergency Outlets in Lowering Lake Water Levels While Controlling flooding Damage to Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Devils Lake is an endorheic lake locate in the Red River of the North Basin with a natural outlet at a level of 444.7 meters above the sea level flowing into the Sheyenne River. Historical accumulation of salts has dramatically increased the concentration of salts in the lake, particularly of the sulfates, that are much greater than the surrounding water bodies. Since 1993, the lake water level has risen by nearly 10 meters and caused extensive flooding in the surrounding area, and greatly increased the chance of natural spillage to the Sheyenne River. To mitigate Devils Lake flooding and to prevent its natural spillage, two outlets were constructed at the west and east sides of the lake to drain the water to the Sheyenne River in a controlled fashion. However, pumping water from Devils Lake has degraded water quality of the Sheyenne River. In an earlier study, we coupled Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) and CE-QUAL-W2 models to investigate the changes of sulfate distribution as the lake water level rises. We found that, while operating the two outlets has lowered Devils Lake water level by 0.7 meter, it has also significantly impaired the Sheyenne River water quality, increasing the Sheyenne River average sulfate concentration from 105 to 585 mg l-1 from 2012 to 2014 In this study, we investigate the impact of the outlets on the Sheyenne River floodplain by coupling SWAT and HEC-RAS model. The SWAT model performed well in simulating daily streamflow in the Sheyenne River with R2>0.56 and ENS > 0.52. The simulated water depths and floodplain by HEC-RAS model for the Sheyenne River agreed well with observations. Operating the outlets from April to October can draw down the Devil Lake water level by 0.45 m, but the drained water would almost double the extension of the Sheyenne River floodplain and elevate the sulfate concentration in the Sheyenne River above the 450 mg l-1 North Dakota sulfate concentration standard for stream class I. Operating the outlets is

  18. Product mix retail strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Miloš

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sales of appropriate merchandise is essential for performance of every retail enterprise. The way that products are displayed within retail sales object will be in so much important as the merchandise is considered a pad of the perceived image of that outlet. Thus, assorted products speak to their consumers as far as to what they [the consumers] can expect, and they signal off a number of marketing messages as well. Merchandising is the key element in attracting the consumers and in encouraging of repeated purchases. The question then could be: products or services?, yet the retailer's future will depend on his ability to develop the best sale offers. The selection of appropriate merchandise, and that would be the one [merchandise] that is in accordance with outlet's image, requires careful planning which, again, needs to be related with the direction the seller is following. Managing of the product assortments' dimensions emerges from the retailer's strategic planning, therefore, the decisions made on the inclusion of novel products as well as about deleting of the old stock are deemed (to be strategic.

  19. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  20. Numerical Simulation on the Performance of a Mixed-Flow Pump under Various Casing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dazhuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the reactor coolant pump and high flow-rate circulating pump, the requirements on the compactness of the structure, safety, and hydraulic performance are particularly important. Thus, the mixed-flow pump with cylindrical casing is adopted in some occasions. Due to the different characteristics between the special cylindrical casing and the common pump casing, the influence of the special casing on a mixed-flow pump characteristics was numerically investigated to obtain better performance and flow structure in the casing. The results show that the models with cylindrical casing have much worse head and efficiency characteristics than the experimental model, and this is caused by the flow in the pump casing. By moving the guide vanes half inside the pump casing, the efficiency gets improved while the low pressure zone at the corner of outlet pipe and pump casing disappeared. When the length of pump casing increases from the size equal to the diameter of outlet pipe to that larger than it, the efficiency drops obviously and the flow field in the outlet pipe improved without curved flow. In addition, the length of the pump casing has greater impacts on the pump performance than the radius of it.

  1. [Late outlet strut fracture of an aortic Björk-Shiley and embolization of the prosthetic disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochet, E; Bougis de Brux, M A; Assayag, P; Benacin, Y; Gamerman, G; Guerot, C; Valère, P E

    1988-09-01

    A new case of late fracture of an outlet strut in a convexo-concave Björk-Shiley valve is reported. The fracture occurred 6 years after aortic implantation of the valve and was responsible for aorto-iliac embolization by the prosthetic disc and death of the patient from cardiogenic shock. This not uncommon complication of the Björk-Shiley valve prosthesis is usually ascribed to the relative fragility of its outlet strut welded to the metallic ring and subjected to strong pressures. Although most cases were observed within the first two years of prosthetic valve insertion, and mainly with valves manufactured in 1981 and 1982, our case and a few others demonstrate the possibility of late rupture. Cardiologists must be aware of this possible complication, since in some favourable cases it can be diagnosed at an early stage and the patient's life can be saved by an emergency operation.

  2. A thermal analysis computer programme package for the estimation of KANUPP coolant channel flows and outlet header temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.

    1992-06-01

    COFTAN is a computer code for actual estimation of flows and temperatures in the coolant channels of a pressure tube heavy water reactor. The code is being used for Candu type reactor with coolant flowing 208 channels. The simulation model first performs the detailed calculation of flux and power distribution based on two groups diffusion theory treatment on a three dimensional mesh and then channel powers, resulting from the summation of eleven bundle powers in each of the 208 channels, are employed to make actual estimation of coolant flows using channel powers and channel outlet temperature monitored by digital computers. The code by using the design flows in individual channels and applying a correction factor based on control room monitored flows in eight selected channels, can also provide a reserve computational tool of estimating individual channel outlet temperatures, thus providing an alternate arrangements for checking Rads performance. 42 figs. (Orig./A.B.)

  3. Treatment practices of households and antibiotic dispensing in medicine outlets in developing countries: The case of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2018-01-01

    in households and the antibiotic dispensing practices of medicine sales outlets in Eastern region, Ghana. Method: Twice-weekly illness recall visits were made to 12 households in three rural communities over eight consecutive weeks. Detailed fieldnotes were taken and analysed using a thematic approach....... Quantitative counts of health events and treatment were also conducted. Dispensing practices were systematically observed and documented in three rural and three urban medicine outlets for analysis. Result: Fever, abdominal, and respiratory symptoms were the most common causes of ill-health in the 12...... an integral part of healthcare in the study settings and the qualitative data provides a contextual understanding of over-the-counter antibiotic acquisition and use. Inappropriate antibiotic use is apparent in the study settings. Stricter regulation of the pharmaceutical sector, training of dispensers...

  4. Data on microbial and physiochemical characteristics of inlet and outlet water from household water treatment devices in Rasht, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghipour, Dariush; Ashrafi, Seyed Davoud; Mojtahedi, Ali; Vatandoost, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Loghman; Roohbakhsh, Esmail

    2018-02-01

    In this research, we measured various parameters related to drinking water quality include turbidity, temperature, pH, EC, TDS, Alkalinity, fecal and total coliform, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), free chlorine, Mn, Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, Cl - , F - , HCO 3 , in the inlet and outlet of household water treatment devices according to the standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (W.E. Federation and Association and A.P.H., 2005) [1]. Sixty four inlet and outlet water samples were taken from thirty two household water treatment devices from eight different residential blocks in Golsar town of Rasht, Iran. The data obtained from experiments were analyzed using the software Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 24) and MS-Excel.

  5. Analysis of the gas outlets of the nuclear power plants relation between nuclides determined by gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalik, J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Radiation Protection Institute is interested in the long-time study of the noble gases outlets of nuclear power plants. One of the causes of monitoring the gas outlet is independent assessment of the influence nuclear power plant on the environment. Result of this analysis confirms the correlation between 88 Kr and 85m Kr in all technological compartments. Except the internal flue of the first production unit, the high correlation coefficient was determined between 88 Kr - 135 Xe and 85m Kr - 135 Xe. The analysis presented by this paper suggests that the highest correlation coefficient was always reached between 88 Kr and 85 mKr. Its values approached to 1. Similar results were confirmed between 85m Kr - 135 Xe and 88 Kr - 1 35 Xe. As far as the ratio of the specific activity concerns, we found certain congruence between 2006 and 2007. (authors)

  6. Study on Gas Field Optimization Distribution with Parameters Adjustment of the Air Duct Outlet for Mechanized Heading Face in Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Yi; Wu, Yue; Xia, Zhi-Xin; Li, Ying

    2017-12-01

    At present, as the increasingly drilling dimensions with cross-section expansion and distance prolong in coal mine, the situation of gas accumulation in mechanized heading face becomes severe. In this paper, optimization research of gas distribution was carried out by adjusting parameters of the air duct outlet, including angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet. Mechanized heading face of Ningtiaota coal mine was taken as the research object, simulated and analyzed the problems of original gas field, the reasonable parameters range of the air duct outlet was determined according to the allowable range of wind speed and the effect of gas dilution, the adjustment range of each parameter of the air duct outlet is preliminarily determined. Base on this, the distribution of gas field under different parameters adjustment of air duct outlet was simulated. The specific parameters under the different distance between the air duct outlet and the mechanized heading face were obtained, and a new method of optimizing the gas distribution by adjusting parameters of the air duct outlet was provided.

  7. Is the number of fast-food outlets in the neighbourhood related to screen-detected type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodicoat, Danielle H; Carter, Patrice; Comber, Alexis; Edwardson, Charlotte; Gray, Laura J; Hill, Sian; Webb, David; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether a higher number of fast-food outlets in an individual's home neighbourhood is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related risk factors, including obesity. Cross-sectional study. Three UK-based diabetes screening studies (one general population, two high-risk populations) conducted between 2004 and 2011. The primary outcome was screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for type 2 diabetes. In total 10 461 participants (mean age 59 years; 53% male; 21% non-White ethnicity). There was a higher number of neighbourhood (500 m radius from home postcode) fast-food outlets among non-White ethnic groups (Pfast-food outlets was associated with significantly increased odds for diabetes (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00, 1.04) and obesity (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00, 1.03). This suggests that for every additional two outlets per neighbourhood, we would expect one additional diabetes case, assuming a causal relationship between the fast-food outlets and diabetes. These results suggest that increased exposure to fast-food outlets is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which has implications for diabetes prevention at a public health level and for those granting planning permission to new fast-food outlets.

  8. Comparison of fast food consumption and dietary guideline practices for children and adolescents by clustering of fast food outlets around schools in the Gyeonggi area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soonnam; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution density of fast food outlets around schools, and the relationship between dietary health of children and adolescents and the density of fast food outlets in Korea. A distribution map of fast food outlets was drawn by collecting information on 401 locations of 16 brands within a 15-minute walk (800 meter) of 342 elementary and secondary schools in Suwon, Hwaseong and Osan. A questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary life of 243 sixth and eighth grade students at eight schools. Schools in the upper 20% and lower 20% of the fast food outlet distribution were classified as high-density and low-density groups, respectively. The practice rate of dietary guidelines published by the Health and Welfare Ministry and the fast food consumption pattern of children and adolescents from low and high density groups were determined. The number of schools with a fast food outlet within 200 meters or in the Green Food Zone around its location was 48 of 189 (25.4%) in Suwon and 14 of 153 (9.2%) in Hwaseong and Osan. Students in the low-density group visited fast food outlets less often than those in the high-density group (pfast food outlets within 200 meters of schools was useful for identifying the effectiveness of the Green Food Zone Act and nutrition education programs.

  9. Structural integrity of a reinforced concrete structure and a pipe outlet under hydrogen detonation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.; Silde, A.; Calonius, K.

    2002-05-01

    Structural integrity of a reinforced concrete wall and a pipe penetration under detonation conditions in a selected reactor building room of Olkiluoto BWR were studied. Hydrogen leakage from the pressurised containment to the sur rounding reactor building is possible during a severe accident. Leaked hydrogen tends to accumulate in the reactor building rooms where the leak is located leading to a stable stratification and locally very high hydrogen concentration. If ignited, a possibility to flame acceleration and detonation cannot be ruled out. The structure may survive the peak detonation transient because the eigenperiod of the structure is considerably longer than the duration of the peak detonation. However, the relatively slowly decreasing static type pressure after a peak detonation damages the wall more severely. Elastic deformations in reinforcement are recoverable and cracks in these areas will close after the pressure decrease. But there will be remarkable compression crushing and the static type slowly decreasing over pressure clearly exceeds the loading capacity of the wall. Structural integrity of a pipe outlet was considered also under detonation conditions. The effect of drag forces was taken into account. Damping and strain rate dependence of yield strength were not taken into consideration. The boundary condition at the end of the pipe line model was varied in order to find out the effect of the stiffness of the pipeline outside the calculation model. The calculation model where the lower pipe end is free to move axially, is conservative from the pipe penetration integrity point of view. Even in this conservative study, the highest peak value for the maximum plastic deformation is 3.5%. This is well below the success criteria found in literature. (au)

  10. An Assessment of Radiologically Inserted Transoral and Transgastric Gastroduodenal Stents to Treat Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bethany H. T., E-mail: bmiller@doctors.org.uk [Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Preston Hospital, Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Ewen A., E-mail: Eagriffiths@doctors.org.uk [The New Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (United Kingdom); Pursnani, Kishore G., E-mail: Kish.Pursnani@lthtr.nhs.uk; Ward, Jeremy B., E-mail: Jeremy.Ward@lthtr.nhs.uk [Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Preston Hospital, Department of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery (United Kingdom); Stockwell, Robert C., E-mail: Robert.Stockwell@lthtr.nhs.uk [Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Chorley and South Ribble Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    IntroductionSelf-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) are used to palliate malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and are useful in patients with limited life expectancy or severe medical comorbidity, which would preclude surgery. Stenting can be performed transorally or by a percutaneous transgastric technique. Our goal was to review the outcome of patients who underwent radiological SEMS insertion performed by a single consultant interventional radiologist. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database held by one consultant radiologist. Data were retrieved from radiological reports, multidisciplinary team meetings, and the patients' case notes. Univariate survival analysis was performed. Results: Between December 2000 and January 2011, 100 patients (63 males, 37 females) had 110 gastroduodenal stenting procedures. Median age was 73 (range 39-89) years. SEMS were inserted transorally (n = 66) or transgastrically (n = 44). Site of obstruction was the stomach (n = 37), duodenum (n = 50), gastric pull-up (n = 10), or gastroenterostomy (n = 13). Seven patients required biliary stents. Technical success was 86.4 %: 83.3 % for transoral insertion, 90.9 % for transgastric insertion. Eleven patients developed complications. Median GOO severity score: 1 pre-stenting, 2 post-stenting (p = 0.0001). Median survival was 54 (range 1-624) days. Post-stenting GOO severity score was predictive of survival (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The technical success rate for insertion of palliative SEMS is high. Insertional technique can be tailored to the individual depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is possible to access the stomach percutaneously. Patients who have successful stenting and return to eating a soft/normal diet have a statistically significant increase in survival.

  11. Climatology and potential effects of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Osborne, Leon; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    The Devils Lake Basin is a 3,810-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin.  At an elevation of about 1,447 feet above sea level, Devils Lake begins to spill into Stump Lake; and at an elevation of about 1,459 feet above sea level, the combined lakes begin to spill through Tolna Coulee into the Sheyenne River. Since the end of glaciation about 10,000 years ago, Devils Lake has fluctuated between spilling and being dry.  Research by the North Dakota Geological Survey indicates Devils Lake has overflowed into the Sheyenne River at least twice during the past 4,000 years and has spilled into the Stump Lakes several times (Bluemle, 1991; Murphy and others, 1997).  John Bluemle, North Dakota State Geologist, concluded the natural condition for Devils Lake is either rising or falling, and the lake should not be expected to remain at any elevation for a long period of time. Recent conditions indicate the lake is in a rising phase.  The lake rose 24.7 feet from February 1993 to August 1999, and flood damages in the Devils Lake Basin have exceeded $300 million.  These damages, and the potential for additional damages, have led to an effort to develop an outlet to help control lake levels.  Therefore, current and accurate climatologic and hydrologic data are needed to assess the viability of the various options to reduce flood damages at Devils Lake.

  12. Occupational dermatoses in restaurant, catering and fast-food outlets in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Sylvia; Teik-Jin Goon, Anthony; Siang, Lee Hock; Lin, Gan Siok; Koh, David

    2009-10-01

    The restaurant industry is a rapidly growing sector in Singapore and workers in this industry are trained in culinary skills but not on recognition of safety and health hazards and their control measures. Anecdotal clinical evidence has suggested an increased prevalence of occupational dermatoses among restaurant workers. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for contact dermatitis and burns among restaurant, catering and fast-food outlet (FFO) staff. Workers were interviewed and then clinical examination and patch and/or prick tests were conducted in selected individuals. In total, 335 of 457 workers (73% response) were interviewed and 65 (19%) had occupational dermatitis or burns and were examined. Of these, contact dermatitis was the commonest diagnosis, with a 12-month period prevalence of 10% (35 workers) and 3-month period prevalence of 8% (26 workers). All 35 workers had irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and there were no cases of allergic contact dermatitis. The adjusted prevalence rate ratios of risk factors for ICD were 2.78 (95% CI 1.36-5.72) for frequent hand washing >20 times per day, 3.87 (95% CI 1.89-7.93) for atopy and 2.57 (95% CI 1.21-5.47) for contact with squid. The 3-month period prevalence for burns was 6% (20 workers). Ten workers had other occupational dermatoses such as work-related calluses, paronychia, heat rash and allergic contact urticaria to prawn and lobster. ICD and burns are common occupational skin disorders among restaurant, catering and FFO workers.

  13. An Assessment of Radiologically Inserted Transoral and Transgastric Gastroduodenal Stents to Treat Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Bethany H. T.; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Pursnani, Kishore G.; Ward, Jeremy B.; Stockwell, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionSelf-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) are used to palliate malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and are useful in patients with limited life expectancy or severe medical comorbidity, which would preclude surgery. Stenting can be performed transorally or by a percutaneous transgastric technique. Our goal was to review the outcome of patients who underwent radiological SEMS insertion performed by a single consultant interventional radiologist. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database held by one consultant radiologist. Data were retrieved from radiological reports, multidisciplinary team meetings, and the patients’ case notes. Univariate survival analysis was performed. Results: Between December 2000 and January 2011, 100 patients (63 males, 37 females) had 110 gastroduodenal stenting procedures. Median age was 73 (range 39–89) years. SEMS were inserted transorally (n = 66) or transgastrically (n = 44). Site of obstruction was the stomach (n = 37), duodenum (n = 50), gastric pull-up (n = 10), or gastroenterostomy (n = 13). Seven patients required biliary stents. Technical success was 86.4 %: 83.3 % for transoral insertion, 90.9 % for transgastric insertion. Eleven patients developed complications. Median GOO severity score: 1 pre-stenting, 2 post-stenting (p = 0.0001). Median survival was 54 (range 1–624) days. Post-stenting GOO severity score was predictive of survival (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The technical success rate for insertion of palliative SEMS is high. Insertional technique can be tailored to the individual depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is possible to access the stomach percutaneously. Patients who have successful stenting and return to eating a soft/normal diet have a statistically significant increase in survival

  14. Primary duodenal tuberculosis presenting as gastric-outlet obstruction: Its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Datta Upadhyaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastrointestinal tuberculosis often involves the ileocecal region. Duodenal and gastric tuberculosis found in only 1% of patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis with associated HIV infection in non-endemic areas. Duodenal obstruction due to tuberculosis is very rare and needs high index of suspicions for diagnosis. Mostly this entity is suspected on intraoperative findings. In this manuscript we emphasized on ways and means for establishing histopathological diagnosis before starting anti-tubercular treatment in such cases. Method and Material: All patients of suspected gastroduodenal tuberculosis presented with feature of gastric-outlet obstruction managed during Jan 2009 to June 2011 were included in the study. After proper evaluation (routine hematological and biochemical examination, microbiological examination, serological and endoscopic evaluation exploratory laparotomy was done and if there is no mesenteric lymphadenopathy or it is not safe to take biopsy form the diseased duodenum, multiple FNAC were taken from the diseased portion for histopathological and microbiological diagnosis. Result: A total of five patients were treated during this period. The most common presentation was vomiting followed by failure to thrive and weight loss; two patients had abdominal pain. Biopsy of mesenteric lymph node was possible in two cases. FNAC from diseases portion was taken in all cases. FNAC showed granulomas in four cases. Cases where even FNAC finding was non-conclusive on HPE/Microbiology was not subjected to antitubercular drug. Conclusion: Multiple intra-operative FNAC may be taken from the diseased portion of the duodenum to establish the histopathological diagnosis if diagnosis is not established by any other mean.

  15. Surgical Management of Anatomic Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Males with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhoff, Toscane C; Groen, Jan; Scheepe, Jeroen R; Blok, Bertil F M

    2018-03-15

    Surgical treatment of anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may be indicated in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. A bothersome complication after surgery is urinary incontinence. To identify the optimal practice in the surgical treatment of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, due to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled trial databases, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for publications until January 2017. A total of 930 abstracts were screened. Eight studies were included. The types of anatomic BOO discussed were benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture, and bladder neck sclerosis. The identified surgical treatments were transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in patients with Parkinson, CVA or SCI, endoscopic treatment of urethral stricture by laser ablation or urethrotomy (mainly in SCI patients), and bladder neck resection (BNR) in SCI patients. The outcome of TURP may be highly variable, and includes persistent or de novo urinary incontinence, regained normal micturition control, and urinary continence. Good results were seen in BNR and endoscopic urethrotomy studies. Laser ablation and cold knife urethrotomy resulted in restarting intermittent catheterization or adequate voiding. Overall, a high risk of bias was found. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature on the outcome of several surgical approaches of different types of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Identifying the optimal practice was impossible due to limited availability of high-quality studies. The outcome of several surgical approaches in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction with benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture

  16. Application of transabdominal ultrasonography in diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yanfeng; Wang Jian; Tang Qi; Yu Jiashun; Liu Dingyi; Jiang Yi; Wang Ying

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the correlation between the bladder weight (BW) and intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and the degree of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to explore the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography in judgement of BOO in the patients with BPH. Methods: Urodynamic examination was performed in 124 BPH patients from March 2009 to January 2011. 124 patients were divided into 2 groups (non-obstruction and obstruction). The BW and IPP were measured by transabdominal ultrasonography, the correlation between BW, IPP and the parameters reflecting BOO was analyzed. Results: The BW values in obstruction group and non-obstruction group were (77.47±44.34) g and (57.47±23.10) g. There was significant difference in BW between obstruction group and non-obstruction group (P<0.05). The IPP values in obstruction group and non-obstruction group were (11.05±9.65) mm and (7.67±7.99) mm. There was significant difference in IPP between obstruction group and non-obstruction group (P<0.05). The BW value of all the patients with BPH was negatively correlated with Q max (r=-0.177, P<0.05) and positively correlated with PdetQ max (P<0.05, r=-0.201). The IPP value was negatively correlated with Q max (r=-0.403, P<0.01) and positively correlated with PedQ max (r=0.192, P<0.01). Conclusion: The BW and IPP are highly correlated with BOO, and evaluating BW and IPP with ultrasound is a reliable method to determine the degree of BOO. (authors)

  17. Using Continuum Damage Mechanics to Simulate Iceberg Calving from Tidewater Outlet Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercenier, R.; Lüthi, M.; Vieli, A.

    2017-12-01

    Many ocean terminating glaciers in the Arctic are currently undergoingrapid retreat, thinning and strong accelerations in flow. The processof iceberg calving plays a crucial role for the related dynamical masslosses and occurs when the stresses at the calving front exceed thefracture strength of ice, driving the propagation of cracks andeventually leading to the detachment of ice blocks from the glacierfront. However, the understanding of the processes involved in icebergcalving as well as the capability of flow models to represent thecalving mechanism remain limited.Here, we use a time-dependent two-dimensional finite-element flowmodel coupled to a damage model to simulate the break-off of ice atthe front of idealized tidewater outlet glaciers. The flow modelcomputes flow velocities and the resulting stresses, which are in turnused to calculate the evolution of the glacier geometry anddamage. Damage is defined as a change of rheological properties, e.g.viscosity, due to increasing material degradation. Elements of ice areremoved when the damage variable reaches a critical threshold. Theeffects of material properties and of geometrical parameters such aswater depth, ice thickness and submarine frontal melting on thesimulated calving rates are explored through systematic sensitivityanalyses.The coupled ice flow/damage model allows for successful reproductionof calving front geometries typically observed for different waterdepths. We further use detailed observations from real glaciergeometries to better constrain the model parameters. Theproposed model approach should be applicable to simulate icebergcalving on arbitrary glaciers, and thus be used to analyse theevolution of tidewater glacier variations from the past to the future.

  18. Diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction can we do away with pressureflow studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Peedikayil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare pressure-flow study on one hand with BWT, prostate volume, urine flow rate PVR and IPSS index in the other arm for diagnosis of BOO. Materials and methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in 48 men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. International prostate symptom score was completed by the patient who then underwent free urine flow study. Pressure-Flow study was performed as per recommendations of International continence Society. Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and number were used to diagnose BOO. Patients with diabetes, neurovesical dysfunction, acute urinary retention, prior pelvic surgery and known prostate cancer were excluded. Suprapubic ultrasonography was performed independently by a consultant radiologist, who was blinded to findings of Pressure-Flow study. Prevoid bladder volume, postvoid residue (PVR, prostate volume and bladder wall thickness (BWT were noted. Results: Based on objective evidence from Pressure-Flow study, 35 patients were obstructed, 13 were not. Multivariate analysis was performed using Backward Stepwise Logistic Regression Model. Bladder wall thickness, prostate volume and urine flow rate had statistically significant relationship with BOO. Their coefficients of correlation were +0.794, +0.084 and 0.393 respectively. Bladder outlet obstruction could be defined by using a mathematical formula as detailed in the text (Positive Predictive Value 96.97%. Post-void residue and IPSS index were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: In a select group of patients presenting with LUTS, it should be possible to diagnose BOO without the use of Pressure-Flow study.

  19. Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Maximilian; Waldert, Matthias; Schatzl, Georg; Swietek, Natalia; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Klatte, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Our prospective urodynamics database was queried. Inclusion criteria were CRPC and an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥ 20. Exclusion criteria were previous local therapy to the prostate gland, known urethral stricture disease, and a neurological component of LUTS. Twenty-one patients were identified. Urodynamic findings were analysed and compared with those of a matched cohort of 42 patients with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). The median age of patients in the CRPC group was 74 years, and the median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at the time of the urodynamic study was 90 ng/mL. According to the BOO index, three patients (14%) were obstructed, three were equivocally obstructed (14%) and 15 were unobstructed. DO was seen in 12 patients (57%). Compared with the BPE group, patients with CRPC had lower cystometric bladder capacities (P = 0.003), were less likely to have BOO (14 vs 43%, P = 0.009) and more likely to have DO (57 vs 29%, P = 0.028). This study generates the hypothesis that only a minority of CRPC patients with LUTS have BOO, and that more than half of patients have DO. LUTS in CRPC may therefore be seldom attributable to BOO, but are, at least in part, related to DO and reduced cystometric capacity. A urodynamic investigation may be necessary before palliative transurethral resection of the prostate to select appropriate candidates. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  20. Safety and benefits of self-expandable metallic stents with chemotherapy for malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Hayashi, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Sano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Tomonori; Takada, Hiroki; Naitoh, Itaru; Shimizu, Shuya; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Yoshida, Michihiro; Umemura, Shuichiro; Hori, Yasuki; Kato, Akihisa; Ohara, Hirotaka; Joh, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    The influence of chemotherapy on placement of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) for malignant gastric outlet obstruction (MGOO) has not been evaluated extensively. We investigated the influence of chemotherapy on the clinical outcomes of SEMS placement for MGOO. A total of 152 cancer patients with MGOO from a university hospital and affiliate hospitals were included. The patients were classified according to chemotherapy status and evaluated for palliative efficacy and safety of SEMS placement. Technical success rate, time to oral intake, and parameters indicating improvement of physical condition did not differ between the with- and without-chemotherapy groups after stent placement. Re-intervention and stent migration were significantly more frequent in the with-chemotherapy group than in the without-chemotherapy group after stent placement (re-intervention, 32.4% vs 7.8%, P = 0.0005; stent migration, 13.5% vs 1.7%, P = 0.0097). The frequency of adverse events did not differ between the with- and without-chemotherapy groups. Although chemotherapy after stent placement was an independent predictive factor for shortening the stent patency period (hazard ratio [HR], 3.10; P = 0.0264), the use of additional stents facilitated uneventful recovery and further prolonged survival time (HR, 0.60; P = 0.0132). Various cancer patients with MGOO can undergo SEMS placement safely regardless of chemotherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy after stent placement can prolong survival time, although re-intervention and stent migration may be increased. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.