WorldWideScience

Sample records for outer shell fabric

  1. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  3. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  4. Transport comparison of multiwall carbon nanotubes by contacting outer shell and all shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiang; Cui, A-Juan; Zhang, Yi-Guang; Lu, Chao; Jin, Ai-Zi; Yang, Hai-Fang; Gu, Chang-Zhi

    2010-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes, particularly multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can serve as interconnects in nanoelectronic devices and integrated circuits because of their extremely large current-carrying capacity. Many experimental results about the transport properties of individual MWCNTs by contacting outer shell or all shells have been reported. In this work, a compatible method with integrated circuit manufacturing process was presented to compare the transport property of an individual multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) by contacting outer shell only and all shells successively. First of the Ti/Au electrodes contacting outer shell only were fabricated onto the nanotube through the sequence of electron beam lithography (EBL) patterning, metal deposition and lift-off process. After the characterization of its transport property, focused ion beam (FIB) was used to drill holes through the same nanotube at the as-deposited electrodes. Then new contact to the holes and electrodes were made by ion-induced deposition of tungsten from W(CO)6 precursor gas. The transport results indicated that the new contact to all shells can clear up the intershell resistance and the electrical conductance of the tube can be improved about 8 times compared to that of by contacting outer shell only.

  5. Double-shell target fabrication workshop-2016 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. Morris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Oertel, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Farrell, Michael [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baumann, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haibo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nikroo, Abbas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    On June 30, 2016, over 40 representatives from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), General Atomics (GA), Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Schafer Corporation, and NNSA headquarter attended a double-shell (DS) target fabrication workshop at Livermore, California. Pushered-single-shell (PSS) and DS metalgas platforms potentially have a large impact on programmatic applications. The goal of this focused workshop is to bring together target fabrication scientists, physicists, and designers to brainstorm future PSS and DS target fabrication needs and strategies. This one-day workshop intends to give an overall view of historical information, recent approaches, and future research activities at each participating organization. Five topical areas have been discussed that are vital to the success of future DS target fabrications, including inner metal shells, foam spheres, outer ablators, fill tube assembly, and metrology.

  6. Ionization of inner shells of atoms taking account of outer shell rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The application of the general many-body theory and methods formulated with its help, in particular, the so-called random phase approximation with exchange (RPAE) and the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) makes possible a description of ionization processes for many outer and intermediate shells of a number of atoms. This investigation of outer- and intermediate-shell ionization by photons and electrons demonstrates the collective character of these processes and the possibility of describing them by RPAE. 28 references

  7. Fabrication of Foam Shells for ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, D. G.; Acenas, O.; Flowers, J. S.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R. R.; Schroen, D. G.; Streit, J.; Takagi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The General Atomics/Schafer team has developed processes to fabricate foam shells targets suitable for ICF experiments. The two most common chemical systems used to produce foam shells have been resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) aerogel and divinylbenzene (DVB). Spherical targets have been made in the form of shells and beads having diameters ranging from approximately 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm, and having densities from approximately 100 mg/cc to 250 mg/cc. The work on R/F foam shells has been concentrated on 1) shell fabrication process improvement to obtain high yields ( ˜25%) and 2) depositing a reliable permeation barrier to provide shells for ongoing direct drive experiments at LLE. Development of divinylbenzene foam shells has been mainly directed towards Inertial Fusion Energy applications (at densities as low as 30 mg/cc) and recently for shells for experiments at LLE. Details of the relevant metrology and properties of these foams as well as the range of targets currently available will be discussed.

  8. Interelectron correlations in photoionization of outer shells near inner shell thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Chernysheva, L V; Drukarev, E G

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the role of virtual excitations of inner shells upon outer shell photoionization. The calculations were performed in the frames of the Random Phase Approximation with Exchange (RPAE) and its generalized version GRPAE that take into account variation of the atomic field due to electron elimination and the inner vacancies decay. We apply both analytic approximation and numeric computations. The results are presented for 3p electrons in Ar and for 4d-electrons in Pd near inner shells thresholds. The effect considered proved to be quite noticeable. (paper)

  9. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  10. Collisional alignment and orientation of atomic outer shells. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Gallagher, J.W.; Hertel, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The study of polarization of atomic radiation emitted after impact excitation has yielded an enormous wealth of detailed information on the mechanism and dynamics of collisional excitation and energy transfer, both in electron and heavy particle impact studies. In these studies, the beam of electrons, ions or fast atoms used to excite the target atoms provides a suitable quantization axis with respect to which the polarization of the fluorescent light of the excited atoms is detected. From these data information on the cross sections for the different magnetic substates of the excited atom is extracted, imparting a great deal of insight into impact mechanisms for both outer and inner shell excitation. It is our aim to provide a comprehensive review including all data available in the literature presented in a standardized and easily accessible fashion. In this review we include only alignment and orientation studies, which have a well-defined planar symmetry, i.e., in which the initial and final relative momentum of the interacting particles are well defined by differential scattering techniques. We do not make a major distinction between heavy-particle and electron impact excitation: In fact, one of our aims is to demonstrate similarities between the two fields from a technical as well as from a conceptual point of view. The review is divided into three parts: This first part (I) deals with direct excitation of atoms by electrons and fast atoms or ions. Section 2 gives an introduction to the general concepts and ideas behind this kind of study and a description of typical experimental setups. Section 3 deals with electron impact excitation of atoms, starting with the simplest case of electron-helium collisions which may be fully described by two parameters, followed by more complex cases such as electron impact excitation of hydrogen and the heavy rare gases. Section 4 describes the results for direct excitation by atomic impact. (orig./AH)

  11. Preliminary engineering studies for the support shell of the outer tracker of the SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergriff, D.H.; Mayhall, J.

    1991-09-01

    The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) detector is in the conceptual design phase. ORNL is currently working with various sub-groups on the design of the outer tracker portion of the SDC detector. A major focus in the outer tracker design is the structure that mounts and supports the tracking elements. This structure must meet extreme requirements of alignment and stability while containing a minimum of material. This report describes the requirements, evaluations, and analyses that have been performed on the two options being explored; a cylindrical support shell and a modular support shell

  12. Nuclear reactor installation with outer shell enclosing a primary pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The high temperature nuclear reactor installation described includes a fluid cooled nuclear heat source, a primary pressure vessel and outer shell around the primary pressure vessel and acting as a protection for it against outside projectiles. A floor is provided internally dividing the outside shell into two upper and lower sections and an inside wall dividing the lower section into one part containing the primary pressure vessel and a second part, both made pressure tight with respect to each other and with the outside shell and forming with the latter a secondary means of containment [fr

  13. Outer-shell excitation and capture processes: Alignment and orientation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Dowek, D.; Dubois, A.; Hansen, J.P.; Nielsen, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    This contribution outlines some ongoing activities within a joint programme of experimental and theoretical studies of outer-shell excitation and charge transfer processes in atomic collisions. The main emphasis is presently on alignment and orientation phenomena. The aim is to reveal the shape and dynamics of the electronic charge cloud as it develops in time along the trajectory, and to understand these phenomena in terms of the underlying, basic mechanisms responsible for collisional excitation and transfer. (orig.)

  14. Coherent correlation enhancement of outer shell photoionization cross sections of alkali-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Avdonina, B.; Pratt, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    An alkali-like ion interaction with inner electrons of an alkali-like ion leads to a significant increase in the photoionization cross section of the outer s electron. This occurs not only for ground-state ions with one s electron in the outer shell, but also when the outer s electron is in an excited state. The reason for this amplification, in addition to coherent enhancement in summing of the correlation amplitudes, is that the zero in the direct amplitude occurs below threshold. This leads to a constructive interference with the correlation amplitude above the photoionization threshold, in contrast to a destructive interference in the case of a neutral atom with the same electronic configuration, for which the zero occurs above threshold. Results of this research were published

  15. Nuclear reactor installation with outer shell enclosing a primary pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The high temperature nuclear reactor installation described includes a fluid cooled nuclear heat source, a primary pressure vessel containing the heat source, an outer shell enclosing the primary pressure vessel and acting as a secondary means of containment for this vessel against outside projectiles. Multiple auxiliary equipment points are arranged outside the outer shell which comprises a part of a lower wall around the primary pressure vessel, an annular part integrated in the lower wall and extending outwards as from this wall and an upper part integrated in the annular part and extending above this annular part and above the primary pressure vessel. The annular part and the primary pressure vessel are formed with vertical penetrations which can be closed communicating respectively with the auxiliary equipment points and with inside the pressure vessel whilst handling gear is provided in the upper part for vertically raising reactor components through these penetrations and for transporting them over the annular part and over the primary pressure vessel [fr

  16. Double-shell inertial confinement fusion target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.W.; Lorensen, L.E.; Weinstein, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    First generation hemishells, from which spherical shells are constructed, were fabricated by micromachining coated mandrels and by molding. The remachining of coated mandrels are described in detail. Techniques were developed for coating the microsized mandrels with polymeric and metallic materials by methods including conformal coating, vapor deposition, plasma polymerization and thermoforming. Micropositioning equipment and bonding techniques have also been developed to assemble the hemishells about a fuel pellet maintaining a spherical concentricity of better than 2 μm and voids in the hemishell bonding line of a few hundred angstroms or less

  17. The influence of stiffeners on axial crushing of glass-fabric-reinforced epoxy composite shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasanthanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic static and impact experimental procedure has been developed in this work aimed at improving the stability of glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell structures by bonding with axial stiffeners. Crashworthy structures fabricated from composite laminate with stiffeners would offer energy absorption superior to metallic structures under compressive loading situations. An experimental material characterisation of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite under uni-axial tension has been carried out in this study. This work provides a numerical simulation procedure to describe the static and dynamic response of unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (without stiffeners and stiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (with axial stiffeners under static and impact loading using the Finite Element Method. The finite element calculation for the present study was made with ANSYS®-LS-DYNA® software. Based upon the experimental and numerical investigations, it has been asserted that glass fabric reinforced epoxy shells stiffened with GFRP stiffeners are better than unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell and glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell stiffened with aluminium stiffeners. The failure surfaces of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell structures tested under impact were examined by SEM.

  18. Calculation of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of inner surface into outer one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Uvarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of internal surface into outer one was developed with a use of the kinematic method. The shell material was assumed to be perfectly plastic. The theory of thin shells and the kinematic theorem of limit equilibrium were utilized in this work. Both geometric and physical nonlinearities were taken into account. Dependences for calculating radius of curvature of the intensive deformation zones, value of chain ring deformation and values of the deforming force as a function of axial displacement were determined. Analysis showed the possibility of using a conical shell to absorb energy with high efficiency. Obtained results could be used for calculation and selection of optimal parameters of the energy-absorbing elements in shock absorbers.

  19. Outer Electrospun Polycaprolactone Shell Induces Massive Foreign Body Reaction and Impairs Axonal Regeneration through 3D Multichannel Chitosan Nerve Guides

    OpenAIRE

    Duda, Sven; Dreyer, Lutz; Behrens, Peter; Wienecke, Soenke; Chakradeo, Tanmay; Glasmacher, Birgit; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of composite nerve grafts with an inner 3D multichannel porous chitosan core and an outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell. The inner chitosan core provided multiple guidance channels for regrowing axons. To analyze the in vivo properties of the bare chitosan cores, we separately implanted them into an epineural sheath. The effects of both graft types on structural and functional regeneration across a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap were compared to autologous nerv...

  20. Extremely Lightweight Segmented Membrane Optical Shell Fabrication Technology for Future IR to Optical Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) substrate fabrication approach be extended with a specific focus on advanced off-axis very light weight,...

  1. Design, fabrication and test of a lightweight shell structure, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the construction of lightweight orthogrid shells. Graphite/epoxy panels are being used in the fabrication. The shell structure is diagramed in detail. Panel laminates, and panel stiffener flanges are described while illustrations delineate panel assembly procedures.

  2. Fabrication of Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles by modified gas aggregation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Vaidulych, M.; Kylián, O.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Cieslar, M.; Solař, P.; Biederman, H.

    2017-11-01

    Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by a vacuum based method using the gas aggregation source (GAS) of nanoparticles. Ni nanoparticles fabricated in the GAS were afterwards coated by a Ti shell. The Ti shell was deposited by means of magnetron sputtering. The Ni nanoparticles were decelerated in the vicinity of the magnetron to the Ar drift velocity in the second deposition chamber. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of the nanoparticles showed the core-shell structure. It was shown that the thickness of the shell can be easily tuned by the process parameters with a maximum achieved thickness of the Ti shell ~2.5 nm. The core-shell structure was confirmed by the STEM analysis of the particles.

  3. Electrosprayed core–shell solid dispersions of acyclovir fabricated using an epoxy-coated concentric spray head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe-Peng; Cui, Lei; Yu, Deng-Guang; Zhao, Zhuan-Xia; Chen, Lan

    2014-01-01

    A novel structural solid dispersion (SD) taking the form of core–shell microparticles for poorly water-soluble drugs is reported for the first time. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a hydrophilic polymer matrix, the SDs were fabricated using coaxial electrospraying (characterized by an epoxy-coated concentric spray head), although the core fluids were unprocessable using one-fluid electrospraying. Through manipulating the flow rates of the core drug-loaded solutions, two types of core–shell microparticles with tunable drug contents were prepared. They had average diameters of 1.36±0.67 and 1.74±0.58 μm, and were essentially a combination of nanocomposites with the active ingredient acyclovir (ACY) distributed in the inner core, and the sweeter sucralose and transmembrane enhancer sodium dodecyl sulfate localized in the outer shell. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results demonstrated that ACY, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and sucralose were well distributed in the PVP matrix in an amorphous state because of favorable second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution and permeation studies showed that the core–shell microparticle SDs rapidly freed ACY within 1 minute and promoted nearly eightfold increases in permeation rate across the sublingual mucosa compared with raw ACY powders. PMID:24790437

  4. Electrospun pH-sensitive core-shell polymer nanocomposites fabricated using a tri-axial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Yu, Deng-Guang; Pan, Deng; Liu, Xin-Kuan; Wang, Xia; Bligh, S W Annie; Williams, Gareth R

    2016-04-15

    A modified tri-axial electrospinning process was developed for the generation of a new type of pH-sensitive polymer/lipid nanocomposite. The systems produced are able to promote both dissolution and permeation of a model poorly water-soluble drug. First, we show that it is possible to run a tri-axial process with only one of the three fluids being electrospinnable. Using an electrospinnable middle fluid of Eudragit S100 (ES100) with pure ethanol as the outer solvent and an unspinnable lecithin-diclofenac sodium (PL-DS) core solution, nanofibers with linear morphology and clear core/shell structures can be fabricated continuously and smoothly. X-ray diffraction proved that these nanofibers are structural nanocomposites with the drug present in an amorphous state. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the formulations could preclude release in acidic conditions, and that the drug was released from the fibers in two successive steps at neutral pH. The first step is the dissolution of the shell ES100 and the conversion of the core PL-DS into sub-micron sized particles. This frees some DS into solution, and later the remaining DS is gradually released from the PL-DS particles through diffusion. Ex vivo permeation results showed that the composite nanofibers give a more than twofold uplift in the amount of DS passing through the colonic membrane as compared to pure DS; 74% of the transmitted drug was in the form of PL-DS particles. The new tri-axial electrospinning process developed in this work provides a platform to fabricate structural nanomaterials, and the core-shell polymer-PL nanocomposites we have produced have significant potential applications for oral colon-targeted drug delivery. A modified tri-axial electrospinning is demonstrated to create a new type of core-shell pH-sensitive polymer/lipid nanocomposites, in which an electrospinnable middle fluid is exploited to support the un-spinnable outer and inner fluids. The structural nanocomposites are able

  5. Fabrication of Magnetite/Silica/Titania Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method with the aid of sonication. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were being encapsulated within discrete silica nanospheres, and a layer of TiO2 shell was then coated directly onto each silica nanosphere. As-synthesized Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles showed enhanced photocatalytic properties as evidenced by the enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation.

  6. Outer Electrospun Polycaprolactone Shell Induces Massive Foreign Body Reaction and Impairs Axonal Regeneration through 3D Multichannel Chitosan Nerve Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Duda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the performance of composite nerve grafts with an inner 3D multichannel porous chitosan core and an outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell. The inner chitosan core provided multiple guidance channels for regrowing axons. To analyze the in vivo properties of the bare chitosan cores, we separately implanted them into an epineural sheath. The effects of both graft types on structural and functional regeneration across a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap were compared to autologous nerve transplantation (ANT. The mechanical biomaterial properties and the immunological impact of the grafts were assessed with histological techniques before and after transplantation in vivo. Furthermore during a 13-week examination period functional tests and electrophysiological recordings were performed and supplemented by nerve morphometry. The sheathing of the chitosan core with a polycaprolactone shell induced massive foreign body reaction and impairment of nerve regeneration. Although the isolated novel chitosan core did allow regeneration of axons in a similar size distribution as the ANT, the ANT was superior in terms of functional regeneration. We conclude that an outer polycaprolactone shell should not be used for the purpose of bioartificial nerve grafting, while 3D multichannel porous chitosan cores could be candidate scaffolds for structured nerve grafts.

  7. Outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell induces massive foreign body reaction and impairs axonal regeneration through 3D multichannel chitosan nerve guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Sven; Dreyer, Lutz; Behrens, Peter; Wienecke, Soenke; Chakradeo, Tanmay; Glasmacher, Birgit; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of composite nerve grafts with an inner 3D multichannel porous chitosan core and an outer electrospun polycaprolactone shell. The inner chitosan core provided multiple guidance channels for regrowing axons. To analyze the in vivo properties of the bare chitosan cores, we separately implanted them into an epineural sheath. The effects of both graft types on structural and functional regeneration across a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap were compared to autologous nerve transplantation (ANT). The mechanical biomaterial properties and the immunological impact of the grafts were assessed with histological techniques before and after transplantation in vivo. Furthermore during a 13-week examination period functional tests and electrophysiological recordings were performed and supplemented by nerve morphometry. The sheathing of the chitosan core with a polycaprolactone shell induced massive foreign body reaction and impairment of nerve regeneration. Although the isolated novel chitosan core did allow regeneration of axons in a similar size distribution as the ANT, the ANT was superior in terms of functional regeneration. We conclude that an outer polycaprolactone shell should not be used for the purpose of bioartificial nerve grafting, while 3D multichannel porous chitosan cores could be candidate scaffolds for structured nerve grafts.

  8. FABRICATION OF GAS-FILLED TUNGSTEN-COATED GLASS SHELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A; BAUGH, W; STEINMAN, D.A.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Deuterium (D 2 ) filled glass shells coated with a high Z element are needed for high energy density (HED) experiments by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They report here on our initial attempt to produce such shells. Glass shells made using the drop tower technique were coated with gold, palladium or tungsten, or a mixture of two of these elements. It was found that gold and palladium coatings did not stick well to the glass and resulted in poor or delaminated films. Tungsten coatings resulted in films suitable for these targets. Bouncing of shells during coating resulted in uniform tungsten coatings, but the surface of such coatings were filled with small nodules. Proper agitation of shells using a tapping technique resulted in smooth films with minimal particulate contamination. For coating rates of ∼ 0.15 (micro)m/hr coatings with ∼ 2 nm RMS surface finish could be deposited. The surface roughness of coatings at higher rates, 0.7 (micro)m/hr, was considerably worse (∼ 100 nm RMS). The columnar structure of the coatings allowed permeation filling of the tungsten coated glass shells with deuterium at 300 C

  9. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland); Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • New approach for nanowires modification are presented. • Physical and chemical characterization of the nanowires are shown. • Properties modulations as an effect of the surface layer composition are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  10. FABRICATION AND PROPERTIES OVERCOATED RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE SHELLS FOR OMEGA EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A; CZECHOWICZ, D; PAGUIO, R; GREENWOOD, A.L; TAKAGI, M.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 New high gain designs for direct drive ignition on NIF require foam shells. Scaled down versions of these designs are needed for near term experiments on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory Laser Energetics (LLE). These shells need to be about 1 mm in diameter and 50-100 (micro)m wall thickness and densities of 100-250 mg/cc. In addition, a full density permeation seal needs to be deposited for retention of the fill gas at room temperature or the ice at cryogenic temperatures. They have fabricated such shells using Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) as the selected foam material due to its transparency in the optical region. Extensive characterization of the wall uniformity of these shells has been performed. The foam shells have ∼ 5%-6% non-concentricities on the average. A full density permeation seal has been deposited on the R/F shells using two different techniques. In the first technique R/F shells are coated directly with plasma polymer to thicknesses of 3-4 (micro)m. In the second technique, R/F shells are coated with polyvinylphenol, using a chemical interfacial polymerization technique. Data on surface finish and gas retention for R/F shells coated by both methods are provided

  11. Development of a Direct Fabrication Technique for Full-Shell X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M.; Kolodziejczak, J. K.; Griffith, C.; Roche, J.; Smith, W. S.; Kester, T.; Atkins, C.; Arnold, W.; Ramsey, B.

    2016-01-01

    Future astrophysical missions will require fabrication technology capable of producing high angular resolution x-ray optics. A full-shell direct fabrication approach using modern robotic polishing machines has the potential for producing high resolution, light-weight and affordable x-ray mirrors that can be nested to produce large collecting area. This approach to mirror fabrication, based on the use of the metal substrates coated with nickel phosphorous alloy, is being pursued at MSFC. The design of the polishing fixtures for the direct fabrication, the surface figure metrology techniques used and the results of the polishing experiments are presented.

  12. Fabrication of magnetite-based core–shell coated nanoparticles with antibacterial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumezescu, A M; Ficai, A; Vasile, O R; Cristescu, R; Dorcioman, G; Socol, G; Mihailescu, I N; Chifiriuc, M C; Mihaiescu, D E; Enculescu, M; Chrisey, D B

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of biofunctionalized magnetite core/sodium lauryl sulfate shell/antibiotic adsorption-shell nanoparticles assembled thin coatings by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for antibacterial drug-targeted delivery. Magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized and subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The obtained thin coatings have been investigated by FTIR and scanning electron microscope, and tested by in vitro biological assays, for their influence on in vitro bacterial biofilm development and cytotoxicity on human epidermoid carcinoma (HEp2) cells. (paper)

  13. Design, fabrication and testing of a prototype stressed-shell fuel isolation container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosthwaite, J.L.; Barrie, J.N.; Nuttall, K.

    1982-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is conducting and coordinating research into the development of engineered barriers for the disposal of unreprocessed irradiated fuel within a deep, stable geologic vault. In one approach, a containment shell of corrosion-resistant metal is proposed as the principal barrier to radionuclide release, giving a high probability of containment for at least 300 years, thus ensuring isolation of nearly all fission products for their hazardous lives. The simplest concept is the 'stressed-shell' container, designed with sufficient shell thickness to withstand the hydrostatic pressure within a 1000-m deep disposal vault postulated to have flooded with groundwater. This report describes the design, fabrication, analysis and hydrostatic testing of a full-scale stressed-shell prototype. The report concludes that the deformation and collapse performance of stressed-shell designs, based on short-term mechanical properties be modelled adequately by BOSOR 5, a commercially available stress-strain computer program. If the stressed-shell concept is retained as a viable fuel isolation concept, future analyses should include an assessment of the role of material creep on long-term container performance

  14. Penetration of steady fluid motions into an outer stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Youhei

    2018-03-01

    Penetration of steady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disturbances into an upper strongly stratified stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells is investigated. The theoretical model proposed by Takehiro (2015) is reexamined in the case of steady fluid motion below the bottom boundary. Steady disturbances penetrate into a density stratified MHD fluid existing in the semi-infinite region in the vertical direction. The axis of rotation of the system is tilted with respect to the vertical. The basic magnetic field is uniform and may be tilted with respect to the vertical and the rotation axis. Linear dispersion relation shows that the penetration distance with zero frequency depends on the amplitude of Alfvén wave speed. When Alfvén wave speed is small, viscous diffusion becomes dominant and penetration distance is similar to the horizontal scale of the disturbance at the lower boundary. In contrast, when Alfvén wave speed becomes larger, disturbance can penetrate deeper, and penetration distance becomes proportional to the Alfvén wave speed and inversely proportional to the geometric average of viscous and magnetic diffusion coefficients and to the total horizontal wavenumber. The analytic expression of penetration distance is in good agreement with the extent of penetration of mean zonal flow induced by finite amplitude convection in a rotating spherical shell with an upper stably stratified layer embedded in an axially uniform basic magnetic field. The theory expects that the stable layer suggested in the upper part of the outer core of the earth could be penetrated completely by mean zonal flows excited by thermal/compositional convection developing below the stable layer.

  15. Fabrication of Te@Au core-shell hybrids for efficient ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huile; Wang, Demeng; Zhao, Yuewu; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Shun; Wang, Jichang

    2012-10-01

    Using Au nanoparticles to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols has garnered increasing attention due to its potential application in direct alcohol fuel cells. In this research Te@Au core-shell hybrids were fabricated for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol, where the preparation procedure involved the initial production of Te crystals with different microstructures and the subsequent utilization of the Te crystal as a template and reducing agent for the production of Te@Au hybrids. The as-prepared core-shell hybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical measurements illustrate that the hybrids have great electrocatalytic activity and stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocatalytic property may be attributed to the cooperative effects between the metal and semiconductor and the presence of a large number of active sites on the hybrids surface.

  16. Effects of Different Mordants on Silk Fabric Dyed with Onion Outer Skin Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Gias Uddin

    2014-01-01

    At present, a higher demand is put towards the use of natural dyes due to increased awareness of the environmental and health hazards associated with the synthesis and use of synthetic dyes. This research was conducted using onion outer skins as a potential source of natural plant dyes. In this study, extraction of dye was carried out in aqueous boiling method. Premordanting technique was followed using different mordants, namely alum, ferrous sulphate, tin, tannic acid, tartaric acid, and th...

  17. Investigation on fabrication and positioning of cryogenic shell laser fusion targets. Annual report, October 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.

    1978-01-01

    The research has been directed toward fabrication and positioning of cryogenic shell laser fusion targets, with particular emphasis on the development of a scheme which would allow for continuous fabrication, inspection, and delivery of the targets. Specifically, progress has been made in each of the following areas: (1) fabrication of a uniform layer of solid DT inside a glass microshell using a combination of helium gas jets and a heater wire; (2) levitation-freezing of a DT-filled glass microshell as a method for fabricating and positioning a cryogenic shell target; (3) a target fabrication system intended for continuous fabrication, inspection, and delivery of cryogenic targets; and (4) development of diagnostics for inspection, recording, and analysis of a solid DT layer inside a glass microshell, and for observing the parameters controlling the target freezing process

  18. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnS/Diamond-Like Carbon Core-Shell Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Han Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated ZnS/diamond-like carbon (DLC core-shell heterostructure nanowire using a simple two-step process: the vapor-liquid-solid method combined with radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf PECVD. As a core nanowire, ZnS nanowires with face-centered cubic structure were synthesized with a sputtered Au thin film, which exhibit a length and a diameter of ~10 μm and ~30–120 nm . After rf PECVD for DLC coating, The length and width of the dense ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were a range of ~10 μm  and 50–150 nm , respectively. In addition, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were characterized with scanning transmission electron microscopy. From the results, the products have flat and uniform DLC coating layer on ZnS nanowire in spite of high residual stress induced by the high sp3 fraction. To further understanding of the DLC coating layer, Raman spectroscopy was employed with ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires, which reveals two Raman bands at 1550 cm−1 (G peak and 1330 cm−1 (D peak. Finally, we investigated the optical properties from ultraviolet to infrared wavelength region using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometry. Related to optical properties, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires exhibit relatively lower absorbance and higher IR transmittance than that of ZnS nanowires.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of optical sensors using metallic core-shell thin film nanoislands for ozone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addanki, Satish; Nedumaran, D.

    2017-07-01

    Core-Shell nanostructures play a vital role in the sensor field owing to their performance improvements in sensing characteristics and well-established synthesis procedures. These nanostructures can be ingeniously tuned to achieve tailored properties for a particular application of interest. In this work, an Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands with APTMS (3-Aminopropyl trimethoxysilane) and PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) binding agents was modeled, synthesized and characterized. The simulation results were used to fabricate the sensor through chemical route. The results of this study confirmed that the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands offered a better performance over the PVA based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands. Also, the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands exhibited better sensitivity towards ozone sensing over the other types, viz., APTMS/PVA based Au-Ag core-shell and standalone Au/Ag thin film nanoislands.

  1. Fast-dissolving core-shell composite microparticles of quercetin fabricated using a coaxial electrospray process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    Full Text Available This study reports on novel fast-dissolving core-shell composite microparticles of quercetin fabricated using coaxial electrospraying. A PVC-coated concentric spinneret was developed to conduct the electrospray process. A series of analyses were undertaken to characterize the resultant particles in terms of their morphology, the physical form of their components, and their functional performance. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed that the microparticles had spherical morphologies with clear core-shell structure visible. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction verified that the quercetin active ingredient in the core and sucralose and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS excipients in the shell existed in the amorphous state. This is believed to be a result of second-order interactions between the components; these could be observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro dissolution and permeation studies showed that the microparticles rapidly released the incorporated quercetin within one minute, and had permeation rates across the sublingual mucosa around 10 times faster than raw quercetin.

  2. Ductile all-cellulose nanocomposite films fabricated from core-shell structured cellulose nanofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Per A; Berglund, Lars A; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-06-09

    Cellulosic materials have many desirable properties such as high mechanical strength and low oxygen permeability and will be an important component in a sustainable biomaterial-based society, but unfortunately they often lack the ductility and formability offered by petroleum-based materials. This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite films made of core-shell modified cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) surrounded by a shell of ductile dialcohol cellulose, created by heterogeneous periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction of the native cellulose in the external parts of the individual fibrils. The oxidation with periodate selectively produces dialdehyde cellulose, and the process does not increase the charge density of the material. Yet the modified cellulose fibers could easily be homogenized to CNFs. Prior to film fabrication, the CNF was shown by atomic force microscopy to be 0.5-2 μm long and 4-10 nm wide. The films were fabricated by filtration, and besides uniaxial tensile testing at different relative humidities, they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and oxygen permeability. The strength-at-break at 23 °C and 50% RH was 175 MPa, and the films could, before rupture, be strained, mainly by plastic deformation, to about 15% and 37% at 50% RH and 90% RH, respectively. This moisture plasticization was further utilized to form a demonstrator consisting of a double-curved structure with a nominal strain of 24% over the curvature. At a relative humidity of 80%, the films still acted as a good oxygen barrier, having an oxygen permeability of 5.5 mL·μL/(m(2)·24 h·kPa). These properties indicate that this new material has a potential for use as a barrier in complex-shaped structures and hence ultimately reduce the need for petroleum-based plastics.

  3. Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue onto ZnCl2 Activated Carbon from Wood Apple Outer Shell: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhadusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl2 activated carbon prepared from wood apple outer shell (Limonia acidissima, biomass waste. Influence of agitation time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature were explored. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms namely Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Qo was found to be 35.1 mg/g and the equilibrium parameter (RL values indicate favourable adsorption. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. Desorption studies showed that ion exchange mechanism might be involved in the adsorption process.

  4. The chocolate-egg problem: Fabrication of thin elastic shells through coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna; Marthelot, Joel; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Reis, Pedro M.

    2015-03-01

    We study the fabrication of thin polymeric shells based on the coating of a curved surface by a viscous fluid. Upon polymerization of the resulting thin film, a slender solid structure is delivered after demolding. This technique is extensively used, empirically, in manufacturing, where it is known as rotational molding, as well as in the food industry, e.g. for chocolate-eggs. This problem is analogous to the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin coating of plates and fibers and Bretherton's problem of film deposition in cylindrical channels, albeit now on a double-curved geometry. Here, the balance between gravity, viscosity, surface tension and polymerization rate can yield a constant thickness film. We seek to identify the physical ingredients that govern the final film thickness and its profile. In our experiments using organosilicon, we systematically vary the properties of the fluid, as well as the curvature of the substrate onto which the film is coated, and characterize the final thickness profile of the shells. A reduced model is developed to rationalize the process.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 . Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm −2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g −1 ). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg −1 and 1.63 kW kg −1 , respectively, were achieved for EDLC

  6. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: sktripathi16@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm{sup −2} (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g{sup −1}). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.63 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, were achieved for EDLC.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of flaky core-shell particles by magnetron sputtering silver onto diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Diatomite has delicate porous structures and various shapes, making them ideal templates for microscopic core-shell particles fabrication. In this study, a new process of magnetron sputtering assisted with photoresist positioning was proposed to fabricate lightweight silver coated porous diatomite with superior coating quality and performance. The diatomite has been treated with different sputtering time to investigate the silver film growing process on the surface. The morphologies, constituents, phase structures and surface roughness of the silver coated diatomite were analyzed with SEM, EDS, XRD and AFM respectively. The results showed that the optimized magnetron sputtering time was 8-16 min, under which the diatomite templates were successfully coated with uniform silver film, which exhibits face centered cubic (fcc) structure, and the initial porous structures were kept. Moreover, this silver coating has lower surface roughness (RMS 4.513 ± 0.2 nm) than that obtained by electroless plating (RMS 15.692 ± 0.5 nm). And the infrared emissivity of coatings made with magnetron sputtering and electroless plating silver coated diatomite can reach to the lowest value of 0.528 and 0.716 respectively.

  8. 77 FR 3771 - Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Shell Offshore, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... locations within Shell's DeSoto Canyon and Lloyd Ridge lease locations on the OCS in the Gulf of Mexico... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lori Shepherd, Air Permits Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics... effective on December 30, 2011. Dated: January 12, 2012. Beverly H. Banister, Director, Air, Pesticides and...

  9. (FeCo)3Si-SiOx core-shell nanoparticles fabricated in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jianmin; Xu Yunhao; Thomas, John; Wang Jianping

    2007-01-01

    A method of fabricating core-shell nanoparticles by using an integrated nanoparticle deposition technique in the gas phase is reported. The principle of the method is based on nanoparticle growth from the vapour phase, during which elements showing lower surface energies prefer to form the shells and elements showing higher surface energies prefer to stay in the cores. This method was applied successfully to the Fe-Co-Si ternary system to fabricate core-shell-type nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were exposed in air after collection to achieve oxidation. The analysis results based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showed that the core parts are magnetic materials of body-centred cubic (bcc) structured (FeCo) 3 Si of 15 nm in diameter, and the shell parts are amorphous SiO x of 2 nm in thickness. These core-shell-type nanoparticles show a magnetic anisotropy constant of about 7 x 10 5 erg cm -3 and a saturation magnetization of around 1160 emu cm -3 , which is much higher than that of iron oxide. After annealing at 300 deg. C in air (FeCo) 3 Si-SiO x core-shell-type nanoparticles showed a little bit of a drop in magnetic moment, while pure FeCo nanopariticles totally lost their magnetic moment. This means that the shells of SiO x are dense enough to prevent the magnetic cores from oxidation

  10. Controllable fabrication and characterization of biocompatible core-shell particles and hollow capsules as drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wanquan; Chen, Zuyao

    2006-10-01

    SiO 2@CdSe core-shell particles were fabricated by controllable deposition CdSe nanoparticles on silica colloidal spheres. Step-wise coating process was tracked by the TEM and XRD measurements. In addition, SiO 2@CdSe/polypyrrole(PPy) multi-composite particles were synthesized based on the as-prepared SiO 2@CdSe particles by cationic polymerization. The direct electrochemistry of myoglobin (Mb) could be performed by immobilizing Mb on the surface of SiO 2@CdSe particles. Immobilized with Mb, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy-Mb also displayed good bioelectrochemical activity. It confirmed the good biocompatible property of the materials with protein. CdSe hollow capsules were further obtained as the removal of the cores of SiO 2@CdSe spheres. Hollow and porous character of CdSe sub-meter size capsules made them becoming hopeful candidates as drug carriers. Doxorubicin, a typical an antineoplastic drug, was introduced into the capsules. A good sustained drug release behavior of the loading capsules was discovered via performing a release test in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) solution at 310 k. Furthermore, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy could be converted to various smart hollow capsules via selectively removal of their relevant components.

  11. Fabrication and performances of microencapsulated paraffin composites with polymethylmethacrylate shell based on ultraviolet irradiation-initiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yi, E-mail: wangyi@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Shi Huan [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Xia Tiandong [State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Zhang Ting; Feng Huixia [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)

    2012-07-16

    In order to identify the validity of fabricating microencapsulated phase change material by ultraviolet irradiation-initiated method, the paraffin wax/polymethyl methacrylate microcapsules were prepared. The structural characteristics and thermal properties of the microcapsules were also determined by various techniques. The results of differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that the melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the microcapsules are 55.8 Degree-Sign C, 50.1 Degree-Sign C and 106.9 J g{sup -1}, 112.3 J g{sup -1}, respectively. Morphology and chemical characteristic analysis indicate that the spherical microcapsules were formed with average diameter of 0.21 {mu}m and maximum microencapsulation ratio of 66 wt.% without leakage of core materials. The results of accelerated thermal cyclic test show that the microcapsules have good thermal reliability and chemical stability although they were subjected 3000 melting/freezing cycles. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated paraffin composites have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes and ultraviolet irradiation-initiated method is a prominent candidate for preparing microencapsulated PCMs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microencapsulated paraffin with PMMA shell was synthesized via self-assembly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsules with excellent properties can be prepared by UV initiated method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microencapsulation ratio is as high as 66 wt.%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal properties are as high as comparable with microcapsules in the literature.

  12. Fabrication and performances of microencapsulated paraffin composites with polymethylmethacrylate shell based on ultraviolet irradiation-initiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Shi Huan; Xia Tiandong; Zhang Ting; Feng Huixia

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify the validity of fabricating microencapsulated phase change material by ultraviolet irradiation-initiated method, the paraffin wax/polymethyl methacrylate microcapsules were prepared. The structural characteristics and thermal properties of the microcapsules were also determined by various techniques. The results of differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicate that the melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the microcapsules are 55.8 °C, 50.1 °C and 106.9 J g −1 , 112.3 J g −1 , respectively. Morphology and chemical characteristic analysis indicate that the spherical microcapsules were formed with average diameter of 0.21 μm and maximum microencapsulation ratio of 66 wt.% without leakage of core materials. The results of accelerated thermal cyclic test show that the microcapsules have good thermal reliability and chemical stability although they were subjected 3000 melting/freezing cycles. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated paraffin composites have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes and ultraviolet irradiation-initiated method is a prominent candidate for preparing microencapsulated PCMs. - Highlights: ► Microencapsulated paraffin with PMMA shell was synthesized via self-assembly. ► Microcapsules with excellent properties can be prepared by UV initiated method. ► The microencapsulation ratio is as high as 66 wt.%. ► Thermal properties are as high as comparable with microcapsules in the literature.

  13. Fabrication of CuO–Pt core–shell nanohooks by in situ reconstructing the Pt-shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Zheng, He; Zhao, Ligong; Huang, Rui; Jia, Shuangfeng; Liu, Huihui; Li, Lei; Wang, Zhao; Hu, Yongming; Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Jianbo

    2018-05-01

    The design of various nanostructures with specific compositions and shapes is highly demanded due to the widespread use of micro/nano electro-mechanical systems. In this work, one-dimensional CuO–Pt core–shell nanowires (NWs) are acquired by depositing Pt nanoparticles onto CuO NWs and then mechanically-shaped into nanohooks. Subsequently, the hook-like shape is maintained by the Pt-shell which is reconstructed via Joule heat and re-solidified after cooling down, during which the elastic strain energy is stored in the CuO-core. The results provide a simple strategy to design nanostructures with various compositions and shapes, implying the potential applications in mechanical energy storage and shape memory nanodevices.

  14. Fabricating a Shell-Core Delayed Release Tablet Using Dual FDM 3D Printing for Patient-Centred Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Pereira, Beatriz C; Arafat, Basel; Cieszynska, Milena; Isreb, Abdullah; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Individualizing gastric-resistant tablets is associated with major challenges for clinical staff in hospitals and healthcare centres. This work aims to fabricate gastric-resistant 3D printed tablets using dual FDM 3D printing. The gastric-resistant tablets were engineered by employing a range of shell-core designs using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and methacrylic acid co-polymer for core and shell structures respectively. Filaments for both core and shell were compounded using a twin-screw hot-melt extruder (HME). CAD software was utilized to design a capsule-shaped core with a complementary shell of increasing thicknesses (0.17, 0.35, 0.52, 0.70 or 0.87 mm). The physical form of the drug and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. A shell thickness ≥0.52 mm was deemed necessary in order to achieve sufficient core protection in the acid medium. The technology proved viable for incorporating different drug candidates; theophylline, budesonide and diclofenac sodium. XRPD indicated the presence of theophylline crystals whilst budesonide and diclofenac sodium remained amorphous in the PVP matrix of the filaments and 3D printed tablets. Fabricated tablets demonstrated gastric resistant properties and a pH responsive drug release pattern in both phosphate and bicarbonate buffers. Despite its relatively limited resolution, FDM 3D printing proved to be a suitable platform for a single-process fabrication of delayed release tablets. This work reveals the potential of dual FDM 3D printing as a unique platform for personalising delayed release tablets to suit an individual patient's needs.

  15. Self-assembly fabrication of microencapsulated n-octadecane with natural silk fibroin shell for thermal-regulating textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Liang; Luo, Jie; Wang, Hao; Song, Guolin; Tang, Guoyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microencapsulated n-octadecane with silk fibroin shell was fabricated. • The microcapsules show high heat storage capability. • The microcapsules are good candidate for thermal-regulating textiles. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted - Abstract: Novel microencapsulated n-octadecane with natural silk fibroin (SF) shell was prepared using a self-assembly method in oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the resultant microcapsules were investigated by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR). SEM images demonstrated that the microcapsules presented spherical shape with a median size of 4–5 µm. FT-IR results confirmed that SF shell was successfully fabricated upon n-octadecane core. According to the DSC and TGA examinations, the resultant microcapsules exhibited good phase-change performance, high thermal-storage capability and high thermal reliability. The microencapsulated n-octadecane with SF shell synthesized in the present study would be a potential candidate for the application of thermal-regulating textiles or fibers and biological medical materials, etc.

  16. Fabrication of carbon nanospheres by the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile–poly(methyl methacrylate core–shell composite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafu Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanospheres with a high Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET specific surface area were fabricated via the pyrolysis of polyacrylonitrile–poly(methyl methacrylate (PAN–PMMA core–shell nanoparticles. Firstly, PAN–PMMA nanoparticles at high concentration and low surfactant content were controllably synthesized by a two-stage azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN-initiated semicontinuous emulsion polymerization. The carbon nanospheres were obtained after the PAN core domain was converted into carbon and the PMMA shell was sacrificed via the subsequent heat treatment steps. The thickness of the PMMA shell can be easily adjusted by changing the feeding volume ratio (FVR of methyl methacrylate (MMA to acrylonitrile (AN. At an FVR of 1.6, the coarse PAN cores were completely buried in the PMMA shells, and the surface of the obtained PAN–PMMA nanoparticles became smooth. The thick PMMA shell can inhibit the adhesion between carbon nanospheres caused by cyclization reactions during heat treatment. The carbon nanospheres with a diameter of 35–65 nm and a high BET specific surface area of 612.8 m2/g were obtained from the PAN–PMMA nanoparticles synthesized at an FVR of 1.6. The carbon nanospheres exhibited a large adsorption capacity of 190.0 mg/g for methylene blue, thus making them excellent adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from water.

  17. Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Hanif; Badshah, Munair; Mäkilä, Ermei

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The prepared capsule shells were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The BC...... to gelatin capsules with both immediate and sustained drug release properties depending upon the compositions of the encapsulated materials....

  18. Fabrication of polyacrylate core–shell nanoparticles via spray drying method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pengpeng, E-mail: chenpp@ahu.edu.cn [Anhui University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Cheng, Zenghui; Chu, Fuxiang; Xu, Yuzhi; Wang, Chunpeng, E-mail: wangcpg@163.com [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products (China)

    2016-05-15

    Fine polyacrylate particles are thought to be environmental plastisols for car industry. However, these particles are mainly dried through demulsification of the latexes, which is not reproducible and hard to be scaled up. In this work, a spray drying method had been applied to the plastisols-used acrylate latex. By adjusting the core/shell ratio, spray drying process of the latex was fully studied. Scanning electronic microscopy observation of the nanoparticles before and after spray drying indicated that the core–shell structures could be well preserved and particles were well separated by spray drying if the shell was thick enough. Otherwise, the particles fused into each other and core–shell structures were destroyed. Polyacrylate plastisols were developed using diisononylphthalate as a plasticizer, and plastigels were obtained after heat treatment of the sols. Results showed that the shell thickness also had a great influence on the storage stability of the plastisols and mechanical properties of the plastigels.Graphical Abstract.

  19. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  20. Fabrication of polyacrylate core–shell nanoparticles via spray drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pengpeng; Cheng, Zenghui; Chu, Fuxiang; Xu, Yuzhi; Wang, Chunpeng

    2016-01-01

    Fine polyacrylate particles are thought to be environmental plastisols for car industry. However, these particles are mainly dried through demulsification of the latexes, which is not reproducible and hard to be scaled up. In this work, a spray drying method had been applied to the plastisols-used acrylate latex. By adjusting the core/shell ratio, spray drying process of the latex was fully studied. Scanning electronic microscopy observation of the nanoparticles before and after spray drying indicated that the core–shell structures could be well preserved and particles were well separated by spray drying if the shell was thick enough. Otherwise, the particles fused into each other and core–shell structures were destroyed. Polyacrylate plastisols were developed using diisononylphthalate as a plasticizer, and plastigels were obtained after heat treatment of the sols. Results showed that the shell thickness also had a great influence on the storage stability of the plastisols and mechanical properties of the plastigels.Graphical Abstract

  1. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  2. Fabricating a Homogeneously Alloyed AuAg Shell on Au Nanorods to Achieve Strong, Stable, and Tunable Surface Plasmon Resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-08-13

    Colloidal metal nanocrystals with strong, stable, and tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) can be useful in a corrosive environment for many applications including field-enhanced spectroscopies, plasmon-mediated catalysis, etc. Here, a new synthetic strategy is reported that enables the epitaxial growth of a homogeneously alloyed AuAg shell on Au nanorod seeds, circumventing the phase segregation of Au and Ag encountered in conventional synthesis. The resulting core–shell structured bimetallic nanorods (AuNR@AuAg) have well-mixed Au and Ag atoms in their shell without discernible domains. This degree of mixing allows AuNR@AuAg to combine the high stability of Au with the superior plasmonic activity of Ag, thus outperforming seemingly similar nanostructures with monometallic shells (e.g., Ag-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Ag) and Au-coated Au NRs (AuNR@Au)). AuNR@AuAg is comparable to AuNR@Ag in plasmonic activity, but that it is markedly more stable toward oxidative treatment. Specifically, AuNR@AuAg and AuNR@Ag exhibit similarly strong signals in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy that are some 30-fold higher than that of AuNR@Au. When incubated with a H2O2 solution (0.5 m), the plasmonic activity of AuNR@Ag immediately and severely decayed, whereas AuNR@AuAg retained its activity intact. Moreover, the longitudinal SPR frequency of AuNR@AuAg can be tuned throughout the red wavelengths (≈620–690 nm) by controlling the thickness of the AuAg alloy shell. The synthetic strategy is versatile to fabricate AuAg alloyed shells on different shaped Au, with prospects for new possibilities in the synthesis and application of plasmonic nanocrystals.

  3. Core-Shell Structured Electro- and Magneto-Responsive Materials: Fabrication and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jin Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell structured electrorheological (ER and magnetorheological (MR particles have attracted increasing interest owing to their outstanding field-responsive properties, including morphology, chemical and dispersion stability, and rheological characteristics of shear stress and yield stress. This study covers recent progress in the preparation of core-shell structured materials as well as their critical characteristics and advantages. Broad emphasises from the synthetic strategy of various core-shell particles to their feature behaviours in the magnetic and electric fields have been elaborated.

  4. Fabrication, characterization and screen printing of conductive ink based on carbon@Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Shuanglei; Zhang, Shaofeng; Zhang, Hongbo; Jiang, Changzhong

    2014-08-01

    The large-scale synthesis and characterization of carbon-core/Ag-shell (C@Ag) nanoparticles by the successive reduction of silver ammonia are described. The resultant C@Ag nanoparticles had a mean core diameter of 360 nm and a controllable shell thickness from 10 to 40 nm by simple adjustments of repeat coating times. Various analysis techniques confirmed that the carbon cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. The results also show that C/Ag composite nanomaterials-based conductive inks, which can be easily produced on a large scale and possess outstanding electronic properties, have great potential for the convenient fabrication of flexible and low-cost carbon-based electronic devices and replace the traditional pure silver paste, by using a simple screen printing technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient charge carriers induced by extra outer-shell electrons in iron-pnictides: a comparison between Ni- and Co-doped CaFeAsF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Yu Yi; Tan Shun; Zhang Yuheng; Zhang Changjin; Zhang Lei; Qu Zhe; Ling Langsheng; Xi, Chuanying

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the difference between CaFe 1-x Ni x AsF and CaFe 1-x Co x AsF systems has been carried out by measuring the efficient charge carrier concentration, the valence states and the superconducting phase diagram. It is found that at the same doping level, Ni doping introduces nearly twice the number of charge carriers as Co doping. However, x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements reveal that the valence state of Fe in both systems is close to 2, indicating that there is no valence mismatch. We suggest that the charge carriers in CaFe 1-x M x AsF (M=transition metal elements) are not induced by valence mismatch but come from the difference in the number of outer-shell electrons. We also suggest that with Ni and Co doping, the systems change from a multi-band material in the underdoped regions to a single-band state in the overdoped regions.

  6. Fabrication of ammonium perchlorate/copper-chromium oxides core-shell nanocomposites for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, Abbas, E-mail: eslami@umz.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O.Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Juibari, Nafise Modanlou [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O.Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Seyed Ghorban [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3454, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The ammonium perchlorate/Cu(II)-Cr(III)-oxides(AP/Cu-Cr-O) core-shell nanocomposites were in-situ prepared by deposition of copper and chromium oxides on suspended ammonium perchlorate particles in ethyl acetate as solvent. The results of differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments showed that the nanocomposites have excellent catalytic effect on the thermal decomposition of AP, so that the released heat increases up to about 3-fold over initial values, changing from 450 J/g for pure AP to 1510 J/g for most appropriate mixture. For better comparison, single metal oxide/AP core-shell nanocomposite have also been prepared and the results showed that they have less catalytic effect respect to mixed metal oxides system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results revealed homogenous deposition of nanoparticles on the surface of AP and fabrication of core-shell structures. The kinetic parameters of thermal decomposition of both pure AP and AP/Cu-Cr-O samples have been calculated by Kissinger method and the results showed that the values of pre-exponential factor and activation energy are higher for AP/Cu-Cr-O nanocomposite. The better catalytic effect of Cu-Cr-O nanocomposites is probably attributed to the synergistic effect between Cu{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} in the nanocomposites, smaller particle size and more crystal defect. - Highlights: • The Cu-Cr-O nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical liquid deposition method. • Then, the AP/Cu-Cr-O core-shell nanocomposites were prepared. • The core-shell samples showed high catalytic activity for AP decomposition. • Thermal decomposition of samples occurs at lower temperature range.

  7. Fabrication and micro-photoluminescence property of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Guozhang; Gou, Guangyang; Wu, Zeming; Chen, Yu; Li, Hongjian [Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Changsha, Hunan (China); Wan, Qiang [Hunan University, School of Physics and Electronics, Changsha (China); Zou, Bingsuo [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, School of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01

    Hetero-epitaxial CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared by a source-controllable chemical vapor deposition method. A two-stage growth mechanism was proposed to the growth process of the core/shell NWs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) property of individual NW was studied by a confocal microscopy system. The pure CdSe NW emits a red light with peak at 712.3 nm, which is inconsistent with the CdSe band-edge emission. The CdSe/CdS core/shell NW emits two apparent peaks, one is an intensive red emission peak centered at 715.2 nm and the other is a weak green emission peak located at 516.2 nm. The room temperature μ-PL spectrum shows that the PL intensity of CdSe NW was evidently promoted by coating the CdS shell, and this is because CdS improves the surface state optimizing the energy band structure of CdSe NW. The as-synthesized CdSe/CdS core/shell NW has more efficient PL quantum yields than pure CdSe NW and may find potential applications in nanoscale photonic devices. (orig.)

  8. Fabrication and micro-photoluminescence property of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Guozhang; Gou, Guangyang; Wu, Zeming; Chen, Yu; Li, Hongjian; Wan, Qiang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2015-01-01

    Hetero-epitaxial CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared by a source-controllable chemical vapor deposition method. A two-stage growth mechanism was proposed to the growth process of the core/shell NWs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) property of individual NW was studied by a confocal microscopy system. The pure CdSe NW emits a red light with peak at 712.3 nm, which is inconsistent with the CdSe band-edge emission. The CdSe/CdS core/shell NW emits two apparent peaks, one is an intensive red emission peak centered at 715.2 nm and the other is a weak green emission peak located at 516.2 nm. The room temperature μ-PL spectrum shows that the PL intensity of CdSe NW was evidently promoted by coating the CdS shell, and this is because CdS improves the surface state optimizing the energy band structure of CdSe NW. The as-synthesized CdSe/CdS core/shell NW has more efficient PL quantum yields than pure CdSe NW and may find potential applications in nanoscale photonic devices. (orig.)

  9. Fabrication of hierarchical core-shell polydopamine@MgAl-LDHs composites for the efficient enrichment of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Kairuo [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); Lu, Songhua; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Rui; Tan, Xiaoli [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Chen, Changlun, E-mail: clchen@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123 (China); AAM Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Novel hierarchical core/shell structured PDA@MgAl-LDHs were prepared. • PDA@MgAl-LDHs exhibited higher sorption ability for U(VI) and Eu(III). • PDA@MgAl-LDHs were promising materials for the enrichment of radionuclides. - Abstract: Novel hierarchical core/shell structured polydopamine@MgAl-layered double hydroxides (PDA@MgAl-LDHs) composites involving MgAl-layered double hydroxide shells and PDA cores were fabricated thought one-pot coprecipitation assembly and methodically characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, elemental mapping, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technologies. U(VI) and Eu(III) sorption experiments showed that the PDA@MgAl-LDHs exhibited higher sorption ability with a maximum sorption capacity of 142.86 and 76.02 mg/g at 298 K and pH 4.5, respectively. More importantly, according to XPS analyses, U(VI) and Eu(III) were sorbed on PDA@MgAl-LDHs via oxygen-containing functional groups, and the chemical affinity of U(VI) by oxygen-containing functional groups is higher than that of Eu(III). These observations show great expectations in the enrichment of radionuclides from aquatic environments by PDA@MgAl-LDHs.

  10. Fabrication of Cu-Ag core-shell bimetallic superfine powders by eco-friendly reagents and structures characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun; Zhang Dongming; Zhao Jie

    2011-01-01

    Superfine bimetallic Cu-Ag core-shell powders were synthesized by reduction of copper sulfate pentahydrate and silver nitrate with eco-friendly ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and cyclodextrins as a protective agent in an aqueous system. The influence of Ag/Cu ratio on coatings was investigated. Ag was homogeneously distributed on the surface of Cu particles at a mole ratio of Ag/Cu=1. FE-SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu particles. Antioxidation of Cu particles was improved by increasing Ag/Cu ratio. TEM-EDX and UV-vis spectra also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag nanoshells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that only small parts of Cu atoms in the surface were oxidized. It was noted that the hindrance of cyclodextrins chemisorbed on particles plays an important role in forming high quality and good dispersity Cu-Ag (Cu-Ag) core-shell powders. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of fabricating Cu-Ag particles with good dispersibility using β-CDs as a protective agent was studied because of its special structure. Highlights: → Green supramolecular β-CD used as a protective agent and ascorbic acid(Vc) as a reducing agent to fabricate Cu-Ag powders. → Particles are monodisperse and the diameter is close to nanoscale(100-150 nm). → Resistance of Cu particles to oxidation was higher. → Formation mechanism explained.

  11. Fabrication of (PPC/NCC)/PVA composites with inner-outer double constrained structure and improved glass transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoying; Li, Li; Wang, Qi

    2018-07-01

    Improving glass transition temperature (T g ) and mechanical property of the environment-friendly poly(propylene carbonate) via intermacromolecular complexation through hydrogen bonding is attractive and of great importance. A novel and effective strategy to prepare (polypropylene carbonate/nanocrystalline cellulose)/polyvinyl alcohol ((PPC/NCC)/PVA) composites with inner-outer double constrained structure was reported in this work. Outside the PPC phase, PVA, as a strong skeleton at microscale, could constrain the movement of PPC molecular chains by forming hydrogen bonding with PPC at the interface of PPC and PVA phases; inside the PPC phase, the rod-like NCC could restrain the flexible molecular chains of PPC at nanoscale by forming multi-hydrogen bonding with PPC. Under the synergistic effect of this novel inner-outer double constrained structure, T g , mechanical properties and thermal stability of (PPC/NCC)/PVA composite were significantly increased, e.g. T g of the composite researched the maximum value of 49.6 °C, respectively 15.6 °C, 5.7 °C and 4.2 °C higher than that of PPC, PPC/NCC and PPC/PVA composite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication and evaluation of Au-Pd core-shell nanocomposites for dechlorination of diclofenac in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Li, Jian-Rong; Fu, Ming-Lai; Yuan, Baoling; Cui, Hao-Jie; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites with core-shell structure usually exhibit excellent catalytic properties due to unique interfaces and synergistic effect among composites. In this study, Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with core-shell structure (Au-Pd cs) by using Au NPs as core and Pd as shell were successfully fabricated and, for the first time, were used to investigate the dechlorination of diclofenac (DCF) at H2 atmosphere in water at room temperature. The degradation products were studied as well by using HPLC/Q-ToF MS/MS. The operational factors such as pH and composition of the Au-Pd cs were also studied. The results showed that nearly 100% of DCF (30 mg L(-1), 50 mL, pH=7) was dechlorinated in 4.5 h by 10 mL of 56 mg L(-1) of Au-Pd cs. Ninety per cent of DCF was degraded in 6.5 h by the mixture of Au and Pd NPs. However, the individual Au NPs had no obvious effect in degrading DCF and the monometallic Pd NPs with comparable concentration only degraded less than 20% of DCF. Furthermore, the reaction mechanism of this catalytic process was studied in detail. It was found that the degradation was a second-order exponential reaction. The two main degradation products were obtained by cleaving the carbon-halogen bond of DCF and this made the degradation products more environmentally friendly.

  13. The Fabrication and High-Efficiency Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Performance of CoFe/C Core-Shell Structured Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Luo, Yongming; Wu, Lihong; Wang, Guizhen

    2018-03-01

    CoFe/C core-shell structured nanocomposites (CoFe@C) have been fabricated through the thermal decomposition of acetylene with CoFe2O4 as precursor. The as-prepared CoFe@C was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results demonstrate that the carbon shell in CoFe@C has a poor crystallization with a thickness about 5-30 nm and a content approximately 48.5 wt.%. Due to a good combination between intrinsic magnetic properties and high-electrical conductivity, the CoFe@C exhibits not only excellent absorption intensity but also wide frequency bandwidth. The minimum RL value of CoFe@C can reach - 44 dB at a thickness of 4.0 mm, and RL values below - 10 dB is up to 4.3 GHz at a thickness of 2.5 mm. The present CoFe@C may be a potential candidate for microwave absorption application.

  14. Structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942: roles for CcmK2, K3-K4, CcmO, and CcmL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Rae

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial CO(2-fixation is supported by a CO(2-concentrating mechanism which improves photosynthesis by saturating the primary carboxylating enzyme, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, with its preferred substrate CO(2. The site of CO(2-concentration is a protein bound micro-compartment called the carboxysome which contains most, if not all, of the cellular RuBisCO. The shell of β-type carboxysomes is thought to be composed of two functional layers, with the inner layer involved in RuBisCO scaffolding and bicarbonate dehydration, and the outer layer in selective permeability to dissolved solutes. Here, four genes (ccmK2-4, ccmO, whose products were predicted to function in the outer shell layer of β-carboxysomes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, were investigated by analysis of defined genetic mutants. Deletion of the ccmK2 and ccmO genes resulted in severe high-CO(2-requiring mutants with aberrant carboxysomes, whilst deletion of ccmK3 or ccmK4 resulted in cells with wild-type physiology and normal ultrastructure. However, a tandem deletion of ccmK3-4 resulted in cells with wild-type carboxysome structure, but physiologically deficient at low CO(2 conditions. These results revealed the minimum structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes from this strain: CcmK2, CcmO and CcmL. An accessory set of proteins was required to refine the function of the pre-existing shell: CcmK3 and CcmK4. These data suggested a model for the facet structure of β-carboxysomes with CcmL forming the vertices, CcmK2 forming the bulk facet, and CcmO, a "zipper protein," interfacing the edges of carboxysome facets.

  15. Hemoglobin protein hollow shells fabricated through covalent layer-by-layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Li; He Qiang; Yan Xuehai; Cui Yue; Wang Kewei; Li Junbai

    2007-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) protein microcapsules held together by cross-linker, glutaraldehyde (GA), were successfully fabricated by covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. The Schiff base reaction occurred on the colloid templates between the aldehyde groups of GA and free amino sites of Hb results in the formation of GA/Hb microcapsules after the removal of the templates. The structure of obtained monodisperse protein microcapsule was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The UV-Vis spectra measurements demonstrate the existence of Hb in the assembled capsules. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and potential-controlled amperometric measurements (I-t curve) confirm that hemoglobin microcapsules after fabrication remain their heme electroactivity. Moreover, direct electron transfer process from protein to electrode surface was performed to detect the heme electrochemistry without using any mediator or promoter. The experiments of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) by CLSM demonstrate that the hemoglobin protein microcapsules have an improved permeability comparing to the conventional polyelectrolyte microcapsules

  16. Fabrication of poly(o-anisidine) coated silica core-shell microspheres and their electrorheological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Joo; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2017-11-01

    In this work, silica/poly(o-anisidine) (POA) core-shell structured microspheres were synthesized by coating the silica core surface with POA with a help of a chemical grafting agent, N-[(3-trimethoxylsilyl)-propyl] aniline. The synthesized silica microspheres were then applied as a polymer/inorganic composite particle-based electrorheological (ER) fluid. The morphology of the silica/POA microspheres was examined by using both transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while their thermal properties and chemical structure were checked by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The ER properties of the silica/POA particle-based ER fluid were examined by using a Couette-type rotational rheometer equipped with a high-voltage power supplier and analyzed by the Bingham model and modified Mason number. In order to obtain additional information about the electrical polarization properties, the dielectric spectra were measured by an LCR meter and fitted by using the Cole-Cole equation. Furthermore, suspension stability of the ER fluid was tested using Turbiscan.

  17. Three-dimensional fabrication and characterisation of core-shell nano-columns using electron beam patterning of Ge-doped SiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontard, Lionel C.; Jinschek, Joerg R.; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    electron tomography. The results show that transformations in insulators that have been subjected to intense irradiation using charged particles can be studied directly in three dimensions. The fabricated structures include core-shell nano-columns, sputtered regions, voids, and clusters. (C) 2012 American......A focused electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to create arrays of core-shell structures in a specimen of amorphous SiO2 doped with Ge. The same electron microscope is then used to measure the changes that occurred in the specimen in three dimensions using...

  18. Fabrication of hydrophilic S/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} core–shell nanocomposite for enhancement of photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Sugang; Cao, Zhisheng; Fu, Xianliang [Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui Huaibei, 235000 (China); Chen, Shifu, E-mail: chshifu@chnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui Huaibei, 235000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Anhui Science and Technology University, Anhui Fengyang, 233100 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The elemental core–shell heterostructure was reported for the first time. • The hydrophilic core–shell S/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} photocatalyst was prepared by ball milling. • The rate constant of 10% S/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 11.6 and 13.5 times that of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and S. • The hydrophilicity and efficiently separation of carriers are major factor. - Abstract: Recently, elemental semiconductors as new photocatalysts excited by visible light have attracted great attention due to their potential applications for environmental remediation and clean energy generation. However, it is still a challenge to fabricate elemental photocatalysts with high activity and stability. In this paper, a straightforward ball-milling method was carried out to fabricate core–shell S/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite photocatalyst with high performance. The photocatalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and super-hydrophilic experiment. The results showed that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were successfully grown round of S blocks and formed core–shell heterostructures. The 10% S/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} core–shell nanocomposite exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The reaction rate constant (k) of the 10% S/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} core–shell nanocomposite is about 8.7 times as high as the sum of pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and S because of the formation of core–shell S/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterostructures, which might remedy the drawbacks of poor hydrophilicity of S, enhance visible light absorption and separate the photogenerated carriers efficiently. Furthermore, the mechanism of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the S

  19. Fabrication, Characterization and Cytotoxicity of Spherical-Shaped Conjugated Gold-Cockle Shell Derived Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiranda, Hanan Karimah; Mahmud, Rozi; Abubakar, Danmaigoro; Zakaria, Zuki Abubakar

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of nanomaterial in science has brought about a growing increase in nanotechnology, biomedicine, and engineering fields. This study was aimed at fabrication and characterization of conjugated gold-cockle shell-derived calcium carbonate nanoparticles (Au-CSCaCO3NPs) for biomedical application. The synthetic technique employed used gold nanoparticle citrate reduction method and a simple precipitation method coupled with mechanical use of a Programmable roller-ball mill. The synthesized conjugated nanomaterial was characterized for its physicochemical properties using transmission electron microscope (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). However, the intricacy of cellular mechanisms can prove challenging for nanomaterial like Au-CSCaCO3NPs and thus, the need for cytotoxicity assessment. The obtained spherical-shaped nanoparticles (light-green purplish) have an average diameter size of 35 ± 16 nm, high carbon and oxygen composition. The conjugated nanomaterial, also possesses a unique spectra for aragonite polymorph and carboxylic bond significantly supporting interactions between conjugated nanoparticles. The negative surface charge and spectra absorbance highlighted their stability. The resultant spherical shaped conjugated Au-CSCaCO3NPs could be a great nanomaterial for biomedical applications.

  20. Electrostatically assisted fabrication of silver-dielectric core/shell nanoparticles thin film capacitor with uniform metal nanoparticle distribution and controlled spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Niitsoo, Olivia; Couzis, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    An electrostatically-assisted strategy for fabrication of thin film composite capacitors with controllable dielectric constant (k) has been developed. The capacitor is composed of metal-dielectric core/shell nanoparticle (silver/silica, Ag@SiO2) multilayer films, and a backfilling polymer. Compared with the simple metal particle-polymer mixtures where the metal nanoparticles (NP) are randomly dispersed in the polymer matrix, the metal volume fraction in our capacitor was significantly increased, owing to the densely packed NP multilayers formed by the electrostatically assisted assembly process. Moreover, the insulating layer of silica shell provides a potential barrier that reduces the tunneling current between neighboring Ag cores, endowing the core/shell nanocomposites with a stable and relatively high dielectric constant (k) and low dielectric loss (D). Our work also shows that the thickness of the SiO2 shell plays a dominant role in controlling the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. Control over metal NP separation distance was realized not only by variation the shell thickness of the core/shell NPs but also by introducing a high k nanoparticle, barium strontium titanate (BST) of relatively smaller size (∼8nm) compared to 80-160nm of the core/shell Ag@SiO2 NPs. The BST assemble between the Ag@SiO2 and fill the void space between the closely packed core/shell NPs leading to significant enhancement of the dielectric constant. This electrostatically assisted assembly method is promising for generating multilayer films of a large variety of NPs over large areas at low cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. WO{sub 3-x}/MoO{sub 3-x} core/shell nanowires on carbon fabric as an anode for all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xu; Ding, Tianpeng; Yuan, Longyan; Shen, Yongqi; Zhong, Qize; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); Zhai, Teng; Tong, Yexiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Gong, Li; Chen, Jian [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated from a novel anode - WO{sub 3-x}/MoO{sub 3-x} core/shell nanowires on carbon fabric - and a polyaniline cathode (figure). In addition to the high electrochemical performance of the devices, other characteristics, such as low toxicity, flexibility, environmental compatibility, light weight, and low requirements for packaging, make the all-solid-state ASCs potential candidates for applications in energy storage, flexible electronics, and other consumer electronics. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Tuning the field distribution and fabrication of an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure for a SPR-based fiber optic phenyl hydrazine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Kaur, Parvinder; Gupta, Banshi D

    2016-05-27

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic sensor that uses coatings of silver and aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) core-shell nanostructure (Al@ZnO) for the detection of phenyl hydrazine (Ph-Hyd). To optimize the volume fraction (f) of Al in ZnO and the thickness of the core-shell nanostructure layer (d), the electric field intensity along the normal to the multilayer system is simulated using the two-dimensional multilayer matrix method. The Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure is prepared using the laser ablation technique. Various probes are fabricated with different values of f and an optimized thickness of core-shell nanostructure for the characterization of the Ph-Hyd sensor. The performance of the Ph-Hyd sensor is evaluated in terms of sensitivity. It is found that the Ag/Al@ZnO nanostructure core-shell-coated SPR probe with f = 0.25 and d = 0.040 μm possesses the maximum sensitivity towards Ph-Hyd. These results are in agreement with the simulated ones obtained using electric field intensity. In addition, the performance of the proposed probe is compared with that of probes coated with (i) Al@ZnO nanocomposite, (ii) Al nanoparticles and (iii) ZnO nanoparticles. It is found that the probe coated with an Al@ZnO core-shell nanostructure shows the largest resonance wavelength shift. The detailed mechanism of the sensing (involving chemical reactions) is presented. The sensor also manifests optimum performance at pH 7.

  3. Mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys fabricated by using core-shell powder with dispersion of yttria nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jong Min; Bang, Su-Ryong; Choi, Won June; Kim, Min Sang; Noh, Goo Won; Kim, Young Do

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, refractory materials with excellent high-temperature properties have been in the spotlight as a next generation's high-temperature materials. Among these, Mo-Si-B alloys composed of two intermetallic compound phases (Mo5SiB2 and Mo3Si) and a ductile α-Mo phase have shown an outstanding thermal properties. However, due to the brittleness of the intermetallic compound phases, Mo-Si-B alloys were restricted to apply for the structural materials. So, to enhance the mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys, many efforts to add rare-earth oxide particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy were performed to induce the improvement of strength and fracture toughness. In this study, to investigate the effect of adding nano-sized Y2O3 particles in Mo-Si-B alloy, a core-shell powder consisting of intermetallic compound phases as the core and nano-sized α-Mo and Y2O3 particles surrounding the core was fabricated. Then pressureless sintering was carried out at 1400 °C for 3 h, and the mechanical properties of sintered bodies with different amounts of Y2O3 particles were evaluated by Vickers hardness and 3-point bending test. Vickers hardness was improved by dispersed Y2O3 particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy. Especially, Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy had the highest value, 589 Hv. The fracture toughness was measured using Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy and the value indicated as 13.5 MPa·√m.

  4. Fabrication of a high sensitivity and fast response self-powered photosensor based on a core-shell silicon nanowire homojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hameed, Assel A.; Mahdi, M. A.; Ali, Basil; Selman, Abbas M.; Al-Taay, H. F.; Jennings, P.; Lee, Wen-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell self-powered SiNWs homojunction photosensors have been fabricated. SiNWs are prepared by a metal assisted chemical etching method using different HF/H2O2 ratios and etching times. The length of the p-SiNWs increased as the H2O2 concentration and etching time increased. All the grown SiNWs show very low (∼0.7%) optical reflectance for the wavelength range of 200-1100 nm. Photoluminescence spectra of all prepared SiNWs show sharp and broad emission bands located in the red region of the light spectrum. Core-shell homojunction photosensors were fabricated by spin coating P2O2 onto the surface of the prepared p-SiNWs and annealed at 900 °C for 1 h. The fabricated devices exhibited photovoltaic behavior and high photosensitivity with fast response speed to the visible light. However, the sample that was fabricated using HF/H2O2 ratio of 1:1 showed the highest photosensitivity value of 3578% while the photosensor prepared using 2:1 ratio of HF/H2O2 gave the faster rise and decay time.

  5. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, S.K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe 3 O 4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe 3 O 4 -CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu 2+ ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe 3 O 4 . • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  6. Catalyst-free fabrication of novel ZnO/CuO core-Shell nanowires heterojunction: Controlled growth, structural and optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Arif; Wahab, Yussof; Muhammad, Rosnita; Tahir, Muhammad; Sakrani, Samsudi

    2018-03-01

    Development of controlled growth and vertically aligned ZnO/CuO core-shell heterojunction nanowires (NWs) with large area by a catalyst free vapor deposition and oxidation approach has been investigated. Structural characterization reveals successful fabrication of a core ZnO nanowire having single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure along [002] direction and CuO nanostructure shell with thickness (8-10 nm) having polycrystalline monoclinic structure. The optical property analysis suggests that the reflectance spectrum of ZnO/CuO heterostructure nanowires is decreased by 18% in the visible range, which correspondingly shows high absorption in this region as compared to pristine ZnO nanowires. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of core-shell heterojunction nanowires measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) shows excellent rectifying behavior, which indicates the characteristics of a good p-n junction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has confirmed the sharp junction interface between the core-shell heterojunction nanowire arrays. The valence band offset and conduction band offset at ZnO/CuO heterointerfaces are measured to be 2.4 ± 0.05 and 0.23 ± 0.005 eV respectively, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a type-II band alignment structure is found. The results of this study contribute to the development of new advanced device heterostructures for solar energy conversion and optoelectronics applications.

  7. Fabrication of Au-Pd Core-shell Nanoparticles using Au Thin-Film Dewetting at High Temperature and Chemical Synthesis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hye-Jung; Oh, Yong-Jun [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have received a lot of attention in the fields of catalysts and hydrogen sensors. In this study, Au-Pd core-shell NP arrays were successfully fabricated using two steps: formation of the ordered array of Au NPs cores via solid-state dewetting of a Au thin film on a topographic silica substrate, and Pd shell formation via chemical synthesis using two different surfactants (CTAB and CTAC). Using the CTAB surfactant in particular, a 2-D composite structure comprised of an ordered array of Au-Pd NPs, with smaller Pd NPs on the nanoscopic gaps between the Au-Pd NPs, could be formed. This structure is expected to have potential application in resistance-base hydrogen sensors.

  8. The fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell structures using a spin-coating-based successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jinmyoung; Kim, Darae; Yun, Dong-Jin; Jun, Hwichan; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin; Kim, Sungjee

    2010-01-01

    We developed a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method based on spin-coating (spin-SILAR) and applied the method to the fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays. Because the adsorption, reaction, and rinsing steps occur simultaneously during spin-coating, the spin-SILAR method does not require rinsing steps between the alternating ion adsorption steps, making the growth process simpler and faster than conventional SILAR methods based on dip-coating (dip-SILAR). The ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by spin-SILAR had a denser and more uniform structure than those prepared by dip-SILAR, resulting in the higher power efficiency for use in photoelectrochemical cells.

  9. The fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell structures using a spin-coating-based successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jinmyoung; Kim, Darae; Yun, Dong-Jin; Jun, Hwichan; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin [System on Chip Chemical Process Research, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungjee, E-mail: jeons@postech.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-13

    We developed a successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method based on spin-coating (spin-SILAR) and applied the method to the fabrication of highly uniform ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays. Because the adsorption, reaction, and rinsing steps occur simultaneously during spin-coating, the spin-SILAR method does not require rinsing steps between the alternating ion adsorption steps, making the growth process simpler and faster than conventional SILAR methods based on dip-coating (dip-SILAR). The ZnO/CdS core/shell nanowire arrays prepared by spin-SILAR had a denser and more uniform structure than those prepared by dip-SILAR, resulting in the higher power efficiency for use in photoelectrochemical cells.

  10. Alginate/nanohydroxyapatite scaffolds with designed core/shell structures fabricated by 3D plotting and in situ mineralization for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongxiang; Lode, Anja; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Gelinsky, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Composite scaffolds, especially polymer/hydroxyapatite (HAP) composite scaffolds with predesigned structures, are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. Various methods including direct mixing of HAP powder with polymers or incubating polymer scaffolds in simulated body fluid for preparing polymer/HAP composite scaffolds are either uncontrolled or require long times of incubation. In this work, alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with designed pore parameters and core/shell structures were fabricated using 3D plotting technique and in situ mineralization under mild conditions (at room temperature and without the use of any organic solvents). Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microcomputer tomography, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to characterize the fabricated scaffolds. Mechanical properties and protein delivery of the scaffolds were evaluated, as well as the cell response to the scaffolds by culturing human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC). The obtained data indicate that this method is suitable to fabricate alginate/nano-HAP composite scaffolds with a layer of nano-HAP, coating the surface of the alginate strands homogeneously and completely. The surface mineralization enhanced the mechanical properties and improved the cell attachment and spreading, as well as supported sustaining protein release, compared to pure alginate scaffolds without nano-HAP shell layer. The results demonstrated that the method provides an interesting option for bone tissue engineering application.

  11. Fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@alginate-La particles fabricated via electro-coextrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Quisheng; Luo, Xuegang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles were prepared by electro-coextrusion. • The maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride at 298.15 K was 45.230 mg/g. • The adsorbent has a good saturation magnetization value. • The adsorbent has a great potential in removing the fluoride. - Abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. Main factors affecting the removal of fluoride, including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature and contact time were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics were studied to understand the adsorption process in detail. The experimental data were fitted well by the non-linear Freundlich isotherm and linear pseudo-second-order model, the maximum fluoride adsorption capacity was 45.230 mg/g at pH 4, 298.15 K. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the fluoride adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous. The presence of other anions like Cl"−, SO_4"2"−, HCO_3"− and PO_4"3"− had almost no effect on the fluoride adsorption. The adsorbent can be easily separated from the solution by a magnet. The magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles before and after fluoride adsorption were studied by SEM, FTIR, EDX and XPS, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism may be related to electrostatic attraction and Lewis acid-base interaction.

  12. Fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@alginate-La particles fabricated via electro-coextrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yahui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: lxy20100205@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Quisheng [A State Key Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Xuegang [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles were prepared by electro-coextrusion. • The maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride at 298.15 K was 45.230 mg/g. • The adsorbent has a good saturation magnetization value. • The adsorbent has a great potential in removing the fluoride. - Abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. Main factors affecting the removal of fluoride, including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature and contact time were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics were studied to understand the adsorption process in detail. The experimental data were fitted well by the non-linear Freundlich isotherm and linear pseudo-second-order model, the maximum fluoride adsorption capacity was 45.230 mg/g at pH 4, 298.15 K. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the fluoride adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous. The presence of other anions like Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} had almost no effect on the fluoride adsorption. The adsorbent can be easily separated from the solution by a magnet. The magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles before and after fluoride adsorption were studied by SEM, FTIR, EDX and XPS, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism may be related to electrostatic attraction and Lewis acid-base interaction.

  13. WO{sub 3-x} rate at Au rate at MnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires on carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xihong; Zhai, Teng [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Xianghui; Shen, Yongqi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Gao, Yihua; Zhou, Jun [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); Gong, Li; Chen, Jian [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tong, Yexiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-02-14

    WO{sub 3-x} rate at Au rate at MnO{sub 2} core-shell nanowires (NWs) are synthesized on a flexible carbon fabric and show outstanding electrochemical performance in supercapacitors such as high specific capacitance, good cyclic stability, high energy density, and high power density. These results suggest that the WO{sub 3-x} rate at Au rate at MnO{sub 2} NWs have promising potential for use in high-performance flexible supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. WO3–x@Au@MnO2 core–shell nanowires on carbon fabric for high-performance flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xihong; Zhai, Teng; Zhang, Xianghui; Shen, Yongqi; Yuan, Longyan; Hu, Bin; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Gao, Yihua; Zhou, Jun; Tong, Yexiang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-02-14

    WO3–x@Au@MnO2 core–shell nanowires (NWs) are synthesized on a flexible carbon fabric and show outstanding electrochemical performance in supercapacitors such as high specific capacitance, good cyclic stability, high energy density, and high power density. These results suggest that the WO3–x@Au@MnO2 NWs have promising potential for use in high-performance flexible supercapacitors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Interface-modulated fabrication of hierarchical yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons as stable anodes for lithium and sodium storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Wu; Jiashen Meng; Qi Li; Chaojiang Niu; Xuanpeng Wang; Wei Yang; Wei Li; Liqiang Mai

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have gradually attracted attention from researchers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high theoretical capacity.However,their poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability resulting from the large volume variation during the lithiation/sodiation process and their low intrinsic electronic conductivity limit their applications.To solve the problems of TMOs,carbon-based metal-oxide composites with complex structures derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising electrode materials for LIBs and SIBs.In this study,we adopted a facile interface-modulated method to synthesize yolk-shell carbon-based Co3O4 dodecahedrons derived from ZIF-67 zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.This strategy is based on the interface separation between the ZIF-67 core and the carbon-based shell during the pyrolysis process.The unique yolk-shell structure effectively accommodates the volume expansion during lithiation or sodiation,and the carbon matrix improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode.As an anode for LIBs,the yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons exhibit a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (1,100 mAh·g-1 after 120 cycles at 200 mA·g-1).As an anode for SIBs,the composites exhibit an outstanding rate capability (307 mAh·g-1 at 1,000 mA·g-1 and 269 mAh·g-1 at 2,000 mA·g-1).Detailed electrochemical kinetic analysis indicates that the energy storage for Li+ and Na+ in yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons shows a dominant capacitive behavior.This work introduces an effective approach for fabricating carbonbased metal-oxide composites by using MOFs as ideal precursors and as electrode materials to enhance the electrochemical performance of LIBs and SIBs.

  16. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth

  17. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, S. K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic Fe3O4@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe3O4@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe3O4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe3O4@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe3O4-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent.

  18. Fabrication of In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes for enhanced photoelectrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haohua; Chen, Cong; Huang, Xinyou; Leng, Yang; Hou, Mengnan; Xiao, Xiaogu; Bao, Jie; You, Jiali; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Yukun; Song, Juan; Wang, Yaping; Liu, Qinqin; Hope, Gregory A.

    2014-02-01

    Herein, we report the facile synthesis of In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes and their improved photoelectrochemical property. In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes are grown on a F-doped SnO2 (FTO) glass substrate by a two-step process, which involves the electrodeposition of In2O3 nanocubes and a subsequent ion-exchange treatment. The improved light-harvesting ability and the suitable band alignment of the In2O3@In2S3 core-shell nanocubes generate a remarkable photocurrent density of 6.19 mA cm-2 (at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl), which is substantially higher than the pristine In2O3 nanocubes. These results provide a new insight into the design of a high-performance photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  19. Fabrication of SnO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanopillar-array films for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsyi-En, E-mail: sean@mail.stust.edu.tw; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Ching-Ming

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanopillar-arrays on ITO glass were successfully fabricated. • The 3D heterojunction solves the problem of low photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} films. • SnO{sub 2} is more suitable than ITO for the core layer to separate electron-hole pairs. - Abstract: Immobilized or deposited thin film TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts are suffering from a low photocatalytic activity due to either a low photon absorption efficiency or a high carrier recombination rate. Here we demonstrate that the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} can be effectively improved by the SnO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanopillar-array structure which combines the benefits of SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction and high reaction surface area. The SnO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanopillar-array films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition and dry etching techniques via barrier-free porous anodic alumina templates. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared films was evaluated by methylene blue (MB) bleaching under 352 nm UV light irradiation. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} film was 45% improved by introducing a SnO{sub 2} film between TiO{sub 2} and ITO glass substrate and was 300% improved by using the SnO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanopillar-array structure. The 45% improvement by the SnO{sub 2} interlayer is attributed to the SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction which separates the photogenerated electron-hole pairs in TiO{sub 2} for MB degradation, and the high photocatalytic activity of the SnO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanopillar-array films is attributed to the three dimensional SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction which owns both the carrier separation ability and the high photocatalytic reaction surface area.

  20. Novel elastomeric fibrous networks produced from poly(xylitol sebacate)2:5 by core/shell electrospinning: fabrication and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    2014-12-01

    Fabrication of nonlinear elastic materials that resemble biological tissues remains a challenge in biomaterials research. Here, a new fabrication protocol to produce elastomeric fibrous scaffolds was established, using the core/shell electrospinning technique. A prepolymer of poly(xylitol sebacate) with a 2:5mol ratio of xylitol:sebacic acid (PXS2:5) was first formulated, then co-electrospun with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA - 95,000Mw). After cross-linking of core polymer PXS2:5, the PVA shells were rinsed off in water, leaving a porous elastomeric network of PXS2:5 fibres. Under aqueous conditions, the PXS2:5 fibrous scaffolds exhibited stable, nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves, with large average rupture elongation (76%) and Young׳s modulus (~1.0MPa), which were in the range of muscle tissue. Rupture elongation of PXS2:5 was also much higher when electrospun, compared to 2D solid sheets (45%). In direct contact with cell monolayers under physiological conditions, PXS2:5 scaffolds were as biocompatible as those made of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), with improvements over culture medium alone. In conclusion, the newly developed porous PXS2:5 scaffolds show tissue-like mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, making them very promising for bioengineering of soft tissues and organs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, A.W.; Behannon, K.W.; Lepping, R.P.; Carbary, J.F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc

  2. Universal liquid-phase laser fabrication of various nano-metals encapsulated by ultrathin carbon shells for deep-UV plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Yang, Chao; Li, Xiao-Ming; Lei, Tian-Yu; Sun, Hao-Xuan; Dai, Li-Ping; Gu, Yu; Ning, Xue; Zhou, Ting; Wang, Chao; Zeng, Hai-Bo; Xiong, Jie

    2017-06-29

    The exploration of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) beyond the usual visible waveband, for example within the ultraviolet (UV) or deep-ultraviolet (D-UV) regions, is of great significance due to its unique applications in secret communications and optics. However, it is still challenging to universally synthesize the corresponding metal nanostructures due to their high activity. Herein, we report a universal, eco-friendly, facile and rapid synthesis of various nano-metals encapsulated by ultrathin carbon shells, significantly with a remarkable deep-UV LSPR characteristic, via a liquid-phase laser fabrication method. Firstly, a new generation of the laser ablation in liquid (LAL) method has been developed with an emphasis on the elaborate selection of solvents to generate ultrathin carbon shells, and hence to stabilize the formed metal nanocrystals. As a result, a series of metal@carbon nanoparticles (NPs), including Cr@C, Ti@C, Fe@C, V@C, Al@C, Sn@C, Mn@C and Pd@C, can be fabricated by this modified LAL method. Interestingly, these NPs exhibit LSPR peaks in the range of 200-330 nm, which are very rare for localized surface plasmon resonance. Consequently, the UV plasmonic effects of these metal@carbon NPs were demonstrated both by the observed enhancement in UV photoluminescence (PL) from the carbon nanoshells and by the improvement of the photo-responsivity of UV GaN photodetectors. This work could provide a universal method for carbon shelled metal NPs and expand plasmonics into the D-UV waveband.

  3. Fabrication of magnetic carbon composites from peanut shells and its application as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lincheng, E-mail: zhoulc@lzu.edu.cn; Ma, Junjun; Zhang, He; Shao, Yanming; Li, Yanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Peanut shell magnetic carbon (PMC) were fabricated by carbonized the mixture of peanut shells and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}. The obtained PMC exhibit high efficiency in catalysis oxidation methylene blue with the help of K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} and it can be easily separated from aqueous by external magnetic field. Meanwhile, the catalyst can be reused for seven times almost without decreased of activity. - Highlights: • Novel peanut shell magnetic carbon (PMC) catalysts were successfully synthesized. • PMC exhibited superior activity as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. • A high efficient Fenton-like system was set up for removal MB. • PMC posed excellent catalysis oxidation quality, stability and good reusability. - Abstract: Magnetic carbons were prepared from agricultural waste peanut shells and Ferric ammonium oxalate via a simple impregnation and carbonization process. The obtained composites were characterized by element analysis, MÖssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area method, respectively. The magnetic carbon material was used as catalyst of heterogeneous Fenton reaction to remove methylene blue with the help of persulfate in waste water. The results indicated that both the removal rate and removal efficiency of this catalytic system are very excellent. The degradation efficiency was best (90% within 30 min) using initial concentrations of 0.5 g L{sup −1} persulfate and 40 mg L{sup −1} methylene blue. The removal mechanism was investigated by LC-MS. The catalyst retained its activity after seven reuses, indicating its good stability and reusability. It is inexpensive because it consists mainly of agricultural waste. Its porosity contributed to its high activity, which was achieved without any additional activation process. These indicating that the catalyst is

  4. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Abraham P. (1428 Whitecliff Way, Walnut Creek, CA 94596); Northrup, M. Allen (923 Creston Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Ahre, Paul E. (1299 Gonzaga Ct., Livermore, CA 94550); Dupuy, Peter C. (1736 Waldo Ct., Modesto, CA 95358)

    1997-01-01

    A mold assembly with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10's of micros (.mu.m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 .mu.m in length up to 150 .mu.m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly.

  5. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ahre, P.E.; Dupuy, P.C.

    1997-08-19

    A mold assembly is disclosed with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10`s of micros ({micro}m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 {micro}m in length up to 150 {micro}m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly. 6 figs.

  6. Fabrication, thermal properties and thermal stabilities of microencapsulated n-alkane with poly(lauryl methacrylate) as shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xiaolin; Lu, Lixin; Wang, Ju; Tang, Guoyi; Song, Guolin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microencapsulation of octadecane and paraffin by crosslinked poly(lauryl methacrylate). • Octadecane microcapsules have a melting enthalpy of about 118 J g −1 . • Weight loss temperatures of the microcapsules were increased by 67 °C and 28 °C. • Phase change enthalpies decreased by around 10 wt% after 500 thermal cycles. • Foams with microcapsules can be applied for passive temperature control. - Abstract: Microencapsulation of n-octadecane or paraffin with poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA) shell was performed by a suspension-like polymerization. The polymer shell was crosslinked by pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETRA). The surface morphologies of microcapsules were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase change properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of microcapsules were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The n-octadecane microcapsule exhibits higher melting enthalpy (118.0 J g −1 ) and crystallization enthalpy (108.3 J g −1 ) compared with the paraffin microcapsule. The thermal resistant temperatures were enhanced by more than 25 °C when n-alkanes were microencapsulated by PLMA. The PCM contents of microcapsules decreased by less than 4 wt% and 6 wt% after 500 and 1000 thermal cycles, respectively. Heat-up experiments indicated that microcapsule-treated foams exhibited upgraded thermal regulation capacities. Consequently, microencapsulated n-octadecane or paraffin with PLMA as shell possesses good potentials for heat storage and thermal regulation.

  7. Fabrication, thermal properties and thermal stabilities of microencapsulated n-alkane with poly(lauryl methacrylate) as shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xiaolin, E-mail: shirleyqiu2009@gmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Food Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Lu, Lixin; Wang, Ju [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Food Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Tang, Guoyi [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2015-11-20

    Highlights: • Microencapsulation of octadecane and paraffin by crosslinked poly(lauryl methacrylate). • Octadecane microcapsules have a melting enthalpy of about 118 J g{sup −1}. • Weight loss temperatures of the microcapsules were increased by 67 °C and 28 °C. • Phase change enthalpies decreased by around 10 wt% after 500 thermal cycles. • Foams with microcapsules can be applied for passive temperature control. - Abstract: Microencapsulation of n-octadecane or paraffin with poly(lauryl methacrylate) (PLMA) shell was performed by a suspension-like polymerization. The polymer shell was crosslinked by pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETRA). The surface morphologies of microcapsules were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase change properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of microcapsules were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The n-octadecane microcapsule exhibits higher melting enthalpy (118.0 J g{sup −1}) and crystallization enthalpy (108.3 J g{sup −1}) compared with the paraffin microcapsule. The thermal resistant temperatures were enhanced by more than 25 °C when n-alkanes were microencapsulated by PLMA. The PCM contents of microcapsules decreased by less than 4 wt% and 6 wt% after 500 and 1000 thermal cycles, respectively. Heat-up experiments indicated that microcapsule-treated foams exhibited upgraded thermal regulation capacities. Consequently, microencapsulated n-octadecane or paraffin with PLMA as shell possesses good potentials for heat storage and thermal regulation.

  8. Fabrication and Raman scattering of a core–shell structure based on Mn doped ZnO and barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, M.; Baibarac, M.; Vasile, E.; Sima, Ma.; Mihut, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO/BaTiO_3 nanorod array on FTO substrate. • Oxygen vacancies in the ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO nanostructure. • The interface between the ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO core and the BaTiO_3 shell without unwanted phases. - Abstract: A combination of chemical and thermal annealing techniques was used to prepare an array of ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO/BaTiO_3 nanorods. ZnO nanorod arrays were obtained by hydrothermal–electrochemical processes. The precursors for Zn_1_−_xMn_xO and BaTiO_3, prepared by sol–gel technique were deposited by spin coating on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Each deposition stage was accompanied by thermal treatment stages. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the presence of a film of Zn_1_−_xMn_xO with wurtzite structure on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate that a layer of BaTiO_3 is deposited on the surface of each ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO core shell nanorod. BaTiO_3 film onto the ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO core shell nanorods is also evidenced in Raman scattering by broadening of the Raman band situated in the spectral range 500–750 cm"−"1.

  9. Fabrication and Raman scattering of a core–shell structure based on Mn doped ZnO and barium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, M., E-mail: msima@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG 7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Baibarac, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG 7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Vasile, E. [University “Politehnica” of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Department of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, No. 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Sima, Ma.; Mihut, L. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG 7, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O/BaTiO{sub 3} nanorod array on FTO substrate. • Oxygen vacancies in the ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanostructure. • The interface between the ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O core and the BaTiO{sub 3} shell without unwanted phases. - Abstract: A combination of chemical and thermal annealing techniques was used to prepare an array of ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O/BaTiO{sub 3} nanorods. ZnO nanorod arrays were obtained by hydrothermal–electrochemical processes. The precursors for Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O and BaTiO{sub 3}, prepared by sol–gel technique were deposited by spin coating on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Each deposition stage was accompanied by thermal treatment stages. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the presence of a film of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O with wurtzite structure on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate that a layer of BaTiO{sub 3} is deposited on the surface of each ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O core shell nanorod. BaTiO{sub 3} film onto the ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O core shell nanorods is also evidenced in Raman scattering by broadening of the Raman band situated in the spectral range 500–750 cm{sup −1}.

  10. Investigation of dosimetric characteristics of a core-shell quantum dots nano composite (CdTe/CdS/PMMA): fabrication of a new gamma sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Shahzad; Zare, Hakimeh; Hoseinpour, Masoumeh

    2018-06-01

    CdTe/CdS-PMMA nanocomposite was prepared using dispersion of CdTe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) in poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer matrix. High-quality CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots were synthesized in aqueous solution and were transferred from water to chloroform using ligand-exchange process in the presence of 1-dodecanethiol (1-DDT). Transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals that the obtained nano-particles are highly crystalline nature with mean diameter of 3.6 nm. To prepare an ohmic contact detector, a conductive cell with two silver coated walls was designed and fabricated for exploring gamma detecting properties of the nano composite. New detector was assessed for the linearity of doserate response, angular dependence, sensitivity and repeatability. The results show that the dose rate response of the prepared sensor is linear in the dose rate range of 50-145 mGy/min. So this nanocomposite can be utilized as a potential gamma sensor in the medical radiation device design.

  11. Drug release from core-shell PVA/silk fibroin nanoparticles fabricated by one-step electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Liu, Fengqiu; Chen, Yuli; Yu, Tao; Lou, Deshuai; Guo, Yuan; Li, Pan; Wang, Zhigang; Ran, Haitao

    2017-09-20

    Silk fibroin (SF), a FDA-approved natural protein, is renowned for its great biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. SF-based nanoparticles provide new options for drug delivery with their tunable drug loading and release properties. To take advantage of the features of carrier polymers, we present a one-step electrospraying method that combines SF, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and therapeutic drugs without an emulsion process. A distinct core-shell structure was obtained with the PVA core and silk shell after the system was properly set up. The model drug, doxorubicin, was encapsulated in the core with a greater than 90% drug encapsulation efficiency. Controllable drug release profiles were achieved by alternating the PVA/SF ratio. Although the initial burst release of the drug was minimized by the SF coating, a large number of drug molecules remained entrapped by the carrier polymers. To promote and trigger drug release on demand, low intensity focused ultrasound (US) was applied. The US was especially advantageous for accelerating the drug diffusion and release. The apoptotic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells incubated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was found to increase with time. In addition, we also observed PVA/SF nanoparticles that could elicit a drug release in response to pH.

  12. Fabrication of Cu-Ag core-shell bimetallic superfine powders by eco-friendly reagents and structures characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Dongming; Zhao, Jie

    2011-09-01

    Superfine bimetallic Cu-Ag core-shell powders were synthesized by reduction of copper sulfate pentahydrate and silver nitrate with eco-friendly ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and cyclodextrins as a protective agent in an aqueous system. The influence of Ag/Cu ratio on coatings was investigated. Ag was homogeneously distributed on the surface of Cu particles at a mole ratio of Ag/Cu=1. FE-SEM showed an uniformity of Ag coatings on Cu particles. Antioxidation of Cu particles was improved by increasing Ag/Cu ratio. TEM-EDX and UV-vis spectra also revealed that Cu cores were covered by Ag nanoshells on the whole. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that only small parts of Cu atoms in the surface were oxidized. It was noted that the hindrance of cyclodextrins chemisorbed on particles plays an important role in forming high quality and good dispersity Cu-Ag (Cu@Ag) core-shell powders.

  13. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of silicon nanowires/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhen [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Ma, Ge [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, Zhihong, E-mail: chenzhihong1227@sina.com [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Guangzhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Zhang, Yongguang [Research Institute for Energy Equipment Materials, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Materials Laminating Fabrication and Interface Control Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Zhang, Zhe [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Gao, Jinwei [Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Meng, Qingguo; Yuan, Mingzhe [Shenyang Institute of Automation, Guangzhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxin@scnu.edu.cn [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Liu, Jun-ming [Institute of Advanced Materials, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Zhou, Guofu [Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A novel Silicon Nanowires/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell arrays photoanode prepared by a mild and inexpensive metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) process followed by liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD), wiich is a facile and low-cost method. • In comparison with FTO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si NWs samples, the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrent which could be attributed to the SiNWs-based core/shell structure. • A systematical PEC mechanism of the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was proposed is this manuscript. - Abstract: A photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell made of metal-free carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) @siliconnanowire(Si NW) arrays (denoted as Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) is presented in this work. The as-prepared photoelectrodes with different mass contents of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} have been synthesized via a metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE), liquid atomic layer deposition (LALD) and annealing methods. The amount of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} on the Si NW arrays can be controlled by tuning the concentration of the cyanamide solution used in the LALD procedure. The dense and vertically aligned Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} core/shell nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In comparison with FTO/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Si NW samples, the Si NWs/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrents over the entire potential sweep range. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was conducted to investigate the properties of the charge transfer process, and the results indicated that the enhanced PEC performance may be due to the increased photo-generated interfacial charge transfer between the Si NWs and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The photocurrent density reached 45 μA/cm{sup 2} under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (AM 1.5 G) illumination at 0 V (vs. Pt) in neutral Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution (pH ∼ 7

  14. Effect of shells on photoluminescence of aqueous CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Size-tunable CdTe coated with several shells using an aqueous solution synthesis. CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots exhibited high PL efficiency up to 80% which implies the promising applications for biomedical labeling. - Highlights: • CdTe quantum dots were fabricated using an aqueous synthesis. • CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS shells were subsequently deposited on CdTe cores. • Outer ZnS shells provide an efficient confinement of electron and hole inside the QDs. • Inside CdS shells can reduce the strain on the QDs. • Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited high stability and photoluminescence efficiency of 80%. - Abstract: CdTe cores with various sizes were fabricated in aqueous solutions. Inorganic shells including CdS, ZnS, and CdS/ZnS were subsequently deposited on the cores through a similar aqueous procedure to investigate the effect of shells on the photoluminescence properties of the cores. In the case of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the outer ZnS shell provides an efficient confinement of electron and hole wavefunctions inside the quantum dots, while the middle CdS shell sandwiched between the CdTe core and ZnS shell can be introduced to obviously reduce the strain on the quantum dots because the lattice parameters of CdS is situated at the intermediate-level between those of CdTe and ZnS. In comparison with CdTe/ZnS core–shell quantum dots, the as-prepared water-soluble CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots in our case can exhibit high photochemical stability and photoluminescence efficiency up to 80% in an aqueous solution, which implies the promising applications in the field of biomedical labeling

  15. HI shells in the outer Milky Way

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ehlerová, Soňa; Palouš, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 437, č. 1 (2005), s. 101-112 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : ISM * bubbles * galaxy structure Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.223, year: 2005

  16. Outer atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  17. The In-Situ One-Step Synthesis of a PDC Macromolecular Pro-Drug and the Fabrication of a Novel Core-Shell Micell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui-Yun; Yang, Sa; Li, Zhi-Ping; Huang, Can; Ning, Qian; Huang, Wen; Yang, Wen-Tong; He, Dongxiu; Sun, Lichun

    2016-01-01

    hydrophobicity of free DOX. This work proposes a novel strategy for in-situ one-step synthesis of macromolecular pro-drugs and fabrication of a core-shell micelle, demonstrating great potential for cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Fabrication of nano-mosquitocides using chitosan from crab shells: Impact on non-target organisms in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Anitha, Jaganathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chitravel; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Wang, Lan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wei, Hui; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Kumar, Suresh; Pugazhendy, Kannaiyan; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Mosquitoes are arthropods of huge medical and veterinary relevance, since they vector pathogens and parasites of public health importance, including malaria, dengue and Zika virus. Currently, nanotechnology is considered a potential eco-friendly approach in mosquito control research. We proposed a novel method of biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using chitosan (Ch) from crab shells. Ch-AgNP nanocomposite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Ch-AgNP were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi obtaining LC50 ranging from 3.18 ppm (I) to 6.54 ppm (pupae). The antibacterial properties of Ch-AgNP were proved against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, while no growth inhibition was reported in assays conducted on Proteus vulgaris. Concerning non-target effects, in standard laboratory considtions the predation efficiency of Danio rerio zebrafishes was 68.8% and 61.6% against I and II instar larvae of A. stephensi, respectively. In a Ch-AgNP-contaminated environment, fish predation was boosted to 89.5% and 77.3%, respectively. Quantitative analysis of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and LPO from hepatopancreas of fresh water crabs Paratelphusa hydrodromous exposed for 16 days to a Ch-AgNP-contaminated aquatic environment were conducted. Notably, deleterious effects of Ch-AgNP contaminating aquatic enviroment on the non-target crab P. hydrodromous were observed, particularly when doses higher than 8-10ppm are tested. Overall, this research highlights the potential of Ch-AGNP for the development of newer control tools against young instar populations of malaria mosquitoes, also highlighting some risks concerned the employ of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  20. Facile fabrication of core-shell Pr6O11-ZnO modified silane coatings for anti-corrosion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeva Jothi, K.; Palanivelu, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a facile and inexpensive method to fabricate anti-corrosive and hydrophobic surface with hierarchical micro and nano structures. We demonstrate for the first time the use of praseodymium oxide doped zinc oxide (Pr6O11-ZnO) nanocomposites loaded in a hybrid sol-gel (SiOx/ZrOx) layer, to effectively protect the underlying steel substrate from corrosion attack. The influence of Pr6O11-ZnO gives the surprising aspects based on active anti-corrosion and hydrophobic coatings. The spherical SiO2 particles have been successfully coated with Pr6O11-ZnO layer through sol-gel process. The resulted SiO2@Pr6O11-ZnO core-shell was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The barrier properties of the intact coatings were assessed by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The fabrication of SiO2@Pr6O11-ZnO shows dual properties of hydrophobic and anti-corrosion micro/nanostructured sol-gel coatings follows a single/simple step coating procedure. This study has led to a better understanding factor influencing the anti-corrosion performance with embedded nanocomposites. These developments are particularly for silane network@ Pr6O11-ZnO for self-healing and self-cleaning behavior which can be designed for new protective coating system.

  1. Fabrication of electric papers of graphene nanosheet shelled cellulose fibres by dispersion and infiltration as flexible electrodes for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yan-Ru; Li, Ya-Li; Hou, Feng; Wen, Yang-Yang; Su, Dong

    2012-05-21

    An electrically conductive and electrochemically active composite paper of graphene nanosheet (GNS) coated cellulose fibres was fabricated via a simple paper-making process of dispersing chemically synthesized GNS into a cellulose pulp, followed by infiltration. The GNS nanosheet was deposited onto the cellulose fibers, forming a coating, during infiltration. It forms a continuous network through a bridge of interconnected cellulose fibres at small GNS loadings (3.2 wt%). The GNS/cellulose paper is as flexible and mechanically tough as the pure cellulose paper. The electrical measurements show the composite paper has a sheet resistance of 1063 Ω□(-1) and a conductivity of 11.6 S m(-1). The application of the composite paper as a flexible double layer supercapacitor in an organic electrolyte (LiPF(6)) displays a high capacity of 252 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) with respect to GNS. Moreover, the paper can be used as the anode in a lithium battery, showing distinct charge and discharge performances. The simple process for synthesising the GNS functionalized cellulose papers is attractive for the development of high performance papers for electrical, electrochemical and multifunctional applications.

  2. Shell Venster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.; Looijesteijn, B.; Regeer, B.; Stip, B.

    1995-03-01

    In the bi-monthly issues of 'Shell Venster' (window on Shell) attention is paid to the activities of the multinational petroleum company Shell Nederland and the Koninklijke/Shell Groep by means of non-specialist articles

  3. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  4. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu; Onozuka, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kakudate, Satoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel have been investigated and defined by the ITER international team. However, some of the current specifications are very difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view and will lead to cost increase. In the mock-up fabrication, it is planned to conduct the following items: 1. Feasibility of the Japanese proposed VV structure and fabrication methods and the applicability to the ITER are to be confirmed; 2. Assembly procedure and inspection procedure are to be confirmed; 3. Manufacturing tolerances are to be assessed; 4. Manufacturing schedule is to be assessed. This report summarizes the Japanese proposed specification of the VV mock-up describing differences between the ITER supplied design. General scope of the mock-up fabrication and the detailed dimensions are also shown. In the VV fabrication, several types of weld joint configuration will be used. This report shows the joint configurations proposed by Japan to be used for the inner shell connection, the rib-to-shell connection and outer shell connection, and the housing-to-shell connection, respectively. Non-destructive testing considered to be applied to each joint configuration is also presented. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented in this report, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the report summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, including results of nondestructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. (orig.)

  5. Preparation of yolk-shell MoS2 nanospheres covered with carbon shell for excellent lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bangjun; Feng, Yu; Chen, Xiaofan; Li, Bo; Yu, Ke

    2018-03-01

    Molybdenum disulfide is regarded as one of the most promising electrode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries. Designing firm basal structure is a key point to fully utilize the high capacity of layered MoS2 nanomaterials. Here, yolk-shell structured MoS2 nanospheres is firstly designed and fabricated to meet this needs. This unique yolk-shell nanospheres are transformed from solid nanospheres by a simply weak alkaline etching method. Then, the yolk-shell MoS2/C is synthesized by a facile process to protect the outside MoS2 shell and promote the conductivity. Taking advantages of high capacity and well-defined cavity space, allowing the core MoS2 to expand freely without breaking the outer shells, yolk-shell MoS2/C nanospheres delivers long cycle life (94% of capacity retained after 200 cycles) and high rate behaviour (830 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1). This design of yolk-shell structure may set up a new strategy for preparing next generation anode materials for LIBs.

  6. Fabrication of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, S.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guilan, University Campus 2, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabnezhad, Sh., E-mail: sohrabnezhad@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafourian, S. [Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and a CuO shell. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu{sup 2+} ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  7. INTEGRATED PROTECTIVE FABRIC SYSTEM (IPFS) PHASE III PROGRAM: AEROSOL PROTECTION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-16

    control. It consists of a woven nylon/cotton outer shell ripstop fabric with a durable water repellent finish (Quarpel) with a hung liner comprised of...challenge, most were made using DOP. The TSI 3160 is equipped with two TSI Model 3772 Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs). The Model 3772 CPC detects ...results were used to demonstrate that any penetration measured through the swatch materials was not attributed to leakage or erroneous system

  8. CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Baker, C.; Gomez, T.; Prince, P.P.; Smith, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end torus. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs

  9. CPRF/ZTH front-end torus design and fabrication status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, E.O.; Baker, C.; Gomez, T.; Prince, P.P.; Smith, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Design of the ZTH front-end torus has been completed for a new generation Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) machine to be assembled at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY 92. The Confinement Physics Research Facility (CPRF) houses the ZTH front-end. The ZTH torus consists of an Inconel 625 vacuum vessel supported by an external electrically conducting 304L stainless steel shell. Interspace support rings support the vacuum vessel to the shell and also provide accurate radial support for the interspace electrical diagnostics. The shell also supports 48 toroidal field coils that are mounted to the shell's external surface. The shell consists of an explosion bonded stainless steel-copper composite with water-cooling tube assemblies attached to the outer surface. The 0.135-in. thick copper is on the inside surface of the shell, and provides an electrically conducting path with the required electrical time constant of 50 ms. The shell plate will be formed to the required toroidal configuration, after which the poloidal and toroidal flanges will be welded to the structure and machined. The Inconel vacuum vessel consists of bellows segments, armor support rings, and diagnostic stations welded together to form the complete vacuum vessel assembly. The necessity for accurate positioning of the vacuum vessel within the shell requires that the shell and vacuum vessel be fabricated with major diameter tolerances within 0.050-in. true position of the nominal diameters of 188.0-in. and 188.820-in., respectively. 7 figs

  10. Effect of the ZnS shell layer on the charge storage capabilities of organic bistable memory devices fabricated utilizing CuInS2–ZnS core–shell quantum dots embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Dong Yeol; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Sang Wook

    2013-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of organic bistable memory devices (OBDs) fabricated utilizing CuInS 2 (CIS) core or CIS–ZnS core–shell quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer on indium–tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra demonstrated that the stoichiometries of the QDs embedded in a PMMA layer were CIS or CIS–ZnS QDs. Current–voltage measurements on Al/CIS or CIS–ZnS QDs embedded in PMMA layer/ITO glass devices at 300 K showed current bistabilities. The maximum ON/OFF current ratios of the OBDs with CIS or CIS–ZnS QDs were approximately 1 × 10 3 and 1 × 10 5 , respectively. The retention number of ON and OFF states was measured by 1 × 10 5 . The memory mechanisms of the OBDs with CIS or CIS–ZnS QDs are described on the basis of the experimental results. - Highlights: • Organic bistable devices utilizing nanocomposites were fabricated. • Current–voltage results on organic bistable devices showed current bistabilities. • Maximum ON/OFF current ratio of the device with core–shell quantum dots was 1 × 10 5 . • Retention number of the device with core–shell quantum dots was 1 × 10 5

  11. Synthesis of Various Metal/TiO2 Core/shell Nanorod Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guan-zhong; Hong, Xun; Shen, Xiao-shuang

    2011-02-01

    We present a general approach to fabricate metal/TiO2 core/shell nanorod structures by two-step electrodeposition. Firstly, TiO2 nanotubes with uniform wall thickness are prepared in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes by electrodeposition. The wall thickness of the nanotubes could be easily controlled by modulating the deposition time, and their outer diameter and length are only limited by the channel diameter and the thickness of the AAO membranes, respectively. The nanotubes' tops prepared by this method are open, while the bottoms are connected directly with the Au film at the back of the AAO membranes. Secondly, Pd, Cu, and Fe elements are filled into the TiO2 nanotubes to form core/shell structures. The core/shell nanorods prepared by this two-step process are high density and free-standing, and their length is dependent on the deposition time.

  12. Synthesis of triaxial LiFePO4 nanowire with a VGCF core column and a carbon shell through the electrospinning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Eiji; Wang, Yonggang; Kida, Noriyuki; Enomoto, Masaya; Kojima, Norimichi; Okubo, Masashi; Matsuda, Hirofumi; Saito, Yoshiyasu; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Honma, Itaru; Zhou, Haoshen

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial LiFePO4 nanowire with a multi wall carbon nanotube (VGCF:Vapor-grown carbon fiber) core column and an outer shell of amorphous carbon was successfully synthesized through the electrospinning method. The carbon nanotube core oriented in the direction of the wire played an important role in the conduction of electrons during the charge-discharge process, whereas the outer amorphous carbon shell suppressed the oxidation of Fe2+. An electrode with uniformly dispersed carbon and active materials was easily fabricated via a single process by heating after the electrospinning method is applied. Mossbauer spectroscopy for the nanowire showed a broadening of the line width, indicating a disordered coordination environment of the Fe ion near the surface. The electrospinning method was proven to be suitable for the fabrication of a triaxial nanostructure.

  13. Fabrication of core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe) magnetic microspheres for the removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qingxiang, E-mail: qxyangzz@163.com; Zhao, Qianqian; Ren, ShuangShuang; Lu, Qiongqiong; Guo, Xinmeng; Chen, Zhijun, E-mail: chenzj@zzuli.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Facile regeneration of an adsorbent is very important for commercial feasibility. One typical highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials based on MIL-100(Fe) and magnetic iron oxide particles (denoted as MMCs) with diameter about of 350 nm were successfully synthesized. The growth of MIL-100(Fe) shell on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was utilized precursor as crystal seed via in-situ step hydrothermal reaction. It is a simple way to obtain well organized core-shell MOF composites, compared to the step-by-step method. MMCs were firstly used to uptake of Cr(VI) anions in aqueous solution. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch sorption mode investigating with the factors of contact time (0–1000 min), pH (from 2 to 12), dose of adsorbent (4–25 mg), and initial Cr(VI) concentration (range from 10 to 100 ppm). - Graphical abstract: One typical highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials based on MIL-100(Fe) and magnetic iron oxide particles (denoted as MMCs) were successfully synthesized. Utilizing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} precursor as crystal seed to grow MIL-100(Fe) shell by in-situ step hydrothermal reaction. It is a simple way to obtain core-shell MOF composites. MMCs could effectively uptake of Cr(VI) anions in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe) composites with core-shell structure were successfully prepared through a simple method. • The influence factors on Cr(VI) adsorption by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe) were investigated. • Cr(VI) can efficiently adsorbed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MIL-100(Fe) composites from aqueous solution.

  14. Core/shell structure NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 nanofibers fabricated by different temperatures for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qin, Xuefeng; Jiang, Pengcheng; Dai, Jianfeng; Li, Weixue; Gao, Haoran

    2018-03-01

    Core/shell structure NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 nanofibers (NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 NFs) were prepared by a facile co-electrospinning method and heat treatment. The composites annealed at 500 °C have a complete, continuously obvious core/shell structure, and clear interface of composites with good morphology, while annealed at 600 °C were stacked on each other and were unable to sustain three-dimensional network structures and 700 °C calcination have completely lost one-dimensional structure. The core NiCo2O4 is about 70 nm in diameter and the MnCo2O4 shell behaves a thickness about 60 nm. When investigated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 NFs annealed at 500 °C exihibited the specific capacitance of 463 F g-1 (0.926 F cm-2) at 1 A g-1, higher than that annealed at 600 °C 362 F g-1, 1 A g-1 (0.724 F cm-2, 1 A g-1) and 700 °C 283 F g-1, 1 A g-1 (0.566 F cm-2, 1 A g-1). These results suggest that core/shell NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 NFs annealed at 500 °C have formed a good morphology with continuously complete core/shell structure which lead to good properties would be potential electrodes for supercapacitors.

  15. Largely improved the low temperature toughness of acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) resin: Fabricated a core-shell structure of two elastomers through the differences of interfacial tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zepeng; Zhang, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The phase morphology of two elastomers (i.e., chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and polybutadiene rubber (BR)) were devised to be a core-shell structure in acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate (ASA) resin matrix, via the interfacial tension differences of polymer pairs. Selective extraction test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to verify this special phase morphology. The results demonstrated that the core-shell structure, BR core and CPE shell, significantly contributed to improve the low temperature toughness of ASA/CPE/BR ternary blends, which may be because the nonpolar BR core was segregated from polar ASA by the CPE shell. The CPE shell served dual functions: Not only did it play compatibilizing effect in the interface between BR and ASA matrix, but it also toughened the blends at 25 and 0 °C. The blends of ASA/CPE/BR (100/27/3, w/w/w) and ASA/CPE/BR (100/22/8, w/w/w) showed the peak impact strengths at about 28 and 9 kJ/m2 at 0 and -30 °C, respectively, which were higher than both that of ASA/CPE/BR (100/30/0, w/w/w) and ASA/CPE/BR (100/0/30, w/w/w). Moreover, the impact strength of ternary blends at room temperature kept at 40 kJ/m2 when BR content was lower than 10 phr. Other characterizations including contact angle measurement, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), morphology of impact-fractured surfaces, tensile properties, flexural properties, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were measured as well.

  16. Controllable Fabrication of Fe3O4/ZnO Core–Shell Nanocomposites and Their Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Performance in the 2–18 GHz Frequency Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fe3O4/ZnO core–shell nanocomposites were synthesized through a chemical method of coating the magnetic core (Fe3O4 with ZnO by co-precipitation of Fe3O4 with zinc acetate in a basic medium of ammonium hydroxide. The phase structure, morphology and electromagnetic parameters of the Fe3O4/ZnO core–shell nanocomposites were investigated. The results indicated that the concentration of the solvent was responsible for controlling the morphology of the composites, which further influenced their impedance matching and microwave absorption properties. Moreover, Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites exhibited an enhanced absorption capacity in comparison with the naked Fe3O4 nanospheres. Specifically, the minimum reflection loss value reached −50.79 dB at 4.38 GHz when the thickness was 4.5 mm. It is expected that the Fe3O4/ZnO core–shell structured nanocomposites could be a promising candidate as high-performance microwave absorbers.

  17. Room-temperature fabrication of core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain biocomposite for adsorptive removal of organic dye from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzvetkov, George, E-mail: george.tzvetkov@gmail.com; Kaneva, Nina; Spassov, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Meso-/macro-porous nano-ZnO covered pollen grains are prepared at room temperature. • A possible formation mechanism of the core-shell microparticles was proposed. • Adsorptive removal of Malachite Green from water by the biocomposite is studied. - Abstract: A new core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain (n-ZnO/PG) biocomposite has been successfully synthesized via simple and low-temperature two-step liquid precipitation method. The synthetic strategy consists of grafting the surface of pine pollen grains (PG) with Zn{sup 2+}-organic complexes followed by a treatment in Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}/NaOH solution, thus producing a closed n-ZnO shell around the organic core, with a thickness of ∼450 nm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, XPS and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements along with N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the resulting n-ZnO/PG biocomposite. The as-prepared core-shell microparticles are meso-/macro-porous with BET surface area of 25 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and total pore volume of 0.26 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. The adsorption properties of n-ZnO/PG were evaluated through adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous medium at room temperature (25 °C). For the sake of comparison, the physico-chemical and adsorptive properties of the raw PG and pure n-ZnO were also examined. Results indicate that n-ZnO/PG is the most favorable for the adsorption of MG under the conditions used in this study. The adsorption kinetic data for PG, n-ZnO and n-ZnO/PG follow the pseudo-second order equation and the maximum adsorption capacity follows an order of n-ZnO/PG > n-ZnO > PG. For n-ZnO/PG an adsorption uptake up to 145.9 mg g{sup −1} is observed. The as-prepared core-shell biocomposite material is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly adsorbent due to its textural properties, surface chemistry, adsorption capacity and recyclability.

  18. Room-temperature fabrication of core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain biocomposite for adsorptive removal of organic dye from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkov, George; Kaneva, Nina; Spassov, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Meso-/macro-porous nano-ZnO covered pollen grains are prepared at room temperature. • A possible formation mechanism of the core-shell microparticles was proposed. • Adsorptive removal of Malachite Green from water by the biocomposite is studied. - Abstract: A new core-shell nano-ZnO/pollen grain (n-ZnO/PG) biocomposite has been successfully synthesized via simple and low-temperature two-step liquid precipitation method. The synthetic strategy consists of grafting the surface of pine pollen grains (PG) with Zn"2"+-organic complexes followed by a treatment in Zn(CH_3COO)_2/NaOH solution, thus producing a closed n-ZnO shell around the organic core, with a thickness of ∼450 nm. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, FTIR, XPS and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements along with N_2 adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the resulting n-ZnO/PG biocomposite. The as-prepared core-shell microparticles are meso-/macro-porous with BET surface area of 25 m"2 g"−"1 and total pore volume of 0.26 cm"3 g"−"1. The adsorption properties of n-ZnO/PG were evaluated through adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) from aqueous medium at room temperature (25 °C). For the sake of comparison, the physico-chemical and adsorptive properties of the raw PG and pure n-ZnO were also examined. Results indicate that n-ZnO/PG is the most favorable for the adsorption of MG under the conditions used in this study. The adsorption kinetic data for PG, n-ZnO and n-ZnO/PG follow the pseudo-second order equation and the maximum adsorption capacity follows an order of n-ZnO/PG > n-ZnO > PG. For n-ZnO/PG an adsorption uptake up to 145.9 mg g"−"1 is observed. The as-prepared core-shell biocomposite material is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly adsorbent due to its textural properties, surface chemistry, adsorption capacity and recyclability.

  19. Design and characterization of core-shell mPEG-PLGA composite microparticles for development of cell-scaffold constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Yanhong; Gallego, Monica Ramos; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2013-01-01

    /DS or Alg/CS/DS particles in the mPEG-PLGA microparticles were significantly dependent on the operating conditions, including the flow rate ratio (Qout/Qin) and the viscosity of the polymer solutions (Vout, Vin) between the outer and the inner feeding channels. The core-shell composite microparticles.......e. more sustainable cell growth was induced by the DS released from the core-shell composite microparticles comprising Alg/CS/DS particles. After seeding fibroblasts onto the composite microparticles, excellent cell adhesion was observed, and a successful assembly of the cell-scaffold constructs...... was induced within 7 days. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a novel strategy for fabrication of core-shell composite microparticles comprising additional particulate drug carriers in the core, which provides controlled delivery of DS and favorable cell biocompatibility; an approach to potentially...

  20. Photoionization of the outer electrons in noble gas endohedral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a prominent modification of the outer shell photoionization cross section in noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG-C n under the action of the electron shell of fullerene C n . This shell leads to two important effects: a strong enhancement of the cross section due to fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and to prominent oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of a photoelectron from the NG by the fullerene shell. Both factors lead to powerful maxima in the outer shell ionization cross sections of NG-C n , which we call giant endohedral resonances. The oscillator strength reaches a very large value in the atomic scale, 25. We consider atoms of all noble gases except He. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed in terms of the total photoabsorption cross section of the fullerene. The photoelectron reflection is taken into account in the framework of the so-called bubble potential, which is a spherical δ-type potential. It is assumed in the derivations that the NG is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed, in accordance with the existing experimental data, that the fullerene radius R C is much larger than the atomic radius r A and the thickness Δ C of the fullerene shell. As was demonstrated recently, these assumptions allow us to represent the NG-C n photoionization cross section as a product of the NG cross section and two well-defined calculated factors

  1. Fabrication of Core-Shell Structural SiO2@H3[PM12O40] Material and Its Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a natural tree grain template and sol-gel technology, the heterogeneous catalytic materials based on polyoxometalate compounds H3[PM12O40] encapsulating SiO2: SiO2@H3[PM12O40] (SiO2@PM12, M = W, Mo with core-shell structure had been prepared. The structure and morphology of the core-shell microspheres were characterized by the XRD, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorbance, and SEM. These microsphere materials can be used as heterogeneous catalysts with high activity and stability for catalytic wet air oxidation of pollutant dyes safranine T (ST at room condition. The results show that the catalysts have excellent catalytic activity in treatment of wastewater containing 10 mg/L ST, and 94% of color can be removed within 60 min. Under different cycling runs, it is shown that the catalysts are stable under such operating conditions and the leaching tests show negligible leaching effect owing to the lesser dissolution.

  2. Double containment shell for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.

    1977-01-01

    A double containment shell is proposed for nuclear power plants, especially those equipped with pressurized water reactors. The shell offers increased environmental protection from primary circuit accidents. The inner shell is built of steel or concrete while the outer shell is always built of concrete. The space between the two shells is filled with water and is provided with several manholes and with stiffeners designed for compensation for load due to the water hydrostatic pressure. Water serves the airtight separation of the containment shell inside from the environment and the absorption of heat released in a primary circuit accident. In case the inner shell is made of concrete, it is provided with heat-removal tubes in-built in its walls ensuring rapid heat transfer from the inside of the containment to the water in the interwall space. (Z.M.)

  3. Superphenix 1 intermediate heat exchanger fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, H.; Granito, F.; Pouderoux, P.

    1985-01-01

    The eight Superphenix 375-MW (thermal) intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) are similar in overall design to the Phenix components. Detailed design changes had to be made during fabrication on the following grounds: Due to seismic resistance, the support area was raised as high as possible to situate the component natural frequencies well out of the resonance peak range and remove thick plate-to-shell connections from heavy thermal load areas. Integration of lessons drawn from the Phenix incidents, due mainly to secondary sodium radial temperature disparities, resulted in the design of a more adaptable outlet header, together with a sodium mixing device, and in the reduction of temperature differences by heat insulation. To avoid circumferential temperature disparities, the iron shot biological shielding plug was replaced by stacked stainless steel plates within an outer shell, which in the new design, is not a supporting structure. The thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design of the component necessitated the elaboration of sophisticated computer codes, with validation of results on mock-ups. The detailed design studies and the actual manufacturing work had to adapt to both design developments and to inherent fabrication difficulties, mainly related to the very tight tolerances imposed for these exceptionally large components and to the welding of steel with an excessive boron content. The construction of the Creys-Malville IHXs afforded valuable industrial experience, which should provide a basis for the design of simpler and less costly IHX units for the forthcoming 1500-MW (electric) breeder

  4. A pressure tuned stop-flow atomic layer deposition process for MoS2 on high porous nanostructure and fabrication of TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglin; Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Wang, Zhiwei; Kei Tan, Chiew; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong

    2017-11-01

    MoS2 thin films are obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature range of 120-150 °C using Mo(CO)6 and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as precursors. A pressure tuned stop-flow ALD process facilitates the precursor adsorption and enables the deposition of MoS2 on high porous three dimensional (3D) nanostructures. As a demonstration, a TiO2/MoS2 core/shell inverse opal (TiO2/MoS2-IO) structure has been fabricated through ALD of TiO2 and MoS2 on a self-assembled multilayer polystyrene (PS) structure template. Due to the self-limiting surface reaction mechanism of ALD and the utilization of pressure tuned stop-flow ALD processes, the as fabricated TiO2/MoS2-IO structure has a high uniformity, reflected by FESEM and FIB-SEM characterization. A crystallized TiO2/MoS2-IO structure can be obtained through a post annealing process. As a 3D photonic crystal, the TiO2/MoS2-IO exhibits obvious stopband reflecting peaks, which can be adjusted through changing the opal diameters as well as the thickness of MoS2 layer.

  5. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  6. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  7. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  8. Modification of Ag shell on upconversion populating paths of NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+@Ag nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jiao; Liu, Haipeng; Wu, Di; Dong, Biao; Sun, Liankun

    2013-01-01

    NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ @Ag core–shell nanocomposites were prepared. Due to the outer shell of Ag, some modifications were found on the upconversion (UC) processes of NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ core nanoparticles (NPs) caused by the co-interaction of surface effect, surface plasma absorption effect and local thermal effect under infrared radiation. Upon 980 nm excitation, the relative UC intensity of the green ( 2 H 11/2 , 4 S 3/2 – 4 I 15/2 ) to red ( 4 F 9/2 – 4 I 15/2 ) and the slope of power-dependence increased intensively, and three-photon population process for the green level appeared. -- Highlights: ► NaYF 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ @Ag core/shell nanocomposites were fabricated. ► The coating of Ag outer shell leads to the increase of the green UCL. ► Three-photon population process for the green level appeared after Ag coating.

  9. The dorsal shell wall structure of Mesozoic ammonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Radtke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pristine preserved shells of Mesozoic Ammonoidea shows different types of construction and formation of the dorsal shell wall. We observe three major types: (i The vast majority of Ammonoidea, usually planispirally coiled, has a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of an outer organic component (e.g., wrinkle layer, which is the first layer to be formed, and the subsequently formed dorsal inner prismatic layer. The dorsal mantle tissue suppresses the formation of the outer prismatic layer and nacreous layer. With the exception of the outer organic component, secretion of a shell wall is omitted at the aperture. A prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is always secreted immediately after the hatching during early teleoconch formation. Due to its broad distribution in (planispiral Ammonoidea, the prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is probably the general state. (ii Some planispirally coiled Ammonoidea have a nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of three mineralized layers: two prismatic layers (primary and secondary dorsal inner prismatic layer and an enclosed nacreous layer (secondary dorsal nacreous layer. The dorsal shell wall is omitted at the aperture and was secreted in the rear living chamber. Its layers are a continuation of an umbilical shell doubling (reinforcement by additional shell layers that extends towards the ventral crest of the preceding whorl. The nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall is formed in the process of ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall. (iii Heteromorph and some planispirally coiled taxa secrete a complete dorsal shell wall which forms a continuation of the ventral and lateral shell layers. It is formed during ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall or a priori. The construction is identical with the ventral and lateral shell wall, including a dorsal nacreous layer. The wide distribution of the ability to form dorsal nacre indicates that it is

  10. Shell supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A new statical and conceptual model for membrane shell structures - the stringer system - has been found. The principle was first published at the IASS conference in Copenhagen (OHL91), and later the theory has been further developed (ALMO3)(ALMO4). From the analysis of the stringer model it can...... be concluded that all membrane shells can be described by a limited number of basic configurations of which quite a few have free edges....

  11. Biomineral repair of abalone shell apertures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Maggie; Guo, Dujiao; Chung, Peter; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2013-08-01

    The shell of the gastropod mollusc, abalone, is comprised of nacre with an outer prismatic layer that is composed of either calcite or aragonite or both, depending on the species. A striking characteristic of the abalone shell is the row of apertures along the dorsal margin. As the organism and shell grow, new apertures are formed and the preceding ones are filled in. Detailed investigations, using electron backscatter diffraction, of the infill in three species of abalone: Haliotis asinina, Haliotis gigantea and Haliotis rufescens reveals that, like the shell, the infill is composed mainly of nacre with an outer prismatic layer. The infill prismatic layer has identical mineralogy as the original shell prismatic layer. In H. asinina and H. gigantea, the prismatic layer of the shell and infill are made of aragonite while in H. rufescens both are composed of calcite. Abalone builds the infill material with the same high level of biological control, replicating the structure, mineralogy and crystallographic orientation as for the shell. The infill of abalone apertures presents us with insight into what is, effectively, shell repair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computational design and fabrication of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of rhodamine 6G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Xie, Jie; Deng, Jian; Fang, Xiangfang; Zhao, Haiqing; Qian, Duo; Wang, Hongjuan

    2016-06-01

    A novel core-shell magnetic nano-adsorbent with surface molecularly imprinted polymer coating was fabricated and then applied to dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction followed by determination of rhodamine 6G using high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecularly imprinted polymer coating was prepared by copolymerization of dopamine and m-aminophenylboronic acid (functional monomers), in the presence of rhodamine 6G (template). The selection of the suitable functional monomers was based on the interaction between different monomers and the template using the density functional theory. The ratios of the monomers to template were further optimized by an OA9 (3(4) ) orthogonal array design. The binding performances of the adsorbent were evaluated by static, kinetic, and selective adsorption experiments. The results reveal that the adsorbent possesses remarkable affinity and binding specificity for rhodamine 6G because of the enhanced Lewis acid-base interaction between the B(Ш) embedded in the imprinted cavities and the template. The nano-adsorbent was successfully applied to dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for the trace determination of rhodamine 6G in samples with a detection limit of 2.7 nmol/L. Spiked recoveries ranged from 93.0-99.1, 89.5-92.7, and 86.9-105% in river water, matrimony vine and paprika samples, respectively, with relative standard deviations of less than 4.3%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  14. Optical properties of spherical and oblate spheroidal gold shell colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninkhof, J.J.; Moroz, A.; van Blaaderen, A.; Polman, A.

    2008-01-01

    The surface plasmon modes of spherical and oblate spheroidal core−shell colloids composed of a 312 nm diameter silica core and a 20 nm thick Au shell are investigated. Large arrays of uniaxially aligned core−shell colloids with size aspect ratios ranging from 1.0 to 1.7 are fabricated using a novel

  15. The status of experimental buckling investigations of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.

    1982-01-01

    The recent developments in shell buckling experiments are surveyed and related to a review of the progress in the seventies. Model fabrication, imperfection measurements, boundary conditions, nondestructive testing, combined loading, postbuckling behavior, composite shells and other aspects of shell buckling tests are discussed. The motivation for experiments and the conclusions drawn in the previous review are reassessed. (orig.)

  16. TPS for Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Hwang, H.; Prabhu, D.; Stackpoole, M.; Wercinski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS, both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.

  17. Multiple shell pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described of fabricating a pressure vessel comprising the steps of: attaching a first inner pressure vessel having means defining inlet and outlet openings to a top flange, placing a second inner pressure vessel, having means defining inlet and outlet opening, concentric with and spaced about the first inner pressure vessel and attaching the second inner pressure vessel to the top flange, placing an outer pressure vessel, having inlet and outlet openings, concentric with and spaced apart about the second inner pressure vessel and attaching the outer pressure vessel to the top flange, attaching a generally cylindrical inner inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical inner outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet openings in the first inner pressure vessel, attaching a generally cylindrical outer inlet conduit and a generally cylindrical outer outlet conduit respectively to the inlet and outlet opening in the second inner pressure vessel, heating the assembled pressure vessel to a temperature above the melting point of a material selected from the group, lead, tin, antimony, bismuth, potassium, sodium, boron and mixtures thereof, filling the space between the first inner pressure vessel and the second inner pressure vessel with material selected from the group, filling the space between the second inner pressure vessel and the outer pressure vessel with material selected from the group, and pressurizing the material filling the spaces between the pressure vessels to a predetermined pressure, the step comprising: pressurizing the spaces to a pressure whereby the wall of the first inner pressure vessel is maintained in compression during steady state operation of the pressure vessel

  18. Hollow Pd/MOF Nanosphere with Double Shells as Multifunctional Catalyst for Hydrogenation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mingming; Zhang, Xinlu; Li, Meiyan; Chen, Bo; Yin, Jie; Jin, Haichao; Lin, Lin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Ning

    2017-10-01

    A new type of hollow nanostructure featured double metal-organic frameworks shells with metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is designed and fabricated by the methods of ship in a bottle and bottle around the ship. The nanostructure material, hereinafter denoted as Void@HKUST-1/Pd@ZIF-8, is confirmed by the analyses of photograph, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma, and N 2 sorption. It possesses various multifunctionally structural characteristics such as hollow cavity which can improve mass transfer, the adjacent of the inner HKUST-1 shell to the void which enables the matrix of the shell to host and well disperse MNPs, and an outer ZIF-8 shell which acts as protective layer against the leaching of MNPs and a sieve to guarantee molecular-size selectivity. This makes the material eligible candidates for the heterogeneous catalyst. As a proof of concept, the liquid-phase hydrogenation of olefins with different molecular sizes as a model reaction is employed. It demonstrates the efficient catalytic activity and size-selectivity of Void@HKUST-1/Pd@ZIF-8. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Analysis of radial vibrations of poroelastic circular cylindrical shells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    vanished, the considered problem reduces to the problem of radial vibrations of fluid-filled poroelastic circular cylindrical shell. (2). When the .... the volume change of the solid to that of liquid. ..... When the outer fluid density is zero, that is, ρof = 0 then the poroelastic cylindrical shell immersed in an acoustic medium will.

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  1. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  2. One-by-one imprinting in two eccentric layers of hollow core-shells: Sequential electroanalysis of anti-HIV drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kislay; Jaiswal, Swadha; Singh, Richa; Fatma, Sana; Prasad, Bhim Bali

    2018-07-15

    Double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells@ pencil graphite electrode was fabricated for sequential sensing of anti-HIV drugs. For this, two eccentric layers were developed on the surface of vinylated silica nanospheres to obtain double layered one-by-one imprinted solid core-shells. This yielded hollow core-shells on treatment with hydrofluoric acid. The modified hollow core-shells (single layered dual imprinted) evolved competitive diffusion of probe/analyte molecules. However, the corresponding double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells (outer layer imprinted with Zidovudine, and inner layer with Lamivudine) were found relatively better owing to their bilateral diffusions into molecular cavities, without any competition. The entire work is based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry at double layered one-by-one imprinted hollow core-shells. This resulted in indirect detection of electro inactive targets with limits of detection as low as 0.91 and 0.12 (aqueous sample), 0.94 and 0.13 (blood serum), and 0.99 and 0.20 ng mL -1 (pharmaceutics) for lamivudine and zidovudine, respectively in anti-HIV drug combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Management of outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  5. Modification of Ag shell on upconversion populating paths of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+}@Ag nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiao [Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130021 (China); Liu, Haipeng [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The First Hospital of JiLin University, Jilin Province 130021 (China); Wu, Di [Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130021 (China); Dong, Biao, E-mail: dongb@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Liankun [Norman Bethune College of Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130021 (China)

    2013-01-15

    NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+}@Ag core-shell nanocomposites were prepared. Due to the outer shell of Ag, some modifications were found on the upconversion (UC) processes of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+} core nanoparticles (NPs) caused by the co-interaction of surface effect, surface plasma absorption effect and local thermal effect under infrared radiation. Upon 980 nm excitation, the relative UC intensity of the green ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) to red ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}) and the slope of power-dependence increased intensively, and three-photon population process for the green level appeared. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+},Er{sup 3+}@Ag core/shell nanocomposites were fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating of Ag outer shell leads to the increase of the green UCL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-photon population process for the green level appeared after Ag coating.

  6. FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAST IGNITION TARGETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HILL, D.W; CASTILLO, E; CHEN, K.C; GRANT, S.E; GREENWOOD, A.L; KAAE, J.L; NIKROO, A; PAGUIO, S.P; SHEARER, C; SMITH, J.N Jr.; STEPHENS, R.B; STEINMAN, D.A; WALL, J.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Fast ignition is a novel scheme for achieving laser fusion. A class of these targets involves cone mounted CH shells. The authors have been fabricating such targets with shells with a wide variety of diameters and wall thicknesses for several years at General Atomics. In addition, recently such shells were needed for implosion experiments at Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) that for the first time were required to be gas retentive. Fabrication of these targets requires producing appropriate cones and shells, assembling the targets, and characterization of the assembled targets. The cones are produced using micromachining and plating techniques. The shells are fabricated using the depolymerizable mandrel technique followed by micromachining a hole for the cone. The cone and the shell then need to be assembled properly for gas retention and precisely in order to position the cone tip at the desired position within the shell. Both are critical for the fast ignition experiments. The presence of the cone in the shell creates new challenges in characterization of the assembled targets. Finally, for targets requiring a gas fill, the cone-shell assembly needs to be tested for gas retention and proper strength at the glue joint. This paper presents an overview of the developmental efforts and technical issues addressed during the fabrication of fast ignition targets

  7. Vacuum Outer-Gap Structure in Pulsar Outer Magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui-Fang, Lin; Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We study the vacuum outer-gap structure in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through a pair production process. In this case, the trans-field height is limited by the photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. By solving self-consistently the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and γ-rays in a vacuum outer gap for the parameters of Vela pulsar, we obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e. the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface) and ends at the outer boundary which locates inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  8. Uniform Luminous Perovskite Nanofibers with Color-Tunability and Improved Stability Prepared by One-Step Core/Shell Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Chun; Chen, Jung-Yao; Ercan, Ender; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Tung, Shih-Huang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-04-30

    A one-step core/shell electrospinning technique is exploited to fabricate uniform luminous perovskite-based nanofibers, wherein the perovskite and the polymer are respectively employed in the core and the outer shell. Such a coaxial electrospinning technique enables the in situ formation of perovskite nanocrystals, exempting the needs of presynthesis of perovskite quantum dots or post-treatments. It is demonstrated that not only the luminous electrospun nanofibers can possess color-tunability by simply tuning the perovskite composition, but also the grain size of the formed perovskite nanocrystals is largely affected by the perovskite precursor stoichiometry and the polymer solution concentration. Consequently, the optimized perovskite electrospun nanofiber yields a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 30.9%, significantly surpassing the value of its thin-film counterpart. Moreover, owing to the hydrophobic characteristic of shell polymer, the prepared perovskite nanofiber is endowed with a high resistance to air and water. Its photoluminescence intensity remains constant while stored under ambient environment with a relative humidity of 85% over a month and retains intensity higher than 50% of its initial intensity while immersed in water for 48 h. More intriguingly, a white light-emitting perovskite-based nanofiber is successfully fabricated by pairing the orange light-emitting compositional perovskite with a blue light-emitting conjugated polymer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Laser target fabrication, structure and method for its fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a laser target structure and its method of fabrication. The target structure comprises a target plate containing an orifice across which a pair of crosshairs are affixed. A microsphere is affixed to the crosshairs and enclosed by at least one hollow shell comprising two hemispheres attached together and to the crosshairs so that the microsphere is juxtapositioned at the center of the shell.

  10. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Scalable Synthesis of Triple-Core-Shell Nanostructures of TiO2 @MnO2 @C for High Performance Supercapacitors Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongjoon; Shin, Jungho; Yeo, Taehan; Hwang, Hayoung; Park, Seonghyun; Choi, Wonjoon

    2018-03-01

    Core-shell nanostructures of metal oxides and carbon-based materials have emerged as outstanding electrode materials for supercapacitors and batteries. However, their synthesis requires complex procedures that incur high costs and long processing times. Herein, a new route is proposed for synthesizing triple-core-shell nanoparticles of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C using structure-guided combustion waves (SGCWs), which originate from incomplete combustion inside chemical-fuel-wrapped nanostructures, and their application in supercapacitor electrodes. SGCWs transform TiO 2 to TiO 2 @C and TiO 2 @MnO 2 to TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C via the incompletely combusted carbonaceous fuels under an open-air atmosphere, in seconds. The synthesized carbon layers act as templates for MnO 2 shells in TiO 2 @C and organic shells of TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C. The TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C-based electrodes exhibit a greater specific capacitance (488 F g -1 at 5 mV s -1 ) and capacitance retention (97.4% after 10 000 cycles at 1.0 V s -1 ), while the absence of MnO 2 and carbon shells reveals a severe degradation in the specific capacitance and capacitance retention. Because the core-TiO 2 nanoparticles and carbon shell prevent the deformation of the inner and outer sides of the MnO 2 shell, the nanostructures of the TiO 2 @MnO 2 @C are preserved despite the long-term cycling, giving the superior performance. This SGCW-driven fabrication enables the scalable synthesis of multiple-core-shell structures applicable to diverse electrochemical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Carbon-shell-constrained silicon cluster derived from Al-Si alloy as long-cycling life lithium ion batteries anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junming; Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Siyang; Huang, Tao; Yu, Aishui

    2018-03-01

    Although silicon is the most promising anode material for Li-ion batteries, large volume expansion during lithiation and delithiation is the main obstacle limiting the commercial application of silicon anodes. There are two ways to alleviate volume expansion and prevent further pulverization of a Si anode: fabrication of a rational nanostructure possessing void spaces and uniform distribution of the conducting sites, without a good balance effect in mitigating the limiting factors and enhancing battery performance. In this paper, we propose a novel nanostructure - a carbon-shell-constrained Si cluster (Si/C shell) with both adequate void space and good distribution of electrical contact sites to guarantee homogeneous lithiation in the initial cycle. Benefiting from the ability to maintain electrical conductivity of the outer carbon shell, even after cluster fragmentation, the Si/C shell synthesized from low-cost commercial Al-Si alloy spheres can deliver 0.03% capacity loss from 100th to 1000th cycles at a current density of 1 A g-1. The Si/C shell sample with the dual functional structure mentioned above can also maintain its own nanostructure during cycling and deliver excellent rate performance. It is a concise and scalable strategy which can simplify the preparation of other alloy anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  13. Tunable fabrication of hierarchical hybrids via the incorporation of poly(dopamine) functional interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Junxian; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@dhu.edu.cn

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • PS/PDA with well-defined core/shell structures was prepared in aqueous solution. • Au NPs were coated on PS/PDA by in-situ reduction and self-assembly approach. • PS/PDA/Au had homogeneous and dense Au coatings with different shape. • Hierarchical spheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure maintaining the spherical morphology. - Abstract: Two kinds of ternary hybrids were prepared by anchoring different shapes and loadings of Au nanoparticles (NPs) on poly(dopamine) (PDA) functionalized polystyrene (PS) microspheres with two different strategies, i.e., in situ reduction and self-assembly approach. PDA coatings were firstly introduced to functionalize the hydrophobic PS surface with sufficient amino and hydroxyl groups, which enhanced the interaction between Au NPs and the polymer spheres. Thus, Au NPs could be easily immobilized onto the surface of the PDA/PS microspheres, and the hierarchical composite microspheres exhibited a well-defined core/shell structure without sacrificing the spherical PS morphology. PS/PDA/Au-R and PS/PDA/Au-A microspheres fabricated by in situ reduction and self-assembly approach showed different distinct Au nano-shell morphology with the corresponding optical, catalytic and electrochemical properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy verified these hierarchical structures with the ultrathin PDA film incorporating between the inner PS core and the outer Au NPs shell. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of PDA and Au layer on the surface of the composite particles. These green and facile methods with mild experimental conditions can extend to fabricate other polymer or inorganic substrates coated by various noble metals.

  14. Core-shell polymer nanorods by a two-step template wetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, S; Liang, J

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional core-shell polymer nanowires offer many advantages and great potential for many different applications. In this paper we introduce a highly versatile two-step template wetting process to fabricate two-component core-shell polymer nanowires with controllable shell thickness. PLLA and PMMA were chosen as model polymers to demonstrate the feasibility of this process. Solution wetting with different concentrations of polymer solutions was used to fabricate the shell layer and melt wetting was used to fill the shell with the core polymer. The shell thickness was analyzed as a function of the polymer solution concentration and viscosity, and the core-shell morphology was observed with TEM. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating polymer core-shell nanostructures using our two-step template wetting process and opens the arena for optimization and future experiments with polymers that are desirable for specific applications.

  15. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  16. Statistical mechanics of microscopically thin thermalized shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Recent explosion in fabrication of microscopically thin free standing structures made from graphene and other two-dimensional materials has led to a renewed interest in the mechanics of such structures in presence of thermal fluctuations. Since late 1980s it has been known that for flat solid sheets thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. However, much is still unknown about the mechanics of thermalized flat sheets of complex geometries and about the mechanics of thermalized shells with non-zero background curvature. In this talk I will present recent development in the mechanics of thermalized ribbons, spherical shells and cylindrical tubes. Long ribbons are found to behave like hybrids between flat sheets with renormalized elastic constants and semi-flexible polymers, and these results can be used to predict the mechanics of graphene kirigami structures. Contrary to the anticipated behavior for ribbons, the non-zero background curvature of shells leads to remarkable novel phenomena. In shells, thermal fluctuations effectively generate negative surface tension, which can significantly reduce the critical buckling pressure for spherical shells and the critical axial load for cylindrical tubes. For large shells this thermally generated load becomes big enough to spontaneously crush spherical shells and cylindrical tubes even in the absence of external loads. I will comment on the relevance for crushing of microscopic shells (viral capsids, bacteria, microcapsules) due to osmotic shocks and for crushing of nanotubes.

  17. Facile fabrication of core–shell ZnO/Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} nanorods: Enhanced photoluminescence through electron charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Shengfei; Gao, Hongli [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Deng, Yuan, E-mail: dengyuan@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Yao [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qu, Shengchun, E-mail: qsc@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3}/ZnO core–shells prepared by combining a facile hydrothermal growth and magnetron sputtering approach. • The light absorption and photoluminescence emission of the ZnO and the Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3}/ZnO core–shells are investigated. • The core–shell structure reveals a simultaneous novelty enhancement of the photoluminescence emission in the UV and visible range. • The mechanism for the PL simultaneous enhancement is described. - Abstract: Surface decoration techniques are emerging as promising strategy to improve the optical properties of the ZnO based materials. The core–shell ZnO/Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} nanorods were grown on a FTO substrate through a facile hydrothermal and magnetron sputtering combined approach. The microstructure of the core–shell nanorod arrays were investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), a field emission Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HTEM). The optical properties of the core–shell nanorod arrays were investigated through the diffuse reflectance absorption spectra and photoluminescence emission. The visible light absorption and especially the photoluminescence emission of the ZnO nanorods are enhanced markedly with the Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} grains coating the ZnO nanorods through the electron charge.

  18. Functions and Requirements for Automated Liquid Level Gauge Instruments in Single-Shell and Double-Shell Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARPENTER, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This functions and requirements document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of automated liquid level gauge instruments in the Tank Farms. This document is intended to become the technical baseline for current and future installation, operation and maintenance of automated liquid level gauges in single-shell and double-shell tank farms

  19. Double-shell target designs for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory eight-beam laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindel, J.M.; Stroscio, M.A.

    1978-03-01

    We investigate two double-pusher laser fusion targets, one that incorporates an outer exploding pusher shell and another that uses velocity multiplication. Specific designs are presented for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Eight-Beam Laser System

  20. Shell Inspection History and Current CMM Inspection Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-26

    The following report provides a review of past and current CMM Shell Inspection efforts. Calibration of the Sheffield rotary contour gauge has expired and the primary inspector, Matthew Naranjo, has retired. Efforts within the Inspection team are transitioning from maintaining and training new inspectors on Sheffield to off-the-shelf CMM technology. Although inspection of a shell has many requirements, the scope of the data presented in this report focuses on the inner contour, outer contour, radial wall thickness and mass comparisons.

  1. Fabrication of a transparent ultraviolet detector by using n-type Ga2O3 and p-type Ga-doped SnO2 core-shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Liang; Lu, Ying-Ching

    2012-09-21

    This study investigates the feasibility of synthesizing high-density transparent Ga(2)O(3)/SnO(2):Ga core-shell nanowires on a sapphire substrate at 1000 °C by VLS. The doping Ga concentrations are 0.46, 1.07, 2.30 and 17.53 atomic%. The XRD spectrum and HR-TEM reveal Ga(2)O(3) and SnO(2) as having monoclinic and tetragonal rutile structures, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the XRD peak shift of SnO(2) to a larger angle increases with the increasing amount of Ga doping. According to the CL spectrum, SnO(2) and Ga(2)O(3) peak at approximately 528-568 nm and 422-424 nm, respectively. The maximum quantum efficiency of Ga(2)O(3)/SnO(2):Ga core-shell nanowires is around 0.362%. The UV light on-off current contrast ratio of Ga(2)O(3)/SnO(2):Ga core-shell nanowires is around 1066.7 at a bias of 5 V. Moreover, the dynamic response of Ga(2)O(3)/SnO(2):Ga core-shell nanowires has an on-off current contrast ratio of around 16. Furthermore, the Ga(2)O(3) region functions similar to a capacitor and continues to accumulate SnO(2):Ga excited electrons under UV light exposure.

  2. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  3. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  4. Stability of generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabi, Z. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-15

    Some important spacetimes are conformally flat; examples are the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, and the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson and Mannheim metrics. In this paper we construct generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetime supported by a perfect fluid with a linear equation of state, i.e., p = ωσ. It is shown that, for the physical domain of ω, i.e., 0 < ω ≤ 1, such thin shells are not dynamically stable. The stability of the timelike thin shells with the Mannheim spacetime as the outer region is also investigated. (orig.)

  5. A facile approach to fabrication of novel CeO2–TiO2 core–shell nanocomposite leads to excellent UV-shielding ability and lower catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed; Kurayama, Fumio; Furusawa, Takeshi; Sato, Masahide; Siddiquey, Iqbal Ahmed; Hossain, Md. Mufazzal; Suzuki, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the development of a fast and facile route for the synthesis of novel CeO 2 –TiO 2 core–shell nanocomposite particles using microwave (MW) irradiation of the mixture of commercial CeO 2 , titanium-tetra-n-butoxide (TBOT) and aqueous ammonia. Solutions of TBOT in ethanol and ammonia were mixed with dispersed CeO 2 nanoparticles in ethanol, and the mixture was rapidly MW irradiated at 70 °C for 2 min. The resulting nanocomposite particles were characterized in terms of phase, shell thickness, composition, surface charge, morphology, and chemical state of the elements by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM, Zeta potential analyzer, XRF, and FT-IR. Conventional methods of the synthesis of CeO 2 –TiO 2 nanocomposite require a long time, and TiO 2 is rarely found as a coated material. In contrast, the MW method was able to synthesize CeO 2 –TiO 2 core–shell nanocompsite particles within a very short time. CeO 2 –TiO 2 nanocomposite particles were fairly unaggregated with an average titania layer thickness of 2–5 nm. The obtained nanocomposites retained the crystalline cubic phase of CeO 2 , and the phase of coated TiO 2 was amorphous. The catalytic activities of uncoated and TiO 2 -coated CeO 2 nanoparticles for the oxidation of organic compounds were evaluated by the degradation study of methylene blue in air atmosphere at 403 K. The enhanced UV-shielding ability and visible transparency of the nanocomposite obtained by UV visible spectroscopic measurements suggested that the core–shell material has novel characteristics for using as a sunscreen material.

  6. A facile approach to fabrication of novel CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite leads to excellent UV-shielding ability and lower catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, Newaz Mohammed, E-mail: nmbahadur@yahoo.com [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan); Kurayama, Fumio [Utsunomiya University, Center for Optical Research and Education (Japan); Furusawa, Takeshi; Sato, Masahide [Utsunomiya University, Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences (Japan); Siddiquey, Iqbal Ahmed [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan); Hossain, Md. Mufazzal [University of Dhaka, Department of Chemistry (Bangladesh); Suzuki, Noboru [Utsunomiya University, Laboratory of Powder Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Venture Business Laboratry (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    This study reports the development of a fast and facile route for the synthesis of novel CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite particles using microwave (MW) irradiation of the mixture of commercial CeO{sub 2}, titanium-tetra-n-butoxide (TBOT) and aqueous ammonia. Solutions of TBOT in ethanol and ammonia were mixed with dispersed CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles in ethanol, and the mixture was rapidly MW irradiated at 70 Degree-Sign C for 2 min. The resulting nanocomposite particles were characterized in terms of phase, shell thickness, composition, surface charge, morphology, and chemical state of the elements by XRD, TEM, XPS, SEM, Zeta potential analyzer, XRF, and FT-IR. Conventional methods of the synthesis of CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite require a long time, and TiO{sub 2} is rarely found as a coated material. In contrast, the MW method was able to synthesize CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocompsite particles within a very short time. CeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite particles were fairly unaggregated with an average titania layer thickness of 2-5 nm. The obtained nanocomposites retained the crystalline cubic phase of CeO{sub 2}, and the phase of coated TiO{sub 2} was amorphous. The catalytic activities of uncoated and TiO{sub 2}-coated CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles for the oxidation of organic compounds were evaluated by the degradation study of methylene blue in air atmosphere at 403 K. The enhanced UV-shielding ability and visible transparency of the nanocomposite obtained by UV visible spectroscopic measurements suggested that the core-shell material has novel characteristics for using as a sunscreen material.

  7. Fabrication of core-shell nanostructures via silicon on insulator dewetting and germanium condensation: towards a strain tuning method for SiGe-based heterostructures in a three-dimensional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Cabie, Martiane; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-07-29

    We report on a novel method for the implementation of core-shell SiGe-based nanocrystals combining silicon on insulator dewetting in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor with an ex situ Ge condensation process. With an in situ two-step process (annealing and Ge deposition) we produce two families of islands on the same sample: Si-rich, formed during the first step and, all around them, Ge-rich formed after Ge deposition. By increasing the amount of Ge deposited on the annealed samples from 0 to 18 monolayers, the islands' shape in the Si-rich zones can be tuned from elongated and flat to more symmetric and with a larger vertical aspect ratio. At the same time, the spatial extension of the Ge-rich zones is progressively increased as well as the Ge content in the islands. Further processing by ex situ rapid thermal oxidation results in the formation of a core-shell composition profile in both Si and Ge-rich zones with atomically sharp heterointerfaces. The Ge condensation induces a Ge enrichment of the islands' shell of up to 50% while keeping a pure Si core in the Si-rich zones and a ∼25% SiGe alloy in the Ge-rich ones. The large lattice mismatch between core and shell, the absence of dislocations and the islands' monocrystalline nature render this novel class of nanostructures a promising device platform for strain-based band-gap engineering. Finally, this method can be used for the implementation of ultralarge scale meta-surfaces with dielectric Mie resonators for light manipulation at the nanoscale.

  8. A new method to make poly acrylate foam shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yongheng; Luo Xuan; Fang Yu; Ren Hongbo; Zhang Lin; Cui Yi

    2009-01-01

    A triple-orifice droplet generator was designed and developed for the size-controllable continuous fabrication of hollow foam micro-shells. Solutions of an internal water phase, an oil phase (trimethylpropane triacrylate monomer, dibutyl phthalate solvent, and benzoin ethyl ether initiator), and an external water phase were used to prepare micro-shells whose diameters are between 1.5 mm and 4.0 mm successfully. Characterization of the foam shells was carried out using a scanning electron microscope and X-ray radiography. The results show that cell diameters of the shells are not above 1 um. The refractive index of the polymer framework is around 1.50. Furthermore, the shells fabricated through the triple-orifice droplet generator have a high survival probability of 93% and exhibit narrow size distribution. (authors)

  9. Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.P.; Moroz, A.; Blaaderen, A. van

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical transmission studies of thin three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals of high-dielectric ZnS-core and low-dielectric SiO2-shell colloidal particles. These samples were fabricated using a vertical controlled drying method. The spectral position and width of a

  10. Core-shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adham; Skinley, Kevin; Herodotou, Stephanie; Zhang, Haifei

    2018-01-01

    The development of new stationary phases has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core-shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core-shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules and metabolites. In this review, we first introduce the advance and advantages of core-shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non-porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core-shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core-shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres-on-sphere particles and core-shell particles with a non-silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high-performance liquid chromatography applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bandgap engineered reverse type-I CdTe/InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals for the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghoon; Shim, Wooyoung; Seo, Heonjin; Hyun Bae, Je; Sung, Jaeyoung; Choi, Seung Hong; Moon, Woo Kyung; Lee, Gwang; Lee, Bunyeoul; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2009-03-14

    New quantum dots were fabricated with a core/shell/shell structure consisting of CdTe core/InP shell/ZnS shell of which the InP shell causes a red-shift to the NIR region and the ZnS shell imparts photo-stability; toxicity tests on mammalian cells and NIR imaging of a mouse highlight their potential applications in biomedical imaging.

  12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 40-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Outer space structure and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, J.; Novikov, I.

    1975-01-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses. (J.K.)

  14. Outer space structure and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, J; Novikov, I

    1975-10-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses.

  15. Plasmas in the outer heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J. W.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.

    1995-01-01

    We review the observed properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere, including observations from Voyager and the Pioneers, as well as from inner heliospheric probes as appropriate. These observations are crucial to modeling of the heliosphere and its interactions with the interstellar medium, since the wind ram pressure and its temporal variations are important in understanding the distance to the termination shock and heliopause and how those boundaries might vary in time. We focus on results since Solar Wind 7. Among the issues we will discuss are: (1) the time scales for and statistical properties of variations in the ram pressure in the outer heliosphere, and how those variations might affect the morphology of the heliospheric/interstellar medium interface; (2) the question of possible solar wind slowing in the outer heliosphere due to the pick-up of interstellar ions; (3) the issue of whether there is bulk heating of the solar wind associated either with interstellar ion pick-up or with continued heating due to stream-stream interactions; (4) evidence for latitudinal variations in solar wind properties; and (5) the 1.3 year periodicities apparent in the outer heliosphere, and the close correspondence with similar variations seen with inner heliospheric probes.

  16. Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)

  17. Sinusoidal velaroidal shell – numerical modelling of the nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nonlinearity, applied to a sinusoidal velaroidal shell with the inner radius r0, the outer variables radii from 10m to 20m and the number of waves n=8, will give rise to the investigation of its nonlinear buckling resistance. The building material is a high-performant concrete. The investigation emphasizes more on the ...

  18. Double shell planar experiments on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Cardenas, T.; Wilson, D. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Batha, S. H.; Ping, Y.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Amendt, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    The double shell project is aimed at fielding neutron-producing capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in which an outer low-Z ablator collides with an inner high-Z shell to compress the fuel. However, understanding these targets experimentally can be challenging when compared with conventional single shell targets. Halfraum-driven planar targets at OMEGA are being used to study physics issues important to double shell implosions outside of a convergent geometry. Both VISAR and radiography through a tube have advantages over imaging through the hohlraum and double-shell capsule at NIF. A number physics issues are being studied with this platform that include 1-d and higher dimensional effects such as defect-driven hydrodynamic instabilities from engineering features. Additionally, the use of novel materials with controlled density gradients require study in easily diagnosed 1-d systems. This work ultimately feeds back into the NIF capsule platform through manufacturing tolerances set using data from OMEGA. Supported under the US DOE by the LANS, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-17-25386.

  19. Dual-Shell Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Self-Monitoring of pH-Responsive Molecule-Releasing in a Visualized Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lingang; Cui, Chuanfeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Lei, Juying; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-07-27

    The rational design and controlled synthesis of a smart device with flexibly tailored response ability is all along desirable for bioapplication but long remains a considerable challenge. Here, a pH-stimulated valve system with a visualized "on-off" mode is constructed through a dual-shell fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) strategy. The dual shells refer to carbon dots and fluorescent molecules embedded polymethacrylic acid (F-PMAA) layers successively coating around a SiO2 core (ca. 120 nm), which play the roles as energy donor and acceptor, respectively. The total thickness of the dual-shell in the solid composite is ca. 10 nm. The priorities of this dual-shell FRET nanovalve stem from three facts: (1) the thin shell allows the formation of efficient FRET system without chemical bonding between energy donor and acceptor; (2) the maximum emission wavelength of CD layer is tunable in the range of 400-600 nm, thus providing a flexible energy donor for a wide variety of energy acceptors; (3) the outer F-PMAA shell with a pH-sensitive swelling-shrinking (on-off) behavior functions as a valve for regulating the FRET process. As such, a sensitive and stable pH ratiometric sensor with a working pH range of 3-6 has been built by simply encapsulating pH-responsive fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) into PMAA; a pH-dependent swelling-shrinking shuttle carrier with a finely controllable molecule-release behavior has been further fabricated using rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC) as the energy donor and model guest molecule. Significantly, the controlled releasing process is visually self-monitorable.

  20. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  1. Non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons from semi-filled shell atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Chernysheva, L V [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-28

    We present the results of calculations of outer and next to outer shell non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons for semi-filled shell atoms in the Hartree-Fock (HF) one-electron approximation and in the frame of the spin polarized random phase approximation with exchange (SP RPAE) which takes into account inter-electron correlations. We demonstrate for the first time that this characteristic of the photoionization process is essentially sensitive to whether the photoelectron has the same or opposite spin orientation to that of the semi-filled shell.

  2. Non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons from semi-filled shell atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Chernysheva, L V

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of calculations of outer and next to outer shell non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons for semi-filled shell atoms in the Hartree-Fock (HF) one-electron approximation and in the frame of the spin polarized random phase approximation with exchange (SP RPAE) which takes into account inter-electron correlations. We demonstrate for the first time that this characteristic of the photoionization process is essentially sensitive to whether the photoelectron has the same or opposite spin orientation to that of the semi-filled shell

  3. A novel shell-structure cell microcarrier (SSCM) for cell transplantation and bone regeneration medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kai; Gong, Yihong; Wang, Chunming; Wang, Dong-An

    2011-06-01

    The present study aims to develop a novel open and hollow shell-structure cell microcarrier (SSCM) to improve the anchorage-dependent cell (ADC) loading efficiency, increase the space for cell proliferation and tissue regeneration, and better propel its therapeutic effects. Gelatin particles were prepared with oil/water/oil (o/w/o) technique and modified by an adjustable surface crosslinking technique and subsequent release of uncrosslinked material. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized to observe the morphologies of the microcarriers. Cell loading tests were performed to evaluate the biocompatibilities and effect on osteogenesis of SSCM. SSCMs were successfully fabricated via the surface technique. The shell-structure could allow the cell to attach and grow on both outer and inner surface of sphere and provide adequate space for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion. The cell loading rate, proliferation rate and osteogenesis-related gene expressions on the SSCMs were higher than those on the spherical gelatin microcarriers. The outstanding performance of injectable SSCMs endowed with favorable micro-structure, desirable cytocompatibility and enhanced cell affinity makes them as a good choice as cell delivery vehicle for transplanting therapeutic cells towards the scope of tissue regeneration.

  4. MOF@MOF core–shell vs. Janus particles and the effect of strain: potential for guest sorption, separation and sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szilagyi, P.A.; Lutz, M.; Gascon, J.; Juan-Alcañiz, J.; van Esch, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Geerlings, H.; Dam, B.; van der Krol, R.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strain on core–shell MOFcore@MOFshell particles is discussed and compared with that observed for analogous Janus particles. Whereas Janus particles do not display any effect of strain, the core of fully coated core–shell particles collapsed upon the formation of the outer shell,

  5. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  6. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  7. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Coconut shell used as aggregate in concrete production. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior studied under shear. • Coconut shell concrete beam behavior are compared with control concrete beams. - Abstract: Lightweight concrete has been produced using crushed coconut shell as coarse aggregate. The shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with normal control concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the structural shear behavior, shear capacity, cracking behavior, deflection behavior, ductility, strains in concrete and in reinforcement. It was observed that the shear behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under shear loadings. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams

  8. Fabrication of the novel core-shell MCM-41@mTiO{sub 2} composite microspheres with large specific surface area for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dinitro butyl phenol (DNBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Long, E-mail: hlwang@dlut.edu.cn; Li, Zhen-Duo; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Qi, Hui-Ping; Jiang, Wen-Feng

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: The mesoporous MCM-41@mTiO{sub 2} composite microspheres with core/shell structure, well-crystallized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} layer, high specific surface, large pore volume and excellent photocatalytic activity were synthesized by combining sol-gel and simple hydrothermal treatment. - Highlights: • The mesoporous MCM-41@mTiO{sub 2} composite was synthesized successfully. • The composite was facilely prepared by combining sol-gel and hydrothermal method. • The composite exhibited high photocatalytic degradation activity for DNBP. • The composite photocatalyst has excellent reproducibility. - Abstract: The mesoporous MCM-41@mTiO{sub 2} core-shell composite microspheres were synthesized successfully by combining sol-gel and simple hydrothermal treatment. The morphology and microstructure characteristics of the synthesized materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis/DRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicate that the composite material possesses obvious core/shell structure, a pure mesoporous and well-crystallized TiO{sub 2} layer (mTiO{sub 2}), high specific surface area (316.8 m{sup 2}/g), large pore volume (0.42 cm{sup 3}/g) and two different pore sizes (2.6 nm and 11.0 nm). The photocatalytic activity of the novel MCM-41@mTiO{sub 2} composite was evaluated by degrading 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) in aqueous suspension under UV and visible light irradiation. The results were compared with commercial anatase TiO{sub 2} and Degussa P25 and the enhanced degradation were obtained with the synthesized MCM-41@mTiO{sub 2} composite under the same conditions, which meant that this material can serve as an efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of hazardous organic pollutants in wastewaters.

  9. Cu₂O template synthesis of high-performance PtCu alloy yolk-shell cube catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Ding, Liang-Xin; Pan, Zheng-Wei; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Wu, Mingmei; Li, Gao-Ren

    2014-10-21

    Novel PtCu alloy yolk-shell cubes were fabricated via the disproportionation and displacement reactions in Cu2O yolk-shell cubes, and they exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation.

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  11. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  12. Elastic-plastic-creep analysis of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the recent experience of a designer/fabricator of nuclear heat transport components in the area of elastic-plastic-creep analysis of shell-like structures. A brief historical perspective is first given to highlight the evolution leading to the present industry practice. The ASME elevated temperature design criteria will be discussed followed by examples of actual computations performed to support the design/analysis and fabrication of a breeder reactor component in which a substantial amount of elastic-plastic-creep analysis was performed. Mathematical challenges encountered by the design analyst in these problems will be highlighted. Developmental needs and future trends will then be given

  13. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  14. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  15. Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.

  16. Nanostructued core–shell Sn nanowires @ CNTs with controllable thickness of CNT shells for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Xifei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ruying [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Cai, Mei [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090-9055 (United States); Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sn nanowires encapsulated in CNTs directly grew on current collectors. • The thickness of CNTs were controlled via growth time, gas flow rate and synthesis temperature. • Thick CNTs contributed to a better capacity retention while thin CNTs led to a higher capacity. • The core–shell structures formed in one-step CVD process. - Abstract: Core–shell structure of Sn nanowires encapsulated in amorphous carbon nanotubes (Sn@CNTs) with controlled thickness of CNT shells was in situ prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The thickness of CNT shells was accurately controlled from 4 to 99 nm by using different growth time, flow rate of hydrocarbon gas (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and synthesis temperature. The microstructure and composition of the coaxial Sn@CNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Moreover, the Sn@CNTs were studied as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and showed excellent cycle performance. The capacity was affected by the thickness of outer CNT shells: thick CNT shells contributed to a better retention while thin CNT shells led to a higher capacity. The thin CNT shell of 6 nm presented the highest capacity around 630 mAh g{sup −1}.

  17. Nanostructued core–shell Sn nanowires @ CNTs with controllable thickness of CNT shells for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Xifei; Zhang, Yong; Li, Ruying; Cai, Mei; Sun, Xueliang

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sn nanowires encapsulated in CNTs directly grew on current collectors. • The thickness of CNTs were controlled via growth time, gas flow rate and synthesis temperature. • Thick CNTs contributed to a better capacity retention while thin CNTs led to a higher capacity. • The core–shell structures formed in one-step CVD process. - Abstract: Core–shell structure of Sn nanowires encapsulated in amorphous carbon nanotubes (Sn@CNTs) with controlled thickness of CNT shells was in situ prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The thickness of CNT shells was accurately controlled from 4 to 99 nm by using different growth time, flow rate of hydrocarbon gas (C 2 H 4 ) and synthesis temperature. The microstructure and composition of the coaxial Sn@CNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. Moreover, the Sn@CNTs were studied as anode materials for Li-ion batteries and showed excellent cycle performance. The capacity was affected by the thickness of outer CNT shells: thick CNT shells contributed to a better retention while thin CNT shells led to a higher capacity. The thin CNT shell of 6 nm presented the highest capacity around 630 mAh g −1

  18. Aqueous-phase synthesis and color-tuning of core/shell/shell inorganic nanocrystals consisting of ZnSe, (Cu, Mn)-doped ZnS, and ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongwan; Yoon, Sujin [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Felix Sunjoo, E-mail: fskim@cau.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nakjoong, E-mail: kimnj@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    We report synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals based on ZnSe core, (Cu,Mn)-doped ZnS inner-shell, and ZnS outer-shell by using an eco-friendly method and their optical properties. Synthesis of core/shell/shell nanocrystals was performed by using a one-pot/three-step colloidal method with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a stabilizer in aqueous phase at low temperature. A double-shell structure was employed with inner-shell as a host for doping and outer-shell as a passivation layer for covering surface defects. Copper and manganese were introduced as single- or co-dopants during inner-shell formation, providing an effective means to control the emission color of the nanocrystals. The synthesized nanocrystals showed fluorescent emission ranging from blue to green, to white, and to orange, adjusted by doping components, amounts, and ratios. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the core/doped-shell/shell nanocrystals approached 36%. - Highlights: • ZnSe/ZnS:(Cu,Ms)/ZnS core/(doped)shell/shell nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous phase. • Emission color of nanocrystals was controlled from blue to white to orange by adjusting the atomic ratio of Cu and Mn co-dopants. • Photoluminescence quantum yields of the colloidal nanocrystals approached 36%.

  19. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  20. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Microencapsulated n-Octadecane with an Acrylic Co-polymeric Shell%丙烯酸共聚物囊壁的正十八烷微胶囊的制备和性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单新丽; 王建平; 刘妍; 张兴祥

    2009-01-01

    以二丙烯酸1,4-丁二醇酯为交联剂,成功制备了甲基丙烯酸甲酯.甲基丙烯酸共聚物为壁材,正十八烷为囊芯的相变材料微胶囊.采用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、差示扫描量热仪(DSC)和热重分析仪(TG)分别考察了单体与芯材投料比、单体浓度和交联剂的含量对微胶囊形貌、相变热性能、热稳定性能的影响.实验结果表明:随着单体与芯材投料比或单体浓度的增加,微胶囊表面均变得致密,壁厚增加:随着交联剂含量的增加,微胶囊的表面变得更加致密光滑,热稳定性显著增强;随着单体与芯材投料比的增大,微胶囊热焓值减小,被包裹的囊芯含量减少.%Microcapsules containing n-octadecane were synthesized using a methyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid co-polymeric shell with 1,4-butylene glycol diacrylate (BDDA) as a cross-linking agent. The surface morphologies,thermal physical properties, and thermal stabilities of the microencapsulated n-octadecane(MC_(18)) were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively.Experimental results showed that by increasing the mass ratio of monomer/core or the monomer concentration, the surfaces become more compact and the shell thickness increase. The thermal stability of MC_(18) can be improved by adding a cross-linking agent and the surface becomes much more compact and smoother by increasing the feed of the cross-linking agent BDDA. The thermal resistance temperature of MC_(18) improves obviously. As the mass ratio of monomer/core increases, the enthalpy of MC_(18) decreases and the encapsulation rate is lower.

  2. Imaging Shock Fronts in the Outer Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    Although Eta Car has been imaged many times with HST to monitor the central star and the bright Homunculus Nebula, we propose the first WFC3 imaging of Eta Car to study the more extended Outer Ejecta from previous eruptions. WFC3 has two key filters that have not been used before to image Eta Car, which will provide critical physical information about its eruptive history: (1) F280N with WFC3/UVIS will produce the first Mg II 2800 image of Eta Car, the sharpest image of its complex Outer Ejecta, and will unambiguously trace shock fronts, and (2) F126N with WFC3/IR will sample [Fe II] 12567 arising in the densest post-shock gas. Eta Car is surrounded by a bright, soft X-ray shell seen in Chandra images, which arises from the fastest 1840s ejecta overtaking slower older material. Our recent proper motion measurements show that the outer knots were ejected in two outbursts several hundred years before the 1840s eruption, and spectroscopy of light echoes has recently revealed extremely fast ejecta during the 1840s that indicate an explosive event. Were those previous eruptions explosive as well? If so, were they as energetic, did they also have such fast ejecta, and did they have the same geometry? The structure and excitation of the Outer Ejecta hold unique clues for reconstructing Eta Car's violent mass loss history. The locations of shock fronts in circumstellar material provide critical information, because they identify past discontinuities in the mass loss. This is one of the only ways to investigate the long term (i.e. centuries) evolution and duty cycle of eruptive mass loss in the most massive stars.

  3. Reversible patterning of spherical shells through constrained buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthelot, J.; Brun, P.-T.; Jiménez, F. López; Reis, P. M.

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in active soft structures envision the large deformations resulting from mechanical instabilities as routes for functional shape morphing. Numerous such examples exist for filamentary and plate systems. However, examples with double-curved shells are rarer, with progress hampered by challenges in fabrication and the complexities involved in analyzing their underlying geometrical nonlinearities. We show that on-demand patterning of hemispherical shells can be achieved through constrained buckling. Their postbuckling response is stabilized by an inner rigid mandrel. Through a combination of experiments, simulations, and scaling analyses, our investigation focuses on the nucleation and evolution of the buckling patterns into a reticulated network of sharp ridges. The geometry of the system, namely, the shell radius and the gap between the shell and the mandrel, is found to be the primary ingredient to set the surface morphology. This prominence of geometry suggests a robust, scalable, and tunable mechanism for reversible shape morphing of elastic shells.

  4. Pearl-necklace structures in core-shell molecular brushes: Experiments, Monte Carlo simulations and self-consistent field modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polotsky, A.; Charlaganov, M.; Xu, Y.P.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Daoud, M.; Muller, A.H.E.; Dotera, T.; Borisov, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    We present theoretical arguments and experimental evidence for a longitudinal instability in core-shell cylindrical polymer brushes with a solvophobic inner (core) block and a solvophilic outer (shell) block in selective solvents. The two-gradient self-consistent field Scheutjens-Fleer (SCF-SF)

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  6. Shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennekes, B. [Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. (United States). Technology Marketing

    2002-07-01

    The presentation, on which 17 slides/overheads are included in the papers, explained the principles of the Shell coal gasification process and the methods incorporated for control of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates and mercury. The economics of the process were discussed. The differences between gasification and burning, and the differences between the Shell process and other processes were discussed.

  7. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  8. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Enzuo; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Li, Jiajun; Zhao, Naiqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe_2O_3@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe_2O_3 nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe_2O_3@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe_2O_3 @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe_2O_3 nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe_2O_3 nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe_2O_3 to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  9. A novel Rapid Additive Manufacturing concept for architectural composite shell construction inspired by the shell formation in land snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felbrich, Benjamin; Wulle, Frederik; Allgaier, Christoph; Menges, Achim; Verl, Alexander; Wurst, Karl-Heinz; Nebelsick, James

    2018-01-04

    State of the art rapid additive manufacturing (RAM), specifically Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) has gained popularity among architects, engineers and designers for quick prototyping of technical devices, rapid production of small series and even construction scale fabrication of architectural elements. The spectrum of producible shapes and the resolution of detail, however, are determined and constrained by the layer-based nature of the fabrication process. These aspects significantly limit FFF-based approaches for the prefabrication and in-situ fabrication of freeform shells at the architectural scale. Snails exhibit a shell building process that suggests ways to overcome these limits. They produce a soft, pliable proteinaceous film - the periostracum - which later hardens and serves, among other functions, as a form-giving surface for an inner calcium carbonate layer. Snail shell formation behavior is interpreted from a technical point of view to extract potentially useful aspects for a biomimetic transfer. A RAM concept for continuous extrusion of thin free form composite shells inspired by the snail shell formation is presented. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Fabrication of Collagen Gel Hollow Fibers by Covalent Cross-Linking for Construction of Bioengineering Renal Tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Qichen; Meng, Qin

    2015-09-09

    Collagen, the most used natural biomacromolecule, has been extensively utilized to make scaffolds for cell cultures in tissue engineering, but has never been fabricated into the configuration of a hollow fiber (HF) for cell culture due to its poor mechanical properties. In this study, renal tubular cell-laden collagen hollow fiber (Col HF) was fabricated by dissolving sacrificial Ca-alginate cores from collagen shells strengthened by carbodiimide cross-linking. The inner/outer diameters of the Col HF were precisely controlled by the flow rates of core alginate/shell collagen solution in the microfluidic device. As found, the renal tubular cells self-assembled into renal tubules with diameters of 50-200 μm post to the culture in Col HF for 10 days. According to the 3D reconstructed confocal images or HE staining, the renal cells appeared as a tight tubular monolayer on the Col HF inner surface, sustaining more 3D cell morphology than the cell layer on the 2D flat collagen gel surface. Moreover, compared with the cultures in either a Transwell or polymer HF membrane, the renal tubules in Col HF exhibited at least 1-fold higher activity on brush border enzymes of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltransferase, consistent with their gene expressions. The enhancement occurred similarly on multidrug resistance protein 2 and glucose uptake. Such bioengineered renal tubules in Col HF will present great potential as alternatives to synthetic HF in both clinical use and pharmaceutical investigation.

  11. Transient response of rotating laminated functionally graded cylindrical shells in thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malekzadeh, P.; Heydarpour, Y.; Haghighi, M.R. Golbahar; Vaghefi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the elasticity theory, the transient analysis of dynamically pressurized rotating multi-layered functionally graded (FG) cylindrical shells in thermal environment is presented. The variations of the field variables across the shell thickness are accurately modeled by dividing the shell into a set of co-axial mathematical layers in the radial direction. The initial thermo-mechanical stresses are obtained by solving the thermoelastic equilibrium equations. The differential quadrature method and Newmark's time integration scheme are employed to discretize the obtained governing equations of each mathematical layer. After performing the convergence and comparison studies, parametric studies for two common types of FG sandwich shells, namely, the shell with homogeneous inner/outer layers and FG core and the shell with FG inner/outer layers and homogeneous core are carried out. The influences of the temperature dependence of material properties, material graded index, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the angular velocity, the boundary condition and the geometrical parameters (length and thickness to outer radius ratios) on the dynamic response of the FG shells are investigated. Highlights: ► As a first endeavor, transient analysis of rotating laminated functionally graded cylinders. ► Employing an elasticity based discrete layer-differential quadrature method. ► Evaluating and including the initial thermo-mechanical stresses accurately. ► Considering the temperature-dependence of the material properties. ► Presenting some new results, which can be used as benchmark solution for future works.

  12. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. Managing the visual effects of outer continental shelf and other petroleum-related coastal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Marcus; Ethan T. Smith

    1979-01-01

    Five petroleum-related facilities often sited in the coastal zone during development of Outer Continental oil and gas can change the visual appearance of coastal areas. These facilities are service bases, platform fabrication yards, marine terminals and associated storage facilities, oil and gas processing facilities, and liquified natural gas terminals. Examples of...

  14. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, N C; Liyanage, R; Makkar, S K; Lay, J O

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of microbial and environmental origins. As feed supplements, during post hatch growth, the hatchery egg shell membranes (HESM) have shown potential for imparting resistance of chickens to endotoxin stress and exert positive health effects. Considering that these effects are mediated by the bioactive proteins and peptides present in the membrane, the objective of the study was to identify the protein profiles of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM). Hatchery egg shell membranes were extracted with acidified methanol and a guanidine hydrochloride buffer then subjected to reduction/alkylation, and trypsin digestion. The methanol extract was additionally analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The tryptic digests were analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to identify the proteins. Our results showed the presence of several proteins that are inherent and abundant in egg white such as, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-116, and lysozyme, and several proteins associated with cytoskeletal, cell signaling, antimicrobial, and catalytic functions involving carbohydrate, nucleic acid, and protein metabolisms. There were some blood derived proteins most likely originating from the embryos and several other proteins identified with different aerobic, anaerobic, gram positive, gram negative, soil, and marine bacterial species some commensals and others zoonotic. The variety of bioactive proteins, particularly the cell signaling and enzymatic proteins along with the diverse microbial proteins, make the HESM suitable for nutritional and biological application to improve post hatch immunity of poultry.

  15. Design of 8-ft-Diameter Barrel Test Article Attachment Rings for Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project includes the testing of sub-scale cylinders to validate new shell buckling knockdown factors for use in the design of the Ares-I and Ares-V launch vehicles. Test article cylinders represent various barrel segments of the Ares-I and Ares-V vehicles, and also include checkout test articles. Testing will be conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for test articles having an eight-foot diameter outer mold line (OML) and having lengths that range from three to ten feet long. Both ends of the test articles will be connected to the test apparatus using attachment rings. Three multiple-piece and one single-piece design for the attachment rings were developed and analyzed. The single-piece design was chosen and will be fabricated from either steel or aluminum (Al) depending on the required safety factors (SF) for test hardware. This report summarizes the design and analysis of these attachment ring concepts.

  16. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  17. Nuclear shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    de-Shalit, Amos; Massey, H S W

    1963-01-01

    Nuclear Shell Theory is a comprehensive textbook dealing with modern methods of the nuclear shell model. This book deals with the mathematical theory of a system of Fermions in a central field. It is divided into three parts. Part I discusses the single particle shell model. The second part focuses on the tensor algebra, two-particle systems. The last part covers three or more particle systems. Chapters on wave functions in a central field, tensor fields, and the m-Scheme are also presented. Physicists, graduate students, and teachers of nuclear physics will find the book invaluable.

  18. Prototypical fabrication of PWR spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, Eun Ho; Kim, Byung Ku; Kang, Hee Yung; Lee, Chung Young; Jeon, Kyeong Lak; Lee, Bum Soo

    1985-02-01

    This report describes about the safety analysis for the spent fuel shipping cask, which is used to transfer a single fuel assembly discharged from PWR in operation in Korea. The contents cover the methods and the results of structural, thermal, thermo-hydraulic, radiation shield and criticality detail analysis. The safety evaluation has been made under the normal transportation and hypothetical accident conditions such as 30ft free drop, puncture, fire, immersion, penetration, corner drop, etc,. Some corrections in design are made, and a brief information for fabrication and transportation are obtained by the use of a 1/6 scale model. The design is based on one year cooling time of the spent fuel with 40,000 MWT/MTU maximum burnup, which gives 7.2KW decay heat and 1.6x10 6 ci/hr radiation intensity. The cask is composed of main body with the double closures, impact limiter and fuel basket. The inner shell, inner closure and valves constitute the pressure boundary of the containment. The inner, intermediate and outer shells, upper and lower forgings are made of stainless steel which compose the main body with lead for gamma shield and 50% ethylene glycol for neutron shield. The impact limiters are made of balsa wood on both end sides of the cask to protect the cask from a sudden shocks in accident during the transportation. The analysis results show that the cask is proved to retain its structural integrity within allowable stress and to be safe under the normal and hypothetical accident conditions, and the maximum dose rates of radiation at 2m distance from the surface of the cask are less than the required values. The weight will be 23.2tons in dry and 27.8 tons in wet with fuel loaded. All the design data, calculated results for the structural integrity, shield and thermal analysis are shown in this report with the basic drawings. (Author)

  19. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  20. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles study by first principle: The structural, magnetic and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Xia [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiao-Xu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Hu, Yao-Wen [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Hong-Quan; Huo, Jin-Rong; Li, Lu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qian, Ping, E-mail: ustbqianp@163.com [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Song, Yu-Jun [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been investigated by the density functional theory, revealing proving for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibits a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell in agreement with the other studies in literatures. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a ferromagnetic spin polarized state, and the magnetism mainly stems from the spin splitting of 2p electrons of O atoms. In addition, the total and partial DOS of Ag@ZnO indicate that the nanostructure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, the optical properties calculations show that the absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and good photocatalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO. These results of the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure obtain a well agreement with the experimental measurement. - Graphical abstract: Geometric structure of (a) Ag@ZnO core-shell nanostructure; (b) the core of Ag; (c) the shell of ZnO The core-shell nanoparticle Ag@ZnO contains Ag inner core of radius of 4 Å and ZnO outer shell with thickness of 2 Å. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been proved for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibit a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. The absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and get good photo-catalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO.

  1. Triggered Snap-Through of Bistable Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yijie; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Hu, Nan; Chen, Zi

    Elastic bistable shells are common structures in nature and engineering, such as the lobes of the Venus flytrap or the surface of a toy jumping poppers. Despite their ubiquity, the parameters that control the bistability of such structures are not well understood. In this study, we explore how the geometrical features of radially symmetric elastic shells affect the shape and potential energy of a shell's stable states, and how to tune certain parameters in order to generate a snap-through transition from a convex semi-stable state to concave stable state. We fabricated a series of elastic shells with varying geometric parameters out of silicone rubber and measured the resulting potential energy in the semi-stable state. Finite element simulations were also conducted in order to determine the deformation and stress in the shells during snap-through. It was found that the energy of the semi-stable state is controlled by only two geometric parameters and a dimensionless ratio. We also noted two distinct transitions during snap-through, one between monostability and semi-bistability (the state a popper toy is in before it snaps-through and jumps), and a second transition between semi-bistability and true bistability. This work shows that it is possible to use a set of simple parameters to tailor the energy landscape of an elastic shell in order to generate complex trigger motions for their potential use in smart applications. Z.C. acknowledge support from Society in Science-Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich.

  2. Shell Buckling Knockdown Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment #: 07-010-E, was established in March of 2007 by the NESC in...

  3. Shells and Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2009-01-01

    "Shells and Patterns" was a project the author felt would easily put smiles on the faces of her fifth-graders, and teach them about unity and the use of watercolor pencils as well. It was thrilling to see the excitement in her students as they made their line drawings of shells come to life. For the most part, they quickly got the hang of…

  4. Off-shell CHY amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, C.S., E-mail: Lam@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Q.C., H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Yao, York-Peng, E-mail: yyao@umich.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The Cachazo–He–Yuan (CHY) formula for on-shell scattering amplitudes is extended off-shell. The off-shell amplitudes (amputated Green's functions) are Möbius invariant, and have the same momentum poles as the on-shell amplitudes. The working principles which drive the modifications to the scattering equations are mainly Möbius covariance and energy momentum conservation in off-shell kinematics. The same technique is also used to obtain off-shell massive scalars. A simple off-shell extension of the CHY gauge formula which is Möbius invariant is proposed, but its true nature awaits further study.

  5. Outer Sphere Adsorption of Pb(II)EDTA on Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargar, John R

    1999-07-16

    FTIR and EXAFS spectroscopic measurements were performed on Pb(II)EDTA adsorbed on goethite as functions of pH (4-6), Pb(II)EDTA concentration (0.11 {micro}M - 72 {micro}M), and ionic strength (16 {micro}M - 0.5M). FTIR measurements show no evidence for carboxylate-Fe(III) bonding or protonation of EDTA at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Both FTIR and EXAFS measurements suggest that EDTA acts as a hexadentate ligand, with all four of its carboxylate and both amine groups bonded to Pb(II). No evidence was observed for inner-sphere Pb(II)-goethite bonding at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Hence, the adsorbed complexes should have composition Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}}. Since substantial uptake of PbEDTA(II){sup 2{minus}} occurred in the samples, we infer that Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}} adsorbed as outer-sphere complexes and/or as complexes that lose part of their solvation shells and hydrogen bond directly to goethite surface sites. We propose the term ''hydration-sphere'' for the latter type of complexes because they should occupy space in the primary hydration spheres of goethite surface functional groups, and to distinguish this mode of sorption from common structural definitions of inner- and outer-sphere complexes. The similarity of Pb(II) uptake isotherms to those of other divalent metal ions complexed by EDTA suggests that they too adsorb by these mechanisms. The lack of evidence for inner-sphere EDTA-Fe(III) bonding suggests that previously proposed metal-ligand - promoted dissolution mechanisms should be modified, specifically to account for the presence of outer-sphere precursor species.

  6. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  7. Discontinuity surfaces and event stratigraphy of Okha Shell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quaternary sea level changes have been studied with beach rocks along the Saurashtra ... Temporal and spatial correlations of the observations have revealed three .... trough cross-bedding type of sedimentary structure .... valve proportion, (6) bio-fabric (original growth .... monotypic taxonomic composition of shells, which.

  8. Hydrogen and helium shell burning during white dwarf accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Meng, Xiang-Cun; Han, Zhan-Wen

    2018-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) with masses close to the Chandrasekhar mass limit. How a CO WD accretes matter and grows in mass to this limit is not well understood, hindering our understanding of SN Ia explosions and the reliability of using SNe Ia as a cosmological distance indicator. In this work, we employed the stellar evolution code MESA to simulate the accretion process of hydrogen-rich material onto a 1.0 M ⊙ CO WD at a high rate (over the Eddington limit) of 4.3 × 10‑7 M ⊙ yr‑1. The simulation demonstrates the characteristics of the double shell burning on top of the WD, with a hydrogen shell burning on top of a helium burning shell. The results show that helium shell burning is not steady (i.e. it flashes). Flashes from the helium shell are weaker than those in the case of accretion of helium-rich material onto a CO WD. The carbon to oxygen mass ratio resulting from the helium shell burning is higher than what was previously thought. Interestingly, the CO WD growing due to accretion has an outer part containing a small fraction of helium in addition to carbon and oxygen. The flashes become weaker and weaker as the accretion continues.

  9. Container Materials, Fabrication And Robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.; Louthan, M.; Rawls, G.; Sindelar, R.; Zapp, P.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-01-01

    The multi-barrier 3013 container used to package plutonium-bearing materials is robust and thereby highly resistant to identified degradation modes that might cause failure. The only viable degradation mechanisms identified by a panel of technical experts were pressurization within and corrosion of the containers. Evaluations of the container materials and the fabrication processes and resulting residual stresses suggest that the multi-layered containers will mitigate the potential for degradation of the outer container and prevent the release of the container contents to the environment. Additionally, the ongoing surveillance programs and laboratory studies should detect any incipient degradation of containers in the 3013 storage inventory before an outer container is compromised.

  10. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  11. Dyson shells: a retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert J.

    2001-08-01

    More than 40 years have passed since Freeman Dyson suggested that advanced technological civilizations are likely to dismantle planets in their solar systems to harvest all of the energy their stars wastefully radiate into space. Clearly this was an idea that was ahead of its time. Since that time, dozens of SETI searches have been conducted and almost all of them have focused their attention on stars which by definition cannot be the advanced civilizations that Dyson envisioned. I will review the data that created the confusion between Dyson spheres and Dyson shells. The sources that disprove Dyson spheres while still allowing Dyson shells will be discussed. The use of outmoded ideas that have biased the few searches for Dyson Shells that have occurred will be pointed out. An update of the concept of Dyson shells to include our current knowledge of biotechnology, nanotechnology and computer science will be explored. Finally, an approach to setting limits on the abundance of Dyson shells in our galaxy using existing optical astronomical data and future optical satellites will be proposed.

  12. Multi-functional carbon microspheres with double shell layers for flame retardant poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Baoxia; Niu, Mei; Yang, Yongzhen; Bai, Jie; Song, Yinghao; Peng, Yun; Liu, Xuguang

    2018-03-01

    Carbon microspheres (CMSs) as a core material had been coated by two capsule walls: an inorganic material of magnesium hydroxide (MH) as inner shell layer and an organic material of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as outer shell layer. MH coating CMSs (MCMSs) were fabricated by liquid phase deposition method, then grafted 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) to obtain the Si-MCMSs. Microencapsulated Si-MCMSs (PMCMSs) was prepared by in situ polymerization method. Morphology structure, dispersion, flame retardant and other properties of PMCMSs have been investigated. A series of PET blends were prepared by melt compounding. The results showed that MH and PET as two layers were coated on CMSs surface with the optimal thickness of about 70 nm. The PMCMSs owned better dispersion in PET matrix. Compared with MCMSs/PET composites, the mechanical property of PMCMSs/PET composites had significantly increased because of the strong interface binding force between PMCMSs and PET matrix. Moreover, PMCMSs was proved to be an effective flame retardant. For PMCMSs/PET with 2 wt% PMCMSs, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value increased from 21.0% (pristine PET) to 27.2%, and the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR) decreased from 513.22 kW/m2 to 352.14 kW/m2. The decreased smoke production rate (SPR) and total smoke production (TSP) values demonstrated PMCMSs suppressed the smoke production. The increased Fire performance index (FPI) value illustrated PMCMSs significantly reduced the fire risk of PET. Overall, the two capsular walls endowed the PMCMSs/PET composites with good mechanical and flame-retardant properties.

  13. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane.......Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...

  14. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  15. Status report, canister fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika; Emilsson, Goeran

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  16. The Impact of Ceramic Shell Strength on Hot Tearing during Investment Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norouzi, Saeid; Farhangi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ceramic shell strength on hot tearing susceptibility during solidification was inspected practicing investment casting of the cobalt-base superalloy samples with the same casting conditions, but different ceramic shell systems. Results showed that the lower the ceramic shell strength upon using polymer additives, the lower the hindered contraction rate, and the lower the hindered contraction rate, the smaller the hot tearing tendency. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy scanning revealed that the hot tear propagated along the last solidified interdendritic phase, and that the hot tear surface had two major modes: 1) the ductile region in the outer layer; and 2) the inner region of liquid embrittlement.

  17. Semiconducting, Magnetic or Superconducting Nanoparticles encapsulated in Carbon Shells by RAPET method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon Gedanken

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, solvent-free, environmentally friendly, RAPET (Reactions under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperaturesynthetic approach is discussed for the fabrication of core-shell nanostructures. The semiconducting, magnetic orsuperconducting nanoparticles are encapsulated in a carbon shell. RAPET is a one-step, thermal decomposition reaction ofchemical compound (s followed by the formation of core-shell nanoparticles in a closed stainless steel reactor. Therepresentative examples are discussed, where a variety of nanomaterials are trapped in situ in a carbon shell that offersfascinating properties.

  18. A rapidly evolving secretome builds and patterns a sea shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Kathryn

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the extracellular production of the shell, directing the ordered biomineralization of CaCO3 and the deposition of architectural and color patterns. The evolutionary origins of the ability to synthesize calcified structures across various metazoan taxa remain obscure, with only a small number of protein families identified from molluskan shells. The recent sequencing of a wide range of metazoan genomes coupled with the analysis of gene expression in non-model animals has allowed us to investigate the evolution and process of biomineralization in gastropod mollusks. Results Here we show that over 25% of the genes expressed in the mantle of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina encode secreted proteins, indicating that hundreds of proteins are likely to be contributing to shell fabrication and patterning. Almost 85% of the secretome encodes novel proteins; remarkably, only 19% of these have identifiable homologues in the full genome of the patellogastropod Lottia scutum. The spatial expression profiles of mantle genes that belong to the secretome is restricted to discrete mantle zones, with each zone responsible for the fabrication of one of the structural layers of the shell. Patterned expression of a subset of genes along the length of the mantle is indicative of roles in shell ornamentation. For example, Has-sometsuke maps precisely to pigmentation patterns in the shell, providing the first case of a gene product to be involved in molluskan shell pigmentation. We also describe the expression of two novel genes involved in nacre (mother of pearl deposition. Conclusion The unexpected complexity and evolvability of this secretome and the modular design of the molluskan mantle enables

  19. Single-step generation of metal-plasma polymer multicore@shell nanoparticles from the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solař, Pavel; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Olbricht, Ansgar; Hinz, Alexander; Shelemin, Artem; Kylián, Ondřej; Choukourov, Andrei; Faupel, Franz; Biederman, Hynek

    2017-08-17

    Nanoparticles composed of multiple silver cores and a plasma polymer shell (multicore@shell) were prepared in a single step with a gas aggregation cluster source operating with Ar/hexamethyldisiloxane mixtures and optionally oxygen. The size distribution of the metal inclusions as well as the chemical composition and the thickness of the shells were found to be controlled by the composition of the working gas mixture. Shell matrices ranging from organosilicon plasma polymer to nearly stoichiometric SiO 2 were obtained. The method allows facile fabrication of multicore@shell nanoparticles with tailored functional properties, as demonstrated here with the optical response.

  20. Low power multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron and ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Use of double shell targets with a separate low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, reduces the focusing and power requirements while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. A high Z, high density pusher shell is placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. Ion beams appear to be a promising power source and breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles appears feasible. Predicted performance of targets with various energy sources is shown and comparison is made with single shell targets

  1. Axisymmetrical impulsive responses of an infinite circular cylindrical shell filled with liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujihashi, Sadayuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Ichiro; Shigeta, Masayuki.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, dynamic interaction phenomena on solid and liquid interfaces are discussed. Axisymmetrical responses of an infinite circular cylindrical shell perfectly filled with liquid are analyzed, based on Fluegge's theory for a circular cylindrical shell and the potential theory for the ideal fluid under conditions of the impulsive external band pressure given on the outer surface of the shell. The deflection and the moment of the shell and the pressure in the fluid are evaluated by using the numerical inversion of the Laplace transformation method. The approximate solution for the shell with an equivalent mass on it is analyzed and is evaluated, based on the solution for the solid and liquid interaction. (author)

  2. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaoning [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Tian, Mingwei [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Qu, Lijun, E-mail: lijunqu@126.com [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Zhu, Shifeng [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Guo, Xiaoqing [College of Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Han, Guangting [Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Marine Biomass Fibers, Materials and Textiles of Shandong Province, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071 (China); and others

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Multifunctional knit polyester fabric was facile fabricated by the combination of pad-dry-cure process and in situ chemical polymerization route. • High electrical conductivity and efficient water-repellent properties were endowed to the polymer nanocomposite coated fabric. • The polymer nanocomposite coated fabric also performed efficient and durable photocatalytic activities under the illumination of ultraviolet light. - Abstract: Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  3. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiaoning; Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multifunctional knit polyester fabric was facile fabricated by the combination of pad-dry-cure process and in situ chemical polymerization route. • High electrical conductivity and efficient water-repellent properties were endowed to the polymer nanocomposite coated fabric. • The polymer nanocomposite coated fabric also performed efficient and durable photocatalytic activities under the illumination of ultraviolet light. - Abstract: Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric

  4. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  5. Stability of charged thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  6. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  7. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  8. Coaxial electrospun polyurethane core-shell nanofibers for shape memory and antibacterial nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel kind of shape memory polyurethane (SMPU nanofibers with core-shell nanostructure is fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results show that nanofibers with core-shell structure or bead-on-string structure can be electrospun successfully from the core solution of polycaprolactone based SMPU (CLSMPU and shell solution of pyridine containing polyurethane (PySMPU. In addition to the excellent shape memory effect with good shape fixity, excellent antibacterial activity against both gramnegative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria are achieved in the CLSMPU-PySMPU core-shell nanofiber. Finally, it is proposed that the antibacterial mechanism should be resulted from the PySMPU shell materials containing amido group in γ position and the high surface area per unit mass of nanofibers. Thus, the CLSMPU-PySMPU core shell nanofibers can be used as both shape memory nanomaterials and antibacterial nanomaterials.

  9. Facile Fabrication of Highly Active Magnetic Aminoclay Supported Palladium Nanoparticles for the Room Temperature Catalytic Reduction of Nitrophenol and Nitroanilines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically recyclable nanocatalysts with excellent performance are urgent need in heterogeneous catalysis, due to their magnetic nature, which allows for convenient and efficient separation with the help of an external magnetic field. In this research, we developed a simple and rapid method to fabricate a magnetic aminoclay (AC based an AC@Fe3O4@Pd nanocatalyst by depositing palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs on the surface of the magnetic aminoclay nanocomposite. The microstructure and the magnetic properties of as-prepared AC@Fe3O4@Pd were tested using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM analyses. The resultant AC@Fe3O4@Pd nanocatalyst with the magnetic Fe-based inner shell, catalytically activate the outer noble metal shell, which when combined with ultrafine Pd NPs, synergistically enhanced the catalytic activity and recyclability in organocatalysis. As the aminoclay displayed good water dispersibility, the nanocatalyst indicated satisfactory catalytic performance in the reaction of reducing nitrophenol and nitroanilines to the corresponding aminobenzene derivatives. Meanwhile, the AC@Fe3O4@Pd nanocatalyst exhibited excellent reusability, while still maintaining good activity after several catalytic cycles.

  10. L-shell dielectronic recombination for 0-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, G.; Semedal, R.; Shahin, F.; El-Sherbini, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In electron-Ion (e/I) collisions, a free electron may be captured by a positively charged ion having bound electrons with a simultaneous, excitation. This radiationless capture, most probably, creates resonance (d) states. These d- states may stabilize by emission of radiation (x-rays). This two-step process is known as Dielectronic recombination (D R). At high incident-electron energy, D R dominates over the radiative recombination (R R) and three- body recombination (Tbr) processes. Thus, D R is one of the most effective recombination for ionisation balance in solar corona and artificial plasma . In addition, the D R rates are needed for the development of nuclear fusion plasma. Thus, D R is still an interesting process m both experimental and theoretical research. Previously we have done the D R rates for 0-like AL 5+ , Cl 9+ Ti 14+ and Zn 22+ ions with K-shell excitation. In this work, the D R rates are calculated for the same ions, but with L-shell excitation. It is found that, the peak values of the D R rates for L-shell excitation are 1000 times larger than that for K-shell excitation. This means that, D R process is the most efficient mechanism for outer-shell excitations. It is found also that, the Dr rates for L-shell excitation peak at Kt = 6 Ry, 22 Ry for AL 5+ and Ti 14+ ions respectively. These Kt values are much smaller than that for for K-shell excitation

  11. A study of the valence shell photoelectron and photoabsorption spectra of CF3SF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D M P; Shaw, D A; Walker, I C; McEwen, I J; Apra, E; Guest, M F

    2005-01-01

    The outer valence shell photoelectron spectrum of CF 3 SF 5 has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Synchrotron radiation has been used to record angle-resolved outer valence shell photoelectron spectra of CF 3 SF 5 in the photon energy range 18-60 eV. These spectra have allowed photoelectron asymmetry parameters and branching ratios to be derived. The Outer Valence Green's Function approach has been employed to calculate the molecular orbital configuration and associated binding energies. A charge distribution analysis has also been obtained. Assignments have been proposed for the peaks observed in the photoelectron spectrum. The absolute photoabsorption cross section of CF 3 SF 5 has been measured from threshold to 40 eV, and strongly resembles that of SF 6 . Assignments, involving intravalence transitions, have been proposed for some of the principal features appearing in the photoabsorption spectrum of CF 3 SF 5

  12. Fabricated Elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Brackenreg, Edwin P; Hiob, Matti A; Lee, Pearl; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-11-18

    The mechanical stability, elasticity, inherent bioactivity, and self-assembly properties of elastin make it a highly attractive candidate for the fabrication of versatile biomaterials. The ability to engineer specific peptide sequences derived from elastin allows the precise control of these physicochemical and organizational characteristics, and further broadens the diversity of elastin-based applications. Elastin and elastin-like peptides can also be modified or blended with other natural or synthetic moieties, including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, and polymers, to augment existing capabilities or confer additional architectural and biofunctional features to compositionally pure materials. Elastin and elastin-based composites have been subjected to diverse fabrication processes, including heating, electrospinning, wet spinning, solvent casting, freeze-drying, and cross-linking, for the manufacture of particles, fibers, gels, tubes, sheets and films. The resulting materials can be tailored to possess specific strength, elasticity, morphology, topography, porosity, wettability, surface charge, and bioactivity. This extraordinary tunability of elastin-based constructs enables their use in a range of biomedical and tissue engineering applications such as targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, vascular repair, nerve regeneration, wound healing, and dermal, cartilage, bone, and dental replacement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Construction of carbon nanoflakes shell on CuO nanowires core as enhanced core/shell arrays anode of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, F.; Xia, X.H.; Pan, G.X.; Chen, J.; Zhang, Y.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays are prepared by electro-deposition + ALD method. • Carbon shell is favorable for structural stability. • CuO/C core/shell arrays show enhanced cycle stability and high capacity. - Abstract: Tailored metal oxide/carbon composite structures have attracted great attention due to potential synergistic effects and enhanced properties. In this work, novel CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays are prepared by the combination of electro-deposition of CuO and atomic-layer-deposition-assisted formation of carbon nanoflakes shell. The CuO nanowires with diameters of ∼200 nm are homogenously coated by carbon nanoflakes shell. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), compared to the unmodified CuO nanowire arrays, the CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays exhibit improved electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better electrochemical reactivity and high-rate capability as well as superior cycling life (610 mAh g"−"1 at 0.5C after 290 cycles). The enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the introduction of carbon flake shell in the core/shell nanowire arrays structure, which provides higher active material-electrolyte contact area, improved electrical conductivity, and better accommodation of volume change. The proposed method provides a new way for fabrication of high-performance metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  14. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under flexure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Annadurai, R.; Kumar, P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete. ► Behavior of coconut shell concrete under flexure. ► SEM images of cement, sand, coconut shell and coconut shell aggregate concrete. ► Coconut shell hollow blocks and precast slabs are used in practice. - Abstract: Coconut shell has been used as coarse aggregate in the production of concrete. The flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beam made with coconut shell is analyzed and compared with the normal control concrete. Twelve beams, six with coconut shell concrete and six with normal control concrete, were fabricated and tested. This study includes the moment capacity, deflection, cracking, ductility, corresponding strains in both compression and tension, and end rotation. It was found that the flexural behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of other lightweight concretes. The results of concrete compression strain and steel tension strain showed that coconut shell concrete is able to achieve its full strain capacity under flexural loadings. Under serviceability condition, deflection and cracking characteristics of coconut shell concrete are comparable with control concrete. However, the failure zones of coconut shell concrete were larger than for control concrete beams. The end rotations of the coconut shell concrete beams just prior to failure values are comparable to other lightweight concretes. Coconut shell concrete was used to produce hollow blocks and precast slab in 2007 and they are being subjected to some practical loading till today without any problems such as deflection, bending, cracks, and damages for the past five years

  15. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  16. Tube-in-shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tube-in-shell heat exchangers normally comprise a bundle of parallel tubes within a shell container, with a fluid arranged to flow through the tubes in heat exchange with a second fluid flowing through the shell. The tubes are usually end supported by the tube plates that separate the two fluids, and in use the tube attachments to the tube plates and the tube plates can be subject to severe stress by thermal shock and frequent inspection and servicing are required. Where the heat exchangers are immersed in a coolant such as liquid Na such inspection is difficult. In the arrangement described a longitudinally extending central tube is provided incorporating axially spaced cylindrical tube plates to which the opposite ends of the tubes are attached. Within this tube there is a tubular baffle that slidably seals against the wall of the tube between the cylindrical tube plates to define two co-axial flow ducts. These ducts are interconnected at the closed end of the tube by the heat exchange tubes and the baffle comprises inner and outer spaced walls with the interspace containing Ar. The baffle is easily removable and can be withdrawn to enable insertion of equipment for inspecting the wall of the tube and tube attachments and to facilitate plugging of defective tubes. Cylindrical tube plates are believed to be superior for carrying pressure loads and resisting the effects of thermal shock. Some protection against thermal shock can be effected by arranging that the secondary heat exchange fluid is on the tube side, and by providing a thermal baffle to prevent direct impingement of hot primary fluid on to the cylindrical tube plates. The inner wall of the tubular baffle may have flexible expansible region. Some nuclear reactor constructions incorporating such an arrangement are described, including liquid metal reactors. (U.K.)

  17. Outer-shell transitions in collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloemen, E.W.P.

    1980-01-01

    The study of collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms (molecules) is of importance in different areas of research. Usually, the most important process is capture of an electron from the target atom into the projectile ion. In most cases the electron goes to an excited state of the projectile ion. These electron capture processes are studied. The author also studied direct excitation of the target atom and of the projectile ion. (Auth.)

  18. Correlation of HI shells and CO clumps in the outer Milky Way

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ehlerová, Soňa; Palouš, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 587, March (2016), A5/1-A5/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1795; GA MŠk LG14013 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : ISM: bubble * ISM: clouds * structure of galaxy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  19. Commissioning of the 4 K Outer Cryostat for the CUORE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ferri, E; Biassoni, M; Bucci, C; Ceruti, G; Chiarini, A; Clemenza, M; Cremonesi, O; Datskov, V; Dossena, S; Faverzani, M; Franceschi, M A; Gaigher, R; Gorla, P; Guetti, M; Ligi, C; Napolitano, T; Nucciotti, A; Pelosi, A; Perego, M; Previtali, E; Sisti, M; Taffarello, L; Terranova, F

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a 1-ton scale bolometric experiment. The CUORE detector is an array of 988 TeO crystals arranged in a cylindrical, compact, and granular structure of 19 towers. These detectors will need a base temperature lower than 10 mK in order to meet the performance specifications. To cool the CUORE detector, a large cryogen free cryostat with five pulse tubes and one custom designed high power dilution refrigerator has been designed. The three vessels that form the outer shell of the CUORE cryostat were produced in 2012 and are now assembled in the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS). We report here the detailed description of the 4 K outer cryostat for the CUORE experiment together with the results of the validation tests done at the production site in 2012 and of the first commissioning to 4 K at LNGS in 2013.

  20. PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A; CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; PONTELANDOLFO, JM

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA. Thin walled polymer shells are needed for OMEGA cryogenic laser experiments. These capsules need to be about 900 (micro)m in diameter and as thin as possible (approx 1-2 (micro)m), while having enough strength to be filled with DT as fast as possible to about 1000 atm. The authors have found that by optimizing the coating parameters in the glow discharge polymer (GDP) deposition system, traditionally used for making ICF targets, they can routinely make robust, ∼ 1.5 (micro)m thick, 900 (micro)m diameter GDP shells with buckle strengths of over 0.3 atm. This is twice the strength of shells made prior to the optimization and is comparable to values quoted for polyimide shells. In addition, these shells were found to be approximately three times more permeable and over 20% denser than previously made GDP shells. The combination of higher strength and permeability is ideal for direct drive cryogenic targets at OMEGA. Shells as thin as 0.5 (micro)m have been made. In this paper, the authors discuss the shell fabrication process, effects of modifying various GDP deposition parameters on shell properties and chemical composition

  1. Design and Analysis of Tow-Steered Composite Shells Using Fiber Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a sub-scale advanced composite shell design is evaluated to determine its potential for use on a future aircraft fuselage. Two composite shells with the same nominal 8-ply [+/-45/+/-Theta](sub s) layup are evaluated, where Theta indicates a tow-steered ply. To build this shell, a fiber placement machine would be used to steer unidirectional prepreg tows as they are placed around the circumference of a 17-inch diameter right circular cylinder. The fiber orientation angle varies continuously from 10 degrees (with respect to the shell axis of revolution) at the crown, to 45 degrees on the side, and back to 10 degrees on the keel. All 24 tows are placed at each point on every fiber path in one structure designated as the shell with overlaps. The resulting pattern of tow overlaps causes the laminate thickness to vary between 8 and 16 plies. The second shell without tow overlaps uses the capability of the fiber placement machine to cut and add tows at any point along the fiber paths to fabricate a shell with a nearly uniform 8-ply laminate thickness. Issues encountered during the design and analysis of these shells are presented and discussed. Static stiffness and buckling loads of shells with tow-steered layups are compared with the performance of a baseline quasi-isotropic shell using both finite element analyses and classical strength of materials theory.

  2. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  3. Prediction Model of the Outer Radiation Belt Developed by Chungbuk National University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kyu Shin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s outer radiation belt often suffers from drastic changes in the electron fluxes. Since the electrons can be a potential threat to satellites, efforts have long been made to model and predict electron flux variations. In this paper, we describe a prediction model for the outer belt electrons that we have recently developed at Chungbuk National University. The model is based on a one-dimensional radial diffusion equation with observationally determined specifications of a few major ingredients in the following way. First, the boundary condition of the outer edge of the outer belt is specified by empirical functions that we determine using the THEMIS satellite observations of energetic electrons near the boundary. Second, the plasmapause locations are specified by empirical functions that we determine using the electron density data of THEMIS. Third, the model incorporates the local acceleration effect by chorus waves into the one-dimensional radial diffusion equation. We determine this chorus acceleration effect by first obtaining an empirical formula of chorus intensity as a function of drift shell parameter L*, incorporating it as a source term in the one-dimensional diffusion equation, and lastly calibrating the term to best agree with observations of a certain interval. We present a comparison of the model run results with and without the chorus acceleration effect, demonstrating that the chorus effect has been incorporated into the model to a reasonable degree.

  4. Microencapsulation and fabrication of fuel pellets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, R.L. Jr.; Kool, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Various microencapsulation techniques were evaluated for fabrication of thermonuclear fuel pellets for use in existing experimental facilities studying inertial confinement fusion and in future fusion-power reactors. Coacervation, spray drying, in situ polymerization, and physical microencapsulation methods were employed. Highly spherical, hollow polymeric shells were fabricated ranging in size from 20 to 7000 micron. In situ polymerization microencapsulation with poly(methyl methacrylate) provided large shells, but problems with local wall defects still must be solved. Extension to other polymeric systems met with limited success. Requirements for inertial confinement fusion targets are described, as are the methods that were used

  5. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  6. Investigation of the structure change of atomic shells due to uranium ionization by the Dirac-Fock-Slater method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchornak, G.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of outer vacancies in the atomic shells of uranium on the atomic shell structure is claculated by the Dirac-Fock-Slater method. It is found out that the energy of the X-ray transitions increases due to the detachment of the electrons with the lowest binding energies. The electron detachment from the subshells of the 4f level gives rise to negative energy shifts of the X-ray transitions.(author)

  7. Statistical approach of inner-shell ionization in 0.1-1.625 MeV/u Cu + Bi collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piticu, I.; Ciortea, C.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, D.; Szilagyi, S.Z.; Micu, M.; Dumitriu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data of inner-shell ionization cross sections and outer-shell ionization probabilities per electron, obtained for the collision system. Cu + Bi in the energy range of 0.1-1.625 MeV/u, are in good agreement with the predictions of the statistical model of Mittleman and Wilets. The found dependence of the diffusion constant determined for different final vacancy states on the excitation (ionization) energy is in fair agreement with the model prediction. (orig.)

  8. Statistical approach of inner-shell ionization in 0.1-1.625 MeV/u Cu + Bi collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piticu, I.; Ciortea, C.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, D.; Szilagyi, S.Z.; Micu, M.; Dumitriu, D. [Horia Hulubei National Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of Experimental Physics

    1999-07-01

    Experimental data of inner-shell ionization cross sections and outer-shell ionization probabilities per electron, obtained for the collision system. Cu + Bi in the energy range of 0.1-1.625 MeV/u, are in good agreement with the predictions of the statistical model of Mittleman and Wilets. The found dependence of the diffusion constant determined for different final vacancy states on the excitation (ionization) energy is in fair agreement with the model prediction. (orig.)

  9. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  10. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

  11. Opal shell structures: direct assembly versus inversion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Tian-Song; Sharifi, Parvin; Marlow, Frank

    2013-09-16

    Opal shell structures can be fabricated in two ways: By direct assembly from hollow spheres (hs-opal) or by infiltration of precursors into opal templates and inversion. The resulting lattice disturbances were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, and transmission spectra. The hs-opal system shows much lower disturbances, for example, a lower number of cracks and lattice deformations. The strong suppression of crack formation in one of these inverse opal structures can be considered as promising candidates for the fabrication of more perfect photonic crystals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Theoretical Study of Local Surface Plasmon Resonances on a Dielectric-Ag Core-Shell Nanosphere Using the Discrete-Dipole Approximation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ye-Wan; Wu Zhao-Wang; Zhang Li-Hua; Liu Wan-Fang; Zhang Jie

    2015-01-01

    The local surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of dielectric-Ag core-shell nanospheres are studied by the discretedipole approximation method. The result shows that LSPRs are sensitive to the surrounding medium refractive index, which shows a clear red-shift with the increasing surrounding medium refractive index. A dielectric-Ag core-shell nanosphere exhibits a strong coupling between the core and shell plasmon resonance modes. LSPRs depend on the shell thickness and the composition of dielectric-core and metal-shell. LSPRs can be tuned over a longer wavelength range by changing the ratio of core to shell value. The lower energy mode ω_− shows a red-shift with the increasing dielectric-core value and the inner core radius, while blue-shifted with the increasing outer shell thickness. The underlying mechanisms are analyzed with the plasmon hybridization theory and the phase retardation effect. (paper)

  13. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Smart construction of polyaniline shell on cobalt oxides as integrated core-shell arrays for enhanced lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Meili; Xie, Dong; Zhong, Yu; Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui

    2017-01-01

    Smart construction of advanced anode materials is extremely critical to develop high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, we have reported a facile strategy for fabricating Co 3 O 4 /polyaniline (PANI) core–shell arrays (CSAs) by chemical bath deposition (CBD) + electrodeposition methods Electrodeposited PANI shell is intimately decorated on the CBD-Co 3 O 4 nanorods forming composite CSAs. Highly conductive network and stress buffer layer are achieved with the aid of tailored PANI shell. Due to these advantages above, the designed Co 3 O 4 /PANI CSA S exhibit good electrochemical performance with higher reversible capacity (787 mAh g −1 ) and better cycle stability than the unmodified Co 3 O 4 counterpart. Our results show a new way for preparing advanced inorganic-organic composite electrodes for electrochemical energy storage.

  15. A Core-Shell Fe/Fe2 O3 Nanowire as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhaolin; Huang, Gang; Liang, Fei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2016-08-16

    The preparation of novel one-dimensional core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowires as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is reported. The nanowires are prepared in a facile synthetic process in aqueous solution under ambient conditions with subsequent annealing treatment that could tune the capacity for lithium storage. When this hybrid is used as an anode material for LIBs, the outer Fe2 O3 shell can act as an electrochemically active material to store and release lithium ions, whereas the highly conductive and inactive Fe core functions as nothing more than an efficient electrical conducting pathway and a remarkable buffer to tolerate volume changes of the electrode materials during the insertion and extraction of lithium ions. The core-shell Fe/Fe2 O3 nanowire maintains an excellent reversible capacity of over 767 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles with a high average Coulombic efficiency of 98.6 %. Even at 2000 mA g(-1) , a stable capacity as high as 538 mA h g(-1) could be obtained. The unique composition and nanostructure of this electrode material contribute to this enhanced electrochemical performance. Due to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowires are promising anode materials for the next generation of high-performance LIBs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Meta-shell Approach for Constructing Lightweight and High Resolution X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based x-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. Past missions such as Chandra and XMM-Newton have achieved excellent angular resolution using a full shell mirror approach. Other missions such as Suzaku and NuSTAR have achieved lightweight mirrors using a segmented approach. This paper describes a new approach, called meta-shells, which combines the fabrication advantages of segmented optics with the alignment advantages of full shell optics. Meta-shells are built by layering overlapping mirror segments onto a central structural shell. The resulting optic has the stiffness and rotational symmetry of a full shell, but with an order of magnitude greater collecting area. Several meta-shells so constructed can be integrated into a large x-ray mirror assembly by proven methods used for Chandra and XMM-Newton. The mirror segments are mounted to the meta-shell using a novel four point semi-kinematic mount. The four point mount deterministically locates the segment in its most performance sensitive degrees of freedom. Extensive analysis has been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the four point mount and meta-shell approach. A mathematical model of a meta-shell constructed with mirror segments bonded at four points and subject to launch loads has been developed to determine the optimal design parameters, namely bond size, mirror segment span, and number of layers per meta-shell. The parameters of an example 1.3 m diameter mirror assembly are given including the predicted effective area. To verify the mathematical model and support opto-mechanical analysis, a detailed finite element model of a meta-shell was created. Finite element analysis predicts low gravity distortion and low thermal distortion. Recent results are discussed including Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis as well as vibration and shock testing of prototype meta-shells.

  17. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  18. Creep analysis of orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.; Ghosh, A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of creep analysis of orthotropic cylindrical shells subjected to axisymmetric loads has been developed. A general study of creep behaviour of cylindrical shells subjected to a uniform internal pressure has been conducted for a wide range of values of anisotropy coefficients and creep law exponent. Analysis includes determination of stress re-distribution, strain rates, stationary state stresses. Application of reference stress technique has been extended to analysis of shells. (author)

  19. Dispersion properties of three-layered orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the harmonic wave propagation in thick, cylindrical, three-layered shells of infinite length. Both the outer layers and the core are composites made of short strand fiberglass and polyester resin. The randomly oriented fibers were approximately in parallel planes to constitute a transversely isotropic fibre composite. The planes of isotropy in the outer layers are orthogonal to the plane of isotropy at the core. A closed form solution of the exact linear equations of elasticity in sought in terms of a Frobenius series. The influence of the core thickness on the dynamics of the wave motion is estimated from numerically computed dispersion curves. Asymmetric wave motion is given prime consideration and the different types of waves which can occur are identified over a wide range of wave numbers

  20. Shock absorbing properties of toroidal shells under compression, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yuji

    1985-01-01

    The author has previously presented the static load-deflection relations of a toroidal shell subjected to axisymmetric compression between rigid plates and those of its outer half when subjected to lateral compression. In both these cases, the analytical method was based on the incremental Rayleigh-Ritz method. In this paper, the effects of compression angle and strain rate on the load-deflection relations of the toroidal shell are investigated for its use as a shock absorber for the radioactive material shipping cask which must keep its structural integrity even after accidental falls at any angle. Static compression tests have been carried out at four angles of compression, 10 0 , 20 0 , 50 0 , 90 0 and the applications of the preceding analytical method have been discussed. Dynamic compression tests have also been performed using the free-falling drop hammer. The results are compared with those in the static compression tests. (author)

  1. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  2. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  3. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  4. Recent evolution of theoretical models in inner shell photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combet Farnoux, F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of various atomic theoretical models recently developed to calculate photoionization cross sections in the low energy range (from the far ultraviolet to the soft X ray region). For both inner and outer shells concerned, we emphasize the necessity to go beyond the independent particle models by means of the introduction of correlation effects in both initial and final states. The basic physical ideas of as elaborated models as Random Phase Approximation with exchange, Many Body Perturbation Theory and R matrix Theory are outlined and summarized. As examples, the results of some calculations are shown and compared with experiment

  5. Design and economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan Sahin, Arzu; Kilic, Bayram; Kilic, Ulas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Artificial Bee Colony for shell and tube heat exchanger optimization is used. → The total cost is minimized by varying design variables. → This new approach can be applied for optimization of heat exchangers. - Abstract: In this study, a new shell and tube heat exchanger optimization design approach is developed. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been applied to minimize the total cost of the equipment including capital investment and the sum of discounted annual energy expenditures related to pumping of shell and tube heat exchanger by varying various design variables such as tube length, tube outer diameter, pitch size, baffle spacing, etc. Finally, the results are compared to those obtained by literature approaches. The obtained results indicate that Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm can be successfully applied for optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers.

  6. Design and economic optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sencan Sahin, Arzu, E-mail: sencan@tef.sdu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Education, Technical Education Faculty, Sueleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Kilic, Bayram, E-mail: bayramkilic@hotmail.com [Bucak Emin Guelmez Vocational School, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Bucak (Turkey); Kilic, Ulas, E-mail: ulaskilic@mehmetakif.edu.tr [Bucak Emin Guelmez Vocational School, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Bucak (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Artificial Bee Colony for shell and tube heat exchanger optimization is used. {yields} The total cost is minimized by varying design variables. {yields} This new approach can be applied for optimization of heat exchangers. - Abstract: In this study, a new shell and tube heat exchanger optimization design approach is developed. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been applied to minimize the total cost of the equipment including capital investment and the sum of discounted annual energy expenditures related to pumping of shell and tube heat exchanger by varying various design variables such as tube length, tube outer diameter, pitch size, baffle spacing, etc. Finally, the results are compared to those obtained by literature approaches. The obtained results indicate that Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm can be successfully applied for optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers.

  7. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE SHELLS: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the non-failure criterion for each ply constituting the inner and outer laminate facings. The numerical results were obtained at low cost by using the finite element method. Studies have focused on structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form (egg-shaped section when it is subjected, during annular space filling operation, to pressure forces generated by wet concrete. To ensure the safety of the composite shell structure, Tsai-Hill criterion function is applied and results are presented for the most stressed plies

  8. Enhanced Oxidation-Resistant Cu@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gon; Park, Hye Jin; Woo, Kyoohee; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Su Yeon

    2018-01-10

    In this work, the fabrication and application of highly conductive, robust, flexible, and oxidation-resistant Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticle (NP)-based electrodes have been reported. Cu@Ni core-shell NPs with a tunable Ni shell thickness were synthesized by varying the Cu/Ni molar ratios in the precursor solution. Through continuous spray coating and flash photonic sintering without an inert atmosphere, large-area Cu@Ni NP-based conductors were fabricated on various polymer substrates. These NP-based electrodes demonstrate a low sheet resistance of 1.3 Ω sq -1 under an optical energy dose of 1.5 J cm -2 . In addition, they exhibit highly stable sheet resistances (ΔR/R 0 flexible heater fabricated from the Cu@Ni film is demonstrated, which shows uniform heat distribution and stable temperature compared to those of a pure Cu film.

  9. Mechanical properties of zirconia core-shell rods with porous core and dense shell prepared by thermoplastic co-extrusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštyl, J.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Clemen, F.; Trunec, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2017), s. 2439-2447 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ceramic injection moldings * oxide fuel -cells * electrophoretic deposition * large pores * alumina * fabrication * behavior * tubes * bioceramics * composites * Zirconia * Co-extrusion * Core-shell * Porous structure * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  10. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  11. Dynamic response of aircraft impact of a reactor building with protective shell on independent foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantopoulos, I.V.; Vardanega, C.; Attalla, I.

    1981-01-01

    Aircraft impact loading can penalize significantly the design of the equipment in a conventional containment building. An alternative scheme was developed in an attempt to reduce the aircraft impact response. A preliminary study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of the alternative scheme. This study was made in such perspective and for the purpose of comparing the response to aircraft impact of a standard reactor building, to that of a reactor building having an independently founded outer shell. In the second scheme, the outer shell is meant to receive the aircraft impact, so that the load will be transmitted to the reactor building internals only by way of the structure-soil-structure system. In both cases, the aircraft impact was postulated to occur on a linear single degree of freedom oscillator which modeled, approximately, the plastification of the impact area. The soil was considered as a half-space with properties corresponding to a medium stiff soil, and modeled by lumped soil springs and dashpots. The reactor internals, inner shell and protective outer shell were modeled with beam elements and concentrated inertias. In modeling the coupled system, soil-structure interaction and structure-to-structure interaction through the soil were represented by a global stiffness matrix corresponding to the three degrees the freedom of each foundation, i.e. horizontal, vertical and rocking. (orig./HP)

  12. Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon; Dossier Shell Eco-Marathon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matla, P.

    2012-05-15

    Three articles address subjects concerning the annual race with highly energy efficient cars: the Shell Eco-Marathon. [Dutch] In 3 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de ontwerpen voor de jaarlijkse race met superzuinige auto's, de Shell Eco-Marathon.

  13. Core and shell sizing of small silver-coated nanospheres by optical extinction spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinca, D C; Scaffardi, L B

    2008-01-01

    Silver metal nanoparticles (Nps) are extensively used in different areas of research and technology due to their interesting optical, thermal and electric properties, especially for bare core and core-shell nanostructures with sizes smaller than 10 nm. Since these properties are core-shell size-dependent, size measurement is important in manipulating their potential functionalization and applications. Bare and coated small silver Nps fabricated by physical and chemical methods present specific characteristics in their extinction spectra that are potentially useful for sizing purposes. This work presents a novel procedure to size mean core radius smaller than 10 nm and mean shell thickness of silver core-shell Nps based on a comparative study of the characteristics in their optical extinction spectra in different media as a function of core radii, shell thickness and coating refractive index. From the regularities derived from these relationships, it can be concluded that plasmon full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is sensitive to core size but not to coating thickness, while plasmon resonance wavelength (PRW) is related to shell thickness and mostly independent of core radius. These facts, which allow sizing simultaneously both mean core radius and shell thickness, can also be used to size bare silver Nps as a special case of core-shell Nps with zero shell thickness. The proposed method was applied to size experimental samples and the results show good agreement with conventional TEM microscopy.

  14. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  15. Design and analysis of reactor containment of steel-concrete composite laminated shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, K.; Isobata, O.; Kawamata, S.

    1977-01-01

    A new scheme of containment consisting of steel-concrete laminated shell is being developed. In the main part of a cylindrical vessel, the shell consists of two layers of thin steel plates located at the inner and outer surfaces, and a layer of concrete core into which both the steel plates are anchored. Because of the compressive and shearing resistance of the concrete core, the layers behave as a composite solid shell. Membrane forces are shared by steel plates and partly by concrete core. Bending moment is effectively resisted by the section with extreme layers of steel. Therefore, both surfaces can be designed as extremely thin plates: the inner plate, which is a load carrying members as well as a liner, can be welded without the laborious process of stress-relieving, and various jointing methods can be applied to the outer plate which is free from the need for leak tightness. The capability of the composite layers of behaving as a unified solid shell section depends largely on the shearing rigidity of the concrete core. However, as its resisting capacity to transverse shearing force is comparatively low, a device for reducing the shearing stress at the junction to the base mat is needed. In the new scheme, this part of the cylindrical shell is divided into multiple layers of the same kind of composite shell. This device makes the stiffness of the bottom of the cylindrical shell to lateral movement minimum while maintaining the proper resistance to membrane forces. The analysis shows that the transverse shearing stress can be reduced to less than 1√n of the ordinary case by dividing the thickness of the shell into n layers which are able to slip against each other at the contact surface. In order to validate the feasibility and safety of this new design, the results of analysis on the basis of up-to-date design loads are presented

  16. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Arink, R; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th.; Berkien, A.; Farber, Ch.; Bien, A.; Blouw, J.; Ceelie, L.; Coco, V.; Deckenhoff, M.; Deng, Z.; Dettori, F.; van Eijk, D.; Ekelhof, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Grillo, L.; Hulsbergen, W.D.; Karbach, T.M.; Koopman, R.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Langenbruch, Ch.; Lavrentyev, V.; Linn, Ch.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Meissner, M.; Michalowski, J.; Morawski, P.; Nawrot, A.; Nedos, M.; Pellegrino, A.; Polok, G.; van Petten, O.; Rovekamp, J.; Schimmel, F.; Schuylenburg, H.; Schwemmer, R.; Seyfert, P.; Serra, N.; Sluijk, T.; Spaan, B.; Spelt, J.; Storaci, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Swientek, S.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Witek, M.; Zeng, M.; Zwart, A.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  17. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  18. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  19. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  20. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  1. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  2. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  3. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  4. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  5. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  6. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  7. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-01-01

    A Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al 2 O 3 gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO 2 shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering

  8. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-09-03

    A Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al(2)O(3) gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO(2) shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering.

  9. Shell Trumpets from Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Novella

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine shells have been used as musical instruments in almost all parts of the world (Izikowitz 1935, including Mesoamerica, where large univalves, also called conch shells in the literature, had a utilitarian function as trumpets. Their use is well documented in most cultural areas of Mesoamerica, as in Western Mexico, through their various occurrences in archaeological contexts and museums collections.

  10. Cylindrical thin-shell wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    A general formalism for the dynamics of nonrotating cylindrical thin-shell wormholes is developed. The time evolution of the throat is explicitly obtained for thin-shell wormholes whose metric has the form associated with local cosmic strings. It is found that the throat collapses to zero radius, remains static, or expands forever, depending only on the sign of its initial velocity

  11. Shell model and spectroscopic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poves, P.

    2007-01-01

    In these lectures, I introduce the notion of spectroscopic factor in the shell model context. A brief review is given of the present status of the large scale applications of the Interacting Shell Model. The spectroscopic factors and the spectroscopic strength are discussed for nuclei in the vicinity of magic closures and for deformed nuclei. (author)

  12. Conventional shell model: some issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallieres, M.; Pan, X.W.; Feng, D.H.; Novoselsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss some important issues in shell-model calculations related to the effective interactions used in different regions of the periodic table; in particular the quality of different interactions is discussed, as well as the mass dependence of the interactions. Mention is made of the recently developed Drexel University shell-model (DUSM). (orig.)

  13. Expert system development (ESD) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmini, S.; Diwakar, M.P.; Rathode, N.C.; Bairi, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    An Expert System Development (ESD) Shell design implementation is desribed in detail. The shell provides high-level generic facilities for Knowledge Representation (KR) and inferencing and tools for developing user interfaces. Powerful set of tools in the shell relieves much of the programming burden in the ES development. The shell is written in PROLOG under IBM PC/AT. KR facilities are based on two very powerful formalisms namely, frames and rules. Inference Engine (IE) draws most of its power from unification and backward reasoning strategy in PROLOG. This basic mechanism is enhanced further by incorporating both forward and backward chaining of rules and frame-based inferencing. Overall programming style integrates multiple paradigms including logic, object oriented, access-oriented and imperative programming. This permits ES designer a lot of flexibility in organizing inference control. Creation and maintainance of knowledge base is a major activity. The shell, therefore, provides number of facilities to simplify these tasks. Shell design also takes note of the fact that final success of any system depends on end-user satisfaction and hence provides features to build use-friendly interfaces. The shell also provides a set of interfacing predicates so that it can be embedded within any PROLOG program to incorporate functionalilty of the shell in the user program. (author). 10 refs., 8 figs

  14. Mounting and Alignment of Full-Shell Replicated X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Kester, Thomas; Ramsey, Brian; Smithers, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for astronomy. The optics are full-cylinder mirror shells fabricated using electroformed-nickel replication off super-polished mandrels. For space-based applications where weight is at a premium, very-thin-walled, light-weight mirrors are required. Such shells have been fabricated at MSFC with greater than 15 arcsec resolution. The challenge, however, is to preserve this resolution during mounting and assembly. We present here a status report on a mounting and alignment system currently under development at Marshall Space Flight Center to meet this challenge.

  15. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  16. Dynamic centering of liquid shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsamopoulos, J.A.; Brown, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The moderate-amplitude axisymmetric oscillations of an inviscid liquid shell surrounding an incompressible gas bubble are calculated by a multiple-time-scale expansion for initial deformations composed of two-lobed perturbations of the shell and a displacement of the bubble from the center of mass of the liquid. Two types of small-amplitude motion are identified and lead to very different nonlinear dynamic interactions, as described by the results valid up to second order in the amplitude of the initial deformation. In the ''bubble mode,'' the oscillations of the captive bubble and the liquid shell are exactly in phase and the bubble vibrates about its initial eccentric location. The bubble moves toward the center of the drop when the shell is perturbed into a ''sloshing mode'' of oscillation where both interfaces move out of phase. These results explain the centering of liquid shells observed in several experiments

  17. Chemical and biological effects of β-decay and inner shell ionization in biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoecklin, G.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium and iodine-125, and the Auger effect either caused by the EC-decay of 125 I or by the inner shell vacancy created selectively by mono-energetic X-ray are reviewed in this paper. The specifically labelled precursors to bound 3 H large biomolecules were prepared by conventional syntheses, and then incorporated into the DNA of proliferating cells. The effects like DNA strand breaks or mutational changes are likely to be affected by the localization of the carbonium ions in biological molecules. In contrast to lethality, it was demonstrated that 3 H transmutation effect contributed to DNA strand breaks and played a key role in producing genetic effects. The decay of 3 H in uracil-5- 3 H in the DNA of E. coli was about 7 times as mutagenic as that in uracil-6- 3 H, and 500-fold greater in bacteriophage S13. Drastic chemical consequences are associated with the Auger effect occurring as a possible relaxation process whenever inner shell ionization is initiated. When the vacancy is filled by an electron from an outer shell, the bond energy difference between inner shell electron and outer shell electron is released either in the form of an X-ray fluorescence photon or it can be transmitted to another outer electron which is then ejected. The radioactive decay in specifically labelled biomolecules or the inner shell ionization in heavy constituent atoms caused by resonant X-ray are relevant to a) selective microsurgery in biological macromolecules for the correlation of biological and chemical functions, b) radiotoxicity estimation, and c) radiation therapy. (Yamashita, S.)

  18. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  19. Vulnerability of the paper Nautilus (Argonauta nodosa) shell to a climate-change ocean: potential for extinction by dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kennedy; Smith, Abigail M; Trimby, Patrick; Byrne, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Shell calcification in argonauts is unique. Only females of these cephalopods construct the paper nautilus shell, which is used as a brood chamber for developing embryos in the pelagic realm. As one of the thinnest (225 μm) known adult mollusc shells, and lacking an outer protective periostracum-like cover, this shell may be susceptible to dissolution as the ocean warms and decreases in pH. Vulnerability of the A. nodosa shell was investigated through immersion of shell fragments in multifactorial experiments of control (19 °C/pH 8.1; pCO(2) 419; Ω(Ca) = 4.23) and near-future conditions (24 °C/pH 7.8-7.6; pCO(2) 932-1525; Ω(Ca) = 2.72-1.55) for 14 days. More extreme pH treatments (pH 7.4-7.2; pCO(2) 2454-3882; Ω(Ca) = 1.20-0.67) were used to assess tipping points in shell dissolution. X-ray diffractometry revealed no change in mineralogy between untreated and treated shells. Reduced shell weight due to dissolution was evident in shells incubated at pH 7.8 (projected for 2070) after 14 days at control temperature, with increased dissolution in warmer and lower pH treatments. The greatest dissolution was recorded at 24 °C (projected for local waters by 2100) compared to control temperature across all low-pH treatments. Scanning electron microscopy revealed dissolution and etching of shell mineral in experimental treatments. In the absence of compensatory mineralization, the uncovered female brood chamber will be susceptible to dissolution as ocean pH decreases. Since the shell was a crucial adaptation for the evolution of the argonauts' holopelagic existence, persistence of A. nodosa may be compromised by shell dissolution in an ocean-change world.

  20. Dynamic reponse of a cylindrical shell immersed in a potential fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical solution technique is presented for determining the dynamic response of a thin, elastic, circular, cylindrical shell of constant wall thickness and density, immersed in a potential fluid. The shell may be excited by an arbitrary radial forcing function with a specified time history and spatial distribution. In addition, a pressure history may be specified over a segment of the fluid outer boundary. Any of the natural shell end conditions may be prescribed. A numerical instability prevented direct solutions where the ratio of the hydrodynamic forces to shell inertial forces is greater than two. This instability is believed to be the result of the weak coupling between the equations describing the fluid to those describing the shell. To circumvent this instability, an effective mass was calculated and added to the shell. Comparison of numerical to experimental results are made using a 1 / 12 scale model of a nuclear reactor core support barrel. Natural frequencies and modes are determined for this model in air, water, and oil. The computed frequencies compare to experimental results to within 15%. The use of this numerical technique is illustrated by comparing it to an analytical solution for shell beam modes and an uncertainty in the analytical technique concerning the proper effective mass to use, is resolved

  1. Partial preservation of the Tentaculites Crotalinus shell from Ponta Grossa Formation (Devonian)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciguel, J.H.G.; Roesler, O.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with an analysis of a single specimen of Tentaculites crotalinus SALTER emend. CIGUEL et al. (1984) that present a possible partial preservation of the shell. It comes from an outcrop of the Grossa Formation (Devonian) near Jaguariaiva, State of Parana. The skeletal microstructure of the Tentaculitoidea shell rather poorly Known. Thus, the phylogenetic relationships of these invertebrates still uncertain. Tentaculitids are very common fossils in Devonian Ponta Grossa Formation (Parana Basin) but so far Known only from external and internal moulds. The objective of this study is to demonstrate wheter the layer found in between the internal and external mould is or not a case shell preservation. The chemical composition of this layer and of the external mould was analysed by X rays. X rays difratometry was applied only to the matrix (at the external mould). The structure of the supposed shell remain was studied by binocular stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. It revealed a foliate structure due to several paralel to subparalel oriented lamelae, with a chemical composition distinct from the matrix, and some elements possibly mantained from the original shell composition. Thus, a partial preservation of the original shell seems to be the better explanation for this case. This shell would be composed by calcium carbonate disposed in laminar layers, the outer ones being impregnated by Fe and Mn molecules during the diagenetic processes. The skeletal composition and microstructure would suggest a molluscan affinity for the tentaculitida Order. (auThor) [pt

  2. Fast ignition upon the implosion of a thin shell onto a precompressed deuterium-tritium ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Zmitrenko, N. V.

    2012-11-01

    Fast ignition of a precompressed inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target by a hydrodynamic material flux is investigated. A model system of hydrodynamic objects consisting of a central deuterium-tritium (DT) ball and a concentric two-layer shell separated by a vacuum gap is analyzed. The outer layer of the shell is an ablator, while the inner layer consists of DT ice. The igniting hydrodynamic flux forms as a result of laser-driven acceleration and compression of the shell toward the system center. A series of one-dimensional numerical simulations of the shell implosion, the collision of the shell with the DT ball, and the generation and propagation of thermonuclear burn waves in both parts of the system are performed. Analytic models are developed that describe the implosion of a thin shell onto a central homogeneous ball of arbitrary radius and density and the initiation and propagation of a thermonuclear burn wave induced by such an implosion. Application of the solution of a model problem to analyzing the implosion of a segment of a spherical shell in a conical channel indicates the possibility of fast ignition of a spherical ICF target from a conical target driven by a laser pulse with an energy of 500-700 kJ.

  3. Dynamic reponse of a cylindrical shell immersed in a potential fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, G.E.

    1978-04-18

    A numerical solution technique is presented for determining the dynamic response of a thin, elastic, circular, cylindrical shell of constant wall thickness and density, immersed in a potential fluid. The shell may be excited by an arbitrary radial forcing function with a specified time history and spatial distribution. In addition, a pressure history may be specified over a segment of the fluid outer boundary. Any of the natural shell end conditions may be prescribed. A numerical instability prevented direct solutions where the ratio of the hydrodynamic forces to shell inertial forces is greater than two. This instability is believed to be the result of the weak coupling between the equations describing the fluid to those describing the shell. To circumvent this instability, an effective mass was calculated and added to the shell. Comparison of numerical to experimental results are made using a /sup 1///sub 12/ scale model of a nuclear reactor core support barrel. Natural frequencies and modes are determined for this model in air, water, and oil. The computed frequencies compare to experimental results to within 15%. The use of this numerical technique is illustrated by comparing it to an analytical solution for shell beam modes and an uncertainty in the analytical technique concerning the proper effective mass to use, is resolved.

  4. Facile and controllable construction of vanadium pentoxide@conducting polymer core/shell nanostructures and their thickness-dependent synergistic energy storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Ding, Yanbo; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Here, we report a novel approach to prepare metal oxide@conducting polymer core/shell hybrids with controlled shell thickness and morphology, and the influence of PANI shell thickness on the electrochemical performance of V 2 O 5 @PANI core/shell hybrids is systematically investigated. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distance, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Highlights: • Thickness- and morphology-controlled V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated. • The enhancement of energy storage performance of core/shell hybrids varies with the shell thickness. • Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Abstract: Thickness- and morphology-controlled vanadium pentoxide/polyaniline (V 2 O 5 /PANI) core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated by electropolymerization of PANI on V 2 O 5 nanofibers for enhanced energy storage. By simply adjusting the electrodeposition time, the thickness of the PANI shells can be controlled from 5 nm to 47 nm, and the morphology can be changed from coaxial to branched. The influence of shell thickness on the improved Li-ion storage performance of the V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell nanofibers is systematically investigated, and this enhancement of charge capability and cycling stability strongly varies with the shell thickness. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are also proposed. These results provide meaningful references for developing new functional core/shell materials and high-performance energy storage composite materials.

  5. On the uncertainties in the shell correction by Strutinsky smearing procedure for certain shapes relevant in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.; Prakash, M.; Kapoor, S.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that for level schemes obtained from a folded Yukawa potential, the Strutinsky smearing procedure for the evaluation of the shell correction to the total potential energy of nuclei does not lead to a unique value for nuclear shapes near and beyond the outer fission barrier deformations and consequently introduces uncertainties in the relative fission barrier heights. (author)

  6. Versatile post-functionalization of the external shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus by using click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, C.A.; Matt, B.D.; van der Ham, A.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Katsonis, Nathalie Hélène

    2014-01-01

    We present the modification of the outer protein shell of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) with linear and strained alkyne groups. These functionalized protein capsids constitute valuable platforms for post-functionalization via click chemistry. After modification, the integrity of the capsid

  7. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  8. Two-dimensional perturbations of the accelerated motion of inhomogeneous gas layers and shells in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnobaev, K. V.; Kotova, G. Yu.; Tagirova, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of perturbations in a two-layer spherical shell and a plane layer with a two-step density distribution has been simulated numerically. The clumps formed by instability are shown to have qualitatively different structures, depending on the ratio of the densities in the inner and outer layers of the shell. Inhomogeneities bordered by a dense gas are formed in shells with an outwardly decreasing density. If, however, a denser gas is in the outer layer, then cores surrounded by a more rarefied material appear. These results are used to analyze the expansion of the HII region RCW 82. Since the inhomogeneities observed in the 13CO emission in the outer parts of this region have sharply delineated boundaries, our calculations argue for the model of the expansion of a shell with an outwardly decreasing density. The interaction of an accelerating shell with clumps in front of it has also been investigated. The deformations of a clump during its penetration into the shell and the formation of a groove in the shell gradually fillingwith a cold gas have been revealed. Thereafter, the shell material collapses to form a cumulative jet. As applied to the HII region RCW 82, we conclude that the existence of jets is possible if there are inhomogeneities with a scale of ˜1018 cm in the interstellar medium. The lack of data on such jet flows at the boundary of this region is an additional argument for the model where the inhomogeneous structure of the boundaries is attributable to the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  9. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  10. Core-shell microparticles for protein sequestration and controlled release of a protein-laden core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Torri E; Philbrick, Brandon D; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2017-07-01

    Development of multifunctional biomaterials that sequester, isolate, and redeliver cell-secreted proteins at a specific timepoint may be required to achieve the level of temporal control needed to more fully regulate tissue regeneration and repair. In response, we fabricated core-shell heparin-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) microparticles (MPs) with a degradable PEG-based shell that can temporally control delivery of protein-laden heparin MPs. Core-shell MPs were fabricated via a re-emulsification technique and the number of heparin MPs per PEG-based shell could be tuned by varying the mass of heparin MPs in the precursor PEG phase. When heparin MPs were loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and then encapsulated into core-shell MPs, degradable core-shell MPs initiated similar C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as the soluble control, while non-degradable core-shell MPs initiated a significantly lower response (85+19% vs. 9.0+4.8% of the soluble control, respectively). Similarly, when degradable core-shell MPs were formed and then loaded with BMP-2, they induced a ∼7-fold higher C2C12 ALP activity than the soluble control. As C2C12 ALP activity was enhanced by BMP-2, these studies indicated that degradable core-shell MPs were able to deliver a bioactive, BMP-2-laden heparin MP core. Overall, these dynamic core-shell MPs have the potential to sequester, isolate, and then redeliver proteins attached to a heparin core to initiate a cell response, which could be of great benefit to tissue regeneration applications requiring tight temporal control over protein presentation. Tissue repair requires temporally controlled presentation of potent proteins. Recently, biomaterial-mediated binding (sequestration) of cell-secreted proteins has emerged as a strategy to harness the regenerative potential of naturally produced proteins, but this strategy currently only allows immediate amplification and re-delivery of these signals. The multifunctional, dynamic

  11. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  12. Inner and Outer Life at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human...... development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work...

  13. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  14. Synthesis of core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires monitored by in situ XRD as efficient visible-light photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Fan, Zhongli; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    strategy for fabricating efficiently core-shell heterostructured nanowires and provides the potential for developing their applications in electronic devices, for environmental remediation and in solar energy utilization fields. This journal is © The Royal

  15. Molluscan shell evolution with review of shell calcification hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furuhashi, T.; Schwarzinger, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Smrž, Miloslav; Beran, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 3 (2009), s. 351-371 ISSN 1096-4959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mollusca * shell * biomineralization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2009

  16. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  17. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  18. Super-paramagnetic core-shell material with tunable magnetic behavior by regulating electron transfer efficiency and structure stability of the shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Zhang

    Full Text Available In this work, a spherical nano core-shell material was constructed by encapsulating Fe3O4 microsphere into conductive polymer-metal composite shell. The Fe3O4 microspheres were fabricated by assembling large amounts of Fe3O4 nano-crystals, which endowed the microspheres with super-paramagnetic property and high saturation magnetization. The polymer-metal composite shell was constructed by inserting Pt nano-particles (NPs into the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy. As size and dispersion of the Pt NPs has an important influence on their surface area and surface energy, it was effective to enlarge the interface area between PPy and Pt NPs, enhance the electron transfer efficiency of PPy/Pt composite shell, and reinforced the shell’s structural stability just by tuning the size and dispersion of Pt NPs. Moreover, core-shell structure of the materials made it convenient to investigate the PPy/Pt shell’s shielding effect on the Fe3O4 core’s magnetic response to external magnetic fields. It was found that the saturation magnetization of Fe3O4/PPy/Pt core-shell material could be reduced by 20.5% by regulating the conductivity of the PPy/Pt shell. Keywords: Super-paramagnetic, Conductivity, Magnetic shielding, Structural stability

  19. A new thermoplastic resin shell for immobilization of patients receiving high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamikonya, Norihiko; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Kurisu, Koichi; Taniguchi, Midori; Miura, Takashi

    1990-01-01

    An adjustable immobilizing shell, made of thermoplastic resin (Kurare Shell Filter, KSL) was developed for stabilizing the source during radiotherapy. A piece of KSF was cut to about 15 x 30 cm in size. The KSF was heated at 70-80deg C to soften up. It was kept at room temperature until it cooled to 40deg C. A colonoscope was used to determine the source position in patients being in a left lateral position on the table of the simulator. A piece of KSF was then molded around the patient to fit it over the gluteofemoral region in conformity with the body curvature. The position of the anus was confirmed and marked on the KSF. A cold towel was applied to the shell to harden it rapidly. When the KSF became transparent and hard, it was detached from the patient. A hole was made to insert the outer tube of the radiation source. A cylinder for immobilizing the outer tube was attached. The outer tube of the radiation source was inserted into the patient lying in a left lateral position on the radiotherapy couch. The shell was placed over the outer tube and hold in position on the patient using an elastic tape. The inner tube with its dummy source was introduced into the outer tube, and the source position was fluoroscopically determined. The shell and the inner tube were immobilized with a tape and irradiation was commenced. The newly developed shell was clinically used in 5 patients. The movement of the source during radiotherapy was compared with that in 5 other patients not using the shell. There were no significant differences in irradiation time between the groups, The movement of the source per unit time varied between 0 and 0.13 with a mean of 0.05 in the shell group and 0.09 and 0.60 with a mean of 0.48 in the non-shell group, with statistically significant difference. (N.K.)

  20. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoning; Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting; Sun, Kaikai; Hu, Xili; Wang, Yujiao; Xu, Xiaoqi

    2014-10-01

    Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  1. Strain in GaAs / InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Lepsa, Mihail Ion [Peter Gruenberg Institut 9, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The growth of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has attracted significant interest in recent years due to the possible fabrication of novel semiconductor devices for future electronic and opto-electronic applications. Compared to planar heterostructures, the nanowire approach offers an advantage regarding the possibility to form heterostructures between highly lattice mismatched systems, because the free surface of the nanowires allows to relieve the strain more efficiently. One particular way to form heterostructures in the NW geometry, is the fabrication of core-shell devices, in which a NW core is surrounded by a shell of different material. The understanding of the mutual strain between core and shell, as well as the relaxation behavior of the system are crucial for the fabrication of functional devices. In this contribution we report on first X-ray diffraction measurements of GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowires grown on GaAs(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. Using symmetric- and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, the relaxation state of the InAs shell as well as the strain in the GaAs core are measured as function of the InAs shell thickness, showing a gradual relaxation behavior of the shell.

  2. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  3. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  4. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  5. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  6. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  7. The design and fabrication of a toroidally continuous cryocondensation pump for the DIII-D Advanced Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Menon, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    A cryocondensation pump will be installed in the baffle chamber of the DIII-D tokamak in the spring of 1992. The design is complete and fabrication of this pump is in progress. The purpose of the pump is to study plasma density control by pumping the divertor. The pump is toroidally continuous, approximately 10 m long, in the lower outer corner of the vacuum vessel interior. It consists of a 1 m 2 liquid helium cooled surface surrounded by a liquid nitrogen cooled shield to limit the heat load on the helium cooled surface. The stainless steel liquid nitrogen shell has a copper coating on it to enhance thermal conductivity, but the coating is broken to keep the toroidal electrical resistance high. The liquid nitrogen cooled surface is surrounded by a radiation/particle shield to prevent energetic particles from impacting and releasing condensed water molecules. The whole pump is supported off the water cooled vacuum vessel wall. Key design considerations were: how to accommodate the temperature differences between the various components, developing low heat leak paths for the various supports, and maintaining electrical insulation in a low pressure environment in the presence of induced voltage spikes. A single point ground for the system was used to limit disruption induced currents and the resulting electro-mechanical forces on the pump. A testing program was used to develop coating techniques to enhance heat transfer and emissivity of the various surfaces. Fabrication tests were done to determine the best method of attaching the liquid nitrogen flow tubes to their shield surfaces. A prototype sector of the pump was built to verify fabrication and assembly techniques

  8. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  9. Patterning of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Cebra-Thomas, Judith; Gilbert, Scott F

    2017-08-01

    Interest in the origin and evolution of the turtle shell has resulted in a most unlikely clade becoming an important research group for investigating morphological diversity in developmental biology. Many turtles generate a two-component shell that nearly surrounds the body in a bony exoskeleton. The ectoderm covering the shell produces epidermal scutes that form a phylogenetically stable pattern. In some lineages, the bones of the shell and their ectodermal covering become reduced or lost, and this is generally associated with different ecological habits. The similarity and diversity of turtles allows research into how changes in development create evolutionary novelty, interacting modules, and adaptive physiology and anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Featured Image: Identifying a Glowing Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    New nebulae are being discovered and classified every day and this false-color image reveals one of the more recent objects of interest. This nebula, IPHASX J210204.7+471015, was recently imaged by the Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera mounted on the 2.5-m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma, Spain. J210204 was initially identified as a possible planetary nebula a remnant left behind at the end of a red giants lifetime. Based on the above imaging, however, a team of authors led by Martn Guerrero (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain) is arguing that this shell of glowing gas was instead expelled around a classical nova. In a classical nova eruption, a white dwarf and its binary companion come very close together, and mass transfers to form a thin atmosphere of hydrogen around the white dwarf. When this hydrogen suddenly ignites in runaway fusion, this outer atmosphere can be expelled, forming a short-lived nova remnant which is what Guerrero and collaborators think were seeing with J210204. If so, this nebula can reveal information about the novathat caused it. To find out more about what the authors learned from this nebula, check out the paper below.CitationMartn A. Guerrero et al 2018 ApJ 857 80. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aab669

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Optimization of Jatropha Sheller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. TING

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A study designed, fabricated, and optimized performance of a jatropha sheller, consisting of mainframe, rotary cylinder, stationary cylinder, transmission system. Evaluation and optimization considered moisture content, clearance, and roller speed as independent parameters while the responses comprised of recovery, bulk density factor, shelling capacity, energy utilization of sheller, whole kernel recovery, oil recovery, and energy utilization by extruder.Moisture content failed to affect the response variables. The clearance affected response variables except energy utilization of the extruder. Roller speed affected shelling capacity, whole kernel recovery, and energy utilization of the extruder. Optimization resulted in operating conditions of 9.5%wb moisture content, clearance of 6 mm, and roller speed of 750 rpm.

  12. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (74-90 mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments. Under severe accident loading conditions, the steel containment vessel in a typical Mark-I or Mark-II plant may deform under internal pressurization such that it contacts the inner surface of a shield building wall. (Thermal expansion from increasing accident temperatures would also close the gap between the SCV and the shield building, but temperature effects are not considered in these analyses.) The amount and location of contact and the pressure at which it occurs all affect how the combined structure behaves. A preliminary finite element model has been developed to analyze a model of a typical steel containment vessel con-ling into contact with an outer structure. Both the steel containment vessel and the outer contact structure were modelled with axisymmetric shell finite elements. Of particular interest are the influence that the contact structure has on deformation and potential failure modes of the containment vessel. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction between the two structures was varied to study its effects on the behavior of the containment vessel and on the uplift loads transmitted to the contact structure. These analyses show that the material properties of an outer contact structure and the amount

  13. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  14. Modeling the Electrostatics of Hollow Shell Suspensions: Ion Distribution, Pair Interactions, and Many-Body Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, Yannick; Meireles, Martine

    2016-10-11

    Electrostatic interactions play a key role in hollow shell suspensions as they determine their structure, stability, thermodynamics, and rheology and also the loading capacity of small charged species for nanoreservoir applications. In this work, fast, reliable modeling strategies aimed at predicting the electrostatics of hollow shells for one, two, and many colloids are proposed and validated. The electrostatic potential inside and outside a hollow shell with a finite thickness and a specific permittivity is determined analytically in the Debye-Hückel (DH) limit. An expression for the interaction potential between two such hollow shells is then derived and validated numerically. It follows a classical Yukawa form with an effective charge depending on the shell geometry, permittivity, and inner and outer surface charge densities. The predictions of the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation with this pair potential to determine equations of state are then evaluated by comparison to results obtained with a Brownian dynamics algorithm coupled to the resolution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann and Laplace equations (PB-BD simulations). The OZ equation based on the DLVO-like potential performs very well in the dilute regime as expected, but also quite well, and more surprisingly, in the concentrated regime in which full spheres exhibit significant many-body effects. These effects are shown to vanish for shells with small thickness and high permittivity. For highly charged hollow shells, we propose and validate a charge renormalization procedure. Finally, using PB-BD simulations, we show that the cell model predicts the ion distribution inside and outside hollow shells accurately in both electrostatically dilute and concentrated suspensions. We then determine the shell loading capacity as a function of salt concentration, volume fraction, and surface charge density for nanoreservoir applications such as drug delivery, sensing, or smart coatings.

  15. HR Del REMNANT ANATOMY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL DATA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOIONIZATION SHELL MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Manoel; Diaz, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    The HR Del nova remnant was observed with the IFU-GMOS at Gemini North. The spatially resolved spectral data cube was used in the kinematic, morphological, and abundance analysis of the ejecta. The line maps show a very clumpy shell with two main symmetric structures. The first one is the outer part of the shell seen in Hα, which forms two rings projected in the sky plane. These ring structures correspond to a closed hourglass shape, first proposed by Harman and O'Brien. The equatorial emission enhancement is caused by the superimposed hourglass structures in the line of sight. The second structure seen only in the [O III] and [N II] maps is located along the polar directions inside the hourglass structure. Abundance gradients between the polar caps and equatorial region were not found. However, the outer part of the shell seems to be less abundant in oxygen and nitrogen than the inner regions. Detailed 2.5-dimensional photoionization modeling of the three-dimensional shell was performed using the mass distribution inferred from the observations and the presence of mass clumps. The resulting model grids are used to constrain the physical properties of the shell as well as the central ionizing source. A sequence of three-dimensional clumpy models including a disk-shaped ionization source is able to reproduce the ionization gradients between polar and equatorial regions of the shell. Differences between shell axial ratios in different lines can also be explained by aspherical illumination. A total shell mass of 9 x 10 -4 M sun is derived from these models. We estimate that 50%-70% of the shell mass is contained in neutral clumps with density contrast up to a factor of 30.

  16. The Design of 3D-Printed Lattice-Reinforced Thickness-Varying Shell Molds for Castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Haolong; Kang, Jinwu; Yi, Jihao; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Haibin; Huang, Tao

    2018-03-30

    3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first step is the discretization of the STL (Stereo Lithography) model of a casting into finite difference meshes. After this, a shell is formed by surrounding the casting with varying thickness, which is roughly proportional to the surface temperature distribution of the casting that is acquired by virtually cooling it in the environment. A regular lattice is subsequently constructed to support the shell. The outside surface of the shell and lattice in the cubic mesh format is then converted to STL format to serve as the external surface of the new shell mold. The internal surface of the new mold is the casting's surface with the normals of all of the triangles in STL format reversed. Experimental verification was performed on an Al alloy wheel hub casting. Its lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold was generated by the proposed method and fabricated by the binder jetting 3D printing. The poured wheel hub casting was sound and of good surface smoothness. The cooling rate of the wheel hub casting was greatly increased due to the shell mold structure. This lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold generation method is of great significance for mold design for castings to achieve cooling control.

  17. The Design of 3D-Printed Lattice-Reinforced Thickness-Varying Shell Molds for Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Haolong; Kang, Jinwu; Yi, Jihao; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Haibin; Huang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first step is the discretization of the STL (Stereo Lithography) model of a casting into finite difference meshes. After this, a shell is formed by surrounding the casting with varying thickness, which is roughly proportional to the surface temperature distribution of the casting that is acquired by virtually cooling it in the environment. A regular lattice is subsequently constructed to support the shell. The outside surface of the shell and lattice in the cubic mesh format is then converted to STL format to serve as the external surface of the new shell mold. The internal surface of the new mold is the casting’s surface with the normals of all of the triangles in STL format reversed. Experimental verification was performed on an Al alloy wheel hub casting. Its lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold was generated by the proposed method and fabricated by the binder jetting 3D printing. The poured wheel hub casting was sound and of good surface smoothness. The cooling rate of the wheel hub casting was greatly increased due to the shell mold structure. This lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold generation method is of great significance for mold design for castings to achieve cooling control. PMID:29601543

  18. The Design of 3D-Printed Lattice-Reinforced Thickness-Varying Shell Molds for Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haolong Shangguan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technologies have been used gradually for the fabrication of sand molds and cores for castings, even though these molds and cores are dense structures. In this paper, a generation method for lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell molds is proposed and presented. The first step is the discretization of the STL (Stereo Lithography model of a casting into finite difference meshes. After this, a shell is formed by surrounding the casting with varying thickness, which is roughly proportional to the surface temperature distribution of the casting that is acquired by virtually cooling it in the environment. A regular lattice is subsequently constructed to support the shell. The outside surface of the shell and lattice in the cubic mesh format is then converted to STL format to serve as the external surface of the new shell mold. The internal surface of the new mold is the casting’s surface with the normals of all of the triangles in STL format reversed. Experimental verification was performed on an Al alloy wheel hub casting. Its lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold was generated by the proposed method and fabricated by the binder jetting 3D printing. The poured wheel hub casting was sound and of good surface smoothness. The cooling rate of the wheel hub casting was greatly increased due to the shell mold structure. This lattice-reinforced thickness-varying shell mold generation method is of great significance for mold design for castings to achieve cooling control.

  19. Facile synthesis and excellent microwave absorption properties of FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bingbing; Wang, Shiliang; Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Lin, Liangwu; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; He, Jun

    2018-02-01

    FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 10-50 nm have been fabricated on a large scale by one-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using the mixture of cobalt acetylacetonate and iron acetylacetonate as the precursor. The Fe/Co molar ratio of the alloy nanocores and graphitization degree of C shells, and thus the magnetic and electric properties of the core-shell NPs, can be tuned by the deposition temperature ranging from 700 °C to 900 °C. Comparative tests reveal that a relatively high Fe/Co molar ratio and low graphitization degree benefit the microwave absorption (MA) performance of the core-shell NPs. The composite with 20 wt% core-shell NP obtained at 800 °C and 80 wt% paraffin exhibits an optimal reflection loss ({{R}}{{L}}) of -60.4 dB at 7.5 GHz with a thickness of 3.3 mm, and an effective absorption bandwidth (frequency range for RL ≤10 dB) of 9.2 GHz (8.8-18.0 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 2.5 mm. Our study provides a facile route for the fabrication of alloy-C core-shell nanostructures with high MA performance.

  20. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti

    2012-09-04

    This paper constitutes the first steps in our work concerning isogeometric shell analysis. An isogeometric shell model of the Reissner-Mindlin type is introduced and a study of its accuracy in the classical pinched cylinder benchmark problem presented. In contrast to earlier works [1,2,3,4], the formulation is based on a shell model where the displacement, strain and stress fields are defined in terms of a curvilinear coordinate system arising from the NURBS description of the shell middle surface. The isogeometric shell formulation is implemented using the PetIGA and igakit software packages developed by the authors. The igakit package is a Python package used to generate NURBS representations of geometries that can be utilised by the PetIGA finite element framework. The latter utilises data structures and routines of the portable, extensible toolkit for scientific computation (PETSc), [5,6]. The current shell implementation is valid for static, linear problems only, but the software package is well suited for future extensions to geometrically and materially nonlinear regime as well as to dynamic problems. The accuracy of the approach in the pinched cylinder benchmark problem and present comparisons against the h-version of the finite element method with bilinear elements. Quadratic, cubic and quartic NURBS discretizations are compared against the isoparametric bilinear discretization introduced in [7]. The results show that the quadratic and cubic NURBS approximations exhibit notably slower convergence under uniform mesh refinement as the thickness decreases but the quartic approximation converges relatively quickly within the standard variational framework. The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  1. Creep buckling of shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the characteristics of LMFBR primary piping components (thin-walled, low pressure, high temperature), the designer must guard against creep buckling as a potential failure mode for certain critical regions, such as elbows, where structural flexibility and inelastic response may combine to concentrate deformation and cause instability. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, through its elevated temperature Code Case 1592 (Section III, Division 1) provides design rules for Class 1 components aimed at preventing creep buckling during the design life. A similar set of rules is being developed for Class 2 and 3 components at this time. One of the original concepts behind the creep buckling rules was that the variability in creep properties (especially due to the effects of prior heat treatment), the uncertainty about initial imperfections, and the lack of confirmed accuracy of design analysis meant that conservatism would be difficult to assure. As a result, a factor of ten on service life was required (i.e. analysis must show that, under service conditions that extrapolate the life of the component by ten times, creep buckling does not occur). Two obvious problems with this approach are that: first, the creep behavior must also be extrapolated (since most creep experiments are terminated at a small fraction of the design life, extrapolation of creep data is already an issue, irrespective of the creep buckling question); second the nonlinear creep analysis, which is very nearly prohibitively expensive for design life histograms, becomes even more costly. Analytical results for an aluminum cylindrical shell subjected to axial loads at elevated temperatures are used to examine the supposed equivalence of two types of time-dependent buckling safety factors - a factor of ten on service life and a factor of 1.5 on loading

  2. Coaxial electro-spun PEG/PA6 composite fibers: Fabrication and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babapoor, Aziz; Karimi, Gholamreza; Golestaneh, Seyyed Iman; Mezjin, Mehdi Ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Core-shell PCM nanofibers are fabricated by coaxial electrospinning. • PEG1000 (core) and PA6 (shell) are used to fabricate nanofibers. • The peak temperature is increased by raising the PEG concentration. • The shell structure can prevent PEG leakage at high temperatures. - Abstract: Energy storage systems have been recognized as one of the most important technologies for conservation and utilization of renewable energy sources. In this study, core-shell phase change material (PCM) nanofibers were fabricated by using coaxial electrospinning of polyethylene glycol (PEG1000) as the core material (i.e., PCM) and polyamide 6 (PA6) as the shell (supporting) material. The effects of inner core solution flow rate and PEG content on the morphology, structure, and phase change behavior of the produced composite fibers were studied thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimental results indicated that by increasing the flow rate of the core solution, slightly thicker fibers can be produced, and the onset temperature of melting is reduced. Also, as the PEG concentration rises, the peak temperature increases and higher amounts of latent heat enthalpy are achieved. The results indicate that the fabricated core-shell structure has almost resolved the leakage instability normally associated with other types of PCM fibers and hence, has the potential to improve thermal storage capacity.

  3. Design and fabrication of Ni nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-10-07

    We propose a concept for the design and fabrication of metal nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures inside the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using a sacrificial metal. In this study, nickel (Ni) and silver (Ag) were used as the base metal and the sacrificial metal, respectively. Alternating an applied potential between -0.4 and -1.0 V provided alternatively deposited Ni and Ag segments in a Ni-Ag 'barcode' nanowire with a diameter of 18 or 35 nm. After etching away the Ag segments, we fabricated Ni nanowires with nanopores of 12 ± 5.3 nm. Such nanostructure formation is explained by the formation of a Ni shell layer over the surface of the Ag segments due to the strong affinity of Ni(2+) for the interior surfaces of AAO. The Ni shell layer allows the Ni segments to remain even after dissolution of the Ag segments. Because the electroplating conditions can be easily controlled, we could carefully adjust the size and pitch of the periodically hollow nanospaces. We also describe a method for the fabrication of Ni nanorods by forming an Ag shell instead of a Ni shell on the Ni-Ag barcode nanowire, in which the interior of the AAO surfaces was modified with a compound bearing a thiol group prior to electroplating.

  4. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-02

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles.

  5. Elastic stability of cylindrical shells with soft elastic cores: Biomimicking natural tubular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gebran Nizar

    1994-01-01

    Thin walled cylindrical shell structures are widespread in nature: examples include plant stems, porcupine quills, and hedgehog spines. All have an outer shell of almost fully dense material supported by a low density, cellular core. In nature, all are loaded in combination of axial compression and bending: failure is typically by buckling. Natural structures are often optimized. Here we have analyzed the elastic buckling of a thin cylindrical shell supported by an elastic core to show that this structural configuration achieves significant weight saving over a hollow cylinder. The results of the analysis are compared with data from an extensive experimental program on uniaxial compression and four point bending tests on silicone rubber shells with and without compliant foam cores. The analysis describes the results of the mechanical tests well. Characterization of the microstructures of several natural tubular structures with foamlike cores (plant stems, quills, and spines) revealed them to be close to the optimal configurations predicted by the analytical model. Biomimicking of natural cylindrical shell structures and evolutionary design processes may offer the potential to increase the mechanical efficiency of engineering cylindrical shells.

  6. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  7. Ageing of the LHCb outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, M R; Tuning, N

    2009-01-01

    The modules of the LHCb outer tracker have shown to suffer severe gain loss under moderate irradiation. This process is called ageing. Ageing of the modules results from contamination of the gas system by glue, araldite AY 103-1, used in their construction. In this thesis the ageing process will be shown. The schemes known to reduce, reverse, or prevent ageing have been investigated to determine their effect on the detector performance. The addition of O2 to the gas mixture lowers the detector response by an acceptable amount and does not affect the gas transport properties significantly. The ageing rate is decreased after extensive flushing and HV training could eventually repair the irradiation damage. The risks of HV training have been assessed. Furthermore, several gaseous and aquatic additions have been tested for their capability to prevent, or moderate ageing, but none showed significant improvement.

  8. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth close-quote s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.copyright 1997 American Geophysical Union

  9. Fabrication of cell outer membrane mimetic polymer brush on polysulfone surface via RAFT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qian; Zhang Hui; Zhao Jiang; Gong Yongkuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone surface. ► Graft density and polymerization degree were calculated from XPS results. ► Water contact angle measurements showed an extremely hydrophilic surface. ► Platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results suggested excellent antifouling ability. - Abstract: Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone (PSF) membrane by surface-induced reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The RAFT agent immobilized PSF substrate was prepared by successive chloromethylation, amination with ethylenediamine (EDA) and amidation of the amine group of grafted EDA with the carboxylic group of 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithiobenzoate (CPAD). The surface RAFT polymerization of MPC was initiated in aqueous solution by 4,4′-azobis-4-cyanopentanoic acid (ACPA). The formation of PMPC brush coating is evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. The degree of polymerization of PMPC and the polymer grafting density were calculated from the high resolution XPS spectra. The platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results showed that the PMPC-grafted PSF surface has excellent antifouling ability to resist platelet adhesion completely and suppress protein adsorption significantly. This biomimetic and bio-friendly surface RAFT polymerization strategy could be promising for a variety of biomedical applications.

  10. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  11. Core–Shell Electrospun Hollow Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Rajala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, core–shell electrospinning was employed as a simple method for the fabrication of composite coaxial polymer fibers that became hollow ceramic tubes when calcined at high temperature. The shell polymer solution consisted of polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP in ethanol mixed with an aluminum acetate solution to act as a ceramic precursor. The core polymer was recycled polystyrene to act as a sacrificial polymer that burned off during calcination. The resulting fibers were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS to confirm the presence of gamma-phase aluminum oxide when heated at temperatures above 700 °C. The fiber diameter decreased from 987 ± 19 nm to 382 ± 152 nm after the calcination process due to the polymer material being burned off. The wall thickness of these fibers is estimated to be 100 nm.

  12. Towards hybrid biocompatible magnetic rHuman serum albumin-based nanoparticles: use of ultra-small (CeLn)3/4+ cation-doped maghemite nanoparticles as functional shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Liron L.; Kovalenko, Elena I.; Boyko, Anna A.; Sapozhnikov, Alexander M.; Rosenberger, Ina; Kreuter, Jörg; Passoni, Lorena; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a protein found in human blood. Over the last decade, HSA has been evaluated as a promising drug carrier. However, not being magnetic, HSA cannot be used for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic drug targeting. Therefore, subsequent composites building on iron oxide nanoparticles that are already used clinically as MRI contrast agents are extensively studied. Recently and in this context, innovative fully hydrophilic ultra-small CAN-stabilized maghemite ((CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been readily fabricated. The present study discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of a dual phase hybrid core (rHSA)-shell ((CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3 NPs) nanosystem. Quite importantly and in contrast to widely used encapsulation strategies, rHSA NP surface-attached (CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3 NPs enabled to exploit both rHSA (protein functionalities) and (CeLn)3/4+-γ-Fe2O3 NP surface functionalities (COOH and ligand L coordinative exchange) in addition to very effective MRI contrast capability due to optimal accessibility of H2O molecules with the outer magnetic phase. Resulting hybrid nanoparticles might be used as a platform modular system for therapeutic (drug delivery system) and MR diagnostic purposes.

  13. Towards hybrid biocompatible magnetic rHuman serum albumin-based nanoparticles: use of ultra-small (CeLn)3/4+ cation-doped maghemite nanoparticles as functional shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, Liron L; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Kovalenko, Elena I; Boyko, Anna A; Sapozhnikov, Alexander M; Rosenberger, Ina; Kreuter, Jörg; Passoni, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a protein found in human blood. Over the last decade, HSA has been evaluated as a promising drug carrier. However, not being magnetic, HSA cannot be used for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic drug targeting. Therefore, subsequent composites building on iron oxide nanoparticles that are already used clinically as MRI contrast agents are extensively studied. Recently and in this context, innovative fully hydrophilic ultra-small CAN-stabilized maghemite ((CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles have been readily fabricated. The present study discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of a dual phase hybrid core (rHSA)-shell ((CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs) nanosystem. Quite importantly and in contrast to widely used encapsulation strategies, rHSA NP surface-attached (CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs enabled to exploit both rHSA (protein functionalities) and (CeL n ) 3/4+ -γ-Fe 2 O 3 NP surface functionalities (COOH and ligand L coordinative exchange) in addition to very effective MRI contrast capability due to optimal accessibility of H 2 O molecules with the outer magnetic phase. Resulting hybrid nanoparticles might be used as a platform modular system for therapeutic (drug delivery system) and MR diagnostic purposes. (paper)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of thermal energy storage microencapsulated n-dodecanol with acrylic polymer shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yanjie; Zong, Jiwen; Li, Wei; Chen, Long; Tang, Xiaofen; Han, Na; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Two kinds of (microencapsulated phase change materials) MicroPCMs with acrylic-based copolymer as shell and n-dodecanol as core were successfully fabricated via suspension-like polymerization and photo-induced microencapsulation, respectively. Morphology and core–shell structure were observed by (field emission scanning electron microscope) FE-SEM. Thermal properties of the microencapsulated n-dodecanol were investigated by (differential scanning calorimeter) DSC and (thermogravimetric analysis) TGA. The results indicate that the mass ratio of core to shell has great influence on the morphology, inner structure, microencapsulated efficiency and durability of the microcapsules. Besides, the effects of various solvents and UV irridiation time on the microcapsule surface were discussed as well. In the experiment carried out, metal-ion complexation was conducted by the reaction between Mn ion and carboxyl groups on copolymer shell to enhance the performance of the microcapsules with n-dodecanol encapsulated. As the results indicate, the physicochemical properties and thermal conductivity of the shell were improved after Mn ion complexation reaction. Supercooling phenomenon of n-dodecanol was depressed to some extent. In the end, the thermo-regulated fiber containing acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules was fabricated, and thermo-regulated performance test of the fiber was also conducted. - Graphical abstract: (a)∼(d) schematic diagram of microencapsulation and (e) microcapsule with core–shell structure. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol with acrylic polymer shell. • Microencapsulated n-dodecanol was fabricated by photo-induced microencapsulation. • Acrylic-based copolymer microcapsules with manganese-ion complexation

  15. Minimizing shell-and-tube heat exchanger cost with genetic algorithms and considering maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildi-Tremblay, P.; Gosselin, L. [Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de genie mecanique

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents a procedure for minimizing the cost of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger based on genetic algorithms (GA). The global cost includes the operating cost (pumping power) and the initial cost expressed in terms of annuities. Eleven design variables associated with shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometries are considered: tube pitch, tube layout patterns, number of tube passes, baffle spacing at the centre, baffle spacing at the inlet and outlet, baffle cut, tube-to-baffle diametrical clearance, shell-to-baffle diametrical clearance, tube bundle outer diameter, shell diameter, and tube outer diameter. Evaluations of the heat exchangers performances are based on an adapted version of the Bell-Delaware method. Pressure drops constraints are included in the procedure. Reliability and maintenance due to fouling are taken into account by restraining the coefficient of increase of surface into a given interval. Two case studies are presented. Results show that the procedure can properly and rapidly identify the optimal design for a specified heat transfer process. (author)

  16. Architected Lattices with High Stiffness and Toughness via Multicore-Shell 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jochen; Raney, Jordan R; Shea, Kristina; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2018-03-01

    The ability to create architected materials that possess both high stiffness and toughness remains an elusive goal, since these properties are often mutually exclusive. Natural materials, such as bone, overcome such limitations by combining different toughening mechanisms across multiple length scales. Here, a new method for creating architected lattices composed of core-shell struts that are both stiff and tough is reported. Specifically, these lattices contain orthotropic struts with flexible epoxy core-brittle epoxy shell motifs in the absence and presence of an elastomeric silicone interfacial layer, which are fabricated by a multicore-shell, 3D printing technique. It is found that architected lattices produced with a flexible core-elastomeric interface-brittle shell motif exhibit both high stiffness and toughness. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fabrication of Phase-Change Polymer Colloidal Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of phase-change polymer colloidal photonic crystals (PCs by assembling hollow latex spheres encapsulated with dodecanol for the first time. The monodispersed hollow latex spheres were obtained by phase reversion of monodispersed core-shell latex spheres in the n-hexane, which dissolves the PS core and retains the PMMA/PAA shell. The as-prepared phase-change colloidal PCs show stable phase-change behavior. This fabrication of phase-change colloidal PCs would be significant for PC’s applications in functional coatings and various optic devices.

  18. Electroless nickel – phosphorus coating on crab shell particles and its characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulvel, S., E-mail: gs.arulvel.research@gmail.com; Elayaperumal, A.; Jagatheeshwaran, M.S.

    2017-04-15

    Being hydrophilic material, crab shell particles have only a limited number of applications. It is, therefore, necessary to modify the surface of the crab shell particles. To make them useful ever for the applications, the main theme we proposed in this article is to utilize crab shell particles (CSP) with the core coated with nickel phosphorus (NiP) as a shell using the electroless coating process. For dealing with serious environmental problems, utilization of waste bio-shells is always an important factor to be considered. Chelating ability of crab shell particles eliminates the surface activation in this work proceeding to the coating process. The functional group, phase structure, microstructure, chemical composition and thermal analysis of CSP and NiP/CSP were characterized using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction analyzer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The combination of an amorphous and crystalline structure was exhibited by CSP and NiP/CSP. NiP/CSP has shown a better thermal stability when compared to uncoated CSP. Stability test, adsorption test, and conductivity test were conducted for the study of adsorption behavior and conductivity of the particles. CSP presented a hydrophilic property in contrast to hydrophobic NiP/CSP. NiP/CSP presented a conductivity of about 44% greater compared to the CSP without any fluctuations. - Highlights: • Utilization of crab shell waste is focused on. • NiP coating on crab shell particle is fabricated using electroless process. • Thermal analysis, stability test, adsorption test and conductivity test were done. • Organic matrix of crab shell particle favors the coating process. • Results demonstrate the characterization of CSP core – NiP shell structure.

  19. Enhanced energy storage and suppressed dielectric loss in oxide core-shell-polyolefin nanocomposites by moderating internal surface area and increasing shell thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredin, Lisa A.; Li, Zhong; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J. [Department of Chemistry Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lanagan, Michael T. [Center for Dielectric Studies, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-4800 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Dielectric loss in metal oxide core/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell polypropylene nanocomposites scales with the particle surface area. By moderating the interfacial surface area between the phases and using increasing shell thicknesses, dielectric loss is significantly reduced, and thus the energy stored within, and recoverable from, capacitors fabricated from these materials is significantly increased, to as high as 2.05 J/cm{sup 3}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. From core/shell to hollow Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles: evolution of the magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Z; Khurshid, H; Alonso, J; Phan, M H; Mukherjee, P; Srikanth, H

    2015-01-01

    High quality Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 core/shell, core/void/shell, and hollow nanoparticles with two different sizes of 8 and 12 nm were synthesized, and the effect of morphology, surface and finite-size effects on their magnetic properties including the exchange bias (EB) effect were systematically investigated. We find a general trend for both systems that as the morphology changes from core/shell to core/void/shell, the magnetization of the system decays and inter-particle interactions become weaker, while the effective anisotropy and the EB effect increase. The changes are more drastic when the nanoparticles become completely hollow. Noticeably, the morphological change from core/shell to hollow increases the mean blocking temperature for the 12 nm particles but decreases for the 8 nm particles. The low-temperature magnetic behavior of the 12 nm particles changes from a collective super-spin-glass system mediated by dipolar interactions for the core/shell nanoparticles to a frustrated cluster glass-like state for the shell nanograins in the hollow morphology. On the other hand for the 8 nm nanoparticles core/shell and hollow particles the magnetic behavior is more similar, and a conventional spin glass-like transition is obtained at low temperatures. In the case of the hollow nanoparticles, the coupling between the inner and outer spin layers in the shell gives rise to an enhanced EB effect, which increases with increasing shell thickness. This indicates that the morphology of the shell plays a crucial role in this kind of exchange-biased systems. (paper)

  1. Three-dimensional core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} @ carbon/carbon cloth as binder-free anode for the high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Miao [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Liu, Enzuo, E-mail: ezliu@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China); He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); He, Chunnian [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China); Li, Jiajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhao, Naiqin, E-mail: nqzhao@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composites and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300350 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The 3D core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C/CC structure is fabricated by simple hydrothermal route. • The composite connected 3D carbon networks consist of carbon cloth, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods and outer carbon layer. • The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@C/CC used as binder-free anode in LIBs, demonstrates excellent performances. - Abstract: A facile and scalable strategy is developed to fabricate three dimensional core-shell Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} @ carbon/carbon cloth structure by simple hydrothermal route as binder-free lithium-ion battery anode. In the unique structure, carbon coated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods uniformly disperse on carbon cloth which forms the conductive carbon network. The hierarchical porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods in situ grown on the carbon cloth can effectively shorten the transfer paths of lithium ions and reduce the contact resistance. The carbon coating significantly inhibits pulverization of active materials during the repeated Li-ion insertion/extraction, as well as the direct exposure of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the electrolyte. Benefiting from the structural integrity and flexibility, the nanocomposites used as binder-free anode for lithium-ion batteries, demonstrate high reversible capacity and excellent cyclability. Moreover, this kind of material represents an alternative promising candidate for flexible, cost-effective, and binder-free energy storage devices.

  2. Creep buckling of shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Hagihara, Seiya

    2015-01-01

    The present article contains a review of the literatures on the creep buckling of shell structures published from late 1950's to recent years. In this article, the creep buckling studies on circular cylindrical shells, spherical shells, partial cylindrical shells and other shells are reviewed in addition to creep buckling criteria. Creep buckling is categorized into two types. One is the creep buckling due to quasi-static instability, in which the critical time for creep buckling is determined by tracing a creep deformation versus time curve. The other is the creep buckling due to kinetic instability, in which the critical time can be determined by examining the shape of total potential energy in the vicinity of a quasi-static equilibrium state. Bifurcation buckling and snap-through buckling during creep deformation belong to this type of creep buckling. A few detailed descriptions are given to the bifurcation and snap-through type of creep buckling based on the present authors' works. (author)

  3. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  4. Fabrication of divertor cassette for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguinetti, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Divertor is the component located on the bottom of the ITER vacuum vessel, whose main function is to adsorb the high thermal flux generated by the plasma whilst keeping the plasma impurity at a reasonable low level. The divertor consist of 54 units, each comprising outer components, facing the plasma and a component supporting the plasma facing components (PFC) and providing coolant distribution to them (divertor cassette). The divertor cassette is a box structure, butt welded and machined, made from plates and forgins of austenitic stainless steels. The cassette fabrication, which is in detail described, includes manufacturing of the attachments of the PFC to the cassette, the coolant distribution channels, and the cassette to vacuum vessel locking system. The divertor cassette is a pressure component (the cooling water runs at 40 bar) and therefore divertor cassette design, fabrication and service shall comply with the European PED and the applicable French law for the ITER. (orig.)

  5. Outer Radiation Belt Dropout Dynamics Following the Arrival of Two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, sing satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (C) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 day long quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L 5.5can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shownto be viable mechanisms.

  6. Oblique propagating electromagnetic ion - Cyclotron instability with A.C. field in outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. S.; Singh, Vikrant; Rani, Anju; Varughese, George; Singh, K. M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper Oblique propagating electromagnetic ion-cyclotron wave has been analyzed for anisotropic multi ion plasma (H+, He+, O+ ions) in earth magnetosphere for the Dione shell of L=7 i.e., the outer radiation belt of the magnetosphere for Loss-cone distribution function with a spectral index j in the presence of A.C. electric field. Detail for particle trajectories and dispersion relation has been derived by using the method of characteristic solution on the basis of wave particle interaction and transformation of energy. Results for the growth rate have been calculated numerically for various parameters and have been compared for different ions present in magnetosphere. It has been found that for studying the wave over wider spectrum, anisotropy for different values of j should be taken. The effect of frequency of A.C. electric field and angle which propagation vector make with magnetic field, on growth rate has been explained.

  7. Core-Shell Composite Fibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Zeyang; Barrios, Elizabeth; Zhai, Lei

    2018-01-31

    Core-shell nanofibers containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and manganese oxide nanoparticles as the core and polypyrrole (PPy) as the shell were fabricated through electrospinning the solution of PAA and manganese ions (PAA/Mn 2+ ). The obtained nanofibers were stabilized by Fe 3+ through the interaction between Fe 3+ ions and carboxylate groups. Subsequent oxidation of Mn 2+ by KMnO 4 produced uniform manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) nanoparticles in the fibers. A PPy shell was created on the fibers by immersing the fibers in a pyrrole solution where the Fe 3+ ions in the fiber polymerized the pyrrole on the fiber surfaces. In the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers, MnO 2 nanoparticles function as high-capacity materials, while the PPy shell prevents the loss of MnO 2 during the charge/discharge process. Such a unique structure makes the composite fibers efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. The gravimetric specific capacity of the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers was 564 F/g based on cyclic voltammetry curves at 10 mV/s and 580 F/g based on galvanostatic charge/discharge studies at 5 A/g. The MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers also present stable cycling performance with 100% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  8. Experimental buckling investigation of ring-stiffened cylindrical shells under unsymmetrical axial loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.E.; Babock, C.D.; Bennett, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Six steel shells having nuclear containment-like features were fabricated and loaded to failure with an offset axial load. The shells of R/t = 500 buckled plastically. Four of the shells had reinforced circular cutouts. These penetrations were sized to cut no ring-stiffener, a single, two- or three-ring stiffeners. Reinforcing and framing around the penetrations were based upon the area-replacement rule of the applicable portion of the American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and were of a design to stimulate actual practice for nuclear steel containments. Prior to testing, imperfections were measured and strain gages were applied to determine information on load distribution at the ends of the cylinder and strain fields at areas likely to buckle. Buckling loads were determined for an axial load applied with an eccentricity of R/2 where R is the cylinder radius. The results showed that the buckling load and mode for the shell having a penetration that did not cut a ring stiffener were essentially the same as those for the unpenetrated shell. The buckling loads for the penetrated shells in which stiffeners were interrupted were less than that for the unpenetrated shells. Results of all tests are compared to numerical solutions carried out using a nonlinear collapse analysis and to the predictions of ASME Code Case N-284

  9. Study on reinforced lightweight coconut shell concrete beam behavior under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, K.; Ramasubramani, R.; Annadurai, R.; Prakash Chandar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of coconut shell as aggregate in concrete production. • Behavior of coconut shell concrete under torsion. • Pre and post cracking behavior and analysis. • Torsional reinforcement and ductility. • Crack width and stiffness. - Abstract: This research investigates and evaluates the results of coconut shell concrete beams subjected to torsion and compared with conventional concrete beams. Eight beams, four with coconut shell concrete and four with conventional concrete were fabricated and tested. Study includes the general cracking characteristics, pre cracking behavior and analysis, post cracking behavior and analysis, minimum torsional reinforcement, torsional reinforcement, ductility, crack width and stiffness. It was observed that the torsional behavior of coconut shell concrete is comparable to that of conventional concrete. Compare to ACI prediction, equation suggested by Macgregor is more conservative in calculating cracking torsional resistance. But for the calculation of ultimate torque strength ACI prediction is more conservative compared to the equation suggested by Macgregor. Indian standard is also conservative in this regard, but it was under estimated compared to ACI and Macgregor equations. Minimum torsional reinforcement in beams is necessary to ensure that the beam do not fail at cracking. Compared to conventional concrete specimens, coconut shell concrete specimens have more ductility. Crack width at initial cracking torque for both conventional and coconut shell concrete with corresponding reinforcement ratios is almost similar

  10. Cenosphere formation from heavy fuel oil: a numerical analysis accounting for the balance between porous shells and internal pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2016-01-18

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) as a fuel in industrial and power generation plants ensures the availability of energy at economy. Coke and cenosphere emissions from HFO combustion need to be controlled by particulate control equipment such as electrostatic precipitators, and collection effectiveness is impacted by the properties of these particulates. The cenosphere formation is a function of HFO composition, which varies depending on the source of the HFO. Numerical modelling of the cenosphere formation mechanism presented in this paper is an economical method of characterising cenosphere formation potential for HFO in comparison to experimental analysis of individual HFO samples, leading to better control and collection. In the present work, a novel numerical model is developed for understanding the global cenosphere formation mechanism. The critical diameter of the cenosphere is modelled based on the balance between two pressures developed in an HFO droplet. First is the pressure (Prpf) developed at the interface of the liquid surface and the inner surface of the accumulated coke due to the flow restriction of volatile components from the interior of the droplet. Second is the pressure due to the outer shell strength (PrC) gained from van der Walls energy of the coke layers and surface energy. In this present study it is considered that when PrC ≥ Prpf the outer shell starts to harden. The internal motion in the shell layer ceases and the outer diameter (DSOut) of the shell is then fixed. The entire process of cenosphere formation in this study is analysed in three phases: regression, shell formation and hardening, and post shell hardening. Variations in pressures during shell formation are analysed. Shell (cenosphere) dimensions are evaluated at the completion of droplet evaporation. The rate of fuel evaporation, rate of coke formation and coke accumulation are analysed. The model predicts shell outer diameters of 650, 860 and 1040 µm, and inner diameters are 360, 410

  11. Cenosphere formation from heavy fuel oil: a numerical analysis accounting for the balance between porous shells and internal pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy; Rahman, Mustafa M.; Gandi, Appala; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Schrecengost, Robert A.; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) as a fuel in industrial and power generation plants ensures the availability of energy at economy. Coke and cenosphere emissions from HFO combustion need to be controlled by particulate control equipment such as electrostatic precipitators, and collection effectiveness is impacted by the properties of these particulates. The cenosphere formation is a function of HFO composition, which varies depending on the source of the HFO. Numerical modelling of the cenosphere formation mechanism presented in this paper is an economical method of characterising cenosphere formation potential for HFO in comparison to experimental analysis of individual HFO samples, leading to better control and collection. In the present work, a novel numerical model is developed for understanding the global cenosphere formation mechanism. The critical diameter of the cenosphere is modelled based on the balance between two pressures developed in an HFO droplet. First is the pressure (Prpf) developed at the interface of the liquid surface and the inner surface of the accumulated coke due to the flow restriction of volatile components from the interior of the droplet. Second is the pressure due to the outer shell strength (PrC) gained from van der Walls energy of the coke layers and surface energy. In this present study it is considered that when PrC ≥ Prpf the outer shell starts to harden. The internal motion in the shell layer ceases and the outer diameter (DSOut) of the shell is then fixed. The entire process of cenosphere formation in this study is analysed in three phases: regression, shell formation and hardening, and post shell hardening. Variations in pressures during shell formation are analysed. Shell (cenosphere) dimensions are evaluated at the completion of droplet evaporation. The rate of fuel evaporation, rate of coke formation and coke accumulation are analysed. The model predicts shell outer diameters of 650, 860 and 1040 µm, and inner diameters are 360, 410

  12. Cenosphere formation from heavy fuel oil: a numerical analysis accounting for the balance between porous shells and internal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vanteru M.; Rahman, Mustafa M.; Gandi, Appala N.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Schrecengost, Robert A.; Roberts, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) as a fuel in industrial and power generation plants ensures the availability of energy at economy. Coke and cenosphere emissions from HFO combustion need to be controlled by particulate control equipment such as electrostatic precipitators, and collection effectiveness is impacted by the properties of these particulates. The cenosphere formation is a function of HFO composition, which varies depending on the source of the HFO. Numerical modelling of the cenosphere formation mechanism presented in this paper is an economical method of characterising cenosphere formation potential for HFO in comparison to experimental analysis of individual HFO samples, leading to better control and collection. In the present work, a novel numerical model is developed for understanding the global cenosphere formation mechanism. The critical diameter of the cenosphere is modelled based on the balance between two pressures developed in an HFO droplet. First is the pressure (Prpf) developed at the interface of the liquid surface and the inner surface of the accumulated coke due to the flow restriction of volatile components from the interior of the droplet. Second is the pressure due to the outer shell strength (PrC) gained from van der Walls energy of the coke layers and surface energy. In this present study it is considered that when PrC ≥ Prpf the outer shell starts to harden. The internal motion in the shell layer ceases and the outer diameter (DSOut) of the shell is then fixed. The entire process of cenosphere formation in this study is analysed in three phases: regression, shell formation and hardening, and post shell hardening. Variations in pressures during shell formation are analysed. Shell (cenosphere) dimensions are evaluated at the completion of droplet evaporation. The rate of fuel evaporation, rate of coke formation and coke accumulation are analysed. The model predicts shell outer diameters of 650, 860 and 1040 µm, and inner diameters are 360, 410

  13. Ancient limpet shells as paleo-environmental and ethno-archaeological archives: the case of Beniguet Island's shell middens (Iroise Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudennec, Jean-François; Stephan, Pierre; Dupont, Catherine; Pailler, Yvan; Thébault, Julien; Schöne, Bernd; Paulet, Yves-Marie

    2017-04-01

    During the winter 2013-2014, severe storm events caused a coastal erosion in the southern part of the Beniguet Island (Brittany, France). The associated shoreline retreat had uncovered three layers of shell middens interbedded into an aeolian sand dune deposit. From several radiocarbon dating crossed with the study of ceramic and lithic contents, the shell middens were dated to the Final Neolithic (2400 BC), the Early Bronze Age (2000 BC) and the Early Middle Age (800 AD) respectively. This site offers a unique opportunity to collect two types of information: palaeo-environmental (palaeo-temperature of sea water) and archaeological (determination of harvest season). In this study, we focus on gastropod of the genus Patella which represent 90% of the remains found in this midden. This organism is potentially a highly valuable archive for these environments because they are intertidal and relatively sedentary. We studied the growth rings in the outer calcitic layer of individual limpet shells from the Neolithic, Early Bronze Age and Present Day populations. We report here the results of δ18O analyses. We found a similarity between the reconstructed palaeo-temperature in the Neolithic and the Present periods (between 13 and 14°C in summer and about 8 - 9°C in winter). However, palaeo-temperatures of the Early Bronze Age shells are significantly lower in winter (5 - 6 °C). Moreover, the initial results of the δ18O analyses at the margin of these shells showed that they were harvested during a specific season (end of spring or early summer). Additional work will be done to address questions about shell growth dynamics of these species. These results confirm the interest of using ancient limpet shells as palaeo-environmental and archaeological archives.

  14. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Will Outer Tropical Cyclone Size Change due to Anthropogenic Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, B. A.; Lin, N.; Chavas, D. R.; Vecchi, G. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown significant interbasin and intrabasin variability in outer tropical cyclone (TC) size. Moreover, outer TC size has even been shown to vary substantially over the lifetime of the majority of TCs. However, the factors responsible for both setting initial outer TC size and determining its evolution throughout the TC lifetime remain uncertain. Given these gaps in our physical understanding, there remains uncertainty in how outer TC size will change, if at all, due to anthropogenic warming. The present study seeks to quantify whether outer TC size will change significantly in response to anthropogenic warming using data from a high-resolution global climate model and a regional hurricane model. Similar to prior work, the outer TC size metric used in this study is the radius in which the azimuthal-mean surface azimuthal wind equals 8 m/s. The initial results from the high-resolution global climate model data suggest that the distribution of outer TC size shifts significantly towards larger values in each global TC basin during future climates, as revealed by 1) statistically significant increase of the median outer TC size by 5-10% (p<0.05) according to a 1,000-sample bootstrap resampling approach with replacement and 2) statistically significant differences between distributions of outer TC size from current and future climate simulations as shown using two-sample Kolmogorov Smirnov testing (p<<0.01). Additional analysis of the high-resolution global climate model data reveals that outer TC size does not uniformly increase within each basin in future climates, but rather shows substantial locational dependence. Future work will incorporate the regional mesoscale hurricane model data to help focus on identifying the source of the spatial variability in outer TC size increases within each basin during future climates and, more importantly, why outer TC size changes in response to anthropogenic warming.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of WS2@SiO2 and WS2@PANI Core-Shell Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Sade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two tungsten disulfide (WS2-based core-shell nanocomposites were fabricated using readily available reagents and simple procedures. The surface was pre-treated with a surfactant couple in a layer-by-layer approach, enabling good dispersion of the WS2 nanostructures in aqueous media and providing a template for the polymerization of a silica (SiO2 shell. After a Stöber-like reaction, a conformal silica coating was achieved. Inspired by the resulting nanocomposite, a second one was prepared by reacting the surfactant-modified WS2 nanostructures with aniline and an oxidizing agent in an aqueous medium. Here too, a conformal coating of polyaniline (PANI was obtained, giving a WS2@PANI nanocomposite. Both nanocomposites were analyzed by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and FTIR, verifying the core-shell structure and the character of shells. The silica shell was amorphous and mesoporous and the surface area of the composite increases with shell thickness. Polyaniline shells slightly differ in their morphologies dependent on the acid used in the polymerization process and are amorphous like the silica shell. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of the WS2@PANI nanocomposite showed variation between bulk PANI and the PANI shell. These two nanocomposites have great potential to expand the use of transition metals dichalcogenides (TMDCs for new applications in different fields.

  17. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.; Dean, D.J.; Langanke, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; the resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, the thermal and rotational behavior of rare-earth and γ-soft nuclei, and the calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Cask for concrete shells transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labergri, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, nuclear plant radioactive waste are conditioned in situ into concrete shells. Most of them enter in the industrial waste category defined by the regulations of radioactive material transportation. However, the content of a few ones exceeds the limits set for low specific activity substances. Thus, these shells must be transported into type B packagings. To this end, Robatel has undertaken, for EDF (Electricite de France), the development of a container, named ROBATEL TM R68, for further licensing. The particularity of this packaging is that the lid must have a wide opening to allow the usual handling operations of the concrete shells. This leads to a non-conventional conception, and makes the package more vulnerable to drop test solicitations. In order to define a minimal drop test program on a reduced scale model, we use a simple method to find the most damageable drop angle. (author)

  19. Shell model Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We review quantum Monte Carlo methods for dealing with large shell model problems. These methods reduce the imaginary-time many-body evolution operator to a coherent superposition of one-body evolutions in fluctuating one-body fields; resultant path integral is evaluated stochastically. We first discuss the motivation, formalism, and implementation of such Shell Model Monte Carlo methods. There then follows a sampler of results and insights obtained from a number of applications. These include the ground state and thermal properties of pf-shell nuclei, thermal behavior of γ-soft nuclei, and calculation of double beta-decay matrix elements. Finally, prospects for further progress in such calculations are discussed. 87 refs

  20. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  1. Multi-core MgO NPs(at)C core-shell nanospheres for selective CO2 capture under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae Kyung Kim; Kyung Joo Lee; Hoi Ri Moon; Junhan Yuh; Sang Kyu Kwak

    2014-01-01

    The core-shell structures have attracted attention in catalysis, because the outer shells isolate the catalytically active NP cores and prevent the possibility of sintering of core particles during catalytic reaction under physically and chemically harsh conditions. We aimed to adopt this core-shell system for CO 2 sorption materials. In this study, a composite material of multi-core 3 nm-sized magnesium oxide nanoparticles embedded in porous carbon nanospheres (MgO NPs(at)C) was synthesized by a gas phase reaction via a solvent-free process. It showed selective CO 2 adsorption capacity over N 2 under mild regeneration conditions. (authors)

  2. Influence of the shell thickness and charge distribution on the effective interaction between two like-charged hollow spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelescu, Daniel G; Caragheorgheopol, Dan

    2015-10-14

    The mean-force and the potential of the mean force between two like-charged spherical shells were investigated in the salt-free limit using the primitive model and Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from an angular homogeneous distribution, a discrete charge distribution where point charges localized on the shell outer surface followed an icosahedral arrangement was considered. The electrostatic coupling of the model system was altered by the presence of mono-, trivalent counterions or small dendrimers, each one bearing a net charge of 9 e. We analyzed in detail how the shell thickness and the radial and angular distribution of the shell charges influenced the effective interaction between the shells. We found a sequence of the potential of the mean force similar to the like-charged filled spheres, ranging from long-range purely repulsive to short-range purely attractive as the electrostatic coupling increased. Both types of potentials were attenuated and an attractive-to-repulsive transition occurred in the presence of trivalent counterions as a result of (i) thinning the shell or (ii) shifting the shell charge from the outer towards the inner surface. The potential of the mean force became more attractive with the icosahedrally symmetric charge model, and additionally, at least one shell tended to line up with 5-fold symmetry axis along the longest axis of the simulation box at the maximum attraction. The results provided a basic framework of understanding the non-specific electrostatic origin of the agglomeration and long-range assembly of the viral nanoparticles.

  3. Learning Shell scripting with Zsh

    CERN Document Server

    Festari, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial that will teach you, through real-world examples, how to configure and use Zsh and its various features. If you are a system administrator, developer, or computer professional involved with UNIX who are looking to improve on their daily tasks involving the UNIX shell, ""Learning Shell Scripting with Zsh"" will be great for you. It's assumed that you have some familiarity with an UNIX command-line interface and feel comfortable with editors such as Emacs or vi.

  4. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Isogeometric shell formulation based on a classical shell model

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti; Collier, Nathan; Dalcí n, Lisandro D.; Ghommem, Mehdi; Calo, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors future work is concerned with building an isogeometric finite element method for modelling nonlinear structural response of thin-walled shells undergoing large rigid-body motions. The aim is to use the model in a aeroelastic framework for the simulation of flapping wings.

  6. Fabrication of full-size mock-up for 10° section of ITER vacuum vessel thermal shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Kwon [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kwanwoo, E-mail: kwnam@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyoung-O; Noh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Wooho [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kisuk; Kang, Youngkil [SFA Engineering Corp., Asan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 336-873 (Korea, Republic of); Hamlyn-Harris, Craig; Her, Namil; Robby, Hicks [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, a full-scale prototype fabrication for vacuum vessel thermal shield (VVTS) of ITER tokamak is described and test results are reported. All the manufacturing processes except for silver coating were performed in the fabrication of 10° section of VVTS. Pre-qualification test was conducted to compare the vertical and the horizontal welding positions. After shell welding, shell distortion was measured and adjusted. Shell thickness change was also measured after buffing process. Specially, VVTS ports need large bending and complex welding of shell and flange. Bending method for the complex and long cooling tube layout especially for the VVTS ports was developed in detail. Dimensional inspection of the fabricated mock-up was performed with a 3D laser scanner and the scanning data was analyzed.

  7. Activated carbons prepared from hazelnut shells, walnut shells and peanut shells for high CO2 adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewicka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research treats about producing activated carbons for CO2 capture from hazelnut shells (HN, walnut shells (WN and peanut shells (PN. Saturated solution of KOH was used as an activating agent in ratio 1:1. Samples were carbonized in the furnace in the range of temperatures 600°C–900°C. Properties of carbons were tested by N2 adsorption method, using BET equation, DFT method and volumetric CO2 adsorption method. With the increase of carbonization temperature specific surface area of studied samples increased. The largest surface area was calculated for samples carbonized at 900°C and the highest values of CO2 adsorption had samples: PN900 at 0°C (5.5 mmol/g and WN900 at 25°C (4.34 mmol/g. All of the samples had a well-developed microporous structure.

  8. Observational evidence of competing source, loss, and transport processes for relativistic electrons in Earth's outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Drew; Mann, Ian; Usanova, Maria; Rodriguez, Juan; Henderson, Mike; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Morley, Steven; Claudepierre, Seth; Li, Wen; Kellerman, Adam; Boyd, Alexander; Kim, Kyung-Chan

    Earth’s outer electron radiation belt is a region of extreme variability, with relativistic electron intensities changing by orders of magnitude over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Extreme variations of outer belt electrons ultimately result from the relative impacts of various competing source (and acceleration), loss, and transport processes. Most of these processes involve wave-particle interactions between outer belt electrons and different types of plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere, and in turn, the activity of these waves depends on different solar wind and magnetospheric driving conditions and thus can vary drastically from event to event. Using multipoint analysis with data from NASA’s Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and SAMPEX missions, NOAA’s GOES and POES constellations, and ground-based observatories, we present results from case studies revealing how different source/acceleration and loss mechanisms compete during active periods to result in drastically different distributions of outer belt electrons. By using a combination of low-Earth orbiting and high-altitude-equatorial orbiting satellites, we briefly review how it is possible to get a much more complete picture of certain wave activity and electron losses over the full range of MLTs and L-shells throughout the radiation belt. We then show example cases highlighting the importance of particular mechanisms, including: substorm injections and whistler-mode chorus waves for the source and acceleration of relativistic electrons; magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves for sudden losses; and ULF wave activity for driving radial transport, a process which is important for redistributing relativistic electrons, contributing both to acceleration and loss processes. We show how relativistic electron enhancement events involve local acceleration that is consistent with wave-particle interactions between a seed population of 10s to 100s of keV electrons, with a

  9. COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A.; PONTELANDOLFO, J.M.; CASTILLO, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES. Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) need to be about 200 (micro)m thick and 2 mm in diameter. These dimensions are well beyond those currently fabricated on a routine basis. They have investigated fabrication of near NIF scale targets using the depolymerizable mandrel technique. Poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrels, about 2 mm in diameter, of varying qualities were coated with as much as 125 (micro)m of glow discharge polymer (GDP). The surface finish of the final shells was examined using a variety of techniques. A clear dependence of the modal spectrum of final GDP shell on the quality of the initial PAMS mandrels was observed. isolated features were found to be the greatest cause for a shell not meeting the NIF standard

  10. COLOR STABILITY OF NATURALLY DYED DENIM FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBTIRICA Adriana-Ioana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The desire to colour textiles is as old as spinning and weaving. Natural dyes have been used since thousands of years for their long endurance, soft and elegant colours. But the invention of synthetic dyes has limited the application of natural dyes. The health hazards associated with the use of synthetic dyes and also the increased environmental awareness have revived the use of natural dyes during the recent years. The major performance characteristic of a dye is its ability to maintain the colour in normal use and is known as colorfastness. The study provides information regarding colour fastness properties of naturally dyed denim fabrics. Three vegetable materials were used for dyeing denim fabrics: Punica granatum (bark powder, Indigofera tinctoria (leave powder and Juglans regia (walnut dried shells. The results of the study indicated that using Walnut shells and Punica granatum deeper and more stable shades of colors are obtained in comparison with Indigofera Tinctoria dyed denim samples. All samples highlight a change in color in the sense of fading which has occurred to the highest extent when exposed to artificial light and washing. When tested against water, alkaline and acid perspiration, it is noticed that better results are obtained, and color change appear in a smaller extent.

  11. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2012-01-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal

  12. Adaptative mixed methods to axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, S.M.C.; Loula, A.F.D.; Garcia, E.L.M.

    1989-09-01

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin method is applied to axisymmetric shells with uniform and non uniform meshes. Numerical experiments with a cylindrical shell showed a significant improvement in convergence and accuracy with adaptive meshes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 for benzophenone selective hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xue; Feng, Wenhui; Chu, Xiaoning; Chu, Hailong; Niu, Libo; Bai, Guoyi

    2017-01-01

    A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 was first prepared by a modified Stöber method in this paper. It has a core–shell structure with Ni (about 8 nm in diameter) and Ca as the cores and mesoporous silica as the outer shell, as proven by the transmission electron microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited good catalytic performance in the selective hydrogenation of benzophenone, with 96.1% conversion and 94.9% selectivity for benzhydrol under relatively mild reaction conditions. It was demonstrated that addition of small amounts of alkaline Ca can not only markedly improve the dispersion of the active species but also tune the acid–base property of this nanocomposite, resulting in the efficient suppression of benzhydrol dehydration to achieve a high selectivity. Furthermore, the core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 can be recycled four runs without appreciable loss of its initial activity, more stable than the traditional supported nanocatalyst Ni–Ca/mSiO_2. It was suggested that the outer mesoporous silica shell of Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 can prevent both the aggregation and the leaching of the active Ni species, accounting for its relatively good stability.

  14. A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} for benzophenone selective hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xue; Feng, Wenhui; Chu, Xiaoning; Chu, Hailong; Niu, Libo; Bai, Guoyi, E-mail: baiguoyi@hotmail.com [Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China)

    2017-02-15

    A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} was first prepared by a modified Stöber method in this paper. It has a core–shell structure with Ni (about 8 nm in diameter) and Ca as the cores and mesoporous silica as the outer shell, as proven by the transmission electron microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited good catalytic performance in the selective hydrogenation of benzophenone, with 96.1% conversion and 94.9% selectivity for benzhydrol under relatively mild reaction conditions. It was demonstrated that addition of small amounts of alkaline Ca can not only markedly improve the dispersion of the active species but also tune the acid–base property of this nanocomposite, resulting in the efficient suppression of benzhydrol dehydration to achieve a high selectivity. Furthermore, the core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} can be recycled four runs without appreciable loss of its initial activity, more stable than the traditional supported nanocatalyst Ni–Ca/mSiO{sub 2}. It was suggested that the outer mesoporous silica shell of Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} can prevent both the aggregation and the leaching of the active Ni species, accounting for its relatively good stability.

  15. Method for the production of fabricated hollow microspheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramanayake, Shan; Luebke, David R.

    2015-06-09

    The method relates to the fabrication of a polymer microspheres comprised of an asymmetric layer surrounding a hollow interior. The fabricated hollow microsphere is generated from a nascent hollow microsphere comprised of an inner core of core fluid surrounded by a dope layer of polymer dope, where the thickness of the dope layer is at least 10% and less than 50% of the diameter of the inner core. The nascent hollow microsphere is exposed to a gaseous environment, generating a vitrified hollow microsphere, which is subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath. Solvent exchange produces a fabricated hollow microsphere comprised of a densified outer skin surrounding a macroporous inner layer, which surrounds a hollow interior. In an embodiment, the polymer is a polyimide or a polyamide-imide, and the non-solvent in the core fluid and the coagulation bath is water. The fabricated hollow microspheres are particularly suited as solvent supports for gas separation processes.

  16. Nano-engineering of three-dimensional core/shell nanotube arrays for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Lei, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Large-scale arrays of core/shell nanostructures are highly desirable to enhance the performance of supercapacitors. Here we demonstrate an innovative template-based fabrication technique with high structural controllability, which is capable of synthesizing well-ordered three-dimensional arrays of SnO2/MnO2 core/shell nanotubes for electrochemical energy storage in supercapacitor applications. The SnO2 core is fabricated by atomic layer deposition and provides a highly electrical conductive matrix. Subsequently a thin MnO2 shell is coated by electrochemical deposition onto the SnO2 core, which guarantees a short ion diffusion length within the shell. The core/shell structure shows an excellent electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of 910 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and a good rate capability of remaining 217 F g-1 at 50 A g-1. These results shall pave the way to realize aqueous based asymmetric supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy.

  17. ZnO@MnO2 Core-Shell Nanofiber Cathodes for High Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhamani, A V; Shareef, K M; Rao, M S Ramachandra

    2016-11-09

    Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) with aqueous electrolyte medium have recently become the focus of increasing research. For high performance ASCs, selection of cathode materials play a crucial role, and core-shell nanostructures are found to be a good choice. We successfully synthesized, ZnO@MnO 2 core-shell nanofibers (NFs) by modification of high-aspect-ratio-electrospun ZnO NFs hydrothermally with MnO 2 nanoflakes. High conductivity of the ZnO NFs and the exceptionally high pseudocapacitive nature of MnO 2 nanoflakes coating delivered a specific capacitance of 907 Fg -1 at 0.6 Ag -1 for the core-shell NFs. A simple and cost-effective ASC construction was demonstrated with ZnO@MnO 2 NFs as a battery-type cathode material and a commercial-quality activated carbon as a capacitor-type anode material. The fabricated device functioned very well in a voltage window of 0-2.0 V, and a red-LED was illuminated using a single-celled fabricated ASC device. It was found to deliver a maximum energy density of 17 Whkg -1 and a power density of 6.5 kWkg -1 with capacitance retention of 94% and Coulombic efficiency of 100%. The novel architecture of the ZnO@MnO 2 core-shell nanofibrous material implies the importance of using simple design of fiber-based electrode material by mere changes of core and shell counterparts.

  18. A new Predictive Model for Relativistic Electrons in Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electrons trapped in the Earth's outer radiation belt present a highly hazardous radiation environment for spaceborne electronics. These energetic electrons, with kinetic energies up to several megaelectron-volt (MeV), manifest a highly dynamic and event-specific nature due to the delicate interplay of competing transport, acceleration and loss processes. Therefore, developing a forecasting capability for outer belt MeV electrons has long been a critical and challenging task for the space weather community. Recently, the vital roles of electron resonance with waves (including such as chorus and electromagnetic ion cyclotron) have been widely recognized; however, it is still difficult for current diffusion radiation belt models to reproduce the behavior of MeV electrons during individual geomagnetic storms, mainly because of the large uncertainties existing in input parameters. In this work, we expanded our previous cross-energy cross-pitch-angle coherence study and developed a new predictive model for MeV electrons over a wide range of L-shells inside the outer radiation belt. This new model uses NOAA POES observations from low-Earth-orbits (LEOs) as inputs to provide high-fidelity nowcast (multiple hour prediction) and forecast (> 1 day prediction) of the energization of MeV electrons as well as the evolving MeV electron distributions afterwards during storms. Performance of the predictive model is quantified by long-term in situ data from Van Allen Probes and LANL GEO satellites. This study adds new science significance to an existing LEO space infrastructure, and provides reliable and powerful tools to the whole space community.

  19. Autoradiographic study on the distribution of 241Am in the shell of the freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuykov, M.; Pelletier, E.; Rouleau, C.; Popov, L.; Fowler, S.W.; Orlova, M.

    2009-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to identify α-track distributions in a series of shell sections from live mussels Dreissena polymorpha Pallas and dissected shells of dead mussels obtained from laboratory experiments using relatively high concentrations of 241 Am in the exposure media, a required condition for successful use of this autoradiographic technique. A comparable distribution of α-tracks was recorded on autoradiographs from both live and dead shells suggesting that metabolism does not lead to any sizable changes in the process of 241 Am adsorption (present in the extrapallial fluid) onto the inner surface of shell. Autoradiographs showed a preferential accumulation of 241 Am in the organic periostracum, whereas the outer and inner shell layers were characterized by a relatively low α-tracks density. No α-tracks were observed in the central part of the shell in any of the samples. These observations will be useful for the development of a general model to explain bioaccumulation and biosorption processes of radionuclides into mollusk shells. (author)

  20. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  1. Outer space and nuclear deterrence: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini Alves, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation deals with the role of outer-space applications and prospects for near future developments in nuclear deterrence. Outer space capabilities of United Sates, Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, and United Kingdom as well as other states are analyzed. Conceptual problems of offensive and defensive doctrines are reviewed together with legal implications

  2. Long-Lived Glass Mirrors For Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.; Heggen, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Paper summarizes available knowledge about glass mirrors for use in outer space. Strengths and weaknesses of various types of first and second reflective surfaces identified. Second-surface glass mirrors used in outer space designed to different criteria more stringent for terrestrial mirrors. Protons, electrons, cosmic rays, meteorites, and orbiting space debris affect longevities of components. Contamination also factor in space.

  3. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  4. Tube in shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, O.; Willby, C.R.; Sheward, G.E.; Ormrod, D.T.; Firth, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved tube-in-shell heat exchanger to be used between liquid metal and water is described for use in the liquid metal coolant system of fast breeder reactors. It is stated that this design is less prone to failures which could result in sodium water reactions than previous exchangers. (UK)

  5. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  6. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  7. Shell energy scenarios to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Shell developed two scenarios that describe alternative ways the energy future may develop. In the first scenario (Scramble) policymakers pay little attention to more efficient energy use until supplies are tight. Likewise, greenhouse gas emissions are not seriously addressed until there are major climate shocks. In the second scenario (Blueprints) growing local actions begin to address the challenges of economic development, energy security and environmental pollution. A price is applied to a critical mass of emissions giving a huge stimulus to the development of clean energy technologies, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage, and energy efficiency measures. The result is far lower carbon dioxide emissions. Both these scenarios can help Shell to test their strategy against a range of possible developments over the long-term. However, according to Shell, the Blueprints' outcomes offer the best hope for a sustainable future, whether or not they arise exactly in the way described. However, with the right combination of policy, technology and commitment from governments, industry and society globally, Shell believes it can be realized. But achieving the targets will not be easy, and time is short. Clear thinking, huge investment, and effective leadership are required

  8. Collapse analysis of toroidal shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomares, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation

  9. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kieselbach

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT and leukotoxin (LtxA into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease.

  10. Studies of dust shells around stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedijn, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis deals with some aspects of circumstellar dust shells. This dust shell, emitting infrared radiation, is described by way of its absorptive and emissive properties as well as by the transfer of radiation through the dust shell itself. Model calculations are compared to experimental results and agree reasonably well. The author also discusses the dynamics of the extended shells of gas and dust around newly formed stars

  11. Synthesis of Ni core NiO shell nanostructure and magnetic investigation for shell thickness determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, H.; Bruck, E.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Nickel oxide has received a considerable amount of attention in recent years for its catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties. Ni nanoparticles with an average size of 8 nm were prepared by dc - arc discharge in argon atmosphere. A current of 130 A and 300 milli bar pressure of argon have been applied. The produced Ni nanoparticles were annealed for oxidizing in air at 350 for six hours to produce antiferromagnetic NiO particles. The structure of Ni and NiO nanoparticles and size estimation of them studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The size and morphology of the particles were also characterized by high resolution transmission microscopy (TEM). The Ni core NiO shell structure, resulting from the oxidation process, were studied by magnetic properties measurements. A quantum design squid magnetometer, model MPMS5S was used for measuring saturation magnetization of both nanoparticles of Ni with and without NiO layer. By knowing the density of Ni and NiO, we were able to deduce the thickness of the Ni core and NiO outer layer. They are around 3 and 5 nanometers respectively. (authors)

  12. Synthesis of low density foam shells for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattaud, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the fabrication process of low density foam shells and the sharp control of their shape (diameter, thickness, density, sphericity, non-concentricity). During this PhD we focused on the non-concentricity criterion which has to be lower than 1%. The shells are synthesized using a microencapsulation process leading to a double emulsion and followed by a thermal polymerization at 60 C. According to the literature, three major parameters, the density of the three phases, the deformations of the shells along the process and the kinetics of the polymerization have a direct influence on the shells non-concentricity. The results obtained showed that when the density gap between the internal water phase and the organic phase increases, the TMPTMA shells non-concentricity improves. A density gap of 0.078 g.cm -3 at 60 C, leads to an average non-concentricity of 2.4% with a yield of shells of 58%. It was also shown that the synthesis process can be considered as reproducible. While using the same internal water phase, equivalent non-concentricity results are obtained using either a straight tube, a tube with areas of constriction or a short wound tube. The time required to fix the shell's shape is at least 20 minutes with thermal polymerization. So, it seems that the time spent by the shells inside the rotating flask allows the centering of the internal water phase inside the organic phase, whatever the circulation process used. In order to get higher polymerization rates and to avoid destabilization phenomena, we then focused our study on photo polymerization. When the synthesis is performed using a UV lamp with an efficient light intensity, the shells have a slightly higher thickness than the shells synthesized by thermal polymerization. Moreover, a really higher yield, around 80%, is achieved with UV polymerization. However, the average non-concentricity of the shells synthesized lays around 20%, which is really high compared to the 2.4% average

  13. Nondestructive testing of multi-layer tubes during fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, V.A.; Biletskij, S.M.; Trushchenko, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Design of multilayer steel tubes for gas pipelines and technology of their fabrication are described in brief. Testing of the ground metal and welded joints of tubes used in their fabrication are considered. These methods comprise ultrasonic (US) testing of band, US testing and vacuum-bubble testing (VBT) of inner lap joints of shells X-ray TV control (XTVC) of ring welds, US testing of edge sections of shells with a continuous wall. Equipment applied in testing is described. XTVC is exercised by means of the RUP-150/300-10 X-ray apparatus, RI-60TEh introscope, sensitivity of testing is not worse than 4%, the rate equals 1-2 m/min

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles for multifunctional liquid marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianqian; Hu, Lihong; Hu, Yun; Liu, Chengguo; Zhou, Yonghong

    2018-01-01

    A facile one-pot method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic fluorinated silica nanoparticles is reported. Fluorinated aggregated silica (A-SiO2/FAS) nanoparticles were synthesized by controlling the nanoparticles assembly, in situ fixation and overgrowth of particle seeds with the assist of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in ethanol/water solution and then modification with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) molecules. Such kind of A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles showed superhydrophobicity and was not wetted by water, thus it could be served as the encapsulating shells to manipulate liquid droplets. Liquid marbles fabricated from A-SiO2/FAS nanoparticles were used for ammonia gas sensing or emitting by taking advantage of the porosity and superhydrophobicity of the liquid marble shells. In addition, the posibility of A-SiO2/FAS-based liquid marbles as microreactor for dopamine polymerization also was explored.

  15. FABRICATION OF TUBE TYPE FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, E.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1959-02-01

    A method of fabricating a nuclear reactor fuel element is given. It consists essentially of fixing two tubes in concentric relationship with respect to one another to provide an annulus therebetween, filling the annulus with a fissionablematerial-containing powder, compacting the powder material within the annulus and closing the ends thereof. The powder material is further compacted by swaging the inner surface of the inner tube to increase its diameter while maintaining the original size of the outer tube. This process results in reduced fabrication costs of powdered fissionable material type fuel elements and a substantial reduction in the peak core temperatures while materially enhancing the heat removal characteristics.

  16. Hylleraas-like functions with the correct cusp conditions: K-shell electrons for the neutral atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, K.V. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)], E-mail: krodri@criba.edu.ar; Gasaneo, G. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina); Mitnik, D.M.; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio and Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-10-15

    We present simple correlated wavefunctions for the two K-shell electrons of neutral atoms. A variational method was chosen to calculate the mean energy of the ground state, in which the electrons are subject to a local Hartree potential representing the presence of the outer shell electrons. The functions are constructed in terms of exponential and power series, where special care has been taken in order to fulfill the exact behavior at the electron-electron and electron-nucleus coalescence points (Kato cusp conditions). Global properties, such as the energies and virial coefficients, as well as local properties, such as spatial mean values, are also analyzed.

  17. 7 CFR 983.29 - Shelled pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled pistachios. 983.29 Section 983.29 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.29 Shelled pistachios. Shelled pistachios means pistachio...

  18. Thin-shell wormholes in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    In this work we construct charged thin-shell Lorentzian wormholes in dilaton gravity. The exotic matter required for the construction is localized in the shell and the energy conditions are satisfied outside the shell. The total amount of exotic matter is calculated and its dependence with the parameters of the model is analyzed

  19. Shell film- and video catalogue 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An overview is given of films and videos that are available through 'Shell Nederland Filmcentrale' (Shell Netherlands Film Center), subdivided into the subjects (1) About Shell; (2) Health, Safety and Environment; (3) Science and Technology; (4) The History of Car(racing); and (5) Historical Overview. 5 ills

  20. A finite element for plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, A.; Feijoo, R.A.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1981-08-01

    A simple triangular finite element for plates and shells, is presented. Since the rotation fields are assumed independent of the displacement fields, the element allows one to solve thick shells problems. In the limit for thin shell, the Kirchoff-Love hypothesis is automatically satisfied, thus enlarging its range of application. (Author) [pt

  1. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  2. 7 CFR 981.6 - Shelled almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled almonds. 981.6 Section 981.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.6 Shelled almonds. Shelled almonds mean raw or roasted almonds after...

  3. Slush Fund: The Multiphase Nature of Oceanic Ices and Its Role in Shaping Europa's Icy Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Huber, C.

    2017-12-01

    The role of Europa's ice shell in mediating ocean-surface interaction, constraining potential habitability of the underlying hydrosphere, and dictating the surface morphology of the moon is discussed extensively in the literature, yet the dynamics and characteristics of the shell itself remain largely unconstrained. Some of the largest unknowns arise from underrepresented physics and varying a priori assumptions built into the current ice shell models. Here we modify and apply a validated one-dimensional reactive transport model designed to simulate the formation and evolution of terrestrial sea ice to the Europa environment. The top-down freezing of sea ice due to conductive heat loss to the atmosphere is akin to the formation of the Jovian moon's outer ice shell, albeit on a different temporal and spatial scale. Nevertheless, the microscale physics that govern the formation of sea ice on Earth (heterogenous solidification leading to brine pockets and channels, multiphase reactive transport phenomena, gravity drainage) likely operate in a similar manner at the ice-ocean interface of Europa, dictating the thermal, chemical, and mechanical properties of the ice shell. Simulations of the European ice-ocean interface at different stages during the ice shell's evolution are interpolated to produce vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, solid fraction, and eutectic points throughout the entire shell. Additionally, the model is coupled to the equilibrium chemistry package FREZCHEM to investigate the impact a diverse range of putative European ocean chemistries has on ice shell properties. This method removes the need for a priori assumptions of impurity entrainment rates and ice shell properties, thus providing a first principles constraint on the stratigraphic characteristics of a simulated European ice shell. These insights have the potential to improve existing estimates for the onset of solid state convection, melt lens formation due to eutectic melting, ice

  4. Extensions to a nonlinear finite-element axisymmetric shell model based on Reissner's shell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Extensions to shell analysis not usually associated with shell theory are described in this paper. These extensions involve thick shells, nonlinear materials, a linear normal stress approximation, and a changing shell thickness. A finite element shell-of-revolution model has been developed to analyze nuclear material shipping containers under severe impact conditions. To establish the limits for this shell model, the basic assumptions used in its development were studied; these are listed in this paper. Several extensions were evident from the study of these limits: a thick shell, a plastic hinge, and a linear normal stress

  5. Fabric based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, S; Tudor, M J; Beeby, S P; Owen, J R

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with electrodes coated on inexpensive fabrics by the dipping technique. This paper present details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor. The sandwich structured supercapacitors can achieve specific capacitances of 11.1F/g, area capacitance 105 mF.cm −2 and maintain 95% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  6. Fabrication of large area homogeneous metallic nanostructures for optical sensing using colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple and reproducible method for fabricating large area metal films with inter-connected nanostructures using a combination of colloidal lithography, metal deposition and a template stripping technique. The method is generic in the sense that it is possible to produce a variety...... to fabricate metal films with inter-connected nanostructures consisting of either partial spherical shells or the inverted structures: spherical cavities. The substrates are characterized by optical reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. We demonstrate, in the case of partial spherical shells...

  7. Hemispherical Shell Nanostructures from Metal-Stripped Embossed Alumina on Aluminum Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Albrektsen, Ole; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-01-01

    aluminum/ alumina (Al/Al2O3) templates as a novel and versatile nanofabrication procedure, and we demonstrate explicitly how to exploit the technique for developing large-area hexagonally close-packed hemispherical shell nanostructures by stripping noble metal layers from embossed templates fabricated from...... anodized Al. Utilizing for this process the linear relationship between anodization voltage and the resulting interpore distance in the formed oxide, it is possible to tune the radius of curvature of the resulting hemispherical shells continuously, which in turn results in tunable optical properties...

  8. Carbon fiber reinforced magnesium alloy in a Ti-6Al-4V shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanin Vasily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous carbon fiber reinforced magnesium alloy pieces in SMC Ti-6Al-4V shell have been fabricated using pressure infiltration. Similar temperatures (~700°C for superplastic formation of the shell and melting of the alloy allow this to be done in one step. The quality of infiltration of the molten alloys is found to be proportional to load. A limiting parameter in increasing the infiltration pressure is the strength of the welded bonds. Structure, fracture parameters and mechanical properties are discussed.

  9. High performance of PbSe/PbS core/shell quantum dot heterojunction solar cells: short circuit current enhancement without the loss of open circuit voltage by shell thickness control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyekyoung; Song, Jung Hoon; Jang, Jihoon; Mai, Xuan Dung; Kim, Sungwoo; Jeong, Sohee

    2015-11-07

    We fabricated heterojunction solar cells with PbSe/PbS core shell quantum dots and studied the precisely controlled PbS shell thickness dependency in terms of optical properties, electronic structure, and solar cell performances. When the PbS shell thickness increases, the short circuit current density (JSC) increases from 6.4 to 11.8 mA cm(-2) and the fill factor (FF) enhances from 30 to 49% while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remains unchanged at 0.46 V even with the decreased effective band gap. We found that the Fermi level and the valence band maximum level remain unchanged in both the PbSe core and PbSe/PbS core/shell with a less than 1 nm thick PbS shell as probed via ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The PbS shell reduces their surface trap density as confirmed by relative quantum yield measurements. Consequently, PbS shell formation on the PbSe core mitigates the trade-off relationship between the open circuit voltage and the short circuit current density. Finally, under the optimized conditions, the PbSe core with a 0.9 nm thick shell yielded a power conversion efficiency of 6.5% under AM 1.5.

  10. Reducing the effects of X-ray pre-heat in double shell NIF capsules by over-coating the high Z shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Douglas; Milovich, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Loomis, E. N.; Sauppe, J. P.; Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Renner, D. B.; Haines, B. M.; Cardenas, T.; Desjardins, T.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.

    2017-10-01

    Hohlraum generated X-rays will penetrate the ablator of a double shell capsule and be absorbed in the outer surface of the inner capsule. The ablative pressure this generates drives a shock into the central fuel, and a reflected shock that reaches the inner high-Z shell surface before the main shock even enters the fuel. With a beryllium over-coat preheat X-rays deposit just inside the beryllium/high z interface. The beryllium tamps the preheat expansion, eliminating ablation, and dramatically reducing pressure. The slow shock or pressure wave it generates is then overtaken by the main shock, avoiding an early shock in the fuel and increasing capsule yield.

  11. Testing and analysis to determine the shell thickness required to prevent puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Radloff, H.D.; Eifert, E.J.

    1998-05-01

    Type B radioactive material packages are required to withstand a hypothetical puncture accident of a free fall from a height of one meter onto a 15 cm diameter mild steel puncture probe. For many packages it is desirable to have this accident event not result in puncture or tearing of the outer shell of the package. The wall thickness necessary to prevent this has historically been determined by test or the use of empirical relations. This technique generally results in overly conservative designs, but the degree of conservatism is uncertain. The use of modem finite element codes to determine package response to puncture accidents can result in designs that are both safe and economical. The work reported in this paper is aimed at developing a method to analytically determine the wall thickness required to prevent puncture. For designers and regulators to have confidence in this analytical method, however, it must be benchmarked against test results. A series of tests has been conducted with differing shell thicknesses, shell materials of mild steel and stainless steel, and shell backing materials of lead, foam, and air. The results of these tests have been compared with pre-test analytical predictions of the response obtained from the nonlinear transient dynamic finite element program PRONTO-2D. From this comparison it can be seen that the finite element method can accurately predict the response of packages to puncture accidents. This implies that an analytical technique based on the finite element method can be used to design packages having known response and margin of safety against tearing of the outer shell. In addition, the analytical technique can accurately predict the deformed shape of the package following the test. This may be important for subsequent calculations, such as external dose and heat input during a thermal event

  12. Control of the Helicity Content of a Gun-Generated Spheromak by Incorporating a Conducting Shell into a Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Jun'ichi; Asai, Tomohiko

    In the formation of magnetized plasmoid by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the magnetic helicity content of the generated plasmoid is one of the critical parameters. Typically, the bias coil to generate a poloidal flux is mounted either on the outer electrode or inside the inner electrode. However, most of the flux generated in the conventional method spreads even radially outside of the formation region. Thus, only a fraction of the total magnetic flux is actually exploited for helicity generation in the plasmoid. In the proposed system, the plasma gun incorporates a copper shell mounted on the outer electrode. By changing the rise time of the discharge bias coil current and the geometrical structure of the shell, the magnetic field structure and its time evolution can be controlled. The effect of the copper shell has been numerically simulated for the actual gun structure, and experimentally confirmed. This may increase the magnetic helicity content results, through increased poloidal magnetic field.

  13. Alternating current dielectrophoresis of core-shell nanoparticles: Experiments and comparison with theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chungja

    3D particle-assemblies. Chitosan (amino sugar) and poly-L-lysine (amino acid, PLL) CSnp shell materials were custom synthesized around a hollow (gas) core by utilizing a phospholipid micelle around a volatile fluid templating for the shell material; this approach proves to be novel and distinct from conventional core-shell models wherein a conductive core is coated with an insulative shell. Experiments were conducted within a 100 nl chamber housing 100 um wide Ti/Au quadrapole electrodes spaced 25 um apart. Frequencies from 100kHz to 80MHz at fixed local field of 5Vpp were tested with 10-5 and 10-3 S/m medium conductivities for 25 seconds. Dielectrophoretic responses of ~220 and 340(or ~400) nm chitosan or PLL CSnp were compiled as a function of medium conductivity, size and shell material. Experiments further examined shell thickness and particle concentration (chapter 6) dependencies on ~530 nm CSnp dielectrophoretic and electrorotational responses with ~30nm and ~80 nm shell thicknesses and at particle concentration count rates of 5000 +/- 500, 10000 +/- 500, and 15000 +/- 500 counts per second. Using similar experimental conditions, both dielectrophoretic and electrorotational CSnp responses were compiled versus frequency, shell thickness, and particle concentration. Knowledge gained from this study includes a unique resonance-like dielectrophoretic and electrorotational spectrum, which is significantly distinct from other cells and particles. CSnp dielectric properties were then calculated by parametrically fitting parameters to an existing core-shell model. The optimum conductivity and relative permittivity for the core and the shell are 1E-15 S/m, 1, 0.6 S/m, and 90, respectively. These properties can be exploited to rapidly assemble these unique core-shell particles for future structural color production in fabrics, vehicle, and wall painting.

  14. Simple Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Core/Shell CdSe/SiOx Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhang Dai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell-structured CdSe/SiOx nanowires were synthesized on an equilateral triangle Si (111 substrate through a simple one-step thermal evaporation process. SEM, TEM, and XRD investigations confirmed the core-shell structure; that is, the core zone is single crystalline CdSe and the shell zone is SiOx amorphous layer and CdSe core was grown along (001 direction. Two-stage growth process was present to explain the growth mechanism of the core/shell nanwires. The silicon substrate of designed equilateral triangle providing the silicon source is the key factor to form the core-shell nanowires, which is significant for fabrication of nanowire-core sheathed with a silica system. The PL of the product studied at room temperature showed two emission bands around 715 and 560 nm, which originate from the band-band transition of CdSe cores and the amorphous SiOx shells, respectively.

  15. Coercivity enhancement in Ce-Fe-B based magnets by core-shell grain structuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-based R2Fe14B (R= rare-earth nano-structured permanent magnets consisting of (Ce,Nd2Fe14B core-shell grains separated by a non-magnetic grain boundary phase, in which the relative amount of Nd to Ce is higher in the shell of the magnetic grain than in its core, were fabricated by Nd-Cu infiltration into (Ce,Nd2Fe14B hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity values of infiltrated core-shell structured magnets are superior to those of as-hot-deformed magnets with the same overall Nd content. This is attributed to the higher value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the shell phase in the core-shell structured infiltrated magnets compared to the homogeneous R2Fe14B grains of the as-hot-deformed magnets, and to magnetic isolation of R2Fe14B grains by the infiltrated grain boundary phase. First order reversal curve (FORC diagrams suggest that the higher anisotropy shell suppresses initial magnetization reversal at the edges and corners of the R2Fe14B grains.

  16. Controllable dielectric and electrical performance of polymer composites with novel core/shell-structured conductive particles through biomimetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dan; Tian, Ming; Wang, Wencai; Li, Dongdong; Li, Runyuan; Liu, Haoliang; Zhang, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conductive core/shell-structured particles were synthesized by biomimetic method. ► These particles with silica/poly(dopamine)/silver core and poly(dopamine) shell. ► Dielectric composites were prepared with resulted particles and silicone elastomer. ► The dielectric properties of the composites can be controlled by shell thickness. ► This biomimetic method is simple, nontoxic, efficient and easy to control. - Abstract: Novel silica/poly(dopamine)/silver (from inner to outer) (denoted as SiO 2 /PDA/Ag) conductive micro-particles were first synthesized by biomimetic poly(dopamine) coating. These micro-particles were then coated with a poly(dopamine) layer to form core/shell-structured particles, with silica/poly(dopamine)/silver core and poly(dopamine) shell (denoted as SiO 2 /PDA/Ag/PDA). This multilayer core/shell micro-particles were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope. Polymer composites were then prepared by mechanical blending of poly(dimethyl siloxane) and the core/shell-structured particles. It was found that the silver layer and the poly(dopamine) shell had good adhesion with substrate and they kept intact even under violent shearing stress during mechanical mixing. The effect of the thickness of outermost poly(dopamine) shell as well as the loading amount of this filler on the dielectric and electrical properties of the composites was further studied. The results showed that the dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and conductivity of the composites decreased with increasing shell thickness (10–53 nm) at the same loading level. And the maximal dielectric constant of composites was achieved in the composites filled with SiO 2 /PDA/Ag/PDA (with 10–15 nm PDA shell) particles, which was much larger than that of the composite filled with SiO 2 /PDA/Ag particles without insulative PDA shell. At the same time, the composites can change

  17. Prevention of an arms race in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The space age may be the to have begun in 1957, when for the first time a man-made object was lofted into orbit round the Earth. Since that date, the new problems of outer space have been discussed in the United Nations, particularly in the General Assembly, in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies, and in the Conference on Disarmament. The discussions have contributed to the conclusion of a number of international agreements concerning both military and peaceful aspects of the use of outer space. This paper reports that according to the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, known as the outer space Treaty, outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means (article II), and the parties undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of ass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner (article IV). Detailed norms for States' actions in this environment are included in the 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies to ensure that the Moon and other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than Earth, are used exclusively for peaceful purposes

  18. Design aids for stiffened composite shells with cutouts

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sarmila

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the free vibrations of graphite-epoxy laminated composite stiffened shells with cutout both in terms of the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The dynamic analysis of shell structures, which may have complex geometry and arbitrary loading and boundary conditions, is solved efficiently by the finite element method, even including cutouts in shells. The results may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite shells with cutouts. Several shell forms viz. cylindrical shell, hypar shell, conoidal shell, spherical shell, saddle shell, hyperbolic paraboloidal shell and elliptic paraboloidal shell are considered in the book. The dynamic characteristics of stiffened composite shells with cutout are described in terms of the natural frequency and mode shapes. The size of the cutouts and their positions with respect to the shell centre are varied for different edge constraints of cross-ply and angle-ply laminated composite shells. The effects of these parametric variat...

  19. Control of Compact-Toroid Characteristics by External Copper Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Gota, H.; Roche, T.; Allfrey, I.; Cordero, M.; Garate, E.; Kinley, J.; Valentine, T.; Waggoner, W.; the TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    A collaborative research project by Tri Alpha Energy and Nihon University has been conducted for several years, which led to the development of a new compact toroid (CT) injector for efficient FRC particle refueling in the C-2U experiment. The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), consisting of coaxial cylindrical electrodes. In CT formation via MCPG, the magnetic helicity content of the generated CT is one of the critical parameters. A bias coil is inserted into the inner electrode to generate a poloidal flux. The resultant bias magnetic field is spread out of MCPG with time due to its low-frequency bias current. To obtain a more effectively distributed bias magnetic field as well as to improve the voltage breakdown between electrodes, the MCPG incorporates a novel ~ 1 mm thick copper shell mounted outside of the outer electrode. This allows for reliable and controlled operation and more robust CT generation. A detailed discussion of the copper shell and experimental test results will be presented.

  20. Ionization effects in electronic inner-shells of ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchornak, G.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the atomic physics of ionization atoms has been presented. Interaction and structure effects in atomic shells, correlated to the occurrence of vacancies in several subshells of the atom have been considered. The methods of calculations of atomic states and wave functions have been reviewed. The energy shift of characteristic X-rays is discussed as a function of the ionization stage of the atom. The influence of inner and outer-shell vacancies on the energy of the X-rays is shown in detail. The influence of chemical effects on the parameters of X-rays is also taken into account. Further on, the change of transition probabilities in radiative and non-radiative transitions by changing stage of ionization is discussed; and among them the leading part of Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions by the arearrangement of the atomic states is shown. The influence of non-radiative electronic transitions on ionization cross-sections for multiple ionization is discussed. Using these results, ionization cross-sections for direct and indirect processes for several ionization stages are given

  1. Ultimate load capacity assessment of reinforced concrete shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop capability for prediction of ultimate load capacity of reinforced concrete shell structures. The present finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) adopts a degenerate concept of formulating general isoparametric shell element with a layered approach in the thickness direction. Different failure modes such as crushing, tensile cracking and reinforcement yielding are recognised for various problems. The structure fails by crushing of concrete when the concrete strain/stress reaches the ultimate stress or strain of concrete. Material nonlinearities as a result of tension cracking, tension stiffening between reinforcement and concrete in cracked region and yielding of reinforcement are considered along with geometric nonlinearity. Thus with this code it is possible to predict the pressure at which the first cracking, first through thickness cracking, first yielding of reinforcement occurs. After validating the code with few bench mark problems for different failure modes a reinforced concrete nuclear containment is analysed for its ultimate capacity and the results are matched with the published results. Further the ultimate load capacity of outer containment wall of Narora Atomic Power Station is predicted. It is observed that containment fails in membrane region and has a sufficient margin against design pressure. (author). 9 refs., 56 figs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix with 4 tabs

  2. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  3. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  4. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  5. Ultrasonic examination of defects close to the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Serre, M.; Champigny, F.

    1986-11-01

    During the examination of a pressurized water reactor vessel with an in Service Inspection Machine (MIS), various welds are scanned with immersion ultrasonic focused transducers from the inside of the vessel. Defects close to the outer surface are sometimes detected, and sizing with the successive 6 dB drop method leads to oversize some indications; this is caused by various reflections on the outer wall; the corner echo is of particular importance here. CEA and EDF have started an experimental program in order to study the response of volumetric and planar defects located near the outer surface. We present here the first results obtained with artificial defects. 2 refs

  6. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  7. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  8. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  9. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  10. Atomic inner-shell physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses: relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects on atomic inner shells; relativistic calculation of atomic transition probabilities; many-body effects in energetic atomic transitions; Auger Electron spectrometry of core levels of atoms; experimental evaluation of inner-vacancy level energies for comparison with theory; mechanisms for energy shifts of atomic K-X rays; atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation; investigations of inner-shell states by the electron energy-loss technique at high resolution; coherence effects in electron emission by atoms; inelastic X-ray scattering including resonance phenomena; Rayleigh scattering: elastic photon scattering by bound electrons; electron-atom bremsstrahlung; X-ray and bremsstrahlung production in nuclear reactions; positron production in heavy-ion collisions, and X-ray processes in heavy-ion collisions

  11. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  13. Læren fra Shell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst......Hvad kan afsløringerne om Shells mere end 25 år gamle viden om klimaforandringer lære virksomheder om disruption og strategi? Først og fremmest at undgå at se disruption som en mulig trussel, men i stedet som en fremtidig realitet og chance for vækst...

  14. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  15. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  16. Synthesis and utilization of catalytically cracked cashew nut shell liquid in a diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Yang, W.M.; Saravanan, C.G.; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, CNSL (Cashew nut shell liquid), an economically viable feedstock among the other contemporary resources, has been considered as an appropriate source of alternate fuel. Herein, CNSL was extracted from cashew nut outer shell, a waste product, through a unique approach of steam treatment process followed by mechanical crushing technique. In contrast to the past studies that have attempted to use unprocessed CNSL directly as substitute for diesel, this study has resorted to use processed CNSL by cracking it using zeolite catalyst. Thus, both the extraction of CNSL from cashew nut outer shell and processing of it through catalytic cracking process to help synthesize CC-CNSL (catalytically cracked CNSL) are different, which underscores the significance of the current work. In wake of adopting such distinct methodologies with fuel characterization, the properties of CC-CNSL such as viscosity and calorific value were figured out to be improved. Subsequently, CC-CNSL20 (20% CC-CNSL and 80% diesel) was tested at different fuel injection pressure such as 200 bar, 235 bar, 270 bar and 300 bar so as to optimize its use in a single cylinder diesel engine. From the engine experimental study, CC-CNSL20 was found to evince better engine performance than diesel and the composite emissions of CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), NOX (oxides of nitrogen) and smoke, computed based on ISO 8178 D2 standard test cycle, were found to be better than diesel and incompliance with the legislative norms for genset.

  17. Enhancement and prediction of modulus of elasticity of palm kernel shell concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengaram, U. Johnson; Mahmud, Hilmi; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Micro-pores of size 16-24 μm were found on the outer surface of palm kernel shell. → Infilling of pores by mineral admixtures was evident. → Sand content influenced both modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. → Proposed equation predicts modulus of elasticity within ±1.5 kN/mm 2 of test results. -- Abstract: This paper presents results of an investigation conducted to enhance and predict the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis on palm kernel shell (PKS) was conducted. Further, the effect of varying sand and PKS contents and mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash) on compressive strength and MOE was investigated. The variables include water-to-binder (w/b) and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratios. Nine concrete mixes were prepared, and tests on static and dynamic moduli of elasticity and compressive strength were conducted. The SEM result showed presence of large number of micro-pores on PKS. The mineral admixtures uniformly filled the micro-pores on the outer surface of PKS. Further, the increase in sand content coupled with reduction in PKS content enhanced the compressive strength and static MOE: The highest MOE recorded in this investigation, 11 kN/mm 2 , was twice that previously published. Moreover, the proposed equation based on CEB/FIP code formula appears to predict the MOE close to the experimental values.

  18. Effect of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2018-05-23

    In this study, the effects of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal (QDNC) solar cells have been investigated in detail. For this purpose, the conventional, i.e. original, detailed balance model, developed by Shockley and Queisser to calculate an upper limit for the conversion efficiency of silicon p-n junction solar cells, is modified in a simple and effective way to calculate the conversion efficiency of core/shell QDNC solar cells. Since the existing model relies on the gap energy ([Formula: see text]) of the solar cell, it does not make an estimation about the effect of QDNC materials on the efficiency of the solar cells, and gives the same efficiency values for several QDNC solar cells with the same [Formula: see text]. The proposed modification, however, estimates a conversion efficiency in relation to the material properties and also the confinement type of the QDNCs. The results of the modified model show that, in contrast to the original one, the conversion efficiencies of different QDNC solar cells, even if they have the same [Formula: see text], become different depending upon the confinement type and shell material of the core/shell QDNCs, and this is crucial in the design and fabrication of the new generation solar cells to predict the confinement type and also appropriate QDNC materials for better efficiency.

  19. Effect of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal (QDNC) solar cells have been investigated in detail. For this purpose, the conventional, i.e. original, detailed balance model, developed by Shockley and Queisser to calculate an upper limit for the conversion efficiency of silicon p–n junction solar cells, is modified in a simple and effective way to calculate the conversion efficiency of core/shell QDNC solar cells. Since the existing model relies on the gap energy () of the solar cell, it does not make an estimation about the effect of QDNC materials on the efficiency of the solar cells, and gives the same efficiency values for several QDNC solar cells with the same . The proposed modification, however, estimates a conversion efficiency in relation to the material properties and also the confinement type of the QDNCs. The results of the modified model show that, in contrast to the original one, the conversion efficiencies of different QDNC solar cells, even if they have the same , become different depending upon the confinement type and shell material of the core/shell QDNCs, and this is crucial in the design and fabrication of the new generation solar cells to predict the confinement type and also appropriate QDNC materials for better efficiency.

  20. Facile synthesis of CdS@TiO2 core–shell nanorods with controllable shell thickness and enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Wenhao; Pan, Feng; Xu, Leilei; Zheng, Minrui; Sow, Chorng Haur; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS nanorods were coated with amorphous TiO 2 shells under a mild condition. • The TiO 2 shell thickness can be controlled from 3.5 to 40 nm. • CdS@TiO 2 nanorods exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities under visible light. • Efficient charge carriers separation leads to the improved photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Amorphous TiO 2 layers with a controllable thickness from 3.5 to 40 nm were coated on the one-dimensional CdS nanorods surface under mild conditions. Compared to the bare CdS nanorods, the as-prepared CdS@TiO 2 nanorods exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activities for phenol photodecomposition under visible light irradiation. The improved photoactivity is ascribed to the efficient separation of photogenerated electron and hole charge carriers between CdS cores and TiO 2 shells. This study promises a simple approach to fabricating CdS@TiO 2 core–shell structure nanocomposites, and can be applied for other semiconductor cores with TiO 2 shells