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Sample records for outer segments determined

  1. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  2. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  3. Biological activity is the likely origin of the intersection between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments of the rat retina as determined by optical coherence tomography

    Yamauchi Y

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyuki Yamauchi, Hiromichi Yagi, Yoshihiko Usui, Keisuke Kimura, Tsuyoshi Agawa, Rintaro Tsukahara, Naoyuki Yamakawa, Hiroshi GotoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recent research on macular diseases has prompted investigations into the condition of the intersection between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS and the relationship with retinal photoreceptor abnormalities. Although the origin of the IS/OS in optical coherence tomography (OCT images is unclear, it may be related to either the cellular activity of the photoreceptors or the structure of the OS disks. To address this question, we compared the IS/OS status in OCT images of rat retinas before and after euthanasia.Methods: OCT images were taken before and after euthanasia in four eyes of two Brown Norway rats. After the OCT images were taken, the rats were used for histopathological studies to confirm that retinal structures were intact.Results: Before euthanasia, the IS/OS and external limiting membrane (ELM line were clearly identifiable on the OCT images. However, after euthanasia, neither the IS/OS nor the ELM line was evident in three out of four eyes, and a faint IS/OS and an ELM line were identified in one eye. Histopathological analysis did not show any abnormalities in the retina in any of the four eyes.Conclusion: The origin of the IS/OS identified in OCT images is likely related to the biological activities of the photoreceptor cells.Keywords: IS/OS, OCT, histopathology, biological activity

  4. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    John J. Willoughby

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are specialized light sensing neurons. The photoreceptor outer segment is a highly modified cilium where photons of light are transduced into a chemical and electrical signal. The outer segment has the typical cilary axoneme but, in addition, it has a large number of densely packed, stacked, intramembranous discs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed throughout the life of the animal through the combined process of distal outer segment shedding and proximal outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we still lack an understanding of how photoreceptors renew their outer segments and few, if any, molecular mechanisms that regulate outer segment growth or shedding have been described. Our lack of progress in understanding how photoreceptors renew their outer segments has been hampered by the difficulty in measuring rates of renewal. We have created a new method that uses heat-shock induction of a fluorescent protein that can be used to rapidly measure outer segment growth rates. We describe this method, the stable transgenic line we created, and the growth rates observed in larval and adult rod photoreceptors using this new method. This new method will allow us to begin to define the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate rod outer segment renewal, a crucial aspect of photoreceptor function and, possibly, viability.

  5. Early photoreceptor outer segment loss and retinoschisis in Cohen syndrome.

    Uyhazi, Katherine E; Binenbaum, Gil; Carducci, Nicholas; Zackai, Elaine H; Aleman, Tomas S

    2018-06-01

    To describe early structural and functional retinal changes in a patient with Cohen syndrome. A 13-month-old Caucasian girl of Irish and Spanish ancestry was noted to have micrognathia and laryngomalacia at birth, which prompted a genetic evaluation that revealed biallelic deletions in COH1 (VPS13B) (a maternally inherited 60-kb deletion involving exons 26-32 and a paternally inherited 3.5-kb deletion within exon 17) consistent with Cohen syndrome. She underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography and retinal imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Central vision was central, steady, and maintained. There was bilateral myopic astigmatic refractive error. Fundus exam was notable for dark foveolar pigmentation, but no obvious abnormalities of either eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross sections through the fovea revealed a normal appearing photoreceptor outer nuclear layer but loss of the interdigitation signal between the photoreceptor outer segments and the apical retinal pigment epithelium. Retinoschisis involving the inner nuclear layer of both eyes and possible ganglion cell layer thinning were also noted. There was a detectable electroretinogram with similarly reduced amplitudes of rod- (white, 0.01 cd.s.m -2 ) and cone-mediated (3 cd.s.m -2 , 30 Hz) responses. Photoreceptor outer segment abnormalities and retinoschisis may represent the earliest structural retinal change detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with Cohen syndrome, suggesting a complex pathophysiology with primary involvement of the photoreceptor cilium and disorganization of the structural integrity of the inner retina.

  6. Usher syndrome type 1-associated cadherins shape the photoreceptor outer segment.

    Schietroma, Cataldo; Parain, Karine; Estivalet, Amrit; Aghaie, Asadollah; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Picaud, Serge; Sahel, José-Alain; Perron, Muriel; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine

    2017-06-05

    Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) causes combined hearing and sight defects, but how mutations in USH1 genes lead to retinal dystrophy in patients remains elusive. The USH1 protein complex is associated with calyceal processes, which are microvilli of unknown function surrounding the base of the photoreceptor outer segment. We show that in Xenopus tropicalis , these processes are connected to the outer-segment membrane by links composed of protocadherin-15 (USH1F protein). Protocadherin-15 deficiency, obtained by a knockdown approach, leads to impaired photoreceptor function and abnormally shaped photoreceptor outer segments. Rod basal outer disks displayed excessive outgrowth, and cone outer segments were curved, with lamellae of heterogeneous sizes, defects also observed upon knockdown of Cdh23 , encoding cadherin-23 (USH1D protein). The calyceal processes were virtually absent in cones and displayed markedly reduced F-actin content in rods, suggesting that protocadherin-15-containing links are essential for their development and/or maintenance. We propose that calyceal processes, together with their associated links, control the sizing of rod disks and cone lamellae throughout their daily renewal. © 2017 Schietroma et al.

  7. Usher syndrome type 1–associated cadherins shape the photoreceptor outer segment

    Parain, Karine; Aghaie, Asadollah; Picaud, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) causes combined hearing and sight defects, but how mutations in USH1 genes lead to retinal dystrophy in patients remains elusive. The USH1 protein complex is associated with calyceal processes, which are microvilli of unknown function surrounding the base of the photoreceptor outer segment. We show that in Xenopus tropicalis, these processes are connected to the outer-segment membrane by links composed of protocadherin-15 (USH1F protein). Protocadherin-15 deficiency, obtained by a knockdown approach, leads to impaired photoreceptor function and abnormally shaped photoreceptor outer segments. Rod basal outer disks displayed excessive outgrowth, and cone outer segments were curved, with lamellae of heterogeneous sizes, defects also observed upon knockdown of Cdh23, encoding cadherin-23 (USH1D protein). The calyceal processes were virtually absent in cones and displayed markedly reduced F-actin content in rods, suggesting that protocadherin-15–containing links are essential for their development and/or maintenance. We propose that calyceal processes, together with their associated links, control the sizing of rod disks and cone lamellae throughout their daily renewal. PMID:28495838

  8. Segmentation of the Outer Contact on P-Type Coaxial Germanium Detectors

    Hull, Ethan L.; Pehl, Richard H.; Lathrop, James R.; Martin, Gregory N.; Mashburn, R. B.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hossbach, Todd W.

    2006-09-21

    Germanium detector arrays are needed for low-level counting facilities. The practical applications of such user facilities include characterization of low-level radioactive samples. In addition, the same detector arrays can also perform important fundamental physics measurements including the search for rare events like neutrino-less double-beta decay. Coaxial germanium detectors having segmented outer contacts will provide the next level of sensitivity improvement in low background measurements. The segmented outer detector contact allows performance of advanced pulse shape analysis measurements that provide additional background reduction. Currently, n-type (reverse electrode) germanium coaxial detectors are used whenever a segmented coaxial detector is needed because the outer boron (electron barrier) contact is thin and can be segmented. Coaxial detectors fabricated from p-type germanium cost less, have better resolution, and are larger than n-type coaxial detectors. However, it is difficult to reliably segment p-type coaxial detectors because thick (~1 mm) lithium-diffused (hole barrier) contacts are the standard outside contact for p-type coaxial detectors. During this Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) we have researched the possibility of using amorphous germanium contacts as a thin outer contact of p-type coaxial detectors that can be segmented. We have developed amorphous germanium contacts that provide a very high hole barrier on small planar detectors. These easily segmented amorphous germanium contacts have been demonstrated to withstand several thousand volts/cm electric fields with no measurable leakage current (<1 pA) from charge injection over the hole barrier. We have also demonstrated that the contact can be sputter deposited around and over the curved outside surface of a small p-type coaxial detector. The amorphous contact has shown good rectification properties on the outside of a small p-type coaxial detector. These encouraging

  9. Rhodopsin Forms Nanodomains in Rod Outer Segment Disc Membranes of the Cold-Blooded Xenopus laevis.

    Tatini Rakshit

    Full Text Available Rhodopsin forms nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains in rod outer segment disc membranes from mammalian species. It is unclear whether rhodopsin arranges in a similar manner in amphibian species, which are often used as a model system to investigate the function of rhodopsin and the structure of photoreceptor cells. Moreover, since samples are routinely prepared at low temperatures, it is unclear whether lipid phase separation effects in the membrane promote the observed nanodomain organization of rhodopsin from mammalian species. Rod outer segment disc membranes prepared from the cold-blooded frog Xenopus laevis were investigated by atomic force microscopy to visualize the organization of rhodopsin in the absence of lipid phase separation effects. Atomic force microscopy revealed that rhodopsin nanodomains form similarly as that observed previously in mammalian membranes. Formation of nanodomains in ROS disc membranes is independent of lipid phase separation and conserved among vertebrates.

  10. Restoration of outer segments of foveal photoreceptors after resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Ojima, Yumiko; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ooto, Sotaro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    To study morphologically and functionally the prognosis of damaged outer segments of the foveal photoreceptor layer in eyes with resolved central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We studied retrospectively the medical records of 70 patients (74 eyes) with resolved CSC. Optical coherence tomography was used to detect the junctions between inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors (IS/OS) as a hallmark of the integrity of the outer photoreceptor layer. In 53 eyes (71.6%), the IS/OS line was clearly detected beneath the fovea immediately after resolution of the retinal detachment, with good visual acuity (VA). In the remaining 21 eyes (28.4%), however, the foveal IS/OS line could not be detected shortly after resolution of CSC, and VA was variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 (median, 0.9). Of these 21 eyes, 15 had a follow-up examination with OCT, and in four the foveal IS/OS line was not detected at the follow-up and vision in these eyes remained poor. However, nine eyes showed recovery of the foveal IS/OS line during follow-up, and these eyes had substantial visual recovery. Immediately after resolution of active CSC, although the IS/OS line cannot be detected beneath the fovea, it often shows restoration over time, with visual recovery, though in some eyes no restoration takes place and the prognosis remains poor.

  11. Lack of protein-tyrosine sulfation disrupts photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis, retinal function and retinal anatomy.

    Sherry, David M; Murray, Anne R; Kanan, Yogita; Arbogast, Kelsey L; Hamilton, Robert A; Fliesler, Steven J; Burns, Marie E; Moore, Kevin L; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the role(s) of protein-tyrosine sulfation in the retina, we examined retinal function and structure in mice lacking tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST) 1 and 2. Tpst double knockout (DKO; Tpst1(-/-) /Tpst2 (-/-) ) retinas had drastically reduced electroretinographic responses, although their photoreceptors exhibited normal responses in single cell recordings. These retinas appeared normal histologically; however, the rod photoreceptors had ultrastructurally abnormal outer segments, with membrane evulsions into the extracellular space, irregular disc membrane spacing and expanded intradiscal space. Photoreceptor synaptic terminals were disorganized in Tpst DKO retinas, but established ultrastructurally normal synapses, as did bipolar and amacrine cells; however, the morphology and organization of neuronal processes in the inner retina were abnormal. These results indicate that protein-tyrosine sulfation is essential for proper outer segment morphogenesis and synaptic function, but is not critical for overall retinal structure or synapse formation, and may serve broader functions in neuronal development and maintenance. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Influence of bacterial toxins on the GTPase activity of transducin from bovine retinal rod outer segments

    Rybin, V.O.; Gureeva, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The action of cholera toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the activator N/sub s/ protein, and pertussis toxin, capable of ADP-ribosylation of the inhibitor N/sub i/ protein of the adenylate cyclase complex, on transducin, the GTP-binding protein of the rod outer segments of the retina, was investigated. It was shown that under the action of pertussis and cholera toxins, the GTPase activity of transducin is inhibited. Pertussin toxin inhibits the GTPase of native retinal rod outer segments by 30-40%, while GTPase of homogeneous transducin produces a 70-80% inhibition. The action of toxins on transducin depends on the presence and nature of the guanylic nucleotide with which incubation is performed. On the basis of the data obtained it is suggested that pertussis toxin interacts with pretransducin and with the transducin-GDP complex, while cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates the transducin-GTP complex and does not act on transducin lacking GTP

  13. Construction of a cDNA library from human retinal pigment epithelial cells challenged with rod outer segments.

    Cavaney, D M; Rakoczy, P E; Constable, I J

    1995-05-01

    To study genes expressed by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells during phagocytosis and digestion of rod outer segments (ROS), a complementary (c)DNA library was produced using an in-vitro model. The cDNA library can be used to study molecular changes which contribute to the development of diseases due to a failure in outer segment phagocytosis and digestion by RPE cells. Here we demonstrate a way to study genes and their functions using a molecular biological approach and describing the first step involved in this process, the construction of a cDNA library. Human RPE cells obtained from the eyes of a seven-year-old donor were cultured and challenged with bovine ROS. The culture was harvested and total RNA was extracted. Complementary DNA was transcribed from the messenger (m)RNA and was directionally cloned into the LambdaGEM-4 bacteriophage vector successfully. Some clones were picked and the DNA extracted, to determine the size of the inserts as a measure of the quality of the library. Molecular biology and cell culture are important tools to be used in eye research, especially in areas where tissue is limiting and animal models are not available. We now have a ROS challenged RPE cDNA library which will be used to identify genes responsible for degrading phagocytosed debris within the retinal pigment epithelium.

  14. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls.

    Wakabayashi, K; Sakurai, N; Kuraishi, S

    1990-07-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account.

  15. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls 1

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Kuraishi, Susumu

    1990-01-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account. PMID:16667612

  16. Relationship between photoreceptor outer segment length and visual acuity in diabetic macular edema.

    Forooghian, Farzin; Stetson, Paul F; Meyer, Scott A; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Ferris, Frederick L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length in 27 consecutive patients (30 eyes) with diabetic macular edema using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and to describe the correlation between PROS length and visual acuity. Three spectral domain-optical coherence tomography scans were performed on all eyes during each session using Cirrus HD-OCT. A prototype algorithm was developed for quantitative assessment of PROS length. Retinal thicknesses and PROS lengths were calculated for 3 parameters: macular grid (6 x 6 mm), central subfield (1 mm), and center foveal point (0.33 mm). Intrasession repeatability was assessed using coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient. The association between retinal thickness and PROS length with visual acuity was assessed using linear regression and Pearson correlation analyses. The main outcome measures include intrasession repeatability of macular parameters and correlation of these parameters with visual acuity. Mean retinal thickness and PROS length were 298 mum to 381 microm and 30 microm to 32 mum, respectively, for macular parameters assessed in this study. Coefficient of variation values were 0.75% to 4.13% for retinal thickness and 1.97% to 14.01% for PROS length. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.96 to 0.99 and 0.73 to 0.98 for retinal thickness and PROS length, respectively. Slopes from linear regression analyses assessing the association of retinal thickness and visual acuity were not significantly different from 0 (P > 0.20), whereas the slopes of PROS length and visual acuity were significantly different from 0 (P < 0.0005). Correlation coefficients for macular thickness and visual acuity ranged from 0.13 to 0.22, whereas coefficients for PROS length and visual acuity ranged from -0.61 to -0.81. Photoreceptor outer segment length can be quantitatively assessed using Cirrus HD-OCT. Although the intrasession repeatability of PROS

  17. Protective effect of taurine on the light-induced disruption of isolated frog rod outer segments

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Quesada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS) incubated in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, and illuminated for 2 h, show a profound alteration in their structure. This is characterized by distention of discs, vesiculation, and a marked swelling. The light-induced ROS disruption requires the presence of bicarbonate and sodium chloride. Replacement of bicarbonate by TRIS or HEPES protects ROS structure. Also, substitution of sodium chloride by sucrose or choline chloride maintains unaltered the ROS structure. Deletion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphate does not modify the effect produced by illumination. An increased accumulation of labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water is observed in illuminated ROS, as compared with controls in the dark. The presence of taurine, GABA, or glycine, at concentrations of 5-25 mM, effectively counteracts the light-induced ROS disruption. Taurine (25 mM) reduces labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water levels to those observed in the dark incubated ROS

  18. Photoreceptor Outer Segment on Internal Limiting Membrane after Macular Hole Surgery: Implications for Pathogenesis.

    Grinton, Michael E; Sandinha, Maria T; Steel, David H W

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case, which highlights key principles in the pathophysiology of macular holes. It has been hypothesized that anteroposterior (AP) and tangential vitreous traction on the fovea are the primary underlying factors causing macular holes [Nischal and Pearson; in Kanski and Bowling: Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systemic Approach, 2011, pp 629-631]. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has subsequently corroborated this theory in part but shown that AP vitreofoveal traction is the more common scenario [Steel and Lotery: Eye 2013;27:1-21]. This study was conducted as a single case report. A 63-year old female presented to her optician with blurred and distorted vision in her left eye. OCT showed a macular hole with a minimum linear diameter of 370 µm, with persistent broad vitreofoveal attachment on both sides of the hole edges. The patient underwent combined left phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and gas injection. The ILM was examined by electron microscopy and showed the presence of a cone outer segment on the retinal side. Post-operative OCT at 11 weeks showed a closed hole with recovery of the foveal contour and good vision. Our case shows the presence of a photoreceptor outer segment on the retinal side of the ILM and reinforces the importance of tangential traction in the development of some macula holes. The case highlights the theory of transmission of inner retinal forces to the photoreceptors via Müller cells and how a full thickness macular hole defect can occur in the absence of AP vitreomacular traction.

  19. The phototransduction machinery in the rod outer segment has a strong efficacy gradient

    Mazzolini, Monica

    2015-05-04

    Rod photoreceptors consist of an outer segment (OS) and an inner segment. Inside the OS a biochemical machinery transforms the rhodopsin photoisomerization into electrical signal. This machinery has been treated as and is thought to be homogenous with marginal inhomogeneities. To verify this assumption, we developed a methodology based on special tapered optical fibers (TOFs) to deliver highly localized light stimulations. By using these TOFs, specific regions of the rod OS could be stimulated with spots of light highly confined in space. As the TOF is moved from the OS base toward its tip, the amplitude of saturating and single photon responses decreases, demonstrating that the efficacy of the transduction machinery is not uniform and is 5-10 times higher at the base than at the tip. This gradient of efficacy of the transduction machinery is attributed to a progressive depletion of the phosphodiesterase along the rod OS. Moreover we demonstrate that, using restricted spots of light, the duration of the photoresponse along the OS does not increase linearly with the light intensity as with diffuse light. © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

  20. Outer segment phagocytosis by cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells requires Gas6.

    Hall, M O; Prieto, A L; Obin, M S; Abrams, T A; Burgess, B L; Heeb, M J; Agnew, B J

    2001-10-01

    The function and viability of vertebrate photoreceptors requires the daily phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (OS) by the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We demonstrate here a critical role in this process for Gas6 and by implication one of its receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Mertk (Mer). Gas6 specifically and selectively stimulates the phagocytosis of OS by normal cultured rat RPE cells. The magnitude of the response is dose-dependent and shows an absolute requirement for calcium. By contrast the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat RPE cells, in which a mutation in the gene Mertk results in the expression of a truncated, non-functional receptor, does not respond to Gas6. These data strongly suggest that activation of Mertk by its ligand, Gas6, is the specific signaling pathway responsible for initiating the ingestion of shed OS. Moreover, photoreceptor degeneration in the RCS rat retina, which lacks Mertk, and in humans with a mutation in Mertk, strongly suggests that the Gas6/Mertk signaling pathway is essential for photoreceptor viability. We believe that this is the first demonstration of a specific function for Gas6 in the eye. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Distribution of macular xanthophylls between domains in a model of photoreceptor outer segment membranes.

    Wisniewska, Anna; Subczynski, Witold K

    2006-10-15

    A model of photoreceptor outer segment (POS) membranes has been proposed, consisting of an equimolar ternary mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatidylcholine/distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol. It was shown that, as in membranes made from the raft-forming mixture, in the model of POS membranes, two domains are formed: the raft domain (detergent resistant membranes, DRM), and the bulk domain (detergent soluble membranes, DSM). Saturation-recovery EPR discrimination by oxygen transport method also demonstrated the presence of two domains in this model system in situ at a wide range of temperatures (10-55 degrees C), showing additionally that neither lutein nor zeaxanthin at 1 mol% affect the formation of these domains. These membrane domains have been separated using cold Triton X-100 extraction from a model of POS membranes containing 1 mol% of either lutein or zeaxanthin. The results indicated that the macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are substantially excluded from DRM and remain concentrated in DSM, a domain enriched in highly unsaturated docosahexaenoyl acid which is abundant in retina membranes. The concentration of xanthophylls in DRM and DSM calculated as the mol ratio of either xanthophyll to total lipid (phospholipid+cholesterol) was 0.0028 and 0.0391, respectively. Thus, xanthophylls are about 14 times more concentrated in DSM than in DRM. No significant difference in the distribution of lutein and zeaxanthin was found. The obtained results suggest that in POS membranes macular xanthophylls should also be concentrated in domains enriched in polyunsaturated chains.

  2. Location of macular xanthophylls in the most vulnerable regions of photoreceptor outer-segment membranes.

    Subczynski, Witold K; Wisniewska, Anna; Widomska, Justyna

    2010-12-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are two dietary carotenoids that compose the macular pigment of the primate retina. Another carotenoid, meso-zeaxanthin, is formed from lutein in the retina. A membrane location is one possible site where these dipolar, terminally dihydroxylated carotenoids, named macular xanthophylls, are accumulated in the nerve fibers and photoreceptor outer segments. Macular xanthophylls are oriented perpendicular to the membrane surface, which ensures their high solubility, stability, and significant effects on membrane properties. It was recently shown that they are selectively accumulated in membrane domains that contain unsaturated phospholipids, and thus are located in the most vulnerable regions of the membrane. This location is ideal if they are to act as lipid antioxidants, which is the most accepted mechanism through which lutein and zeaxanthin protect the retina from age-related macular degeneration. In this mini-review, we examine published data on carotenoid-membrane interactions and present our hypothesis that the specific orientation and location of macular xanthophylls maximize their protective action in membranes of the eye retina. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual effect of local anesthetics on the function of excitable rod outer segment disk membrane

    Mashimo, T.; Abe, K.; Yoshiya, I.

    1986-04-01

    The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.

  4. A High Torque Segmented Outer Rotor Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Motor for Motorcycle Propulsion

    Mbadiwe I Enwelum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric scooters also known as electric motorcycle are viable and personal means of road transportation have been making their ways into the world markets now because in them, combustion engine with the use of fuel oil for propulsion have been completely eliminated for economic and environmental imperatives. Electric motor which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is used to overcome the complication of combustion engine. As it is, everyone is opting for combustion engine free and fuel-less type of vehicle. For this reason, manufacturers have exhibited interest, making research on electric motor very attractive. Meanwhile, surface permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM has been successfully developed having output torque of 110 Nm, the assembly of motor lacked mechanical strength between the rotor yoke and the mounted permanent magnet (PM which heats up during speed operation, resulting to poor performance. To overcome the challenges laced with SPMSM, this paper presents a novel design of 24 stator 14 pole outer rotor-permanent magnet flux switching motor (SOR-PMFSM capable of high torque and high performance. It employs an unconventional segmented rotor which has short flux path flow. It also embraces alternate stator tooth windings to reduce material cost. Design specifications and restriction with input DC current are the same with SPMSM. The 2D-FEA by JMAG, version 14 is used to examine the performance of the proposed motor in terms of cogging torque, back-emf, average torque, power and efficiency. Preliminary results showed that torque, power output and efficiency of the proposed motor are 1.9Nm times, 5.8kW times more than SPMSM and efficiency of 84% thus, can sustain acceleration for long distance travel.

  5. Turnover of rod photoreceptor outer segments. II. Membrane addition and loss in relationship to light

    Besharse, J.C.; Hollyfield, J.G.; Rayborn, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of disk addition to rod outer segments (ROS) varies widely in Xenopus laevis tadpoles kept in cyclic light (12L:12D). When measured as radioactive band ( 3 H-band) displacement during the 2nd day after injection of [ 3 H]leucine, 75% of the daily increment of displacement occurred during the first 8 h of light. During the same interval, the number of open disks at the ROS base increased more than threefold. During the last 8 h of darkness, 3 H-band displacement was undetectable and the number of open disks was reduced. These observations suggest the possibility that disk addition may occur discontinuously. During the 3rd and 4th days after injection of [ 3 H]leucine, maximal displacement of the 3 H-band occurred later in the day than on the 2nd day, its movement no longer corresponding to the increase in open disks. This delay in 3 H-band displacement may reflect a time delay as a result of propagation of compressive stress in an elastic ROS system. Maximal disk loss from ROS as reflected in counts of phagosomes in the pigment epithelium occurred within 1 h of light exposure, and phagosome counts remained high for 4 h before declining to a low level in darkness. Modified lighting regimes affected the daily rhythms of shedding and disk addition differently, suggesting that control mechanisms for the two processes are not directly coupled. During 3 days in darkness, disk addition was reduced 50% compared to controls (12L:12D), whereas shedding was reduced by about 40%. Although reduced in level, shedding occurred as a free-running circadian rhythm

  6. A distance measurement between specific sites on the cytoplasmic surface of bovine rhodopsin in rod outer segment disk membranes.

    Albert, A D; Watts, A; Spooner, P; Groebner, G; Young, J; Yeagle, P L

    1997-08-14

    Structural information on mammalian integral membrane proteins is scarce. As part of work on an alternative approach to the structure of bovine rhodopsin, a method was devised to obtain an intramolecular distance between two specific sites on rhodopsin while in the rod outer segment disk membrane. In this report, the distance between the rhodopsin kinase phosphorylation site(s) on the carboxyl terminal and the top of the third transmembrane helix was measured on native rhodopsin. Rhodopsin was labeled with a nuclear spin label (31P) by limited phosphorylation with rhodopsin kinase. Major phosphorylation occurs at serines 343 and 338 on the carboxyl terminal. The phosphorylated rhodopsin was then specifically labeled on cysteine 140 with an electron spin label. Magic angle spinning 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the resonance arising from the phosphorylated protein. The enhancement of the transverse relaxation of this resonance by the paramagnetic spin label was observed. The strength of this perturbation was used to determine the through-space distance between the phosphorylation site(s) and the spin label position. A distance of 18 +/- 3 A was obtained.

  7. Docosahexaenoate-containing molecular species of glycerophospholipids from frog retinal rod outer segments show different rates of biosynthesis and turnover

    Louie, K.; Wiegand, R.D.; Anderson, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have studied the de novo synthesis and subsequent turnover of major docosahexaenoate-containing molecular species in frog rod outer segment (ROS) phospholipids following intravitreal injection of [2- 3 H]glycerol. On selected days after injection, ROS were prepared and phospholipids extracted. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylserine (PS) were isolated and converted to diradylglycerols with phospholipase C. Diradylglycerols were derivatized with benzoic anhydride and resolve into diacylglycerobenzoates and ether-linked glycerobenzoates. The diacylglycerobenzoates were fractionated into molecular species by HPLC, quantitated, and counted for radioactivity. Label was incorporated into ROS phospholipids by day 1 and was followed up through the eighth day. The dipolyenoic species 22:6-22:6 from PC showed 1 3-5 times higher radiospecific activity than the same species from either PE or PS. The rate of decline was determined by calculating the half-life of each molecular species, which was used as a measure of the turnover of the species. The percent distribution of radioactivity in the molecular species of PC and PE was quite different from the relative mass distribution at day 1. However, percent dpm approached the mole percent by 31 days. In PS, percent dpm and mole percent were the same at all time points. These results indicate that the molecular species composition of PC and PE in frog retinal ROS is determined by a combination of factors, which include rate of synthesis, rate of degradation, and selective interconversions. In contrast, PS composition appears to be determined at the time of synthesis

  8. Differential Effect of Auxin on Molecular Weight Distributions of Xyloglucans in Cell Walls of Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls.

    Wakabayashi, K; Sakurai, N; Kuraishi, S

    1991-04-01

    Effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the mechanical properties of cell walls and structures of cell wall polysaccharides in outer and inner tissues of segments of dark grown squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls were investigated. IAA induced the elongation of unpeeled, intact segments, but had no effect on the elongation of peeled segments. IAA induced the cell wall loosening in outer tissues as studied by the stress-relaxation analysis but not in inner tissues. IAA-induced changes in the net sugar content of cell wall fractions in outer and inner tissues were very small. Extracted hemicellulosic xyloglucans derived from outer tissues had a molecular weight about two times as large as in inner tissues, and the molecular weight of xyloglucans in both outer and inner tissues decreased during incubation. IAA substantially accelerated the depolymerization of xyloglucans in outer tissues, while it prevented that in inner tissues. These results suggest that IAA-induced growth in intact segments is due to the cell wall loosening in outer tissues, and that IAA-accelerated depolymerization of hemicellulosic xyloglucans in outer tissues is involved in the cell wall loosening processes.

  9. Identification of intracellular phospholipases A2 in the human eye: involvement in phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments

    Kolko, Miriam; Wang, Jinmei; Zhan, Chen

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify intracellular phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) in the human retina and to explore the role of these enzymes in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POS). METHODS: PCR amplification and Western blot analysis were used to identify m......)-VIA activity was found to be specifically increased 12 hours after ARPE-19 cells were fed with POS. Finally, RPE phagocytosis was inhibited by the iPLA(2)-VIA inhibitor bromoenol lactone. CONCLUSIONS: Various intracellular PLA(2) subtypes are present in the human retina. iPLA(2)-VIA may play...

  10. Joint segmentation of lumen and outer wall from femoral artery MR images: Towards 3D imaging measurements of peripheral arterial disease.

    Ukwatta, Eranga; Yuan, Jing; Qiu, Wu; Rajchl, Martin; Chiu, Bernard; Fenster, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurements of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) plaque burden extracted from fast black-blood magnetic resonance (MR) images have shown to be more predictive of clinical outcomes than PAD stenosis measurements. To this end, accurate segmentation of the femoral artery lumen and outer wall is required for generating volumetric measurements of PAD plaque burden. Here, we propose a semi-automated algorithm to jointly segment the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces from 3D black-blood MR images, which are reoriented and reconstructed along the medial axis of the femoral artery to obtain improved spatial coherence between slices of the long, thin femoral artery and to reduce computation time. The developed segmentation algorithm enforces two priors in a global optimization manner: the spatial consistency between the adjacent 2D slices and the anatomical region order between the femoral artery lumen and outer wall surfaces. The formulated combinatorial optimization problem for segmentation is solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation using a coupled continuous max-flow (CCMF) model, which is a dual formulation to the convex relaxed optimization problem. In addition, the CCMF model directly derives an efficient duality-based algorithm based on the modern multiplier augmented optimization scheme, which has been implemented on a GPU for fast computation. The computed segmentations from the developed algorithm were compared to manual delineations from experts using 20 black-blood MR images. The developed algorithm yielded both high accuracy (Dice similarity coefficients ≥ 87% for both the lumen and outer wall surfaces) and high reproducibility (intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.95 for generating vessel wall area), while outperforming the state-of-the-art method in terms of computational time by a factor of ≈ 20. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rescue of compromised lysosomes enhances degradation of photoreceptor outer segments and reduces lipofuscin-like autofluorescence in retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    Guha, Sonia; Liu, Ji; Baltazar, Gabe; Laties, Alan M; Mitchell, Claire H

    2014-01-01

    Healthful cell maintenance requires the efficient degradative processing and removal of waste material. Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells have the onerous task of degrading both internal cellular debris generated through autophagy as well as phagocytosed photoreceptor outer segments. We propose that the inadequate processing material with the resulting accumulation of cellular waste contributes to the downstream pathologies characterized as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The lysosomal enzymes responsible for clearance function optimally over a narrow range of acidic pH values; elevation of lysosomal pH by compounds like chloroquine or A2E can impair degradative enzyme activity and lead to a lipofuscin-like autofluorescence. Restoring acidity to the lysosomes of RPE cells can enhance activity of multiple degradative enzymes and is therefore a logical target in early AMD. We have identified several approaches to reacidify lysosomes of compromised RPE cells; stimulation of beta-adrenergic, A2A adenosine and D5 dopamine receptors each lowers lysosomal pH and improves degradation of outer segments. Activation of the CFTR chloride channel also reacidifies lysosomes and increases degradation. These approaches also restore the lysosomal pH of RPE cells from aged ABCA4(-/-) mice with chronically high levels of A2E, suggesting that functional signaling pathways to reacidify lysosomes are retained in aged cells like those in patients with AMD. Acidic nanoparticles transported to RPE lysosomes also lower pH and improve degradation of outer segments. In summary, the ability of diverse approaches to lower lysosomal pH and enhance outer segment degradation support the proposal that lysosomal acidification can prevent the accumulation of lipofuscin-like material in RPE cells.

  12. Identification of the sodium-calcium exchanger as the major ricin-binding glycoprotein of bovine rod outer segments and its localization to the plasma membrane

    Reid, D.M.; Molday, R.S.; Friedel, U.; Cook, N.J.

    1990-01-01

    After neuraminidase treatment the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger of bovine rod outer segments was found to specifically bind Ricinus communis agglutinin. SDS gel electrophoresis and Western blotting of ricin-binding proteins purified from rod outer segment membranes by lectin affinity chromatography revealed the existence of two major polypeptides of M r 215K and 103K, the former of which was found to specifically react with PMe 1B3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the 230-kDa non-neuraminidase-treated Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger. Reconstitution of the ricin affinity-purified exchanger into calcium-containing liposomes revealed that neuraminidase treatment had no significant effect on the kinetics of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activation by sodium. The authors further investigated the density of the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger in disk and plasma membrane preparations using Western blotting, radioimmunoassays, immunoelectron microscopy, and reconstitution procedures. The results indicate that the Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger is localized in the rod photoreceptor plasma membrane and is absent or present in extremely low concentrations in disk membranes, as they have previously shown to be the case for the cGMP-gated cation channel. Previous reports describing the existence of Na + /Ca 2+ exchange activity in rod outer segment disk membrane preparations may be due to the fusion of plasma membrane components and/or the presence of contaminating plasma membrane vesicles

  13. Genetic determinants of P wave duration and PR segment

    Verweij, Niek; Mateo Leach, Irene; van den Boogaard, Malou; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Barnett, Phil; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim

    2014-01-01

    The PR interval on the ECG reflects atrial depolarization and atrioventricular nodal delay which can be partially differentiated by P wave duration and PR segment, respectively. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci for PR interval, but it remains to be determined

  14. Cryo-EM Structure Determination Using Segmented Helical Image Reconstruction.

    Fromm, S A; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Treating helices as single-particle-like segments followed by helical image reconstruction has become the method of choice for high-resolution structure determination of well-ordered helical viruses as well as flexible filaments. In this review, we will illustrate how the combination of latest hardware developments with optimized image processing routines have led to a series of near-atomic resolution structures of helical assemblies. Originally, the treatment of helices as a sequence of segments followed by Fourier-Bessel reconstruction revealed the potential to determine near-atomic resolution structures from helical specimens. In the meantime, real-space image processing of helices in a stack of single particles was developed and enabled the structure determination of specimens that resisted classical Fourier helical reconstruction and also facilitated high-resolution structure determination. Despite the progress in real-space analysis, the combination of Fourier and real-space processing is still commonly used to better estimate the symmetry parameters as the imposition of the correct helical symmetry is essential for high-resolution structure determination. Recent hardware advancement by the introduction of direct electron detectors has significantly enhanced the image quality and together with improved image processing procedures has made segmented helical reconstruction a very productive cryo-EM structure determination method. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of trace elements in maifanite by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry

    LI Jianqiang; LU Yiqiang; JIANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Maifanite is a nature medicinal stone used in many fields for long time. The research on it showed that there are many trace elements in maifanite. In this paper, 36 trace elements in maifanite were determined by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry, and the determination conditions were studied systematically. The results show that the concentrafions of elements, which are beneficial to human health, are higher, and the elements harmful to people health such as As, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Pb are tiny in maifanite. The precision and the accuracy were also discussed.

  16. Differential Effect of Auxin on Molecular Weight Distributions of Xyloglucans in Cell Walls of Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls 1

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Kuraishi, Susumu

    1991-01-01

    Effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the mechanical properties of cell walls and structures of cell wall polysaccharides in outer and inner tissues of segments of dark grown squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls were investigated. IAA induced the elongation of unpeeled, intact segments, but had no effect on the elongation of peeled segments. IAA induced the cell wall loosening in outer tissues as studied by the stress-relaxation analysis but not in inner tissues. IAA-induced changes in the net sugar content of cell wall fractions in outer and inner tissues were very small. Extracted hemicellulosic xyloglucans derived from outer tissues had a molecular weight about two times as large as in inner tissues, and the molecular weight of xyloglucans in both outer and inner tissues decreased during incubation. IAA substantially accelerated the depolymerization of xyloglucans in outer tissues, while it prevented that in inner tissues. These results suggest that IAA-induced growth in intact segments is due to the cell wall loosening in outer tissues, and that IAA-accelerated depolymerization of hemicellulosic xyloglucans in outer tissues is involved in the cell wall loosening processes. PMID:16668092

  17. Inner and outer coronary vessel wall segmentation from CCTA using an active contour model with machine learning-based 3D voxel context-aware image force

    Sivalingam, Udhayaraj; Wels, Michael; Rempfler, Markus; Grosskopf, Stefan; Suehling, Michael; Menze, Bjoern H.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automated approach to coronary vessel segmentation, which involves calcification or soft plaque delineation in addition to accurate lumen delineation, from 3D Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography data. Adequately virtualizing the coronary lumen plays a crucial role for simulating blood ow by means of fluid dynamics while additionally identifying the outer vessel wall in the case of arteriosclerosis is a prerequisite for further plaque compartment analysis. Our method is a hybrid approach complementing Active Contour Model-based segmentation with an external image force that relies on a Random Forest Regression model generated off-line. The regression model provides a strong estimate of the distance to the true vessel surface for every surface candidate point taking into account 3D wavelet-encoded contextual image features, which are aligned with the current surface hypothesis. The associated external image force is integrated in the objective function of the active contour model, such that the overall segmentation approach benefits from the advantages associated with snakes and from the ones associated with machine learning-based regression alike. This yields an integrated approach achieving competitive results on a publicly available benchmark data collection (Rotterdam segmentation challenge).

  18. Influence of the auditory canal number of segments and radius variation on the outer ear frequency response

    Thejane, T

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available number of segments and the radius-length mapping function were used. The use of a third order polynomial to further improve the relationship between the radius and the length of the ear canal is suggested for future research work....

  19. Light activation of one rhodopsin molecule causes the phosphorylation of hundreds of others. A reaction observed in electropermeabilized frog rod outer segments exposed to dim illumination

    Binder, B.M.; Biernbaum, M.S.; Bownds, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A rhodopsin phosphorylation reaction that occurs with high-gain is observed if measurements are made in electropermeabilized frog rod outer segments (ROS) stimulated by a dim flash of light in the operating range of the photoreceptor. Flashes of light exciting 1000 or fewer of the 3 x 10(9) rhodopsins present/ROS results in the incorporation of 1400 phosphates from ATP into the rhodopsin pool for each excited rhodopsin (Rho*). This amplification decreases with increasing light intensity, falling most sharply after each disk has absorbed one photon. The high-gain reaction is lost if the ROS are broken into vesicles by shearing, leaving a low-gain rhodopsin phosphorylation characterized in previous studies using brighter illumination. The high-gain but not the low-gain phosphorylation appears to be regulated by G-protein and by calcium levels in the range over which intracellular calcium changes when rod photoreceptors are illuminated. Kinetic measurements made on the phosphorylation observed at higher light intensities shows that it initially occurs rapidly enough for a role in terminating the photoresponse. The high-gain phosphorylation observed at lower light intensities may play a global role in regulating light-adaptation of the rod photoreceptor, and its existence suggests that a search for a similar high-gain modification in systems using the homologous beta-adrenergic or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors might be rewarding

  20. Diverse regulation of retinal pigment epithelium phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments by calcium-independent phospholipase A₂, group VIA and secretory phospholipase A₂, group IB

    Zhan, Chen; Wang, Jinmei; Kolko, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the roles of the phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) subtypes, iPLA(2)-VIA and sPLA(2)-IB in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) and to explore a possible interaction between sPLA(2)-IB and iPLA(2)-VIA in the RPE. METHODS: To explore...... the role of iPLA(2)-VIA in RPE phagocytosis of POS, experiments with iPLA(2)-VIA vector transfection, iPLA(2)-VIA(-/-) knockout (KO) mice, and iPLA(2)-VIA inhibition by bromoenol lactone (BEL) were done. Exogenous addition of sPLA(2)-IB was used to investigate the role of sPLA(2)-IB in RPE phagocytosis....... A Luciferase Reporter Vector containing the iPLA(2)-VIA promoter was used to study the effects of sPLA(2)-IB on the iPLA(2)-VIA promoter. RESULTS: ARPE-19 and primary mouse RPE cells transfected with iPLA(2)-VIA showed increased phagocytosis. Phagocytosis was reduced in primary mouse RPE inhibited with BEL...

  1. Genetic Determinants of P Wave Duration and PR Segment

    Verweij, Niek; Mateo Leach, Irene; van den Boogaard, Malou; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Barnett, Phil; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim

    Background-The PR interval on the ECG reflects atrial depolarization and atrioventricular nodal delay which can be partially differentiated by P wave duration and PR segment, respectively. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci for PR interval, but it remains to be

  2. Determination Public Acceptance Segmentation for Nuclear Power Program Interest

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Aini Wahidah Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focus to discuss segmentation aspect among inter-disciplinary group of public. This discussion is the pre-stage to ensure the right initiative strategies are implemented to gain public interest and acceptance towards on developing nuclear power plant. The applied strategies are implemented based on different interest among the different groups of public. These strategies may increase public acceptance level towards developing nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. Determining the proportion of coronary segments assessable on 16-slice CT coronary angiography: a brief report

    Soon, K. H.; Cox, N.; Eccleston, D.; Lim, Y.; Chaitowitz, I.; Bell, K. W.; Kelly, A-M.

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography coronary angiography (CT-CA) is becoming a popular non-invasive coronary imaging method. We aimed to determine the proportion of coronary segments assessable on a 16-slice CT in comparison with conventional selective coronary angiography (SCA). We identified all patients who had both 16-slice CT-CA and recent SCA (less than 12 months) from March 2004 to July 2005. Two CT reporters blinded to SCA independently classified coronary segment assessability on CT-CA. A cardiologist blinded to CT findings classified assess-ability of coronary segments on SCA. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and proportion of agreement. Ninety-five study pairs were included in the analysis. Of those, 1161 coronary segments were deemed assessable on SCA and 1103 segments (95%) were also assessable on CT-CA. Nonassessable segments on CT-CA were predominantly in the distal segments and branches of coronary arteries. Reasons for nonassessability were small calibre (48.3%), motion artefacts (20.7%) and poorly reconstructed segments (22.4%). The 16-slice CT was able to assess a high proportion of but not all coronary segments. Nonassessable segments were predominantly distal segments or branches of coronary arteries. Motion artefacts due to heart-rate changes, small calibre and poorly reconstructed images were main causes of nonassessability on 16-slice CT-CA

  4. Differential distribution of proteins and lipids in detergent-resistant and detergent-soluble domains in rod outer segment plasma membranes and disks.

    Elliott, Michael H; Nash, Zack A; Takemori, Nobuaki; Fliesler, Steven J; McClellan, Mark E; Naash, Muna I

    2008-01-01

    Membrane heterogeneity plays a significant role in regulating signal transduction and other cellular activities. We examined the protein and lipid components associated with the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fractions from retinal rod outer segment (ROS) disk and plasma membrane-enriched preparations. Proteomics and correlative western blot analysis revealed the presence of alpha and beta subunits of the rod cGMP-gated ion channel and glucose transporter type 1, among other proteins. The glucose transporter was present exclusively in ROS plasma membrane (not disks) and was highly enriched in DRMs, as was the cGMP-gated channel beta-subunit. In contrast, the majority of rod opsin and ATP-binding cassette transporter A4 was localized to detergent-soluble domains in disks. As expected, the cholesterol : fatty acid mole ratio was higher in DRMs than in the corresponding parent membranes (disk and plasma membranes, respectively) and was also higher in disks compared to plasma membranes. Furthermore, the ratio of saturated : polyunsaturated fatty acids was also higher in DRMs compared to their respective parent membranes (disk and plasma membranes). These results confirm that DRMs prepared from both disks and plasma membranes are enriched in cholesterol and in saturated fatty acids compared to their parent membranes. The dominant fatty acids in DRMs were 16 : 0 and 18 : 0; 22 : 6n3 and 18 : 1 levels were threefold higher and twofold lower, respectively, in disk-derived DRMs compared to plasma membrane-derived DRMs. We estimate, based on fatty acid recovery that DRMs account for only approximately 8% of disks and approximately 12% of ROS plasma membrane.

  5. Detection of nearest neighbors to specific fluorescently tagged ligands in rod outer segment and lymphocyte plasma membranes by photosensitization of 5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide

    Raviv, Y.; Bercovici, T.; Gitler, C.; Salomon, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Lima bean agglutinin-fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate conjugate (FluNCS-lima bean lectin) interacts with specific receptor molecules on membranes both from the rod outer segment (ROS) of the frog retina and from S49 mouse lymphoma cells. When [125I]-5-iodonaphthyl 1-azide (125I-INA), which freely and randomly partitions into the lipid bilayer, is added to membranes and the suspension is irradiated at 480 nm, the FluNCS-conjugated lectin photosensitizes the [125I]INA but only at discrete sites. This results in the selective labeling of specific proteins: an 88-kDa protein on ROS membranes and a 56-kDa protein on S49 plasma membranes. Labeling is dependent upon the interaction of the FluNCS-lectin with glycosylated receptor sites, since N-acetylgalactosamine, but not methyl alpha-mannoside, blocked labeling of the 56-kDa protein on S49 membranes. In contrast, a random labeling pattern of membrane proteins was observed upon irradiation at 480 nm using other fluorescein conjugates, such as FluNCS-bovine serum albumin (FluNCS-BSA) or FluNCS-soybean trypsin inhibitor (FluNCS-STI), which interact with cell membranes in a nonselective manner, or with N-(fluorescein-5-thiocarbamoyl)-n-undecyclamine (FluNCS-NHC11), which is freely miscible in the membrane lipid. Random labeling was also obtained by direct photoexcitation of [125I]INA at 314 nm, with no distinct labeling of the 88- and 56-kDa proteins in the respective membranes. These results suggest that protein ligands can be used to guide sensitizers to discrete receptor sites and lead to their selective labeling by photosensitized activation of [125I]INA

  6. Combination of retinal pigment epithelium cell-conditioned medium and photoreceptor outer segments stimulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a functional retinal pigment epithelium cell phenotype.

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Ao, Mingxin; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Xu, Yonggen; Li, Xuemin; Wang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are capable of retinal tissue-specific differentiation but not retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell-specific differentiation. Photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to RPE development and maturation. However, there has been no standard culture system that fosters the differentiation of BMMSCs into mature RPE cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated if the soluble factors from RPE cells and POS could differentiate BMMSCs into cells having a phenotype characteristic of RPE cells. Rat BMMSCs were separately co-cultured with RPE cells, or they were exposed to either control medium, RPE cell-conditioned medium (RPECM), POS, or a combination of RPECM and POS (RPECM-POS). After 7 days, the cells were analyzed for morphology and the expression of RPE markers (cytokeratin 8, CRALBP, and RPE65) to assess the RPE differentiation. Significantly higher pigment accumulation and increased protein expression of the three markers were seen in cells cultured in RPECM-POS than in other treated cultures. Furthermore, the RPECM-POS-treated cultures displayed ultrastructural features typical of RPE cells, expressed RPE cell functional proteins, and had the capability to phagocytose POS. Together, theses results suggest the combination of RPECM and POS stimulate BMMSCs differentiation toward a functional RPE phenotype. Our results provide the foundation for a new route to RPE regenerative therapy involving BMMSCs. Future work isolating the active agent in RPECM and POS would be useful in therapies for RPE diseases or in developing appropriately pre-differentiated BMMSCs for tissue-engineered RPE reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Radial diffusion with outer boundary determined by geosynchronous measurements: Storm and post-storm intervals

    Chu, F.; Haines, P.; Hudson, M.; Kress, B.; Freidel, R.; Kanekal, S.

    2007-12-01

    Work is underway by several groups to quantify diffusive radial transport of radiation belt electrons, including a model for pitch angle scattering losses to the atmosphere. The radial diffusion model conserves the first and second adiabatic invariants and breaks the third invariant. We have developed a radial diffusion code which uses the Crank Nicholson method with a variable outer boundary condition. For the radial diffusion coefficient, DLL, we have several choices, including the Brautigam and Albert (JGR, 2000) diffusion coefficient parameterized by Kp, which provides an ad hoc measure of the power level at ULF wave frequencies in the range of electron drift (mHz), breaking the third invariant. Other diffusion coefficient models are Kp-independent, fixed in time but explicitly dependent on the first invariant, or energy at a fixed L, such as calculated by Elkington et al. (JGR, 2003) and Perry et al. (JGR, 2006) based on ULF wave model fields. We analyzed three periods of electron flux and phase space density (PSD) enhancements inside of geosynchronous orbit: March 31 - May 31, 1991, and July 2004 and Nov 2004 storm intervals. The radial diffusion calculation is initialized with a computed phase space density profile for the 1991 interval using differential flux values from the CRRES High Energy Electron Fluxmeter instrument, covering 0.65 - 7.5 MeV. To calculate the initial phase space density, we convert Roederer L* to McIlwain's L- parameter using the ONERA-DESP program. A time averaged model developed by Vampola1 from the entire 14 month CRRES data set is applied to the July 2004 and Nov 2004 storms. The online CRESS data for specific orbits and the Vampola-model flux are both expressed in McIlwain L-shell, while conversion to L* conserves phase space density in a distorted non-dipolar magnetic field model. A Tsyganenko (T04) magnetic field model is used for conversion between L* and L. The outer boundary PSD is updated using LANL GEO satellite fluxes

  8. Determining the number of clusters for nuclei segmentation in breast cancer image

    Fatichah, Chastine; Navastara, Dini Adni; Suciati, Nanik; Nuraini, Lubna

    2017-02-01

    Clustering is commonly technique for image segmentation, however determining an appropriate number of clusters is still challenging. Due to nuclei variation of size and shape in breast cancer image, an automatic determining number of clusters for segmenting the nuclei breast cancer is proposed. The phase of nuclei segmentation in breast cancer image are nuclei detection, touched nuclei detection, and touched nuclei separation. We use the Gram-Schmidt for nuclei cell detection, the geometry feature for touched nuclei detection, and combining of watershed and spatial k-Means clustering for separating the touched nuclei in breast cancer image. The spatial k-Means clustering is employed for separating the touched nuclei, however automatically determine the number of clusters is difficult due to the variation of size and shape of single cell breast cancer. To overcome this problem, first we apply watershed algorithm to separate the touched nuclei and then we calculate the distance among centroids in order to solve the over-segmentation. We merge two centroids that have the distance below threshold. And the new of number centroid as input to segment the nuclei cell using spatial k- Means algorithm. Experiment show that, the proposed scheme can improve the accuracy of nuclei cell counting.

  9. Different approaches to synovial membrane volume determination by magnetic resonance imaging: manual versus automated segmentation

    Østergaard, Mikkel

    1997-01-01

    Automated fast (5-20 min) synovial membrane volume determination by MRI, based on pre-set post-gadolinium-DTPA enhancement thresholds, was evaluated as a substitute for a time-consuming (45-120 min), previously validated, manual segmentation method. Twenty-nine knees [rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 13...

  10. An Image Segmentation Based on a Genetic Algorithm for Determining Soil Coverage by Crop Residues

    Ribeiro, Angela; Ranz, Juan; Burgos-Artizzu, Xavier P.; Pajares, Gonzalo; Sanchez del Arco, Maria J.; Navarrete, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the soil coverage by crop residues after ploughing is a fundamental element of Conservation Agriculture. This paper presents the application of genetic algorithms employed during the fine tuning of the segmentation process of a digital image with the aim of automatically quantifying the residue coverage. In other words, the objective is to achieve a segmentation that would permit the discrimination of the texture of the residue so that the output of the segmentation process is a binary image in which residue zones are isolated from the rest. The RGB images used come from a sample of images in which sections of terrain were photographed with a conventional camera positioned in zenith orientation atop a tripod. The images were taken outdoors under uncontrolled lighting conditions. Up to 92% similarity was achieved between the images obtained by the segmentation process proposed in this paper and the templates made by an elaborate manual tracing process. In addition to the proposed segmentation procedure and the fine tuning procedure that was developed, a global quantification of the soil coverage by residues for the sampled area was achieved that differed by only 0.85% from the quantification obtained using template images. Moreover, the proposed method does not depend on the type of residue present in the image. The study was conducted at the experimental farm “El Encín” in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain). PMID:22163966

  11. Outer magnetosphere

    Schardt, A.W.; Behannon, K.W.; Lepping, R.P.; Carbary, J.F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc

  12. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  13. Segment density profiles of polyelectrolyte brushes determined by Fourier transform ellipsometry

    Biesalski, Markus; Rühe, Jürgen; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    1999-10-01

    We describe a method for the explicit determination of the segment density profile φ(z) of surface-attached polymer brushes with multiple angle of incidence null-ellipsometry. Because the refractive index contrast between the brush layer and the solvent is weak, multiple reflections are of minor influence and the ellipsometric spectrum is closely related to the Fourier transform of the refractive index profile, thereby allowing for explicit inversion of the ellipsometric data. We chose surface-attached monolayers of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA), a weak polyelectrolyte, as a model system and determined the segment density profile of this system as a function of the pH value of the surrounding medium by the Fourier method. Complementary to the Fourier analysis, fits with error functions are given as well. The brushes were prepared on the bases of high refractive index prisms with the "grafting-from" technique. In water, the brushes swell by more than a factor of 30. The swelling increases with increasing pH because of a growing fraction of dissociated acidic groups leading to a larger electrostatic repulsion.

  14. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  15. Pulse shape analysis and position determination in segmented HPGe detectors: The AGATA detector library

    Bruyneel, B. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Service de Physique Nucleaire, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The AGATA Detector Library (ADL) was developed for the calculation of signals from highly segmented large volume high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. ADL basis sets comprise a huge amount of calculated position-dependent detector pulse shapes. A basis set is needed for Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). By means of PSA the interaction position of a γ -ray inside the active detector volume is determined. Theoretical concepts of the calculations are introduced and cover the relevant aspects of signal formation in HPGe. The approximations and the realization of the computer code with its input parameters are explained in detail. ADL is a versatile and modular computer code; new detectors can be implemented in this library. Measured position resolutions of the AGATA detectors based on ADL are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET

    Hatt, M [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Lamare, F [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609, (France); Boussion, N [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Turzo, A [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Collet, C [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique de Strasbourg (ENSPS), ULP, Strasbourg, F-67000 (France); Salzenstein, F [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS), ULP, Strasbourg, F-67000 (France); Roux, C [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Jarritt, P [Medical Physics Agency, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Carson, K [Medical Physics Agency, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast (United Kingdom); Rest, C Cheze-Le [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France); Visvikis, D [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Bat 2bis (I3S), 5 avenue Foch, Brest, 29609 (France)

    2007-07-21

    Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical hidden Markov chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the 'fuzzy' nature of the object of interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37 mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8 mm{sup 3} and 64 mm{sup 3}). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28 mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The

  17. [Determination of total and segmental colonic transit time in constipated children].

    Zhang, Shu-cheng; Wang, Wei-lin; Bai, Yu-zuo; Yuan, Zheng-wei; Wang, Wei

    2003-03-01

    To determine the total and segmental colonic transit time of normal Chinese children and to explore its value in constipation in children. The subjects involved in this study were divided into 2 groups. One group was control, which had 33 healthy children (21 males and 12 females) aged 2 - 13 years (mean 5 years). The other was constipation group, which had 25 patients (15 males and 10 females) aged 3 - 14 years (mean 7 years) with constipation according to Benninga's criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of each subject. In this study the simplified method of radio opaque markers was used to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time and segmental colonic transit time of the normal and constipated children, and in part of these patients X-ray defecography was also used. The total gastrointestinal transit time (TGITT), right colonic transit time (RCTT), left colonic transit time (LCTT) and rectosigmoid colonic transit time (RSTT) of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. In the constipated children, the TGITT, LCTT and RSTT were significantly longer than those in controls (92.2 +/- 55.5 h vs 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, P < 0.001; 16.9 +/- 12.6 h vs 6.5 +/- 3.8 h, P < 0.01; 61.5 +/- 29.0 h vs 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, P < 0.001), while the RCTT had no significant difference. X-ray defecography demonstrated one rectocele, one perineal descent syndrome and one puborectal muscle syndrome, respectively. The TGITT, RCTT, LCTT and RSTT of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. With the segmental colonic transit time, constipation can be divided into four types: slow-transit constipation, outlet obstruction, mixed type and normal transit constipation. X-ray defecography can demonstrate the anatomical or dynamic abnormalities within the anorectal area, with which constipation can be further divided into different subtypes, and

  18. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  19. DSCImageCalc – Software for Determining Similarity Coefficients for the Analysis of Image Segmentations

    Tom Lawton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available DSCImageCalc is free software for calculating similarity coefficients on segmented images. It is written in Visual BASIC .NET and is available at: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.894428. It presently calculates Sørensen-Dice Coefficient, Jaccard Coefficient, Proportional Agreement, Cohen’s Kappa, Goodman & Kruskal’s Gamma, and Rogot-Goldberg Agreement. It also calculates segment centroids and the distance between them. Whilst it was originally designed for calculating Dice coefficients on segmentations of ultrasound images, it has potential for re-use in any field where similarity of image segments is to be analysed; predominantly medical radiology and ecology.

  20. Determination of the impact of RGB points cloud attribute quality on color-based segmentation process

    Bartłomiej Kraszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the effect that radiometric quality of point cloud RGB attributes have on color-based segmentation. In the research, a point cloud with a resolution of 5 mm, received from FAROARO Photon 120 scanner, described the fragment of an office’s room and color images were taken by various digital cameras. The images were acquired by SLR Nikon D3X, and SLR Canon D200 integrated with the laser scanner, compact camera Panasonic TZ-30 and a mobile phone digital camera. Color information from images was spatially related to point cloud in FAROARO Scene software. The color-based segmentation of testing data was performed with the use of a developed application named “RGB Segmentation”. The application was based on public Point Cloud Libraries (PCL and allowed to extract subsets of points fulfilling the criteria of segmentation from the source point cloud using region growing method.Using the developed application, the segmentation of four tested point clouds containing different RGB attributes from various images was performed. Evaluation of segmentation process was performed based on comparison of segments acquired using the developed application and extracted manually by an operator. The following items were compared: the number of obtained segments, the number of correctly identified objects and the correctness of segmentation process. The best correctness of segmentation and most identified objects were obtained using the data with RGB attribute from Nikon D3X images. Based on the results it was found that quality of RGB attributes of point cloud had impact only on the number of identified objects. In case of correctness of the segmentation, as well as its error no apparent relationship between the quality of color information and the result of the process was found.[b]Keywords[/b]: terrestrial laser scanning, color-based segmentation, RGB attribute, region growing method, digital images, points cloud

  1. Efficacy of CTA portography for preoperatively determining the segmental location of focal hepatic lesions

    Nelson, R.C.; Chemzmar, J.L.; Sugarbaker, P.H.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Using cross-sectional images to localize tumors to specific hepatic segments before resection might be difficult because the transverse scissura, an important segmental landmark, is approximately parallel to the axial plane. Since this plane is parallel to the main right and left portal pedicles, the authors postulated that they could localize lesions above this plane to segments 2,4A,7, or 8, and below this plane to segments 3, 4B,5, or 6. The authors have retrospectively evaluated, in a blinded fashion, 24 hepatic masses in 13 patients who underwent CTA-portography and subsequent tumor resection. Using this scheme, they have accurately predicted the primary segmental location in 22 (92%) of 24 surgically confirmed lesions

  2. A new model for the determination of limb segment mass in children.

    Kuemmerle-Deschner, J B; Hansmann, S; Rapp, H; Dannecker, G E

    2007-04-01

    The knowledge of limb segment masses is critical for the calculation of joint torques. Several methods for segment mass estimation have been described in the literature. They are either inaccurate or not applicable to the limb segments of children. Therefore, we developed a new cylinder brick model (CBM) to estimate segment mass in children. The aim of this study was to compare CBM and a model based on a polynomial regression equation (PRE) to volume measurement obtained by the water displacement method (WDM). We examined forearms, hands, lower legs, and feet of 121 children using CBM, PRE, and WDM. The differences between CBM and WDM or PRE and WDM were calculated and compared using a Bland-Altman plot of differences. Absolute limb segment mass measured by WDM ranged from 0.16+/-0.04 kg for hands in girls 5-6 years old, up to 2.72+/-1.03 kg for legs in girls 11-12 years old. The differences of normalised segment masses ranged from 0.0002+/-0.0021 to 0.0011+/-0.0036 for CBM-WDM and from 0.0023+/-0.0041 to 0.0127+/-0.036 for PRE-WDM (values are mean+/-2 S.D.). The CBM showed better agreement with WDM than PRE for all limb segments in girls and boys. CBM is accurate and superior to PRE for the estimation of individual limb segment mass of children. Therefore, CBM is a practical and useful tool for the analysis of kinetic parameters and the calculation of resulting forces to assess joint functionality in children.

  3. Geomagnetic modulation of the late Pleistocene cosmic-ray flux as determined by 10Be from Blake Outer Ridge marine sediments

    McHargue, L.R.; Donahue, D.; Damon, P.E.; Sonett, C.P.; Biddulph, D.; Burr, G.

    2000-01-01

    The cosmic-ray flux incident upon the Earth during the late Pleistocene, 20-60 kyr B.P., was studied by measuring the cosmogenic radionuclide 10 Be from a marine sediment core at site CH88-10P on the Blake Outer Ridge. The paleointensity of the geomagnetic field for this core was determined by various methods. The variance in the concentration of 10 Be in the authigenic fraction of the sediments from Blake Ridge closely correlates with the inverse of the variance in the paleointensity of the geomagnetic field. The 10 Be signal lags, up to 1000 years of sedimentation, the measured paleointensity of the sediments. In contrast, the data from several other elements, some climatically sensitive, and from beryllium show relationship neither to 10 Be nor to the paleomagnetic data. The relationship between 10 Be concentration and the dipole field intensity (M/M o ) as measured in the sediments is consistent with theoretical models

  4. A neural method for determining electromagnetic shower positions in laterally segmented calorimeters

    Roy, A.; Ray, A.; Mitra, T.; Roy, A.

    1995-01-01

    A method based on a neural network technique is proposed to calculate the coordinates of an incident photon striking a laterally segmented calorimeter and depositing shower energies in different segments. The technique uses a multilayer perceptron trained by back-propagation implemented through standard gradient descent followed by conjugate gradient algorithms and has been demonstrated with GEANT simulations of a BAF2 detector array. The position resolution results obtained by using this method are found to be substantially better than the first moment method with logarithmic weighting. (orig.)

  5. Labour market segmentation and mobility as determinants of trade union membership

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses if and to what extent labour market segmentation and labour market mobility influence trade union density. Some industries and sectors have stable employment domains and employees stay to a high degree within the industry even if they change jobs. Other industries and sectors...... have more unstable employments domains and employees to a higher degree shift to employment in other industries and sectors when they move to another job. In this article, it is analysed how differences in segmentation and employee mobility out of an industry influence union density. The analysis...... of mobility....

  6. DETERMINATION OF CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AT THE OUTER SURFACE OF A CRYOVIAL BEING PLUNGED INTO LIQUID NITROGEN.

    Wang, T; Zhao, G; Tang, H Y; Jiang, Z D

    2015-01-01

    Cell survival upon cryopreservation is affected by the cooling rate. However, it is difficult to model the heat transfer process or to predict the cooling curve of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) solution due to the uncertainty of its convective heat transfer coefficient (h). To measure the h and to better understand the heat transfer process of cryovials filled with CPA solution being plunged in liquid nitrogen. The temperatures at three locations of the CPA solution in a cryovial were measured. Different h values were selected after the cooling process was modeled as natural convection heat transfer, the film boiling and the nucleate boiling, respectively. And the temperatures of the selected points are simulated based on the selected h values. h was determined when the simulated temperature best fitted the experimental temperature. When the experimental results were best fitted, according to natural convection heat transfer model, h(1) = 120 W/(m(2)·K) while due to film boiling and nucleate boiling regimes h(f) = 5 W/(m(2)·K) followed by h(n) = 245 W/(m(2)·K). These values were verified by the differential cooling rates at the three locations of a cryovial. The heat transfer process during cooling in liquid nitrogen is better modeled as film boiling followed by nucleate boiling.

  7. Comparison of segmentation techniques to determine the geometric parameters of structured surfaces

    MacAulay, Gavin D; Giusca, Claudiu L; Leach, Richard K; Senin, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Structured surfaces, defined as surfaces characterized by topography features whose shape is defined by design specifications, are increasingly being used in industry for a variety of applications, including improving the tribological properties of surfaces. However, characterization of such surfaces still remains an issue. Techniques have been recently proposed, based on identifying and extracting the relevant features from a structured surface so they can be verified individually, using methods derived from those commonly applied to standard-sized parts. Such emerging approaches show promise but are generally complex and characterized by multiple data processing steps making performance difficult to assess. This paper focuses on the segmentation step, i.e. partitioning the topography so that the relevant features can be separated from the background. Segmentation is key for defining the geometric boundaries of the individual feature, which in turn affects any computation of feature size, shape and localization. This paper investigates the effect of varying the segmentation algorithm and its controlling parameters by considering a test case: a structured surface for bearing applications, the relevant features being micro-dimples designed for friction reduction. In particular, the mechanisms through which segmentation leads to identification of the dimple boundary and influences dimensional properties, such as dimple diameter and depth, are illustrated. It is shown that, by using different methods and control parameters, a significant range of measurement results can be achieved, which may not necessarily agree. Indications on how to investigate the influence of each specific choice are given; in particular, stability of the algorithms with respect to control parameters is analyzed as a means to investigate ease of calibration and flexibility to adapt to specific, application-dependent characterization requirements. (paper)

  8. Ion selectivity of the cation transport system of isolated intact cattle rod outer segments: evidence for a direct communication between the rod plasma membrane and the rod disk membranes.

    Schnetkamp, P P

    1980-05-08

    The ion selectivity of cation transport through the plasma membrane of isolated intact cattle rod outer segments (rods) is investigated by means of 45Ca-exchange experiments and light-scattering experiments. These techniques appear to provide complementary information: the 45Ca experiments (45Ca fluxes in rods) describe electroneutral antiport, whereas the light-scattering experiments (shrinkage and swelling of rods upon hypertonic shocks with various electrolytes) reveal electrogenic uniport. Electroneutral symport of ions (salt transport) does not take place without addition of external ionophores and application of salts of weak acids. 1. Intact rods recover from a hypertonic shock in the presence of FCCP when lithium, sodium and potassium acetate are applied, but not when ammonium chloride, calcium and magnesium acetate are used. This indicates that the plasma membrane of isolated intact cattle rods is relatively permeable to net transport of Na+, Li+ and K+, and relatively impermeable to net transport of Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+ under conditions that do not give rise to diffusion potentials. 2. Rapid (t1/2 exchange diffusion of internal 45Ca with external Na+, Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+, respectively. 3. All tested cations lower the rate of 45Ca uptake. The latter can be described by a single rate constant indicating a homogeneous rod preparation and a homogeneous endogenous Ca2+ pool. However, only those cations which stimulate 45Ca efflux from preloaded rods lower the final equilibrium of 45Ca uptake. Except for the effects of K+, Rb+ and Cs+ the reduction of the rate of 45Ca uptake by external cations appears to arise from competition for a common site on the plasms membrane. The observed affinities for this site do not correlate with actual transport (as indicated by the ability to stimulate 45Ca efflux). 4. K+ increases the affinity of the exchange diffusion system to Ca2+ from 1 microM to 0.15 microM and changes the relative affinities with respect to Ca2+ for the

  9. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  10. Alterations of the outer retina in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy detected using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Ackermann, Philipp; Brachert, Maike; Albrecht, Philipp; Ringelstein, Marius; Finis, David; Geerling, Gerd; Aktas, Orhan; Guthoff, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    A characteristic disease pattern may be reflected by retinal layer thickness changes in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy measured using spectraldomain optical coherence tomography. Retinal layer segmentation is enabled by advanced software. In this study, retinal layer thicknesses in acute and chronic non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy were compared. A single-centre cross-sectional analysis was used. A total of 27 patients (20 age-matched healthy eyes) were included: 14 with acute (optic neuropathy. Macular volume and 12° peripapillary ring optical coherence tomography scans were used. The peripapillary thicknesses of the following layers were determined by manual segmentation: retinal nerve fibres, ganglion cells + inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer + outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer + inner segments of the photoreceptors and outer segments of the photoreceptors to Bruch's membrane. Macular retinal layer thicknesses were automatically determined in volume cubes centred on the fovea. Peripapillary retinal swelling in acute nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy was attributable to retinal nerve fibre layer, ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer and outer nuclear layer/segments of the photoreceptors thickening. In chronic cases, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thinning were observed. In acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, the inner and outer peripapillary retinal layers are affected by thickness changes. In chronic cases, atrophy of the ganglion cells and their axons and dendrites is evident by inner retinal layer thinning. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Local Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Level Determines Early Clinical Presentation of ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Nishiguchi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Taruya, Akira; Emori, Hiroki; Ozaki, Yuichi; Orii, Makoto; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Yamano, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Ino, Yasushi; Kubo, Takashi; Hozumi, Takeshi; Hayashi, Yasushi; Akasaka, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Early clinical presentation of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction affects patient management. Although local inflammatory activities are involved in the onset of MI, little is known about their impact on early clinical presentation. This study aimed to investigate whether local inflammatory activities affect early clinical presentation. This study comprised 94 and 17 patients with MI (STEMI, 69; non-STEMI, 25) and stable angina pectoris, respectively. We simultaneously investigated the culprit lesion morphologies using optical coherence tomography and inflammatory activities assessed by shedding matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and myeloperoxidase into the coronary circulation before and after stenting. Prevalence of plaque rupture, thin-cap fibroatheroma, and lipid arc or macrophage count was higher in patients with STEMI and non-STEMI than in those with stable angina pectoris. Red thrombus was frequently observed in STEMI compared with others. Local MMP-9 levels were significantly higher than systemic levels (systemic, 42.0 [27.9-73.2] ng/mL versus prestent local, 69.1 [32.2-152.3] ng/mL versus poststent local, 68.0 [35.6-133.3] ng/mL; Pclinical presentation in patients with MI. Local inflammatory activity for atherosclerosis needs increased attention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Roles of outer capsid proteins as determinants of pathogenicity and host range restriction of avian rotaviruses in a suckling mouse model

    Mori, Yoshio; Borgan, Mohammed Ali; Takayama, Mutsuyo; Ito, Naoto; Sugiyama, Makoto; Minamoto, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pigeon rotavirus, PO-13, but not turkey strains Ty-3 and Ty-1 and a chicken strain, Ch-1, induced diarrhea in heterologous suckling mice. In this study, it was suggested that these avirulent strains, but not PO-13, were inactivated immediately in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice when they were orally inoculated. To determine which viral proteins contribute to the differences between the pathogenicitiy and the inactivation of PO-13 and Ty-3 in suckling mice, six PO-13 x Ty-3 reassortant strains that had the genes of the outer capsid proteins, VP4 and VP7, derived from the opposite strain were prepared and were orally inoculated to suckling mice. A single strain that had both PO-13 VP4 and VP7 with the genetic background of Ty-3 had an intermediate virulence for suckling mice. Three strains with Ty-3 VP7, regardless of the origin of VP4, rapidly disappeared from gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice. These results indicated that the difference between the pathogenicity of PO-13 and that of Ty-3 was mainly dependent on both their VP4 and VP7. In particular, VP7 was found to be related to the inactivation of Ty-3 in gastrointestinal tracts of suckling mice

  13. Outer atmospheric research

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  14. Determining the number of clusters for kernelized fuzzy C-means algorithms for automatic medical image segmentation

    E.A. Zanaty

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the suitable validity criterion of kernelized fuzzy C-means and kernelized fuzzy C-means with spatial constraints for automatic segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. For that; the original Euclidean distance in the FCM is replaced by a Gaussian radial basis function classifier (GRBF and the corresponding algorithms of FCM methods are derived. The derived algorithms are called as the kernelized fuzzy C-means (KFCM and kernelized fuzzy C-means with spatial constraints (SKFCM. These methods are implemented on eighteen indexes as validation to determine whether indexes are capable to acquire the optimal clusters number. The performance of segmentation is estimated by applying these methods independently on several datasets to prove which method can give good results and with which indexes. Our test spans various indexes covering the classical and the rather more recent indexes that have enjoyed noticeable success in that field. These indexes are evaluated and compared by applying them on various test images, including synthetic images corrupted with noise of varying levels, and simulated volumetric MRI datasets. Comparative analysis is also presented to show whether the validity index indicates the optimal clustering for our datasets.

  15. Crosstalk corrections for improved energy resolution with highly segmented HPGe-detectors

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Wiens, Andreas; Eberth, Juergen; Hess, Herbert; Pascovici, Gheorghe; Warr, Nigel; Aydin, Sezgin; Bazzacco, Dino; Recchia, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Crosstalk effects of 36-fold segmented, large volume AGATA HPGe detectors cause shifts in the γ-ray energy measured by the inner core and outer segments as function of segment multiplicity. The positions of the segment sum energy peaks vary approximately linearly with increasing segment multiplicity. The resolution of these peaks deteriorates also linearly as a function of segment multiplicity. Based on single event treatment, two methods were developed in the AGATA Collaboration to correct for the crosstalk induced effects by employing a linear transformation. The matrix elements are deduced from coincidence measurements of γ-rays of various energies as recorded with digital electronics. A very efficient way to determine the matrix elements is obtained by measuring the base line shifts of untriggered segments using γ-ray detection events in which energy is deposited in a single segment. A second approach is based on measuring segment energy values for γ-ray interaction events in which energy is deposited in only two segments. After performing crosstalk corrections, the investigated detector shows a good fit between the core energy and the segment sum energy at all multiplicities and an improved energy resolution of the segment sum energy peaks. The corrected core energy resolution equals the segment sum energy resolution which is superior at all folds compared to the individual uncorrected energy resolutions. This is achieved by combining the two independent energy measurements with the core contact on the one hand and the segment contacts on the other hand.

  16. Dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression during thallium-201 imaging in patients with coronary artery disease: angiographic and hemodynamic determinants

    Chambers, C.E.; Brown, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    To examine the angiographic and hemodynamic determinants of dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression in patients with coronary artery disease, 41 patients with angiographically documented coronary disease who underwent dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were studied. Dipyridamole-induced ST depression occurred in 14 (34%) of the 41 patients. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare the predictive value of angiographic findings (good coronary collateral vessels, jeopardized collateral vessels, multivessel disease), hemodynamic changes (changes in heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and rate-pressure product), thallium-201 results (perfusion defect, thallium-201 redistribution) and demographic data (age, gender, medications). Only the presence of good coronary collateral vessels (p less than 0.02) and increases in rate-pressure product after dipyridamole infusion (p less than 0.02) were significant multivariate predictors of dipyridamole-induced ST depression. Good collateral vessels were more common in the group with ST depression (11 [79%] of 14) than they were in the group without ST depression (6 [22%] of 27; p less than 0.001). Rate-pressure product increased 2,835 +/- 1,648 beats/min.mm Hg in the group with ST depression compared with 1,179 +/- 1,417 beats/min.mm Hg in patients without ST depression (p less than 0.005). In conclusion, dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression in patients with coronary artery disease appears to be related to 1) the presence of good coronary collateral vessels, which may act by facilitating coronary steal, and 2) increases in rate-pressure product, reflecting increased myocardial oxygen demand. These observations may explain the lack of prognostic value of dipyridamole-induced ST segment depression described in previous reports

  17. Outer membrane protein changes during bacteroid development are independent of nitrogen fixation and differ between indeterminate and determinate nodulating host plants of Rhizobium leguminosarum

    Roest, H.P.; Goosen-de Roo, L.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Maagd, de R.A.; Lugtenberg, B.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The outer membrane of bacteroids contains largely decreased levels of protein antigen groups II and III in comparison with that of free-living rhizobia (R. A. de Maagd, R. de Rijk, I. H. M. Mulders, and B. J, J. Lugtenberg, J.Bacteriol, 171:1136-1142, 1989). Since we intend to study the molecular

  18. Autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space: hypothesis and review.

    Spaide, Richard

    2008-01-01

    To review the pathophysiologic principles underlying increased autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space using selected diseases as examples. The ocular imaging information and histopathologic features, when known, were integrated for diseases causing increased autofluorescence from the outer retina and subretinal space. Inferences were taken from this information and used to create a classification scheme. These diseases are principally those that cause separation of the outer retina from the retinal pigment epithelium, thereby preventing proper phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. The separation can arise from increased exudation into the subretinal space or inadequate removal of fluid from the subretinal space. Lack of normal outer segment processing initially leads to increased accumulation of outer segments on the outer retina and subretinal space. Over time, this material is visible as an increasingly thick coating on the outer retina, is yellow, and is autofluorescent. Over time, atrophy develops with thinning of the deposited material and decreasing autofluorescence. The accumulated material is ultimately capable of inducing damage to the retinal pigment epithelium. Diseases causing accumulation of the material include central serous chorioretinopathy, vitelliform macular dystrophy, acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy, choroidal tumors, and vitreomacular traction syndrome. The physical separation of the retinal outer segments from the retinal pigment epithelium hinders proper phagocytosis of the outer segments. Accumulation of the shed but not phagocytized outer segments plays a role in disease manifestations for a number of macular diseases.

  19. Application of self-organising maps towards segmentation of soybean samples by determination of amino acids concentration.

    Silva, Lívia Ramazzoti Chanan; Angilelli, Karina Gomes; Cremasco, Hágata; Romagnoli, Érica Signori; Galão, Olívio Fernandes; Borsato, Dionisio; Moraes, Larissa Alexandra Cardoso; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo

    2016-09-01

    Soybeans are widely used both for human nutrition and animal feed, since they are an important source of protein, and they also provide components such as phytosterols, isoflavones, and amino acids. In this study, were determined the concentrations of the amino acids lysine, histidine, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine present in 14 samples of conventional soybeans and 6 transgenic, cultivated in two cities of the state of Paraná, Londrina and Ponta Grossa. The results were tabulated and presented to a self-organising map for segmentation according planting regions and conventional or transgenic varieties. A network with 7000 training epochs and a 10 × 10 topology was used, and it proved appropriate in the segmentation of the samples using the data analysed. The weight maps provided by the network, showed that all the amino acids were important in targeting the samples, especially isoleucine. Three clusters were formed, one with only Ponta Grossa samples (including transgenic (PGT) and common (PGC)), a second group with Londrina transgenic (LT) samples and the third with Londrina common (LC) samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. An Automatic Assessment System of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Based on Wound Area Determination, Color Segmentation, and Healing Score Evaluation.

    Wang, Lei; Pedersen, Peder C; Strong, Diane M; Tulu, Bengisu; Agu, Emmanuel; Ignotz, Ron; He, Qian

    2015-08-07

    For individuals with type 2 diabetes, foot ulcers represent a significant health issue. The aim of this study is to design and evaluate a wound assessment system to help wound clinics assess patients with foot ulcers in a way that complements their current visual examination and manual measurements of their foot ulcers. The physical components of the system consist of an image capture box, a smartphone for wound image capture and a laptop for analyzing the wound image. The wound image assessment algorithms calculate the overall wound area, color segmented wound areas, and a healing score, to provide a quantitative assessment of the wound healing status both for a single wound image and comparisons of subsequent images to an initial wound image. The system was evaluated by assessing foot ulcers for 12 patients in the Wound Clinic at University of Massachusetts Medical School. As performance measures, the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) value for the wound area determination algorithm tested on 32 foot ulcer images was .68. The clinical validity of our healing score algorithm relative to the experienced clinicians was measured by Krippendorff's alpha coefficient (KAC) and ranged from .42 to .81. Our system provides a promising real-time method for wound assessment based on image analysis. Clinical comparisons indicate that the optimized mean-shift-based algorithm is well suited for wound area determination. Clinical evaluation of our healing score algorithm shows its potential to provide clinicians with a quantitative method for evaluating wound healing status. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. The Outer Space Treaty

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  2. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of an Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio vulnificus Required for Heme Utilization: Regulation of Expression and Determination of the Gene Sequence

    Litwin, Christine M.; Byrne, Burke L.

    1998-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic, marine pathogen that has been associated with septicemia and serious wound infections in patients with iron overload and preexisting liver disease. For V. vulnificus, the ability to acquire iron from the host has been shown to correlate with virulence. V. vulnificus is able to use host iron sources such as hemoglobin and heme. We previously constructed a fur mutant of V. vulnificus which constitutively expresses at least two iron-regulated outer membrane proteins, of 72 and 77 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 77-kDa protein purified from the V. vulnificus fur mutant had 67% homology with the first 15 amino acids of the mature protein of the Vibrio cholerae heme receptor, HutA. In this report, we describe the cloning, DNA sequence, mutagenesis, and analysis of transcriptional regulation of the structural gene for HupA, the heme receptor of V. vulnificus. DNA sequencing of hupA demonstrated a single open reading frame of 712 amino acids that was 50% identical and 66% similar to the sequence of V. cholerae HutA and similar to those of other TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. Primer extension analysis localized one promoter for the V. vulnificus hupA gene. Analysis of the promoter region of V. vulnificus hupA showed a sequence homologous to the consensus Fur box. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcript was strongly regulated by iron. An internal deletion in the V. vulnificus hupA gene, done by using marker exchange, resulted in the loss of expression of the 77-kDa protein and the loss of the ability to use hemin or hemoglobin as a source of iron. The hupA deletion mutant of V. vulnificus will be helpful in future studies of the role of heme iron in V. vulnificus pathogenesis. PMID:9632577

  4. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  5. Segmentation of the Infant Food Market

    Hrůzová, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part covers general market segmentation, namely the marketing importance of differences among consumers, the essence of market segmentation, its main conditions and the process of segmentation, which consists of four consecutive phases - defining the market, determining important criteria, uncovering segments and developing segment profiles. The segmentation criteria, segmentation approaches, methods and techniques for the process of market segmentation are also described in t...

  6. SEGMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TIME LAPSE IMAGE SEQUENCES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SHORE LINES CAPTURED BY HAND-HELD SMARTPHONE CAMERAS

    M. Kröhnert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  7. Segmentation of Environmental Time Lapse Image Sequences for the Determination of Shore Lines Captured by Hand-Held Smartphone Cameras

    Kröhnert, M.; Meichsner, R.

    2017-09-01

    The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  8. Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.

  9. TPS for Outer Planets

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Hwang, H.; Prabhu, D.; Stackpoole, M.; Wercinski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS, both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.

  10. Identification of the two rotavirus genes determining neutralization specificities

    Offit, P.A.; Blavat, G.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus NCDV and simian rotavirus SA-11 represent two distinct rotavirus serotypes. A genetic approach was used to determine which viral gene segments segregated with serotype-specific viral neutralization. There were 16 reassortant rotarviruses derived by coinfection of MA-104 cells in vitro with the SA-11 and NCDV strains. The parental origin of reassortant rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments was determined by gene segment mobility in polyacrylamide gels and by hybridization with radioactively labeled parental viral transcripts. The authors found that two rotavirus gene segments found previously to code for outer capsid proteins vp3 and vp7 cosegreated with virus neutralization specificities

  11. Identification of the two rotavirus genes determining neutralization specificities

    Offit, P.A.; Blavat, G.

    1986-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus NCDV and simian rotavirus SA-11 represent two distinct rotavirus serotypes. A genetic approach was used to determine which viral gene segments segregated with serotype-specific viral neutralization. There were 16 reassortant rotarviruses derived by coinfection of MA-104 cells in vitro with the SA-11 and NCDV strains. The parental origin of reassortant rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments was determined by gene segment mobility in polyacrylamide gels and by hybridization with radioactively labeled parental viral transcripts. The authors found that two rotavirus gene segments found previously to code for outer capsid proteins vp3 and vp7 cosegreated with virus neutralization specificities.

  12. Pedometer-determined physical activity patterns in a segmented school day among Hong Kong primary school children

    Yang Gao

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide a better understanding of PA patterns and the contribution of the distinct segments within a school day to children's PA. This information may assist in developing more effective, appropriate, and timely school-based PA interventions for children in Hong Kong.

  13. Spatial dependence of predictions from image segmentation: a methods to determine appropriate scales for producing land-management information

    A challenge in ecological studies is defining scales of observation that correspond to relevant ecological scales for organisms or processes. Image segmentation has been proposed as an alternative to pixel-based methods for scaling remotely-sensed data into ecologically-meaningful units. However, to...

  14. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  15. Structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942: roles for CcmK2, K3-K4, CcmO, and CcmL.

    Benjamin D Rae

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial CO(2-fixation is supported by a CO(2-concentrating mechanism which improves photosynthesis by saturating the primary carboxylating enzyme, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, with its preferred substrate CO(2. The site of CO(2-concentration is a protein bound micro-compartment called the carboxysome which contains most, if not all, of the cellular RuBisCO. The shell of β-type carboxysomes is thought to be composed of two functional layers, with the inner layer involved in RuBisCO scaffolding and bicarbonate dehydration, and the outer layer in selective permeability to dissolved solutes. Here, four genes (ccmK2-4, ccmO, whose products were predicted to function in the outer shell layer of β-carboxysomes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, were investigated by analysis of defined genetic mutants. Deletion of the ccmK2 and ccmO genes resulted in severe high-CO(2-requiring mutants with aberrant carboxysomes, whilst deletion of ccmK3 or ccmK4 resulted in cells with wild-type physiology and normal ultrastructure. However, a tandem deletion of ccmK3-4 resulted in cells with wild-type carboxysome structure, but physiologically deficient at low CO(2 conditions. These results revealed the minimum structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes from this strain: CcmK2, CcmO and CcmL. An accessory set of proteins was required to refine the function of the pre-existing shell: CcmK3 and CcmK4. These data suggested a model for the facet structure of β-carboxysomes with CcmL forming the vertices, CcmK2 forming the bulk facet, and CcmO, a "zipper protein," interfacing the edges of carboxysome facets.

  16. Novel approach for identification of influenza virus host range and zoonotic transmissible sequences by determination of host-related associative positions in viral genome segments.

    Kargarfard, Fatemeh; Sami, Ashkan; Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2016-11-16

    Recent (2013 and 2009) zoonotic transmission of avian or porcine influenza to humans highlights an increase in host range by evading species barriers. Gene reassortment or antigenic shift between viruses from two or more hosts can generate a new life-threatening virus when the new shuffled virus is no longer recognized by antibodies existing within human populations. There is no large scale study to help understand the underlying mechanisms of host transmission. Furthermore, there is no clear understanding of how different segments of the influenza genome contribute in the final determination of host range. To obtain insight into the rules underpinning host range determination, various supervised machine learning algorithms were employed to mine reassortment changes in different viral segments in a range of hosts. Our multi-host dataset contained whole segments of 674 influenza strains organized into three host categories: avian, human, and swine. Some of the sequences were assigned to multiple hosts. In point of fact, the datasets are a form of multi-labeled dataset and we utilized a multi-label learning method to identify discriminative sequence sites. Then algorithms such as CBA, Ripper, and decision tree were applied to extract informative and descriptive association rules for each viral protein segment. We found informative rules in all segments that are common within the same host class but varied between different hosts. For example, for infection of an avian host, HA14V and NS1230S were the most important discriminative and combinatorial positions. Host range identification is facilitated by high support combined rules in this study. Our major goal was to detect discriminative genomic positions that were able to identify multi host viruses, because such viruses are likely to cause pandemic or disastrous epidemics.

  17. Management of outer space

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  18. Radiation between segments of the seated human body

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    2002-01-01

    Detailed radiation properties for a thermal manikin were predicted numerically. The view factors between individual body-segments and between the body-segments and the outer surfaces were tabulated. On an integral basis, the findings compared well to other studies and the results showed...... that situations exist for which radiation between individual body segments is important....

  19. Active Segmentation.

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  20. The velocity field of the outer Galaxy in the southern hemisphere. III. Determination of distances to 0, B, and A type stars in the Walraven photometric system

    Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have used the Walraven photometric system (V BLUW) to derive distances to stars of spectral type earlier than A7 (T eff > 8000 K). We discuss the method and its accuracy, using it on member stars of (open) clusters with spectral types between 06 and A7. To obtain the weighted average distance modulus of a cluster, a weighting scheme is derived, based on the propagation of measurement errors in the distance modulus of a star as a function of its magnitude, T eff , and colour. The average uncertainty in a cluster distance modulus is 0. m 13 (6% in distance). For a single, normal star (i.e. one without spectral peculiarities), the average deviation from the mean-cluster distance modulus is about 0. m 5 (25% in distance). A comparison with the literature shows that previous distance determinations, using different techniques, of the clusters studied here agree within 0. m 36 (18% in distance) with ours. For three clusters, Upper-Scorpius, NGC 3293, and IC 2944, a star-by-star comparison is made with published data. Although the average cluster distance moduli are equal within the uncertainties, the moduli of the individual stars can differ up to about 2 m . These differences are the consequence of the adopted absolute magnitude calibrations, and/or a slightly different spectral classification for the cluster stars between the VBLUW results and the literature. The latter are comparable to the variations in classification found in the literature, and are therefore within the resolution of the methods used to derive distances. A semi-empirical ZAMS relation for the Walraven system for spectral types from 0 to K is given

  1. Vacuum Outer-Gap Structure in Pulsar Outer Magnetospheres

    Gui-Fang, Lin; Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We study the vacuum outer-gap structure in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through a pair production process. In this case, the trans-field height is limited by the photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. By solving self-consistently the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and γ-rays in a vacuum outer gap for the parameters of Vela pulsar, we obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e. the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface) and ends at the outer boundary which locates inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  2. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  3. Segmental Vitiligo.

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of the complex refractive index segments of turbid sample with multispectral spatially modulated structured light and models approximation

    Meitav, Omri; Shaul, Oren; Abookasis, David

    2017-09-01

    Spectral data enabling the derivation of a biological tissue sample's complex refractive index (CRI) can provide a range of valuable information in the clinical and research contexts. Specifically, changes in the CRI reflect alterations in tissue morphology and chemical composition, enabling its use as an optical marker during diagnosis and treatment. In the present work, we report a method for estimating the real and imaginary parts of the CRI of a biological sample using Kramers-Kronig (KK) relations in the spatial frequency domain. In this method, phase-shifted sinusoidal patterns at single high spatial frequency are serially projected onto the sample surface at different near-infrared wavelengths while a camera mounted normal to the sample surface acquires the reflected diffuse light. In the offline analysis pipeline, recorded images at each wavelength are converted to spatial phase maps using KK analysis and are then calibrated against phase-models derived from diffusion approximation. The amplitude of the reflected light, together with phase data, is then introduced into Fresnel equations to resolve both real and imaginary segments of the CRI at each wavelength. The technique was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms with known optical parameters and in mouse models of ischemic injury and heat stress. Experimental data obtained indicate variations in the CRI among brain tissue suffering from injury. CRI fluctuations correlated with alterations in the scattering and absorption coefficients of the injured tissue are demonstrated. This technique for deriving dynamic changes in the CRI of tissue may be further developed as a clinical diagnostic tool and for biomedical research applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the estimation of the spectral CRI of a mouse head following injury obtained in the spatial frequency domain.

  5. Axodendritic sorting and pathological missorting of Tau are isoform-specific and determined by axon initial segment architecture.

    Zempel, Hans; Dennissen, Frank J A; Kumar, Yatender; Luedtke, Julia; Biernat, Jacek; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2017-07-21

    Subcellular mislocalization of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Six Tau isoforms, differentiated by the presence or absence of a second repeat or of N-terminal inserts, exist in the human CNS, but their physiological and pathological differences have long remained elusive. Here, we investigated the properties and distributions of human and rodent Tau isoforms in primary forebrain rodent neurons. We found that the Tau diffusion barrier (TDB), located within the axon initial segment (AIS), controls retrograde (axon-to-soma) and anterograde (soma-to-axon) traffic of Tau. Tau isoforms without the N-terminal inserts were sorted efficiently into the axon. However, the longest isoform (2N4R-Tau) was partially retained in cell bodies and dendrites, where it accelerated spine and dendrite growth. The TDB (located within the AIS) was impaired when AIS components (ankyrin G, EB1) were knocked down or when glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β; an AD-associated kinase tethered to the AIS) was overexpressed. Using superresolution nanoscopy and live-cell imaging, we observed that microtubules within the AIS appeared highly dynamic, a feature essential for the TDB. Pathomechanistically, amyloid-β insult caused cofilin activation and F-actin remodeling and decreased microtubule dynamics in the AIS. Concomitantly with these amyloid-β-induced disruptions, the AIS/TDB sorting function failed, causing AD-like Tau missorting. In summary, we provide evidence that the human and rodent Tau isoforms differ in axodendritic sorting and amyloid-β-induced missorting and that the axodendritic distribution of Tau depends on AIS integrity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Will Outer Tropical Cyclone Size Change due to Anthropogenic Warming?

    Schenkel, B. A.; Lin, N.; Chavas, D. R.; Vecchi, G. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown significant interbasin and intrabasin variability in outer tropical cyclone (TC) size. Moreover, outer TC size has even been shown to vary substantially over the lifetime of the majority of TCs. However, the factors responsible for both setting initial outer TC size and determining its evolution throughout the TC lifetime remain uncertain. Given these gaps in our physical understanding, there remains uncertainty in how outer TC size will change, if at all, due to anthropogenic warming. The present study seeks to quantify whether outer TC size will change significantly in response to anthropogenic warming using data from a high-resolution global climate model and a regional hurricane model. Similar to prior work, the outer TC size metric used in this study is the radius in which the azimuthal-mean surface azimuthal wind equals 8 m/s. The initial results from the high-resolution global climate model data suggest that the distribution of outer TC size shifts significantly towards larger values in each global TC basin during future climates, as revealed by 1) statistically significant increase of the median outer TC size by 5-10% (p<0.05) according to a 1,000-sample bootstrap resampling approach with replacement and 2) statistically significant differences between distributions of outer TC size from current and future climate simulations as shown using two-sample Kolmogorov Smirnov testing (p<<0.01). Additional analysis of the high-resolution global climate model data reveals that outer TC size does not uniformly increase within each basin in future climates, but rather shows substantial locational dependence. Future work will incorporate the regional mesoscale hurricane model data to help focus on identifying the source of the spatial variability in outer TC size increases within each basin during future climates and, more importantly, why outer TC size changes in response to anthropogenic warming.

  7. Determining the maximum diameter for holes in the shoe without compromising shoe integrity when using a multi-segment foot model.

    Shultz, Rebecca; Jenkyn, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Spectral imaging toolbox: segmentation, hyperstack reconstruction, and batch processing of spectral images for the determination of cell and model membrane lipid order.

    Aron, Miles; Browning, Richard; Carugo, Dario; Sezgin, Erdinc; Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Eggeling, Christian; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-05-12

    Spectral imaging with polarity-sensitive fluorescent probes enables the quantification of cell and model membrane physical properties, including local hydration, fluidity, and lateral lipid packing, usually characterized by the generalized polarization (GP) parameter. With the development of commercial microscopes equipped with spectral detectors, spectral imaging has become a convenient and powerful technique for measuring GP and other membrane properties. The existing tools for spectral image processing, however, are insufficient for processing the large data sets afforded by this technological advancement, and are unsuitable for processing images acquired with rapidly internalized fluorescent probes. Here we present a MATLAB spectral imaging toolbox with the aim of overcoming these limitations. In addition to common operations, such as the calculation of distributions of GP values, generation of pseudo-colored GP maps, and spectral analysis, a key highlight of this tool is reliable membrane segmentation for probes that are rapidly internalized. Furthermore, handling for hyperstacks, 3D reconstruction and batch processing facilitates analysis of data sets generated by time series, z-stack, and area scan microscope operations. Finally, the object size distribution is determined, which can provide insight into the mechanisms underlying changes in membrane properties and is desirable for e.g. studies involving model membranes and surfactant coated particles. Analysis is demonstrated for cell membranes, cell-derived vesicles, model membranes, and microbubbles with environmentally-sensitive probes Laurdan, carboxyl-modified Laurdan (C-Laurdan), Di-4-ANEPPDHQ, and Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA (FE), for quantification of the local lateral density of lipids or lipid packing. The Spectral Imaging Toolbox is a powerful tool for the segmentation and processing of large spectral imaging datasets with a reliable method for membrane segmentation and no ability in programming required. The

  9. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  10. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    appearance were examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). RESULTS: Both patients demonstrated photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata with reduced or extinct electroretinographic responses. Attenuation or complete loss...... of all the segments composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal...

  11. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). Both patients demonstrated photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata with reduced or extinct electroretinographic responses. Attenuation or complete loss of all the segments...... composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal dysfunction. The field...

  12. Mixed segmentation

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  13. R wave amplitude: a new determinant of failure of patients with coronary heart disease to manifest ST segment depression during exercise

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kutalek, S.; Hare, T.W.; Sokoloff, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease may not manifest ST segment depression during exercise. Inadequate stress, mild coronary artery disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction have been postulated as mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of exercise R wave amplitude on ST segment depression in 81 patients with coronary artery disease (50% or greater diameter narrowing of one or more vessels). All patients underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and 71 patients (88%) had concomitant thallium-201 imaging. In 26 patients, the exercise R wave amplitude in electrocardiographic lead V5 was less than 11 mm (Group I), and in 55 patients it was 11 mm or greater (Group II). The two groups were similar with regard to age, sex, propranolol administration and left ventricular function. There was a significant difference in the incidence of positive exercise electrocardiograms in the two groups (2 patients [8%] in Group I and 27 patients [49%] in Group II; p . 0.002), despite similar exercise heart rate and extent of coronary artery disease. Myocardial ischemia, manifested by exercise-induced angina or exercise-induced thallium-201 perfusion defects, was similar in both groups. Thallium-201 imaging showed perfusion defects in 73% of patients in Group I and in 76% of patients in Group II (p . not significant). Thus, R wave amplitude is a new determinant of failure to develop ST depression during exercise. A low R wave amplitude (less than 11 mm) is rarely associated with ST depression, even in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease. Exercise thallium-201 imaging is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with low R wave amplitude

  14. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    Arink, R; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th.; Berkien, A.; Farber, Ch.; Bien, A.; Blouw, J.; Ceelie, L.; Coco, V.; Deckenhoff, M.; Deng, Z.; Dettori, F.; van Eijk, D.; Ekelhof, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Grillo, L.; Hulsbergen, W.D.; Karbach, T.M.; Koopman, R.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Langenbruch, Ch.; Lavrentyev, V.; Linn, Ch.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Meissner, M.; Michalowski, J.; Morawski, P.; Nawrot, A.; Nedos, M.; Pellegrino, A.; Polok, G.; van Petten, O.; Rovekamp, J.; Schimmel, F.; Schuylenburg, H.; Schwemmer, R.; Seyfert, P.; Serra, N.; Sluijk, T.; Spaan, B.; Spelt, J.; Storaci, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Swientek, S.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Witek, M.; Zeng, M.; Zwart, A.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  15. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  16. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  17. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  18. Spine Patterning Is Guided by Segmentation of the Notochord Sheath

    Wopat, Susan; Bagwell, Jennifer; Sumigray, Kaelyn D.; Dickson, Amy L.; Huitema, Leonie F.A.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Bagnat, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The spine is a segmented axial structure made of alternating vertebral bodies (centra) and intervertebral discs (IVDs) assembled around the notochord. Here, we show that, prior to centra formation, the outer epithelial cell layer of the zebrafish notochord, the sheath, segments into alternating

  19. The effects of inner vertical outer spiral complex scaffold in repairing long segment of urethral defect%内纵外螺旋双层结构管状尿道支架复合体修复尿道缺损的可行性及其血管化方法

    杜小文; 陈浩浩; 刘庆; 项见阳; 王巧; 徐挺; 严秋亮; 冯超

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility of the inner vertical outer spiral complex tubular urethra scaffold vascularization in repairing long segment of urethral defect.Methods From August 2014 to October 2015,27 clean male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 3 groups,S1 group was transfected recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) gene lentiviral vector group.S2 group was vascular pedicle transfer tube group.C group was simple stent group.A 3.0 cm inner vertical outer spiral complex scaffold was constructed by using the small intestine acellular matrix (SIS) and polylactic acid copolymer (PLGA) modified by type Ⅰ collagen surface,and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) and smooth muscle cells after transformation from New Zealand white rabbits.In S1 group,the seed cells were transfected by recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene lentivirus,which express VEGF protein.The complex scaffold was used to repair 3.0 cm rabbit urethral defect In S2 group,the untransfected cells were seeded into the scaffold and embedded in the skin near the groin artery 3 weeks for repairing urethral defect with vascular pedicle transfer tube.In group C,the unseeded scaffold was used to repair the urethral defect alone.Postoperative observation and urethrography were followed 4,8 and 24 weeks after implantation.The HE staining,fluorescence tracing,immunohistochemical and scanning electron microscopy were evaluated at the same phase.Results In S1 group,there were one urinary fistula and one urethral stricture-related death,respectively.The urethra was smooth and patent,histological examination showed active hyperplasia of urethral capillary.In S2 group,there were one urinary fistula and two urethral stricture-related deaths,respectively.The urethral was rough,local thinning or dilated.Fat accumulation and mucosal contraction were found in the urethral submucosal,respctively.In C group,there were one urinary fistula,three hypospadias

  20. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    Descovich, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Boston, A.J.; Dobson, J.; Gros, S.; Cresswell, J.R.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Regan, P.H.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Sellin, P.; Pearson, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the γ-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions

  1. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    Descovich, M. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mdescovich@lbl.gov; Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Gros, S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sellin, P. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Pearson, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-21

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the {gamma}-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions.

  2. Rediscovering market segmentation.

    Yankelovich, Daniel; Meer, David

    2006-02-01

    In 1964, Daniel Yankelovich introduced in the pages of HBR the concept of nondemographic segmentation, by which he meant the classification of consumers according to criteria other than age, residence, income, and such. The predictive power of marketing studies based on demographics was no longer strong enough to serve as a basis for marketing strategy, he argued. Buying patterns had become far better guides to consumers' future purchases. In addition, properly constructed nondemographic segmentations could help companies determine which products to develop, which distribution channels to sell them in, how much to charge for them, and how to advertise them. But more than 40 years later, nondemographic segmentation has become just as unenlightening as demographic segmentation had been. Today, the technique is used almost exclusively to fulfill the needs of advertising, which it serves mainly by populating commercials with characters that viewers can identify with. It is true that psychographic types like "High-Tech Harry" and "Joe Six-Pack" may capture some truth about real people's lifestyles, attitudes, self-image, and aspirations. But they are no better than demographics at predicting purchase behavior. Thus they give corporate decision makers very little idea of how to keep customers or capture new ones. Now, Daniel Yankelovich returns to these pages, with consultant David Meer, to argue the case for a broad view of nondemographic segmentation. They describe the elements of a smart segmentation strategy, explaining how segmentations meant to strengthen brand identity differ from those capable of telling a company which markets it should enter and what goods to make. And they introduce their "gravity of decision spectrum", a tool that focuses on the form of consumer behavior that should be of the greatest interest to marketers--the importance that consumers place on a product or product category.

  3. The first determination of Trichuris sp. from roe deer by amplification and sequenation of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment of ribosomal DNA.

    Salaba, O; Rylková, K; Vadlejch, J; Petrtýl, M; Scháňková, S; Brožová, A; Jankovská, I; Jebavý, L; Langrová, I

    2013-03-01

    Trichuris nematodes were isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). At first, nematodes were determined using morphological and biometrical methods. Subsequently genomic DNA was isolated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment from ribosomal DNA (RNA) was amplified and sequenced using PCR techniques. With u sing morphological and biometrical methods, female nematodes were identified as Trichuris globulosa, and the only male was identified as Trichuris ovis. The females were classified into four morphotypes. However, analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of specimens did not confirm this classification. Moreover, the female individuals morphologically determined as T. globulosa were molecularly identified as Trichuris discolor. In the case of the only male molecular analysis match the result of the molecular identification. Furthermore, a comparative phylogenetic study was carried out with the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the Trichuris species from various hosts. A comparison of biometric information from T. discolor individuals from this study was also conducted.

  4. Segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin: A method for correcting errors due to incomplete contact of the body with a surface

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Janieas, N.R.D.J.; Silva, M.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    of the thermal manikins used at present is not as flexible as the human body and is divided into body segments with a surface area that differs from that of the human body in contact with a surface. The area of the segment in contact with a surface will depend on the shape and flexibility of the surface...

  5. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 40-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Outer space structure and development

    Zeldovich, J.; Novikov, I.

    1975-01-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses. (J.K.)

  7. Outer space structure and development

    Zeldovich, J; Novikov, I

    1975-10-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses.

  8. Plasmas in the outer heliosphere

    Belcher, J. W.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.

    1995-01-01

    We review the observed properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere, including observations from Voyager and the Pioneers, as well as from inner heliospheric probes as appropriate. These observations are crucial to modeling of the heliosphere and its interactions with the interstellar medium, since the wind ram pressure and its temporal variations are important in understanding the distance to the termination shock and heliopause and how those boundaries might vary in time. We focus on results since Solar Wind 7. Among the issues we will discuss are: (1) the time scales for and statistical properties of variations in the ram pressure in the outer heliosphere, and how those variations might affect the morphology of the heliospheric/interstellar medium interface; (2) the question of possible solar wind slowing in the outer heliosphere due to the pick-up of interstellar ions; (3) the issue of whether there is bulk heating of the solar wind associated either with interstellar ion pick-up or with continued heating due to stream-stream interactions; (4) evidence for latitudinal variations in solar wind properties; and (5) the 1.3 year periodicities apparent in the outer heliosphere, and the close correspondence with similar variations seen with inner heliospheric probes.

  9. Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse

    Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)

  10. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  11. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  12. Impact of early, late, and no ST-segment resolution measured by continuous ST Holter monitoring on left ventricular ejection fraction and infarct size as determined by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Haeck, Joost D. E.; Verouden, Niels J. W.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Koch, Karel T.; Majidi, Mohamed; Hirsch, Alexander; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study is to determine the predictive value of ST-segment resolution (STR) early after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), late STR, and no STR for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (IS) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  14. Software alignment of the LHCb Outer Tracker chambers

    Deissenroth, Marc

    2010-04-21

    This work presents an alignment algorithm that was developed to precisely determine the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker detector elements. The algorithm is based on the reconstruction of tracks and exploits that misalignments of the detector change the residual between a measured hit and the reconstructed track. It considers different levels of granularities of the Outer Tracker geometry and fully accounts for correlations of all elements which are imposed by particle trajectories. In extensive tests, simulated shifts and rotations for different levels of the detector granularity have been used as input to the track reconstruction and alignment procedure. With about 260 000 tracks the misalignments are recovered with a statistical precision of O(10 - 100 {mu}m) for the translational degrees of freedom and of O(10{sup -2} - 10{sup -1} mrad) for rotations. A study has been performed to determine the impact of Outer Tracker misalignments on the performance of the track reconstruction algorithms. It shows that the achieved statistical precision does not decrease the track reconstruction performance in a significant way. During the commissioning of the LHCb detector, cosmic ray muon events have been collected. The events have been analysed and used for the first alignment of the 216 Outer Tracker modules. The module positions have been determined within {proportional_to} 90 {mu}m. The developed track based alignment algorithm has demonstrated its reliability and is one of the core algorithms which are used for the precise determination of the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker elements. (orig.)

  15. Software alignment of the LHCb Outer Tracker chambers

    Deissenroth, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This work presents an alignment algorithm that was developed to precisely determine the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker detector elements. The algorithm is based on the reconstruction of tracks and exploits that misalignments of the detector change the residual between a measured hit and the reconstructed track. It considers different levels of granularities of the Outer Tracker geometry and fully accounts for correlations of all elements which are imposed by particle trajectories. In extensive tests, simulated shifts and rotations for different levels of the detector granularity have been used as input to the track reconstruction and alignment procedure. With about 260 000 tracks the misalignments are recovered with a statistical precision of O(10 - 100 μm) for the translational degrees of freedom and of O(10 -2 - 10 -1 mrad) for rotations. A study has been performed to determine the impact of Outer Tracker misalignments on the performance of the track reconstruction algorithms. It shows that the achieved statistical precision does not decrease the track reconstruction performance in a significant way. During the commissioning of the LHCb detector, cosmic ray muon events have been collected. The events have been analysed and used for the first alignment of the 216 Outer Tracker modules. The module positions have been determined within ∝ 90 μm. The developed track based alignment algorithm has demonstrated its reliability and is one of the core algorithms which are used for the precise determination of the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker elements. (orig.)

  16. Study of the morphology exhibited by linear segmented polyurethanes

    Pereira, I.M.; Orefice, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Five series of segmented polyurethanes with different hard segment content were prepared by the prepolymer mixing method. The nano-morphology of the obtained polyurethanes and their microphase separation were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although highly hydrogen bonded hard segments were formed, high hard segment contents promoted phase mixture and decreased the chain mobility, decreasing the hard segment domain precipitation and the soft segments crystallization. The applied techniques were able to show that the hard-segment content and the hard-segment interactions were the two controlling factors for determining the structure of segmented polyurethanes. (author)

  17. Measurements on a prototype segmented Clover detector

    Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D

    1999-01-01

    The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)

  18. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  19. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  20. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  1. Pre-analytical and analytical variation of drug determination in segmented hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    variation was estimated to be less than 15% for almost all compounds. The method was successfully applied to 25 segmented hair specimens from deceased drug addicts showing a broad pattern of poly-drug use. The pre-analytical sampling variation was estimated from the genuine duplicate measurements of two...

  2. Efficient graph-cut tattoo segmentation

    Kim, Joonsoo; Parra, Albert; Li, He; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Law enforcement is interested in exploiting tattoos as an information source to identify, track and prevent gang-related crimes. Many tattoo image retrieval systems have been described. In a retrieval system tattoo segmentation is an important step for retrieval accuracy since segmentation removes background information in a tattoo image. Existing segmentation methods do not extract the tattoo very well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin tones. In this paper we describe a tattoo segmentation approach by determining skin pixels in regions near the tattoo. In these regions graph-cut segmentation using a skin color model and a visual saliency map is used to find skin pixels. After segmentation we determine which set of skin pixels are connected with each other that form a closed contour including a tattoo. The regions surrounded by the closed contours are considered tattoo regions. Our method segments tattoos well when the background includes textures and color similar to skin.

  3. Segmentation of neuroanatomy in magnetic resonance images

    Simmons, Andrew; Arridge, Simon R.; Barker, G. J.; Tofts, Paul S.

    1992-06-01

    Segmentation in neurological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is necessary for feature extraction, volume measurement and for the three-dimensional display of neuroanatomy. Automated and semi-automated methods offer considerable advantages over manual methods because of their lack of subjectivity, their data reduction capabilities, and the time savings they give. We have used dual echo multi-slice spin-echo data sets which take advantage of the intrinsically multispectral nature of MRI. As a pre-processing step, a rf non-uniformity correction is applied and if the data is noisy the images are smoothed using a non-isotropic blurring method. Edge-based processing is used to identify the skin (the major outer contour) and the eyes. Edge-focusing has been used to significantly simplify edge images and thus allow simple postprocessing to pick out the brain contour in each slice of the data set. Edge- focusing is a technique which locates significant edges using a high degree of smoothing at a coarse level and tracks these edges to a fine level where the edges can be determined with high positional accuracy. Both 2-D and 3-D edge-detection methods have been compared. Once isolated, the brain is further processed to identify CSF, and, depending upon the MR pulse sequence used, the brain itself may be sub-divided into gray matter and white matter using semi-automatic contrast enhancement and clustering methods.

  4. Ageing of the LHCb outer tracker

    Blom, M R; Tuning, N

    2009-01-01

    The modules of the LHCb outer tracker have shown to suffer severe gain loss under moderate irradiation. This process is called ageing. Ageing of the modules results from contamination of the gas system by glue, araldite AY 103-1, used in their construction. In this thesis the ageing process will be shown. The schemes known to reduce, reverse, or prevent ageing have been investigated to determine their effect on the detector performance. The addition of O2 to the gas mixture lowers the detector response by an acceptable amount and does not affect the gas transport properties significantly. The ageing rate is decreased after extensive flushing and HV training could eventually repair the irradiation damage. The risks of HV training have been assessed. Furthermore, several gaseous and aquatic additions have been tested for their capability to prevent, or moderate ageing, but none showed significant improvement.

  5. Color image Segmentation using automatic thresholding techniques

    Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.

  6. Pre-analytical and analytical variation of drug determination in segmented hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of total uncertainty of analytical methods for the measurements of drugs in human hair has mainly been derived from the analytical variation. However, in hair analysis several other sources of uncertainty will contribute to the total uncertainty. Particularly, in segmental hair analysis pre-analytical variations associated with the sampling and segmentation may be significant factors in the assessment of the total uncertainty budget. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the analysis of 31 common drugs in hair using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with focus on the assessment of both the analytical and pre-analytical sampling variations. The validated method was specific, accurate (80-120%), and precise (CV≤20%) across a wide linear concentration range from 0.025-25 ng/mg for most compounds. The analytical variation was estimated to be less than 15% for almost all compounds. The method was successfully applied to 25 segmented hair specimens from deceased drug addicts showing a broad pattern of poly-drug use. The pre-analytical sampling variation was estimated from the genuine duplicate measurements of two bundles of hair collected from each subject after subtraction of the analytical component. For the most frequently detected analytes, the pre-analytical variation was estimated to be 26-69%. Thus, the pre-analytical variation was 3-7 folds larger than the analytical variation (7-13%) and hence the dominant component in the total variation (29-70%). The present study demonstrated the importance of including the pre-analytical variation in the assessment of the total uncertainty budget and in the setting of the 95%-uncertainty interval (±2CVT). Excluding the pre-analytical sampling variation could significantly affect the interpretation of results from segmental hair analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The origin of the PB1 segment of swine influenza A virus subtype H1N2 determines viral pathogenicity in mice.

    Metreveli, Giorgi; Gao, Qinshan; Mena, Ignacio; Schmolke, Mirco; Berg, Mikael; Albrecht, Randy A; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2014-08-08

    Swine appear to be a key species in the generation of novel human influenza pandemics. Previous pandemic viruses are postulated to have evolved in swine by reassortment of avian, human, and swine influenza viruses. The human pandemic influenza viruses that emerged in 1957 and 1968 as well as swine viruses circulating since 1998 encode PB1 segments derived from avian influenza viruses. Here we investigate the possible role in viral replication and virulence of the PB1 gene segments present in two swine H1N2 influenza A viruses, A/swine/Sweden/1021/2009(H1N2) (sw 1021) and A/swine/Sweden/9706/2010(H1N2) (sw 9706), where the sw 1021 virus has shown to be more pathogenic in mice. By using reverse genetics, we swapped the PB1 genes of these two viruses. Similar to the sw 9706 virus, chimeric sw 1021 virus carrying the sw 9706 PB1 gene was not virulent in mice. In contrast, replacement of the PB1 gene of the sw 9706 virus by that from sw 1021 virus resulted in increased pathogenicity. Our study demonstrated that differences in virulence of swine influenza virus subtype H1N2 are attributed at least in part to the PB1 segment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detergent organisation in crystals of monomeric outer membrane phospholipase A

    Snijder, HJ; Timmins, PA; Kalk, KH; Dijkstra, BW

    The structure of the detergent in crystals of outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) has been determined using neutron diffraction contrast variation. Large crystals were soaked in stabilising solutions, each containing a different H2O/D2O contrast. From the neutron diffraction at five contrasts,

  9. Knitted outer gloves in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Tanner, J; Wraighte, P; Howard, P

    2006-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the rate of perforation to inner gloves when comparing latex with knitted gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty. Members of the surgical team were randomised to wear either two pairs of latex gloves (standard double gloving) or a knitted glove on top of a latex glove. In addition, participants completed a visual analogue assessment of their overall satisfaction with the gloves. A total of 406 inner gloves were tested for perforations over a four-month period: 23% of inner gloves were perforated when latex outer gloves were used and 6% of inner gloves were perforated when knitted outer gloves were used. In total, there were 64 perforations to the inner gloves; only one of these perforations was detected by the glove wearer. Wearing knitted outer gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty statistically significantly reduces the risk of perforation to inner latex gloves (p<0.0001).

  10. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  11. Semi-automatic segmentation of gated blood pool emission tomographic images by watersheds: application to the determination of right and left ejection fractions

    Mariano-Goulart, D.; Collet, H.; Kotzki, P.-O.; Zanca, M.; Rossi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tomographic multi-gated blood pool scintigraphy (TMUGA) is a widely available method which permits simultaneous assessment of right and left ventricular ejection fractions. However, the widespread clinical use of this technique is impeded by the lack of segmentation methods dedicated to an automatic analysis of ventricular activities. In this study we evaluated how a watershed algorithm succeeds in providing semi-automatic segmentation of ventricular activities in order to measure right and left ejection fractions by TMUGA. The left ejection fractions of 30 patients were evaluated both with TMUGA and with planar multi-gated blood pool scintigraphy (PMUGA). Likewise, the right ejection fractions of 25 patients were evaluated with first-pass scintigraphy (FP) and with TMUGA. The watershed algorithm was applied to the reconstructed slices in order to group together the voxels whose activity came from one specific cardiac cavity. First, the results of the watershed algorithm were compared with manual drawing around left and right ventricles. Left ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA with the watershed procedure were not significantly different (p=0.30) from manual outlines whereas a small but significant difference was found for right ejection fractions (p=0.004). Then right and left ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA (with the semi-automatic segmentation procedure) were compared with the results obtained by FP or PMUGA. Left ventricular ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA showed an excellent correlation with those evaluated by PMUGA (r=0.93; SEE=5.93%; slope=0.99; intercept = 4.17%). The measurements of these ejection fractions were significantly higher with TMUGA than with PMUGA (P<0.01). The interoperator variability for the measurement of left ejection fractions by TMUGA was 4.6%. Right ventricular ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA showed a good correlation with those evaluated by FP (r = 0.81; SEE = 6.68%; slope = 1.00; intercept = 0.85%) and were not

  12. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  13. Pavement management segment consolidation

    1998-01-01

    Dividing roads into "homogeneous" segments has been a major problem for all areas of highway engineering. SDDOT uses Deighton Associates Limited software, dTIMS, to analyze life-cycle costs for various rehabilitation strategies on each segment of roa...

  14. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  15. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  16. Performance of a 6x6 segmented germanium detector for {gamma}-ray tracking

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J. E-mail: j.valiente-dobon@surrey.ac.uk; Pearson, C.J.; Regan, P.H.; Sellin, P.J.; Gelletly, W.; Morton, E.; Boston, A.; Descovich, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Warner, D

    2003-06-01

    A 36 fold segmented germanium coaxial detector has been supplied by EURISYS MESURES. The outer contact is segmented both radially and longitudinally. The signals from the fast preamplifiers have been digitised by 12 bit, 40 MHz ADCs. In this article we report preliminary results obtained using this detector and their relevance for future germanium {gamma}-ray tracking arrays.

  17. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  18. Segmentation by Large Scale Hypothesis Testing - Segmentation as Outlier Detection

    Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    a microscope and we show how the method can handle transparent particles with significant glare point. The method generalizes to other problems. THis is illustrated by applying the method to camera calibration images and MRI of the midsagittal plane for gray and white matter separation and segmentation......We propose a novel and efficient way of performing local image segmentation. For many applications a threshold of pixel intensities is sufficient but determine the appropriate threshold value can be difficult. In cases with large global intensity variation the threshold value has to be adapted...... locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...

  19. The role of the notochord in amniote vertebral column segmentation.

    Ward, Lizzy; Pang, Angel S W; Evans, Susan E; Stern, Claudio D

    2018-07-01

    The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. The vertebrae and outer portion (annulus fibrosus) of the disc are derived from the sclerotome part of the somites, whereas the inner nucleus pulposus of the disc is derived from the notochord. Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. However, the notochord cannot segment in the absence of the surrounding sclerotome. To test whether the notochord dictates sclerotome segmentation, we grafted an ectopic notochord. We find that the intrinsic segmentation of the sclerotome is dominant over any segmental information the notochord may possess, and no evidence that the chick notochord is intrinsically segmented. We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane.......Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...

  1. Thermographic studies of outer target heat fluxes on KSTAR

    H.H. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A new infra-red (IR thermography system with high spatial resolution has been installed on KSTAR and is now mainly applied to measure the outer divertor heat load profile. The first measurement results of the outer divertor heat load profiles between ELMs have been applied to characterize the inter-ELMs outer divertor heat loads in KSTAR H-mode plasmas. In particular, the power decay length (λq of the divertor heat load profile has been determined by fitting the profile to a convolution of an exponential decay and a Gaussian function. The analysis on the power decay length shows a good agreement with the recent multi-machine λq scaling, which predicts λq of the inter-ELMs divertor heat load to be ∼1 mm under the standard H-mode scenario in ITER. The divertor IR thermography system has also successfully measured the strike point splitting of the outer divertor heat flux during the application of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP fields. In addition, it has provided a clear evidence that the strike point splitting pattern depends on the RMP fields configuration.

  2. Limb-segment selection in drawing behaviour

    Meulenbroek, R G; Rosenbaum, D A; Thomassen, A.J.W.M.; Schomaker, L R

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  3. LIMB-SEGMENT SELECTION IN DRAWING BEHAVIOR

    MEULENBROEK, RGJ; ROSENBAUM, DA; THOMASSEN, AJWM; SCHOMAKER, LRB; Schomaker, Lambertus

    How do we select combinations of limb segments to carry out physical tasks? Three possible determinants of limb-segment selection are hypothesized here: (1) optimal amplitudes and frequencies of motion for the effectors; (2) preferred movement axes for the effectors; and (3) a tendency to continue

  4. International EUREKA: Market Segment

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year

  5. Learning-based automated segmentation of the carotid artery vessel wall in dual-sequence MRI using subdivision surface fitting.

    Gao, Shan; van 't Klooster, Ronald; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Coolen, Bram F; van den Berg, Alexandra M; Smits, Loek P; Shahzad, Rahil; Shamonin, Denis P; de Koning, Patrick J H; Nederveen, Aart J; van der Geest, Rob J

    2017-10-01

    The quantification of vessel wall morphology and plaque burden requires vessel segmentation, which is generally performed by manual delineations. The purpose of our work is to develop and evaluate a new 3D model-based approach for carotid artery wall segmentation from dual-sequence MRI. The proposed method segments the lumen and outer wall surfaces including the bifurcation region by fitting a subdivision surface constructed hierarchical-tree model to the image data. In particular, a hybrid segmentation which combines deformable model fitting with boundary classification was applied to extract the lumen surface. The 3D model ensures the correct shape and topology of the carotid artery, while the boundary classification uses combined image information of 3D TOF-MRA and 3D BB-MRI to promote accurate delineation of the lumen boundaries. The proposed algorithm was validated on 25 subjects (48 arteries) including both healthy volunteers and atherosclerotic patients with 30% to 70% carotid stenosis. For both lumen and outer wall border detection, our result shows good agreement between manually and automatically determined contours, with contour-to-contour distance less than 1 pixel as well as Dice overlap greater than 0.87 at all different carotid artery sections. The presented 3D segmentation technique has demonstrated the capability of providing vessel wall delineation for 3D carotid MRI data with high accuracy and limited user interaction. This brings benefits to large-scale patient studies for assessing the effect of pharmacological treatment of atherosclerosis by reducing image analysis time and bias between human observers. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Structural determinants of alpha-bungarotoxin binding to the sequence segment 181-200 of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α subunit: Effects of cysteine/cystine modification and species-specific amino acid substitution

    McLane, K.E.; Wu, Xiadong; Diethelm, B.; Conti-Tronconi, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    The sequence segment 181-200 of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) αsubunit forms a binding site for α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX). Synthetic peptides corresponding to the homologous sequences of human, calf, mouse, chicken, frog, and cobra muscle nAChR α1 subunits were tested for their ability to bind 125 I-α-BTX, and differences in α-BTX affinity were determined by using solution (IC 50 s) and solid-phase (K d s) assays. Panels of overlapping peptides corresponding to the complete α1 subunit of mouse and human were also tested for α-BTX binding, but other sequence segments forming the α-BTX site were not consistently detectable. The role of a putative vicinal disulfide bound between Cys-192 and -193, relative to the Torpedo sequence, was determined by modifying the peptides with sulfhydryl reagents. Reduction and alkylation of the peptides decreased α-BTX binding, whereas oxidation of the peptides had little effect. These results indicate that while the adjacent cysteines are likely to be involved in forming the toxin/α1-subunit interface a vicinal disulfide bound was not required for α-BTX binding

  7. Profiling the outer membrane proteome during growth and development of the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus by selective biotinylation and analyses of outer membrane vesicles.

    Kahnt, Jörg; Aguiluz, Kryssia; Koch, Jürgen; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Konovalova, Anna; Huntley, Stuart; Hoppert, Michael; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Hedderich, Reiner

    2010-10-01

    Social behavior in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus relies on contact-dependent activities involving cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. To identify outer membrane proteins that have a role in these activities, we profiled the outer membrane proteome of growing and starving cells using two strategies. First, outer membrane proteins were enriched by biotinylation of intact cells using the reagent NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide)-PEO(12) (polyethylene oxide)-biotin with subsequent membrane solubilization and affinity chromatography. Second, the proteome of outer membrane vesicles (OMV) was determined. Comparisons of detected proteins show that these methods have different detection profiles and together provide a comprehensive view of the outer membrane proteome. From 362 proteins identified, 274 (76%) were cell envelope proteins including 64 integral outer membrane proteins and 85 lipoproteins. The majority of these proteins were of unknown function. Among integral outer membrane proteins with homologues of known function, TonB-dependent transporters comprise the largest group. Our data suggest novel functions for these transporters. Among lipoproteins with homologues of known function, proteins with hydrolytic functions comprise the largest group. The luminal load of OMV was enriched for proteins with hydrolytic functions. Our data suggest that OMV have functions in predation and possibly in transfer of intercellular signaling molecules between cells.

  8. Lateral release of proteins from the TOM complex into the outer membrane of mitochondria.

    Harner, Max; Neupert, Walter; Deponte, Marcel

    2011-07-15

    The TOM complex of the outer membrane of mitochondria is the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are imported into the mitochondria. It is made up by receptors and a protein conducting channel. Although precursor proteins of all subcompartments of mitochondria use the TOM complex, it is not known whether its channel can only mediate passage across the outer membrane or also lateral release into the outer membrane. To study this, we have generated fusion proteins of GFP and Tim23 which are inserted into the inner membrane and, at the same time, are spanning either the TOM complex or are integrated into the outer membrane. Our results demonstrate that the TOM complex, depending on sequence determinants in the precursors, can act both as a protein conducting pore and as an insertase mediating lateral release into the outer membrane.

  9. Millisecond single-molecule localization microscopy combined with convolution analysis and automated image segmentation to determine protein concentrations in complexly structured, functional cells, one cell at a time.

    Wollman, Adam J M; Leake, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    We present a single-molecule tool called the CoPro (concentration of proteins) method that uses millisecond imaging with convolution analysis, automated image segmentation and super-resolution localization microscopy to generate robust estimates for protein concentration in different compartments of single living cells, validated using realistic simulations of complex multiple compartment cell types. We demonstrate its utility experimentally on model Escherichia coli bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae budding yeast cells, and use it to address the biological question of how signals are transduced in cells. Cells in all domains of life dynamically sense their environment through signal transduction mechanisms, many involving gene regulation. The glucose sensing mechanism of S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying gene regulatory signal transduction. It uses the multi-copy expression inhibitor of the GAL gene family, Mig1, to repress unwanted genes in the presence of elevated extracellular glucose concentrations. We fluorescently labelled Mig1 molecules with green fluorescent protein (GFP) via chromosomal integration at physiological expression levels in living S. cerevisiae cells, in addition to the RNA polymerase protein Nrd1 with the fluorescent protein reporter mCherry. Using CoPro we make quantitative estimates of Mig1 and Nrd1 protein concentrations in the cytoplasm and nucleus compartments on a cell-by-cell basis under physiological conditions. These estimates indicate a ∼4-fold shift towards higher values in the concentration of diffusive Mig1 in the nucleus if the external glucose concentration is raised, whereas equivalent levels in the cytoplasm shift to smaller values with a relative change an order of magnitude smaller. This compares with Nrd1 which is not involved directly in glucose sensing, and which is almost exclusively localized in the nucleus under high and low external glucose levels. CoPro facilitates time-resolved quantification of

  10. Computer Aided Solution for Automatic Segmenting and Measurements of Blood Leucocytes Using Static Microscope Images.

    Abdulhay, Enas; Mohammed, Mazin Abed; Ibrahim, Dheyaa Ahmed; Arunkumar, N; Venkatraman, V

    2018-02-17

    Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise. We suggest a strategy towards segmentation of blood leucocytes using static microscope images which is a resultant of three prevailing systems of computer vision fiction: enhancing the image, Support vector machine for segmenting the image, and filtering out non ROI (region of interest) on the basis of Local binary patterns and texture features. Every one of these strategies are modified for blood leucocytes division issue, in this manner the subsequent techniques are very vigorous when compared with its individual segments. Eventually, we assess framework based by compare the outcome and manual division. The findings outcome from this study have shown a new approach that automatically segments the blood leucocytes and identify it from a static microscope images. Initially, the method uses a trainable segmentation procedure and trained support vector machine classifier to accurately identify the position of the ROI. After that, filtering out non ROI have proposed based on histogram analysis to avoid the non ROI and chose the right object. Finally, identify the blood leucocytes type using

  11. Segmentation of liver tumors on CT images

    Pescia, D.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to 3D segmentation of liver tumors in CT images. This is a task of great clinical interest since it allows physicians benefiting from reproducible and reliable methods for segmenting such lesions. Accurate segmentation would indeed help them during the evaluation of the lesions, the choice of treatment and treatment planning. Such a complex segmentation task should cope with three main scientific challenges: (i) the highly variable shape of the structures being sought, (ii) their similarity of appearance compared with their surrounding medium and finally (iii) the low signal to noise ratio being observed in these images. This problem is addressed in a clinical context through a two step approach, consisting of the segmentation of the entire liver envelope, before segmenting the tumors which are present within the envelope. We begin by proposing an atlas-based approach for computing pathological liver envelopes. Initially images are pre-processed to compute the envelopes that wrap around binary masks in an attempt to obtain liver envelopes from estimated segmentation of healthy liver parenchyma. A new statistical atlas is then introduced and used to segmentation through its diffeomorphic registration to the new image. This segmentation is achieved through the combination of image matching costs as well as spatial and appearance prior using a multi-scale approach with MRF. The second step of our approach is dedicated to lesions segmentation contained within the envelopes using a combination of machine learning techniques and graph based methods. First, an appropriate feature space is considered that involves texture descriptors being determined through filtering using various scales and orientations. Then, state of the art machine learning techniques are used to determine the most relevant features, as well as the hyper plane that separates the feature space of tumoral voxels to the ones corresponding to healthy tissues. Segmentation is then

  12. Detailed Performance of the Outer Tracker at LHCb

    Tuning, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance in terms of the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. Details on the ionization length and subtle effects regarding signal reflections and the subsequent time-walk correction are given. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um, depending on the detailed implementation of the internal alignment of individual detector modules. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  13. A novel line segment detection algorithm based on graph search

    Zhao, Hong-dan; Liu, Guo-ying; Song, Xu

    2018-02-01

    To overcome the problem of extracting line segment from an image, a method of line segment detection was proposed based on the graph search algorithm. After obtaining the edge detection result of the image, the candidate straight line segments are obtained in four directions. For the candidate straight line segments, their adjacency relationships are depicted by a graph model, based on which the depth-first search algorithm is employed to determine how many adjacent line segments need to be merged. Finally we use the least squares method to fit the detected straight lines. The comparative experimental results verify that the proposed algorithm has achieved better results than the line segment detector (LSD).

  14. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  15. Segmentation, advertising and prices

    Galeotti, Andrea; Moraga González, José

    This paper explores the implications of market segmentation on firm competitiveness. In contrast to earlier work, here market segmentation is minimal in the sense that it is based on consumer attributes that are completely unrelated to tastes. We show that when the market is comprised by two

  16. Sipunculans and segmentation

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral...

  17. Measurements of DT alpha particle loss near the outer midplane of TFTR

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Redi, M.H.; Schivell, J.; White, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of DT alpha particle loss to the outer midplane region of TFTR have been made using a radially movable scintillator detector. The conclusion from this data is that mechanisms determining the DT alpha loss to the outer midplane are not substantially different from those for DD fusion products. Some of these results are compared with a simplified theoretical model for TF ripple-induced alpha loss, which is expected to be the dominant classical alpha loss mechanism near the outer midplane. An example of plasma-driven MHD-induced alpha particle loss is shown, but no signs of any ''collective'' alpha instability-induced alpha loss have yet been observed

  18. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  19. (A new application in segment reporting: IFRS 8)

    Arsoy, Aylin Poroy

    2008-01-01

    IFRS 8 Operating Segments issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) on December 30th, 2006, changes the requirements of segment reporting. IAS 14 will cease to be effective when IFRS 8 will become effective from the beginning of 2009. After then, companies will be required to follow IFRS 8 for their segment reporting purposes. The main difference between IFRS 8 and IAS 14 is the approach that is adopted while determining the reportable segments. Also, it should be mentione...

  20. Segmented Mirror Image Degradation Due to Surface Dust, Alignment and Figure

    Schreur, Julian J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1996 an algorithm was developed to include the effects of surface roughness in the calculation of the point spread function of a telescope mirror. This algorithm has been extended to include the effects of alignment errors and figure errors for the individual elements, and an overall contamination by surface dust. The final algorithm builds an array for a guard-banded pupil function of a mirror that may or may not have a central hole, a central reflecting segment, or an outer ring of segments. The central hole, central reflecting segment, and outer ring may be circular or polygonal, and the outer segments may have trimmed comers. The modeled point spread functions show that x-tilt and y-tilt, or the corresponding R-tilt and theta-tilt for a segment in an outer ring, is readily apparent for maximum wavefront errors of 0.1 lambda. A similar sized piston error is also apparent, but integral wavelength piston errors are not. Severe piston error introduces a focus error of the opposite sign, so piston could be adjusted to compensate for segments with varying focal lengths. Dust affects the image principally by decreasing the Strehl ratio, or peak intensity of the image. For an eight-meter telescope a 25% coverage by dust produced a scattered light intensity of 10(exp -9) of the peak intensity, a level well below detectability.

  1. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. Parallel segmented outlet flow high performance liquid chromatography with multiplexed detection

    Camenzuli, Michelle; Terry, Jessica M.; Shalliker, R. Andrew; Conlan, Xavier A.; Barnett, Neil W.; Francis, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Multiplexed detection for liquid chromatography. •‘Parallel segmented outlet flow’ distributes inner and outer portions of the analyte zone. •Three detectors were used simultaneously for the determination of opiate alkaloids. -- Abstract: We describe a new approach to multiplex detection for HPLC, exploiting parallel segmented outlet flow – a new column technology that provides pressure-regulated control of eluate flow through multiple outlet channels, which minimises the additional dead volume associated with conventional post-column flow splitting. Using three detectors: one UV-absorbance and two chemiluminescence systems (tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) and permanganate), we examine the relative responses for six opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids under conventional and multiplexed conditions, where approximately 30% of the eluate was distributed to each detector and the remaining solution directed to a collection vessel. The parallel segmented outlet flow mode of operation offers advantages in terms of solvent consumption, waste generation, total analysis time and solute band volume when applying multiple detectors to HPLC, but the manner in which each detection system is influenced by changes in solute concentration and solution flow rates must be carefully considered

  3. Parallel segmented outlet flow high performance liquid chromatography with multiplexed detection

    Camenzuli, Michelle [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney (Parramatta), Sydney, NSW (Australia); Terry, Jessica M. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Shalliker, R. Andrew, E-mail: r.shalliker@uws.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science (ACROSS), School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney (Parramatta), Sydney, NSW (Australia); Conlan, Xavier A.; Barnett, Neil W. [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Francis, Paul S., E-mail: paul.francis@deakin.edu.au [Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia)

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Multiplexed detection for liquid chromatography. •‘Parallel segmented outlet flow’ distributes inner and outer portions of the analyte zone. •Three detectors were used simultaneously for the determination of opiate alkaloids. -- Abstract: We describe a new approach to multiplex detection for HPLC, exploiting parallel segmented outlet flow – a new column technology that provides pressure-regulated control of eluate flow through multiple outlet channels, which minimises the additional dead volume associated with conventional post-column flow splitting. Using three detectors: one UV-absorbance and two chemiluminescence systems (tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) and permanganate), we examine the relative responses for six opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids under conventional and multiplexed conditions, where approximately 30% of the eluate was distributed to each detector and the remaining solution directed to a collection vessel. The parallel segmented outlet flow mode of operation offers advantages in terms of solvent consumption, waste generation, total analysis time and solute band volume when applying multiple detectors to HPLC, but the manner in which each detection system is influenced by changes in solute concentration and solution flow rates must be carefully considered.

  4. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  5. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  6. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

  7. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  8. Relationship between macular ganglion cell complex thickness and macular outer retinal thickness: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study.

    Kita, Yoshiyuki; Kita, Ritsuko; Takeyama, Asuka; Anraku, Ayako; Tomita, Goji; Goldberg, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thicknesses. Case-control study. Forty-two normal eyes and 91 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100) was used to measure the macular ganglion cell complex and macular outer retinal thickness. Ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio was also calculated. The relationships between the ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses and between the ganglion cell complex to outer retinal thickness ratio and outer retinal thickness were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between ganglion cell complex and outer retinal thicknesses in the normal group and the glaucoma group (r = 0.53, P variation in the outer retinal thickness. Therefore, when determining the ganglion cell complex, it seems necessary to consider the outer retinal thickness as well. We propose the ratio as a suitable parameter to account for individual variations in outer retinal thickness. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  10. Segmentation of consumer's markets and evaluation of market's segments

    ŠVECOVÁ, Iveta

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to explain a possibly segmentation of consumer´s markets for a chosen company, and to present a suitable goods offer, so it would be suitable to the needs of selected segments. The work is divided into theoretical and practical part. First part describes marketing, segmentation, segmentation of consumer's markets, consumer's market, market's segments a other terms. Second part describes an evaluation of questionnaire survey, discovering of market's segment...

  11. Selected Legal Challenges Relating to the Military use of Outer Space, with Specific Reference to Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty

    Anél Ferreira-Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War the potential use of outer space for military purposes persisted to be intrinsically linked to the development of space technology and space flight. The launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the USSR in 1957 made Western states realise that a surprise attack from space was a real possibility, resulting in the so-called "space-race" between the USA and the USSR. During the Cold War space activities were intrinsically linked to the political objectives, priorities and national security concerns of the USA and the Soviet Union. After the Cold War the political relevance and benefits of space continued to be recognised by states. In view of the recent emergence of new major space powers such as China, the focus has again shifted to the military use of outer space and the potential that a state with advanced space technology may use it for military purposes in order to dominate other states. Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the installation of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in outer space and determines that the moon and other celestial bodies shall be used for peaceful purposes only. Due to the dual-use character of many space assets, the distinction between military and non-military uses of outer space is becoming increasingly blurred. This article discusses a number of legal challenges presented by article IV of the Outer Space Treaty, relating specifically to the term peaceful, the distinction between the terms militarisation and weaponisation and the nature of a space weapon. It is concluded that article IV is in many respects outdated and that it cannot address the current legal issues relating to the military use of outer space. The legal vacuum in this area may have grave consequences not only for maintaining peace and security in outer space, but also on earth. Consequently, an international dialogue on the military uses of outer space should be

  12. High-energy outer radiation belt dynamic modeling

    Chiu, Y.T.; Nightingale, R.W.; Rinaldi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specification of the average high-energy radiation belt environment in terms of phenomenological montages of satellite measurements has been available for some time. However, for many reasons both scientific and applicational (including concerns for a better understanding of the high-energy radiatino background in space), it is desirable to model the dynamic response of the high-energy radiation belts to sources, to losses, and to geomagnetic activity. Indeed, in the outer electron belt, this is the only mode of modeling that can handle the large intensity fluctuations. Anticipating the dynamic modeling objective of the upcoming Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) program, we have undertaken to initiate the study of the various essential elements in constructing a dynamic radiation belt model based on interpretation of satellite data according to simultaneous radial and pitch-angle diffusion theory. In order to prepare for the dynamic radiation belt modeling based on a large data set spanning a relatively large segment of L-values, such as required for CRRES, it is important to study a number of test cases with data of similar characteristics but more restricted in space-time coverage. In this way, models of increasing comprehensiveness can be built up from the experience of elucidating the dynamics of more restrictive data sets. The principal objectives of this paper are to discuss issues concerning dynamic modeling in general and to summarize in particular the good results of an initial attempt at constructing the dynamics of the outer electron radiation belt based on a moderately active data period from Lockheed's SC-3 instrument flown on board the SCATHA (P78-2) spacecraft. Further, we shall discuss the issues brought out and lessons learned in this test case

  13. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  14. The phototransduction machinery in the rod outer segment has a strong efficacy gradient

    Mazzolini, Monica; Facchetti, Giuseppe; Andolfi, Laura; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti; Tuccio, Salvatore; Treud, Johannes; Altafini, Claudio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Lazzarino, Marco; Rapp, Gert; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    with marginal inhomogeneities. To verify this assumption, we developed a methodology based on special tapered optical fibers (TOFs) to deliver highly localized light stimulations. By using these TOFs, specific regions of the rod OS could be stimulated with spots

  15. Segmental tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Hanumanthappa H

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of segmental Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis is reported in 10 year old boy. The condition was resembling the ascending lymphangitic type of sporotrichosis. The lesions cleared on treatment with INH 150 mg daily for 6 months.

  16. Chromosome condensation and segmentation

    Viegas-Pequignot, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of chromosome condensation in mammalians -humans especially- were studied by means of cytogenetic techniques of chromosome banding. Two further approaches were adopted: a study of normal condensation as early as prophase, and an analysis of chromosome segmentation induced by physical (temperature and γ-rays) or chemical agents (base analogues, antibiotics, ...) in order to show out the factors liable to affect condensation. Here 'segmentation' means an abnormal chromosome condensation appearing systematically and being reproducible. The study of normal condensation was made possible by the development of a technique based on cell synchronization by thymidine and giving prophasic and prometaphasic cells. Besides, the possibility of inducing R-banding segmentations on these cells by BrdU (5-bromodeoxyuridine) allowed a much finer analysis of karyotypes. Another technique was developed using 5-ACR (5-azacytidine), it allowed to induce a segmentation similar to the one obtained using BrdU and identify heterochromatic areas rich in G-C bases pairs [fr

  17. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  18. The small angle neutron scattering study on the segmented polyurethane

    Sudirman; Gunawan; Prasetyo, S.M.; Karo Karo, A.; Lahagu, I.M.; Darwinto, Tri

    1999-01-01

    The distance between hard segment (HS) and soft segment (SS) of segmented polyurethane have been determined using the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique. The segmented Polyurethanes (SPU) are linear multiblock copolymers, which include elastomer thermoplastic. SPU consist of hard segment and soft segment, each has tendency to make a group with similar type to form a domain. The soft segments used were polypropylene glycol (PPG) and 4,4 diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), while l,4 butanediol (BD) was used as hard segment. The characteristic of SPU depends on its phase structure which is affected by several factors, such as type of chemical formula and the composition of the HS and SS, solvent as well as the synthesizing process. The samples used in this study were SPU56 and SPU68. Based on the appearance of SANS profile, it was obtained that domain distances are 12.32 nm for the SPU56 and 19 nm for the SPU68. (author)

  19. Fluence map segmentation

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: 'Interpreting' the fluence map; The sequencer; Reasons for difference between desired and actual fluence map; Principle of 'Step and Shoot' segmentation; Large number of solutions for given fluence map; Optimizing 'step and shoot' segmentation; The interdigitation constraint; Main algorithms; Conclusions on segmentation algorithms (static mode); Optimizing intensity levels and monitor units; Sliding window sequencing; Synchronization to avoid the tongue-and-groove effect; Accounting for physical characteristics of MLC; Importance of corrections for leaf transmission and offset; Accounting for MLC mechanical constraints; The 'complexity' factor; Incorporating the sequencing into optimization algorithm; Data transfer to the treatment machine; Interface between R and V and accelerator; and Conclusions on fluence map segmentation (Segmentation is part of the overall inverse planning procedure; 'Step and Shoot' and 'Dynamic' options are available for most TPS (depending on accelerator model; The segmentation phase tends to come into the optimization loop; The physical characteristics of the MLC have a large influence on final dose distribution; The IMRT plans (MU and relative dose distribution) must be carefully validated). (P.A.)

  20. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  1. Strategic market segmentation

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  2. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  3. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  4. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  5. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  6. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  7. ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY: Structural and Functional Analysis Across the Transition Zone Between Healthy and Diseased Retina.

    Duncker, Tobias; Lee, Winston; Jiang, Fan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R; Greenstein, Vivienne C

    2018-01-01

    To assess structure and function across the transition zone (TZ) between relatively healthy and diseased retina in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Six patients (6 eyes; age 22-71 years) with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, color fundus photography, and fundus perimetry were performed and images were registered to each other. The retinal layers of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were segmented and the thicknesses of two outer retinal layers, that is, the total receptor and outer segment plus layers, and the retinal nerve fiber layer were measured. All eyes showed a TZ on multimodal imaging. On spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, the TZ was in the nasal retina at varying distances from the fovea. For all eyes, it was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band, significant thinning of the two outer retinal layers, and in three eyes with thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer. On fundus autofluorescence, all eyes had a clearly demarcated peripapillary area of abnormal fundus autofluorescence delimited by a border of high autofluorescence; the latter was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band and with a change from relatively normal to markedly decreased or nonrecordable visual sensitivity on fundus perimetry. The results of multimodal imaging clarified the TZ in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. The TZ was outlined by a distinct high autofluorescence border that correlated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. However, in fundus areas that seemed healthy on fundus autofluorescence, thinning of the outer retinal layers and thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer were observed near the TZ. The TZ was also characterized by a decrease in visual sensitivity.

  8. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  9. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  10. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  11. Segmented block copolymers with monodisperse aramide end-segments

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block

  12. DETECTION OF CANCEROUS LESION BY UTERINE CERVIX IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    P. Priya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper works at segmentation of lesion observed in cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The purpose of segmentation is to determine the location for a biopsy to be taken for diagnosis. Cervix cancer is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the tissues of the cervix. The acetowhite region is a major indicator of abnormality in the cervix image. This project addresses the problem of segmenting uterine cervix image into different regions. We analyze two algorithms namely Watershed, K-means clustering algorithm, Expectation Maximization (EM Image Segmentation algorithm. These segmentations methods are carried over for the colposcopic uterine cervix image.

  13. A POSSIBLE EXTENSION OF THE SCUTUM-CENTAURUS ARM INTO THE OUTER SECOND QUADRANT

    Sun, Yan; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Li, Fa-Cheng; Du, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Shao-Bo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: yansun@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2015-01-10

    Combining H I data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and CO data from the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting project, we have identified a new segment of a spiral arm between Galactocentric radii of 15 and 19 kpc that apparently lies beyond the Outer Arm in the second Galactic quadrant. Over most of its length, the arm is 400-600 pc thick in z. The new arm appears to be the extension of the distant arm recently discovered by Dame and Thaddeus as well as the Scutum-Centaurus Arm into the outer second quadrant. Our current survey identified a total of 72 molecular clouds with masses on the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} that probably lie in the new arm. When all of the available data from the CO molecular clouds are fit, the best-fitting spiral model gives a pitch angle of 9.°3 ± 0.°7.

  14. Scorpion image segmentation system

    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  15. Skin Segmentation Based on Graph Cuts

    HU Zhilan; WANG Guijin; LIN Xinggang; YAN Hong

    2009-01-01

    Skin segmentation is widely used in many computer vision tasks to improve automated visualiza-tion. This paper presents a graph cuts algorithm to segment arbitrary skin regions from images. The detected face is used to determine the foreground skin seeds and the background non-skin seeds with the color probability distributions for the foreground represented by a single Gaussian model and for the background by a Gaussian mixture model. The probability distribution of the image is used for noise suppression to alle-viate the influence of the background regions having skin-like colors. Finally, the skin is segmented by graph cuts, with the regional parameter y optimally selected to adapt to different images. Tests of the algorithm on many real wodd photographs show that the scheme accurately segments skin regions and is robust against illumination variations, individual skin variations, and cluttered backgrounds.

  16. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  17. Segmentation of complex document

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  18. Connecting textual segments

    Brügger, Niels

    2017-01-01

    history than just the years of the emergence of the web, the chapter traces the history of how segments of text have deliberately been connected to each other by the use of specific textual and media features, from clay tablets, manuscripts on parchment, and print, among others, to hyperlinks on stand......In “Connecting textual segments: A brief history of the web hyperlink” Niels Brügger investigates the history of one of the most fundamental features of the web: the hyperlink. Based on the argument that the web hyperlink is best understood if it is seen as another step in a much longer and broader...

  19. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  20. Market Segmentation in Business Technology Base: The Case of Segmentation of Sparkling

    Valéria Riscarolli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A common market segmentation premise for products and services rules consumer behavior as the segmentation center piece. Would this be the logic for segmentation used by small technology based companies? In this article we target at determining the principles of market segmentation used by a vitiwinery company, as research object. This company is recognized by its products excellence, either in domestic as well as in the foreign market, among 13 distinct countries. The research method used is a case study, through information from the company’s CEOs and crossed by primary information from observation and formal registries and documents of the company. In this research we look at sparkling wines market segmentation. Main results indicate that the winery studied considers only technological elements as the basis to build a market segment. One may conclude that a market segmentation for this company is based upon technological dominion of sparkling wines production, aligned with a premium-price policy. In the company, directorship believes that as sparkling wines market is still incipient in the country, sparkling wine market segments will form and consolidate after the evolution of consumers tasting preferences, depending on technologies that boost sparkling wines quality. 

  1. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  2. Inner and Outer Life at Work

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human...... development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work...

  3. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  4. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  5. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Bruyneel, B.

    2006-01-01

    γ-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple γ-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics. The results are

  6. A NDVI assisted remote sensing image adaptive scale segmentation method

    Zhang, Hong; Shen, Jinxiang; Ma, Yanmei

    2018-03-01

    Multiscale segmentation of images can effectively form boundaries of different objects with different scales. However, for the remote sensing image which widely coverage with complicated ground objects, the number of suitable segmentation scales, and each of the scale size is still difficult to be accurately determined, which severely restricts the rapid information extraction of the remote sensing image. A great deal of experiments showed that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can effectively express the spectral characteristics of a variety of ground objects in remote sensing images. This paper presents a method using NDVI assisted adaptive segmentation of remote sensing images, which segment the local area by using NDVI similarity threshold to iteratively select segmentation scales. According to the different regions which consist of different targets, different segmentation scale boundaries could be created. The experimental results showed that the adaptive segmentation method based on NDVI can effectively create the objects boundaries for different ground objects of remote sensing images.

  7. Segmentation in cinema perception.

    Carroll, J M; Bever, T G

    1976-03-12

    Viewers perceptually segment moving picture sequences into their cinematically defined units: excerpts that follow short film sequences are recognized faster when the excerpt originally came after a structural cinematic break (a cut or change in the action) than when it originally came before the break.

  8. Dictionary Based Image Segmentation

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Dahl, Vedrana Andersen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for weakly supervised segmentation of natural images, which may contain both textured or non-textured regions. Our texture representation is based on a dictionary of image patches. To divide an image into separated regions with similar texture we use an implicit level sets...

  9. Unsupervised Image Segmentation

    Haindl, Michal; Mikeš, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2014), s. 23-23 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : unsupervised image segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/haindl-0434412.pdf

  10. Metrics for image segmentation

    Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise

    1998-07-01

    An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.

  11. Multicenter reliability of semiautomatic retinal layer segmentation using OCT

    Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Traber, Ghislaine L.; Lukas, Sebastian; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Nolan, Rachel; Songster, Christopher; Balk, Lisanne; Petzold, Axel; Paul, Friedemann; Villoslada, Pablo; Brandt, Alexander U.; Green, Ari J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of semiautomated segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular volume scans. Methods Macular OCT volume scans of left eyes from 17 subjects (8 patients with MS and 9 healthy controls) were automatically segmented by Heidelberg Eye Explorer (v1.9.3.0) beta-software (Spectralis Viewing Module v6.0.0.7), followed by manual correction by 5 experienced operators from 5 different academic centers. The mean thicknesses within a 6-mm area around the fovea were computed for the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer, outer plexiform layer (OPL), and outer nuclear layer (ONL). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for mean layer thickness values. Spatial distribution of ICC values for the segmented volume scans was investigated using heat maps. Results Agreement between raters was good (ICC > 0.84) for all retinal layers, particularly inner retinal layers showed excellent agreement across raters (ICC > 0.96). Spatial distribution of ICC showed highest values in the perimacular area, whereas the ICCs were poorer for the foveola and the more peripheral macular area. The automated segmentation of the OPL and ONL required the most correction and showed the least agreement, whereas differences were less prominent for the remaining layers. Conclusions Automated segmentation with manual correction of macular OCT scans is highly reliable when performed by experienced raters and can thus be applied in multicenter settings. Reliability can be improved by restricting analysis to the perimacular area and compound segmentation of GCL and IPL. PMID:29552598

  12. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  13. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  14. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  15. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  16. Dynamical limits on dark mass in the outer solar system

    Hogg, D.W.; Quinlan, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified model solar systems with known observational errors are considered in conducting a dynamical search for dark mass and its minimum detectable amount, and in determining the significance of observed anomalies. The numerical analysis of the dynamical influence of dark mass on the orbits of outer planets and comets is presented in detail. Most conclusions presented are based on observations of the four giant planets where the observational errors in latitude and longitude are independent Gaussian variables with a standard deviation. Neptune's long orbital period cannot be predicted by modern ephemerides, and no evidence of dark mass is found in considering this planet. Studying the improvement in fit when observations are fitted to models that consider dark mass is found to be an efficient way to detect dark mass. Planet X must have a mass of more than about 10 times the minimum detectable mass to locate the hypothetical planet. It is suggested that the IRAS survey would have already located the Planet X if it is so massive and close that it dynamically influences the outer planets. Orbital residuals from comets are found to be more effective than those from planets in detecting the Kuiper belt. 35 refs

  17. Automatic lung segmentation in the presence of alveolar collapse

    Noshadi Areg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung ventilation and perfusion analyses using chest imaging methods require a correct segmentation of the lung to offer anatomical landmarks for the physiological data. An automatic segmentation approach simplifies and accelerates the analysis. However, the segmentation of the lungs has shown to be difficult if collapsed areas are present that tend to share similar gray values with surrounding non-pulmonary tissue. Our goal was to develop an automatic segmentation algorithm that is able to approximate dorsal lung boundaries even if alveolar collapse is present in the dependent lung areas adjacent to the pleura. Computed tomography data acquired in five supine pigs with injured lungs were used for this purpose. First, healthy lung tissue was segmented using a standard 3D region growing algorithm. Further, the bones in the chest wall surrounding the lungs were segmented to find the contact points of ribs and pleura. Artificial boundaries of the dorsal lung were set by spline interpolation through these contact points. Segmentation masks of the entire lung including the collapsed regions were created by combining the splines with the segmentation masks of the healthy lung tissue through multiple morphological operations. The automatically segmented images were then evaluated by comparing them to manual segmentations and determining the Dice similarity coefficients (DSC as a similarity measure. The developed method was able to accurately segment the lungs including the collapsed regions (DSCs over 0.96.

  18. Multifractal-based nuclei segmentation in fish images.

    Reljin, Nikola; Slavkovic-Ilic, Marijeta; Tapia, Coya; Cihoric, Nikola; Stankovic, Srdjan

    2017-09-01

    The method for nuclei segmentation in fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) images, based on the inverse multifractal analysis (IMFA) is proposed. From the blue channel of the FISH image in RGB format, the matrix of Holder exponents, with one-by-one correspondence with the image pixels, is determined first. The following semi-automatic procedure is proposed: initial nuclei segmentation is performed automatically from the matrix of Holder exponents by applying predefined hard thresholding; then the user evaluates the result and is able to refine the segmentation by changing the threshold, if necessary. After successful nuclei segmentation, the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) scoring can be determined in usual way: by counting red and green dots within segmented nuclei, and finding their ratio. The IMFA segmentation method is tested over 100 clinical cases, evaluated by skilled pathologist. Testing results show that the new method has advantages compared to already reported methods.

  19. Status of the segment interconnect, cable segment ancillary logic, and the cable segment hybrid driver projects

    Swoboda, C.; Barsotti, E.; Chappa, S.; Downing, R.; Goeransson, G.; Lensy, D.; Moore, G.; Rotolo, C.; Urish, J.

    1985-01-01

    The FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. In particular, the Segment Interconnect links a backplane crate segment to a cable segment. All standard FASTBUS address and data transactions can be passed through the SI or any number of SIs and segments in a path. Thus systems of arbitrary connection complexity can be formed, allowing simultaneous independent processing, yet still permitting devices associated with one segment to be accessed from others. The model S1 Segment Interconnect and the Cable Segment Ancillary Logic covered in this report comply with all the mandatory features stated in the FASTBUS specification document DOE/ER-0189. A block diagram of the SI is shown

  20. Synthesis of Poly(vinyl ether) Thermoplastic Elastomers Having Functional Soft Segments

    今枝, 嗣人; 漆崎, 美智遠; 阪口, 壽一; 橋本, 保; Tsuguto, IMAEDA; Michio, URUSHISAKI; Toshikazu, SAKAGUCHI; Tamotsu, HASHIMOTO

    2013-01-01

    The ABA-type triblock copolymers consisting of poly(2-adarnantyl vinyl ether) [poly(2-AdVE) as outer hard segments and poly(6-acetoxyhexyl vinyl ether) [poly(AcHVE)] poly(6-hydroxyhexyl vinyl ether) [poly(H HVE)], or poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl vinyl ether [poly(MOEOVE)] as inner soft segments were synthesized by sequential living cationic polymerization. Despite the presence of polar functional groups such as ester, hydroxy, and oxyethylene units in their soft segments, the two polymer seg...

  1. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  2. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    Olson, R.E.; Thumim, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  3. The hydrodynamics of segmented two-phase flow in a circular tube with rapidly dissolving drops.

    Leary, Thomas F; Ramachandran, Arun

    2017-05-03

    This article discusses boundary integral simulations of dissolving drops flowing through a cylindrical tube for large aspect ratio drops. The dynamics of drop dissolution is determined by three dimensionless parameters: λ, the viscosity of the drop fluid relative to the suspending fluid; Ca, the capillary number defining the ratio of the hydrodynamic force to the interfacial tension force; and k, a dissolution constant based on the velocity of dissolution. For a single dissolving drop, the velocity in the upstream region is greater than the downstream region, and for sufficiently large k, the downstream velocity can be completely reversed, particularly at low Ca. The upstream end of the drop travels faster and experiences greater deformation than the downstream end. The film thickness, δ, between the drop and the tube wall is governed by a delicate balance between dissolution and changes in the outer fluid velocity resulting from a fixed pressure drop across the tube and mass continuity. Therefore, δ, and consequently, the drop average velocity, can increase, decrease or be relatively invariant in time. For two drops flowing in succession, while low Ca drops maintain a nearly constant separation distance during dissolution, at sufficiently large Ca, for all values of k, dissolution increases the separation distance between drops. Under these conditions, the liquid segments between two adjacent drops can no longer be considered as constant volume stirred tanks. These results will guide the choices of geometry and operating parameters that will facilitate the characterization of fast gas-liquid reactions via two-phase segmented flows.

  4. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  5. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth close-quote s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.copyright 1997 American Geophysical Union

  6. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  7. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  8. Video segmentation using keywords

    Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet

    2018-04-01

    At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.

  9. Market segmentation in behavioral perspective.

    Wells, V.K.; Chang, S.W.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; Pallister, J.

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847 consumers and from a total of 76,682 individual purchases, brand choice and price and reinforcement responsiveness were assessed for each segment a...

  10. Assessment of the Effect of Intestinal Permeability Probes (Lactulose And Mannitol) and Other Liquids on Digesta Residence Times in Various Segments of the Gut Determined by Wireless Motility Capsule: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D

    2015-01-01

    Whilst the use of the mannitol/lactulose test for intestinal permeability has been long established it is not known whether the doses of these sugars modify transit time Similarly it is not known whether substances such as aspirin that are known to increase intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol and those such as ascorbic acid which are stated to be beneficial to gastrointestinal health also influence intestinal transit time. Gastric and intestinal transit times were determined with a SmartPill following consumption of either a lactulose mannitol solution, a solution containing 600 mg aspirin, a solution containing 500 mg of ascorbic acid or an extract of blackcurrant, and compared by doubly repeated measures ANOVA with those following consumption of the same volume of a control in a cross-over study in six healthy female volunteers. The dominant frequencies of cyclic variations in gastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill were determined by fast Fourier transforms. The gastric transit times of lactulose mannitol solutions, of aspirin solutions and of blackcurrant juice did not differ from those of the control. The gastric transit times of the ascorbic acid solutions were significantly shorter than those of the other solutions. There were no significant differences between the various solutions either in the total small intestinal or colonic transit times. The intraluminal pHs during the initial quartiles of the small intestinal transit times were lower than those in the succeeding quartiles. This pattern did not vary with the solution that was consumed. The power of the frequencies of cyclic variation in intragastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill declined exponentially with increase in frequency and did not peak at the reported physiological frequencies of gastric contractile activity. Whilst the segmental residence times were broadly similar to those using other methods, the high degree of variation between subjects generally precluded the

  11. Assessment of the Effect of Intestinal Permeability Probes (Lactulose And Mannitol and Other Liquids on Digesta Residence Times in Various Segments of the Gut Determined by Wireless Motility Capsule: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Ivana R Sequeira

    Full Text Available Whilst the use of the mannitol/lactulose test for intestinal permeability has been long established it is not known whether the doses of these sugars modify transit time Similarly it is not known whether substances such as aspirin that are known to increase intestinal permeability to lactulose and mannitol and those such as ascorbic acid which are stated to be beneficial to gastrointestinal health also influence intestinal transit time.Gastric and intestinal transit times were determined with a SmartPill following consumption of either a lactulose mannitol solution, a solution containing 600 mg aspirin, a solution containing 500 mg of ascorbic acid or an extract of blackcurrant, and compared by doubly repeated measures ANOVA with those following consumption of the same volume of a control in a cross-over study in six healthy female volunteers. The dominant frequencies of cyclic variations in gastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill were determined by fast Fourier transforms.The gastric transit times of lactulose mannitol solutions, of aspirin solutions and of blackcurrant juice did not differ from those of the control. The gastric transit times of the ascorbic acid solutions were significantly shorter than those of the other solutions. There were no significant differences between the various solutions either in the total small intestinal or colonic transit times. The intraluminal pHs during the initial quartiles of the small intestinal transit times were lower than those in the succeeding quartiles. This pattern did not vary with the solution that was consumed. The power of the frequencies of cyclic variation in intragastric pressure recorded by the Smartpill declined exponentially with increase in frequency and did not peak at the reported physiological frequencies of gastric contractile activity.Whilst the segmental residence times were broadly similar to those using other methods, the high degree of variation between subjects generally

  12. Segmenting the Adult Education Market.

    Aurand, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Describes market segmentation and how the principles of segmentation can be applied to the adult education market. Indicates that applying segmentation techniques to adult education programs results in programs that are educationally and financially satisfying and serve an appropriate population. (JOW)

  13. Market Segmentation for Information Services.

    Halperin, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…

  14. Microbial Morphology and Motility as Biosignatures for Outer Planet Missions

    Nadeau, Jay; Lindensmith, Chris; Deming, Jody W.; Fernandez, Vicente I.; Stocker, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Meaningful motion is an unambiguous biosignature, but because life in the Solar System is most likely to be microbial, the question is whether such motion may be detected effectively on the micrometer scale. Recent results on microbial motility in various Earth environments have provided insight into the physics and biology that determine whether and how microorganisms as small as bacteria and archaea swim, under which conditions, and at which speeds. These discoveries have not yet been reviewed in an astrobiological context. This paper discusses these findings in the context of Earth analog environments and environments expected to be encountered in the outer Solar System, particularly the jovian and saturnian moons. We also review the imaging technologies capable of recording motility of submicrometer-sized organisms and discuss how an instrument would interface with several types of sample-collection strategies.

  15. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa.

  16. Defects in the outer limiting membrane are associated with rosette development in the Nrl-/- retina.

    Michael W Stuck

    Full Text Available The neural retinal leucine zipper (Nrl knockout mouse is a widely used model to study cone photoreceptor development, physiology, and molecular biology in the absence of rods. In the Nrl(-/- retina, rods are converted into functional cone-like cells. The Nrl(-/- retina is characterized by large undulations of the outer nuclear layer (ONL commonly known as rosettes. Here we explore the mechanism of rosette development in the Nrl(-/- retina. We report that rosettes first appear at postnatal day (P8, and that the structure of nascent rosettes is morphologically distinct from what is seen in the adult retina. The lumen of these nascent rosettes contains a population of aberrant cells protruding into the subretinal space that induce infolding of the ONL. Morphologically adult rosettes do not contain any cell bodies and are first detected at P15. The cells found in nascent rosettes are photoreceptors in origin but lack inner and outer segments. We show that the adherens junctions between photoreceptors and Müller glia which comprise the retinal outer limiting membrane (OLM are not uniformly formed in the Nrl(-/- retina and thus allow protrusion of a population of developing photoreceptors into the subretinal space where their maturation becomes delayed. These data suggest that the rosettes of the Nrl(-/- retina arise due to defects in the OLM and delayed maturation of a subset of photoreceptors, and that rods may play an important role in the proper formation of the OLM.

  17. Determining

    Bahram Andarzian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat production in the south of Khuzestan, Iran is constrained by heat stress for late sowing dates. For optimization of yield, sowing at the appropriate time to fit the cultivar maturity length and growing season is critical. Crop models could be used to determine optimum sowing window for a locality. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the Cropping System Model (CSM-CERES-Wheat for its ability to simulate growth, development, grain yield of wheat in the tropical regions of Iran, and to study the impact of different sowing dates on wheat performance. The genetic coefficients of cultivar Chamran were calibrated for the CSM-CERES-Wheat model and crop model performance was evaluated with experimental data. Wheat cultivar Chamran was sown on different dates, ranging from 5 November to 9 January during 5 years of field experiments that were conducted in the Khuzestan province, Iran, under full and deficit irrigation conditions. The model was run for 8 sowing dates starting on 25 October and repeated every 10 days until 5 January using long-term historical weather data from the Ahvaz, Behbehan, Dezful and Izeh locations. The seasonal analysis program of DSSAT was used to determine the optimum sowing window for different locations as well. Evaluation with the experimental data showed that performance of the model was reasonable as indicated by fairly accurate simulation of crop phenology, biomass accumulation and grain yield against measured data. The normalized RMSE were 3%, 2%, 11.8%, and 3.4% for anthesis date, maturity date, grain yield and biomass, respectively. Optimum sowing window was different among locations. It was opened and closed on 5 November and 5 December for Ahvaz; 5 November and 15 December for Behbehan and Dezful;and 1 November and 15 December for Izeh, respectively. CERES-Wheat model could be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on wheat performance in Khuzestan conditions. Further model evaluations

  18. Photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band integrity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Saxena S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandeep Saxena,1 Khushboo Srivastav,1 Chui M Cheung,2 Joanne YW Ng,3 Timothy YY Lai3 1Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, King George’s Medical University Lucknow, India; 2Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional imaging of the macula has conventionally been resolved into four bands. However, some doubts were raised regarding authentication of the existence of these bands. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that the second band appeared to originate from the inner segment ellipsoids of the foveal cone photoreceptors, and therefore the previously called inner segment-outer segment junction is now referred to as inner segment ellipsoidband. Photoreceptor dysfunction may be a significant predictor of visual acuity in a spectrum of surgical and medical retinal diseases. This review aims to provide an overview and summarizes the role of the photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoid band in the management and prognostication of various vitreoretinal diseases. Keywords: spectral domain optical coherence tomography, inner segment-outer segment junction, external limiting membrane, macular hole, diabetic macular edema, age relate macular degeneration

  19. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 5. Program logic manual

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. This volume is the Programmer's Manual. It covers: a system overview, attractiveness component of gravity model, trip-distribution component of gravity model, economic-effects model, and the consumer-surplus model. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism.

  20. 76 FR 20367 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware...

    2011-04-12

    ... No. BOEM-2011-0008] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... determination that no competitive interest exists in acquiring a commercial wind lease in the area offshore... a Request for Interest (RFI) in the Federal Register on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21653). Bluewater Wind...

  1. Frequency response for electromotility of isolated outer hair cells of the guinea pig

    Wit, HP; vanDijk, P; Segenhout, HM

    1996-01-01

    Frequency and impulse responses were determined for isolated guinea pig outer hair cells by electrically stimulating the cells between two wire electrodes with white noise. Cells were attached to the bottom of a small culture dish at one end while the other end was freely moving. Results have the

  2. Prediction Model of the Outer Radiation Belt Developed by Chungbuk National University

    Dae-Kyu Shin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s outer radiation belt often suffers from drastic changes in the electron fluxes. Since the electrons can be a potential threat to satellites, efforts have long been made to model and predict electron flux variations. In this paper, we describe a prediction model for the outer belt electrons that we have recently developed at Chungbuk National University. The model is based on a one-dimensional radial diffusion equation with observationally determined specifications of a few major ingredients in the following way. First, the boundary condition of the outer edge of the outer belt is specified by empirical functions that we determine using the THEMIS satellite observations of energetic electrons near the boundary. Second, the plasmapause locations are specified by empirical functions that we determine using the electron density data of THEMIS. Third, the model incorporates the local acceleration effect by chorus waves into the one-dimensional radial diffusion equation. We determine this chorus acceleration effect by first obtaining an empirical formula of chorus intensity as a function of drift shell parameter L*, incorporating it as a source term in the one-dimensional diffusion equation, and lastly calibrating the term to best agree with observations of a certain interval. We present a comparison of the model run results with and without the chorus acceleration effect, demonstrating that the chorus effect has been incorporated into the model to a reasonable degree.

  3. Fast globally optimal segmentation of cells in fluorescence microscopy images.

    Bergeest, Jan-Philip; Rohr, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and efficient segmentation of cells in fluorescence microscopy images is of central importance for the quantification of protein expression in high-throughput screening applications. We propose a new approach for segmenting cell nuclei which is based on active contours and convex energy functionals. Compared to previous work, our approach determines the global solution. Thus, the approach does not suffer from local minima and the segmentation result does not depend on the initialization. We also suggest a numeric approach for efficiently computing the solution. The performance of our approach has been evaluated using fluorescence microscopy images of different cell types. We have also performed a quantitative comparison with previous segmentation approaches.

  4. AUTOMATIC MULTILEVEL IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON FUZZY REASONING

    Liang Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An automatic multilevel image segmentation method based on sup-star fuzzy reasoning (SSFR is presented. Using the well-known sup-star fuzzy reasoning technique, the proposed algorithm combines the global statistical information implied in the histogram with the local information represented by the fuzzy sets of gray-levels, and aggregates all the gray-levels into several classes characterized by the local maximum values of the histogram. The presented method has the merits of determining the number of the segmentation classes automatically, and avoiding to calculating thresholds of segmentation. Emulating and real image segmentation experiments demonstrate that the SSFR is effective.

  5. Albedo estimation for scene segmentation

    Lee, C H; Rosenfeld, A

    1983-03-01

    Standard methods of image segmentation do not take into account the three-dimensional nature of the underlying scene. For example, histogram-based segmentation tacitly assumes that the image intensity is piecewise constant, and this is not true when the scene contains curved surfaces. This paper introduces a method of taking 3d information into account in the segmentation process. The image intensities are adjusted to compensate for the effects of estimated surface orientation; the adjusted intensities can be regarded as reflectivity estimates. When histogram-based segmentation is applied to these new values, the image is segmented into parts corresponding to surfaces of constant reflectivity in the scene. 7 references.

  6. Application of fire-retardant treatment to the wood in Type A unirradiated nuclear fuel outer containers

    Whitlow, J.D.; Luna, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Packagings for transporting unirradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in the United States are commonly constructed as rectangular boxes consisting of a metal inner container, a wooden outer container, and cushioning material separating the two. The wood in the outer container is a potential source of fuel for fire. Use of a fire-retardant treatment on the wood may reduce or eliminate the damage to nuclear fuel assemblies in some types of accidents involving fire. The applicability of using fire-retardant treatments on the wood of outer containers is addressed. An approximate cost-benefit analysis to determine if fire-retardant treatments are economically justified is presented. (Author)

  7. Power ramp tests of high burnup BWR segment rods

    Hayashi, H.; Etoh, Y.; Tsukuda, Y.; Shimada, S.; Sakurai, H.

    2002-01-01

    Lead use assemblies (LUAs) of high burnup 8x8 fuel design for Japanese BWRs were irradiated up to 5 cycles in Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station No. 2 Unit. Segment rods were installed in LUAs and used for power ramp tests in Japanese Material Test Reactor (JMTR). Post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of segment rods were carried out at Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. before and after ramp tests. Maximum linear heat rates of LUAs were kept above 300 W/cm in the first cycle, above 250 W/cm in the second and third cycles and decreased to 200 W/cm in the fourth cycle and 80 W/cm in the fifth cycle. The integrity of high burnup 8x8 fuel was confirmed up to the bundle burnup of 48 GWd/t after 5 cycles of irradiation. Systematic and high quality data were collected through detailed PIEs. The main results are as follows. The oxide on the outer surface of cladding tubes was uniform and its thickness was less than 20 micro-meter after 5 cycles of irradiation and was almost independent of burnup. Hydrogen contents in cladding tubes were less than 150 ppm after 5 cycles of irradiation, although hydrogen contents increased during the fourth and fifth irradiation cycles. Mechanical properties of cladding tubes were on the extrapolated line of previous data up to 5 cycles of irradiation. Fission gas release rates were in the low level (mainly less than 6%) up to 5 cycles of irradiation due to the design to decrease pellet temperature. Pellet-cladding bonding layers were observed after the third cycle and almost full bonding was observed after the fifth cycle. Pellet volume increased with burnup in proportion to solid swelling rate up to the forth cycle. After the fifth cycle, slightly higher pellet swelling was confirmed. Power ramp tests were carried out and satisfactory performance of Zr-lined cladding tube was confirmed up to 60 GWd/t (segment average burnup). One segment rod irradiated for 3 cycles failed by a single step ramp test at terminal ramp power of 614 W

  8. TIGRESS highly-segmented high-purity germanium clover detector

    Scraggs, H. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Hackman, G.; Smith, M. B.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Boston, A. J.; Bricault, P.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Cowan, N.; Cronkhite, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Leslie, J. R.; Martin, J.-P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Phillips, A. A.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.; Zimmerman, L.

    2005-05-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) will consist of twelve units of four high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals in a common cryostat. The outer contacts of each crystal will be divided into four quadrants and two lateral segments for a total of eight outer contacts. The performance of a prototype HPGe four-crystal unit has been investigated. Integrated noise spectra for all contacts were measured. Energy resolutions, relative efficiencies for both individual crystals and for the entire unit, and peak-to-total ratios were measured with point-like sources. Position-dependent performance was measured by moving a collimated source across the face of the detector.

  9. FRAMEWORK FOR COMPARING SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS

    G. Sithole

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a ‘Best’ segmentation does not exist. A segmentation algorithm is chosen based on the features it yields, the properties of the segments (point sets it generates, and the complexity of its algorithm. The segmentation is then assessed based on a variety of metrics such as homogeneity, heterogeneity, fragmentation, etc. Even after an algorithm is chosen its performance is still uncertain because the landscape/scenarios represented in a point cloud have a strong influence on the eventual segmentation. Thus selecting an appropriate segmentation algorithm is a process of trial and error. Automating the selection of segmentation algorithms and their parameters first requires methods to evaluate segmentations. Three common approaches for evaluating segmentation algorithms are ‘goodness methods’, ‘discrepancy methods’ and ‘benchmarks’. Benchmarks are considered the most comprehensive method of evaluation. This paper shortcomings in current benchmark methods are identified and a framework is proposed that permits both a visual and numerical evaluation of segmentations for different algorithms, algorithm parameters and evaluation metrics. The concept of the framework is demonstrated on a real point cloud. Current results are promising and suggest that it can be used to predict the performance of segmentation algorithms.

  10. Segmentation in reading and film comprehension.

    Zacks, Jeffrey M; Speer, Nicole K; Reynolds, Jeremy R

    2009-05-01

    When reading a story or watching a film, comprehenders construct a series of representations in order to understand the events depicted. Discourse comprehension theories and a recent theory of perceptual event segmentation both suggest that comprehenders monitor situational features such as characters' goals, to update these representations at natural boundaries in activity. However, the converging predictions of these theories had previously not been tested directly. Two studies provided evidence that changes in situational features such as characters, their locations, their interactions with objects, and their goals are related to the segmentation of events in both narrative texts and films. A 3rd study indicated that clauses with event boundaries are read more slowly than are other clauses and that changes in situational features partially mediate this relation. A final study suggested that the predictability of incoming information influences reading rate and possibly event segmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that processing situational changes during comprehension is an important determinant of how one segments ongoing activity into events and that this segmentation is related to the control of processing during reading. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Optimally segmented magnetic structures

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bahl, Christian; Bjørk, Rasmus

    We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... is not available.We will illustrate the results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as electric motors/generators (as the example in the picture), beam focusing for particle accelerators and magnetic refrigeration devices.......We present a semi-analytical algorithm for magnet design problems, which calculates the optimal way to subdivide a given design region into uniformly magnetized segments.The availability of powerful rare-earth magnetic materials such as Nd-Fe-B has broadened the range of applications of permanent...... magnets[1][2]. However, the powerful rare-earth magnets are generally expensive, so both the scientific and industrial communities have devoted a lot of effort into developing suitable design methods. Even so, many magnet optimization algorithms either are based on heuristic approaches[3...

  13. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  14. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  15. Outer space and nuclear deterrence: problems and prospects

    Gasparini Alves, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation deals with the role of outer-space applications and prospects for near future developments in nuclear deterrence. Outer space capabilities of United Sates, Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, and United Kingdom as well as other states are analyzed. Conceptual problems of offensive and defensive doctrines are reviewed together with legal implications

  16. Long-Lived Glass Mirrors For Outer Space

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.; Heggen, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Paper summarizes available knowledge about glass mirrors for use in outer space. Strengths and weaknesses of various types of first and second reflective surfaces identified. Second-surface glass mirrors used in outer space designed to different criteria more stringent for terrestrial mirrors. Protons, electrons, cosmic rays, meteorites, and orbiting space debris affect longevities of components. Contamination also factor in space.

  17. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  18. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Thomas Kieselbach

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT and leukotoxin (LtxA into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease.

  19. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  20. Phasing multi-segment undulators

    Chavanne, J.; Elleaume, P.; Vaerenbergh, P. Van

    1996-01-01

    An important issue in the manufacture of multi-segment undulators as a source of synchrotron radiation or as a free-electron laser (FEL) is the phasing between successive segments. The state of the art is briefly reviewed, after which a novel pure permanent magnet phasing section that is passive and does not require any current is presented. The phasing section allows the introduction of a 6 mm longitudinal gap between each segment, resulting in complete mechanical independence and reduced magnetic interaction between segments. The tolerance of the longitudinal positioning of one segment with respect to the next is found to be 2.8 times lower than that of conventional phasing. The spectrum at all gaps and useful harmonics is almost unchanged when compared with a single-segment undulator of the same total length. (au) 3 refs

  1. The LOFT Ground Segment

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  2. Segmented heat exchanger

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  3. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  4. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  5. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  6. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  7. ADVANCED CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    D. Kesavaraja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents efficient and portable implementations of a useful image segmentation technique which makes use of the faster and a variant of the conventional connected components algorithm which we call parallel Components. In the Modern world majority of the doctors are need image segmentation as the service for various purposes and also they expect this system is run faster and secure. Usually Image segmentation Algorithms are not working faster. In spite of several ongoing researches in Conventional Segmentation and its Algorithms might not be able to run faster. So we propose a cluster computing environment for parallel image Segmentation to provide faster result. This paper is the real time implementation of Distributed Image Segmentation in Clustering of Nodes. We demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of our method on a set of Medical CT Scan Images. Our general framework is a single address space, distributed memory programming model. We use efficient techniques for distributing and coalescing data as well as efficient combinations of task and data parallelism. The image segmentation algorithm makes use of an efficient cluster process which uses a novel approach for parallel merging. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical analysis and practical results. It provides the faster execution time for segmentation, when compared with Conventional method. Our test data is different CT scan images from the Medical database. More efficient implementations of Image Segmentation will likely result in even faster execution times.

  8. Enhanced Visualization of Subtle Outer Retinal Pathology by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation with Multi-Modal Imaging.

    Danuta M Sampson

    Full Text Available To present en face optical coherence tomography (OCT images generated by graph-search theory algorithm-based custom software and examine correlation with other imaging modalities.En face OCT images derived from high density OCT volumetric scans of 3 healthy subjects and 4 patients using a custom algorithm (graph-search theory and commercial software (Heidelberg Eye Explorer software (Heidelberg Engineering were compared and correlated with near infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO and microperimetry.Commercial software was unable to generate accurate en face OCT images in eyes with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE pathology due to segmentation error at the level of Bruch's membrane (BM. Accurate segmentation of the basal RPE and BM was achieved using custom software. The en face OCT images from eyes with isolated interdigitation or ellipsoid zone pathology were of similar quality between custom software and Heidelberg Eye Explorer software in the absence of any other significant outer retinal pathology. En face OCT images demonstrated angioid streaks, lesions of acute macular neuroretinopathy, hydroxychloroquine toxicity and Bietti crystalline deposits that correlated with other imaging modalities.Graph-search theory algorithm helps to overcome the limitations of outer retinal segmentation inaccuracies in commercial software. En face OCT images can provide detailed topography of the reflectivity within a specific layer of the retina which correlates with other forms of fundus imaging. Our results highlight the need for standardization of image reflectivity to facilitate quantification of en face OCT images and longitudinal analysis.

  9. Prevention of an arms race in outer space

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The space age may be the to have begun in 1957, when for the first time a man-made object was lofted into orbit round the Earth. Since that date, the new problems of outer space have been discussed in the United Nations, particularly in the General Assembly, in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies, and in the Conference on Disarmament. The discussions have contributed to the conclusion of a number of international agreements concerning both military and peaceful aspects of the use of outer space. This paper reports that according to the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, known as the outer space Treaty, outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means (article II), and the parties undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of ass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner (article IV). Detailed norms for States' actions in this environment are included in the 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies to ensure that the Moon and other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than Earth, are used exclusively for peaceful purposes

  10. Estimation of network path segment delays

    Nichols, Kathleen Marie

    2018-05-01

    A method for estimation of a network path segment delay includes determining a scaled time stamp for each packet of a plurality of packets by scaling a time stamp for each respective packet to minimize a difference of at least one of a frequency and a frequency drift between a transport protocol clock of a host and a monitoring point. The time stamp for each packet is provided by the transport protocol clock of the host. A corrected time stamp for each packet is determined by removing from the scaled time stamp for each respective packet, a temporal offset between the transport protocol clock and the monitoring clock by minimizing a temporal delay variation of the plurality of packets traversing a segment between the host and the monitoring point.

  11. Region segmentation along image sequence

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  12. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  13. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  14. IFRS 8 – OPERATING SEGMENTS

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Segment reporting in accordance with IFRS 8 will be mandatory for annual financial statements covering periods beginning on or after 1 January 2009. The standards replaces IAS 14, Segment Reporting, from that date. The objective of IFRS 8 is to require

  15. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  16. The Importance of Marketing Segmentation

    Martin, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    The rationale behind marketing segmentation is to allow businesses to focus on their consumers' behaviors and purchasing patterns. If done effectively, marketing segmentation allows an organization to achieve its highest return on investment (ROI) in turn for its marketing and sales expenses. If an organization markets its products or services to…

  17. Essays in international market segmentation

    Hofstede, ter F.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to develop and validate new methodologies to improve the effectiveness of international segmentation strategies. The current status of international market segmentation research is reviewed in an introductory chapter, which provided a number of

  18. Ultrasonic examination of defects close to the outer surface

    Benoist, P.; Serre, M.; Champigny, F.

    1986-11-01

    During the examination of a pressurized water reactor vessel with an in Service Inspection Machine (MIS), various welds are scanned with immersion ultrasonic focused transducers from the inside of the vessel. Defects close to the outer surface are sometimes detected, and sizing with the successive 6 dB drop method leads to oversize some indications; this is caused by various reflections on the outer wall; the corner echo is of particular importance here. CEA and EDF have started an experimental program in order to study the response of volumetric and planar defects located near the outer surface. We present here the first results obtained with artificial defects. 2 refs

  19. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  20. A molecular switch between the outer and the inner vestibule of the voltage-gated Na+ channel

    Zarrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Na+ channels permit rapid transmission of depolarizing impulses throughout cells and cell networks, and are essential to the proper function of skeletal muscle, the heart and the nervous system. The selectivity filter of the channel is considered to be formed by the amino acids D400, E755, K1237, and A1529 ('DEKA' motif) which are located at the innermost turn of the P-loops connecting S5 and S6 segments of each domain. The inner vestibule is believed to be lined by four S6 helices, one from each domain. Comparison of crystal structures of K+ channels in open and closed states as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic studies suggest that the activation gate of voltage-gated ion channels is located at the inner part of the S6 segments. This may also hold true for voltage-gated Na+ channels because mutations in S6 segments alter activation gating. The gate for fast inactivation of the channel has been mapped to the intracellular linker between domains III and IV. This intracellular loop is currently considered to produce channel inactivation by transiently occluding the intracellular vestibule of the channel. The time constants of entry into and recovery from fast inactivation are on the order of milliseconds. Apart from 'fast inactivation' a number of slower inactivated states have been described. During very long depolarizations, on the order of several minutes, rNaV1.4 channels enter a very stable inactivated state which we refer to as 'ultra-slow' inactivation (IUS). In these channels the likelihood of entry into IUS is substantially increased by a mutation in the selectivity filter, K1237E. IUS can be modulated by molecules binding to the outer vestibule, suggesting that a conformational change of the outer vestibule gives rise to this kinetic state. On the other hand, the local anesthetic drug lidocaine, which binds to the internal part of the channel pore, inhibits entry into IUS by a 'foot-in-the-door' mechanism indicating that a

  1. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Lo, Miranda; Cordwell, Stuart J; Bulach, Dieter M; Adler, Ben

    2009-12-08

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS). We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature shift in L. interrogans. The results thus provide an insight into the mechanisms used by L

  2. Segmentation of medical images using explicit anatomical knowledge

    Wilson, Laurie S.; Brown, Stephen; Brown, Matthew S.; Young, Jeanne; Li, Rongxin; Luo, Suhuai; Brandt, Lee

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge-based image segmentation is defined in terms of the separation of image analysis procedures and representation of knowledge. Such architecture is particularly suitable for medical image segmentation, because of the large amount of structured domain knowledge. A general methodology for the application of knowledge-based methods to medical image segmentation is described. This includes frames for knowledge representation, fuzzy logic for anatomical variations, and a strategy for determining the order of segmentation from the modal specification. This method has been applied to three separate problems, 3D thoracic CT, chest X-rays and CT angiography. The application of the same methodology to such a range of applications suggests a major role in medical imaging for segmentation methods incorporating representation of anatomical knowledge.

  3. Automatic Segmentation of Vessels in In-Vivo Ultrasound Scans

    Tamimi-Sarnikowski, Philip; Brink-Kjær, Andreas; Moshavegh, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    presents a fully automatic segmentation algorithm, for robustly segmenting the vessel lumen in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound images. The automatic segmentation is performed using a combination of B-mode and power Doppler images. The proposed algorithm includes a series of preprocessing steps, and performs......Ultrasound has become highly popular to monitor atherosclerosis, by scanning the carotid artery. The screening involves measuring the thickness of the vessel wall and diameter of the lumen. An automatic segmentation of the vessel lumen, can enable the determination of lumen diameter. This paper...... a vessel segmentation by use of the marker-controlled watershed transform. The ultrasound images used in the study were acquired using the bk3000 ultrasound scanner (BK Ultrasound, Herlev, Denmark) with two transducers ”8L2 Linear” and ”10L2w Wide Linear” (BK Ultrasound, Herlev, Denmark). The algorithm...

  4. Movement and effects of spilled oil over the outer continental shelf; inadequacy of existent data for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area

    Knebel, Harley J.

    1974-01-01

    A deductive approach to the problem of determining the movement and effects of spilled oil over the Outer Continental Shelf requires that the potential paths of oil be determined first, in order that critical subareas may be defined for later studies. The paths of spilled oil, in turn, depend primarily on the temporal and spatial variability of four factors: the thermohaline structure of the waters, the circulation of the water, the winds, and the distribution of suspended matter. A review of the existent data concerning these factors for the Baltimore Canyon Trough area (a relatively well studied segment of the Continental Shelf) reveals that the movement and dispersal of potential oil spills cannot be reliably predicted. Variations in the thermohaline structure of waters and in the distribution of suspended matter are adequately known; the uncertainty is due to insufficient wind and storm statistics and to the lack of quantitative understanding of the relationship between the nontidal drift and its basic driving mechanisms. Similar inadequacies should be anticipated for other potentially leasable areas of the shelf because an understanding of the movement of spilled oil has not been the underlying aim of most previous studies.

  5. Enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in outer vs inner cortices of the guinea pig adrenal

    Brody, R.I.

    1988-01-01

    Adrenocortical cells require cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis. Intracellular free cholesterol levels are maintained by the actions of three key enzymes: HMG CoA reductase, a rate limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), which esterifies cholesterol to fatty acids, and cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH), which releases stored cholesterol by clearing the ester bond. The guinea pig adrenal cortex, which can be separated into a lipid-rich outer zone and a lipid-poor inner zone, provides a good model in which to determine whether the morphological differences in these regions correlate with functional distinctions in enzymes of cholesterol homeostasis. These studies have shown that there are great differences in these enzymes in the outer and inner zones of the guinea pig adrenal cortex. The cholesterol-rich outer zone possesses greater activities of ACAT and CEH than the inner zone, and, in untreated animals, these enzymes are nearly maximally stimulated. Both zones had substantial levels of HMG CoA reductase, as measured by enzyme assay and ELISA, and these levels increased following ACTH stimulation. However, only the outer zone incorporated 14 C-acetate into steroids and cholesterol to any great degree in vitro, and only in this zone was incorporation increased following incubation of cultures with ACTH. The discrepancies between HMG CoA reductase levels and 14 C-acetate incorporation in the inner zone indicate that cholesterol synthesis must be regulated differently in this zone

  6. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    F. Wong

    2004-09-28

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP

  7. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    F. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22, the current waste package outer barrier material. The goal of this model is to determine whether the single-phase solid solution is stable under repository conditions and, if not, how fast other phases may precipitate. The aging and phase stability model, which is based on fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic concepts and principles, will be used to provide predictive insight into the long-term metallurgical stability of Alloy 22 under relevant repository conditions. The results of this model are used by ''General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' as reference-only information. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: Tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) phase and carbide precipitation in the base metal; TCP and carbide precipitation in welded samples; and Long-range ordering reactions. TCP-phase and carbide precipitates that form in Alloy 22 are generally rich in chromium (Cr) and/or molybdenum (Mo) (Raghavan et al. 1984 [DIRS 154707]). Because these elements are responsible for the high corrosion resistance of Alloy 22, precipitation of TCP phases and carbides, especially at grain boundaries, can lead to an increased susceptibility to localized corrosion in the alloy. These phases are brittle and also tend to embrittle the alloy (Summers et al. 1999 [DIRS 146915]). They are known to form in Alloy 22 at temperatures greater than approximately 600 C. Whether these phases also form at the lower temperatures expected in the repository during the 10,000-year regulatory period must be determined. The kinetics of this precipitation will be determined for both the base metal and the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The TCP phases (P, μ, and σ) are present in

  8. Segmental vitiligo with segmental morphea: An autoimmune link?

    Pravesh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old girl with segmental vitiligo involving the left side of the trunk and left upper limb with segmental morphea involving the right side of trunk and right upper limb without any deeper involvement is illustrated. There was no history of preceding drug intake, vaccination, trauma, radiation therapy, infection, or hormonal therapy. Family history of stable vitiligo in her brother and a history of type II diabetes mellitus in the father were elicited. Screening for autoimmune diseases and antithyroid antibody was negative. An autoimmune link explaining the co-occurrence has been proposed. Cutaneous mosiacism could explain the presence of both the pathologies in a segmental distribution.

  9. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10- Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200 metricton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  10. Exploring the Outer Solar System with the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arraki, K.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Kaib, N.A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aguilera, C.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Blackman, J.W.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Blondin, S.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Challis, P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Clocchiatti, A.; /Rio de Janeiro, Pont. U. Catol.; Covarrubias, R.; /Kyushu Sangyo U.; Damke, G.; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Davis, T.M.; /Bohr Inst. /Queensland U.; Filippenko, A.V.; /UC, Berkeley; Foley, R.J.; /UC, Berkeley; Garg, A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Notre Dame U.; Hicken, M.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U.; Jha, S.; /Harvard U. /SLAC; Kirshner, R.P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Krisciunas, K.; /Notre Dame U. /Texas A-M; Leibundgut, B.; /Munich, Tech. U. /UC, Berkeley /NOAO, Tucson /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Chile U., Santiago /Ohio State U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Munich, Tech. U. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Texas A-M /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.

    2011-11-10

    We report the discovery and orbital determination of 14 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey difference imaging data set. Two additional objects discovered in a similar search of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey database were recovered in this effort. ESSENCE repeatedly observed fields far from the solar system ecliptic (-21{sup o} < {beta} < -5{sup o}), reaching limiting magnitudes per observation of I {approx} 23.1 and R {approx} 23.7. We examine several of the newly detected objects in detail, including 2003 UC{sub 414}, which orbits entirely between Uranus and Neptune and lies very close to a dynamical region that would make it stable for the lifetime of the solar system. 2003 SS{sub 422} and 2007 TA{sub 418} have high eccentricities and large perihelia, making them candidate members of an outer class of TNOs. We also report a new member of the 'extended' or 'detached' scattered disk, 2004 VN{sub 112}, and verify the stability of its orbit using numerical simulations. This object would have been visible to ESSENCE for only {approx}2% of its orbit, suggesting a vast number of similar objects across the sky. We emphasize that off-ecliptic surveys are optimal for uncovering the diversity of such objects, which in turn will constrain the history of gravitational influences that shaped our early solar system.

  11. Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior.

    Weitzel, Erik K; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E

    2003-09-01

    Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

  12. Inner and Outer Recursive Neural Networks for Chemoinformatics Applications.

    Urban, Gregor; Subrahmanya, Niranjan; Baldi, Pierre

    2018-02-26

    Deep learning methods applied to problems in chemoinformatics often require the use of recursive neural networks to handle data with graphical structure and variable size. We present a useful classification of recursive neural network approaches into two classes, the inner and outer approach. The inner approach uses recursion inside the underlying graph, to essentially "crawl" the edges of the graph, while the outer approach uses recursion outside the underlying graph, to aggregate information over progressively longer distances in an orthogonal direction. We illustrate the inner and outer approaches on several examples. More importantly, we provide open-source implementations [available at www.github.com/Chemoinformatics/InnerOuterRNN and cdb.ics.uci.edu ] for both approaches in Tensorflow which can be used in combination with training data to produce efficient models for predicting the physical, chemical, and biological properties of small molecules.

  13. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods: Three patients with a normal ophthalmoscopic fundus appearance, a history of photopsia, and visual field loss compatible with AZOOR were examined using optical coherence tomography, automated perimetry...

  14. Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone

    Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2010-12-01

    The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to

  15. Examining Relativistic Electron Loss in the Outer Radiation Belt

    Green, J. C.; Onsager, T. G.; O'Brien, P.

    2003-12-01

    Since the discovery of earth's radiation belts researchers have sought to identify the mechanisms that dictate the seemingly erratic relativistic electron flux levels in the outer belt. Contrary to intuition, relativistic electron flux levels do not always increase during geomagnetic storms even though these storms signify enhanced energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere [Reeves et al., 2003; O'Brien et al., 2001]. The fickle response of the radiation belt electrons to geomagnetic activity suggests that flux levels are determined by the outcome of a continuous competition between acceleration and loss. Some progress has been made developing and testing acceleration mechanisms but little is known about how relativistic electrons are lost. We examine relativistic electron losses in the outer belt focusing our attention on flux decrease events of the type first described by Onsager et al. [2002]. The study showed a sudden decrease of geosynchronous >2MeV electron flux occurring simultaneously with local stretching of the magnetic field. The decrease was first observed near 15:00 MLT and progressed to all local times after a period of ˜10 hours. Expanding on the work of Onsager et al. [2002], we have identified ˜ 51 such flux decrease events in the GOES and LANL data and present the results of a superposed epoch analysis of solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indicators, and locally measured magnetic field and plasma data. The analysis shows that flux decreases occur after 1-2 days of quiet condition. They begin when either the solar wind dynamic pressure increases or Bz turns southward pushing hot dense plasma earthward to form a partial ring current and stretched magnetic field at dusk. Adiabatic electron motion in response to the stretched magnetic field may explain the initial flux reduction; however, often the flux does not recover with the magnetic field recovery, indicating that true loss from the magnetosphere is occurring. Using Polar and

  16. Geophysical modeling across Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia

    Vozar, J.; Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Majcin, D.; Vajda, P.; Bilcik, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a multidimensional geophysical modelling of Central and Eastern Slovakia in the area of contact zone between the Inner and Outer Western Carpathians, and the East Slovakian Basin. Our crustal and lithospheric studies are based on geophysical data collected during CELEBRATION 2000 project and project THERMES. The new magnetotelluric (MT) multidimensional modelling is combined with seismic 2D wide angle refraction profiles and gravimetric modelling. Together with thermal information gathered from the area we constructed new integrated geophysical models of structures included in the evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Preliminary results of MT modelling in Eastern Slovakia suggest more electrically conductive structures in the middle and lower crustal depths in comparison with Central Slovakia, where we observed structures dominated by resistive complexes overlaid by conductive sedimentary formations. The higher conductivities below the East Slovakian Basin restrict penetration depth of the geoelectrical images. The electrically conductive structures are connected with tectono-thermal development in Neogene and presence of volcanic activity. Another significant conductive anomaly is imaged along the contact zone between Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in depths of about 10 - 20km, which is known as the Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly (CCA). In order to improve the depth resolution of MT models we decided to combine geoelectrical images with density and velocity models of the area. We used integrated petrological and geophysical modeling code to obtain thermally consistent lithospheric scale models of the area. A possible preliminary geological interpretation of the northern segment of investigated area suggests a resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments. The boundary between Inner and Outer Carpthians represented by the Klippen Belt on the surface is changed to the CCA in higher depths. In the direction to the south there are

  17. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomographic findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy.

    Fujiwara, Takamitsu; Imamura, Yutaka; Giovinazzo, Vincent J; Spaide, Richard F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). A retrospective observational case series of the fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a series of patients with AZOOR. There were 19 eyes of 11 patients (10 women), who had a mean age of 49.1 +/- 13.9 years. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities were seen in 17 of the 19 eyes, were more common in the peripapillary area, and were smaller in extent than the optical coherence tomography abnormalities. Nine eyes showed progression of hypoautofluorescence area during the mean follow-up of 69.7 months. The mean thickness of the photoreceptor layer at fovea was 177 microm in eyes with AZOOR, which was significantly thinner than controls (193 microm, P = 0.049). Abnormal retinal laminations were found in 12 eyes and were located over areas of loss of the photoreceptors. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was 243 microm, which is normal. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities in AZOOR showed distinct patterns of retinal pigment epithelial involvement, which may be progressive. Thinning of photoreceptor cell layer with loss of the outer segments and abnormal inner retinal lamination in the context of a normal choroid are commonly found in AZOOR.

  18. Legal Provisions Applicable to the Definition of Outer Space

    Thorin, T.

    2002-01-01

    and decreeing the basic principle that no state can make claims to sovereignty or territory in space. This is followed by the Agreement of 11th September 1984 which governs the activities of states on the Moon and other celestial bodies. There are also three multilateral agreements which provide guiding principles in three specific areas: the Agreement on the Rescue and Return of Astronauts; the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects; and, the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. We shall then discuss other sources of law which also contribute towards defining the notion of space. These are essentially doctrinal positions which surface from the fundamental debate among legal experts divided between "functionalists" and "spacialists", which discussion is part of the general economic framework of international law, and considering naturally that Space law is an integral part of this framework. We shall also examine, as mentioned previously, the position taken by the various political and thus economic players in the international arena and we shall see that their somewhat diverging conceptions are often legitimised by very concrete concerns, far removed from theoretical debates, contributing to the development of international law. Finally, this will lead us to consider the pragmatic approach to such a problem, by discussing the various applications of legitimacy in demarcating space. So, we will among others discuss whether it is feasible to study a given territory without the permission of the country concerned; if "forbidden" orbits exist; in particular considering frequencies allocations and, of course, the simple right of flying and crossing, by shuttle designed vehicles both plane and rocket, over various states and their upper areas. In summary, the purpose of this paper is to determine when space law takes over from air law.

  19. Proposal for the LHCb outer tracker front-end electronics

    Deppe, H; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Srowig, A; Stange, U; Hommels, B; Sluijk, T

    2001-01-01

    A market survey on available TDCs for reading out the LHCb Outer Tracker has left over only one TDC, which is not optimal for this purpose. Hence, a new readout architecture which is based on a TDC to be developed anew has been defined. This system fits optimal the requirements of the LHCb Outer Tracker and also should be much cheaper. The system and its main issues are described in this paper.

  20. Developments for the outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment

    Bachmann, S; Haas, T; Uwer, U; Walter, M; Wiedner, D

    2004-01-01

    The outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment is discussed. The outer tracking system (OT) is made of three stations and every station is made up of four detecting planes with a double layer of straw tubes. The straw tubes are mounted in detector module boxes made up of sandwich panels. The use of a counting gas with a high drift velocity is suggested to cope with high bunch crossing rate at the LHCb experiment. (Edited abstract) 3 Refs.

  1. Inner and outer cylinders of the CMS vacuum tank.

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the already installed outer cylinder, through which this photo was taken.

  2. Star laws: legal controls on armed conflict in outer space

    Stephens, Dale

    2016-01-01

    An undeclared military space race is unfolding yet there is no clear understanding of how international las operates in the field of armed conflict in outer space. In conjunction with McGill University Law School, Montreal, Canada, a 'Manual on international law applicable to military uses of outer space' has been drafted. This article looks at types of space weapons, previous space treaties and discusses humanitarian law.

  3. Segmentation and packaging reactor vessels internals

    Boucau, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text follows: With more than 25 years of experience in the development of reactor vessel internals and reactor vessel segmentation and packaging technology, Westinghouse has accumulated significant know-how in the reactor dismantling market. The primary challenges of a segmentation and packaging project are to separate the highly activated materials from the less-activated materials and package them into appropriate containers for disposal. Since disposal cost is a key factor, it is important to plan and optimize waste segmentation and packaging. The choice of the optimum cutting technology is also important for a successful project implementation and depends on some specific constraints. Detailed 3-D modeling is the basis for tooling design and provides invaluable support in determining the optimum strategy for component cutting and disposal in waste containers, taking account of the radiological and packaging constraints. The usual method is to start at the end of the process, by evaluating handling of the containers, the waste disposal requirements, what type and size of containers are available for the different disposal options, and working backwards to select a cutting method and finally the cut geometry required. The 3-D models can include intelligent data such as weight, center of gravity, curie content, etc, for each segmented piece, which is very useful when comparing various cutting, handling and packaging options. The detailed 3-D analyses and thorough characterization assessment can draw the attention to material potentially subject to clearance, either directly or after certain period of decay, to allow recycling and further disposal cost reduction. Westinghouse has developed a variety of special cutting and handling tools, support fixtures, service bridges, water filtration systems, video-monitoring systems and customized rigging, all of which are required for a successful reactor vessel internals

  4. Using Predictability for Lexical Segmentation.

    Çöltekin, Çağrı

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates a strategy based on predictability of consecutive sub-lexical units in learning to segment a continuous speech stream into lexical units using computational modeling and simulations. Lexical segmentation is one of the early challenges during language acquisition, and it has been studied extensively through psycholinguistic experiments as well as computational methods. However, despite strong empirical evidence, the explicit use of predictability of basic sub-lexical units in models of segmentation is underexplored. This paper presents an incremental computational model of lexical segmentation for exploring the usefulness of predictability for lexical segmentation. We show that the predictability cue is a strong cue for segmentation. Contrary to earlier reports in the literature, the strategy yields state-of-the-art segmentation performance with an incremental computational model that uses only this particular cue in a cognitively plausible setting. The paper also reports an in-depth analysis of the model, investigating the conditions affecting the usefulness of the strategy. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Outer retinal tubulation as a predictor of the enlargement amount of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    Hariri, Amirhossein; Nittala, Muneeswar G; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2015-02-01

    To determine the prognostic value of outer retinal tubulation (ORT) in the enlargement amount of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Cohort study. One hundred eight fellow untreated eyes of 143 patients with GA resulting from AMD enrolled in the MAHALO study (clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT01229215) who completely satisfied the study term and had gradable spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images obtained at both baseline and month 18 visits. The MAHALO study enrolled 143 subjects into a phase 1b/2 multicenter, randomized, single-masked, sham-injection controlled clinical trial of the safety, tolerability, and evidence of activity of lampalizumab in patients with GA associated with AMD. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images were obtained at multiple time points in both eyes, although only the baseline and month 18 data of the fellow (nonstudy) eyes were considered in this exploratory analysis. The Cirrus HD-OCT review software was used for automatic segmentation and measurement of GA areas, with manual correction of segmentation errors by certified OCT graders. Baseline OCT images also were assessed for the presence of ORT. The enlargement amount of GA in eyes with ORT was compared with that of eyes without ORT. Comparison of the enlargement amount of GA in eyes with and without ORT. Twenty-four of these 108 eyes demonstrated evidence of ORT. The amount of enlargement of GA in eyes with ORT was significantly slower than that of eyes without ORT (1.85±0.78 vs. 2.67±1.61; P = 0.001). This difference remained significant when considering subgroups with unifocal or multifocal GA lesions, because eyes with ORT in both subgroups had a slower enlargement amount of GA than eyes without ORT (2.91±1.70 vs. 2.08±0.88 [P = 0.01], in eyes with multifocal GA lesions; and 2.24±1.40 vs. 1.63±0.57 [P = 0.02], in eyes with unifocal GA lesions). In eyes with ORT, GA lesions seem to enlarge at a

  6. THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF PATHOGENIC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEPTOSPIRA GENIUS

    A. N. Vaganova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pathogenic leptospires can infect wide spectrum of hosts and they can survive in the environment long time. The outer membrane is the cellular component participated in interaction of microorganisms and environment. In present time several proteins located in the outer membrane of leptospires which are responsible for colonization of host organism, protection from influence of immune system of host, transport of substances in to the cell and other processes have been described. The outer membrane contains proteins and lipopolysaccharide molecules which have citotoxic effect. It was shown that regulation of protein composition of membranes depends on several factors of environment such as temperature, osmolarity, presence of certain substances in environment. Lipopolysaccharide and protein molecules of outer membranes have antigenic properties. These molecules can be used in practice as the components of vaccine against leptospiroses and diagnostic tools. Current review summarize information concerning structural organization of the outer membrane of leptospires, diversities of incoming parts of molecules and regulation of their synthesis. Moreover, perspectives of practical using of the outer membrane components in diagnostics and prevention of leptospiroses are presented.

  7. A LEAFY link from outer space

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    The beautiful shape and colour patterns of flowers attract almost everybody, including developmental biologists. Studies of floral patterning have shown that the identity of floral organs is determined by a combinatorial code of homeotic genes, termed A, B and C, expressed in three

  8. Single-Molecule FISH Reveals Non-selective Packaging of Rift Valley Fever Virus Genome Segments.

    Paul J Wichgers Schreur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The bunyavirus genome comprises a small (S, medium (M, and large (L RNA segment of negative polarity. Although genome segmentation confers evolutionary advantages by enabling genome reassortment events with related viruses, genome segmentation also complicates genome replication and packaging. Accumulating evidence suggests that genomes of viruses with eight or more genome segments are incorporated into virions by highly selective processes. Remarkably, little is known about the genome packaging process of the tri-segmented bunyaviruses. Here, we evaluated, by single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the intracellular spatio-temporal distribution and replication kinetics of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV genome and determined the segment composition of mature virions. The results reveal that the RVFV genome segments start to replicate near the site of infection before spreading and replicating throughout the cytoplasm followed by translocation to the virion assembly site at the Golgi network. Despite the average intracellular S, M and L genome segments approached a 1:1:1 ratio, major differences in genome segment ratios were observed among cells. We also observed a significant amount of cells lacking evidence of M-segment replication. Analysis of two-segmented replicons and four-segmented viruses subsequently confirmed the previous notion that Golgi recruitment is mediated by the Gn glycoprotein. The absence of colocalization of the different segments in the cytoplasm and the successful rescue of a tri-segmented variant with a codon shuffled M-segment suggested that inter-segment interactions are unlikely to drive the copackaging of the different segments into a single virion. The latter was confirmed by direct visualization of RNPs inside mature virions which showed that the majority of virions lack one or more genome segments. Altogether, this study suggests that RVFV genome packaging is a non-selective process.

  9. The Hierarchy of Segment Reports

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to find the connection between reports created for managers responsible for different business segments. With this purpose, the hierarchy of the business reporting segments is proposed. This can lead to better understanding of the expenses under common responsibility of more than one manager since these expenses should be in more than one report. The structure of cost defined per business segment hierarchy with the aim of new, unusual but relevant cost structure for management can be established. Both could potentially bring new information benefits for management in the context of profit reporting.

  10. Segmental dilatation of the ileum

    Tune-Yie Shih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was sent to the emergency department with the chief problem of abdominal pain for 1 day. He was just discharged from the pediatric ward with the diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia and paralytic ileus. After initial examinations and radiographic investigations, midgut volvulus was impressed. An emergency laparotomy was performed. Segmental dilatation of the ileum with volvulus was found. The operative procedure was resection of the dilated ileal segment with anastomosis. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. The unique abnormality of gastrointestinal tract – segmental dilatation of the ileum, is described in details and the literature is reviewed.

  11. Accounting for segment correlations in segmented gamma-ray scans

    Sheppard, G.A.; Prettyman, T.H.; Piquette, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    In a typical segmented gamma-ray scanner (SGS), the detector's field of view is collimated so that a complete horizontal slice or segment of the desired thickness is visible. Ordinarily, the collimator is not deep enough to exclude gamma rays emitted from sample volumes above and below the segment aligned with the collimator. This can lead to assay biases, particularly for certain radioactive-material distributions. Another consequence of the collimator's low aspect ratio is that segment assays at the top and bottom of the sample are biased low because the detector's field of view is not filled. This effect is ordinarily countered by placing the sample on a low-Z pedestal and scanning one or more segment thicknesses below and above the sample. This takes extra time, however, We have investigated a number of techniques that both account for correlated segments and correct for end effects in SGS assays. Also, we have developed an algorithm that facilitates estimates of assay precision. Six calculation methods have been compared by evaluating the results of thousands of simulated, assays for three types of gamma-ray source distribution and ten masses. We will report on these computational studies and their experimental verification

  12. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  13. An improved segmented gamma scanning for radioactive waste drums

    Liu Cheng; Wang Dezhong; Bai Yunfei; Qian Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalent radius of radioactive sources in each segment is determined by analyzing the different responses of the two identical detectors, and an improved segmented gamma scanning is used to assay waste drums containing mainly organic materials, and proved by an established simulation model. The simulated radioactivity distributions in homogenous waste drum and an experimental heterogeneous waste drum were compared with those of traditional segmented gamma scanning. The results show that our method is good in performance and can be used for analyzing the waste drums. (authors)

  14. What are Segments in Google Analytics

    Segments find all sessions that meet a specific condition. You can then apply this segment to any report in Google Analytics (GA). Segments are a way of identifying sessions and users while filters identify specific events, like pageviews.

  15. Outer-totalistic cellular automata on graphs

    Marr, Carsten; Huett, Marc-Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    We present an intuitive formalism for implementing cellular automata on arbitrary topologies. By that means, we identify a symmetry operation in the class of elementary cellular automata. Moreover, we determine the subset of topologically sensitive elementary cellular automata and find that the overall number of complex patterns decreases under increasing neighborhood size in regular graphs. As exemplary applications, we apply the formalism to complex networks and compare the potential of scale-free graphs and metabolic networks to generate complex dynamics

  16. CLG for Automatic Image Segmentation

    Christo Ananth; S.Santhana Priya; S.Manisha; T.Ezhil Jothi; M.S.Ramasubhaeswari

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic segmentation method which effectively combines Active Contour Model, Live Wire method and Graph Cut approach (CLG). The aim of Live wire method is to provide control to the user on segmentation process during execution. Active Contour Model provides a statistical model of object shape and appearance to a new image which are built during a training phase. In the graph cut technique, each pixel is represented as a node and the distance between those nodes is rep...

  17. Market segmentation, targeting and positioning

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Businesses may not be in a position to satisfy all of their customers, every time. It may prove difficult to meet the exact requirements of each individual customer. People do not have identical preferences, so rarely does one product completely satisfy everyone. Many companies may usually adopt a strategy that is known as target marketing. This strategy involves dividing the market into segments and developing products or services to these segments. A target marketing strategy is focused on ...

  18. A new level set model for cell image segmentation

    Ma, Jing-Feng; Hou, Kai; Bao, Shang-Lian; Chen, Chun

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we first determine three phases of cell images: background, cytoplasm and nucleolus according to the general physical characteristics of cell images, and then develop a variational model, based on these characteristics, to segment nucleolus and cytoplasm from their relatively complicated backgrounds. In the meantime, the preprocessing obtained information of cell images using the OTSU algorithm is used to initialize the level set function in the model, which can speed up the segmentation and present satisfactory results in cell image processing.

  19. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  20. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Molecular Clouds in the Extreme Outer Galaxy between l  = 34.°75 to 45.°25

    Sun, Yan; Su, Yang; Zhang, Shao-Bo; Xu, Ye; Chen, Xue-Peng; Yang, Ji; Jiang, Zhi-Bo; Fang, Min, E-mail: yansun@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of an unbiased CO survey in the Galactic range of 34.°75 ≤  l  ≤ 45.°25 and −5.°25 ≤  b  ≤ 5.°25, and the velocity range beyond the Outer arm. A total of 168 molecular clouds (MCs) are identified within the Extreme Outer Galaxy (EOG) region, and 31 of these MCs are associated with {sup 13}CO  emission. However, none of them show significant C{sup 18}O  emission under the current detection limit. The typical size and mass of these MCs are 5 pc and 3 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ⊙}, implying a lack of large and massive MCs in the EOG region. Similar to MCs in the outer Galaxy, the velocity dispersions of EOG clouds are also correlated with their sizes; however, they are well displaced below the scaling relationship defined by the inner Galaxy MCs. These MCs with a median Galactocentric radius of 12.6 kpc show very different distributions from those of the MCs in the Outer arm published in our previous paper, while roughly following the Outer Scutum–Centaurus arm defined by Dame and Thaddeus. This result may provide robust evidence for the existence of the Outer Scutum–Centaurus arm. The lower limit of the total mass of this segment is about 2.7 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}, which is about one magnitude lower than that of the Outer arm. The mean thickness of the gaseous disk is about 1.°45 or 450 pc, and the scale height is about 1.°27, or 400 pc above the b  = 0° plane. The warp traced by CO emission is very obvious in the EOG region and its amplitude is consistent with the predictions by other warp models using different tracers, such as dust, H i, and stellar components of our Galaxy.

  2. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  3. Skip segment Hirschsprung's disease: a systematic review.

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Hirschsprung\\'s disease is characterised by the congenital absence of ganglion cells beginning in the distal rectum and extending proximally for varying distances. \\'Zonal aganglionosis\\' is a phenomenon involving a zone of aganglionosis occurring within normally innervated intestine. \\'Skip segment\\' Hirschsprung\\'s disease (SSHD) involves a \\'skip area\\' of normally ganglionated intestine, surrounded proximally and distally by aganglionosis. While Hirschsprung\\'s disease is believed to be the result of incomplete craniocaudal migration of neural crest-derived cells, the occurrence of SSHD has no clear embryological explanation. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of SSHD, reported in the literature between 1954 and 2009, in order to determine the clinical characteristics of this rare entity and its significance. METHODS: The first reported case of SSHD was published in 1954. A systematic review of SSHD cases in the literature, from 1954 to 2009, was carried out using the electronic database \\'Pubmed\\'. Detailed information was recorded regarding the age, gender, presenting symptoms and location of the skip segment in each patient. RESULTS: 24 cases of SSHD have been reported in the literature to date. 18\\/24 (75%) of these cases were males and 6\\/24 (25%) were females. Of these, 22\\/24 (92%) were cases of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and 2\\/24 (8%) were rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease. Of the 22 TCA cases, 9 (41%) had a skip segment in the transverse colon, 6 (27%) in the ascending colon, 2 (9%) in the caecum and 5 (23%) had multiple skip segments. In both rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease cases, the skip segment was in the sigmoid colon. Overall, the length of the skip segment was variable, with the entire transverse colon ganglionated in some cases. CONCLUSION: SSHD occurs predominantly in patients with TCA. The existence of a skip area of normally innervated colon in TCA may influence surgical

  4. The Effects of Urethane on Rat Outer Hair Cells

    Mingyu Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea converts sound vibration into electrical impulses and amplifies the low-level sound signal. Urethane, a widely used anesthetic in animal research, has been shown to reduce the neural responses to auditory stimuli. However, the effects of urethane on cochlea, especially on the function of outer hair cells, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the cochlear microphonic responses between awake and urethane-anesthetized rats. The results revealed that the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic was decreased by urethane, resulting in an increase in the threshold at all of the sound frequencies examined. To deduce the possible mechanism underlying the urethane-induced decrease in cochlear sensitivity, we examined the electrical response properties of isolated outer hair cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that urethane hyperpolarizes the outer hair cell membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner and elicits larger outward current. This urethane-induced outward current was blocked by strychnine, an antagonist of the α9 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Meanwhile, the function of the outer hair cell motor protein, prestin, was not affected. These results suggest that urethane anesthesia is expected to decrease the responses of outer hair cells, whereas the frequency selectivity of cochlea remains unchanged.

  5. AN OUTER ARM IN THE SECOND GALACTIC QUADRANT: STRUCTURE

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [−3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The Outer arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the Outer arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz {sup 12}CO(1–0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[−100, −60] km s{sup −1} and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the Outer arm. The total mass of the detected Outer arm clouds is ∼3.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ∼13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the Outer arm are also studied.

  6. Linear stability of resistive MHD modes: axisymmetric toroidal computation of the outer region matching data

    Pletzer, A.; Bondeson, A.; Dewar, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The quest to determine accurately the stability of tearing and resistive interchange modes in two-dimensional toroidal geometry led to the development of the PEST-3 code, which is based on solving the singular, zero-frequency ideal MHD equation in the plasma bulk and determining the outer data Δ', Γ' and A' needed to match the outer region solutions to those arising in the inner layers. No assumption regarding the aspect ratio, the number of rational surfaces or the pressure are made a priori. This approach is numerically less demanding than solving the full set of resistive equations, and has the major advantage of non-MHD theories of the non-ideal layers. Good convergence is ensured by the variational Galerkin scheme used to compute the outer matching data. To validate the code, we focus on the growth rate calculations of resistive kink modes which are reproduced in good agreement with those obtained by the full resistive MHD code MARS. (author) 11 figs., 27 refs

  7. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  8. Radiolysis of Amino Acids in Outer Solar-System Ice Analogs

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2011-01-01

    Amino acids have been found in cometary dust particles and in the organic component of meteorites. These molecules, important for pre-biotic chemistry and for active biological systems, might be formed in cold planetary or interstellar environments and then delivered to H20-rich surfaces in the outer solar system. Many models for the availability of organic species on Earth and elsewhere depend on the ability of these molecules to survive in radiation-rich space environments. This poster presents results of O.8-MeV proton radiolysis of ice films at lS-140K. using infrared spectroscopy, the destruction rates of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine have been determined for both pure films and those containing amino acids diluted in H2o. our results are discussed in terms of the survivability of these molecules in the icy surfaces present in the outer solar system and the possibility of their detection by instruments on board the New Horizons spacecraft

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Segmental Aortic Stiffness Determined by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Children and Young Adults With Connective Tissue Disorders (the Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes, and Nonspecific Connective Tissue Disorders).

    Merlocco, Anthony; Lacro, Ronald V; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Rabideau, Nicole; Singh, Michael N; Prakash, Ashwin

    2017-10-01

    Aortic stiffness measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in connective tissue disorder (CTD) patients has been previously shown to be abnormal and to be associated with adverse aortic outcomes. The rate of increase in aortic stiffness with normal aging has been previously described. However, longitudinal changes in aortic stiffness have not been characterized in CTD patients. We examined longitudinal changes in CMR-derived aortic stiffness in children and young adults with CTDs. A retrospective analysis of 50 children and young adults (median age, 20 years; range, 0.2 to 49; 40% age, whereas the β stiffness index increased at all aortic segments. The average rates of decline in distensibility (x10 -3  mm Hg -1 per 10-year increase in age) were 0.7, 1.3, and 1 at the AoR, ascending aorta, and descending aorta, respectively. The rates of decline in distensibility were not associated with the rates of AoR dilation or surgical AoR replacement. In conclusion, on serial CMR measurements in children and young adults with CTDs, aortic stiffness progressively increased with age, with rates of change only slightly higher than those previously reported in healthy adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Bombyx mori Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus Genome Segment 4

    Ikeda, Keiko; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Winkler, Stefan; Kotani, Kumiko; Yagi, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Kae; Miyajima, Shigetoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Mori, Hajime

    2001-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome segment 4 (S4) of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) was determined. The 3,259-nucleotide sequence contains a single long open reading frame which spans nucleotides 14 to 3187 and which is predicted to encode a protein with a molecular mass of about 130 kDa. Western blot analysis showed that S4 encodes BmCPV protein VP3, which is one of the outer components of the BmCPV virion. Sequence analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of BmCPV VP3 revealed possible sequence homology with proteins from rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) S2, Nilaparvata lugens reovirus S4, and Fiji disease fijivirus S4. This may suggest that plant reoviruses originated from insect viruses and that RRSV emerged more recently than other plant reoviruses. A chimeric protein consisting of BmCPV VP3 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed and expressed with BmCPV polyhedrin using a baculovirus expression vector. The VP3-GFP chimera was incorporated into BmCPV polyhedra and released under alkaline conditions. The results indicate that specific interactions occur between BmCPV polyhedrin and VP3 which might facilitate BmCPV virion occlusion into the polyhedra. PMID:11134312

  11. Optical coherence tomography in anterior segment imaging

    Kalev-Landoy, Maya; Day, Alexander C.; Cordeiro, M. Francesca; Migdal, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT), designed primarily to image the posterior segment, to visualize the anterior chamber angle (ACA) in patients with different angle configurations. Methods In a prospective observational study, the anterior segments of 26 eyes of 26 patients were imaged using the Zeiss Stratus OCT, model 3000. Imaging of the anterior segment was achieved by adjusting the focusing control on the Stratus OCT. A total of 16 patients had abnormal angle configurations including narrow or closed angles and plateau irides, and 10 had normal angle configurations as determined by prior full ophthalmic examination, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and gonioscopy. Results In all cases, OCT provided high-resolution information regarding iris configuration. The ACA itself was clearly visualized in patients with narrow or closed angles, but not in patients with open angles. Conclusions Stratus OCT offers a non-contact, convenient and rapid method of assessing the configuration of the anterior chamber. Despite its limitations, it may be of help during the routine clinical assessment and treatment of patients with glaucoma, particularly when gonioscopy is not possible or difficult to interpret. PMID:17355288

  12. Multifunctional outer wall systems; Multifunktionale Aussenwandsysteme

    Hahne, E.; Twerdy, C. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Pfluger, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1998-02-01

    Facades will have a multitude of functions in the future. All of them will be energy-oriented and overall energy balances considering production, utilization and destruction will become an important factor. For a detached house and multiple dwelling, examples of facade constructions and appliances are discussed. A `Solar Wall` facade provides preheating of combustion air in a combined heating/power station. Progressive facade elements are being investigated in so-called `Test Cells` for determining their heat transfer coefficient (k), their heat capacity (C) and their energy transport factor (g). PV modules are investigated in such cells in order to work out European Rules for the testing of PV-hybrid components. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fassaden werden in Zukunft eine Vielzahl von Funktionen zu erfuellen haben. Alle werden letztlich energieorientiert sein; gesamtheitliche Betrachtungen von der Produktion ueber die Nutzung bis zur Entsorgung werden eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. Fuer ein Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaus werden Beispiele fuer die Fassadenkonstruktion und Geraetschaften angefuehrt. In einem Fernheizkraftwerk dient eine `Solarwand` zur Vorwaermung der Verbrennungsluft. Fortschrittliche Fassaden-Elemente werden in sogenannten Testzellen untersucht hinsichtlich ihres Gesamtwaermedurchgangskoeffizienten, ihrer Waermekapazitaet und ihres Gesamtenergie-Durchlassgrads. PV-Module werden gegenwaertig in diesen Zellen untersucht, um Testregeln fuer PV-Hybridkomponenten fuer die Europaeische Union auszuarbeiten. (orig.)

  13. Energetic particle drift motions in the outer dayside magnetosphere

    Buck, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Models of the geomagnetic field predict that within a distance of approximately one earth radius inside the dayside magnetopause, magnetic fields produced by the Chapman-Ferraro magnetopause currents create high-latitude minimum-B ''pockets'' in the geomagnetic field. Drift-shell branching caused by the minimum-B pockets is analyzed and interpreted in terms of an adiabatic shell branching and rejoining process. We examine the shell-branching process for a static field in detail, using the Choe-Beard 1974 magnetospheric magnetic field model. We find that shell branching annd rejoining conserves the particle mirror field B/sub M/, the fieldline integral invariant I, and the directional electron flux j. We determine the spatial extent of the stable trapping regions for the Choe-Beard model. We develop an adiabatic branching map methodology which completely identifies and describes the location of shell-branching points and the adiabatic trajectories of particles on branched shells, for any model field. We employ the map to develop synthetic pitch angle distributions near the dayside magnetopause by adiabatically transforming observed midnight distributions to the dayside. We find that outer dayside lines contain particles moving on branched and unbranched shells, giving rise to distinctive pitch angle distribution features. We find a good correlation between the pitch angles which mark the transition from branched to unbranched shells in the model, and the distinctive features of the OGO-5 distributions. In the morning sector, we observe large flux changes at critical pitch angles which correspond to B-pocket edges in the model. Measurements on inbound passes in the afternoon sector show first the adiabatic particle shadow, then the arrival of fluxes on rejoined shells, then fluxes on unbranced shells - in accord with model predictions. 204 refs., 138 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  15. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary.

  16. Methods of evaluating segmentation characteristics and segmentation of major faults

    Lee, Kie Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok

    2000-03-01

    Seismological, geological, and geophysical studies were made for reasonable segmentation of the Ulsan fault and the results are as follows. One- and two- dimensional electrical surveys revealed clearly the fault fracture zone enlarges systematically northward and southward from the vicinity of Mohwa-ri, indicating Mohwa-ri is at the seismic segment boundary. Field Geological survey and microscope observation of fault gouge indicates that the Quaternary faults in the area are reactivated products of the preexisting faults. Trench survey of the Chonbuk fault Galgok-ri revealed thrust faults and cumulative vertical displacement due to faulting during the late Quaternary with about 1.1-1.9 m displacement per event; the latest event occurred from 14000 to 25000 yrs. BP. The seismic survey showed the basement surface os cut by numerous reverse faults and indicated the possibility that the boundary between Kyeongsangbukdo and Kyeongsannamdo may be segment boundary

  17. Automated 3D closed surface segmentation: application to vertebral body segmentation in CT images.

    Liu, Shuang; Xie, Yiting; Reeves, Anthony P

    2016-05-01

    A fully automated segmentation algorithm, progressive surface resolution (PSR), is presented in this paper to determine the closed surface of approximately convex blob-like structures that are common in biomedical imaging. The PSR algorithm was applied to the cortical surface segmentation of 460 vertebral bodies on 46 low-dose chest CT images, which can be potentially used for automated bone mineral density measurement and compression fracture detection. The target surface is realized by a closed triangular mesh, which thereby guarantees the enclosure. The surface vertices of the triangular mesh representation are constrained along radial trajectories that are uniformly distributed in 3D angle space. The segmentation is accomplished by determining for each radial trajectory the location of its intersection with the target surface. The surface is first initialized based on an input high confidence boundary image and then resolved progressively based on a dynamic attraction map in an order of decreasing degree of evidence regarding the target surface location. For the visual evaluation, the algorithm achieved acceptable segmentation for 99.35 % vertebral bodies. Quantitative evaluation was performed on 46 vertebral bodies and achieved overall mean Dice coefficient of 0.939 (with max [Formula: see text] 0.957, min [Formula: see text] 0.906 and standard deviation [Formula: see text] 0.011) using manual annotations as the ground truth. Both visual and quantitative evaluations demonstrate encouraging performance of the PSR algorithm. This novel surface resolution strategy provides uniform angular resolution for the segmented surface with computation complexity and runtime that are linearly constrained by the total number of vertices of the triangular mesh representation.

  18. Substrate specificity within a family of outer membrane carboxylate channels.

    Elif Eren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  19. Outer Planet Missions with Electric Propulsion Systems—Part I

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For interplanetary missions, efficient electric propulsion systems can be used to increase the mass delivered to the destination. Outer planet exploration has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and New Horizons Missions. At the present, new technologies are studied for better use of electric propulsion systems in missions to the outer planets. This paper presents low-thrust trajectories using the method of the transporting trajectory to Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. They use nuclear and radio isotopic electric propulsion. These direct transfers have continuous electric propulsion of low power along the entire trajectory. The main goal of the paper is to optimize the transfers, that is, to provide maximum mass to be delivered to the outer planets.

  20. The outer magnetosphere. [composition and comparison with earth

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  1. Controlling Laser Spot Size in Outer Space

    Bennett, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    Three documents discuss a method of controlling the diameter of a laser beam projected from Earth to any altitude ranging from low orbit around the Earth to geosynchronous orbit. Such laser beams are under consideration as means of supplying power to orbiting spacecraft at levels of the order of tens of kilowatts apiece. Each such beam would be projected by use of a special purpose telescope having an aperture diameter of 15 m or more. Expanding the laser beam to such a large diameter at low altitude would prevent air breakdown and render the laser beam eyesafe. Typically, the telescope would include an adaptive-optics concave primary mirror and a convex secondary mirror. The laser beam transmitted out to the satellite would remain in the near field on the telescope side of the beam waist, so that the telescope focal point would remain effective in controlling the beam width. By use of positioning stages having submicron resolution and repeatability, the relative positions of the primary and secondary mirrors would be adjusted to change the nominal telescope object and image distances to obtain the desired beam diameter (typically about 6 m) at the altitude of the satellite. The limiting distance D(sub L) at which a constant beam diameter can be maintained is determined by the focal range of the telescope 4 lambda f(sup 2) where lambda is the wavelength and f the f/number of the primary mirror. The shorter the wavelength and the faster the mirror, the longer D(sub L) becomes.

  2. Segmental torso masses in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Keenan, Bethany E; Izatt, Maree T; Askin, Geoffrey N; Labrom, Robert D; Pettet, Graeme J; Pearcy, Mark J; Adam, Clayton J

    2014-08-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of spinal deformity whose aetiology remains unclear. Studies suggest that gravitational forces in the standing position play an important role in scoliosis progression, therefore anthropometric data is required to develop biomechanical models of the deformity. Few studies have analysed the trunk by vertebral level and none have performed investigations of the scoliotic trunk. The aim of this study was to determine the centroid, thickness, volume and estimated mass, for sections of the scoliotic trunk. Existing low-dose CT scans were used to estimate vertebral level-by-level torso masses for 20 female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. ImageJ processing software was used to analyse the CT images and enable estimation of the segmental torso mass corresponding to each vertebral level. The patients' mean age was 15.0 (SD 2.7) years with mean major Cobb angle of 52 (SD 5.9)° and mean patient weight of 58.2 (SD 11.6) kg. The magnitude of torso segment mass corresponding to each vertebral level increased by 150% from 0.6kg at T1 to 1.5kg at L5. Similarly, segmental thickness from T1-L5 increased inferiorly from a mean 18.5 (SD 2.2) mm at T1 to 32.8 (SD 3.4) mm at L5. The mean total trunk mass, as a percentage of total body mass, was 27.8 (SD 0.5) % which was close to values reported in previous literature. This study provides new anthropometric reference data on segmental (vertebral level-by-level) torso mass in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients, useful for biomechanical models of scoliosis progression and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability of a Seven-Segment Foot Model with Medial and Lateral Midfoot and Forefoot Segments During Walking Gait.

    Cobb, Stephen C; Joshi, Mukta N; Pomeroy, Robin L

    2016-12-01

    In-vitro and invasive in-vivo studies have reported relatively independent motion in the medial and lateral forefoot segments during gait. However, most current surface-based models have not defined medial and lateral forefoot or midfoot segments. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reliability of a 7-segment foot model that includes medial and lateral midfoot and forefoot segments during walking gait. Three-dimensional positions of marker clusters located on the leg and 6 foot segments were tracked as 10 participants completed 5 walking trials. To examine the reliability of the foot model, coefficients of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated across the trials for each participant. Three-dimensional stance time series and range of motion (ROM) during stance were also calculated for each functional articulation. CMCs for all of the functional articulations were ≥ 0.80. Overall, the rearfoot complex (leg-calcaneus segments) was the most reliable articulation and the medial midfoot complex (calcaneus-navicular segments) was the least reliable. With respect to ROM, reliability was greatest for plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and least for abduction/adduction. Further, the stance ROM and time-series patterns results between the current study and previous invasive in-vivo studies that have assessed actual bone motion were generally consistent.

  4. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  5. Skip segment Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome

    Erica R. Gross

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.

  6. U.S. Army Custom Segmentation System

    2007-06-01

    segmentation is individual or intergroup differences in response to marketing - mix variables. Presumptions about segments: •different demands in a...product or service category, •respond differently to changes in the marketing mix Criteria for segments: •The segments must exist in the environment

  7. Skip segment Hirschsprung disease and Waardenburg syndrome

    Gross, Erica R.; Geddes, Gabrielle C.; McCarrier, Julie A.; Jarzembowski, Jason A.; Arca, Marjorie J.

    2015-01-01

    Skip segment Hirschsprung disease describes a segment of ganglionated bowel between two segments of aganglionated bowel. It is a rare phenomenon that is difficult to diagnose. We describe a recent case of skip segment Hirschsprung disease in a neonate with a family history of Waardenburg syndrome and the genetic profile that was identified.

  8. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  9. Colors of Outer Solar System Objects Measured with VATT

    Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 7 years, we have measured optical B-V and V-R colors for about 40 minor outer solar system objects using the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) located on Mt. Graham in southeast Arizona. We will present these colors and use them to update the discussion of colors of minor bodies in the outer solar system. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program to Northern Arizona University and the U. of Oklahoma which helped support this work.

  10. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin.

    Fabacher, D L; Little, E E

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  11. Stability of marginally outer trapped surfaces and symmetries

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc, E-mail: acf@usal.e, E-mail: marc@usal.e [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-09-07

    We study the properties of stable, strictly stable and locally outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in spacelike hypersurfaces of spacetimes possessing certain symmetries such as isometries, homotheties and conformal Killings. We first obtain results for general diffeomorphisms in terms of the so-called metric deformation tensor and then particularize to different types of symmetries. In particular, we find restrictions at the surfaces on the vector field generating the symmetry. Some consequences are discussed. As an application, we present a result on non-existence of stable marginally outer trapped surfaces in slices of FLRW.

  12. THE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS INSECTICIDE FENTHION DOES NOT AFFECT PHAGOCYTOSIS OF ROD OUTER SEGMENTS BY RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM CELLS IN CULTURE.

    :Exposure to the organophosphorous insecticide fenthion has been associated with retinal degeneration in occupational studies. It has also been associated with pigmentary changes of the retina. Because retinal degeneration and pigmentary changes may be due to dysfunction of t...

  13. Comparison of segmentation algorithms for fluorescence microscopy images of cells.

    Dima, Alden A; Elliott, John T; Filliben, James J; Halter, Michael; Peskin, Adele; Bernal, Javier; Kociolek, Marcin; Brady, Mary C; Tang, Hai C; Plant, Anne L

    2011-07-01

    The analysis of fluorescence microscopy of cells often requires the determination of cell edges. This is typically done using segmentation techniques that separate the cell objects in an image from the surrounding background. This study compares segmentation results from nine different segmentation techniques applied to two different cell lines and five different sets of imaging conditions. Significant variability in the results of segmentation was observed that was due solely to differences in imaging conditions or applications of different algorithms. We quantified and compared the results with a novel bivariate similarity index metric that evaluates the degree of underestimating or overestimating a cell object. The results show that commonly used threshold-based segmentation techniques are less accurate than k-means clustering with multiple clusters. Segmentation accuracy varies with imaging conditions that determine the sharpness of cell edges and with geometric features of a cell. Based on this observation, we propose a method that quantifies cell edge character to provide an estimate of how accurately an algorithm will perform. The results of this study will assist the development of criteria for evaluating interlaboratory comparability. Published 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Market Segmentation Based on the Consumers' Impulsive Buying Behaviour

    Mirela Mihić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this research is to determine the sufficiently different segments of consumers based on their impulsivity in the buying behaviour. The research was conducted in Splitsko-Dalmatinska county on the sample of 180 respondents. Based on the subject matter and research goals, the basic as well as four additional hypotheses were set. The used methodology comprised of the cluster analysis, which helped to divide three segments that were named as: ‘’rational’’, ‘’somewhat rational and somewhat impulsive’’ and ‘’impulsive’’ consumers. The variance analysis was used in order to describe the segments properly and to determine whether they are different enough with respect to demographic, socio-economic characteristics and individual differences variables. The findings confirmed the hypothesis based on the possibility of dividing different consumer segments according to the analysed variables. Correlating the demographics and individual differences factors with the impulse buy, the expected results were gained. When analyzing demographics the results indicate the segment differentiation solely in the case of age and working status. However, from the aspect of majority of individual differences variables the distinction among the segments is significant.

  15. The relevance of segments reports – measurement methodology

    Tomasz Zimnicki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The segment report is one of the areas of financial statements, and it obliges a company to provide infor-mation about the economic situation in each of its activity areas. The article evaluates the change of segment reporting standards from IAS14R to IFRS8 in the context of feature relevance. It presents the construction of a measure which allows the relevance of segment disclosures to be determined. The created measure was used to study periodical reports published by companies listed on the main market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange from three reporting periods – 2008, 2009 and 2013. Based on the re-search results, it was found that the change of segment reporting standards from IAS14R to IFRS8 in the context of relevance was legitimate.

  16. Segmenting Chinese Tourists by the Expected Experience at Theme Parks

    Shan Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an experiential approach to tourist segmentation aimed at overcoming the limits of both socio-demographic and context-specific approaches widely adopted in the literature and in practice. In this study, segmentation is carried out based upon the expected experiences of Chinese tourists at the Shanghai World Exposition. The segmentation reveals four tourist clusters with different interests in relation to their experiences in visiting the World Exposition. The clusters showed insignificant differences in the demographics but proved to be powerfully discriminant in determining tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty, which affirms the potential of the tourist experience being a segmenting variable. Moreover, thanks to the analysis, an evaluation of the Shanghai World Exposition’s success in terms of visitors’ satisfaction is provided.

  17. Active contour based segmentation of resected livers in CT images

    Oelmann, Simon; Oyarzun Laura, Cristina; Drechsler, Klaus; Wesarg, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The majority of state of the art segmentation algorithms are able to give proper results in healthy organs but not in pathological ones. However, many clinical applications require an accurate segmentation of pathological organs. The determination of the target boundaries for radiotherapy or liver volumetry calculations are examples of this. Volumetry measurements are of special interest after tumor resection for follow up of liver regrow. The segmentation of resected livers presents additional challenges that were not addressed by state of the art algorithms. This paper presents a snakes based algorithm specially developed for the segmentation of resected livers. The algorithm is enhanced with a novel dynamic smoothing technique that allows the active contour to propagate with different speeds depending on the intensities visible in its neighborhood. The algorithm is evaluated in 6 clinical CT images as well as 18 artificial datasets generated from additional clinical CT images.

  18. Outer Retinal Changes Including the Ellipsoid Zone Band in Usher Syndrome 1B due to MYO7A Mutations.

    Sumaroka, Alexander; Matsui, Rodrigo; Cideciyan, Artur V; McGuigan, David B; Sheplock, Rebecca; Schwartz, Sharon B; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2016-07-01

    To study transition zones from normal to abnormal retina in Usher syndrome IB (USH1B) caused by myosin 7A (MYO7A) mutations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scattering layers in outer retina were segmented in patients (n = 16, ages 2-42; eight patients had serial data, average interval 4.5 years) to quantify outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer segments (OS) as well as the locus of EZ (ellipsoid zone) edge and its extent from the fovea. Static perimetry was measured under dark-adapted (DA) and light-adapted (LA) conditions. Ellipsoid zone edge in USH1B-MYO7A could be located up to 23° from the fovea. Ellipsoid zone extent constricted at a rate of 0.51°/year with slower rates at smaller eccentricities. A well-defined EZ line could be associated with normal or abnormal ONL and/or OS thickness; detectable ONL extended well beyond EZ edge. At the EZ edge, the local slope of LA sensitivity loss was 2.6 (±1.7) dB/deg for central transition zones. At greater eccentricities, the local slope of cone sensitivity loss was shallower (1.1 ± 0.4 dB/deg for LA) than that of rod sensitivity loss (2.8 ± 1.2 dB/deg for DA). In USH1B-MYO7A, constriction rate of EZ extent depends on the initial eccentricity of the transition. Ellipsoid zone edges in the macula correspond to large local changes in cone vision, but extramacular EZ edges show more pronounced losses on rod-based vision tests. It is advisable to use not only the EZ line but also other structural and functional parameters for estimating natural history of disease and possible therapeutic effects in future clinical trials of USH1B-MYO7A.

  19. Determination of Trichuris skrjabini by sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment of the ribosomal DNA: comparative molecular study of different species of trichurids.

    Cutillas, C; Oliveros, R; de Rojas, M; Guevara, D C

    2004-06-01

    Adults of Trichuris skrjahini have been isolated from the cecum of caprine hosts (Capra hircus), Trichuris ovis and Trichuris globulosa from Ovis aries (sheep) and C. hircus (goats), and Trichuris leporis from Lepus europaeus (rabbits) in Spain. Genomic DNA was isolated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The ITS1 of T. skrjabini, T. ovis, T. globulosa, and T. leporis was 495, 757, 757, and 536 nucleotides in length, respectively, and had G + C contents of 59.6, 58.7, 58.7, and 60.8%, respectively. Intraindividual variation was detected in the ITSI sequences of the 4 species. Furthermore, the 5.8S sequences of T. skrjabini, T. ovis, T. globulosa, and T. leporis were compared. A total of 157, 152, 153, and 157 nucleotides in length was observed in the 5.8S sequences of these 4 species, respectively. There were no sequence differences of ITS1 and 5.8S products between T. ovis and T. globulosa. Nevertheless, clear differences were detected between the ITS1 sequences of T. skrjabini, T. ovis, T. leporis, Trichuris muris, and T. arvicolae. The ITS2 fragment from the rDNA of T. skrjabini was sequenced. A comparative study of the ITS2 sequence of T. skrjabini with the previously published ITS2 sequence data of T. ovis, T. leporis, T. muris, and T. arvicolae suggested that the combined use of sequence data from both spacers would be useful in the molecular characterization of trichurid parasites.

  20. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...

  1. Impacts of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) development on recreation and tourism. Volume 4. User's manual

    1987-04-01

    The final report for the project is presented in five volumes. The project sought to determine the impact of Outer Continental Shelf development on recreation and tourism in California. This volume is the User's Guide. It includes the following topics: Introduction and Summary Guide; Input Data Files; Gravity Model Programs; Economic Effects Model Programs; Consumer Surplus Model Programs; References; and Appendices.

  2. A global outer-rise/outer-trench-slope (OR/OTS) earthquake study

    Wartman, J. M.; Kita, S.; Kirby, S. H.; Choy, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    Using improved seismic, bathymetric, satellite gravity and other geophysical data, we investigated the seismicity patterns and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in oceanic lithosphere off the trenches of the world that are large enough to be well recorded at teleseismic distances. A number of prominent trends are apparent, some of which have been previously recognized based on more limited data [1], and some of which are largely new [2-5]: (1) The largest events and the highest seismicity rates tend to occur where Mesozoic incoming plates are subducting at high rates (e.g., those in the western Pacific and the Banda segment of Indonesia). The largest events are predominantly shallow normal faulting (SNF) earthquakes. Less common are reverse-faulting (RF) events that tend to be deeper and to be present along with SNF events where nearby seamounts, seamount chains and other volcanic features are subducting [Seno and Yamanaka, 1996]. Blooms of SNF OR/OTS events usually occur just after and seaward of great interplate thrust (IPT) earthquakes but are far less common after smaller IPT events. (2) Plates subducting at slow rates (Chile, the Ninety East Ridge in Sumatra, and the D’Entrecastaux Ridge in Vanuatu).

  3. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  4. Optimally segmented permanent magnet structures

    Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....

  5. Intercalary bone segment transport in treatment of segmental tibial defects

    Iqbal, A.; Amin, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results and complications of intercalary bone segment transport in the treatment of segmental tibial defects. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with segmental tibial defects who were treated with intercalary bone segment transport method. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from September 1997 to April 2001. Subjects and methods: Thirteen patients were included in the study who had developed tibial defects either due to open fractures with bone loss or subsequent to bone debridement of infected non unions. The mean bone defect was 6.4 cms and there were eight associated soft tissue defects. Locally made unilateral 'Naseer-Awais' (NA) fixator was used for bone segment transport. The distraction was done at the rate of 1mm/day after 7-10 days of osteotomy. The patients were followed-up fortnightly during distraction and monthly thereafter. The mean follow-up duration was 18 months. Results: The mean time in external fixation was 9.4 months. The m ean healing index' was 1.47 months/cm. Satisfactory union was achieved in all cases. Six cases (46.2%) required bone grafting at target site and in one of them grafting was required at the level of regeneration as well. All the wounds healed well with no residual infection. There was no residual leg length discrepancy of more than 20 mm nd one angular deformity of more than 5 degrees. The commonest complication encountered was pin track infection seen in 38% of Shanz Screws applied. Loosening occurred in 6.8% of Shanz screws, requiring re-adjustment. Ankle joint contracture with equinus deformity and peroneal nerve paresis occurred in one case each. The functional results were graded as 'good' in seven, 'fair' in four, and 'poor' in two patients. Overall, thirteen patients had 31 (minor/major) complications with a ratio of 2.38 complications per patient. To treat the bone defects and associated complications, a mean of

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Spectralis SD OCT Automated Macular Layers Segmentation to Discriminate Normal from Early Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Pazos, Marta; Dyrda, Agnieszka Anna; Biarnés, Marc; Gómez, Alicia; Martín, Carlos; Mora, Clara; Fatti, Gianluca; Antón, Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the macular retinal layer segmentation software of the Spectralis spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) to discriminate between healthy and early glaucoma (EG) eyes. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Forty EG eyes and 40 healthy controls were included. All participants were examined using the standard posterior pole and the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) protocols of the Spectralis OCT device. Using an Early Treatment Diagnostic Retinopathy Study circle at the macular level, the automated retinal segmentation software was applied to determine thicknesses of the following parameters: total retinal thickness, inner retinal layer (IRL), macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), macular ganglion cell layer (mGCL), macular inner plexiform layer (mIPL), macular inner nuclear layer (mINL), macular outer plexiform layer (mOPL), macular outer nuclear layer (mONL), photoreceptors (PR), and retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE). The ganglion cell complex (GCC) was determined by adding the mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL parameters and the ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (mGCL-IPL) was determined by combining the mGCL and mIPL parameters. Thickness of each layer was compared between the groups, and the layer and sector with the best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were identified. Comparison of pRNFL, IRL, mRNFL, mGCL, mIPL, mGCC, mGCL-IPL, mINL, mOPL, mONL, PR, and RPE parameters and total retinal thicknesses between groups for the different areas and their corresponding AUCs. Peripapillary RNFL was significantly thinner in the EG group globally and in all 6 sectors assessed (P < 0.0005). For the macular variables, retinal thickness was significantly reduced in the EG group for total retinal thickness, mIRL, mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL. The 2 best isolated parameters to discriminate between the 2 groups were pRNFL (AUC, 0.956) and

  7. The participation of outer membrane proteins in the bacterial sensitivity to nanosilver

    Anna Kędziora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is to analyze the participation of outer membrane proteins of Gram- negative bacteria in sensitivity to silver nanomaterials. The mechanism of interaction of silver with the bacterial cell is best described in this group of microorganisms. There are several theories regarding the effectiveness of antimicrobial ions and nanosilver, and at the indicated differences in the way they work. Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria are involved in the procurement of silver from the environment and contribute to the development mechanisms of resistance to nanometals. They are measurable parameter in the field of cell phenotypic response to the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in the environment silver nanoforms: its properties, chemical composition, content or times of action. Proteomic methods (including two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI‑TOF MS are therefore relevant techniques for determining the susceptibility of bacteria to silver and the changes taking place in the outer membrane under the influence: uptime/exposure and physical and chemical parameters of silver nanomaterials. Many products containing nanosilver is still in the research phase in terms of physico‑chemical characteristics and biological activity, others have been already implemented in many industries. During the very fast nanotechnology developing and introduction to the market products based on the nanosilver the bacterial answer to nanosilver is needed.

  8. Chorus source region localization in the Earth's outer magnetosphere using THEMIS measurements

    O. Agapitov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete ELF/VLF chorus emissions, the most intense electromagnetic plasma waves observed in the Earth's radiation belts and outer magnetosphere, are thought to propagate roughly along magnetic field lines from a localized source region near the magnetic equator towards the magnetic poles. THEMIS project Electric Field Instrument (EFI and Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM measurements were used to determine the spatial scale of the chorus source localization region on the day side of the Earth's outer magnetosphere. We present simultaneous observations of the same chorus elements registered onboard several THEMIS spacecraft in 2007 when all the spacecraft were in the same orbit. Discrete chorus elements were observed at 0.15–0.25 of the local electron gyrofrequency, which is typical for the outer magnetosphere. We evaluated the Poynting flux and wave vector distribution and obtained chorus wave packet quasi-parallel propagation to the local magnetic field. Amplitude and phase correlation data analysis allowed us to estimate the characteristic spatial correlation scale transverse to the local magnetic field to be in the 2800–3200 km range.

  9. Inner/Outer nuclear membrane fusion in nuclear pore assembly: biochemical demonstration and molecular analysis.

    Fichtman, Boris; Ramos, Corinne; Rasala, Beth; Harel, Amnon; Forbes, Douglass J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are large proteinaceous channels embedded in double nuclear membranes, which carry out nucleocytoplasmic exchange. The mechanism of nuclear pore assembly involves a unique challenge, as it requires creation of a long-lived membrane-lined channel connecting the inner and outer nuclear membranes. This stabilized membrane channel has little evolutionary precedent. Here we mapped inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion in NPC assembly biochemically by using novel assembly intermediates and membrane fusion inhibitors. Incubation of a Xenopus in vitro nuclear assembly system at 14°C revealed an early pore intermediate where nucleoporin subunits POM121 and the Nup107-160 complex were organized in a punctate pattern on the inner nuclear membrane. With time, this intermediate progressed to diffusion channel formation and finally to complete nuclear pore assembly. Correct channel formation was blocked by the hemifusion inhibitor lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not if a complementary-shaped lipid, oleic acid (OA), was simultaneously added, as determined with a novel fluorescent dextran-quenching assay. Importantly, recruitment of the bulk of FG nucleoporins, characteristic of mature nuclear pores, was not observed before diffusion channel formation and was prevented by LPC or OA, but not by LPC+OA. These results map the crucial inner/outer nuclear membrane fusion event of NPC assembly downstream of POM121/Nup107-160 complex interaction and upstream or at the time of FG nucleoporin recruitment.

  10. NMR relaxation of the orientation of single segments in semiflexible dendrimers

    Markelov, Denis A.; Gotlib, Yuli Ya.; Dolgushev, Maxim; Blumen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the orientational properties of labeled segments in semiflexible dendrimers making use of the viscoelastic approach of Dolgushev and Blumen [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044905 (2009)]. We focus on the segmental orientational autocorrelation functions (ACFs), which are fundamental for the frequency-dependent spin-lattice relaxation times T 1 (ω). We show that semiflexibility leads to an increase of the contribution of large-scale motions to the ACF. This fact influences the position of the maxima of the [1/T 1 ]-functions. Thus, going from outer to inner segments, the maxima shift to lower frequencies. Remarkably, this feature is not obtained in the classical bead-spring model of flexible dendrimers, although many experiments on dendrimers manifest such a behavior

  11. Hydrophilic segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) and monodisperse amide segments

    Husken, D.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) flexible segments and monodisperse crystallizable bisester tetra-amide segments were made via a polycondensation reaction. The molecular weight of the PEO segments varied from 600 to 4600 g/mol and a bisester tetra-amide segment (T6T6T)

  12. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    2010-11-24

    ... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals... oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer...

  13. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs.

    Ghai, Ishan; Ghai, Shashank

    2017-01-01

    One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps) is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels.

  14. Outer casing of the AA antiproton production target

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling.

  15. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  16. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    Stader, J; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  17. Ethane Ices in the Outer Solar System: Spectroscopy and Chemistry

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Raines, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We report recent experiments on ethane ices made at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System. New near- and mid-infrared data for crystalline and amorphous ethane, including new spectra for a seldom-studied solid phase that exists at 35-55 K, are presented along with radiation-chemical experiments showing the formation of more-complex hydrocarbons

  18. The outer membrane protein assembly machinery of Neisseria meningitidis

    Volokhina, E.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837202

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by a cell envelope consisting of an inner membrane (IM) and an outer membrane (OM), which are separated by the peptidoglycan-containing periplasm. While the integral IM proteins are alpha-helical, all but one known integral OM proteins (OMPs) are

  19. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs

    Ghai I

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ishan Ghai,1 Shashank Ghai2 1School of Engineering and Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, 2Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany Abstract: One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels. Keywords: antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria, cell envelope, protein channels, nanopores, influx, antibiotic resistance

  20. Using multimodal information for the segmentation of fluorescent micrographs with application to virology and microbiology.

    Held, Christian; Wenzel, Jens; Webel, Rike; Marschall, Manfred; Lang, Roland; Palmisano, Ralf; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve reproducibility and objectivity of fluorescence microscopy based experiments and to enable the evaluation of large datasets, flexible segmentation methods are required which are able to adapt to different stainings and cell types. This adaption is usually achieved by the manual adjustment of the segmentation methods parameters, which is time consuming and challenging for biologists with no knowledge on image processing. To avoid this, parameters of the presented methods automatically adapt to user generated ground truth to determine the best method and the optimal parameter setup. These settings can then be used for segmentation of the remaining images. As robust segmentation methods form the core of such a system, the currently used watershed transform based segmentation routine is replaced by a fast marching level set based segmentation routine which incorporates knowledge on the cell nuclei. Our evaluations reveal that incorporation of multimodal information improves segmentation quality for the presented fluorescent datasets.

  1. PRINCIPLES AND MODELS OF CONSUMER SEGMENTATION IN THE BANKING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES MARKET

    Andrey V. Tsarev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of segmenting consumers ofbanking products and services connects withconducting marketing research. In the processof customer segmentation it is necessary to identify the factors that affect them. Identifi cation of competitive and consumer factors, in particular, is necessary for marketing decision making andthe development of the segment coverage strategy to reach a segment at all stages of planningmarketing activities and evaluating its effectiveness. After determining the basic segments on macro and micro levels the segment coveragestrategies are developed that should be based onthe results of the segmentation map construction.Banking institutions that implement informationtechnology to facilitate collecting and processingcustomer data, such as CRM-systems, receivemore opportunities to identify the client and provide a competitive position in the market.

  2. Evaluation of segmental left ventricular wall motion by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography.

    Van Nostrand, D; Janowitz, W R; Holmes, D R; Cohen, H A

    1979-01-01

    The ability of equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography to detect segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities was determined in 26 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Multiple gated studies obtained in 30 degrees right anterior oblique and 45 degrees left anterior oblique projections, played back in a movie format, were compared to the corresponding LV ventriculograms. The LV wall in the two projections was divided into eight segments. Each segment was graded as normal, hypokinetic, akinetic, dyskinetic, or indeterminate. Thirteen percent of the segments in the gated images were indeterminate; 24 out of 27 of these were proximal or distal inferior wall segments. There was exact agreement in 86% of the remaining segments. The sensitivity of the radionuclide technique for detecting normal versus any abnormal wall motion was 71%, with a specificity of 99%. Equilibrium gated ventriculography is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating segmental LV wall motion. It is least reliable in assessing the proximal inferior wall and interventricular septum.

  3. Wisps in the outer edge of the Keeler Gap

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Arnault, Ethan G.

    2015-11-01

    Superposed upon the relatively smooth outer edge of the Keeler Gap are a system of "wisps," which appear to be ring material protruding inward into the gap, usually with a sharp trailing edge and a smooth gradation back to the background edge location on the leading side (Porco et al. 2005, Science). The radial amplitude of wisps is usually 0.5 to 1 km, and their azimuthal extent is approximately a degree of longitude (~2400 km). Wisps are likely caused by an interplay between Daphnis (and perhaps other moons) and embedded moonlets within the ring, though the details remain unclear.Aside from the wisps, the Keeler Gap outer edge is the only one of the five sharp edges in the outer part of Saturn's A ring that is reasonably smooth in appearance (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), with occultations indicating residuals less than 1 km upon a possibly non-zero eccentricity (R.G. French, personal communication, 2014). The other four (the inner and outer edges of the Encke Gap, the inner edge of the Keeler Gap, and the outer edge of the A ring itself) are characterized by wavy structure at moderate to high spatial frequencies, with amplitudes ranging from 2 to 30 km (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS).We will present a catalogue of wisp detections in Cassini images. We carry out repeated gaussian fits of the radial edge location in order to characterize edge structure and visually scan those fitted edges in order to detect wisps. With extensive coverage in longitude and in time, we will report on how wisps evolve and move, both within an orbit period and on longer timescales. We will also report on the frequency and interpretation of wisps that deviate from the standard morphology. We will discuss the implications of our results for the origin and nature of wisps, and for the larger picture of how masses interact within Saturn's rings.

  4. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  5. Multiple Segmentation of Image Stacks

    Smets, Jonathan; Jaeger, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method for the simultaneous construction of multiple image segmentations by combining a recently proposed “convolution of mixtures of Gaussians” model with a multi-layer hidden Markov random field structure. The resulting method constructs for a single image several, alternative...

  6. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  7. Segmental Colitis Complicating Diverticular Disease

    Guido Ma Van Rosendaal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of idiopathic colitis affecting the sigmoid colon in elderly patients with underlying diverticulosis are presented. Segmental resection has permitted close review of the histopathology in this syndrome which demonstrates considerable similarity to changes seen in idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The reported experience with this syndrome and its clinical features are reviewed.

  8. Leaf segmentation in plant phenotyping

    Scharr, Hanno; Minervini, Massimo; French, Andrew P.; Klukas, Christian; Kramer, David M.; Liu, Xiaoming; Luengo, Imanol; Pape, Jean Michel; Polder, Gerrit; Vukadinovic, Danijela; Yin, Xi; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based plant phenotyping is a growing application area of computer vision in agriculture. A key task is the segmentation of all individual leaves in images. Here we focus on the most common rosette model plants, Arabidopsis and young tobacco. Although leaves do share appearance and shape

  9. A hybrid method for airway segmentation and automated measurement of bronchial wall thickness on CT.

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Mansoor, Awais; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory and infectious lung diseases commonly involve bronchial airway structures and morphology, and these abnormalities are often analyzed non-invasively through high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. Assessing airway wall surfaces and the lumen are of great importance for diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, obtaining high accuracy from a complete 3-D airway tree structure can be quite challenging. The airway tree structure has spiculated shapes with multiple branches and bifurcation points as opposed to solid single organ or tumor segmentation tasks in other applications, hence, it is complex for manual segmentation as compared with other tasks. For computerized methods, a fundamental challenge in airway tree segmentation is the highly variable intensity levels in the lumen area, which often causes a segmentation method to leak into adjacent lung parenchyma through blurred airway walls or soft boundaries. Moreover, outer wall definition can be difficult due to similar intensities of the airway walls and nearby structures such as vessels. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to accurately quantify airways through (i) a novel hybrid approach for precise segmentation of the lumen, and (ii) two novel methods (a spatially constrained Markov random walk method (pseudo 3-D) and a relative fuzzy connectedness method (3-D)) to estimate the airway wall thickness. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods in comparison with mostly used algorithms using human chest CT images. Our results demonstrate that, on publicly available data sets and using standard evaluation criteria, the proposed airway segmentation method is accurate and efficient as compared with the state-of-the-art methods, and the airway wall estimation algorithms identified the inner and outer airway surfaces more accurately than the most widely applied methods, namely full width at half maximum and phase congruency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Cerebrovascular plaque segmentation using object class uncertainty snake in MR images

    Das, Bipul; Saha, Punam K.; Wolf, Ronald; Song, Hee Kwon; Wright, Alexander C.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2005-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease leads to formation of lipid-laden plaques that can form emboli when ruptured causing blockage to cerebral vessels. The clinical manifestation of this event sequence is stroke; a leading cause of disability and death. In vivo MR imaging provides detailed image of vascular architecture for the carotid artery making it suitable for analysis of morphological features. Assessing the status of carotid arteries that supplies blood to the brain is of primary interest to such investigations. Reproducible quantification of carotid artery dimensions in MR images is essential for plaque analysis. Manual segmentation being the only method presently makes it time consuming and sensitive to inter and intra observer variability. This paper presents a deformable model for lumen and vessel wall segmentation of carotid artery from MR images. The major challenges of carotid artery segmentation are (a) low signal-to-noise ratio, (b) background intensity inhomogeneity and (c) indistinct inner and/or outer vessel wall. We propose a new, effective object-class uncertainty based deformable model with additional features tailored toward this specific application. Object-class uncertainty optimally utilizes MR intensity characteristics of various anatomic entities that enable the snake to avert leakage through fuzzy boundaries. To strengthen the deformable model for this application, some other properties are attributed to it in the form of (1) fully arc-based deformation using a Gaussian model to maximally exploit vessel wall smoothness, (2) construction of a forbidden region for outer-wall segmentation to reduce interferences by prominent lumen features and (3) arc-based landmark for efficient user interaction. The algorithm has been tested upon T1- and PD- weighted images. Measures of lumen area and vessel wall area are computed from segmented data of 10 patient MR images and their accuracy and reproducibility are examined. These results correspond

  11. Semiautomatic segmentation of liver metastases on volumetric CT images

    Yan, Jiayong; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Zhao, Binsheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and quantification of liver metastases on CT images are critical to surgery/radiation treatment planning and therapy response assessment. To date, there are no reliable methods to perform such segmentation automatically. In this work, the authors present a method for semiautomatic delineation of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced volumetric CT images. Methods: The first step is to manually place a seed region-of-interest (ROI) in the lesion on an image. This ROI will (1) serve as an internal marker and (2) assist in automatically identifying an external marker. With these two markers, lesion contour on the image can be accurately delineated using traditional watershed transformation. Density information will then be extracted from the segmented 2D lesion and help determine the 3D connected object that is a candidate of the lesion volume. The authors have developed a robust strategy to automatically determine internal and external markers for marker-controlled watershed segmentation. By manually placing a seed region-of-interest in the lesion to be delineated on a reference image, the method can automatically determine dual threshold values to approximately separate the lesion from its surrounding structures and refine the thresholds from the segmented lesion for the accurate segmentation of the lesion volume. This method was applied to 69 liver metastases (1.1–10.3 cm in diameter) from a total of 15 patients. An independent radiologist manually delineated all lesions and the resultant lesion volumes served as the “gold standard” for validation of the method’s accuracy. Results: The algorithm received a median overlap, overestimation ratio, and underestimation ratio of 82.3%, 6.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, and a median average boundary distance of 1.2 mm. Conclusions: Preliminary results have shown that volumes of liver metastases on contrast-enhanced CT images can be accurately estimated by a semiautomatic segmentation

  12. NMR structure of temporin-1 ta in lipopolysaccharide micelles: mechanistic insight into inactivation by outer membrane.

    Rathi Saravanan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs play important roles in the innate defense mechanism. The broad spectrum of activity of AMPs requires an efficient permeabilization of the bacterial outer and inner membranes. The outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is made of a specialized lipid called lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The LPS layer is an efficient permeability barrier against anti-bacterial agents including AMPs. As a mode of protection, LPS can induce self associations of AMPs rendering them inactive. Temporins are a group of short-sized AMPs isolated from frog skin, and many of them are inactive against Gram negative bacteria as a result of their self-association in the LPS-outer membrane. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using NMR spectroscopy, we have determined atomic resolution structure and characterized localization of temporin-1Ta or TA (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-amide in LPS micelles. In LPS micelles, TA adopts helical conformation for residues L4-I12, while residues F1-L3 are found to be in extended conformations. The aromatic sidechain of residue F1 is involved in extensive packing interactions with the sidechains of residues P3, L4 and I5. Interestingly, a number of long-range NOE contacts have been detected between the N-terminal residues F1, P3 with the C-terminal residues S10, I12, L13 of TA in LPS micelles. Saturation transfer difference (STD NMR studies demonstrate close proximity of residues including F1, L2, P3, R7, S10 and L13 with the LPS micelles. Notably, the LPS bound structure of TA shows differences with the structures of TA determined in DPC and SDS detergent micelles. SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that TA, in LPS lipids, forms helical oligomeric structures employing N- and C-termini residues. Such oligomeric structures may not be translocated across the outer membrane; resulting in the inactivation of the AMP. Importantly, the results of our studies will be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents with a

  13. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of leptospiral outer membrane protein expression in response to temperature.

    Miranda Lo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis affecting millions of people annually. Transcriptional changes in response to temperature were previously investigated using microarrays to identify genes potentially expressed upon host entry. Past studies found that various leptospiral outer membrane proteins are differentially expressed at different temperatures. However, our microarray studies highlighted a divergence between protein abundance and transcript levels for some proteins. Given the abundance of post-transcriptional expression control mechanisms, this finding highlighted the importance of global protein analysis systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To complement our previous transcription study, we evaluated differences in the proteins of the leptospiral outer membrane fraction in response to temperature upshift. Outer membrane protein-enriched fractions from Leptospira interrogans grown at 30 degrees C or overnight upshift to 37 degrees C were isolated and the relative abundance of each protein was determined by iTRAQ analysis coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2-DLC/MS-MS. We identified 1026 proteins with 99% confidence; 27 and 66 were present at elevated and reduced abundance respectively. Protein abundance changes were compared with transcriptional differences determined from the microarray studies. While there was some correlation between the microarray and iTRAQ data, a subset of genes that showed no differential expression by microarray was found to encode temperature-regulated proteins. This set of genes is of particular interest as it is likely that regulation of their expression occurs post-transcriptionally, providing an opportunity to develop hypotheses about the molecular dynamics of the outer membrane of Leptospira in response to changing environments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to compare transcriptional and translational responses to temperature

  14. Segmentation strategies for the irradiated and tritium contaminated PPPL TFTR

    Walton, G.R.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is scheduled to complete its final experiments in the Fall of 1995. As a result, the TFTR will be activated and tritium contaminated. After the experiments are complete, the TFTR will undergo Shutdown and Removal (S and R). The space vacated by the TFTR will be used for a new test reactor, the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Remote methods may be required to remove components and to segment the Vacuum Vessel. The TFTR has been studied to determine alternatives for the segmentation of the Vacuum Vessel from the inside (In-Vessel). The methodology to determine suitable strategies to segment the Vacuum Vessel from In-Vessel included several areas of concentration. These areas were segmentation locations, cutting/removal technologies, pros and cons, and cutting/removal technology delivery systems. The segmentation locations for easiest implementation and minimal steps in cutting and removal have been identified. Each of these will also achieve the baseline for packaging and shipment. The methods for cutting and removal of components were determined. In addition, the delivery systems were conceptualized

  15. Segmentation strategies for the irradiated and tritium contaminated PPPL TFTR

    Walton, G.R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Litka, T.J. [Advanced Consulting Group, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Spampinato, P.T. [RHD Consultants, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-02-09

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is scheduled to complete its final experiments in the Fall of 1995. As a result, the TFTR will be activated and tritium contaminated. After the experiments are complete, the TFTR will undergo Shutdown and Removal (S and R). The space vacated by the TFTR will be used for a new test reactor, the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Remote methods may be required to remove components and to segment the Vacuum Vessel. The TFTR has been studied to determine alternatives for the segmentation of the Vacuum Vessel from the inside (In-Vessel). The methodology to determine suitable strategies to segment the Vacuum Vessel from In-Vessel included several areas of concentration. These areas were segmentation locations, cutting/removal technologies, pros and cons, and cutting/removal technology delivery systems. The segmentation locations for easiest implementation and minimal steps in cutting and removal have been identified. Each of these will also achieve the baseline for packaging and shipment. The methods for cutting and removal of components were determined. In addition, the delivery systems were conceptualized.

  16. Joint shape segmentation with linear programming

    Huang, Qixing

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to segmenting shapes in a heterogenous shape database. Our approach segments the shapes jointly, utilizing features from multiple shapes to improve the segmentation of each. The approach is entirely unsupervised and is based on an integer quadratic programming formulation of the joint segmentation problem. The program optimizes over possible segmentations of individual shapes as well as over possible correspondences between segments from multiple shapes. The integer quadratic program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape segmentation significantly outperforms single-shape segmentation techniques. © 2011 ACM.

  17. Effects of Contrast Agent and Outer Volume Saturation Bands on Water Suppression and Shimming of Hepatic Single-Volume Proton MR Spectroscopy at 3.0T

    Li Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether administration of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA and whether placement of the outer volume saturation bands significantly affect shimming and water suppression on hepatic MR spectroscopic prescanning. Method. Region of interest (ROI of 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm was carefully positioned in the region of the middle portion of the right hepatic lobe. 32 patients were examined before and after administration of Gd-DTPA with and without outer-volume saturation bands. Linewidths (Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM and water suppression were obtained. A paired t-test for comparison of means was used. Results. (1 The group with the outer volume saturation bands demonstrated slightly better water suppression effect than the group without outer volume saturation bands before administration. (2 The group with the outer volume saturation bands demonstrated better water suppression effect than the group without outer volume saturation bands after administration. (3 Both shimming and water suppression effectswere decreased on enhanced MR spectroscopic prescanning (all P<0.05. Conclusions. Placement of the outer volume saturation bands is helpful to improve water suppression both before and after contrast agent administration. Gd-DTPA exerts a slightly adverse effect (a statistically significant but clinically unimportant on magnetic resonance spectroscopic prescanning at 3T.

  18. Potential for La Crosse virus segment reassortment in nature

    Geske Dave

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolutionary success of La Crosse virus (LACV, family Bunyaviridae is due to its ability to adapt to changing conditions through intramolecular genetic changes and segment reassortment. Vertical transmission of LACV in mosquitoes increases the potential for segment reassortment. Studies were conducted to determine if segment reassortment was occurring in naturally infected Aedes triseriatus from Wisconsin and Minnesota in 2000, 2004, 2006 and 2007. Mosquito eggs were collected from various sites in Wisconsin and Minnesota. They were reared in the laboratory and adults were tested for LACV antigen by immunofluorescence assay. RNA was isolated from the abdomen of infected mosquitoes and portions of the small (S, medium (M and large (L viral genome segments were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Overall, the viral sequences from 40 infected mosquitoes and 5 virus isolates were analyzed. Phylogenetic and linkage disequilibrium analyses revealed that approximately 25% of infected mosquitoes and viruses contained reassorted genome segments, suggesting that LACV segment reassortment is frequent in nature.

  19. Evaluating the impact of image preprocessing on iris segmentation

    José F. Valencia-Murillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the most important stages in iris recognition systems. In this paper, image preprocessing algorithms are applied in order to evaluate their impact on successful iris segmentation. The preprocessing algorithms are based on histogram adjustment, Gaussian filters and suppression of specular reflections in human eye images. The segmentation method introduced by Masek is applied on 199 images acquired under unconstrained conditions, belonging to the CASIA-irisV3 database, before and after applying the preprocessing algorithms. Then, the impact of image preprocessing algorithms on the percentage of successful iris segmentation is evaluated by means of a visual inspection of images in order to determine if circumferences of iris and pupil were detected correctly. An increase from 59% to 73% in percentage of successful iris segmentation is obtained with an algorithm that combine elimination of specular reflections, followed by the implementation of a Gaussian filter having a 5x5 kernel. The results highlight the importance of a preprocessing stage as a previous step in order to improve the performance during the edge detection and iris segmentation processes.

  20. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  1. UNUSUALLY LUMINOUS GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE OUTER DISK OF M33

    Bigiel, F.; Blitz, L.; Plambeck, R. L.; Bolatto, A. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Walter, F.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Lopez, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We use high spatial resolution (∼7 pc) observations from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Wave Astronomy (CARMA) to derive detailed properties for eight giant molecular clouds (GMCs) at a galactocentric radius corresponding to approximately two CO scale lengths, or ∼0.5 optical radii (r 25 ), in the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. At this radius, molecular gas fraction, dust-to-gas ratio, and metallicity are much lower than in the inner part of M33 or in a typical spiral galaxy. This allows us to probe the impact of environment on GMC properties by comparing our measurements to previous data from the inner disk of M33, the Milky Way, and other nearby galaxies. The outer disk clouds roughly fall on the size-linewidth relation defined by extragalactic GMCs, but are slightly displaced from the luminosity-virial mass relation in the sense of having high CO luminosity compared to the inferred virial mass. This implies a different CO-to-H 2 conversion factor, which is on average a factor of 2 lower than the inner disk and the extragalactic average. We attribute this to significantly higher measured brightness temperatures of the outer disk clouds compared to the ancillary sample of GMCs, which is likely an effect of enhanced radiation levels due to massive star formation in the vicinity of our target field. Apart from brightness temperature, the properties we determine for the outer disk GMCs in M33 do not differ significantly from those of our comparison sample. In particular, the combined sample of inner and outer disk M33 clouds covers roughly the same range in size, line width, virial mass, and CO luminosity than the sample of Milky Way GMCs. When compared to the inner disk clouds in M33, however, we find even the brightest outer disk clouds to be smaller than most of their inner disk counterparts. This may be due to incomplete sampling or a potentially steeper cloud mass function at larger radii.

  2. Identifying market segments in consumer markets: variable selection and data interpretation

    Tonks, D G

    2004-01-01

    Market segmentation is often articulated as being a process which displays the recognised features of classical rationalism but in part; convention, convenience, prior experience and the overarching impact of rhetoric will influence if not determine the outcomes of a segmentation exercise. Particular examples of this process are addressed critically in this paper which concentrates on the issues of variable choice for multivariate approaches to market segmentation and also the methods used fo...

  3. STRATEGI SEGMENTING, TARGETING, POSITIONING SERTA STRATEGI HARGA PADA PERUSAHAAN KECAP BLEKOK DI CILACAP

    Wijaya, Hari; Sirine, Hani

    2017-01-01

    To win the market competition, companies must have segmenting, targeting, positioning strategy and pricing strategy. This study aims to determine segmenting, targeting, positioning strategy as well as the company's pricing strategies on Kecap Blekok Company in Cilacap. Methods of data collection in this study using interviews and documentation. The analysis technique used is descriptive analysis techniques. The results showed market segment of Kecap Blekok Company is the lower middle class, t...

  4. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  5. Compliance with Segment Disclosure Initiatives

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory oversight of capital markets has intensified in recent years, with a particular emphasis on expanding financial transparency. A notable instance is efforts by the Financial Accounting Standards Board that push firms to identify and report performance of individual business units...... (segments). This paper seeks to address short-run and long-run consequences of stringent enforcement of and uniform compliance with these segment disclosure standards. To do so, we develop a parsimonious model wherein a regulatory agency promulgates disclosure standards and either permits voluntary...... by increasing transparency and leveling the playing field. However, our analysis also demonstrates that in the long run, if firms are unable to use discretion in reporting to maintain their competitive edge, they may seek more destructive alternatives. Accounting for such concerns, in the long run, voluntary...

  6. Segmental osteotomies of the maxilla.

    Rosen, H M

    1989-10-01

    Multiple segment Le Fort I osteotomies provide the maxillofacial surgeon with the capabilities to treat complex dentofacial deformities existing in all three planes of space. Sagittal, vertical, and transverse maxillomandibular discrepancies as well as three-dimensional abnormalities within the maxillary arch can be corrected simultaneously. Accordingly, optimal aesthetic enhancement of the facial skeleton and a functional, healthy occlusion can be realized. What may be perceived as elaborate treatment plans are in reality conservative in terms of osseous stability and treatment time required. The close cooperation of an orthodontist well-versed in segmental orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is critical to the success of such surgery. With close attention to surgical detail, the complication rate inherent in such surgery can be minimized and the treatment goals achieved in a timely and predictable fashion.

  7. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula

    Simonelli, D.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Mckay, C.P.; Reynolds, R.T.; Summers, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The compositional contrast between the giant-planet satellites and the significantly rockier Pluto/Charon system is indicative of different formation mechanisms; cosmic abundance calculations, in conjunction with an assumption of the Pluto/Charon system's direct formation from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that most of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in CO form, in keeping with both the inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, and/or the Lewis and Prinn (1980) kinetic-inhibition model of solar nebula chemistry. Laboratory studies of carbonaceous chondrites and Comet Halley flyby studies suggest that condensed organic material, rather than elemental carbon, is the most likely candidate for the small percentage of the carbon-bearing solid in the outer solar nebula. 71 refs

  8. LO2/LH2 propulsion for outer planet orbiter spacecraft

    Garrison, P. W.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Galileo class orbiter missions (750-1500 kg) to the outer planets require a large postinjection delta-V for improved propulsion performance. The present investigation shows that a pump-fed low thrust LO2/LH2 propulsion system can provide a significantly larger net on-orbit mass for a given delta-V than a state-of-the-art earth storable, N2O4/monomethylhydrazine pressure-fed propulsion system. A description is given of a conceptual design for a LO2/LH2 pump-fed propulsion system developed for a Galileo class mission to the outer planets. Attention is given to spacecraft configuration, details regarding the propulsion system, the thermal control of the cryogenic propellants, and aspects of mission performance.

  9. Defining the limits of outer space for regulatory purposes

    Bittencourt Neto, Olavo de Oliviera

    2015-01-01

    With different countries ascribing to different theories of air space and outer space law, Dr. Bittencourt Neto proposes in this Brief a reassessment of the international law related to the extension of state territories vertically. Taking into consideration the vast number of proposals offered by scholars and diplomatic delegations on this subject matter, as well as the principles of comparative law, a compromise to allow for peaceful development is the only way forward. The author argues for setting the delimitation of the frontier between air space and outer space at 100 km above mean sea level through an international treaty. This would also regulate passage rights for space objects during launchings and reentries, as long as those space activities are peaceful, conducted in accordance with international Law and respecting the sovereign interests of the territorial State. Continuing expansion of the commercial space industry and conflicting national laws require a stable and fair legal framework best ...

  10. Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program

    Simon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Long time base observations of the outer planets are critical in understanding the atmospheric dynamics and evolution of the gas giants. We propose yearly monitoring of each giant planet for the remainder of Hubble's lifetime to provide a lasting legacy of increasingly valuable data for time-domain studies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a unique asset to planetary science, allowing high spatial resolution data with absolute photometric knowledge. For the outer planets, gas/ice giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, many phenomena happen on timescales of years to decades, and the data we propose are beyond the scope of a typical GO program. Hubble is the only platform that can provide high spatial resolution global studies of cloud coloration, activity, and motion on a consistent time basis to help constrain the underlying mechanics.

  11. Low velocity encounters of minor bodies with the outer planets

    Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies of close encounters of minor bodies with Jupiter have shown that the perturbations are stronger either if the encounter is very deep or if the velocity of the minor body relative to the planet is low. In the present research the author investigates the effects of low velocity encounters between fictitious minor bodies and the four outer planets. Two possible outcomes of this type of encounter are the temporary satellite capture of the minor body by the planet, and the exchange of perihelion with aphelion of the minor body orbit. Different occurrence rates of these processes are found for different planets, and the implications for the orbital evolution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables by outer approximation

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several variants of an outer approximation method are proposed to solve truss topology optimization problems with discrete design variables to proven global optimality. The objective is to minimize the volume of the structure while satisfying constraints on the global stiffness of the structure...... for classical outer approximation approaches applied to optimal design problems. A set of two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems are solved and the numerical results suggest that the proposed approaches are competitive with other special-purpose global optimization methods for the considered class...... under the applied loads. We extend the natural problem formulation by adding redundant force variables and force equilibrium constraints. This guarantees that the designs suggested by the relaxed master problems are capable of carrying the applied loads, a property which is generally not satisfied...

  13. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Ono, Tomohiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku, E-mail: ono.t@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  14. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Ono, Tomohiro; Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku

    2014-01-01

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  15. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  17. Segmented fuel and moderator rod

    Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous segmented fuel and moderator rod for use with a water cooled and moderated nuclear fuel assembly. The rod comprises: a lower fuel region containing a column of nuclear fuel; a moderator region, disposed axially above the fuel region. The moderator region has means for admitting and passing the water moderator therethrough for moderating an upper portion of the nuclear fuel assembly. The moderator region is separated from the fuel region by a water tight separator

  18. Imaging Shock Fronts in the Outer Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    Smith, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    Although Eta Car has been imaged many times with HST to monitor the central star and the bright Homunculus Nebula, we propose the first WFC3 imaging of Eta Car to study the more extended Outer Ejecta from previous eruptions. WFC3 has two key filters that have not been used before to image Eta Car, which will provide critical physical information about its eruptive history: (1) F280N with WFC3/UVIS will produce the first Mg II 2800 image of Eta Car, the sharpest image of its complex Outer Ejecta, and will unambiguously trace shock fronts, and (2) F126N with WFC3/IR will sample [Fe II] 12567 arising in the densest post-shock gas. Eta Car is surrounded by a bright, soft X-ray shell seen in Chandra images, which arises from the fastest 1840s ejecta overtaking slower older material. Our recent proper motion measurements show that the outer knots were ejected in two outbursts several hundred years before the 1840s eruption, and spectroscopy of light echoes has recently revealed extremely fast ejecta during the 1840s that indicate an explosive event. Were those previous eruptions explosive as well? If so, were they as energetic, did they also have such fast ejecta, and did they have the same geometry? The structure and excitation of the Outer Ejecta hold unique clues for reconstructing Eta Car's violent mass loss history. The locations of shock fronts in circumstellar material provide critical information, because they identify past discontinuities in the mass loss. This is one of the only ways to investigate the long term (i.e. centuries) evolution and duty cycle of eruptive mass loss in the most massive stars.

  19. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and immunosuppressive therapy in myasthenia gravis.

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  20. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    Solène Coisy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report: A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion: VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  1. Spheres of influence: Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles.

    Gui, M J; Dashper, S G; Slakeski, N; Chen, Y-Y; Reynolds, E C

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are asymmetrical single bilayer membranous nanostructures produced by Gram-negative bacteria important for bacterial interaction with the environment. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, produces OMVs that act as a virulence factor secretion system contributing to its pathogenicity. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms of OMV biogenesis have not been fully elucidated. The ~14 times more curvature of the OMV membrane than cell outer membrane (OM) indicates that OMV biogenesis requires energy expenditure for significant curvature of the OMV membrane. In P. gingivalis, we propose that this may be achieved by upregulating the production of certain inner or outer leaflet lipids, which causes localized outward curvature of the OM. This results in selection of anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and associated C-terminal domain (CTD) -family proteins on the outer surface due to their ability to accommodate the curvature. Deacylation of A-LPS may further enable increased curvature leading to OMV formation. Porphyromonas gingivalis OMVs that are selectively enriched in CTD-family proteins, largely the gingipains, can support bacterial coaggregation, promote biofilm development and act as an intercessor for the transport of non-motile bacteria by motile bacteria. The P. gingivalis OMVs are also believed to contribute to host interaction and colonization, evasion of immune defense mechanisms, and destruction of periodontal tissues. They may be crucial for both micro- and macronutrient capture, especially heme and probably other assimilable compounds for its own benefit and that of the wider biofilm community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Misra, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  4. Multimission nuclear electric propulsion system for outer planet exploration missions

    Mondt, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A 100-kW reactor power system with a specific mass of 15 to 30 kg/kW/sub e/ and an electric thrust system with a specific mass of 5 to 10 kg/kW/sub e/ can be combined into a nuclear electric propulsion system. The system can be used for outer planet missions as well as earth orbital transfer vehicle missions. 5 refs

  5. Segmentation of sows in farrowing pens

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    The correct segmentation of a foreground object in video recordings is an important task for many surveillance systems. The development of an effective and practical algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings captured under commercial production conditions is described...

  6. Automatic Moving Object Segmentation for Freely Moving Cameras

    Yanli Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new moving object segmentation algorithm for freely moving cameras which is very common for the outdoor surveillance system, the car build-in surveillance system, and the robot navigation system. A two-layer based affine transformation model optimization method is proposed for camera compensation purpose, where the outer layer iteration is used to filter the non-background feature points, and the inner layer iteration is used to estimate a refined affine model based on the RANSAC method. Then the feature points are classified into foreground and background according to the detected motion information. A geodesic based graph cut algorithm is then employed to extract the moving foreground based on the classified features. Unlike the existing global optimization or the long term feature point tracking based method, our algorithm only performs on two successive frames to segment the moving foreground, which makes it suitable for the online video processing applications. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in both of the high accuracy and the fast speed.

  7. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.

  8. Periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

    Lyu, Zhi Xin; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2015-04-01

    The β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are integral membrane proteins that reside in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and perform a diverse range of biological functions. Synthesized in the cytoplasm, OMPs must be transported across the inner membrane and through the periplasmic space before they are assembled in the outer membrane. In Escherichia coli, Skp, SurA and DegP are the most prominent factors identified to guide OMPs across the periplasm and to play the role of quality control. Although extensive genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed many basic functions of these periplasmic proteins, the mechanism of their collaboration in assisting the folding and insertion of OMPs is much less understood. Recently, biophysical approaches have shed light on the identification of the intricate network. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in the characterization of these key factors, with a special emphasis on the multifunctional protein DegP. In addition, we present our proposed model on the periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of OMPs.

  9. Living among giants exploring and settling the outer solar system

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outer Solar System is rich in resources and may be the best region in which to search for life beyond Earth. In fact, it may ultimately be the best place for Earthlings to set up permanent abodes. This book surveys the feasibility of that prospect, covering the fascinating history of exploration that kicks off our adventure into the outer Solar System.   Although other books provide surveys of the outer planets, Carroll approaches it from the perspective of potential future human exploration, exploitation and settlement, using insights from today’s leading scientists in the field. These experts take us to targets such as the moons Titan, Triton, Enceladus, Iapetus and Europa, and within the atmospheres of the gas and ice giants. In these pages you will experience the thrill of discovery awaiting those who journey through the giant worlds and their moons.   All the latest research is included, as are numerous illustrations, among them original paintings by the author, a renowned prize-winning space art...

  10. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  11. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  12. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  13. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  14. Distribution of flexural deflection in the worldwide outer rise area

    Lin, Zi-Jun; Lin, Jing-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Chen, Yen-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The outer rise on the fringe of a subduction system is caused by an accreted load on the flexed oceanic lithosphere. The magnitude of the deflection is usually linked to the stress state beard by the oceanic plate. In a coupled subduction zone, the stress is abundantly accumulated across the plate boundary which should affect the flexural properties of the subducted plate. Thus, the variation of the outer rise in shape may reflect the seismogenic characteristics of the subduction system. In this study, we intent to find the correlation between the flexure deflection (Wb) of the outer rise and the subduction zone properties by comparing several slab parameters and the Wb distribution. The estimation of Wb is performed based on the available bathymetry data and the statistic analysis of earthquakes is from the global ISC earthquake catalog for the period of 1900-2015. Our result shows a progressive change of Wb in space, suggesting a robust calculation. The average Wb of worldwise subduction system spreads from 348 to 682 m. No visible distinction in the ranging of Wb was observed for different subduction zones. However, in a weak coupling subduction system, the standard variation of Wb has generally larger value. Relatively large Wb generally occurs in the center of the trench system, whereas small Wb for the two ends of trench. The comparison of Wb and several slab parameters shows that the Wb may be correlated with the maximal magnitude and the number of earthquakes. Otherwise, no clear relationship with other parameters can be obtained.

  15. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A

    2014-01-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)

  16. Notes on the ultrastructure of the setae on the fourth antennulary segment of the Balanus amphitrite cyprid (Crustacea : Cirripedia : Thoracica)

    Lagersson, Niklas; Garm, Anders Lydik; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    This study presents electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) observations on the putative settlement receptors of the fourth antennulary segments. The TEM data from all nine setae are from the outer dendritic segment. Eight of them have morphological characteristics, indicating bimodal sensory properties...... while one seta (sE) is presumed to be a unimodal mechanoreceptor. We suggest that setae A and B are stimulated by the water flow, seta D is olfactory, seta E detects the topography of the substratum by touch, and the subterminal setae are touch chemoreceptors. No function is suggested for seta C....

  17. Comparison of enterotomy leak pressure among fresh, cooled, and frozen-thawed porcine jejunal segments.

    Aeschlimann, Kimberly A; Mann, F A; Middleton, John R; Belter, Rebecca C

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether stored (cooled or frozen-thawed) jejunal segments can be used to obtain dependable leak pressure data after enterotomy closure. SAMPLE 36 jejunal segments from 3 juvenile pigs. PROCEDURES Jejunal segments were harvested from euthanized pigs and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 12 segments/group) as follows: fresh (used within 4 hours after collection), cooled (stored overnight at 5°C before use), and frozen-thawed (frozen at -12°C for 8 days and thawed at room temperature [23°C] for 1 hour before use). Jejunal segments were suspended and 2-cm enterotomy incisions were made on the antimesenteric border. Enterotomies were closed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Lactated Ringer solution was infused into each segment until failure at the suture line was detected. Leak pressure was measured by use of a digital transducer. RESULTS Mean ± SD leak pressure for fresh, cooled, and frozen-thawed segments was 68.3 ± 23.7 mm Hg, 55.3 ± 28.1 mm Hg, and 14.4 ± 14.8 mm Hg, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in mean leak pressure among pigs, but a significant difference in mean leak pressure was detected among treatment groups. Mean leak pressure was significantly lower for frozen-thawed segments than for fresh or cooled segments, but mean leak pressure did not differ significantly between fresh and cooled segments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fresh porcine jejunal segments or segments cooled overnight may be used for determining intestinal leak pressure, but frozen-thawed segments should not be used.

  18. Roentgenological diagnoss of central segmental lung cancer

    Gurevich, L.A.; Fedchenko, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of the results of clinicoroentgenological examination of 268 patments roentgenological semiotics of segmental lung cancer is presented. Some peculiarities of the X-ray picture of cancer of different segments of the lungs were revealed depending on tumor site and growth type. For the syndrome of segmental darkening the comprehensive X-ray methods where the chief method is tomography of the segmental bronchi are proposed

  19. Review of segmentation process in consumer markets

    Veronika Jadczaková

    2013-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable debate on market segmentation over five decades, attention was merely devoted to single stages of the segmentation process. In doing so, stages as segmentation base selection or segments profiling have been heavily covered in the extant literature, whereas stages as implementation of the marketing strategy or market definition were of a comparably lower interest. Capitalizing on this shortcoming, this paper strives to close the gap and provide each step...

  20. Image Segmentation, Registration, Compression, and Matching

    Yadegar, Jacob; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Joseph; Ray, Nilanjan; Zabuawala, Sakina

    2011-01-01

    A novel computational framework was developed of a 2D affine invariant matching exploiting a parameter space. Named as affine invariant parameter space (AIPS), the technique can be applied to many image-processing and computer-vision problems, including image registration, template matching, and object tracking from image sequence. The AIPS is formed by the parameters in an affine combination of a set of feature points in the image plane. In cases where the entire image can be assumed to have undergone a single affine transformation, the new AIPS match metric and matching framework becomes very effective (compared with the state-of-the-art methods at the time of this reporting). No knowledge about scaling or any other transformation parameters need to be known a priori to apply the AIPS framework. An automated suite of software tools has been created to provide accurate image segmentation (for data cleaning) and high-quality 2D image and 3D surface registration (for fusing multi-resolution terrain, image, and map data). These tools are capable of supporting existing GIS toolkits already in the marketplace, and will also be usable in a stand-alone fashion. The toolkit applies novel algorithmic approaches for image segmentation, feature extraction, and registration of 2D imagery and 3D surface data, which supports first-pass, batched, fully automatic feature extraction (for segmentation), and registration. A hierarchical and adaptive approach is taken for achieving automatic feature extraction, segmentation, and registration. Surface registration is the process of aligning two (or more) data sets to a common coordinate system, during which the transformation between their different coordinate systems is determined. Also developed here are a novel, volumetric surface modeling and compression technique that provide both quality-guaranteed mesh surface approximations and compaction of the model sizes by efficiently coding the geometry and connectivity

  1. Market Segmentation from a Behavioral Perspective

    Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge; Pallister, John

    2010-01-01

    A segmentation approach is presented using both traditional demographic segmentation bases (age, social class/occupation, and working status) and a segmentation by benefits sought. The benefits sought in this case are utilitarian and informational reinforcement, variables developed from the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Using data from 1,847…

  2. Parallel fuzzy connected image segmentation on GPU

    Zhuge, Ying; Cao, Yong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Miller, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Image segmentation techniques using fuzzy connectedness (FC) principles have shown their effectiveness in segmenting a variety of objects in several large applications. However, one challenge in these algorithms has been their excessive computational requirements when processing large image datasets. Nowadays, commodity graphics hardware provides a highly parallel computing environment. In this paper, the authors present a parallel fuzzy connected image segmentation algorithm impleme...

  3. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  4. The Process of Marketing Segmentation Strategy Selection

    Ionel Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The process of marketing segmentation strategy selection represents the essence of strategical marketing. We present hereinafter the main forms of the marketing statategy segmentation: undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing, concentrated marketing and personalized marketing. In practice, the companies use a mix of these marketing segmentation methods in order to maximize the proffit and to satisfy the consumers’ needs.

  5. Color image segmentation using perceptual spaces through applets ...

    Color image segmentation using perceptual spaces through applets for determining and preventing diseases in chili peppers. JL González-Pérez, MC Espino-Gudiño, J Gudiño-Bazaldúa, JL Rojas-Rentería, V Rodríguez-Hernández, VM Castaño ...

  6. Spectral Depth Analysis of some Segments of the Bida Basin ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-16

    Dec 16, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: Spectral depth analysis was carried out on ten (10) of the 2009 total magnetic field intensity data sheets covering some segments of the Bida basin, to determine the depth to magnetic basement within the basin. The data was ... groundwater lie concealed beneath the earth surface and the ...

  7. Optimal Dynamic Advertising Strategy Under Age-Specific Market Segmentation

    Krastev, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    We consider the model proposed by Faggian and Grosset for determining the advertising efforts and goodwill in the long run of a company under age segmentation of consumers. Reducing this model to optimal control sub problems we find the optimal advertising strategy and goodwill.

  8. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  9. Segmentation of images for gingival growth measurement

    Kim, Dong-Il; Wilson, Joseph N.

    1992-12-01

    The ability to measure gingival volume growth from dental casts would provide a valuable resource for periodontists. This problem is attractive from a computer vision standpoint due to the complexities of data acquisition, segmentation of gingival and tooth surfaces and boundaries, and extraction of features (such as tooth axes) to help solve the correspondence problem for multiple casts. In this paper, a structured light 3-D range finder is used to collect raw data. The most complicated subtask is that of detecting discontinuities such as the gingival margin. Discontinuity detection is hindered both by cast anomalies (such as bubbles and holes generated during the process of dental impression) and by the subtle nature of the discontinuities themselves. First, we discuss an approach to segmenting a dental cast into tooth and gingival units using depth and orientation discontinuities. The visible cast surface is reconstructed by obtaining the minimum of a parameterized functional. The first derivative of the energy functional (which corresponds to the Euler-Lagrange equation) is solved using the multigrid methods. both orientation and depth discontinuities are detected by adding a discrete discontinuity functional to the energy functional. The principal axes and boundaries of the teeth provide the information necessary to determine the region to be measured in estimating gingival growth. Finally, voxels corresponding to growth regions are counted to measure the target volume.

  10. APPLICATION SEGMENT ANALYSISFOR THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGYEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    G. V. Alekseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Applicable at present methods of the shaping to strategies of the development of the educational institutions not always objective take into account the mutual influence and receivership separate structured and organizing block to organizations of the scholastic process, in particular work with applicant. The Article is dedicated to discussing the possibilities of the using the segment analysis for development of the strategies of the development of the educational institutions for the reason increasing produced specialist on the market of the labour real sector economy. In her is described possibility to formalize the choice of the marketing methods within the framework of approach of the stochastic programming, as section of the ill-defined logic (fuzzy logic, which is a generalizations classical theory of sets and classical formal logic. The Main reason of the using of such approach became presence ill-defined and drawn near discourses at description of the preferences applicant, quality of the formation, but consequently and missions of the educational institution. The Decision of the specified problems in significant measure promotes the ill-defined approach to modeling of the complex systems, which has obtained recognition all over the world for use the most most important factors and methods of the determination to value of the balance marketing approach on the base of the segment analysis and base expert estimation, for what is formed corresponding to about-gram for COMPUTER realizing specified approaches.

  11. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula.

    Simonelli, D P; Pollack, J B; McKay, C P; Reynolds, R T; Summers, A L

    1989-01-01

    Detailed models of the internal structures of Pluto and Charon, assuming rock and water ice as the only constituents, indicate that the mean silicate mass fraction of this two-body system is on the order of 0.7; thus the Pluto/Charon system is significantly "rockier" than the satellites of the giant planets (silicate mass fraction approximately 0.55). This compositional contrast reflects different formation mechanisms: it is likely that Pluto and Charon formed directly from the solar nebula, while the circumplanetary nebulae that produced the giant planet satellites were derived from envelopes that surrounded the forming giant planets (envelopes in which icy planetesimals dissolved more readily than rocky planetesimals). Simple cosmic abundance calculations, and the assumption that the Pluto/Charon system formed directly from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that the majority of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of carbon monoxide; these results are consistent with (1) inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium (where CH4/CO nebula chemistry. Theoretical predictions of the C/H enhancements in the atmospheres of the giant planets, when compared to the actual observed enhancements, suggest that 10%, or slightly more, of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of condensed materials (although the amount of condensed C may have dropped slightly with increasing heliocentric distance). Strict compositional limits computed for the Pluto/Charon system using the densities of CH4 and CO ices indicate that these pure ices are at best minor components in the interiors of these bodies, and imply that CH4 and CO ices were not the dominant C-bearing solids in the outer nebula. Clathrate-hydrates could not have appropriated enough CH4 or CO to be the major form of condensed carbon, although such clathrates may be necessary to explain the presence of methane on Pluto after its formation from a CO-rich nebula

  12. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  13. Australian food life style segments and elaboration likelihood differences

    Brunsø, Karen; Reid, Mike

    As the global food marketing environment becomes more competitive, the international and comparative perspective of consumers' attitudes and behaviours becomes more important for both practitioners and academics. This research employs the Food-Related Life Style (FRL) instrument in Australia...... in order to 1) determine Australian Life Style Segments and compare these with their European counterparts, and to 2) explore differences in elaboration likelihood among the Australian segments, e.g. consumers' interest and motivation to perceive product related communication. The results provide new...

  14. Application of clustering for customer segmentation in private banking

    Yang, Xuan; Chen, Jin; Hao, Pengpeng; Wang, Yanbo J.

    2015-07-01

    With fierce competition in banking industry, more and more banks have realised that accurate customer segmentation is of fundamental importance, especially for the identification of those high-value customers. In order to solve this problem, we collected real data about private banking customers of a commercial bank in China, conducted empirical analysis by applying K-means clustering technique. When determine the K value, we propose a mechanism that meet both academic requirements and practical needs. Through K-means clustering, we successfully segmented the customers into three categories, and features of each group have been illustrated in details.

  15. A model-based Bayesian framework for ECG beat segmentation

    Sayadi, O; Shamsollahi, M B

    2009-01-01

    The study of electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform amplitudes, timings and patterns has been the subject of intense research, for it provides a deep insight into the diagnostic features of the heart's functionality. In some recent works, a Bayesian filtering paradigm has been proposed for denoising and compression of ECG signals. In this paper, it is shown that this framework may be effectively used for ECG beat segmentation and extraction of fiducial points. Analytic expressions for the determination of points and intervals are derived and evaluated on various real ECG signals. Simulation results show that the method can contribute to and enhance the clinical ECG beat segmentation performance

  16. A new level set model for cell image segmentation

    Ma Jing-Feng; Chen Chun; Hou Kai; Bao Shang-Lian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we first determine three phases of cell images: background, cytoplasm and nucleolus according to the general physical characteristics of cell images, and then develop a variational model, based on these characteristics, to segment nucleolus and cytoplasm from their relatively complicated backgrounds. In the meantime, the preprocessing obtained information of cell images using the OTSU algorithm is used to initialize the level set function in the model, which can speed up the segmentation and present satisfactory results in cell image processing. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Leakage tests of wall segments of reactor containments

    Rizkalla, S.H.; Simmonds, S.H.; MacGregor, J.G.

    1979-10-01

    Two prestressed concrete wall segments simulating portions of containment walls were loaded by axial tensile forces to cause cracking of the concrete. At each load increment air pressure was applied in steps up to 21 psi to one side of the segment and the rate of leakage of air through the cracked concrete section was measured. A theoretical equation for the flow of air through concrete cracks is developed and the results from one leakage test are used to determine the dimensionless constant required for this equation. (author)

  18. Automated Glioblastoma Segmentation Based on a Multiparametric Structured Unsupervised Classification

    Juan-Albarracín, Javier; Fuster-Garcia, Elies; Manjón, José V.; Robles, Montserrat; Aparici, F.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.; García-Gómez, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Automatic brain tumour segmentation has become a key component for the future of brain tumour treatment. Currently, most of brain tumour segmentation approaches arise from the supervised learning standpoint, which requires a labelled training dataset from which to infer the models of the classes. The performance of these models is directly determined by the size and quality of the training corpus, whose retrieval becomes a tedious and time-consuming task. On the other hand, unsupervised approaches avoid these limitations but often do not reach comparable results than the supervised methods. In this sense, we propose an automated unsupervised method for brain tumour segmentation based on anatomical Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Four unsupervised classification algorithms, grouped by their structured or non-structured condition, were evaluated within our pipeline. Considering the non-structured algorithms, we evaluated K-means, Fuzzy K-means and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), whereas as structured classification algorithms we evaluated Gaussian Hidden Markov Random Field (GHMRF). An automated postprocess based on a statistical approach supported by tissue probability maps is proposed to automatically identify the tumour classes after the segmentations. We evaluated our brain tumour segmentation method with the public BRAin Tumor Segmentation (BRATS) 2013 Test and Leaderboard datasets. Our approach based on the GMM model improves the results obtained by most of the supervised methods evaluated with the Leaderboard set and reaches the second position in the ranking. Our variant based on the GHMRF achieves the first position in the Test ranking of the unsupervised approaches and the seventh position in the general Test ranking, which confirms the method as a viable alternative for brain tumour segmentation. PMID:25978453

  19. Body Segment Kinematics and Energy Expenditure in Active Videogames.

    Böhm, Birgit; Hartmann, Michael; Böhm, Harald

    2016-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) in active videogames (AVGs) is a component for assessing its benefit for cardiovascular health. Existing evidence suggests that AVGs are able to increase EE above rest and when compared with playing passive videogames. However, the association between body movement and EE remains unclear. Furthermore, for goal-directed game design, it is important to know the contribution of body segments to EE. This knowledge will help to acquire a certain level of exercise intensity during active gaming. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the best predictors of EE from body segment energies, acceleration, and heart rate during different game situations. EE and body segment movement of 17 subjects, aged 22.1 ± 2.5 years, were measured in two different AVGs. In randomized order, the subjects played a handheld-controlled Nintendo(®) Wii™ tennis (NWT) game and a whole body-controlled Sony EyeToy(®) waterfall (ETW) game. Body segment movement was analyzed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. From the video data, mean values of mechanical energy change and acceleration of 10 body segments were analyzed. Measured EE was significantly higher in ETW (7.8 ± 1.4 metabolic equivalents [METs]) than in NWT (3.4 ± 1.0 METs). The best prediction parameter for the more intense ETW game was the energy change of the right thigh and for the less intense hand-controlled NWT game was the energy change of the upper torso. Segment acceleration was less accurate in predicting EE. The best predictors of metabolic EE were the thighs and the upper torso in whole body and handheld-controlled games, respectively. Increasing movement of these body segments would lead to higher physical activity intensity during gaming, reducing sedentary behavior.

  20. Synaptojanin 1 is required for endolysosomal trafficking of synaptic proteins in cone photoreceptor inner segments.

    Ashley A George

    Full Text Available Highly polarized cells such as photoreceptors require precise and efficient strategies for establishing and maintaining the proper subcellular distribution of proteins. The signals and molecular machinery that regulate trafficking and sorting of synaptic proteins within cone inner segments is mostly unknown. In this study, we show that the polyphosphoinositide phosphatase Synaptojanin 1 (SynJ1 is critical for this process. We used transgenic markers for trafficking pathways, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry to characterize trafficking defects in cones of the zebrafish mutant, nrc(a14 , which is deficient in phosphoinositide phosphatase, SynJ1. The outer segments and connecting cilia of nrc(a14 cone photoreceptors are normal, but RibeyeB and VAMP2/synaptobrevin, which normally localize to the synapse, accumulate in the nrc(a14 inner segment. The structure of the Endoplasmic Reticulum in nrc(a14 mutant cones is normal. Golgi develop normally, but later become disordered. Large vesicular structures accumulate within nrc(a14 cone photoreceptor inner segments, particularly after prolonged incubation in darkness. Cone inner segments of nrc (a14 mutants also have enlarged acidic vesicles, abnormal late endosomes, and a disruption in autophagy. This last pathway also appears exacerbated by darkness. Taken altogether, these findings show that SynJ1 is required in cones for normal endolysosomal trafficking of synaptic proteins.

  1. Automatic segmentation of vertebrae from radiographs

    Mysling, Peter; Petersen, Peter Kersten; Nielsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Segmentation of vertebral contours is an essential task in the design of automatic tools for vertebral fracture assessment. In this paper, we propose a novel segmentation technique which does not require operator interaction. The proposed technique solves the segmentation problem in a hierarchical...... is constrained by a conditional shape model, based on the variability of the coarse spine location estimates. The technique is evaluated on a data set of manually annotated lumbar radiographs. The results compare favorably to the previous work in automatic vertebra segmentation, in terms of both segmentation...

  2. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  3. The VP7 Outer Capsid Protein of Rotavirus Induces Polyclonal B-Cell Activation

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    The early response to a homologous rotavirus infection in mice includes a T-cell-independent increase in the number of activated B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches. The mechanism of this activation has not been previously determined. Since rotavirus has a repetitively arranged triple-layered capsid and repetitively arranged antigens can induce activation of B cells, one or more of the capsid proteins could be responsible for the initial activation of B cells during infection. To address this question, we assessed the ability of rotavirus and virus-like particles to induce B-cell activation in vivo and in vitro. Using infectious rotavirus, inactivated rotavirus, noninfectious but replication-competent virus, and virus-like particles, we determined that neither infectivity nor RNA was necessary for B-cell activation but the presence of the rotavirus outer capsid protein, VP7, was sufficient for murine B-cell activation. Preincubation of the virus with neutralizing VP7 antibodies inhibited B-cell activation. Polymyxin B treatment and boiling of the virus preparation were performed, which ruled out possible lipopolysaccharide contamination as the source of activation and confirmed that the structural conformation of VP7 is important for B-cell activation. These findings indicate that the structure and conformation of the outer capsid protein, VP7, initiate intestinal B-cell activation during rotavirus infection. PMID:15194774

  4. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  5. 76 FR 77465 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Threatened Status for Distinct Population Segments of...

    2011-12-13

    ... Population Segments of the Bearded Seal AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... population segments (DPS) of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) as threatened species under the... posed to this population by the projected habitat changes. Extension of Final Listing Determination The...

  6. Coordinating with supply chain contracts in the presence of two different consumer segments

    Nalla, V.R.; Venugopal, V.; Veen, van der J.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper models a supply chain of a manufacturer, a retailer and two different consumer segments. One segment has a high willingness-to-pay and the other a low willingness-to-pay. The manufacturer decides on the wholesale price and the selling price is determined by the retailer. It is well known

  7. Statistical shape (ASM) and appearance (AAM) models for the segmentation of the cerebellum in fetal ultrasound

    Reyes López, Misael; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    The cerebellum is an important structure to determine the gestational age of the fetus, moreover most of the abnormalities it presents are related to growth disorders. In this work, we present the results of the segmentation of the fetal cerebellum applying statistical shape and appearance models. Both models were tested on ultrasound images of the fetal brain taken from 23 pregnant women, between 18 and 24 gestational weeks. The accuracy results obtained on 11 ultrasound images show a mean Hausdorff distance of 6.08 mm between the manual segmentation and the segmentation using active shape model, and a mean Hausdorff distance of 7.54 mm between the manual segmentation and the segmentation using active appearance model. The reported results demonstrate that the active shape model is more robust in the segmentation of the fetal cerebellum in ultrasound images.

  8. Segmentation and clustering as complementary sources of information

    Dale, Michael B.; Allison, Lloyd; Dale, Patricia E. R.

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of using a segmentation method to identify change-points or edges in vegetation. It identifies coherence (spatial or temporal) in place of unconstrained clustering. The segmentation method involves change-point detection along a sequence of observations so that each cluster formed is composed of adjacent samples; this is a form of constrained clustering. The protocol identifies one or more models, one for each section identified, and the quality of each is assessed using a minimum message length criterion, which provides a rational basis for selecting an appropriate model. Although the segmentation is less efficient than clustering, it does provide other information because it incorporates textural similarity as well as homogeneity. In addition it can be useful in determining various scales of variation that may apply to the data, providing a general method of small-scale pattern analysis.

  9. The NA50 segmented target and vertex recognition system

    Bellaiche, F.; Cheynis, B.; Contardo, D.; Drapier, O.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guichard, A.; Haroutunian, R.; Jacquin, M.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Pizzi, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The NA50 segmented target and vertex recognition system is described. The segmented target consists of 7 sub-targets of 1-2 mm thickness. The vertex recognition system used to determine the sub-target where an interaction has occured is based upon quartz elements which produce Cerenkov light when traversed by charged particles from the interaction. The geometrical arrangement of the quartz elements has been optimized for vertex recognition in 208 Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon. A simple algorithm provides a vertex recognition efficiency of better than 85% for dimuon trigger events collected with a 1 mm sub-target set-up. A method for recognizing interactions of projectile fragments (nuclei and/or groups of nucleons) is presented. The segmented target allows a large target thickness which together with a high beam intensity (∼10 7 ions/s) enables high statistics measurements. (orig.)

  10. A Vision Chip for Color Segmentation and Pattern Matching

    Ralph Etienne-Cummings

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 128(H × 64(V × RGB CMOS imager is integrated with region-of-interest selection, RGB-to-HSI transformation, HSI-based pixel segmentation, (36bins × 12bits-HSI histogramming, and sum-of-absolute-difference (SAD template matching. Thirty-two learned color templates are stored and compared to each image. The chip captures the R, G, and B images using in-pixel storage before passing the pixel content to a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (DAC for white balancing. The DAC can also be used to pipe in images for a PC. The color processing uses a biologically inspired color opponent representation and an analog lookup table to determine the Hue (H of each pixel. Saturation (S is computed using a loser-take-all circuit. Intensity (I is given by the sum of the color components. A histogram of the segments of the image, constructed by counting the number of pixels falling into 36 Hue intervals of 10 degrees, is stored on a chip and compared against the histograms of new segments using SAD comparisons. We demonstrate color-based image segmentation and object recognition with this chip. Running at 30 fps, it uses 1 mW. To our knowledge, this is the first chip that integrates imaging, color segmentation, and color-based object recognition at the focal plane.

  11. Fetal brain volumetry through MRI volumetric reconstruction and segmentation

    Estroff, Judy A.; Barnewolt, Carol E.; Connolly, Susan A.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Fetal MRI volumetry is a useful technique but it is limited by a dependency upon motion-free scans, tedious manual segmentation, and spatial inaccuracy due to thick-slice scans. An image processing pipeline that addresses these limitations was developed and tested. Materials and methods The principal sequences acquired in fetal MRI clinical practice are multiple orthogonal single-shot fast spin echo scans. State-of-the-art image processing techniques were used for inter-slice motion correction and super-resolution reconstruction of high-resolution volumetric images from these scans. The reconstructed volume images were processed with intensity non-uniformity correction and the fetal brain extracted by using supervised automated segmentation. Results Reconstruction, segmentation and volumetry of the fetal brains for a cohort of twenty-five clinically acquired fetal MRI scans was done. Performance metrics for volume reconstruction, segmentation and volumetry were determined by comparing to manual tracings in five randomly chosen cases. Finally, analysis of the fetal brain and parenchymal volumes was performed based on the gestational age of the fetuses. Conclusion The image processing pipeline developed in this study enables volume rendering and accurate fetal brain volumetry by addressing the limitations of current volumetry techniques, which include dependency on motion-free scans, manual segmentation, and inaccurate thick-slice interpolation. PMID:20625848

  12. The Brain's Cutting-Room Floor: Segmentation of Narrative Cinema

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Speer, Nicole K.; Swallow, Khena M.; Maley, Corey J.

    2010-01-01

    Observers segment ongoing activity into meaningful events. Segmentation is a core component of perception that helps determine memory and guide planning. The current study tested the hypotheses that event segmentation is an automatic component of the perception of extended naturalistic activity, and that the identification of event boundaries in such activities results in part from processing changes in the perceived situation. Observers may identify boundaries between events as a result of processing changes in the observed situation. To test this hypothesis and study this potential mechanism, we measured brain activity while participants viewed an extended narrative film. Large transient responses were observed when the activity was segmented, and these responses were mediated by changes in the observed activity, including characters and their interactions, interactions with objects, spatial location, goals, and causes. These results support accounts that propose event segmentation is automatic and depends on processing meaningful changes in the perceived situation; they are the first to show such effects for extended naturalistic human activity. PMID:20953234

  13. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation of Image Segmentation

    Chabrier Sebastien

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a study of unsupervised evaluation criteria that enable the quantification of the quality of an image segmentation result. These evaluation criteria compute some statistics for each region or class in a segmentation result. Such an evaluation criterion can be useful for different applications: the comparison of segmentation results, the automatic choice of the best fitted parameters of a segmentation method for a given image, or the definition of new segmentation methods by optimization. We first present the state of art of unsupervised evaluation, and then, we compare six unsupervised evaluation criteria. For this comparative study, we use a database composed of 8400 synthetic gray-level images segmented in four different ways. Vinet's measure (correct classification rate is used as an objective criterion to compare the behavior of the different criteria. Finally, we present the experimental results on the segmentation evaluation of a few gray-level natural images.

  14. Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation

    Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.

  15. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Yusuf Kayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.

  16. A contrario line segment detection

    von Gioi, Rafael Grompone

    2014-01-01

    The reliable detection of low-level image structures is an old and still challenging problem in computer vision. This?book leads a detailed tour through the LSD algorithm, a line segment detector designed to be fully automatic. Based on the a contrario framework, the algorithm works efficiently without the need of any parameter tuning. The design criteria are thoroughly explained and the algorithm's good and bad results are illustrated on real and synthetic images. The issues involved, as well as the strategies used, are common to many geometrical structure detection problems and some possible

  17. Did Globalization Lead to Segmentation?

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Enflo, Kerstin Sofia

    Economic historians have stressed that income convergence was a key feature of the 'OECD-club' and that globalization was among the accelerating forces of this process in the long-run. This view has however been challenged, since it suffers from an ad hoc selection of countries. In the paper......, a mixture model is applied to a sample of 64 countries to endogenously analyze the cross-country growth behavior over the period 1870-2003. Results show that growth patterns were segmented in two worldwide regimes, the first one being characterized by convergence, and the other one denoted by divergence...

  18. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure.

    Andrade, Ildeu

    2017-02-01

    Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  19. Frictionless segmented mechanics for controlled space closure

    Ildeu Andrade Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Extraction spaces may be needed to achieve specific orthodontic goals of positioning the dentition in harmony with the craniofacial complex. However, the fundamental reality that determines the occlusion final position is the control exerted by the orthodontist while closing the extraction spaces. A specific treatment objective may require the posterior teeth to remain in a constant position anteroposteriorly as well as vertically, while the anterior teeth occupy the entire extraction site. Another treatment objective may require the opposite, or any number of intentional alternatives of extraction site closure. The present case report describes a simple controlled segmented mechanic system that permitted definable and predictable force systems to be applied and allowed to predict the treatment outcome with confidence. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Diplomate certification.

  20. Segmentation of isolated MR images: development and comparison of neuronal networks

    Paredes, R.; Robles, M.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Masia, L.

    1998-01-01

    Segmentation defines the capacity to differentiate among types of tissues. In MR. it is frequently applied to volumetric determinations. Digital images can be segmented in a number of ways; neuronal networks (NN) can be employed for this purpose. Our objective was to develop algorithms for automatic segmentation using NN and apply them to central nervous system MR images. The segmentation obtained with NN was compared with that resulting from other procedures (region-growing and K means). Each NN consisted of two layers: one based on unsupervised training, which was utilized for image segmentation in sets of K, and a second layer associating each set obtained by the preceding layer with the real set corresponding to the previously segmented objective image. This NN was trained with previously segmented images with supervised regions-growing algorithms and automatic K means. Thus, 4 different segmentation were obtained: region-growing, K means, NN with region-growing and NN with K means. The tissue volumes corresponding to cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter and white matter obtained with the 4 techniques were compared and the most representative segmented image was selected qualitatively by averaging the visual perception of 3 radiologists. The segmentation that best corresponded to the visual perception of the radiologists was that consisting of trained NN with region-growing. In comparison, the other 3 algorithms presented low percentage differences (mean, 3.44%). The mean percentage error for the 3 tissues from these algorithms was lower for region-growing segmentation (2.34%) than for trained NN with K means (3.31%) and for automatic K-means segmentation (4.66%). Thus, NN are reliable in the automation of isolated MR image segmentation. (Author) 12 refs