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Sample records for outer protective layer

  1. Protecting peroxidase activity of multilayer enzyme-polyion films using outer catalase layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiyun; Rusling, James F; Hu, Naifei

    2007-12-27

    Films constructed layer-by-layer on electrodes with architecture {protein/hyaluronic acid (HA)}n containing myoglobin (Mb) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were protected against protein damage by H2O2 by using outer catalase layers. Peroxidase activity for substrate oxidation requires activation by H2O2, but {protein/HA}n films without outer catalase layers are damaged slowly and irreversibly by H2O2. The rate and extent of damage were decreased dramatically by adding outer catalase layers to decompose H2O2. Comparative studies suggest that protection results from catalase decomposing a fraction of the H2O2 as it enters the film, rather than by an in-film diffusion barrier. The outer catalase layers controlled the rate of H2O2 entry into inner regions of the film, and they biased the system to favor electrocatalytic peroxide reduction over enzyme damage. Catalase-protected {protein/HA}n films had an increased linear concentration range for H2O2 detection. This approach offers an effective way to protect biosensors from damage by H2O2.

  2. Photoprotective substance occurs primarily in outer layers of fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabacher, D L; Little, E E

    1998-01-01

    Methanol extracts of dorsal skin layers, eyes, gills, and livers from ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation-sensitive and UVB-tolerant species of freshwater fish were examined for a substance that appears to be photoprotective. Significantly larger amounts of this substance were found in extracts of outer dorsal skin layers from both UVB-sensitive and UVB-tolerant fish when compared with extracts of inner dorsal skin layers. This substance occurred in minor amounts or was not detected in eye, gill, and liver extracts. The apparent primary function of this substance in fish is to protect the cells in outer dorsal skin layers from harmful levels of UVB radiation.

  3. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  4. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  5. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  6. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Contact Us Share Ozone Layer Protection The stratospheric ozone layer is Earth’s “sunscreen” – protecting ... GreenChill Partnership Responsible Appliance Disposal (RAD) Program Ozone Protection vs. Ozone Pollution This website addresses stratospheric ozone ...

  7. Structure of Rotavirus Outer-Layer Protein VP7 Bound with a Neutralizing Fab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Scott T.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Trask, Shane D.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; (Stanford-MED); (CH-Boston)

    2009-06-17

    Rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. Removal of free calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) dissociates VP7 trimers into monomers, releasing VP7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, VP4. We report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of VP7 bound with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The Fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains two Ca{sup 2+} sites. Mutations that escape neutralization by other antibodies suggest that the same region bears the epitopes of most neutralizing antibodies. The monovalent Fab is sufficient to neutralize infectivity. We propose that neutralizing antibodies against VP7 act by stabilizing the trimer, thereby inhibiting the uncoating trigger for VP4 rearrangement. A disulfide-linked trimer is a potential subunit immunogen.

  8. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  9. Dust in the outer layers of the Barnard 5 globule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. B.; Efimov, Yu S.; Khudyakova, T. N.; Prokopjeva, M. S.; Varivoda, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of our UBVRI polarimetric observations of a dozen stars located close to the well-studied Bok globule Barnard 5 (B5), with several of the stars being seen through its outer layers (with AV up to ˜3 mag). Using recent astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys, we estimate the distance, spectral class and visual extinction for the observed stars and find that the results are in a good agreement with the available 3D extinction maps. We use a two-layer dust model of interstellar polarization towards B5, in which the layer closer to us is an extension of the Taurus cloud complex, and the farther one (including B5 and its halo) is related to the Perseus cloud complex (d ≈ 280-350 pc). Using spectral, photometric and polarimetric data on about 30 additional stars, we estimate the parameters of the former layer as λmax ≈ 0.56 μm, Pmax ≈ 0.7 per cent, θ ≈ 50°, AV ≈ 0.7 mag, and show that the observed wavelength dependence of the position angle for the stars observed generally agrees with the two-layer model. We find that when the stars are seen through the globule layers with AV = 2-3 mag, λmax ≈ 0.6-0.8 μm, which differs significantly from the λmax = 0.52-0.58 μm obtained by us for the diffuse interstellar medium in the direction of B5. We discuss the correlation of λmax with the optical thickness into the globule as well as other correlations of the extinction and polarization parameters.

  10. On the theory of helium diffusion in stellar outer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce D, S.; Verga, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the approximations usually made in the different approaches to diffusion in stellar outer layers. We analyze the hypotheses of binary diffusion and diffusion over a non altered background both analytically and numerically. Numerical calculations are applied to central stars of planetary nebulae in which a depletion of helium is observed. We find that in this case helium diffusion may be considered as a binary process but cannot be decoupled from the structure computation. We present an alternative method for studying diffusion and apply it to the central stars. We thus solve a stationary hydrodynamic model for a completely ionized H-He plasma, which takes into account consistently the behavior of all the species. We find equilibrium abundance distributions very different from those obtained according to the trace element approaches while helium and electron densities increase with depth in the atmosphere, protons tend to decrease. However, preliminary studies of the stability show that these are not the actual distributions. (author)

  11. Outer skin protection of columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A coated columbium alloy material system 0.04 centimeter thick was developed which provides for increased reliability to the load bearing character of the system in the event of physical damage to and loss of the exterior protective coating. The increased reliability to the load bearing columbium alloy (FS-85) was achieved by interposing an oxidation resistant columbium alloy (B-1) between the FS-85 alloy and a fused slurry silicide coating. The B-1 alloy was applied as a cladding to the FS-85 and the composite was fused slurry silicide coated. Results of material evaluation testing included cyclic oxidation testing of specimens with intentional coating defects, tensile testing of several material combinations exposed to reentry profile conditions, and emittance testing after cycling of up to 100 simulated reentries. The clad material, which was shown to provide greater reliability than unclad materials, holds significant promise for use in the thermal protection system of hypersonic reentry vehicles.

  12. Origin of the outer layer of martian low-aspect ratio layered ejecta craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Wilson, Lionel; Barlow, Nadine G.

    2015-01-01

    Low-aspect ratio layered ejecta (LARLE) craters are one of the most enigmatic types of martian layered ejecta craters. We propose that the extensive outer layer of these craters is produced through the same base surge mechanism as that which produced the base surge deposits generated by near-surface, buried nuclear and high-explosive detonations. However, the LARLE layers have higher aspect ratios compared with base surge deposits from explosion craters, a result of differences in thicknesses of these layers. This characteristics is probably caused by the addition of large amounts of small particles of dust and ice derived from climate-related mantles of snow, ice and dust in the areas where LARLE craters form. These deposits are likely to be quickly stabilized (order of a few days to a few years) from eolian erosion by formation of duricrust produced by diffusion of water vapor out of the deposits.

  13. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to produce and in this presentation we shall give a short overview of the pros and cons of various tandem devices [1]. The large band gap semiconductor needs to be in front, but apart from that we can chose to have either the anode in front or back using either...... acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...

  14. Inflatable bag with sealing and protection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocourek, L.; Dohnal, M.; Klinga, J.; Matal, O.; Holy, F.

    1989-01-01

    The inflatable bag consists of a textile casing in which a cylindrical pvc tyre with concave bottoms is inserted and glued to the casing. A sealing protective layer is provided on the outer periphery of the cylindrical part of the tyre. A tyre valve with flange and fixing ears and also a relief valve are provided in the concave bottom. The casing material, such as a layer of 0.5 to 5 mm silicone rubber bands is suitable for use in contact with austenitic materials. The bag completely seals spaces such as the mouths of steam generator tubes or collector branches in a nuclear power plant. Decontamination can easily be achieved by rinsing the surface with common means. (J.B.). 2 figs

  15. Turbine airfoil with dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell,; Christian X. , Morrison; Jay, A [Oviedo, FL

    2011-12-20

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a compliant structure. The compliant structure may be configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand without limitation by the inner layer. The compliant structure may be formed from a plurality of pedestals positioned generally parallel with each other. The pedestals may include a first foot attached to a first end of the pedestal and extending in a first direction aligned with the outer layer, and may include a second foot attached to a second end of the pedestal and extending in a second direction aligned with the inner layer.

  16. Secretory IgA is Concentrated in the Outer Layer of Colonic Mucus along with Gut Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Rogier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies of the secretory IgA (SIgA class comprise the first line of antigen-specific immune defense, preventing access of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and their secreted products into the body proper. In addition to preventing infection, SIgA shapes the composition of the gut microbiome. SIgA is transported across intestinal epithelial cells into gut secretions by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR. The epithelial surface is protected by a thick network of mucus, which is composed of a dense, sterile inner layer and a loose outer layer that is colonized by commensal bacteria. Immunofluorescence microscopy of mouse and human colon tissues demonstrated that the SIgA co-localizes with gut bacteria in the outer mucus layer. Using mice genetically deficient for pIgR and/or mucin-2 (Muc2, the major glycoprotein of intestinal mucus, we found that Muc2 but not SIgA was necessary for excluding gut bacteria from the inner mucus layer in the colon. Our findings support a model whereby SIgA is anchored in the outer layer of colonic mucus through combined interactions with mucin proteins and gut bacteria, thus providing immune protection against pathogens while maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with commensals.

  17. Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joselevitch, Christina; Klooster, Jan; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    We studied the localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the goldfish outer plexiform layer by light-and electron-microscopical immunohistochemistry. The mGluR1alpha antibody labeled putative ON-type bipolar cell dendrites and horizontal cell processes in both rod spherules and

  18. Keep Your Skin Healthy: Protecting Your Outer Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other protective clothing, use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30, and restrict your time in the sun during the late morning and early afternoon hours, when sunlight is strongest. Many skin researchers like Kong are studying the skin’s microbiome— ...

  19. Computational Model for Impact-Resisting Critical Thickness of High-Speed Machine Outer Protective Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Wang, Li Zhong; Wang, Yantao; Yuan, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The blade or surface grinding blade of the hypervelocity grinding wheel may be damaged due to too high rotation rate of the spindle of the machine and then fly out. Its speed as a projectile may severely endanger the field persons. Critical thickness model of the protective plate of the high-speed machine is studied in this paper. For easy analysis, the shapes of the possible impact objects flying from the high-speed machine are simplified as sharp-nose model, ball-nose model and flat-nose model. Whose front ending shape to represent point, line and surface contacting. Impact analysis based on J-C model is performed for the low-carbon steel plate with different thicknesses in this paper. One critical thickness computational model for the protective plate of high-speed machine is established according to the damage characteristics of the thin plate to get relation among plate thickness and mass, shape and size and impact speed of impact object. The air cannon is used for impact test. The model accuracy is validated. This model can guide identification of the thickness of single-layer outer protective plate of a high-speed machine.

  20. Formation of the outer layer of the Dictyostelium spore coat depends on the inner-layer protein SP85/PsB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Talibah; Kelley, Karen; Erdos, Gregory W; Kaplan, Lee; West, Christopher M

    2003-02-01

    The Dictyostelium spore is surrounded by a 220 microm thick trilaminar coat that consists of inner and outer electron-dense layers surrounding a central region of cellulose microfibrils. In previous studies, a mutant strain (TL56) lacking three proteins associated with the outer layer exhibited increased permeability to macromolecular tracers, suggesting that this layer contributes to the coat permeability barrier. Electron microscopy now shows that the outer layer is incomplete in the coats of this mutant and consists of a residual regular array of punctate electron densities. The outer layer is also incomplete in a mutant lacking a cellulose-binding protein associated with the inner layer, and these coats are deficient in an outer-layer protein and another coat protein. To examine the mechanism by which this inner-layer protein, SP85, contributes to outer-layer formation, various domain fragments were overexpressed in forming spores. Most of these exert dominant negative effects similar to the deletion of outer-layer proteins, but one construct, consisting of a fusion of the N-terminal and Cys-rich C1 domain, induces a dense mat of novel filaments at the surface of the outer layer. Biochemical studies show that the C1 domain binds cellulose, and a combination of site-directed mutations that inhibits its cellulose-binding activity suppresses outer-layer filament induction. The results suggest that, in addition to a previously described early role in regulating cellulose synthesis, SP85 subsequently contributes a cross-bridging function between cellulose and other coat proteins to organize previously unrecognized structural elements in the outer layer of the coat.

  1. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R Ducken

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to

  2. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-09-23

    ABSTRACT

    Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels in

  3. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S., E-mail: virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO{sub 2}). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous

  4. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, V.; Virtanen, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO_2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37 °C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  5. Composition Effect of the Outer Layer on the Vesicle Fusion Catalyzed by Phospholipase D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Won [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzed the generation of phosphatidic acid (PA) from phosphatidylcholine (PC) at the outer layer of the vesicles prepared through layer by layer via a double emulsion technique. The generation induced a curvature change in the vesicles, which eventually led them to fuse each other. The ratio of two-fattyacid-tail ethanolamine (PE) to one-fatty-acid-tail ethanolamine (PE) was found to acquire the condition where the mixed-phospholipid vesicles were stable identically with pure two-fatty-acid-tail PC. The effect of the outer-layer mixture on the PLD-induced vesicle fusion was investigated using the fluorescence intensity change. 8-Aminonaph- thalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid disodium salt (ANTS) and p-Xylene-bis(N-pyridinium bromide) (DPX) were encapsulated in the vesicles, respectively, for the quantification of the fusion. The fluorescence scale was calibrated with the fluorescence of a 1/1 mixture of ANTS and DPX vesicles in NaCl buffer taken as 100% fluorescence (0% fusion) and the vesicles containing both ANTS and DPX as 0% fluorescence (100% fusion), considering the leakage into the medium studied directly in a separate experiment using vesicles containing both ANTS and DPX. The fusion data for each composition were acquired with the subtraction of the leakage from the quenching. From the monitoring, the vesicle fusion caused by the PLD reaction seems dominantly to occur rather than the vesicle lysis, because the composition effect on the fusion was observed identically with that on the change in the vesicle structure. Furthermore, the diameter measurements also support the fusion dominancy.

  6. Protective layer formation on magnesium in cell culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, V; Virtanen, S

    2016-06-01

    In the past, different studies showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) or similar calcium phosphates can be precipitated on Mg during immersion in simulated body fluids. However, at the same time, in most cases a dark grey or black layer is built under the white HA crystals. This layer seems to consist as well of calcium phosphates. Until now, neither the morphology nor its influence on Mg corrosion have been investigated in detail. In this work commercially pure magnesium (cp) was immersed in cell culture medium for one, three and five days at room temperature and in the incubator (37 °C, 5% CO2). In addition, the influence of proteins on the formation of a corrosion layer was investigated by adding 20% of fetal calf serum (FCS) to the cell culture medium in the incubator. In order to analyze the formed layers, SEM images of cross sections, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements were carried out. Characterization of the corrosion behavior was achieved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and by potentio-dynamic polarization in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) at 37°C. Surface analysis showed that all formed layers consist mainly of amorphous calcium phosphate compounds. For the immersion at room temperature the Ca/P ratio indicates the formation of HA, while in the incubator probably pre-stages to HA are formed. The different immersion conditions lead to a variation in layer thicknesses. However, electrochemical characterization shows that the layer thickness does not influence the corrosion resistance of magnesium. The main influencing factor for the corrosion behavior is the layer morphology. Thus, immersion at room temperature leads to the highest corrosion protection due to the formation of a compact outer layer. Layers formed in the incubator show much worse performances due to completely porous structures. The

  7. Mechanical modelling quantifies the functional importance of outer tissue layers during root elongation and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rosemary J; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Band, Leah R; Fernandes, Anwesha N; French, Andrew P; Fozard, John A; Hodgman, T Charlie; Kenobi, Kim; Pridmore, Tony P; Stout, Michael; Wells, Darren M; Wilson, Michael H; Bennett, Malcolm J; Jensen, Oliver E

    2014-01-01

    Root elongation and bending require the coordinated expansion of multiple cells of different types. These processes are regulated by the action of hormones that can target distinct cell layers. We use a mathematical model to characterise the influence of the biomechanical properties of individual cell walls on the properties of the whole tissue. Taking a simple constitutive model at the cell scale which characterises cell walls via yield and extensibility parameters, we derive the analogous tissue-level model to describe elongation and bending. To accurately parameterise the model, we take detailed measurements of cell turgor, cell geometries and wall thicknesses. The model demonstrates how cell properties and shapes contribute to tissue-level extensibility and yield. Exploiting the highly organised structure of the elongation zone (EZ) of the Arabidopsis root, we quantify the contributions of different cell layers, using the measured parameters. We show how distributions of material and geometric properties across the root cross-section contribute to the generation of curvature, and relate the angle of a gravitropic bend to the magnitude and duration of asymmetric wall softening. We quantify the geometric factors which lead to the predominant contribution of the outer cell files in driving root elongation and bending. PMID:24641449

  8. Inner-outer interactions in a rough wall turbulent boundary layer over hemispherical roughness using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathikonda, Gokul; Clark, Caitlyn; Christensen, Kenneth T.

    2017-11-01

    Inner-outer interactions over rough-wall boundary layer were investigated using high frame-rate, PIV measurements in a Refractive index-matched (RIM) facility. Flows over canonical smooth-wall and hexagonally-packed hemispherical roughness under transitionally rough flow conditions (and with Reτ 1500) were measured using a dual camera PIV system with different fields of view (FOVs) and operating simultaneously. The large FOV measures the large scales and boundary layer parameters, while the small FOV measures the small scales very close to the wall with high spatial ( 7y*) and temporal ( 2.5t*) resolutions. Conditional metrics were formulated to investigate these scale interactions in a spatio-temporal sense using the PIV data. It was found that the observations complement the interaction structure made via hotwire experiments and DNS in previous studies over both smooth and rough-wall flows, with a strong correlation between the large scales and small scale energies indicative of the amplitude modulation interactions. Additionally, frequency and scale modulations were also investigated with limited success. These experiments highlight the similarities and differences in these interactions between the smooth- and rough-wall flows.

  9. Normative data of outer photoreceptor layer thickness obtained by software image enhancing based on Stratus optical coherence tomography images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U.C.; Krøyer, K.; Thomadsen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    backscattered light within the outer nuclear layer (ONL) in the fovea was registered and compared with backscattered light within the ONL in the peripheral part of the macula (I-ratio-ONL). Results: The mean RPE-OScomplex thickness in the foveal centre was 77.2 mu m (SD = 3.95). The RPE-OScomplex thickness...... in the superior macula 0.5-3 mm of the centre was significantly increased as compared with the corresponding inferior retina. In healthy subjects, the I-ratio-ONL was 1.06. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced OCT images enable quantification of outer photoreceptor layer thickness, and normative values may help...

  10. Relationship between Outer Retinal Layers Thickness and Visual Acuity in Diabetic Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. M. Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the correlation of outer retinal layers (ORL thickness and visual acuity (VA in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME. Methods. Consecutive DME patients seen at the Retina Clinic of The University of Hong Kong were recruited for OCT assessment. The ORL thickness was defined as the distance between external limiting membrane (ELM and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE at the foveal center. The correlation between total retinal thickness, ORL thickness, and vision was calculated. Results. 78 patients with DME were recruited. The mean age was 58.1 years (±11.5 years and their mean visual acuity measured with Snellen chart was 0.51 (±0.18. The correlation coefficient between total retinal thickness and visual acuity was 0.34 (P < 0.001 whereas the correlation coefficient was 0.65 between ORL thickness and visual acuity (P < 0.001. Conclusion. ORL thickness correlates better with vision than the total retinal thickness. It is a novel OCT parameter in the assessment of DME. Moreover, it could be a potential long term visual prognostic factor for patients with DME.

  11. EXACT SOLUTION OF HEAT CONDUCTION IN A TWO-DOMAIN COMPOSITE CYLINDER WITH AN ORTHOTROPIC OUTER LAYER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AVILES-RAMOS, C.; RUDY, C.

    2000-01-01

    The transient exact solution of heat conduction in a two-domain composite cylinder is developed using the separation of variables technique. The inner cylinder is isotropic and the outer cylindrical layer is orthotropic. Temperature solutions are obtained for boundary conditions of the first and second kinds at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer. These solutions are applied to heat flow calorimeters modeling assuming that there is heat generation due to nuclear reactions in the inner cylinder. Heat flow calorimeter simulations are carried out assuming that the inner cylinder is filled with plutonium oxide powder. The first objective in these simulations is to predict the onset of thermal equilibrium of the calorimeter with its environment. Two types of boundary conditions at the outer surface of the orthotropic layer are used to predict thermal equilibrium. The procedure developed to carry out these simulations can be used as a guideline for the design of calorimeters. Another important application of these solutions is on the estimation of thermophysical properties of orthotropic cylinders. The thermal conductivities in the vertical, radial and circumferential directions of the orthotropic outer layer can be estimated using this exact solution and experimental data. Simultaneous estimation of the volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivities is also possible. Furthermore, this solution has potential applications to the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem in this cylindrical geometry. An interesting feature of the construction of this solution is that two different sets of eigenfunctions need to be considered in the eigenfunction expansion. These eigenfunctions sets depend on the relative values of the thermal diffusivity of the inner cylinder and the thermal diffusivity in the vertical direction of the outer cylindrical layer

  12. Protective effect of taurine on the light-induced disruption of isolated frog rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Quesada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS) incubated in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, and illuminated for 2 h, show a profound alteration in their structure. This is characterized by distention of discs, vesiculation, and a marked swelling. The light-induced ROS disruption requires the presence of bicarbonate and sodium chloride. Replacement of bicarbonate by TRIS or HEPES protects ROS structure. Also, substitution of sodium chloride by sucrose or choline chloride maintains unaltered the ROS structure. Deletion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphate does not modify the effect produced by illumination. An increased accumulation of labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water is observed in illuminated ROS, as compared with controls in the dark. The presence of taurine, GABA, or glycine, at concentrations of 5-25 mM, effectively counteracts the light-induced ROS disruption. Taurine (25 mM) reduces labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water levels to those observed in the dark incubated ROS

  13. Outer membrane vesicles of Gallibacterium anatis induce protective immunity in egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pors, Susanne E; Pedersen, Ida J; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Thøfner, Ida C N; Persson, Gry; Bojesen, Anders M

    2016-11-15

    Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have previously shown promising results in protection against infections and we hypothesized that OMVs could serve as an immunogen to protect egg-laying hens against G. anatis. To investigate the immunogenic potential of G. anatis OMVs, two in vivo studies in egg-laying hens were made. The trials assessedthe degree of protection provided by immunization with G. anatis OMV against challenge and the IgY responses in serum after immunization and challenge, respectively. A total of 64 egg-laying hens were included in the trials. OMVs for immunization were produced and purified from a high-producing G. anatis ΔtolR mutant. Challenge was done with G. anatis 12656-12 and evaluated by scoring lesions and bacterial re-isolation rates from peritoneum. Finally, levels of OMV-specific IgY in sera were assayed by ELISA. Immunization with OMVs decreased the lesions scores significantly, while the bacterial re-isolation remained unchanged. Furthermore, a high OMV-specific IgY response was induced by immunization and subsequent challenge of the hens. The results strongly indicate that immunization with G. anatis OMVs provides significant protection against G. anatis challenge and induces specific antibody responses with high titers of OMV-specific IgY in serum. The results therefore show great promise for OMV based vaccines aiming at providing protecting against G. anatis in egg-laying hens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a kvlcc model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Nam Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15~2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  15. An experimental assessment of resistance reduction and wake modification of a KVLCC model by using outer-layer vertical blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun An

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experimental investigation has been made of the applicability of outer-layer vertical blades to real ship model. After first devised by Hutchins and Choi (2003, the outer-layer vertical blades demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing total drag of flat plate (Park et al., 2011 with maximum drag reduction of 9.6%. With a view to assessing the effect in the flow around a ship, the arrays of outer-layer vertical blades have been installed onto the side bottom and flat bottom of a 300k KVLCC model. A series of towing tank test has been carried out to investigate resistance (CTM reduction efficiency and improvement of stern wake distribution with varying geometric parameters of the blades array. The installation of vertical blades led to the CTM reduction of 2.15∼2.76% near the service speed. The nominal wake fraction was affected marginally by the blades array and the axial velocity distribution tended to be more uniform by the blades array.

  16. l-N-acetylcysteine protects outer hair cells against TNFα initiated ototoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillinger, Joshua A; Gupta, Chhavi; Ila, Kadri; Ahmed, Jamal; Mittal, Jeenu; Van De Water, Thomas R; Eshraghi, Adrien A

    2018-03-07

    The present study is aimed at determining the efficacy and exploring the mechanisms by which l-N-acetylcysteine (l-NAC) provides protection against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-induced oxidative stress damage and hair cell loss in 3-day-old rat organ of Corti (OC) explants. Previous work has demonstrated a high level of oxidative stress in TNFα-challenged OC explants. TNFα can potentially play a significant role in hair cell loss following an insult to the inner ear. l-NAC has shown to provide effective protection against noise-induced hearing loss in laboratory animals but mechanisms of this otoprotective effect are not well-defined. Rat OC explants were exposed to either: (1) saline control (N = 12); (2) TNFα (2 μg/ml, N = 12); (3) TNFα+l-NAC (5 mM, N = 12); (4) TNFα+l-NAC (10 mM, N = 12); or (5) l-NAC (10 mM, N = 12). Outer hair cell (OHC) density, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation of cell membranes, gluthathione activity, and mitochondrial viability were assayed. l-NAC (5 and 10 mM) provided protection for OHCs from ototoxic level of TNFα in OC explants. Groups treated with TNFα+l-NAC (5 mM) showed a highly significant reduction of both ROS (p l-NAC (5 mM) treated explants (p l-NAC is a promising treatment for protecting auditory HCs from TNFα-induced oxidative stress and subsequent loss via programmed cell death.

  17. Rapid outer-surface protein C DNA tattoo vaccination protects against Borrelia afzelii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, A; Mason, L M K; Oei, A; de Wever, B; van der Poll, T; Bins, A D; Hovius, J W R

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method that can be applied in a rapid vaccination schedule. We vaccinated C3H/HeN mice with B. afzelii strain PKo OspC (outer-surface protein C) using a codon-optimized DNA vaccine tattoo and compared this with recombinant protein vaccination in a 0-2-4 week vaccination schedule. We also assessed protection by DNA tattoo in a 0-3-6 day schedule. DNA tattoo and recombinant OspC vaccination induced comparable total IgG responses, with a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio after DNA tattoo. Two weeks after syringe-challenge with 5 × 10(5) B. afzelii spirochetes most vaccinated mice had negative B. afzelii tissue DNA loads and all were culture negative. Furthermore, DNA tattoo vaccination in a 0-3-6 day regimen also resulted in negative Borrelia loads and cultures after challenge. To conclude, DNA vaccination by tattoo was fully protective against B. afzelii challenge in mice in a rapid vaccination protocol, and induces a favorable humoral immunity compared to recombinant protein vaccination. Rapid DNA tattoo is a promising vaccination strategy against spirochetes.

  18. Oxide layers for silicon detector protection against enviroment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tsazh, E.; Brylovska, I.; Valerian, M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that for protection of silicon detectors of nuclear radiations oxide layers could be used. The layers are produced by electrochemical oxidation of silicon surface with the following low-temperature annealing. These layers have characteristics similar to those for oxide layers produced by treatment of silicon samples at elevated temperature in oxygen flow. To determine properties of oxide layers produced by electrochemical oxidation the α-particle back-scattering method and the method of volt-farad characteristics were used. Protection properties of such layers were checked on the surface-barrier detectors. It was shown that protection properties of such detectors were conserved during long storage at room temperature and during their storage under wet-bulb temperature. Detectors without protection layer have worsened their characteristics

  19. Protection from hemolytic uremic syndrome by eyedrop vaccination with modified enterohemorrhagic E. coli outer membrane vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Sub Choi

    Full Text Available We investigated whether eyedrop vaccination using modified outer membrane vesicles (mOMVs is effective for protecting against hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS caused by enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC O157:H7 infection. Modified OMVs and waaJ-mOMVs were prepared from cultures of MsbB- and Shiga toxin A subunit (STxA-deficient EHEC O157:H7 bacteria with or without an additional waaJ mutation. BALB/c mice were immunized by eyedrop mOMVs, waaJ-mOMVs, and mOMVs plus polymyxin B (PMB. Mice were boosted at 2 weeks, and challenged peritoneally with wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs at 4 weeks. As parameters for evaluation of the OMV-mediated immune protection, serum and mucosal immunoglobulins, body weight change and blood urea nitrogen (BUN/Creatinin (Cr were tested, as well as histopathology of renal tissue. In order to confirm the safety of mOMVs for eyedrop use, body weight and ocular histopathological changes were monitored in mice. Modified OMVs having penta-acylated lipid A moiety did not contain STxA subunit proteins but retained non-toxic Shiga toxin B (STxB subunit. Removal of the polymeric O-antigen of O157 LPS was confirmed in waaJ-mOMVs. The mice group vaccinated with mOMVs elicited greater humoral and mucosal immune responses than did the waaJ-mOMVs and PBS-treated groups. Eyedrop vaccination of mOMVs plus PMB reduced the level of humoral and mucosal immune responses, suggesting that intact O157 LPS antigen can be a critical component for enhancing the immunogenicity of the mOMVs. After challenge, mice vaccinated with mOMVs were protected from a lethal dose of wtOMVs administered intraperitoneally, conversely mice in the PBS control group were not. Collectively, for the first time, EHEC O157-derived mOMV eyedrop vaccine was experimentally evaluated as an efficient and safe means of vaccine development against EHEC O157:H7 infection-associated HUS.

  20. Analysis of gene expression in the outer cell layers of Arabidopsis roots during lateral root development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth-Tello, Luz Marina

    2005-01-01

    Lateral roots are an important means for the plant to increase its absorptive area and the volume of substrate exploited. Lateral roots originate in the pericycle, the outermost layer of the vascular cylinder, and by growing penetrate the overlaying cell layers before emergence. This process is

  1. Climate change and ozone layer protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This conference is composed of 27 communications of which the following main themes are: general approach to the problems of climatic change, greenhouse effect and ozone layer; France, Cameroon and Switzerland examples of energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction; energy conservation measures and policies for dwellings, transport, industry, agriculture and food industry with a global aspect of reducing greenhouse gas emissions; CFC utilization effects on environment and alternatives to CFC utilization

  2. REDESIGN OF OUTER HOOD PANEL OF ESEMKA R2 CAR TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin Binyamin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are terrible scourge that occur in many countries, specially for developing countries where transportation affairs like tangled yarn. Besides functioning as an engine compartment cover, the hood of modern compact SUV can also help to manage the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head in a vehicle-pedestrian impact. This paper presents outer hood design of Esemka R2 that has a potential to improve hood’s ability and also to absorb the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head. The developed method for the design of an outer hood configuration aims to provide a robust design and homogeneous of Head Injury Criterion (HIC for impact position at WAD 1000 and three different thicknesses (1.25 mm, 1.35 mm & 1.50 mm of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 compact SUV, taking into consideration the limited space available for deformation. The non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA software (Explicit Dynamics was used in this research to simulate the testing procedurs of head impact for child pedestrian. The results show that the average of comparison dimensional of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 was 4.89 mm. The minimum of deformation space meet the requirement for HIC value which required obtaining robust and homogeneous head impact performance. Outer hood thickness and materials were identified as the factors to influence the stress and HIC value of the hood. By comparing all outer hood panels, aluminium alloy as the best selected material which has the lowest value is 32.78% for the pedestrian protection.

  3. A laser syringe aimed at delivering drug into the outer layer of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, Jack J.; Jang, Hun-jae; Park, Mi-ae; Han, Tae-hee; Hah, Jung-moo

    2012-07-01

    A desire to eliminate hypodermic needle in transdermal drug delivery may now be realized. Imaging of the skin after injection of fluorescent probe and biotin via the bio-ballistic technique revealed the epidermal and dermal layers which were stained well below 60 μm underneath the abdominal skin of the guinea-pig. An extensive network of cells are shown in the deeper layer of the stained dermis as the distributed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dose is administered by repeated injection via the laser-based microjet. Here, we show our method of laser-based microjet drug delivery is capable of breaching guinea-pig's skin tissue and then delivering controlled dose of drug to the targeted region between 10 to 400 μm underneath the outermost layer of the skin. While minimizing pain and tissue damage by reducing the injection volume to ˜100 nl per pulse and the microjet diameter of half the conventional syringe needle in 100 μm, the optimally controlled delivery of liquid drug by the irradiated laser pulse is shown possible.

  4. Inverse estimation for temperatures of outer surface and geometry of inner surface of furnace with two layer walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Su, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an inverse analysis to estimate the boundary thermal behavior of a furnace with two layer walls. The unknown temperature distribution of the outer surface and the geometry of the inner surface were estimated from the temperatures of a small number of measured points within the furnace wall. The present approach rearranged the matrix forms of the governing differential equations and then combined the reversed matrix method, the linear least squares error method and the concept of virtual area to determine the unknown boundary conditions of the furnace system. The dimensionless temperature data obtained from the direct problem were used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of temperature measurement errors upon the precision of the estimated results was also investigated. The advantage of this approach is that the unknown condition can be directly solved by only one calculation process without initially guessed temperatures, and the iteration process of the traditional method can be avoided in the analysis of the heat transfer. Therefore, the calculation in this work is more rapid and exact than the traditional method. The result showed that the estimation error of the geometry increased with increasing distance between measured points and inner surface and in preset error, and with decreasing number of measured points. However, the geometry of the furnace inner surface could be successfully estimated by only the temperatures of a small number of measured points within and near the outer surface under reasonable preset error

  5. A Theoretical Study of the Outer Layers of Eight Kepler F-stars: The Relevance of Ionization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed the theoretical model envelopes of eight Kepler F-stars by computing the phase shift of the acoustic waves, α (ω ), and its related function, β (ω ). The latter is shown to be a powerful probe of the external stellar layers since it is particularly sensitive to the partial ionization zones located in these upper layers. We found that these theoretical envelopes can be organized into two groups, each of which is characterized by a distinct β (ω ) shape that we show to reflect the differences related to the magnitudes of ionization processes. Since β (ω ) can also be determined from the experimental frequencies, we compared our theoretical results with the observable β (ω ). Using the function β (ω ), and with the purpose of quantifying the magnitude of the ionization processes occurring in the outer layers of these stars, we define two indexes, {{Δ }}{β }1 and {{Δ }}{β }2. These indexes allow us to connect the microphysics of the interior of the star with macroscopic observable characteristics. Motivated by the distinct magnetic activity behaviors of F-stars, we studied the relation between the star’s rotation period and these indexes. We found a trend, in the form of a power-law dependence, that favors the idea that ionization is acting as an underlying mechanism, which is crucial for understanding the relation between rotation and magnetism and even observational features such as the Kraft break.

  6. Immunogenicity of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Outer Membrane Vesicles and Protective Ability in the Chinchilla Model of Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Linda E; Barenkamp, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria are enriched in several outer membrane components, including major and minor outer membrane proteins and lipooligosaccharide. We assessed the functional activity of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) OMV-specific antisera and the protective ability of NTHi OMVs as vaccine antigens in the chinchilla otitis media model. OMVs were purified from three HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains, two of which were also engineered to overexpress Hia proteins. OMV-specific antisera raised in guinea pigs were assessed for their ability to mediate killing of representative NTHi in an opsonophagocytic assay. The three OMV-specific antisera mediated killing of 18 of 65, 24 of 65, and 30 of 65 unrelated HMW1/HMW2-expressing NTHi strains. Overall, they mediated killing of 39 of 65 HMW1/HMW2-expressing strains. The two Hia-expressing OMV-specific antisera mediated killing of 17 of 25 and 14 of 25 unrelated Hia-expressing NTHi strains. Overall, they mediated killing of 20 of 25 Hia-expressing strains. OMVs from prototype NTHi strain 12 were used to immunize chinchillas and the course of middle ear infection was monitored following intrabullar challenge with the homologous strain. All control animals developed culture-positive otitis media, as did two of three HMW1/HMW2-immunized animals. All OMV-immunized animals, with or without supplemental HMW1/HMW2 immunization, were completely protected against otitis media. NTHi OMVs are the first immunogens examined in this model that provided complete protection with sterile immunity after NTHi strain 12 challenge. These data suggest that NTHi OMVs hold significant potential as components of protective NTHi vaccines, possibly in combination with HMW1/HMW2 proteins. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Penetration of steady fluid motions into an outer stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Youhei

    2018-03-01

    Penetration of steady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) disturbances into an upper strongly stratified stable layer excited by MHD thermal convection in rotating spherical shells is investigated. The theoretical model proposed by Takehiro (2015) is reexamined in the case of steady fluid motion below the bottom boundary. Steady disturbances penetrate into a density stratified MHD fluid existing in the semi-infinite region in the vertical direction. The axis of rotation of the system is tilted with respect to the vertical. The basic magnetic field is uniform and may be tilted with respect to the vertical and the rotation axis. Linear dispersion relation shows that the penetration distance with zero frequency depends on the amplitude of Alfvén wave speed. When Alfvén wave speed is small, viscous diffusion becomes dominant and penetration distance is similar to the horizontal scale of the disturbance at the lower boundary. In contrast, when Alfvén wave speed becomes larger, disturbance can penetrate deeper, and penetration distance becomes proportional to the Alfvén wave speed and inversely proportional to the geometric average of viscous and magnetic diffusion coefficients and to the total horizontal wavenumber. The analytic expression of penetration distance is in good agreement with the extent of penetration of mean zonal flow induced by finite amplitude convection in a rotating spherical shell with an upper stably stratified layer embedded in an axially uniform basic magnetic field. The theory expects that the stable layer suggested in the upper part of the outer core of the earth could be penetrated completely by mean zonal flows excited by thermal/compositional convection developing below the stable layer.

  8. Mechanism of protective action of surface carbide layers on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukalovskaya, T.V.; Chebotareva, N.P.; Tomashov, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    The protective action of surface carbide layer on titanium produced in methane atmosphere at 1000 deg C and under 6.7 kPa pressure in H 2 SO 4 solutions is studied through comparison of microsection metallographic specimens prior to and after corrosion testing (after specimen activation); through comparison of anodic characteristics after partial stripping of the layer up to its complete stripping; through analysis of the behaviour of Ti-TiC galvanic couple, and through investigation of corresponding corrosion diagrams under test conditions. It is shown that screening protective mechanism is primarily got involved in highly agressive media (high temperature and concentration of solution), and in less agressive environment the protection of titanium with carbide layer is primarily ensured by electrochemical mechanism

  9. Mapping of a Protective Epitope of the CopB Outer Membrane Protein of Moraxella catarrhalis

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Christoph; Cope, Leslie D.; Latimer, Jo L.; Thomas, Sharon E.; Slaughter, Clive A.; McCracken, George H.; Hansen, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) (MAb 10F3) directed against the CopB outer membrane protein of Moraxella catarrhalis previously was found to enhance pulmonary clearance of M. catarrhalis in an animal model (M. Helminen, I. Maciver, J. L. Latimer, L. D. Cope, G. H. McCracken, Jr., and E. J. Hansen, Infect. Immun. 61:2003–2010, 1993). In the present study, this same MAb was shown to exert complement-dependent bactericidal activity against this pathogen in vitro. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ...

  10. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, S. David; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates that tuning the donor density of protective TiO2 layers on a photocathode has dramatic consequences for electronic conduction through TiO2 with implications for the stabilization of oxidation-sensitive catalysts on the surface. Vacuum annealing at 400 °C for 1 hour o...

  11. Protective Immunity and Reduced Renal Colonization Induced by Vaccines Containing Recombinant Leptospira interrogans Outer Membrane Proteins and Flagellin Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaris, D.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M. E.; Dib, C. C.; Canhamero, T. A.; Souza, G. O.; Vasconcellos, S. A.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease caused by different Leptospira species, such as Leptospira interrogans, that colonize the renal tubules of wild and domestic animals. Thus far, attempts to develop effective leptospirosis vaccines, both for humans and animals, have failed to induce immune responses capable of conferring protection and simultaneously preventing renal colonization. In this study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by subunit vaccines containing seven different recombinant Leptospira interrogans outer membrane proteins, including the carboxy-terminal portion of the immunoglobulinlike protein A (LigAC) and six novel antigens, combined with aluminum hydroxide (alum) or Salmonella flagellin (FliC) as adjuvants. Hamsters vaccinated with the different formulations elicited high antigen-specific antibody titers. Immunization with LigAC, either with alum or flagellin, conferred protective immunity but did not prevent renal colonization. Similarly, animals immunized with LigAC or LigAC coadministered with six leptospiral proteins with alum adjuvant conferred protection but did not reduce renal colonization. In contrast, immunizing animals with the pool of seven antigens in combination with flagellin conferred protection and significantly reduced renal colonization by the pathogen. The present study emphasizes the relevance of antigen composition and added adjuvant in the efficacy of antileptospirosis subunit vaccines and shows the complex relationship between immune responses and renal colonization by the pathogen. PMID:26108285

  12. Uptake of hazardous radionuclides within layered chalcogenide for environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Pranesh, E-mail: praneshsengupta@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dudwadkar, N.L. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Vishwanadh, B. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pulhani, V. [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Rao, Rekha [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tripathi, S.C. [Fuel Reprocessing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure prepared by hydrothermal route. • Exploration of the possibilities for radionuclides’ uptake using layered chalcogenide. • Proposing ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as major uptake mechanism. -- Abstract: Ensuring environmental protection in and around nuclear facilities is a matter of deep concern. Toward this, layered chalcogenide with CdI{sub 2} crystal structure has been prepared. Structural characterizations of layered chalcogenide suggest ‘topotactic ionic substitution’ as the dominant mechanism behind uptake of different cations within its lattice structure. An equilibration time of 45 min and volume to mass ratio of 30:1 are found to absorb {sup 233}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 85+89}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am radionuclides to the maximum extents.

  13. Monolithic pixel development in TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS for the outer pixel layers in the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdalovic, I.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Cardella, R.; Egidos Plaja, N.; Hemperek, T.; Hiti, B.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Sharma, A.; Snoeys, W.; Solans Sanchez, C.; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS tracking detector (ITk) for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires the development of novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Latest developments in CMOS sensor processing offer the possibility of combining high-resistivity substrates with on-chip high-voltage biasing to achieve a large depleted active sensor volume. We have characterised depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which were produced in a novel modified imaging process implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process in the framework of the monolithic sensor development for the ALICE experiment. Sensors fabricated in this modified process feature full depletion of the sensitive layer, a sensor capacitance of only a few fF and radiation tolerance up to 1015 neq/cm2. This paper summarises the measurements of charge collection properties in beam tests and in the laboratory using radioactive sources and edge TCT. The results of these measurements show significantly improved radiation hardness obtained for sensors manufactured using the modified process. This has opened the way to the design of two large scale demonstrators for the ATLAS ITk. To achieve a design compatible with the requirements of the outer pixel layers of the tracker, a charge sensitive front-end taking 500 nA from a 1.8 V supply is combined with a fast digital readout architecture. The low-power front-end with a 25 ns time resolution exploits the low sensor capacitance to reduce noise and analogue power, while the implemented readout architectures minimise power by reducing the digital activity.

  14. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-01-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures

  15. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-07-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.

  16. Shigella outer membrane protein PSSP-1 is broadly protective against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ouk; Rho, Semi; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Heejoo; Song, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ryang Yeo; Kim, Eun Hye; Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    In developing countries, Shigella is a primary cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. Although antibiotic therapy is an effective treatment for shigellosis, therapeutic options are narrowing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, preventive vaccination could become the most efficacious approach for controlling shigellosis. We have identified several conserved protein antigens that are shared by multiple Shigella serotypes and species. Among these, one antigen induced cross-protection against experimental shigellosis, and we have named it pan-Shigella surface protein 1 (PSSP-1). PSSP-1-induced protection requires a mucosal administration route and coadministration of an adjuvant. When PSSP-1 was administered intranasally, it induced cross-protection against Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a, 5a, and 6, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Intradermally administered PSSP-1 induced strong serum antibody responses but failed to induce protection in the mouse lung pneumonia model. In contrast, intranasal administration elicited efficient local and systemic antibody responses and production of interleukin 17A and gamma interferon. Interestingly, blood samples from patients with recent-onset shigellosis showed variable but significant mucosal antibody responses to other conserved Shigella protein antigens but not to PSSP-1. We suggest that PSSP-1 is a promising antigen for a broadly protective vaccine against Shigella. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Overexpression of MicA induces production of OmpC-enriched outer membrane vesicles that protect against Salmonella challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Il; Kim, Moonjeong; Jeon, Jinseong; Han, Jin Kwan; Kim, Kwang-Sun

    2017-08-26

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) derived from bacteria are promising candidates for subunit vaccines. Stresses that modulate the composition of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are important for OMV synthesis. Small RNAs (sRNAs) expressed in response to stress regulate OMPs, although the mechanism underlying sRNA-mediated OMV biogenesis and its utility for developing vaccine platforms remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterized the role of a sRNA, MicA, which regulates OmpA, a major OMP involved in both production of OMVs and reactive immunity against Salmonella challenge. A Salmonella strain overexpressing MicA generated more OMVs than a control strain. In addition, OmpC was the major component of MicA-derived OMV proteins. MicA-derived OMVs induced Th1- and Th17-type immune responses in vitro and reduced Salmonella-mediated lethality in a mouse model. Thus, OmpA-regulatory sRNA-derived OMVs may facilitate production of Salmonella-protective vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Employing Escherichia coli-derived outer membrane vesicles as an antigen delivery platform elicits protective immunity against Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shijie; Yao, Yufeng; Xia, Ye; Yang, Xu; Li, Kui; Sun, Pengyan; Liu, Cunbao; Sun, Wenjia; Bai, Hongmei; Chu, Xiaojie; Li, Yang; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-11-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs). Immunization with Omp22-OMVs induced high titers of Omp22-specific antibodies. In a murine sepsis model, Omp22-OMV immunization significantly protected mice from lethal challenge with a clinically isolated A. baumannii strain, which was evidenced by the increased survival rate of the mice, the reduced bacterial burdens in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood, and the suppressed serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro opsonophagocytosis assays showed that antiserum collected from Omp22-OMV-immunized mice had bactericidal activity against clinical isolates, which was partly specific antibody-dependent. These results strongly indicated that engineered OMVs could display a whole heterologous protein (~22 kDa) on the surface and effectively induce specific antibody responses, and thus OMVs have the potential to be a feasible vaccine platform.

  19. Atomic layer deposited oxide films as protective interface layers for integrated graphene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Alexander-Webber, J. A.; Sagade, A. A.; Aria, A. I.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Hofmann, S.

    2017-12-01

    The transfer of chemical vapour deposited graphene from its parent growth catalyst has become a bottleneck for many of its emerging applications. The sacrificial polymer layers that are typically deposited onto graphene for mechanical support during transfer are challenging to remove completely and hence leave graphene and subsequent device interfaces contaminated. Here, we report on the use of atomic layer deposited (ALD) oxide films as protective interface and support layers during graphene transfer. The method avoids any direct contact of the graphene with polymers and through the use of thicker ALD layers (≥100 nm), polymers can be eliminated from the transfer-process altogether. The ALD film can be kept as a functional device layer, facilitating integrated device manufacturing. We demonstrate back-gated field effect devices based on single-layer graphene transferred with a protective Al2O3 film onto SiO2 that show significantly reduced charge trap and residual carrier densities. We critically discuss the advantages and challenges of processing graphene/ALD bilayer structures.

  20. Quantitative fundus autofluorescence in mice: correlation with HPLC quantitation of RPE lipofuscin and measurement of retina outer nuclear layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Janet R; Blonska, Anna; Flynn, Erin; Duncker, Tobias; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Secondi, Roberta; Ueda, Keiko; Delori, François C

    2013-04-17

    Our study was conducted to establish procedures and protocols for quantitative autofluorescence (qAF) measurements in mice, and to report changes in qAF, A2E bisretinoid concentration, and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in mice of different genotypes and age. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) images (55° lens, 488 nm excitation) were acquired in albino Abca4(-/-), Abca4(+/-), and Abca4(+/+) mice (ages 2-12 months) with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). Gray levels (GLs) in each image were calibrated to an internal fluorescence reference. The bisretinoid A2E was measured by quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histometric analysis of ONL thicknesses was performed. The Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability (95% confidence interval) was ±18% for between-session qAF measurements. Mean qAF values increased with age (2-12 months) in all groups of mice. qAF was approximately 2-fold higher in Abca4(-/-) mice than in Abca4(+/+) mice and approximately 20% higher in heterozygous mice. HPLC measurements of the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E also revealed age-associated increases, and the fold difference between Abca4(-/-) and wild-type mice was more pronounced (approximately 3-4-fold) than measurable by qAF. Moreover, A2E levels declined after 8 months of age, a change not observed with qAF. The decline in A2E levels in the Abca4(-/-) mice corresponded to reduced photoreceptor cell viability as reflected in ONL thinning beginning at 8 months of age. The qAF method enables measurement of in vivo lipofuscin and the detection of genotype and age-associated differences. The use of this approach has the potential to aid in understanding retinal disease processes and will facilitate preclinical studies.

  1. Exploration of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System: Updated Planetary Protection Requirements for Missions to Enceladus and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus and Europa are bodies with icy/watery environments and potential habitable conditions for life, making both of great interest in astrobiological studies of chemical evolution and /or origin of life. They are also of significant planetary protection concern for spacecraft missions because of the potential for harmful contamination during exploration. At a 2015 COSPAR colloquium in Bern Switzerland, international scientists identified an urgent need to establish planetary protection requirements for missions proposing to return samples to Earth from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Deliberations at the meeting resulted in recommended policy updates for both forward and back contamination requirements for missions to Europa and Enceladus, including missions sampling plumes originating from those bodies. These recently recommended COSPAR policy revisions and biological contamination requirements will be applied to future missions to Europa and Encealadus, particularly noticeable in those with plans for in situ life detection and sample return capabilities. Included in the COSPAR policy are requirementsto `break the chain of contact' with Europa or Enceladus, to keep pristine returned materials contained, and to complete required biohazard analyses, testing and/or sterilization upon return to Earth. Subsequent to the Bern meeting, additional discussions of Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System bodies (PPOSS) are underway in a 3-year study coordinated by the European Science Foundation and involving multiple international partners, including Japan, China and Russia, along with a US observer. This presentation will provide science and policy updates for those whose research or activities will involve icy moon missions and exploration.

  2. Outer Membrane Protein A Conservation among Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates Suggests Its Potential as a Protective Antigen and Diagnostic Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Evans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus threatens one billion people in the Asia-Pacific area and cases have emerged outside this region. It is caused by infection with any of the multitude of strains of the bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. A vaccine that affords heterologous protection and a commercially-available molecular diagnostic assay are lacking. Herein, we determined that the nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of outer membrane protein A (OmpA are highly conserved among 51 O. tsutsugamushi isolates. Molecular modeling revealed the predicted tertiary structure of O. tsutsugamushi OmpA to be very similar to that of the phylogenetically-related pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, including the location of a helix that contains residues functionally essential for A. phagocytophilum infection. PCR primers were developed that amplified ompA DNA from all O. tsutsugamushi strains, but not from negative control bacteria. Using these primers in quantitative PCR enabled sensitive detection and quantitation of O. tsutsugamushi ompA DNA from organs and blood of mice that had been experimentally infected with the Karp or Gilliam strains. The high degree of OmpA conservation among O. tsutsugamushi strains evidences its potential to serve as a molecular diagnostic target and justifies its consideration as a candidate for developing a broadly-protective scrub typhus vaccine.

  3. Protective immunity induced by 67 K outer membrane protein of phase I Coxiella burnetii in mice and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Zhi, N.; Yu, S.R.; Li, Q.J.; Yu, G.Q.; Zhang, X.

    1994-01-01

    A 67 K outer membrane protein (OMP) isolated from phase I Coxiella burnetii QiYi strain was purified with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) coupled to CNBr-Sepharose 4B. Chemical analyses of the 67 K protein showed that it contained seventeen kids of amino acids and no lipopolysaccharides. The immunogenicity and protectivity of the 67 K protein against C. burnetii was evaluated in mice and guinea pigs bi in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay, delayed-type skin test, antibody conversion rate, and immunization and challenge tests. Intraperitoneal injection of the 67 K protein resulted in antibody production against phase I and II whole cell antigens. The anti-67 K antibody conversion rate was found to be 100% in mice and guinea pigs as well. Lymphocytes were responses in vitro to specific antigen. In addition, delayed-type hypersensitivity appeared two weeks after immunization with the 67 K protein. Moreover, 199% of mice and guinea pigs inoculated with the 67 K protein were protected against a challenge with 10 3 ID 50 virulent C. burnetii. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the 67 K OMP elicits in vivo and in vitro both B cell-mediated and T cell-mediated immunity in mice and guinea pigs. Thus the 67 K protein is a candidate for an effective subunit vaccine against Q fever. (author)

  4. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  5. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  6. Protective articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes an article affording protection against radiation, and especially against X-rays comprising at least one flexible layer of lead filled material in an envelope of, or sandwiched between two layers of a knitted, woven or non-woven fabric preferably of synthetic fibrous material, carrying on its outer surface a coating of flexible polyurethane. The outer fabric provides a resilient, extremely tough and cut resistant covering for the relatively soft lead filled material. (author)

  7. Multidentate-Protected Colloidal Gold Nanocrystals: pH Control of Cooperative Precipitation and Surface Layer Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.; Nie, Shuming

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal gold nanocrystals with broad size tunability and unusual pH-sensitive properties have been synthesized by using multidentate polymer ligands. Containing both carboxylic functional groups and sterically hindered aliphatic chains, the multidentate ligands are able to both reduce gold precursors and to stabilize gold nanoclusters during nucleation and growth. The “as-synthesized” nanocrystals are protected by an inner coordinating layer and an outer polymer layer, and are soluble in water and polar solvents. When the solution pH is lowered by just 0.6 units (from pH 4.85 to 4.25), the particles undergo a dramatic cooperative transition from being soluble to insoluble, allowing rapid isolation, purification, and redispersion of the multidentate-protected nanocrystals. A surprise finding is that when a portion of the surface carboxylate groups is neutralized by protonation, the particles irreversibly shed their outer polymer layer and become soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. Further, the multidentate polymer coatings are permeable to small organic molecules, in contrast to tightly packed self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold. These insights are important towards the design of “smart” imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles that are activated by small pH changes in the tumor interstitial space or endocytic organelles. PMID:21510704

  8. Layers of protection analysis in the framework of possibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazraoui, N; Nait-Said, R; Bourareche, M; Sellami, I

    2013-11-15

    An important issue faced by risk analysts is how to deal with uncertainties associated with accident scenarios. In industry, one often uses single values derived from historical data or literature to estimate events probability or their frequency. However, both dynamic environments of systems and the need to consider rare component failures may make unrealistic this kind of data. In this paper, uncertainty encountered in Layers Of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is considered in the framework of possibility theory. Data provided by reliability databases and/or experts judgments are represented by fuzzy quantities (possibilities). The fuzzy outcome frequency is calculated by extended multiplication using α-cuts method. The fuzzy outcome is compared to a scenario risk tolerance criteria and the required reduction is obtained by resolving a possibilistic decision-making problem under necessity constraint. In order to validate the proposed model, a case study concerning the protection layers of an operational heater is carried out. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Fungus-Inducible Pepper Carboxylesterase Exhibits Antifungal Activity by Decomposing the Outer Layer of Fungal Cell Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Ae Ran; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Park, Sangkyu; Han, Yun-Jeong; Hoang, Quyen T N; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2018-05-01

    Colletotrichum species are major fungal pathogens that cause devastating anthracnose diseases in many economically important crops. In this study, we observed the hydrolyzing activity of a fungus-inducible pepper carboxylesterase (PepEST) on cell walls of C. gloeosporioides, causing growth retardation of the fungus by blocking appressorium formation. To determine the cellular basis for the growth inhibition, we observed the localization of PepEST on the fungus and found the attachment of the protein on surfaces of conidia and germination tubes. Moreover, we examined the decomposition of cell-wall materials from the fungal surface after reaction with PepEST, which led to the identification of 1,2-dithiane-4,5-diol (DTD) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Exogenous DTD treatment did not elicit expression of defense-related genes in the host plant but did trigger the necrosis of C. gloeosporioides. Furthermore, the DTD compound displayed protective effects on pepper fruits and plants against C. gloeosporioides and C. coccodes, respectively. In addition, DTD was also effective in preventing other diseases, such as rice blast, tomato late blight, and wheat leaf rust. Therefore, our results provide evidence that PepEST is involved in hydrolysis of the outmost layer of the fungal cell walls and that DTD has antifungal activity, suggesting an alternative strategy to control agronomically important phytopathogens.

  10. PROTECTIVE LAYERS OF IRON AND NICKEL ALUMINIDES ON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Voděrová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediary phases Ni-Al and Fe-Al are promising materials due to their superior properties such as hardness and good resistance against oxidation at high temperatures. Moreover, Fe-Al phases are resistant in sulphur - containing atmospheres. Because of these characteristics, the above mentioned intermetallic phases seem to be prospective for the use in many technical applications such as energetics, chemical or automotive industry in a form of a bulk material or coatings. Presently, the protective aluminide layer is usually prepared by thermal spraying. Nevertheless, this method is not suitable for complex-shaped components. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find an alternative way to prepare layers consisting of nickel or iron aluminides by other technique than thermal spraying. At first, carbon steel samples were coated using galvanic or electroless nickel plating. Coated samples were subsequently submerged into molten aluminium at various temperatures and process durations. The influence of the temperature and duration on the intermetallic phase growth was studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Thickness and microhardness of the intermetallic layer was also measured.

  11. PROTECTIVE LAYERS OF IRON AND NICKEL ALUMINIDES ON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Voderova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermediary phases Ni-Al and Fe-Al are promising materials due to their superior properties such as hardness and good resistance against oxidation at high temperatures. Moreover, Fe-Al phases are resistant in sulphur - containing atmospheres. Because of these characteristics, the above mentioned intermetallic phases seem to be prospective for the use in many technical applications such as energetics, chemical or automotive industry in a form of a bulk material or coatings. Presently, the protective aluminide layer is usually prepared by thermal spraying. Nevertheless, this method is not suitable for complex-shaped components. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find an alternative way to prepare layers consisting of nickel or iron aluminides by other technique than thermal spraying. At first, carbon steel samples were coated using galvanic or electroless nickel plating. Coated samples were subsequently submerged into molten aluminium at various temperatures and process durations. The influence of the temperature and duration on the intermetallic phase growth was studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Thickness and microhardness of the intermetallic layer was also measured.

  12. Protective silicon coating for nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Wang, Y.H.; Zang, J.B.; Li, Y.N.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrathin silicon coating was deposited on nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition (ALD) from gaseous monosilane (SiH 4 ). The coating was performed by sequential reaction of SiH 4 saturated adsorption and in situ decomposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structural and morphological properties of the coating. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to compare the thermal stability of nanodiamonds before and after silicon coating. The results confirmed that the deposited cubic phase silicon coating was even and continuous. The protective silicon coating could effectively improve the oxidation resistance of nanodiamonds in air flow, which facilitates the applications of nanodiamonds that are commonly hampered by their poor thermal stability

  13. Protective silicon coating for nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Wang, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); Zang, J.B. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China) and College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China)]. E-mail: diamondzjb@163.com; Li, Y.N. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004 (China)

    2007-01-30

    Ultrathin silicon coating was deposited on nanodiamonds using atomic layer deposition (ALD) from gaseous monosilane (SiH{sub 4}). The coating was performed by sequential reaction of SiH{sub 4} saturated adsorption and in situ decomposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structural and morphological properties of the coating. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to compare the thermal stability of nanodiamonds before and after silicon coating. The results confirmed that the deposited cubic phase silicon coating was even and continuous. The protective silicon coating could effectively improve the oxidation resistance of nanodiamonds in air flow, which facilitates the applications of nanodiamonds that are commonly hampered by their poor thermal stability.

  14. Formation mechanism of the protective layer in a blast furnace hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Xu, Meng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A variety of techniques, such as chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were applied to characterize the adhesion protective layer formed below the blast furnace taphole level when a certain amount of titanium- bearing burden was used. Samples of the protective layer were extracted to identify the chemical composition, phase assemblage, and distribution. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of the protective layer was determined after clarifying the source of each component. Finally, a technical strategy was proposed for achieving a stable protective layer in the hearth. The results show that the protective layer mainly exists in a bilayer form in the sidewall, namely, a titanium-bearing layer and a graphite layer. Both the layers contain the slag phase whose major crystalline phase is magnesium melilite (Ca2MgSi2O7) and the main source of the slag phase is coke ash. It is clearly determined that solid particles such as graphite, Ti(C,N) and MgAl2O4 play an important role in the formation of the protective layer, and the key factor for promoting the formation of a stable protective layer is reasonable control of the evolution behavior of coke.

  15. Theoretical basis of quantification for layer of protection analysis (LOPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Shuai, Bing; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zuogang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • When there is an IPL and λ 0 ⩾ 1, λ(t) and λ 0 don’t have logarithm linear relation any more. • The equations of scenario frequency of the low and high demand mode are different. • As long as an initiating event contributes more than 50% to the overall frequency, maximum is better than summation. • There are shared IPLs of initial events, so maximum is better than summation. • The bigger dependence degree of initial event is, the better maximum method is. - Abstract: In order to guide the corrective application of LOPA, this paper tries to discuss the theoretical basis of quantification for LOPA by comparing the computing methods of event tree consequences. It also discusses the computing equations for scenario frequency of the high demand mode by taking the scenario frequency of an initial event with one independent layer of protection (IPL) as example. Based on the probability theory, the computing method for scenario frequency of multiple initial events is improved and the application principle of two methods, i.e. summation and maximum value are brought forth. Research results show that the scenario frequency of the low demand mode has a specific computing equation. But for the high demand mode, the IPLs should be analyzed one by one, and the computing equation should be selected according to the demand mode of an IPL. As long as a single initiating event contributes more than 50% to the overall frequency of a particular consequence or the accident scenario induced by each initial event has the shared IPL, maximum value method is appropriate; otherwise, summation method should be adopted.

  16. Influence of dielectric protective layer on laser damage resistance of gold coated gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kepeng; Ma, Ping; Pu, Yunti; Xia, Zhilin

    2016-03-01

    Aiming at the problem that the damage threshold of gold coated grating is relatively low, a dielectric film is considered on the gold coated gratings as a protective layer. The thickness range of the protective layer is determined under the prerequisite that the diffraction efficiency of the gold coated grating is reduced to an acceptable degree. In this paper, the electromagnetic field, the temperature field and the stress field distribution in the grating are calculated when the silica and hafnium oxide are used as protective layers, under the preconditions of the electromagnetic field distribution of the gratings known. The results show that the addition of the protective layer changes the distribution of the electromagnetic field, temperature field and stress field in the grating, and the protective layer with an appropriate thickness can improve the laser damage resistance of the grating.

  17. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-01-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal ...

  18. A fracture mechanics assessment of surface cracks existing in protective layers of multi-layer composite pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, Lucie; Ševčík, Martin; Knésl, Zdeněk; Nezbedová, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 5 (2010), s. 1120-1125 ISSN 0263-8223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0279 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Protective layers * Multi-layer pipes damage * Fracture mechanics * Bi-material interface * Generalized stress intensity factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2010

  19. Multi-layer protective armour for underwater shock wave mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hawass

    2015-12-01

    The strain gauge data and displacement sensors results showed that the multi-layer plates have higher level of underwater shock wave mitigation than the triple aluminum plates with strain and deflection of nearly 50%.

  20. Outer membrane vesicles of Gallibacterium anatis induce protective immunity in egg-laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Susanne Elisabeth; Pedersen, Ida Just; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager

    2016-01-01

    Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have...... ΔtolR mutant. Challenge was done with G. anatis 12656-12 and evaluated by scoring lesions and bacterial re-isolation rates from peritoneum. Finally, levels of OMV-specific IgY in sera were assayed by ELISA. Immunization with OMVs decreased the lesions scores significantly, while the bacterial re...

  1. Seven layers of security to help protect biomedical research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Norman

    2010-04-01

    In addition to risks such as theft and fire that can confront any type of business, the biomedical research community often faces additional concerns over animal rights extremists, infiltrations, data security and intellectual property rights. Given these concerns, it is not surprising that the industry gives a high priority to security. This article identifies security threats faced by biomedical research companies and shows how these threats are ranked in importance by industry stakeholders. The author then goes on to discuss seven key 'layers' of security, from the external environment to the research facility itself, and how these layers all contribute to the creation of a successfully secured facility.

  2. Outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, A.W.; Behannon, K.W.; Lepping, R.P.; Carbary, J.F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc

  3. Study of the mechanical properties of single- layer and multi-layer metallic coatings with protective-decorative applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherneva Sabina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single thin coating of matt nickel (Nimat, a mirror bright copper (Cubright, a mirror bright nickel (Nibright and their combinations were electrochemically deposited on brass substrate with thickness 500 μm. The basic aim was electrodeposition of two-layer Cubright/Nimat and Nibright/Cubright systems, and three-layer Nibright Cubrigh/Nimat system, which are among the most widely applied protective and decorative systems in light and medium operating conditions of corrosion. The thicknesses of the obtained films varied from 1 μm to 3.25 μm. They were investigated via nanoindentation experiments, in order to characterize their basic physical and mechanical characteristics, related with their good adhesion and corrosion protective ability, as well as ensuring the integrity of the system “protective coating/substrate” to possible mechanical, dynamic and/or thermal stresses. As a result, load-displacement curves were obtained and indentation hardness and indentation modulus were calculated using the Oliver & Pharr approximation method. The dependence of the indentation modulus and the indentation hardness on the depth of the indentation, surface morphology and structure of the obtained coatings, their texture and surface roughness were investigated too. The obtained results showed that the three-layer Nibright/Cubright /Niimat/CuZn37 system has highest indentation modulus and indentation hardness, following by two-layer Nibright/Cubright system and single layer coatings.

  4. Silicon protected with atomic layer deposited TiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Tilley, David S.; Pedersen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The semiconducting materials used for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting must withstand the corrosive nature of the aqueous electrolyte over long time scales in order to be a viable option for large scale solar energy conversion. Here we demonstrate that atomic layer deposited titanium di...

  5. DECORATIVE SANDWICH CONCRETES WITH A PROTECTIVE POLYMER LAYER ENSURING IMPROVED FRACTURE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko Ksenija Sergeevna

    2012-10-01

    Pre-set theoretical provisions were applied to develop recommendations aimed at the optimization of the composition and characteristics of the technology of production of double-layer decorative and protective products based on polymer and mineral binders.

  6. Investigation of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete. II : Properties of Steel Surface Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Van Breugel, K.; Lodhi, Z.F.; Ye, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface (using as-received low carbon construction steel) in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP).

  7. Using TiO2 as a Conductive Protective Layer for Photocathodic H2 Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas; Laursen, Anders Bo

    2013-01-01

    Surface passivation is a general issue for Si-based photoelectrodes because it progressively hinders electron conduction at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. In this work, we show that a sputtered 100 nm TiO2 layer on top of a thin Ti metal layer may be used to protect an n+p Si photocatho...

  8. Methanogens predominate in natural corrosion protective layers on metal sheet piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Nardy; Jansen, S.; Leite, M.F.A.; De Hollander, M.; Afanasyev, M.; Kuramae, E.E.; van Veen, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to cause, but also to inhibit or protect against corrosion. Corrosion inhibition by microbial processes may be due to the formation of mineral deposition layers on metal objects. Such deposition layers have been found in archaeological studies on ancient metal objects, buried

  9. Abundance of the multiheme c-type cytochrome OmcB increases in outer biofilm layers of electrode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille S Stephen

    Full Text Available When Geobacter sulfurreducens utilizes an electrode as its electron acceptor, cells embed themselves in a conductive biofilm tens of microns thick. While environmental conditions such as pH or redox potential have been shown to change close to the electrode, less is known about the response of G. sulfurreducens to growth in this biofilm environment. To investigate whether respiratory protein abundance varies with distance from the electrode, antibodies against an outer membrane multiheme cytochrome (OmcB and cytoplasmic acetate kinase (AckA were used to determine protein localization in slices spanning ∼25 µm-thick G. sulfurreducens biofilms growing on polished electrodes poised at +0.24 V (vs. Standard Hydrogen Electrode. Slices were immunogold labeled post-fixing, imaged via transmission electron microscopy, and digitally reassembled to create continuous images allowing subcellular location and abundance per cell to be quantified across an entire biofilm. OmcB was predominantly localized on cell membranes, and 3.6-fold more OmcB was detected on cells 10-20 µm distant from the electrode surface compared to inner layers (0-10 µm. In contrast, acetate kinase remained constant throughout the biofilm, and was always associated with the cell interior. This method for detecting proteins in intact conductive biofilms supports a model where the utilization of redox proteins changes with depth.

  10. Corrosion protection and improved cytocompatibility of biodegradable polymeric layer-by-layer coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Nicole; Lee, Boeun; Enick, Nathan; Carlson, Benjamin; Kunjukunju, Sangeetha; Roy, Abhijit; Kumta, Prashant N

    2013-11-01

    Composite coatings of electrostatically assembled layer-by-layer anionic and cationic polymers combined with an Mg(OH)2 surface treatment serve to provide a protective coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy substrates. These ceramic conversion coating and layer-by-layer polymeric coating combinations reduced the initial and long-term corrosion progression of the AZ31 alloy. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful application of coatings. Potentiostatic polarization tests indicate improved initial corrosion resistance. Hydrogen evolution measurements over a 2 week period and magnesium ion levels over a 1 week period indicate longer range corrosion protection and retention of the Mg(OH)2 passivation layer in comparison to the uncoated substrates. Live/dead staining and DNA quantification were used as measures of biocompatibility and proliferation while actin staining and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the cellular morphology and integration with the coated substrates. The coatings simultaneously provided improved biocompatibility, cellular adhesion and proliferation in comparison to the uncoated alloy surface utilizing both murine pre-osteoblast MC3T3 cells and human mesenchymal stem cells. The implementation of such coatings on magnesium alloy implants could serve to improve the corrosion resistance and cellular integration of these implants with the native tissue while delivering vital drugs or biological elements to the site of implantation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Protecting nickel with graphene spin-filtering membranes: A single layer is enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.-B.; Dlubak, B.; Piquemal-Banci, M.; Collin, S.; Petroff, F.; Anane, A.; Fert, A.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 1 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Weatherup, R. S.; Hofmann, S.; Robertson, J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Yang, H. [IBS Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Blume, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schloegl, R. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-06

    We report on the demonstration of ferromagnetic spin injectors for spintronics which are protected against oxidation through passivation by a single layer of graphene. The graphene monolayer is directly grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition on pre-patterned nickel electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that even with its monoatomic thickness, monolayer graphene still efficiently protects spin sources against oxidation in ambient air. The resulting single layer passivated electrodes are integrated into spin valves and demonstrated to act as spin polarizers. Strikingly, the atom-thick graphene layer is shown to be sufficient to induce a characteristic spin filtering effect evidenced through the sign reversal of the measured magnetoresistance.

  12. Evaluation of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant outer membrane proteins of Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Cai, Ru-Jian; Song, Shuai; Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Yan; Gou, Hong-Chao; Chu, Pin-Pin; Li, Chun-Ling; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2017-01-01

    Glässer's disease is an economically important infectious disease of pigs caused by Haemophilus parasuis. Few vaccines are currently available that could provide effective cross-protection against various serovars of H. parasuis. In this study, five OMPs (OppA, TolC, HxuC, LppC, and HAPS_0926) identified by bioinformatic approaches, were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. Antigenicity of the purified proteins was verified through Western blotting, and primary screening for protective potential was evaluated in vivo. Recombinant TolC (rTolC), rLppC, and rHAPS_0926 proteins showing marked protection of mice against H. parasuis infection, and were further evaluated individually or in combination. Mice treated with these three OMPs produced humoral and host cell-mediated responses, with a significant rise in antigen-specific IgG titer and lymphoproliferative response in contrast with the mock-immunized group. Significant increases were noted in CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and three cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ) in vaccinated animals. The antisera against candidate antigens could efficiently impede bacterial survival in whole blood bactericidal assay against H. parasuis infection. The multi-protein vaccine induced more pronounced immune responses and offered better protection than individual vaccines. Our findings indicate that these three OMPs are promising antigens for the development of multi-component subunit vaccines against Glässer's disease.

  13. Layer protecting the surface of zirconium used in nuclear reactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2016), 59-65 ISSN 2212-4020 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA TA ČR TA04020156; GA MŠk LO1409; GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10279S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition * Raman spectroscopy * SEM * thin polycrystalline diamond film * Zircaloy2 pins protection against oxidation Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics

  14. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-03-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal surface. On the basis of the proposed mechanism, the advanced surface engineering methods for obtaining nanoscaled and sub-nanostructured functional coatings may be developed.

  15. Cross-layer shared protection strategy towards data plane in software defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yu; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Bin; Dong, Xiancun

    2018-04-01

    In order to ensure reliable data transmission on the data plane and minimize resource consumption, a novel protection strategy towards data plane is proposed in software defined optical networks (SDON). Firstly, we establish a SDON architecture with hierarchical structure of data plane, which divides the data plane into four layers for getting fine-grained bandwidth resource. Then, we design the cross-layer routing and resource allocation based on this network architecture. Through jointly considering the bandwidth resource on all the layers, the SDN controller could allocate bandwidth resource to working path and backup path in an economical manner. Next, we construct auxiliary graphs and transform the shared protection problem into the graph vertex coloring problem. Therefore, the resource consumption on backup paths can be reduced further. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protection strategy can achieve lower protection overhead and higher resource utilization ratio.

  16. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  17. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  18. Nanostructure of protective rust layer on weathering steel examined using synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum of pure goethite around the Fe K absorption edge and that of the protective rust layer formed on weathering steel exposed for 17 years in an atmospheric environment around the Cr K edge, have been examined using synchrotron radiation X-rays. It was found that the rust layer on the weathering steel mainly consisted of Cr-goethite. By examining the fine structure at the Cr K edge and the Fe K edge, we concluded that Cr 3+ in the rust layer is coordinated with O 2- and is positioned in the double chains of vacant sites in the network of FeO 3 (OH) 3 octahedra in the goethite crystal. This Cr 3+ site indicates that the protective effect of the rust layer is due to the dense aggregation of fine crystals of Cr-goethite with cation selectivity. (author)

  19. Formation mechanism of the graphite-rich protective layer in blast furnace hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Feng; Liang, Li-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A long campaign life of blast furnaces is heavily linked to the existence of a protective layer in their hearths. In this work, we conducted dissection studies and investigated damage in blast furnace hearths to estimate the formation mechanism of the protective layer. The results illustrate that a significant amount of graphite phase was trapped within the hearth protective layer. Furthermore, on the basis of the thermodynamic and kinetic calculations of the graphite precipitation process, a precipitation potential index related to the formation of the graphite-rich protective layer was proposed to characterize the formation ability of this layer. We determined that, under normal operating conditions, the precipitation of graphite phase from hot metal was thermodynamically possible. Among elements that exist in hot metal, C, Si, and P favor graphite precipitation, whereas Mn and Cr inhibit this process. Moreover, at the same hot-face temperature, an increase of carbon concentration in hot metal can shorten the precipitation time. Finally, the results suggest that measures such as reducing the hot-face temperature and increasing the degree of carbon saturation in hot metal are critically important to improve the precipitation potential index.

  20. UV protective zinc oxide coating for biaxially oriented polypropylene packaging film by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kääriäinen, Tommi, E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@colorado.edu [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Kotkamo, Sami, E-mail: sami.kotkamo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Seppänen, Tarja, E-mail: tarja.seppanen@lut.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.fi [Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, Tampere University of Technology, P.O.Box 589, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@miktech.fi [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli (Finland)

    2014-11-03

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) packaging film was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) coatings by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to protect the film from UV degradation. The coatings were made at a process temperature of 100 °C using diethylzinc and water as zinc and oxygen precursors, respectively. The UV protective properties of the coatings were tested by using UV–VIS and infrared spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a mechanical strength tester, which characterised the tensile and elastic properties of the film. The results obtained with 36 and 67 nm ZnO coatings showed that the ZnO UV protective layer is able to provide a significant decrease in photodegradation of the BOPP film under UV exposure. While the uncoated BOPP film suffered a complete degradation after a 4-week UV exposure, the 67 nm ZnO coated BOPP film was able to preserve half of its original tensile strength and 1/3 of its elongation at break after a 6-week exposure period. The infrared analysis and DSC measurements further proved the UV protection of the ZnO coatings. The results show that a nanometre scale ZnO coating deposited by ALD is a promising option when a transparent UV protection layer is sought for polymer substrates. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposited zinc oxide coatings were used as UV protection layers. • Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) film was well protected against UV light. • Formation of UV degradation products in BOPP was significantly reduced. • Mechanical properties of the UV exposed BOPP film were significantly improved.

  1. Layer-by-layer immobilized catalase on electrospun nanofibrous mats protects against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Tongjian; Zhan, Yingfei; Wang, Xiankai; Chen, Xuanxuan; Ji, Ailing; Lil, Xueyong

    2014-07-01

    Catalase, a kind of redox enzyme and generally recognized as an efficient agent for protecting cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity. The immobilization of catalase was accomplished by depositing the positively charged chitosan and the negatively charged catalase on electrospun cellulose nanofibrous mats through electrospining and layer-by-layer (LBL) techniques. The morphology obtained from Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicated that more orderly arranged three-dimension (3D) structure and roughness formed with increasing the number of coating bilayers. Besides, the enzyme-immobilized nanofibrous mats were found with high enzyme loading and activity, moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results further demonstrated the successful immobilization of chitosan and catalase on cellulose nanofibers support. Furthermore, we evaluated the cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in the Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells with or without pretreatment of nanofibrous mats by MTT assay, LDH activity and Flow cytometric evaluation, and confirmed the pronounced hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity, but pretreatment of immobilized catalase reduced the cytotoxicity and protected cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxic effects which were further demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images. The data pointed toward a role of catalase-immobilized nanofibrous mats in protecting cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular damage and their potential application in biomedical field.

  2. Further Characterization of the Capsule-Like Complex (CLC Produced by Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis: Protective Efficacy and Similarity to Outer Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Champion

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia, and subspecies tularensis (type A is the most virulent subspecies. The live vaccine strain (LVS of subspecies holarctica produces a capsule-like complex (CLC that consists of a large variety of glycoproteins. Expression of the CLC is greatly enhanced when the bacteria are subcultured in and grown on chemically defined medium. Deletion of two genes responsible for CLC glycosylation in LVS results in an attenuated mutant that is protective against respiratory tularemia in a mouse model. We sought to further characterize the CLC composition and to determine if a type A CLC glycosylation mutant would be attenuated in mice. The CLCs isolated from LVS extracted with 0.5% phenol or 1 M urea were similar, as determined by gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, but the CLC extracted with urea was more water-soluble. The CLC extracted with either 0.5% phenol or 1 M urea from type A strains was also similar to the CLC of LVS in antigenic properties, electrophoretic profile, and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The solubility of the CLC could be further enhanced by fractionation with Triton X-114 followed by N-Lauroylsarcosine detergents; the largest (>250 kDa molecular size component appeared to be an aggregate of smaller components. Outer membrane vesicles/tubules (OMV/T isolated by differential centrifugation and micro-filtration appeared similar to the CLC by TEM, and many of the proteins present in the OMV/T were also identified in soluble and insoluble fractions of the CLC. Further investigation is warranted to assess the relationship between OMV/T and the CLC. The CLC conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin or flagellin was highly protective against high-dose LVS intradermal challenge and partially protective against intranasal challenge. A protective response was associated with a significant rise in cytokines IL-12, IL-10, and IFN-γ. However, a type A CLC glycosylation mutant

  3. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS

  4. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  5. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  6. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland); Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo [Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Wood Materials Science, ETH Zürich, Stefano-Franscini-Platz 3, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Empa − Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Österberg, Monika, E-mail: monika.osterberg@aalto.fi [Department of Forest Products Technology, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O. Box 16300, FI-00076, Aalto (Finland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A facile sonication route to produce aqueous wax dispersions is developed. • The wax dispersion is naturally stable and free of surfactants or stabilizers. • Wax and ZnO particles are coated onto wood using layer-by-layer assembly. • The coating brings superhydrophobicity while preserving moisture buffering. • ZnO improves the color stability of wood to UV light. - Abstract: Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering

  7. Surfactant-free carnauba wax dispersion and its use for layer-by-layer assembled protective surface coatings on wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Bellanger, Hervé; Michen, Benjamin; Burgert, Ingo; Österberg, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Protection from liquid water and UV radiation are equally important, and a sophisticated approach is needed when developing surface coatings that preserve the natural and well-appreciated aesthetic appearance of wood. In order to prevent degradation and prolong the service life of timber, a protective coating was assembled using carnauba wax particles and zinc oxide nanoparticles via layer-by-layer deposition in water. For this purpose, a facile sonication route was developed to produce aqueous wax dispersion without any surfactants or stabilizers. The suspension was stable above pH 4 due to the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged wax particles. The particle size could be controlled by the initial wax concentration with average particle sizes ranging from 260 to 360 nm for 1 and 10 g/L, respectively. The deposition of wax particles onto the surface of spruce wood introduced additional roughness to the wood surface at micron level, while zinc oxide provided nano roughness and UV-absorbing properties. In addition to making wood superhydrophobic, this novel multilayer coating enhanced the natural moisture buffering capability of spruce. Moreover, wood surfaces prepared in this fashion showed a significant reduction in color change after exposure to UV light. A degradation of the wax through photocatalytic activity of the ZnO particles was measured by FTIR, indicating that further studies are required to achieve long-term stability. Nevertheless, the developed coating showed a unique combination of superhydrophobicity and excellent moisture buffering ability and some UV protection, all achieved using an environmentally friendly coating process, which is beneficial to retain the natural appearance of wood and improve indoor air quality and comfort.

  8. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature (HT° motor coils open new perspectives for extending the applications of electrical motors or generators to very harsh environments or for designing very high power density machines working with high internal temperature gradients. Over a temperature of 300°C, the classic enameled wire cannot work permanently, the turn-to-turn insulation must be inorganic and made with high temperature textiles or vitro-ceramic compounds. For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. The nickel protection layer of the HT° inorganic wire has a large influence on the high frequency behavior of coils and, consequently, on the magnitude of the voltage spikes. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. The paper presents a method able to characterize non-linear electromagnetic properties of this nickel layer up to 500°C.

  9. Carbon-layer-protected cuprous oxide nanowire arrays for efficient water reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-02-26

    In this work, we propose a solution-based carbon precursor coating and subsequent carbonization strategy to form a thin protective carbon layer on unstable semiconductor nanostructures as a solution to the commonly occurring photocorrosion problem of many semiconductors. A proof-of-concept is provided by using glucose as the carbon precursor to form a protective carbon coating onto cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowire arrays which were synthesized from copper mesh. The carbon-layer-protected Cu2O nanowire arrays exhibited remarkably improved photostability as well as considerably enhanced photocurrent density. The Cu2O nanowire arrays coated with a carbon layer of 20 nm thickness were found to give an optimal water splitting performance, producing a photocurrent density of -3.95 mA cm-2 and an optimal photocathode efficiency of 0.56% under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2). This is the highest value ever reported for a Cu 2O-based electrode coated with a metal/co-catalyst-free protective layer. The photostability, measured as the percentage of the photocurrent density at the end of 20 min measurement period relative to that at the beginning of the measurement, improved from 12.6% on the bare, nonprotected Cu2O nanowire arrays to 80.7% on the continuous carbon coating protected ones, more than a 6-fold increase. We believe that the facile strategy presented in this work is a general approach that can address the stability issue of many nonstable photoelectrodes and thus has the potential to make a meaningful contribution in the general field of energy conversion. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  11. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  12. Numerical simulation of a metal corrosion for a point defect for a organic protection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrin-Ul, Ch.; Chausse, A.; Stafiej, J.; Badiali, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The safety of radioactive wastes disposal requires a big knowledge on their aging facing a corrosive environment. The corrosion is a complex phenomenon which implies many processes bound to the physic and the chemistry of the system. This approach proposes, from a little number of simple processes, numerical simulation which will define theses complex phenomenon. The presented model is a 2 dimension model at a mesoscopic scale and based on cellular automates. It allows the simulation of a metal evolution, protected by a polymer layer and in contact at one point with a corrosive media at a defect of the layer. (A.L.B.)

  13. Vienna Agreement law 15.986 it approve Vienna Agreement for Protection ozone layer and annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Agreement of Vienna is approved with respect to the protection of the Layer of Ozono, definitions,general duties, research and observations systematics, co-operation in the Spheres Scientific Juridical, and information, Technological Conference, transmission from the protocols, amends, secretariat, adoption to the agreement or the protocols, adoption and amendment of controversy, signing, ratify, approve annexes, solution or vote, relation approving, adhesion, rights between the present agreement and its protocols, entrance in vigor, reserves, retirement, deposition, exchange of information [es

  14. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J P [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  15. Crystalline TiO2: A Generic and Effective Electron-Conducting Protection Layer for Photoanodes and -cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Bastian Timo; Pedersen, Thomas; Malacrida, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Stabilizing efficient photoabsorbers for solar water splitting has recently shown significant progress with the development of various protection layers. Suitable protection layers for tandem devices should be conductive, transparent, and stable in strongly acidic or alkaline solutions. This paper......O2 generally applicable for photoanode assemblies, and thus for protecting tandem devices, are outlined and quantitatively shown by band diagram calculations. The results presented here provide the understanding required for the design of highly efficient and stable photoelectrochemical water...

  16. Evaluation of atomic layer deposited alumina as a protective layer for domestic silver articles: Anti-corrosion test in artificial sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suk Won; Han, Gwon Deok; Choi, Hyung Jong; Prinz, Fritz B.; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of alumina fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a protective coating for silver articles against the corrosion caused by body contact. An artificial sweat solution was used to simulate body contact. ALD alumina layers of varying thicknesses ranging from 20 to 80 nm were deposited on sputtered silver samples. The stability of the protective layer was evaluated by immersing the coated samples in the artificial sweat solution at 25 and 35 °C for 24 h. We confirmed that a sufficiently thick layer of ALD alumina is effective in protecting the shape and light reflectance of the underlying silver, whereas the uncoated bare silver is severely degraded by the artificial sweat solution. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used for in-depth analyses of the chemical stability of the ALD-coated silver samples after immersion in the sweat solution.

  17. Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Roy E.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a 'within-the-fence' view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm

  18. Thickness of the retinal photoreceptor outer segment layer in healthy volunteers and in patients with diabetes mellitus without retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy, or diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ozkaya

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The PROS layer at the foveal center was thinner in patients who had diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema than both the healthy volunteers and diabetic patients without retinopathy.

  19. Few-layer MoS2 as nitrogen protective barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbali, B.; Yanilmaz, A.; Tomak, A.; Tongay, S.; Çelebi, C.; Sahin, H.

    2017-10-01

    We report experimental and theoretical investigations of the observed barrier behavior of few-layer MoS2 against nitrogenation. Owing to its low-strength shearing, low friction coefficient, and high lubricity, MoS2 exhibits the demeanor of a natural N-resistant coating material. Raman spectroscopy is done to determine the coating capability of MoS2 on graphene. Surface morphology of our MoS2/graphene heterostructure is characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. In addition, density functional theory-based calculations are performed to understand the energy barrier performance of MoS2 against nitrogenation. The penetration of nitrogen atoms through a defect-free MoS2 layer is prevented by a very high vertical diffusion barrier, indicating that MoS2 can serve as a protective layer for the nitrogenation of graphene. Our experimental and theoretical results show that MoS2 material can be used both as an efficient nanocoating material and as a nanoscale mask for selective nitrogenation of graphene layer.

  20. An Analysis on the Moisture and Thermal Protective Performance of Firefighter Clothing Based on Different Layer Combinations and Effect of Washing on Heat Protection and Vapour Transfer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Atalay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabric assemblies for firefighting clothing have been tested for heat protection and comfort. The constituent materials and fabric structures have been specifically selected and tailored for firefighters’ clothing. In order to do this, four types of outer shell fabrics, four types of moisture barrier fabrics, and four types of heat barriers with different weights and material compositions were used to make a multilayered fabric assembly. Heat transfer (flame, heat transfer (radiant, and water vapour resistance tests were conducted according to the latest EN469 test standard which also recommends washing tests. These tests reveal that material content and material brand have considerable effect on the required performance levels of heat protection. In addition, while washing tests have improved water vapor transfer properties, they have a deteriorating effect on heat protection performance. Considering heat protection and moisture comfort properties, the optimal assemblies are thereby identified.

  1. Corrosion inhibition with different protective layers in tinplate cans for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassino, Antonela Ninčević; Grabarić, Zorana; Pezzani, Aldo; Squitieri, Giuseppe; Berković, Katarina

    2010-11-01

    In this work the influence of essential onion oil (EOO) on the protection of tinplates was compared with dioctyl sebacate oil (DOS) and epoxy phenolic lacquers, which are frequently used in the food canning industry. When EOO as the protective layer instead of DOS oil was used, tinplate porosity, measured electrochemically (7.58 ± 1.97 µA cm(-2) and 23.0 ± 1.3 µA cm(-2), respectively), and iron coating mass, calculated from AAS data (1.52 ± 0.15 mg m(-2) and 3.14 ± 0.42, respectively), was much lower indicating better corrosion protection. At higher storing temperature (36 °C) the addition of EOO to canned tomato purée enhanced the formation of hydrogen with time. The increasing volume fraction of H(2) (from 34.0 to 90.9% for cans without nitrates, and from 33.8 to 89.2% for cans with nitrates) is an indicator that corrosion takes place. As the use of EOO improves the protection of tinplate compared with DOS oil, and is almost as effective as epoxy phenolic lacquer, the addition of EOO can be recommended due to lower cost of canned food production and enhanced organoleptic properties, but the storage temperature has to be lower then 36 °C. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  2. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcheulov, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, Prague 6, CZ-160 07 (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vega, R.; Shao, L. [Texas A& M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering TAMU-3133, College Station, TX TX 77843 (United States); Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P.; Macák, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Power Engineering Department, Technická 3, Prague 6, CZ-166 28 (Czech Republic); Johnson, S. [Nuclear Fuel Division, Westinghouse Electric Company, 5801 Bluff Road, Hopkins, SC 29209 (United States); Kratochvílová, I., E-mail: krat@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work we showed that films prepared by MW-LA-PECVD technology can be used as anticorrosion protective layer for Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings at elevated temperatures (950 °C) when α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). Quality of PCD films was examined by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM and SIMS analysis. • The polycrystalline diamond films were of high quality - without defects and contaminations. After hot steam oxidation (950 °C) a high level of structural integrity of PCD layer was observed. Both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} C phases were present in the protective PCD layer. Higher resistance and a lower degree of impedance dispersion was found in the hot steam oxidized PCD coated Zircaloy2 samples, which may suggest better protection of the Zircaloy2 surface. The PCD layer blocks the hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface thus protecting the material from degradation. • Hot steam oxidation tests confirmed that PCD coated Zircaloy2 surfaces were effectively protected against corrosion. Presented results demonstrate that the PCD anticorrosion protection can significantly prolong service life of Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings in nuclear reactors even at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr

  3. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veer Dhaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature (∼200 °C grown atomic layer deposition (ALD films of AlN, TiN, Al2O3, GaN, and TiO2 were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP nanowires (NWs, and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL at low temperatures (15K, and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al2O3. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al2O3 layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al2O3 provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  4. Protective capping and surface passivation of III-V nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhaka, Veer, E-mail: veer.dhaka@aalto.fi; Perros, Alexander; Kakko, Joona-Pekko; Haggren, Tuomas; Lipsanen, Harri [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Micronova, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 (Finland); Naureen, Shagufta; Shahid, Naeem [Research School of Physics & Engineering, Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko [Department of Applied Physics and Nanomicroscopy Center, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 (Finland); Srinivasan, Anand [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, S-164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Low temperature (∼200 °C) grown atomic layer deposition (ALD) films of AlN, TiN, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, GaN, and TiO{sub 2} were tested for protective capping and surface passivation of bottom-up grown III-V (GaAs and InP) nanowires (NWs), and top-down fabricated InP nanopillars. For as-grown GaAs NWs, only the AlN material passivated the GaAs surface as measured by photoluminescence (PL) at low temperatures (15K), and the best passivation was achieved with a few monolayer thick (2Å) film. For InP NWs, the best passivation (∼2x enhancement in room-temperature PL) was achieved with a capping of 2nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. All other ALD capping layers resulted in a de-passivation effect and possible damage to the InP surface. Top-down fabricated InP nanopillars show similar passivation effects as InP NWs. In particular, capping with a 2 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer increased the carrier decay time from 251 ps (as-etched nanopillars) to about 525 ps. Tests after six months ageing reveal that the capped nanostructures retain their optical properties. Overall, capping of GaAs and InP NWs with high-k dielectrics AlN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} provides moderate surface passivation as well as long term protection from oxidation and environmental attack.

  5. Protective coatings of hafnium dioxide by atomic layer deposition for microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdova, Maria, E-mail: maria.berdova@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Lamagna, Luca; Losa, Stefano; Rossini, Silvia; Somaschini, Roberto; Gioveni, Salvatore [STMicroelectronics, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, 20126, Milano (Italy); Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me or Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and ozone for potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. • ALD HfO{sub 2} protects aluminum substrates from degradation in moist environment and at the same time retains good reflectance properties of the underlying material. • The resistance of hafnium dioxide to moist environment is independent of chosen precursors. - Abstract: This work presents the investigation of HfO{sub 2} deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from either HfD-CO4 or TEMAHf and ozone for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, in particular, for environmental protection of aluminum micromirrors. This work shows that HfO{sub 2} films successfully protect aluminum in moist environment and at the same time retain good reflectance properties of underlying material. In our experimental work, the chemical composition, crystal structure, electronic density and roughness of HfO{sub 2} films remained the same after one week of humidity treatment (relative humidity of 85%, 85 °C). The reflectance properties underwent only minor changes. The observed shift in reflectance was only from 80–90% to 76–85% in 400–800 nm spectral range when coated with ALD HfO{sub 2} films grown with Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and no shift (remained in the range of 68–83%) for films grown from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me.

  6. Tunical Outer Layer Plays an Essential Role in Penile Veno-occlusive Mechanism Evidenced from Electrocautery Effects to the Corpora Cavernosa in Defrosted Human Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Huang, Yi-Ping; Tsai, Mang-Hung; Chen, Heng-Shen; Huang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Chung-Wu; Hsu, Geng-Long

    2015-12-01

    To determine the exact anatomical structure for establishing penile veno-occlusive function, we sought to conduct a hemodynamic study on defrosted human cadavers. Thirteen penises were used for this experiment, and 11 intact penises were allocated into the electrocautery group (EG, n = 6) and the ligation group (LG, n = 5). A circumcision was made on the penis to access the veins. Two #19 scalp needles were fixed in the 3 and 9 o'clock positions in the distal penis for colloid infusion and intracavernous pressure (ICP) monitoring, respectively. For the EG, the deep dorsal vein and cavernosal vein trunks were freed for 3-5 cm where at least 3 emissary veins were identified via opening Buck's fascia; these veins underwent electrocautery at 45 watts, while the ICP was maintained at 0, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 mmHg, respectively. For control, venous ligation was made but at the ICP of 150 mmHg. A tissue block including the emissary vein was then obtained for histological analysis. Except all in the EG and those whose ICP exceed 125 mmHg in the EG, the sinusoids of the corpora cavernosa sustained varied fulgurated fibrosis in every specimen and the severity appeared reversely commensurate with the ICP regarding sinusoidal clumping and darkish bands (P electrocautery damage to intracavernous sinusoids once the ICP reached a level corresponding to a rigid erection. The outer tunica plays an essential role in fulfilling the veno-occlusive mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A two layer coating system for metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

  8. Security protection of DICOM medical images using dual-layer reversible watermarking with tamper detection capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun Kiat; Ng, Jason Changwei; Xu, Xiaotian; Poh, Chueh Loo; Guan, Yong Liang; Sheah, Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    Teleradiology applications and universal availability of patient records using web-based technology are rapidly gaining importance. Consequently, digital medical image security has become an important issue when images and their pertinent patient information are transmitted across public networks, such as the Internet. Health mandates such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act require healthcare providers to adhere to security measures in order to protect sensitive patient information. This paper presents a fully reversible, dual-layer watermarking scheme with tamper detection capability for medical images. The scheme utilizes concepts of public-key cryptography and reversible data-hiding technique. The scheme was tested using medical images in DICOM format. The results show that the scheme is able to ensure image authenticity and integrity, and to locate tampered regions in the images.

  9. Thickness and nanomechanical properties of protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish on enamel after erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Dantas de MEDEIROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The layer formed by fluoride compounds on tooth surface is important to protect the underlying enamel from erosion. However, there is no investigation into the properties of protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on eroded enamel. This study aimed to evaluate the thickness, topography, nanohardness, and elastic modulus of the protective layer formed by NaF and TiF4 varnishes on enamel after erosion using nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Human enamel specimens were sorted into control, NaF, and TiF4 varnish groups (n = 10. The initial nanohardness and elastic modulus values were obtained and varnishes were applied to the enamel and submitted to erosive challenge (10 cycles: 5 s cola drink/5 s artificial saliva. Thereafter, nanohardness and elastic modulus were measured. Both topography and thickness were evaluated by AFM. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Student’s t test (α = 0.05. After erosion, TiF4 showed a thicker protective layer compared to the NaF group and nanohardness and elastic modulus values were significantly lower than those of the control group. It was not possible to measure nanohardness and elastic modulus in the NaF group due to the thin protective layer formed. AFM showed globular deposits, which completely covered the eroded surface in the TiF4 group. After erosive challenge, the protective layer formed by TiF4 varnish showed significant properties and it was thicker than the layer formed by NaF varnish.

  10. Production of a textile reinforced concrete protective layers with non-woven polypropylene fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žák, J.; Štemberk, P.; Vodička, J.

    2017-09-01

    Textile concrete with nonwoven polypropylene fabric can be used for protective layers of reinforced concrete structures, reducing the thickness of the cover layer or reducing the water penetration rate into the structure. The material consists of cement matrix with finegrained aggregate and nonwoven textile reinforcement. The maximum grain size of the mixture suitable for the nonwoven textile infiltration is 0.25 mm. The interlayer contains larger aggregates and short fibers. Tensile loading causes a large amount of microcracks in the material. The material can withstand strain over 25% without collapsing. Increased quality and water-cement ratio reduction was achieved using the plasticizers and distribution of the mixture into a fabric using a vibrating trowel. It is possible to make flat plates and even curved structures from this material. Larger curvatures of structures should be solved by cutting and overlapping the fabric. Small curvatures can be solved within the deformability of the fabric. Proper infiltration of the cement mixture into the fabric is the most important task in producing this material.

  11. Thermal spraying of corrosion protection layers in biogas plants; Erzeugung von Korrosionsschutzschichten fuer Bioenergieanlagen mittels Thermischen Spritzens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crimmann, P.; Dimaczek, G.; Faulstich, M. [ATZ Entwicklungszentrum, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion in plants for the energetic conversion of biomass is a severe problem that often causes premature damage of components. Thermal spraying is a process for the creation of corrosion protection layer. An advantage of thermal spraying is that as well as each material can be used as layer material. First practical results demonstrated that thermal spraying has the potential to create coatings to protect components against high temperature corrosion as well as biocorrosion. Layer materials are for example nickel base alloys (high temperature corrosion) and titan alloys (biocorrosion). Further investigations are necessary in order to examine whether cost-efficient coatings also contribute to the corrosion protection (e.g. polymer materials against biocorrosion). (orig.)

  12. A protective effect of the laminated layer on Echinococcus granulosus survival dependent on upregulation of host arginase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Manel; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2015-09-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in host defense against Echinococcus granulosus larvae was previously reported. However, NO production by NOS2 (inducible NO synthase) is counteracted by the expression of Arginase. In the present study, our aim is to evaluate the involvement of the laminated layer (external layer of parasitic cyst) in Arginase induction and the protoscoleces (living and infective part of the cyst) survival. Our in vitro results indicate that this cystic compound increases the Arginase activity in macrophages. Moreover, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) with specificity for mannan and the TGF-β are implicated in this effect as shown after adding Mannan and Anti-TGFβ. Interestingly, the laminated layer increases protoscoleces survival in macrophages-parasite co-cultures. Our results indicate that the laminated layer protects E. granulosus against the NOS2 protective response through Arginase pathway, a hallmark of M2 macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Solid-Gas Coupling Model for Coal-Rock Mass Deformation and Pressure Relief Gas Flow in Protection Layer Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhuohui; Feng, Tao; Yuan, Zhigang; Xie, Donghai; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The solid-gas coupling model for mining coal-rock mass deformation and pressure relief gas flow in protection layer mining is the key to determine deformation of coal-rock mass and migration law of pressure relief gas of protection layer mining in outburst coal seams. Based on the physical coupling process between coal-rock mass deformation and pressure-relief gas migration, the coupling variable of mining coal-rock mass, a part of governing equations of gas seepage field and deformation fiel...

  14. Nanoscale Protection Layers To Mitigate Degradation in High-Energy Electrochemical Energy Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-Fu; Qi, Yue; Gregorczyk, Keith; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2018-01-16

    In the pursuit of energy storage devices with higher energy and power, new ion storage materials and high-voltage battery chemistries are of paramount importance. However, they invite-and often enhance-degradation mechanisms, which are reflected in capacity loss with charge/discharge cycling and sometimes in safety problems. Degradation mechanisms are often driven by fundamentals such as chemical and electrochemical reactions at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, volume expansion and stress associated with ion insertion and extraction, and profound inhomogeneity of electrochemical behavior. While it is important to identify and understand these mechanisms at some reasonable level, it is even more critical to design strategies to mitigate these degradation pathways and to develop means to implement and validate the strategies. A growing set of research highlights the mitigation benefits achievable by forming thin protection layers (PLs) intentionally created as artificial interphase regions at the electrode-electrolyte interface. These advances illustrate a promising-perhaps even generic-pathway for enabling higher-energy and higher-voltage battery configurations. In this Account, we summarize examples of such PLs that serve as mitigation strategies to avoid degradation in lithium metal anodes, conversion-type electrode materials, and alloy-type electrodes. Examples are chosen from a larger body of electrochemical degradation research carried out in Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES), our DOE Energy Frontier Research Center. Overall, we argue on the basis of experimental and theoretical evidence that PLs effectively stabilize the electrochemical interfaces to prevent parasitic chemical and electrochemical reactions and mitigate the structural, mechanical, and compositional degradation of the electrode materials at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The evidenced improvement in performance metrics is accomplished by (1) establishing a homogeneous

  15. Assessment of Stability and Energy Dissipation Performances of an Antifer Layer Protected Caisson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sedat Kabdaşlı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to assess the stability and energy dissipation performances of a breakwater configuration (APC protected by an antifer layer. For comparison, an ordinary caisson (OC, which was 5% wider and 10% heavier, was also investigated. Physical models were implemented and tested under regular and irregular waves; and resulting linear and angular displacements were directly measured via a photogrammetric method. Additionally, wave forces and resulting horizontal displacements were estimated both from recorded pressure data and from individual incident waves by modified Goda method. To calculate the horizontal displacement, the estimated wave force time series were directly double-integrated, whilst the theoretical method proposed by Shimosako et al. (1994 were used on the individual force values. Although OC was tested under shorter durations and had a more favorable superstructure in terms of resisting forces, the results indicated that APC was significantly more stable. Energy dissipation performance of the tested configurations were quantified in terms of spectral averaged and phase resolved reflection coefficients, whereas antifer damage ratio was measured on a block-count basis. Results indicated that the APC configuration had an enhanced performance of dissipating the wave energy; moreover, the dissipated energy directly links to antifer damage ratio.

  16. Ultraviolet/visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations of organic–inorganic hybrid layers for UV protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Präfke, Christiane, E-mail: christiane.praefke@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany); Schulz, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.schulz@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Kaiser, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.kaiser@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Tünnermann, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.tuennermann@iof.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute of Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Optical Coatings Department, Albert-Einstein-Straße 7, 07745 Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic–inorganic hybrid coatings for ultraviolet (UV) protection of polycarbonate is presented. For this purpose, UV-absorbing organic molecules were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation. Typical UV absorbers, namely a benzotriazole, a hydroxyphenyltriazine, and a cyanoacrylate, were used as organic materials. The hybrid layers were investigated by means of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) concerning their UV/VIS absorption properties and the influence of the silica network on the organic molecules. The porosity and silica–organic interactions are discussed with reference to the infrared spectra. UV irradiation experiments were carried out to demonstrate the UV protection ability of the hybrid layers. Hybrid layers containing the hydroxyphenyltriazine compound showed the best results. - Highlights: ► Vacuum deposited organic–inorganic UV protective coatings for polycarbonate ► Thermal co-evaporation of organic UV absorbing compounds with silica ► Matrix materials and the absorber concentration influence the absorption behavior. ► The coatings on PC show improved UV stability under artificial irradiation. ► The hydroxyphenyltriazine–silica layer shows best UV protection results.

  17. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity to chlamydia is thought to rely on interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T helper cells type 1 (Th1) with an additional effect of secreted antibodies. A need for Th1-polarizing adjuvants in experimental chlamydia vaccines has been demonstrated, and antigen conformation has also been......-alpha and a profoundly reduced vaginal chlamydial load, compared with control mice. The protection was CD4(+) T cell dependent and was not dependent on MOMP conformation. CONCLUSION: CAF01 adjuvant facilitates a protective anti-MOMP CD4(+) T cell response independent of MOMP conformation....

  18. Promoting Barrier Performance and Cathodic Protection of Zinc-Rich Epoxy Primer via Single-Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingrong Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of single-layer graphene sheets (Gr on the corrosion protection of zinc-rich epoxy primers (ZRPs was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS were used to characterize morphology and composition of the coatings after immersion for 25 days. The cross-sectional SEM images and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirmed that the addition of single-layer graphene facilitated assembling of zinc oxides on the interface between the coating and the steel. The open circuit potential (OCP, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements revealed that both the cathodic protection and barrier performance of the ZRP were enhanced after addition of 0.6 wt. % Gr (Gr0.6-ZRP. In addition, the cathodic protection property of the Gr0.6-ZRP was characterized quantitatively by localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS in the presence of an artificial scratch on the coating. The results demonstrate that moderate amounts of single-layer graphene can significantly improve corrosion resistance of ZRP, due to the barrier protection and cathodic protection effects.

  19. Chitosan-adjuvanted Mycoplasma gallisepticum bacterin via intraocular administration enhances Mycoplasma gallisepticum protection in commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsatanun, A; Sasipreeyajan, J; Pakpinyo, S

    2018-06-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes respiratory signs and economic losses in the poultry industry. MG vaccination is one of the effective prevention and control measures that have been used around the world. Our previous study demonstrated that chitosan-adjuvanted MG bacterin could effectively reduce pathological lesions induced by MG and that chitosan could be used as an adjuvant in MG bacterin. The present study determining the efficacy of MG bacterins against the Thai MG strain was based on vaccine programs. Seven groups (25 layers/group) were received MG bacterins containing 0.5% chitosan or a commercial bacterin via intramuscular (IM) or intraocular (IO) route at 6 and 10 wk of age. Sham-negative and sham-positive controls were groups 1 and 2, respectively. Group 3: IM route of chitosan bacterin followed by IM route of chitosan bacterin; group 4: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; group 5: commercial bacterin via IM route followed by commercial bacterin via IM route; group 6: chitosan bacterin via IM followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route; and group 7: chitosan bacterin via IO route followed by chitosan bacterin via IO route were determined. At 16 wk of age, all groups, excluding group 1, were challenged intratracheally with 0.1 mL containing Thai MG strain 107 colony-forming unit. At 17, 18, and 20 wk of age, 5 birds in each group were bled for serological testing and swabbed at the choanal cleft for the quantitative real-time PCR assay, the euthanized and necropsied. The results showed that birds vaccinated with a commercial intramuscular bacterin followed by an intraocularly chitosan adjuvant bacterin showed the best protection against the MG challenge. The study indicated that chitosan could be the effective mucosal adjuvant and increased the effectiveness of MG bacterin.

  20. Improvement in semiconductor laser printing using a sacrificial protecting layer for organic thin-film transistors fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Ludovic, E-mail: rapp@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [Laboratoire LP3 (Lasers, Plasma et Procedes Photoniques) - UMR 6182 CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee - Campus de Luminy C917, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Cibert, Christophe [Laboratoire LP3 (Lasers, Plasma et Procedes Photoniques) - UMR 6182 CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee - Campus de Luminy C917, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Nenon, Sebastien [CINaM (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille) - UPR 3118 CNRS - Universite Aix Marseille, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Alloncle, Anne Patricia [Laboratoire LP3 (Lasers, Plasma et Procedes Photoniques) - UMR 6182 CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee - Campus de Luminy C917, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Nagel, Matthias [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Reasearch, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Uberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lippert, Thomas [Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research Department, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Videlot-Ackermann, Christine; Fages, Frederic [CINaM (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille) - UPR 3118 CNRS - Universite Aix Marseille, Case 913, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Delaporte, Philippe [Laboratoire LP3 (Lasers, Plasma et Procedes Photoniques) - UMR 6182 CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee - Campus de Luminy C917, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-04-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) has been used to deposit pixels of an organic semiconductor, distyryl-quaterthiophenes (DS4T). The dynamics of the process have been investigated by shadowgraphic imaging for the nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) regime on a time-scale from the laser iradiation to 1.5 {mu}s. The morphology of the deposit has been studied for different conditions. Intermediate sacrificial layer of gold or triazene polymer has been used to trap the incident radiation. Its role is to protect the layer to be transferred from direct irradiation and to provide a mechanical impulse strong enough to eject the material.

  1. In-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple and feasible method was developed to fabricate in-situ reduced graphene oxide-polyvinyl alcohol composite (GO-PVA coatings as protective layers on magnesium substrates. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as an in-situ reductant to transform GO into reduced GO. Contiguous and uniform GO-PVA coatings were prepared on magnesium substrates by dip-coating method, and were further thermally treated at 120 °C under ambient condition to obtain in-situ reduced GO-PVA coatings. Owing to the reducing effect of PVA, thermal treatment at low temperature led to effective in-situ reduction of GO as confirmed by XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS tests. The corrosion current density of magnesium substrates in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution could be lowered to its 1/25 when using in-situ reduced GO-PVA coatings as protective layers.

  2. Protective or damage promoting effect of calcium carbonate layers on the surface of cement based materials in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwotzer, M.; Scherer, T.; Gerdes, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cement based materials permanently exposed to aggressive aqueous environments are subject to chemical changes affecting their durability. However, this holds also for tap water that is considered to be not aggressive to cementitious materials, although in that case a formation of covering layers of CaCO 3 on the alkaline surfaces is commonly supposed to provide protection against reactive transport processes. Thus, investigations of the structural and chemical properties of the material/water interface were carried out in laboratory experiments and case studies to elucidate the consequences of surface reactions for the durability of cement based materials exposed to tap water. Focused Ion Beam investigations revealed that a protective effect of a CaCO 3 covering layer depends on its structural properties, which are in turn affected by the hydro-chemical conditions during crystallization. Surface precipitation of CaCO 3 can trigger further chemical degradation, if the required calcium is supplied by the pore solution of the material.

  3. Three-dimensional Features of the Outer Heliosphere Due to Coupling between the Interstellar and Heliospheric Magnetic Field. V. The Bow Wave, Heliospheric Boundary Layer, Instabilities, and Magnetic Reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Heerikhuisen, J. [Department of Space Science, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Roytershteyn, V. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S., E-mail: nikolai.pogorelov@uah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The heliosphere is formed due to interaction between the solar wind (SW) and local interstellar medium (LISM). The shape and position of the heliospheric boundary, the heliopause, in space depend on the parameters of interacting plasma flows. The interplay between the asymmetrizing effect of the interstellar magnetic field and charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms plays an important role in the SW–LISM interaction. By performing three-dimensional, MHD plasma/kinetic neutral atom simulations, we determine the width of the outer heliosheath—the LISM plasma region affected by the presence of the heliosphere—and analyze quantitatively the distributions in front of the heliopause. It is shown that charge exchange modifies the LISM plasma to such extent that the contribution of a shock transition to the total variation of plasma parameters becomes small even if the LISM velocity exceeds the fast magnetosonic speed in the unperturbed medium. By performing adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we show that a distinct boundary layer of decreased plasma density and enhanced magnetic field should be observed on the interstellar side of the heliopause. We show that this behavior is in agreement with the plasma oscillations of increasing frequency observed by the plasma wave instrument onboard Voyager 1. We also demonstrate that Voyager observations in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock and the heliopause are consistent with dissipation of the heliospheric magnetic field. The choice of LISM parameters in this analysis is based on the simulations that fit observations of energetic neutral atoms performed by Interstellar Boundary Explorer .

  4. Nanostructured composite films of ceria nanoparticles with anti-UV and scratch protection properties constructed using a layer-by-layer strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Songsong; Li, Jie; Guo, Xianpeng; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yingwei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabrication of LbL multilayers used functional nanoparticles. • The film structure can be controlled in the nanoscopic range. • The constructed multilayers were transparent in the visible spectral region and presented anti-UV properties. • The multilayers presented scratch protection properties. - Abstract: Rare earth cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles have attracted extensive research attention due to their advantageous anti-UV and anti-scratch properties. However, a general and facile method for the fabrication of composite films using ceria and possessing these advantages is still lacking. Here, we report the fabrication of multilayers of ceria and polymeric species poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallyl-dimethyl ammonium) (PDDA) via the layer-by-layer deposition strategy. The thickness of the multilayers increased linearly with the number of bilayers, indicating accurate control of the film structure in the nanoscopic range. The constructed multilayers were transparent in the visible spectral region and at the same time presented anti-UV properties. In addition, the multilayers also presented scratch protection properties.

  5. The second report of the German Government to the German Bundestag about measures to protect the ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The second report presented by the German Government to the Bundestag about measures for the protection of the ozone layer reveals germany's international leading role in the phaseout of CFCs and halogenated hydrocarbons. In no other country in the world has such an extensive plan for withdrawing from use of substances harmful to the ozone layer been implemented. Manufacturers and users have proved, by their impressive promises of undercutting the time limits set in the ordinance on a ban on CFCs, that the cooperation principle, always placed first in environmental policy, can be successfully practised. The Montreal Protocol establishes successful international measures, backed by international law, for an abandonment of substances that are harmful to the ozone layer. (orig.) [de

  6. Biosensor properties of SOI nanowire transistors with a PEALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, V. P., E-mail: popov@isp.nsc.ru; Ilnitskii, M. A.; Zhanaev, E. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Myakon’kich, A. V.; Rudenko, K. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Physical Technological Institute (Russian Federation); Glukhov, A. V. [Novosibirsk Semiconductor Device Plant and Design Bureau (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    The properties of protective dielectric layers of aluminum oxide Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} applied to prefabricated silicon-nanowire transistor biochips by the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) method before being housed are studied depending on the deposition and annealing modes. Coating the natural silicon oxide with a nanometer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer insignificantly decreases the femtomole sensitivity of biosensors, but provides their stability in bioliquids. In deionized water, transistors with annealed aluminum oxide are closed due to the trapping of negative charges of <(1–10) × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} at surface states. The application of a positive potential to the substrate (V{sub sub} > 25 V) makes it possible to eliminate the negative charge and to perform multiple measurements in liquid at least for half a year.

  7. Surface protection in bio-shields via a functional soft skin layer: Lessons from the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Yaniv; Bar-On, Benny

    2017-09-01

    The turtle shell is a functional bio-shielding element, which has evolved naturally to provide protection against predator attacks that involve biting and clawing. The near-surface architecture of the turtle shell includes a soft bi-layer skin coating - rather than a hard exterior - which functions as a first line of defense against surface damage. This architecture represents a novel type of bio-shielding configuration, namely, an inverse structural-mechanical design, rather than the hard-coated bio-shielding elements identified so far. In the current study, we used experimentally based structural modeling and FE simulations to analyze the mechanical significance of this unconventional protection architecture in terms of resistance to surface damage upon extensive indentations. We found that the functional bi-layer skin of the turtle shell, which provides graded (soft-softer-hard) mechanical characteristics to the bio-shield exterior, serves as a bumper-buffer mechanism. This material-level adaptation protects the inner core from the highly localized indentation loads via stress delocalization and extensive near-surface plasticity. The newly revealed functional bi-layer coating architecture can potentially be adapted, using synthetic materials, to considerably enhance the surface load-bearing capabilities of various engineering configurations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yasuo; Fujinuma, Tadashi; Aso, Tsutomu.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns radiation protective clothings suitable for medical protective clothings, aprons, etc. A primary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a contamination-resistant layer on the other side. A secondary sheet comprises a lead-incorporated organic polymer layer having a less frictional layer on one side and a comfortable skin-feeling layer on the other side. The less frictional layers of the primary and the secondary layer are laminated so as to be in contact with each other. Then, they are formed so that the comfortable skin-feeling layer of the secondary sheet is on the inner side, in other words, on the side of a wearer, and the contamination-resistant layer of the primary sheet is on the outer side. With such a constitution, although it involves the lead-incorporated organic polymer sheets of a large weight, it is comfortable to wear because of excellent flexibility and causes less feeling of fatigue even during wearing for a long period of time. (I.N.)

  9. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition to Enable the Production, Optimization and Protection of Spaceflight Hardware

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) a cost effective nano-manufacturing technique allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign...

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition to Enable the Production, Optimization and Protection of Spaceflight Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) a cost effective nano-manufacturing technique allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign...

  12. X-ray protective garment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim relates to a protective apron. It incorporates material comprising an array of at least two superposed sheets prepared from a composition comprising a natural or synthetic polymeric material, optionally in combination with a plasticiser, and, as a filler, a material serving as an x-ray absorber, the outer, or the outer two sheets having on their outer surfaces a decorative and/or protective surface covering, for example, a layer of unfilled rubber or plastics material, the array of superposed sheets being bonded together round its edges, there being unbonded areas between the sheets in regions away from the edges. Bonding may be by welding, adhesion or stitching. (U.K.)

  13. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  14. Interface control of atomic layer deposited oxide coatings by filtered cathodic arc deposited sublayers for improved corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Härkönen, Emma, E-mail: emma.harkonen@helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Tervakangas, Sanna; Kolehmainen, Jukka [DIARC-Technology Inc., Espoo (Finland); Díaz, Belén; Światowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, CNRS (UMR 7075) – Chimie ParisTech (ENSCP), F-75005 Paris (France); Fenker, Martin [FEM Research Institute, Precious Metals and Metals Chemistry, D-73525 Schwäbisch Gmünd (Germany); Tóth, Lajos; Radnóczi, György [Research Centre for Natural Sciences HAS, (MTA TKK), Budapest (Hungary); Ritala, Mikko [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Sublayers grown with filtered cathodic arc deposition (FCAD) were added under atomic layer deposited (ALD) oxide coatings for interface control and improved corrosion protection of low alloy steel. The FCAD sublayer was either Ta:O or Cr:O–Ta:O nanolaminate, and the ALD layer was Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanolaminate, Al{sub x}Ta{sub y}O{sub z} mixture or graded mixture. The total thicknesses of the FCAD/ALD duplex coatings were between 65 and 120 nm. Thorough analysis of the coatings was conducted to gain insight into the influence of the FCAD sublayer on the overall coating performance. Similar characteristics as with single FCAD and ALD coatings on steel were found in the morphology and composition of the duplex coatings. However, the FCAD process allowed better control of the interface with the steel by reducing the native oxide and preventing its regrowth during the initial stages of the ALD process. Residual hydrocarbon impurities were buried in the interface between the FCAD layer and steel. This enabled growth of ALD layers with improved electrochemical sealing properties, inhibiting the development of localized corrosion by pitting during immersion in acidic NaCl and enhancing durability in neutral salt spray testing. - Highlights: • Corrosion protection properties of ALD coatings were improved by FCAD sublayers. • The FCAD sublayer enabled control of the coating-substrate interface. • The duplex coatings offered improved sealing properties and durability in NSS. • The protective properties were maintained during immersion in a corrosive solution. • The improvements were due to a more ideal ALD growth on the homogeneous FCAD oxide.

  15. Protection by meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA-specific antibodies and a serogroup B capsular polysaccharide-specific antibody in complement-sufficient and C6-deficient infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropainen, Maija; Saarinen, Leena; Vidarsson, Gestur; Käyhty, Helena

    2006-05-01

    The relative contributions of antibody-induced complement-mediated bacterial lysis and antibody/complement-mediated phagocytosis to host immunity against meningococcal infections are currently unclear. Further, the in vivo effector functions of antibodies may vary depending on their specificity and Fc heavy-chain isotype. In this study, a mouse immunoglobulin G2a (mIgG2a) monoclonal antibody (MN12H2) to meningococcal outer membrane protein PorA (P1.16), its human IgG subclass derivatives (hIgG1 to hIgG4), and an mIgG2a monoclonal antibody (Nmb735) to serogroup B capsular polysaccharide (B-PS) were evaluated for passive protection against meningococcal serogroup B strain 44/76-SL (B:15:P1.7,16) in an infant rat infection model. Complement component C6-deficient (PVG/c-) rats were used to assess the importance of complement-mediated bacterial lysis for protection. The PorA-specific parental mIgG2a and the hIgG1 to hIgG3 derivatives all induced efficient bactericidal activity in vitro in the presence of human or infant rat complement and augmented bacterial clearance in complement-sufficient HsdBrlHan:WIST rats, while the hIgG4 was unable to do so. In C6-deficient PVG/c- rats, lacking complement-mediated bacterial lysis, the augmentation of bacterial clearance by PorA-specific mIgG2a and hIgG1 antibodies was impaired compared to that in the syngeneic complement-sufficient PVG/c+ rat strain. This was in contrast to the case for B-PS-specific mIgG2a, which conferred similar protective activity in both rat strains. These data suggest that while anti-B-PS antibody can provide protection in the infant rats without membrane attack complex formation, the protection afforded by anti-PorA antibody is more dependent on the activation of the whole complement pathway and subsequent bacterial lysis.

  16. Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation by GaAs Nanowire Arrays Protected with Atomic Layer Deposited NiO x Electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Joy; Xu, Xiaoqing; Parameshwaran, Vijay; Baker, Jon; Bent, Stacey; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Clemens, Bruce

    2018-02-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production makes possible the direct conversion of solar energy into chemical fuel. In this work, PEC photoanodes consisting of GaAs nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated, characterized, and then demonstrated for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Uniform and periodic GaAs nanowire arrays were grown on a heavily n-doped GaAs substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition selective area growth. The nanowire arrays were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in a non-aqueous electrochemical system using ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc+) as a redox couple, and a maximum oxidation photocurrent of 11.1 mA/cm2 was measured. GaAs NW arrays with a 36 nm layer of nickel oxide (NiO x ) synthesized by atomic layer deposition were then used as photoanodes to drive the OER. In addition to acting as an electrocatalyst, the NiO x layer served to protect the GaAs NWs from oxidative corrosion. Using this strategy, GaAs NW photoanodes were successfully used for the oxygen evolution reaction. This is the first demonstration of GaAs NW arrays for effective OER, and the fabrication and protection strategy developed in this work can be extended to study any other nanostructured semiconductor materials systems for electrochemical solar energy conversion.

  17. Reusable urine glucose sensor based on functionalized graphene oxide conjugated Au electrode with protective layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Youn Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical based system with multiple layers coated on a functionalized graphene oxide Au electrode was developed to measure glucose concentration in urine in a more stable way. Two types of gold printed circuit boards were fabricated and graphene oxide was immobilized on their surface by chemical adsorption. Multiple layers, composed of a couple of polymers, were uniformly coated on the surface electrode. This device exhibited higher electrochemical responses against glucose, a greater resistivity in the presence of interferential substances in urine, and durable stabilities for longer periods of time than conventional units. The efficiency in current level according to the order and ratio of solution was evaluated during the immobilization of the layer. The fabricated electrodes were then also evaluated using hyperglycemic clinical samples and compared with the patterns of blood glucose measured with commercially available glucose meters. Our findings show that not only was their pattern similar but this similarity is well correlated.

  18. Development of Barrier Layers for the Protection of Candidate Alloys in the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Carlos G. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, J. Wayne [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pollock, Tresa M. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Was, Gary S. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project was to develop concepts for barrier layers that enable leading candi- date Ni alloys to meet the longer term operating temperature and durability requirements of the VHTR. The concepts were based on alpha alumina as a primary surface barrier, underlay by one or more chemically distinct alloy layers that would promote and sustain the formation of the pro- tective scale. The surface layers must possess stable microstructures that provide resistance to oxidation, de-carburization and/or carburization, as well as durability against relevant forms of thermo-mechanical cycling. The system must also have a self-healing ability to allow endurance for long exposure times at temperatures up to 1000°C.

  19. Determination of half-value layers and tenth-value layer to barite as shielding against X radiation in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, G.A.; Aragao Filho, G.L.; Almeida Junior, A.T.; Santos, M.A.P.; Araujo, F.G.S.; Nogueira, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The barium mortar has been widely used as radiation shielding material for X and gamma radiations in Brazil, by presenting some advantages as the high rate of efficiency in radiation shielding, the easy handling and application, the facility to be found in the national market and low cost. The determination of the half-value layers (HVL) and tenth-value layer (TVL) of different types of barite becomes the major factor to characterize the attenuation of these materials, in order to ensure the efficiency and quality of projects shielding, by ensuring the safety of workers occupationally exposed to radiation and of individuals to the public. Thus, plates of different thickness of mortar of barite were made for determination of their HVL and TVL. The plates were irradiated with X-ray qualities for radiological protection according to standard ISO 4037. A system of CdTe spectrometry was used to acquire spectra transmitted, in the presence of each plate, and their combinations. The areas of the spectra obtained, depending on the total thickness of the plates used in the arrangement were used to determine the attenuation curves. From these curves obtained in this work was to establish the HVL and TVL

  20. A New Digital Watermarking Method for Data Integrity Protection in the Perception Layer of IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, IoT (Internet of Things has enjoyed vigorous support from governments and research institutions around the world, and remarkable achievements have been obtained. The perception layer of IoT plays an important role as a link between the IoT and the real world; the security has become a bottleneck restricting the further development of IoT. The perception layer is a self-organizing network system consisting of various resource-constrained sensor nodes through wireless communication. Accordingly, the costly encryption mechanism cannot be applied to the perception layer. In this paper, a novel lightweight data integrity protection scheme based on fragile watermark is proposed to solve the contradiction between the security and restricted resource of perception layer. To improve the security, we design a position random watermark (PRW strategy to calculate the embedding position by temporal dynamics of sensing data. The digital watermark is generated by one-way hash function SHA-1 before embedding to the dynamic computed position. In this way, the security vulnerabilities introduced by fixed embedding position can not only be solved effectively, but also achieve zero disturbance to the data. The security analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the integrity of the data at low cost.

  1. Morphology and structure of polymer layers protecting dental enamel against erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Markus; Reichert, Jörg; Sigusch, Bernd W; Watts, David C; Jandt, Klaus D

    2012-10-01

    Human dental erosion caused by acids is a major factor for tooth decay. Adding polymers to acidic soft drinks is one important approach to reduce human dental erosion caused by acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the thickness and the structure of polymer layers adsorbed in vitro on human dental enamel from polymer modified citric acid solutions. The polymers propylene glycol alginate (PGA), highly esterified pectin (HP) and gum arabic (GA) were used to prepare polymer modified citric acids solutions (PMCAS, pH 3.3). With these PMCAS, enamel samples were treated for 30, 60 and 120s respectively to deposit polymer layers on the enamel surface. Profilometer scratches on the enamel surface were used to estimate the thickness of the polymer layers via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The composition of the deposited polymer layers was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition the polymer-enamel interaction was investigated with zeta-potential measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been shown that the profilometer scratch depth on the enamel with deposited polymers was in the range of 10nm (30s treatment time) up to 25nm (120s treatment time). Compared to this, the unmodified CAS-treated surface showed a greater scratch depth: from nearly 30nm (30s treatment time) up to 60nm (120s treatment time). Based on XPS measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and zeta-potential measurements, a model was hypothesized which describes the layer deposited on the enamel surface as consisting of two opposing gradients of polymer molecules and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles. In this study, the structure and composition of polymer layers deposited on in vitro dental enamel during treatment with polymer modified citric acid solutions were investigated. Observations are consistent with a layer consisting of two opposing gradients of hydroxyapatite particles and polymer molecules. This leads to reduced erosive effects of

  2. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Woen Ping; Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Boelsterli, Urs A

    2008-03-15

    Diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with rare but severe cases of clinical hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac causes concentration-dependent cell death in human hepatocytes (after 24-48 h) by mitochondrial permeabilization via poorly defined mechanisms. To explore whether the cyclophilin D (CyD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and/or the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) was primarily involved in mediating cell death, we exposed immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to apoptogenic concentrations of diclofenac (>500 microM) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of upstream mediators. The CyD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, 2 microM) fully inhibited diclofenac-induced cell injury, suggesting that mPT was involved. However, CyD gene silencing using siRNA left the cells susceptible to diclofenac toxicity, and CsA still protected the CyD-negative cells from lethal injury. Diclofenac induced early (9 h) activation of Bax and Bak and caused mitochondrial translocation of Bax, indicating that MOMP was involved in cell death. Inhibition of Bax protein expression by using siRNA significantly protected HC-04 from diclofenac-induced cell injury. Diclofenac also induced early Bid activation (tBid formation, 6 h), which is an upstream mechanism that initiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. Bid activation was sensitive to the Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA. In conclusion, we found that Bax/Bak-mediated MOMP is a key mechanism of diclofenac-induced lethal cell injury in human hepatocytes, and that CsA can prevent MOMP through inhibition of Bax activation. These data support our concept that the Ca2+-Bid-Bax-MOMP axis is a critical pathway in diclofenac (metabolite)-induced hepatocyte injury.

  3. Bax-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), distinct from the mitochondrial permeability transition, is a key mechanism in diclofenac-induced hepatocyte injury: Multiple protective roles of cyclosporin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, W.P.; Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2008-01-01

    Diclofenac, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been associated with rare but severe cases of clinical hepatotoxicity. Diclofenac causes concentration-dependent cell death in human hepatocytes (after 24-48 h) by mitochondrial permeabilization via poorly defined mechanisms. To explore whether the cyclophilin D (CyD)-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and/or the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) was primarily involved in mediating cell death, we exposed immortalized human hepatocytes (HC-04) to apoptogenic concentrations of diclofenac (> 500 μM) in the presence or absence of inhibitors of upstream mediators. The CyD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, 2 μM) fully inhibited diclofenac-induced cell injury, suggesting that mPT was involved. However, CyD gene silencing using siRNA left the cells susceptible to diclofenac toxicity, and CsA still protected the CyD-negative cells from lethal injury. Diclofenac induced early (9 h) activation of Bax and Bak and caused mitochondrial translocation of Bax, indicating that MOMP was involved in cell death. Inhibition of Bax protein expression by using siRNA significantly protected HC-04 from diclofenac-induced cell injury. Diclofenac also induced early Bid activation (tBid formation, 6 h), which is an upstream mechanism that initiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation. Bid activation was sensitive to the Ca 2+ chelator, BAPTA. In conclusion, we found that Bax/Bak-mediated MOMP is a key mechanism of diclofenac-induced lethal cell injury in human hepatocytes, and that CsA can prevent MOMP through inhibition of Bax activation. These data support our concept that the Ca 2+ -Bid-Bax-MOMP axis is a critical pathway in diclofenac (metabolite)-induced hepatocyte injury

  4. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  5. TPS for Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Hwang, H.; Prabhu, D.; Stackpoole, M.; Wercinski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS, both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.

  6. The protective layer of biofilm : A repellent function for a new class of amphiphilic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, Akos T.; van Gestel, Jordi; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    Bacteria can survive harsh conditions when growing in complex communities of cells known as biofilms. The matrix of the biofilm presents a scaffold where cells are attached to each other and to the surface. The biofilm matrix is also a protective barrier that confers tolerance against various

  7. Back-illuminated Si-based photoanode with nickel cobalt oxide catalytic protection layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Dowon; Mei, Bastian Timo; Frydendal, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    as a protective catalyst for the water oxidation reaction in 1 m KOH. The sample showed a high photocurrent (21 mA cm−2) under red-light illumination (38.6 mW cm−2). Long-term stability testing showed a gradual decrease of activity in the beginning, and then the activity increased, yielding a cathodic shift...

  8. Improvement and protection of niobium surface superconductivity by atomic layer deposition and heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proslier, T.; /IIT, Chicago /Argonne; Zasadzinski, J.; /IIT, Chicago; Moore, J.; Pellin, M.; Elam, J.; /Argonne; Cooley, L.; /Fermilab; Antoine, C.; /Saclay

    2008-11-01

    A method to treat the surface of Nb is described, which potentially can improve the performance of superconducting rf cavities. We present tunneling and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements at the surface of cavity-grade niobium samples coated with a 3 nm alumina overlayer deposited by atomic layer deposition. The coated samples baked in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature degraded superconducting surface. However, at temperatures above 450 C, the tunneling conductance curves show significant improvements in the superconducting density of states compared with untreated surfaces.

  9. Deposition of silica protected luminescent layers of Eu:GdVO_4 nanoparticles assisted by atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, Elisa; Pizzol, Giorgia; Fantin, Marina; Enrichi, Francesco; Scopece, Paolo; Nuñez, Nuria O.; Ocaña, Manuel; Benedetti, Alvise; Polizzi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Eu:GdVO_4 nanophosphors with an average size of 60 nm, synthesized by a facile solvothermal method, were deposited on monocrystalline silicon wafers by a spray-coating technique with artworks anti-counterfeiting applications in mind. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to deposit a silica-based layer on top of the nanometric luminescent layer, in order to improve its adhesion to the substrate and to protect it from the environment. The nanophosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coating composition was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and its morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The film thickness was evaluated by means of ellipsometry and adhesion was estimated by a peeling test. Luminescent properties of the nanophosphors deposited and fixed on silicon wafers were also measured. The whole layer resulted well-adhered to the silicon substrate, transparent and undetectable in the presence of visible light, but easily activated by UV light source. - Highlights: • Luminescent films were obtained by spray deposition of Eu:GdVO_4 nanophosphors. • Plasma jet deposition of SiO_2 fixed the nanophosphors on the substrate. • Optical properties of nanophosphors were preserved after deposition-fixing process. • Films well-adhered to the substrate, even after a scotch tape peeling test and a scratch test.

  10. Deposition of silica protected luminescent layers of Eu:GdVO{sub 4} nanoparticles assisted by atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.moretti@unive.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Pizzol, Giorgia [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Fantin, Marina; Enrichi, Francesco; Scopece, Paolo [Nanofab-Veneto Nanotech, Via delle Industrie 5, 30175 Marghera, Venezia (Italy); Nuñez, Nuria O.; Ocaña, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-US, Americo Vespucio 49, 41092, Isla de la Cartuja, Sevilla (Spain); Benedetti, Alvise [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Polizzi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, INSTM Venice Research Unit, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy); Centro di Microscopia Elettronica “Giovanni Stevanato”, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre, Venezia (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    Eu:GdVO{sub 4} nanophosphors with an average size of 60 nm, synthesized by a facile solvothermal method, were deposited on monocrystalline silicon wafers by a spray-coating technique with artworks anti-counterfeiting applications in mind. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to deposit a silica-based layer on top of the nanometric luminescent layer, in order to improve its adhesion to the substrate and to protect it from the environment. The nanophosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coating composition was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and its morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The film thickness was evaluated by means of ellipsometry and adhesion was estimated by a peeling test. Luminescent properties of the nanophosphors deposited and fixed on silicon wafers were also measured. The whole layer resulted well-adhered to the silicon substrate, transparent and undetectable in the presence of visible light, but easily activated by UV light source. - Highlights: • Luminescent films were obtained by spray deposition of Eu:GdVO{sub 4} nanophosphors. • Plasma jet deposition of SiO{sub 2} fixed the nanophosphors on the substrate. • Optical properties of nanophosphors were preserved after deposition-fixing process. • Films well-adhered to the substrate, even after a scotch tape peeling test and a scratch test.

  11. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  12. Processing of SiO2 protective layer using HMDS precursor by combustion CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung-Soo; Kim, Youngman

    2011-08-01

    Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, [(CH3)3Si]2NH) was used as a precursor to form SiO2 protective coatings on IN738LC alloys by combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). SEM and XPS showed that the processed coatings were composed mainly of SiO2. The amount of HMDS had the largest effect on the size of the SiO2 agglomerates and the thickness of the deposited coatings. The specimens coated with SiO2 using the 0.05 mol/l HMDS solution showed a significantly higher temperature oxidation resistance than those deposited under other conditions.

  13. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  14. Graphene Coatings: Probing the Limits of the One Atom Thick Protection Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Balog, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of graphene as an effective corrosion-inhibiting coating on metal surfaces, here exemplified by the hex-reconstructed Pt(100) surface, are probed by scanning tunneling microscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations. While exposure of small molecules directly onto...... against CO is observed at CO pressures below 106 mbar. However, at higher pressures CO is observed to intercalate under the graphene coating layer, thus lifting the reconstruction. The limitations of the coating effect are further tested by exposure to hot atomic hydrogen. While the coating can withstand...... these extreme conditions for a limited amount of time, after substantial exposure, the Pt(100) reconstruction is lifted. Annealing experiments and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the basal plane of the graphene stays intact and point to a graphene-mediated mechanism for the H...

  15. End-to-End Privacy Protection for Facebook Mobile Chat based on AES with Multi-Layered MD5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Sukmo Wardhono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As social media environments become more interactive and amount of users grown tremendously, privacy is a matter of increasing concern. When personal data become a commodity, social media company can share users data to another party such as government. Facebook, inc is one of the social media company that frequently asked for user’s data. Although this private data request mechanism through a formal and valid legal process, it still undermine the fundamental right to information privacy. In This Case, social media users need protection against privacy violation from social media platform provider itself.  Private chat is the most favorite feature of a social media. Inside a chat room, user can share their private information contents. Cryptography is one of data protection methods that can be used to hides private communication data from unauthorized parties. In our study, we proposed a system that can encrypt chatting content based on AES and multi-layered MD5 to ensure social media users have privacy protection against social media company that use user informations as a commodity. In addition, this system can make users convenience to share their private information through social media platform.

  16. Management of outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  17. Polystyrene films as barrier layers for corrosion protection of copper and copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Románszki, Loránd; Datsenko, Iaryna; May, Zoltán; Telegdi, Judit; Nyikos, Lajos; Sand, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Dip-coated polystyrene layers of sub-micrometre thickness (85-500nm) have been applied on copper and copper alloys (aluminium brass, copper-nickel 70/30), as well as on stainless steel 304, and produced an effective barrier against corrosion and adhesion of corrosion-relevant microorganisms. According to the dynamic wettability measurements, the coatings exhibited high advancing (103°), receding (79°) and equilibrium (87°) contact angles, low contact angle hysteresis (6°) and surface free energy (31mJ/m(2)). The corrosion rate of copper-nickel 70/30 alloy samples in 3.5% NaCl was as low as 3.2μm/a (44% of that of the uncoated samples), and in artificial seawater was only 0.9μm/a (29% of that of the uncoated samples). Cell adhesion was studied by fluorescence microscopy, using monoculture of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. The coatings not only decreased the corrosion rate but also markedly reduced the number of bacterial cells adhered to the coated surfaces. The PS coating on copper gave the best result, 2×10(3)cells/cm(2) (1% of that of the uncoated control). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism of Properties of Noble ZnS-SiO2 Protection Layer for Phase Change Optical Disk Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, David V.; Ohta, Takeo

    2006-08-01

    A ZnS-SiO2 composite dielectric is widely used in the optical stack designs of rewritable optical recording media as an index-matching medium and as a protection layer for the high-index chalcogenide (compound with sixth group element of S, Se, Te) phase change material used in these media. The addition of Si and O to ZnS is primarily intended to stabilize against crystalline grain growth of ZnS with high numbers of direct overwriting cycles. In this study, we carry out infrared (IR) spectroscopy to clarify the role of Si in this stabilization process. IR spectroscopy is performed on sputter as-deposited and annealed ZnS-SiO2 dielectric protection layers. We find that Si exists not in the SiO2 oxide phase but as [SiS4-nOn] tetrahedrons. Moreover, zinc and sulfur do not exist as ZnS, but in highly chemically disordered ZnS:O crystallites. The highly directional and rigid covalent bonds in the [SiS4-nOn] tetrahedrons are key to establishing thermal stability against the coalescence of ZnS. The importance of the Si-S bond also extends into a more thorough understanding of the low thermal conductivity of the ZnS-SiO2 material. The consideration of elastic implications allows us to predict an average phonon velocity less than 50% compared to that in SiO2. With this, we predict a thermal conductivity of 0.0067 W cm-1 K-1 for this material, which is in complete agreement with measured values.

  19. Protection of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer against excitotoxicity by the N-acylethanolamine, N-linoleoylethanolamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan RS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available R. Scott Duncan1,*, Hua Xin1,*, Daryl L Goad1, Kent D Chapman2,3, Peter Koulen1,31Vision Research Center and Departments of Ophthalmology and Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA; 3Center for Plant Lipid Research, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA *Authors contributed equallyAbstract: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC death is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases and disease processes of the eye, including glaucoma. The protection of RGCs has been an important strategy for combating glaucoma, but little clinical success has been reported to date. One pathophysiological consequence of glaucoma is excessive extracellular glutamate subsequently leading to excitotoxicity in the retina. Endocannabinoids, such as the N-acylethanolamine (NAE, arachidonylethanolamine (NAE 20:4, exhibit neuroprotective properties in some models of neurodegenerative disease. The majority of NAEs, however, are not cannabinoids, and their physiological function is not clear. Here, we determined whether the noncannabinoid NAE, linoleoylethanolamine (NAE18:2, protects neurons in the RGC layer against glutamate excitotoxicity in ex-vivo retina cultures. Using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP (2´-deoxyuridine 5´-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, we determined that NAE18:2 reduces the number of apoptotic RGC layer neurons in response to glutamate and conclude that NAE18:2 is a neuroprotective compound with potential for treating glaucomatous retinopathy.Keywords: neuroprotection, glutamate, calcium signaling, immunocytochemistry, eye, vision, glaucoma.

  20. Comparison of radioactive doses after the last protection layer insight the reactor structure for Russian VVER-1000 and German PWR-1300 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, A.; Mansourshaiflu, N.; Alizadeh, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    In pressurized reactors (VVER and PWR), various protections layers are used for reducing the output core doses. At any protection layer, some amount of neutron and gamma doses is reduced. In this project the axial flux of neutron and gamma beams have been evaluated at various protection layers in the operation state the German PWR-1300 and Russian VVER-1000 reactors by the MCNP computer code. For the purpose of effective use of the MCNP code and assuring its correct performance about of fluxed beams common and series of scientific answers and bench marks should be considered and the results obtained by the MCNP code, be compared with this answers. Then by using appropriate method, for reducing the flux variants of neutron and gamma beams at various protection layers of German PWR-1300 and Russian VVER-1000 reactors of the operation state of both reactors have been accelerated. In this projects, bench marks are computations and numbers existing in PSAR's present at Bushehr nuclear power plant. At the end, by using the results obtained and the standard doses, the time which a person can have work activity at the reactor wall (after the last protection layer), was compared for the operation status of the German PWR-1300 and Russian VVER-1000 reactors

  1. Flutter Analysis of the Thermal Protection Layer on the NASA HIAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Benjamin D.; Dowell, Earl H.; Scott, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A combination of classical plate theory and a supersonic aerodynamic model is used to study the aeroelastic flutter behavior of a proposed thermal protection system (TPS) for the NASA HIAD. The analysis pertains to the rectangular configurations currently being tested in a NASA wind-tunnel facility, and may explain why oscillations of the articles could be observed. An analysis using a linear flat plate model indicated that flutter was possible well within the supersonic flow regime of the wind tunnel tests. A more complex nonlinear analysis of the TPS, taking into account any material curvature present due to the restraint system or substructure, indicated that significantly greater aerodynamic forcing is required for the onset of flutter. Chaotic and periodic limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of the TPS are possible depending on how the curvature is imposed. When the pressure from the base substructure on the bottom of the TPS is used as the source of curvature, the flutter boundary increases rapidly and chaotic behavior is eliminated.

  2. Thin-film encapsulation of organic electronic devices based on vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride as protective buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingquan; Ding, Sihan; Wen, Zhanwei; Xu, Sunan; Lv, Wenli; Xu, Ziqiang; Yang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Wei, Yi; Tang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Encapsulation is indispensable for organic thin-film electronic devices to ensure reliable operation and long-term stability. For thin-film encapsulating organic electronic devices, insulating polymers and inorganic metal oxides thin films are widely used. However, spin-coating of insulating polymers directly on organic electronic devices may destroy or introduce unwanted impurities in the underlying organic active layers. And also, sputtering of inorganic metal oxides may damage the underlying organic semiconductors. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing vacuum evaporated lithium fluoride (LiF) as protective buffer layer, spin-coated insulating polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and sputtered inorganic material Er2O3, can be successfully applied for thin film encapsulation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic diodes. By encapsulating with LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films, the device lifetime improvements of 10 and 15 times can be achieved. These methods should be applicable for thin-film encapsulation of all kinds of organic electronic devices. Moisture-induced hole trapping, and Al top electrode oxidation are suggest to be the origins of current decay for the LiF/PVA/LiF trilayer and LiF/Er2O3 bilayer films encapsulated devices, respectively.

  3. Outer atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  4. Sodium Exposure Tests on Limestone Concrete Used as Sacrificial Protection Layer in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parida, F.C.; Das, S.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kasinathan, N.

    2006-01-01

    Hot sodium coming in contact with structural concrete in case of sodium leak in FBR system cause damage as a result of thermo-chemical attack by burning sodium. In addition, release of free and bound water from concrete leads to generation of hydrogen gas, which is explosive in nature. Hence limestone concrete, as sacrificial layer on the structural concrete in FBR, needs to be qualified. Four concrete blocks of dimension 600 mm x 600 mm x 300 mm with 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm cavity were cast and subjected to controlled sodium exposure tests. They have composition of ordinary portland cement, water, fine and coarse aggregate of limestone in the ratio of 1: 0.58: 2.547: 3.817. These blocks were subjected to preliminary inspection by ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and rebound hammer tests. Each block was exposed for 30 minutes to about 12 kg of liquid sodium (∼ 120 mm liquid column) at 550 deg. C in open air, after which sodium was sucked back from the cavity of the concrete block into a sodium tank. On-line temperature monitoring was carried out at strategic locations of sodium pool and concrete block. After removing sodium from the cavity and cleaning the surfaces, rebound hammer testing was carried out on each concrete block at the same locations where data were taken earlier at pre-exposed stage. The statistical analysis of rebound hammer data revealed that one of the concrete block alone has undergone damage to the extent of 16%. The loss of mass occurred for all the four blocks varied from 0.6 to 2.4% due to release of water during the test duration. Chemical analysis of sodium in concrete samples collected from cavity floor of each block helped in generation of depth profiles of sodium monoxide concentration for each block. From this it is concluded that a bulk penetration of sodium up to 30 mm depth has taken place. However it was also observed that at few local spots, sodium penetrated into concrete up to 50 mm. Cylindrical core samples of 50 mm x 150

  5. Yttrium silicate as an oxidation protection layer for C/C-SiC materials. Synthesis, electrophoretic deposition and high temperature oxidation; Yttriumsilikat als Oxidationsschutzschicht fuer C/C-SiC-Werkstoffe. Synthese, elektrophoretische Abscheidung und Hochtemperaturoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Brauckmann, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced carbon composites are promising materials for high temperature applications. They exhibit excellent thermal shock resistance and nearly constant mechanical strength. A serious draw-back of this material is their poor resistivity towards oxidation at temperatures above 400 C. To make use of the very good thermal stability the material needs an outer oxidation protection coating. Silicon carbide has been successfully employed at temperatures up to 1300 C. To increase the application range towards higher temperatures an outer environmental barrier coating is needed. In the present work yttrium silicates were used to complement the silicon carbide coated carbon fibre reinforced carbon material. Both stable compounds in the quasi-binary system Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, yttrium orthosilicate (Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}) and yttrium pyrosilicate (Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}), were separately applied to the test samples via electrophoretic deposition. Suitable suspensions were prepared in butanone with iodine as charging agent to adjust conductivity and particle charge. Galvanostatic deposition obeys a linear growth law for the selected deposition times. Alternatively the feasibility of direct electrophoretic deposition from an yttrium silicate precursor sol was tested. Emphasis was put on the development of a suitable sol-system based on alkoxide precursors. Samples coated either with Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} or Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} were investigated using thermogravimetric high temperature oxidation in the temperature range from 1450 C to 1650 C, respectively. The coated samples exhibited very good oxidation resistance up to temperatures of 1600 C, while the performance was reduced at 1650 C to a few hours. All samples showed a parabolic mass increase with time indicating a diffusion limited process governing the oxidation kinetics. The cross sections of the samples show a sharp border between the SiO{sub 2} that crystallizes to cristobalite and the

  6. Developments for the outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Haas, T; Uwer, U; Walter, M; Wiedner, D

    2004-01-01

    The outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment is discussed. The outer tracking system (OT) is made of three stations and every station is made up of four detecting planes with a double layer of straw tubes. The straw tubes are mounted in detector module boxes made up of sandwich panels. The use of a counting gas with a high drift velocity is suggested to cope with high bunch crossing rate at the LHCb experiment. (Edited abstract) 3 Refs.

  7. 78 FR 29091 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the... vessels from a portion of Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display...

  8. Vacuum Outer-Gap Structure in Pulsar Outer Magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui-Fang, Lin; Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We study the vacuum outer-gap structure in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through a pair production process. In this case, the trans-field height is limited by the photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. By solving self-consistently the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and γ-rays in a vacuum outer gap for the parameters of Vela pulsar, we obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e. the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface) and ends at the outer boundary which locates inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  9. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Arink, R; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th.; Berkien, A.; Farber, Ch.; Bien, A.; Blouw, J.; Ceelie, L.; Coco, V.; Deckenhoff, M.; Deng, Z.; Dettori, F.; van Eijk, D.; Ekelhof, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Grillo, L.; Hulsbergen, W.D.; Karbach, T.M.; Koopman, R.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Langenbruch, Ch.; Lavrentyev, V.; Linn, Ch.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Meissner, M.; Michalowski, J.; Morawski, P.; Nawrot, A.; Nedos, M.; Pellegrino, A.; Polok, G.; van Petten, O.; Rovekamp, J.; Schimmel, F.; Schuylenburg, H.; Schwemmer, R.; Seyfert, P.; Serra, N.; Sluijk, T.; Spaan, B.; Spelt, J.; Storaci, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Swientek, S.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Witek, M.; Zeng, M.; Zwart, A.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  10. Bilayers Polypyrrole Coatings for Corrosion Protection of SAE 4140 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lehr, I.L.; Saidman, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study polypyrrole (PPy) bilayers films were electrodeposited onto SAE 4140 steel. The inner layer was electropolymerized in the presence of molibdate and nitrate and the outer layer in a solution containing sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The electrosynthesis was done under potentiostatic conditions. The corrosion protection properties of the films were examined in sodium chloride solution by open circuit measurements, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance ...

  11. Three-dimensional bioprinting of cell-laden constructs with polycaprolactone protective layers for using various thermoplastic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Jang, Jinah; Chae, Suhun; Gao, Ge; Kong, Jeong-Sik; Ahn, Minjun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-08-22

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed constructs have been recognized as promising biological substitutes for tissue/organ regeneration. They provide tailored physical properties and biological cues via multi-material printing process. In particular, hybrid bioprinting, enabling to use biodegradable synthetic polymers as framework, has been an attractive method to support weak hydrogels. The constructs with controlled architecture and high shape fidelity were fabricated through this method, depositing spatial arrangement of multi-cell types into microscale constructs. Among biodegradable synthetic polymers, polycaprolactone (PCL) has been commonly chosen in fabrication of cell-printed constructs because of its low melting temperature of 60 °C to be dispensed with extrusion-based bioprinting system. However, in addition to PCL, various synthetic polymers have been widely applied for tissue regeneration. These polymers have distinctive characteristics essential for tissue/organ regeneration. Nevertheless, it is difficult to use some polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polylactic acid (PLA) with 3D bioprinting technology because of their high melting temperature to be dispensed, which can result in thermal damage to the cells in the printed constructs during the fabrication process. We present a novel bioprinting method to use various synthetic polymers in fabrication of cell-printed constructs. PCL was introduced as a protective layer to prevent thermal damage caused by high temperature of polymers during fabrication. Remarkable improvement in cellular activities in the printed constructs with PCL layers was observed compared with the construct without PCL. This bioprinting method can be applied to fabricate more tissue-like constructs through the use of various biomaterials.

  12. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Aging of vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY protective layers and their interaction with nickel- and cobalt-based γ/γ'-superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terberger, Philipp J.

    2015-01-01

    γ/γ' single crystal superalloys with plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems are used as turbine rotor blades in gas turbines if the blades are exposed to high temperatures and high mechanical loads. A bond coat (BC) is part of the thermal barrier coating system. It protects the substrate from oxidation and ensures good bonding of the ceramic coating that serves as a thermal insulator. MCrAlY (M=Ni,Co) alloys are commonly used as BCs. They form a protective Al 2 O 3 layer. This study investigates four different vacuum plasma-sprayed MCrAlY BCs with and without Re after thermal treatment of up to 1000 h at 1044 C in air. The employed substrates are the Ni-based superalloy ERBO1 and the novel Co-based γ/γ' superalloy ERBOCo-1. Additionally, the ternary γ/γ' alloy Co-9Al-9W (in at.%) was aged with a BC for up to 500 h at 900 C. Up to now little is known about the interaction of the Co-based substrates and the BCs. Oxidation and Al depletion of the BC as well as the interdiffusion of BCs and substrates are analysed primarily on the basis of SEM/EDX and XRD. The effect of Y and Hf on the microstructure of the oxide scale is discussed. Rate constants show that Hf results in higher oxidation rates while Re slows down the oxidation. The influence of the alloying elements on the BC microstructure is described. For example, Co prevents the formation of γ' phase, Re slows down diffusion and results in the formation of brittle phases. The choice of substrate material has no measurable influence on the oxidation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) shows that the choice of substrate surface pre-treatment (grit blasting or grinding) has a major influence on the interdiffusion behaviour with the BC. Grinding results in a thinner IDZ and fewer topologically closed packed (TCP) phases. The reason for this is the recrystallisation of the single crystal substrate. A study of the influence of the substrate crystal

  14. Composition and Morphology of Product Layers in the Steel/Cement Paste Interface in Conditions of Corrosion and Cathodic Protection in Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Boshkov, N.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the formation of corrosion products on the steel surface in reinforced concrete in conditions of corrosion and subsequent transformation of these layers in conditions of cathodic protection (CP). Of particular interest was to investigate if the introduced pulse CP (as

  15. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  16. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  17. Corrosion Protection of Steels by Conducting Polymer Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohtsuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of steels by conducting polymer coating is reviewed. The conducting polymer such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophen works as a strong oxidant to the steel, inducing the potential shift to the noble direction. The strongly oxidative conducting polymer facilitates the steel to be passivated. A bilayered PPy film was designed for the effective corrosion protection. It consisted of the inner layer in which phosphomolybdate ion, PMo12O3−40 (PMo, was doped and the outer layer in which dodecylsulfate ion (DoS was doped. The inner layer stabilized the passive oxide and the outer possessed anionic perm-selectivity to inhibit the aggressive anions such as chloride from penetrating through the PPy film to the substrate steel. By the bilayered PPy film, the steel was kept passive for about 200 h in 3.5% sodium chloride solution without formation of corrosion products.

  18. Auto-assembly of nanometer thick, water soluble layers of plasmid DNA complexed with diamines and basic amino acids on graphite: Greatest DNA protection is obtained with arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, T.T.; Boulanouar, O. [Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Heintz, O. [Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR CNRS 6303Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, DTAI/Centre de micro/nano caractérisation, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 DIJON Cedex (France); Fromm, M., E-mail: michel.fromm@univ-fcomte.fr [Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, 16, Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France)

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the ability of diamines as well as basic amino acids to condense DNA onto highly ordered pyrolytic graphite with minimum damage after re-dissolution in water. Based on a bibliographic survey we briefly summarize DNA binding properties with diamines as compared to basic amino acids. Thus, solutions of DNA complexed with these linkers were drop-cast in order to deposit ultra-thin layers on the surface of HOPG in the absence or presence of Tris buffer. Atomic Force Microscopy analyses showed that, at a fixed ligand-DNA mixing ratio of 16, the mean thickness of the layers can be statistically predicted to lie in the range 0–50 nm with a maximum standard deviation ± 6 nm, using a simple linear law depending on the DNA concentration. The morphology of the layers appears to be ligand-dependent. While the layers containing diamines present holes, those formed in the presence of basic amino acids, except for lysine, are much more compact and dense. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements provide compositional information indicating that, compared to the maximum number of DNA sites to which the ligands may bind, the basic amino acids Arg and His are present in large excess. Conservation of the supercoiled topology of the DNA plasmids was studied after recovery of the complex layers in water. Remarkably, arginine has the best protection capabilities whether Tris was present or not in the initial solution. - Highlights: • Characterization of nanometer scaled layers composed of pUC21 plasmid DNA • Relation between nature of the ligand and structure of the layers • Capacities of the ligands to protect plasmids from strand break depending on their nature.

  19. Corrosion behaviour in saline environments of single-layer titanium and aluminium coatings, and of Ti/Al alternated multi-layers elaborated by a multi-beam PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merati, Abdenacer

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis reports the characterization of anti-corrosion titanium and aluminium coatings deposited on a 35CD4 steel under the form of mono-metallic layers or alternated Ti/Al multi-layers, and obtained by a multibeam PVD technique. The influence of different parameters is studied: single-layer thickness (5, 15 or 30 micro-metres), multi-layer distribution (5 to 6) and substrate (smooth or threaded). Layer nature and microstructure are studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as corrosion toughness in aqueous saline environments. Coated threaded samples have been studied after tightening tests. It appears that titanium layers are denser and more uniform than aluminium layers, and that multi-layer coatings provide a better protection than single-layer coatings. The best behaviour is obtained when titanium is in contact with steel, and aluminium is the outer layer in contact with the corroding environment [fr

  20. Experimental and computational analysis of the hot water layer for the radiological protection in swimming pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rogerio.

    1995-01-01

    Pool reactors are research reactors, which allow easy access to the core and rare simple to operate. Reactors of this kind operating at power levels higher than about one megawatt need a hot water layer at the surface of the pool, in order to keep surface activity below acceptable levels and enable free access to the upper part of the reactor. An experimental apparatus was constructed to study the hot water layer stability. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature field. A numerical analysis was conducted simultaneously. Regarding experimental results, representative temperature contour lines of the hot water layer were plotted. The temperature field was determined in the numerical analysis and temperature contour lines corresponding to those of the experimental results were plotted. The hot water layer kept stable for experimental and numerical results. Good agreement between the results for the hot water layer position and thickness has been obtained. (author). 21 refs., 40 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Enhancement of carrier mobility in MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors by a SiO{sub 2} protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Peng-Zhi; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Cao, Hui-Wen; Wang, Xue-Feng; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Deng, Ning-Qin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangsh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Jing [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Guang-Yu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); CollaborativeInnovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Sheng, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangsh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai 200050 (China); Advanced Sensor and Integrated System Lab, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-05-16

    Molybdenum disulfide is a promising channel material for field effect transistors (FETs). In this paper, monolayer MoS{sub 2} grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to fabricate top-gate FETs through standard optical lithography. During the fabrication process, charged impurities and interface states are introduced, and the photoresist is not removed cleanly, which both limit the carrier mobility and the source-drain current. We apply a SiO{sub 2} protective layer, which is deposited on the surface of MoS{sub 2}, in order to avoid the MoS{sub 2} directly contacting with the photoresist and the ambient environment. Therefore, the contact property between the MoS{sub 2} and the electrodes is improved, and the Coulomb scattering caused by the charged impurities and the interface states is reduced. Comparing MoS{sub 2} FETs with and without a SiO{sub 2} protective layer, the SiO{sub 2} protective layer is found to enhance the characteristics of the MoS{sub 2} FETs, including transfer and output characteristics. A high mobility of ∼42.3 cm{sup 2}/V s is achieved, which is very large among the top-gate CVD-grown monolayer MoS{sub 2} FETs.

  2. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  3. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  4. Armored garment for protecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D [Albuquerque, NM; Brazfield, Richard [Albuquerque, NM; Lawrie, Catherine [Tijeras, NM; Lawrie, David [Tijeras, NM; Preece, Dale S [Watkins, CO

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  5. Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2006-01-01

    Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

  6. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  7. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  8. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 40-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Outer space structure and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, J.; Novikov, I.

    1975-01-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses. (J.K.)

  10. Outer space structure and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, J; Novikov, I

    1975-10-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses.

  11. Plasmas in the outer heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J. W.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.

    1995-01-01

    We review the observed properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere, including observations from Voyager and the Pioneers, as well as from inner heliospheric probes as appropriate. These observations are crucial to modeling of the heliosphere and its interactions with the interstellar medium, since the wind ram pressure and its temporal variations are important in understanding the distance to the termination shock and heliopause and how those boundaries might vary in time. We focus on results since Solar Wind 7. Among the issues we will discuss are: (1) the time scales for and statistical properties of variations in the ram pressure in the outer heliosphere, and how those variations might affect the morphology of the heliospheric/interstellar medium interface; (2) the question of possible solar wind slowing in the outer heliosphere due to the pick-up of interstellar ions; (3) the issue of whether there is bulk heating of the solar wind associated either with interstellar ion pick-up or with continued heating due to stream-stream interactions; (4) evidence for latitudinal variations in solar wind properties; and (5) the 1.3 year periodicities apparent in the outer heliosphere, and the close correspondence with similar variations seen with inner heliospheric probes.

  12. Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)

  13. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  14. THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF PATHOGENIC REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEPTOSPIRA GENIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Vaganova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pathogenic leptospires can infect wide spectrum of hosts and they can survive in the environment long time. The outer membrane is the cellular component participated in interaction of microorganisms and environment. In present time several proteins located in the outer membrane of leptospires which are responsible for colonization of host organism, protection from influence of immune system of host, transport of substances in to the cell and other processes have been described. The outer membrane contains proteins and lipopolysaccharide molecules which have citotoxic effect. It was shown that regulation of protein composition of membranes depends on several factors of environment such as temperature, osmolarity, presence of certain substances in environment. Lipopolysaccharide and protein molecules of outer membranes have antigenic properties. These molecules can be used in practice as the components of vaccine against leptospiroses and diagnostic tools. Current review summarize information concerning structural organization of the outer membrane of leptospires, diversities of incoming parts of molecules and regulation of their synthesis. Moreover, perspectives of practical using of the outer membrane components in diagnostics and prevention of leptospiroses are presented.

  15. Multilayered security and privacy protection in Car-to-X networks solutions from application down to physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Stübing, Hagen

    2013-01-01

    Car-to-X (C2X) communication in terms of Car-to-Car (C2C) and Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I) communication aims at increasing road safety and traffic efficiency by exchanging foresighted traffic information. Thereby, security and privacy are regarded as an absolute prerequisite for successfully establishing the C2X technology on the market. Towards the paramount objective of covering the entire ITS reference model with security and privacy measures, Hagen Stübing develops dedicated solutions for each layer, respectively. On application layer a security architecture in terms of a Public Key Infras

  16. Evaluation of self-healing ability in protective coatings modified with combinations of layered double hydroxides and cerium molibdate nanocontainers filled with corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemor, M.F.; Snihirova, D.V.; Taryba, M.G.; Lamaka, S.V.; Kartsonakis, I.A.; Balaskas, A.C.; Kordas, G.C.; Tedim, J.; Kuznetsova, A.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a strong demand on the search of thinner, but more effective organic coatings for corrosion protection of metallic substrates, like galvanised steel, used in the automotive industry. In order to guarantee effective corrosion protection of these coatings, and because chromate-based pigments cannot be used, one of the most attractive strategies consists on the modification of the organic matrix with nano-additives filled with corrosion inhibitors, which can be released to the active sites. In this work, two different nano-additives are explored as potential self-healing materials for the development of active protective coatings. These additives are layered double hydroxides and cerium molybdate hollow nanospheres loaded with mercaptobenzothiazole, as a corrosion inhibitor. These additives were added to epoxy primers, individually, or combining the two nanoadditives in the same layer. The electrochemical behaviour and the potential of self-healing ability were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique. The results reveal that both types of nanocontainers can provide effective corrosion inhibition on artificial induced defects, at different stages of the degradation process. Moreover, the results also show that there is a synergistic effect concerning corrosion inhibition and self-healing potential when a mixture of the two nanocontainers is used. The mechanism of self healing is presented and discussed in terms of effect of organic inhibitor and role of the nanocontainers, including effect of cerium ions released from cerium molibdate nanoparticles.

  17. Normal Mode Derived Models of the Physical Properties of Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's outer core, the largest reservoir of metal in our planet, is comprised of an iron alloy of an uncertain composition. Its dynamical behaviour is responsible for the generation of Earth's magnetic field, with convection driven both by thermal and chemical buoyancy fluxes. Existing models of the seismic velocity and density of the outer core exhibit some variation, and there are only a small number of models which aim to represent the outer core's density.It is therefore important that we develop a better understanding of the physical properties of the outer core. Though most of the outer core is likely to be well mixed, it is possible that the uppermost outer core is stably stratified: it may be enriched in light elements released during the growth of the solid, iron enriched, inner core; by elements dissolved from the mantle into the outer core; or by exsolution of compounds previously dissolved in the liquid metal which will eventually be swept into the mantle. The stratified layer may host MAC or Rossby waves and it could impede communication between the chemically differentiated mantle and outer core, including screening out some of the geodynamo's signal. We use normal mode center frequencies to estimate the physical properties of the outer core in a Bayesian framework. We estimate the mineral physical parameters needed to best produce velocity and density models of the outer core which are consistent with the normal mode observations. We require that our models satisfy realistic physical constraints. We create models of the outer core with and without a distinct uppermost layer and assess the importance of this region.Our normal mode-derived models are compared with observations of body waves which travel through the outer core. In particular, we consider SmKS waves which are especially sensitive to the uppermost outer core and are therefore an important way to understand the robustness of our models.

  18. Phase separated thermotropic layers based on UV cured acrylate resins. Effect of material formulation on overheating protection properties and application in a solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Katharina [Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Roseggerstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Wallner, Gernot M. [Institute of Materials Science and Testing of Plastics, University of Leoben, Franz-Josef Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Hausner, Robert [AEE - Institut fuer Nachhaltige Technologien (AEE-INTEC), Feldgasse 19, 8200 Gleisdorf (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This paper focuses on the effect of material composition on the overheating protection properties of thermotropic systems with fixed domains for solar thermal collectors. Numerous functional layers were prepared by a variation of base resin (polyester-, epoxy- or urethane-acrylate) and of thermotropic additives (non-polar and polar waxes) as well as by additive concentration (5 and 7 wt%). A detailed investigation of optical properties, switching temperature and switching process was performed applying UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. Thermal transitions of both the thermotropic layers and the additives used were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The capability of the produced thermotropic layers to reduce stagnation temperatures in an all-polymeric flat plate collector was evaluated by theoretical modeling. The thermotropic layers showed a hemispheric solar transmittance between 76% and 87% in clear state. Above the switching threshold this transmittance changed by 1-16% to values between 62% and 85%. The layers exhibited switching temperatures between 33 and 80 C. The transition is fully completed within a temperature frame of 10-25 C. Resin types with higher glass transition temperatures were detected to benefit the reduction of the hemispheric solar transmittance above the switching threshold. This reduction was also found to increase with increasing molecular weight of the non-polar additive types. The comparison of the switching performance with the thermal transitions of the additives revealed a good correlation. Theoretical modeling showed that by the use of selected thermotropic layers in the glazing the maximum absorber temperatures can be limited to temperatures below 130 C. (author)

  19. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  20. Growth and thermal oxidation of Ru and ZrO2 thin films as oxidation protective layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of physical and chemical processes occurring during growth and thermal oxidation of Ru and ZrO2 thin films. Acting as oxidation resistant capping materials to prevent oxidation of layers underneath, these films have several applications, i.e., in microelectronics

  1. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Aggressive or Protective Factor for the Retina? Evaluation of Macular Thickness and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers Using High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edvan de Souza-Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare macular thickness (MT and retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL between women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and healthy women. Materials and Methods. The study included 45 women with PCOS and 47 ovulatory women undergoing clinical-gynecological and ophthalmic evaluations, including measurement of MT, RNFL, and optic disc parameters using optical coherence tomography. Results. The superior RNFL around the optic nerve was significantly thicker in PCOS than in healthy volunteers (P=0.036. After stratification according to insulin resistance, the temporal inner macula (TIM, the inferior inner macula (IIM, the nasal inner macula (NIM, and the nasal outer macula (NOM were significantly thicker in PCOS group than in control group (P<0.05. Both the presence of obesity associated with insulin resistance (P=0.037 and glucose intolerance (P=0.001 were associated with significant increase in the PC1 mean score, relative to MT. A significant increase in the PC2 mean score occurred when considering the presence of metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001. There was a significant interaction between obesity and inflammation in a decreasing mean PC2 score relative to macular RNFL thickness (P=0.034. Conclusion. Decreased macular RNFL thickness and increased total MT are associated with metabolic abnormalities, while increased RNFL thickness around the optic nerve is associated with hormonal changes inherent in PCOS.

  2. 78 FR 40394 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the maritime public from the hazards... Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  4. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    appearance were examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). RESULTS: Both patients demonstrated photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata with reduced or extinct electroretinographic responses. Attenuation or complete loss...... of all the segments composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal...

  5. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2008-01-01

    examined using optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated perimetry and electroretinography (ERG). Both patients demonstrated photoreceptor atrophy corresponding to partial or complete scotomata with reduced or extinct electroretinographic responses. Attenuation or complete loss of all the segments...... composing the photoreceptor layer was found by OCT. Full-field ERG revealed affection of the 30 Hz flicker responses and subnormal photopic responses in both patients and subnormal scotopic responses in case 1. Multifocal electroretinography (mERG) revealed localized outer retinal dysfunction. The field...

  6. Dual-Layer Oxidation-Protective Plasma-Sprayed SiC-ZrB2/Al2O3-Carbon Nanotube Coating on Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariharan, S.; Sengupta, Pradyut; Nisar, Ambreen; Agnihotri, Ankur; Balaji, N.; Aruna, S. T.; Balani, Kantesh

    2017-02-01

    Graphite is used in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors because of its outstanding irradiation performance and corrosion resistance. To restrict its high-temperature (>873 K) oxidation, atmospheric-plasma-sprayed SiC-ZrB2-Al2O3-carbon nanotube (CNT) dual-layer coating was deposited on graphite substrate in this work. The effect of each layer was isolated by processing each component of the coating via spark plasma sintering followed by isothermal kinetic studies. Based on isothermal analysis and the presence of high residual thermal stress in the oxide scale, degradation appeared to be more severe in composites reinforced with CNTs. To avoid the complexity of analysis of composites, the high-temperature activation energy for oxidation was calculated for the single-phase materials only, yielding values of 11.8, 20.5, 43.5, and 4.5 kJ/mol for graphite, SiC, ZrB2, and CNT, respectively, with increased thermal stability for ZrB2 and SiC. These results were then used to evaluate the oxidation rate for the composites analytically. This study has broad implications for wider use of dual-layer (SiC-ZrB2/Al2O3) coatings for protecting graphite crucibles even at temperatures above 1073 K.

  7. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  8. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  9. Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.

  10. NMR structure of temporin-1 ta in lipopolysaccharide micelles: mechanistic insight into inactivation by outer membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Saravanan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs play important roles in the innate defense mechanism. The broad spectrum of activity of AMPs requires an efficient permeabilization of the bacterial outer and inner membranes. The outer leaflet of the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is made of a specialized lipid called lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The LPS layer is an efficient permeability barrier against anti-bacterial agents including AMPs. As a mode of protection, LPS can induce self associations of AMPs rendering them inactive. Temporins are a group of short-sized AMPs isolated from frog skin, and many of them are inactive against Gram negative bacteria as a result of their self-association in the LPS-outer membrane. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using NMR spectroscopy, we have determined atomic resolution structure and characterized localization of temporin-1Ta or TA (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-amide in LPS micelles. In LPS micelles, TA adopts helical conformation for residues L4-I12, while residues F1-L3 are found to be in extended conformations. The aromatic sidechain of residue F1 is involved in extensive packing interactions with the sidechains of residues P3, L4 and I5. Interestingly, a number of long-range NOE contacts have been detected between the N-terminal residues F1, P3 with the C-terminal residues S10, I12, L13 of TA in LPS micelles. Saturation transfer difference (STD NMR studies demonstrate close proximity of residues including F1, L2, P3, R7, S10 and L13 with the LPS micelles. Notably, the LPS bound structure of TA shows differences with the structures of TA determined in DPC and SDS detergent micelles. SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that TA, in LPS lipids, forms helical oligomeric structures employing N- and C-termini residues. Such oligomeric structures may not be translocated across the outer membrane; resulting in the inactivation of the AMP. Importantly, the results of our studies will be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents with a

  11. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF PROTECTION PROCESSES FOR SURFACE LAYER OF CONCRETE ROAD PAVING BY IMPREGNATING COMPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of concrete road paving which was started in the 30-ies of the last century in the United States has proved its perspectiveness from the viewpoint of service life. In addition to that an analysis of road usage has shown that concrete paving is a deformation tendency due to some reasons and the tendency entails some difficulties in their repair after rather long operation. The deformations appear more intensively after 5-10-year road operational period. The following negative effects are practically unavoidable: micro-crack formation, scaling, deformation due to freezing of angular edges in concrete plates, destruction of deformation joints etc. The defects are characterized by rather large scope and they are present practically on all the roads. It is necessary to note the fact that a great number of the above-mentioned defects can be avoided on the condition that measures on strengthening surface layer of concrete paving will be undertaken in time. The measures presuppose application of impregnating method while using compositions that contain hydrophobisator and silicon dioxide sol. Industry-produced potassium methyl siliconate, oligomethyl hydride siliconate, tetraethoxysilane have been used as hydrophobisator and they form not easily soluble film on the surface of concrete pores which prevents penetration of water into concrete. Calcium hydrate being formed in the dissolution and hydrolysis process of cement clinker minerals is bound in hydrosilicates which are contained in the solution impregnated by silicon dioxide sol. These hydrosilicates culmatate concrete pores and strengthen its surface layer due to additional hard phase and according to chemical composition it is related to calcium hydrosilicates formed as a result of concrete hardening.

  12. Alterations of the outer retina in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy detected using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Philipp; Brachert, Maike; Albrecht, Philipp; Ringelstein, Marius; Finis, David; Geerling, Gerd; Aktas, Orhan; Guthoff, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    A characteristic disease pattern may be reflected by retinal layer thickness changes in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy measured using spectraldomain optical coherence tomography. Retinal layer segmentation is enabled by advanced software. In this study, retinal layer thicknesses in acute and chronic non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy were compared. A single-centre cross-sectional analysis was used. A total of 27 patients (20 age-matched healthy eyes) were included: 14 with acute (optic neuropathy. Macular volume and 12° peripapillary ring optical coherence tomography scans were used. The peripapillary thicknesses of the following layers were determined by manual segmentation: retinal nerve fibres, ganglion cells + inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer + outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer + inner segments of the photoreceptors and outer segments of the photoreceptors to Bruch's membrane. Macular retinal layer thicknesses were automatically determined in volume cubes centred on the fovea. Peripapillary retinal swelling in acute nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy was attributable to retinal nerve fibre layer, ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer and outer nuclear layer/segments of the photoreceptors thickening. In chronic cases, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thinning were observed. In acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, the inner and outer peripapillary retinal layers are affected by thickness changes. In chronic cases, atrophy of the ganglion cells and their axons and dendrites is evident by inner retinal layer thinning. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Effect of the Surface Layer of Iron Casting on the Growth of Protective Coating During Hot-Dip Galvanizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopyciński D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of the growth of protective coating on the surface of ductile iron casting during the hot-dip galvanizing treatment. Ductile iron of the EN-GJS-600-3 grade was melted and two moulds made by different technologies were poured to obtain castings with different surface roughness parameters. After the determination of surface roughness, the hot-dip galvanizing treatment was carried out. Based on the results of investigations, the effect of casting surface roughness on the kinetics of the zinc coating growth was evaluated. It was found that surface roughness exerts an important effect on the thickness of produced zinc coating.

  14. High-velocity DC-VPS for diffusion and protecting barrier layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, R. H.; Franco, T.; Ruckdäschel, R.

    2006-12-01

    High-temperature fuel cells of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) type as direct converter of chemical into electrical energy show a high potential for reducing considerably the specific energy consumption in different application fields. Of particular interest are advanced lightweight planar cells for electricity supply units in cars and other mobile systems. Such cells, in one new design, consist mainly of metallic parts, for example, of ferrite steels. These cells shall operate in the temperature range of 700 to 800 °C where oxidation and diffusion processes can be of detrimental effect on cell performance for long-term operation. Problems arise in particular by diffusion of chromium species from the interconnect or the cell containment into the electrolyte/cathode interface forming insulating phases and by the mutual diffusion of substrate and anode material, for example, iron and chromium from the ferrite into the anode and nickel from the anode into the ferrite, which in both cases reduces performance and system lifetime. Additional intermediate layers of perovskite-type material, (e.g., doped LaCrO3) applied with high-velocity direct-current vacuum plasma spraying (DC-VPS) can reduce such effects considerably if they are stable and of high electronic conductivity.

  15. Highly Efficient Spin-to-Charge Current Conversion in Strained HgTe Surface States Protected by a HgCdTe Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, P.; Thomas, C.; Fu, Y.; Vila, L.; Haas, B.; Jouneau, P.-H.; Gambarelli, S.; Meunier, T.; Ballet, P.; Attané, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of spin-to-charge current conversion in strained mercury telluride at room temperature, using spin pumping experiments. We show that a HgCdTe barrier can be used to protect the HgTe from direct contact with the ferromagnet, leading to very high conversion rates, with inverse Edelstein lengths up to 2.0 ±0.5 nm . The influence of the HgTe layer thickness on the conversion efficiency is found to differ strongly from what is expected in spin Hall effect systems. These measurements, associated with the temperature dependence of the resistivity, suggest that these high conversion rates are due to the spin momentum locking property of HgTe surface states.

  16. Pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 for solid oxide fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Anshu, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalliguem 534101 (India); Prasad, Muvva D. [UGC Networking Centre, School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India. Phone:+91-40-23134382, Fax:+91-40-23010227 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The growth and oxidation study of pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 substrate for solid oxide fuel cell application is demonstrated. MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been achieved in three different ways including, deposition at higher substrate temperature (700°C), and deposition at room temperature on pre-oxidized and untreated SS430 substrate followed by annealing at 700°C for 2 hrs. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to demonstrate the kind of phases developed in each case. These three samples were subjected to heat treatment at 750°C for 5 hr. The extent of undesired Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase formation in the post deposition heat treated samples is discussed based on Raman spectroscopic results.

  17. Influence of Bath Composition at Acidic pH on Electrodeposition of Nickel-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites for Corrosion Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-layered silicates were electrochemically deposited from acidic bath solutions. Citrate was used as a ligand to stabilize nickel (II ions in the plating solution. The silicate, montmorillonite, was exfoliated by stirring in aqueous solution over 24 hours. The plating solutions were analyzed for zeta-potential, particle size, viscosity, and conductivity to investigate the effects of the composition at various pHs. The solution particles at pH 2.5 (−22.2 mV and pH 3.0 (−21.9 mV were more stable than at pH 1.6 (−10.1 mV as shown by zeta-potential analysis of the nickel-citrate-montmorillonite plating solution. Ecorr for the films ranged from −0.32 to −0.39 V with varying pH from 1.6 to 3.0. The films were immersed in 3.5% NaCl and the open circuit potential monitored for one month. The coatings deposited at pH 3.0 were stable 13 days longer in the salt solution than the other coatings. X-ray diffraction showed a change in the (111/(200 ratio for the coatings at the various pHs. The scanning electron microscopy and hardness results also support that the electrodeposition of nickel-montmorillonite at pH 3.0 (234 GPa had improved hardness and morphology compared to pH 2.5 (174 GPa and pH 1.6 (147 GPa.

  18. Pore-Size-Tuned Graphene Oxide Frameworks as Ion-Selective and Protective Layers on Hydrocarbon Membranes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Choi, Junghoon; Choi, Chanyong; Heo, Jiyun; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2018-05-07

    The laminated structure of graphene oxide (GO) membranes provides exceptional ion-separation properties due to the regular interlayer spacing ( d) between laminate layers. However, a larger effective pore size of the laminate immersed in water (∼11.1 Å) than the hydrated diameter of vanadium ions (>6.0 Å) prevents its use in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRFB). In this work, we report an ion-selective graphene oxide framework (GOF) with a d tuned by cross-linking the GO nanosheets. Its effective pore size (∼5.9 Å) excludes vanadium ions by size but allows proton conduction. The GOF membrane is employed as a protective layer to address the poor chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) membranes against VO 2 + in VRFB. By effectively blocking vanadium ions, the GOF/SPAES membrane exhibits vanadium-ion permeability 4.2 times lower and a durability 5 times longer than that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the VRFB with the GOF/SPAES membrane achieves an energy efficiency of 89% at 80 mA cm -2 and a capacity retention of 88% even after 400 cycles, far exceeding results for Nafion 115 and demonstrating its practical applicability for VRFB.

  19. Application of Sol-Gel Method as a Protective Layer on a Specular Reflective Surface for Secondary Reflector in a Solar Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afrin, Samia; Dagdelen, John; Ma, Zhiwen; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Highly-specular reflective surfaces that can withstand elevated-temperatures are desirable for many applications including reflective heat shielding in solar receivers and secondary reflectors, which can be used between primary concentrators and heat collectors. A high-efficiency, high-temperature solar receiver design based on arrays of cavities needs a highly-specular reflective surface on its front section to help sunlight penetrate into the absorber tubes for effective flux spreading. Since this application is for high-temperature solar receivers, this surface needs to be durable and to maintain its optical properties through the usable life. Degradation mechanisms associated with elevated temperatures and thermal cycling, which include cracking, delamination, corrosion/oxidation, and environmental effects, could cause the optical properties of surfaces to degrade rapidly in these conditions. Protected mirror surfaces for these applications have been tested by depositing a thin layer of SiO2 on top of electrodeposited silver by means of the sol-gel method. To obtain an effective thin film structure, this sol-gel procedure has been investigated extensively by varying process parameters that affect film porosity and thickness. Endurance tests have been performed in a furnace at 150 degrees C for thousands of hours. This paper presents the sol-gel process for intermediate-temperature specular reflective coatings and provides the long-term reliability test results of sol-gel protected silver-coated surfaces.

  20. Studies on the performance of TiO{sub 2} thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malliga, P. [Department of Physics, V.V.Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Selvi, B. Karunai [Department of Botany, V.V.Vanniaperumal College for Women, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N. [Nanoscience Lab, Department of Physics, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar – 626001 (India); Neyvasagam, K., E-mail: srineyvas@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai - 625011 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2} were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO{sub 2} has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO{sub 2} thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO{sub 2} thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants.

  1. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malliga, P.; Selvi, B. Karunai; Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Neyvasagam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO 2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO 2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO 2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants

  2. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  3. Detailed Performance of the Outer Tracker at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Tuning, N

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance in terms of the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. Details on the ionization length and subtle effects regarding signal reflections and the subsequent time-walk correction are given. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um, depending on the detailed implementation of the internal alignment of individual detector modules. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  4. Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanotubes as Biomimetic Nanoreactors for Calcium Carbonate Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Möhwald, Helmuth; Li, Junbai

    2009-09-17

    Enzyme-loaded magnetic polyelectrolyte multilayer nanotubes prepared by layer-by-layer assembly combined with the porous template could be used as biomimetic nanoreactors. It is demonstrated that calcium carbonate can be biomimetically synthesized inside the cavities of the polyelectrolyte nanotubes by the catalysis of urease, and the size of the calcium carbonate precipitates was controlled by the cavity dimensions. The metastable structure of the calcium carbonate precipitates inside the nanotubes was protected by the outer shell of the polyelectrolyte multilayers. These features may allow polyelectrolyte nanotubes to be applied in the fields of nanomaterials synthesis, controlled release, and drug delivery. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Solution-deposited F:SnO₂/TiO₂ as a base-stable protective layer and antireflective coating for microtextured buried-junction H₂-evolving Si photocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Matthew G; Enman, Lisa J; Gurnon, Nicholas J; Nadarajah, Athavan; Boettcher, Shannon W

    2014-12-24

    Protecting Si photocathodes from corrosion is important for developing tandem water-splitting devices operating in basic media. We show that textured commercial Si-pn(+) photovoltaics protected by solution-processed semiconducting/conducting oxides (plausibly suitable for scalable manufacturing) and coupled to thin layers of Ir yield high-performance H2-evolving photocathodes in base. They also serve as excellent test structures to understand corrosion mechanisms and optimize interfacial electrical contacts between various functional layers. Solution-deposited TiO2 protects Si-pn(+) junctions from corrosion for ∼24 h in base, whereas junctions protected by F:SnO2 fail after only 1 h of electrochemical cycling. Interface layers consisting of Ti metal and/or the highly doped F:SnO2 between the Si and TiO2 reduce Si-emitter/oxide/catalyst contact resistance and thus increase fill factor and efficiency. Controlling the oxide thickness led to record photocurrents near 35 mA cm(-2) at 0 V vs RHE and photocathode efficiencies up to 10.9% in the best cells. Degradation, however, was not completely suppressed. We demonstrate that performance degrades by two mechanisms, (1) deposition of impurities onto the thin catalyst layers, even from high-purity base, and (2) catastrophic failure via pinholes in the oxide layers after several days of operation. These results provide insight into the design of hydrogen-evolving photoelectrodes in basic conditions, and highlight challenges.

  6. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  7. Early photoreceptor outer segment loss and retinoschisis in Cohen syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyhazi, Katherine E; Binenbaum, Gil; Carducci, Nicholas; Zackai, Elaine H; Aleman, Tomas S

    2018-06-01

    To describe early structural and functional retinal changes in a patient with Cohen syndrome. A 13-month-old Caucasian girl of Irish and Spanish ancestry was noted to have micrognathia and laryngomalacia at birth, which prompted a genetic evaluation that revealed biallelic deletions in COH1 (VPS13B) (a maternally inherited 60-kb deletion involving exons 26-32 and a paternally inherited 3.5-kb deletion within exon 17) consistent with Cohen syndrome. She underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography and retinal imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Central vision was central, steady, and maintained. There was bilateral myopic astigmatic refractive error. Fundus exam was notable for dark foveolar pigmentation, but no obvious abnormalities of either eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross sections through the fovea revealed a normal appearing photoreceptor outer nuclear layer but loss of the interdigitation signal between the photoreceptor outer segments and the apical retinal pigment epithelium. Retinoschisis involving the inner nuclear layer of both eyes and possible ganglion cell layer thinning were also noted. There was a detectable electroretinogram with similarly reduced amplitudes of rod- (white, 0.01 cd.s.m -2 ) and cone-mediated (3 cd.s.m -2 , 30 Hz) responses. Photoreceptor outer segment abnormalities and retinoschisis may represent the earliest structural retinal change detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography in patients with Cohen syndrome, suggesting a complex pathophysiology with primary involvement of the photoreceptor cilium and disorganization of the structural integrity of the inner retina.

  8. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  9. Comparison of the cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of atomic-layer-deposited alumina and titania ultrathin protective coatings deposited at 200 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Sadeghi-Tohidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of ultrathin protective coatings on silicon thin films were investigated. The cohesive and delamination fatigue properties of 22 nm-thick atomic-layered-deposited (ALD titania were characterized and compared to that of 25 nm-thick alumina. Both coatings were deposited at 200 °C. The fatigue rates are comparable at 30 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH while they are one order of magnitude larger for alumina compared to titania at 80 °C, 90% RH. The improved fatigue performance is believed to be related to the improved stability of the ALD titania coating with water compared to ALD alumina, which may in part be related to the fact that ALD titania is crystalline, while ALD alumina is amorphous. Static fatigue crack nucleation and propagation was not observed. The underlying fatigue mechanism is different from previously documented mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking, and appears to result from the presence of compressive stresses and a rough coating–substrate interface.

  10. 2D MoS2 as an efficient protective layer for lithium metal anodes in high-performance Li-S batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunho; Patel, Mumukshu D.; Park, Juhong; Hwang, Jeongwoon; Prasad, Vish; Cho, Kyeongjae; Choi, Wonbong

    2018-04-01

    Among the candidates to replace Li-ion batteries, Li-S cells are an attractive option as their energy density is about five times higher ( 2,600 Wh kg-1). The success of Li-S cells depends in large part on the utilization of metallic Li as anode material. Metallic lithium, however, is prone to grow parasitic dendrites and is highly reactive to several electrolytes; moreover, Li-S cells with metallic Li are also susceptible to polysulfides dissolution. Here, we show that 10-nm-thick two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 can act as a protective layer for Li-metal anodes, greatly improving the performances of Li-S batteries. In particular, we observe stable Li electrodeposition and the suppression of dendrite nucleation sites. The deposition and dissolution process of a symmetric MoS2-coated Li-metal cell operates at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 with low voltage hysteresis and a threefold improvement in cycle life compared with using bare Li-metal. In a Li-S full-cell configuration, using the MoS2-coated Li as anode and a 3D carbon nanotube-sulfur cathode, we obtain a specific energy density of 589 Wh kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 98% for over 1,200 cycles at 0.5 C. Our approach could lead to the realization of high energy density and safe Li-metal-based batteries.

  11. Protective effect of surface layer proteins isolated from four Lactobacillus strains on hydrogen-peroxide-induced HT-29 cells oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin-Bin; Meng, Jun; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Kang, Ting-Ting; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the antioxidant effect of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) and their mechanism. We investigated four SLPs which were extracted from L. casei zhang, L. rhamnosus, L. gasseri and L. acidophilus NCFM respectively using LiCl. The protective effect of SLPs on H 2 O 2 -induced HT-29 cells oxidative injury was investigated. As results, SLPs (100μg/mL) could significantly mitigate HT-29 cells cytotoxicity, improve the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), decrease the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), compared with H 2 O 2 -induced group (Pproteins of caspase-3 and caspase-9 (Pcells induced by H 2 O 2 , and the mechanism could be attributed to SLPs' ability to enhance the activity of the intracellular antioxidant enzyme system, reduce ROS accumulation and to inhibit apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane.......Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...

  13. ACUTE ZONAL OCCULT OUTER RETINOPATHY: Structural and Functional Analysis Across the Transition Zone Between Healthy and Diseased Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Tobias; Lee, Winston; Jiang, Fan; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Hood, Donald C; Tsang, Stephen H; Sparrow, Janet R; Greenstein, Vivienne C

    2018-01-01

    To assess structure and function across the transition zone (TZ) between relatively healthy and diseased retina in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. Six patients (6 eyes; age 22-71 years) with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy were studied. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, near-infrared reflectance, color fundus photography, and fundus perimetry were performed and images were registered to each other. The retinal layers of the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography scans were segmented and the thicknesses of two outer retinal layers, that is, the total receptor and outer segment plus layers, and the retinal nerve fiber layer were measured. All eyes showed a TZ on multimodal imaging. On spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, the TZ was in the nasal retina at varying distances from the fovea. For all eyes, it was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band, significant thinning of the two outer retinal layers, and in three eyes with thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer. On fundus autofluorescence, all eyes had a clearly demarcated peripapillary area of abnormal fundus autofluorescence delimited by a border of high autofluorescence; the latter was associated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band and with a change from relatively normal to markedly decreased or nonrecordable visual sensitivity on fundus perimetry. The results of multimodal imaging clarified the TZ in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy. The TZ was outlined by a distinct high autofluorescence border that correlated with loss of the ellipsoid zone band on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. However, in fundus areas that seemed healthy on fundus autofluorescence, thinning of the outer retinal layers and thickening of the retinal nerve fiber layer were observed near the TZ. The TZ was also characterized by a decrease in visual sensitivity.

  14. Low-Outgassing Photogrammetry Targets for Use in Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jason N.; Sampler, Henry; Reed, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    A short document discusses an investigation of materials for photogrammetry targets for highly sensitive optical scientific instruments to be operated in outer space and in an outer-space-environment- simulating thermal vacuum chamber on Earth. A key consideration in the selection of photogrammetry-target materials for vacuum environments is the need to prevent contamination that could degrade the optical responses of the instruments. Therefore, in addition to the high levels and uniformity of reflectivity required of photogrammetry-target materials suitable for use in air, the materials sought must exhibit minimal outgassing. Commercially available photogrammetry targets were found to outgas excessively under the thermal and vacuum conditions of interest; this finding prompted the investigators to consider optically equivalent or superior, lower-outgassing alternative target materials. The document lists several materials found to satisfy the requirements, but does not state explicitly whether the materials can be used individually or must be combined in the proper sequence into layered target structures. The materials in question are an aluminized polyimide tape, an acrylic pressure- sensitive adhesive, a 500-A-thick layer of vapor-deposited aluminum, and spherical barium titanate glass beads having various diameters from 20 to 63 microns..

  15. Protection conferred by recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (rHVT-H5) vaccine in the rearing period in two commercial layer chicken breeds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Walid; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Selim, Abdullah; Tripodi, Astrid; Samy, Mohamed; Sobhy, Heba; VonDobschuetz, Sophie; Safwat, Marwa; Saad, Mona; Erfan, Ahmed; Hassan, Mohamed; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 10(6) median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended.

  16. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  17. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  18. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Model Research On Synthesis Of Al2O3-C Layers By MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawka A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available These are model studies whose aim is to obtain information that would allow development of new technology for synthesizing monolayers of Al2O3-C with adjusted microstructure on cemented carbides. The Al2O3-C layer will constitute an intermediate layer on which the outer layer of Al2O3 without carbon is synthesized. The purpose of the intermediate layer is to block the cobalt diffusion to the synthesized outer layer of Al2O3 and to stop the diffusion of air oxygen to the substrate during the synthesis of the outer layer. This layer should be thin, continuous, dense and uniform in thickness.

  20. General Corrosion and Localized Corrosion of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    2004-10-01

    The waste package design for the License Application is a double-wall waste package underneath a protective drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169480]). The purpose and scope of this model report is to document models for general and localized corrosion of the waste package outer barrier (WPOB) to be used in evaluating waste package performance. The WPOB is constructed of Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), a highly corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy. The inner vessel of the waste package is constructed of Stainless Steel Type 316 (UNS S31600). Before it fails, the Alloy 22 WPOB protects the Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel from exposure to the external environment and any significant degradation. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner vessel provides structural stability to the thinner Alloy 22 WPOB. Although the waste package inner vessel would also provide some performance for waste containment and potentially decrease the rate of radionuclide transport after WPOB breach before it fails, the potential performance of the inner vessel is far less than that of the more corrosion-resistant Alloy 22 WPOB. For this reason, the corrosion performance of the waste package inner vessel is conservatively ignored in this report and the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Treatment of seismic and igneous events and their consequences on waste package outer barrier performance are not specifically discussed in this report, although the general and localized corrosion models developed in this report are suitable for use in these scenarios. The localized corrosion processes considered in this report are pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking is discussed in ''Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169985]).

  1. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  2. Large thermal protection system panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  3. Earth's Outer Core Properties Estimated Using Bayesian Inversion of Normal Mode Eigenfrequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, J. C. E.; Cottaar, S.; Lekic, V.

    2016-12-01

    The outer core is arguably Earth's most dynamic region, and consists of an iron-nickel liquid with an unknown combination of lighter alloying elements. Frequencies of Earth's normal modes provide the strongest constraints on the radial profiles of compressional wavespeed, VΦ, and density, ρ, in the outer core. Recent great earthquakes have yielded new normal mode measurements; however, mineral physics experiments and calculations are often compared to the Preliminary reference Earth model (PREM), which is 35 years old and does not provide uncertainties. Here we investigate the thermo-elastic properties of the outer core using Earth's free oscillations and a Bayesian framework. To estimate radial structure of the outer core and its uncertainties, we choose to exploit recent datasets of normal mode centre frequencies. Under the self-coupling approximation, centre frequencies are unaffected by lateral heterogeneities in the Earth, for example in the mantle. Normal modes are sensitive to both VΦ and ρ in the outer core, with each mode's specific sensitivity depending on its eigenfunctions. We include a priori bounds on outer core models that ensure compatibility with measurements of mass and moment of inertia. We use Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques to explore different choices in parameterizing the outer core, each of which represents different a priori constraints. We test how results vary (1) assuming a smooth polynomial parametrization, (2) allowing for structure close to the outer core's boundaries, (3) assuming an Equation-of-State and adiabaticity and inverting directly for thermo-elastic parameters. In the second approach we recognize that the outer core may have distinct regions close to the core-mantle and inner core boundaries and investigate models which parameterize the well mixed outer core separately from these two layers. In the last approach we seek to map the uncertainties directly into thermo-elastic parameters including the bulk

  4. Influence of Ce{sup 3+} doping on molecular organization of Si-based organic/inorganic sol-gel layers for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedel, Michele, E-mail: michele.fedel@unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Callone, Emanuela [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); “K. Müller” Magnetic Resonance Lab, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Fabbian, Matias; Deflorian, Flavio [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Dirè, Sandra [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); “K. Müller” Magnetic Resonance Lab, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} ions promote a decrease of the degree of condensation of the silsesquioxane network. • Ce{sup 3+} ions affect ladder and cages like structures formation in the silsesquioxane network. • Ce{sup 3+} ions do not significantly affect the barrier properties of the coatings. • [Ce{sup 3+}] ≈ 5·10{sup −4} M provides the sol-gel film with an effective passivating potential. - Abstract: In this work, organosilane-derived sol-gel films containing different amounts of cerium ions applied on AA 1050 were investigated. The sol-gel coatings were prepared from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) mixtures with the addition of cerium nitrate in order to achieve different concentrations of Ce ions (from 10{sup −5} M to 10{sup −2} M). The effect of the cerium load on the structure of the cured sol-gel films was investigated by means of solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The corrosion protection properties of the different sol-gel layers were investigated mainly by means potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FT-IR and solid state NMR suggested a significant influence of the Ce cations on the network structure: not only the degree of condensation decreases with Ce addition but also the structural modification of the silsesquioxane network is observed with preferential formation of ladder-like species for low Ce{sup 3+} content and cages predominance for Ce/Si molar ratio greater than 0.039, i.e. [Ce{sup 3+}] = 1·10{sup −4} M. Electrochemical tests revealed that the effect of Ce ions on the structure of the coatings does not lead to remarkable changes in the barrier properties. Moreover, it was found that the Ce ions seems to be present in the cured films and are able to migrate towards the metal/coating interface thus providing a stabilization of the metal interface.

  5. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  6. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  7. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  8. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  9. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

  10. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  11. Differential Response to Heat Stress in Outer and Inner Onion Bulb Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsurker, Ortal; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Daus, Avinoam; Lers, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2018-05-18

    Brown protective skin formation in onion bulbs can be induced by rapid postharvest heat treatment. Onions that were peeled to different depths and were exposed to heat stress showed that only the outer scale formed dry brown skin, whereas the inner scales maintained high water content and did not change color. Our results reveal that browning of the outer scale during heat treatment is due to an enzymatic process that is associated with high levels of oxidation components, such as peroxidase and quercetin glucoside. De-novo transcriptome analysis revealed differential molecular responses of the outer and inner scales to the heat stress. Genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidation pathways and cell-wall modification were highly expressed in the outer scale during heating. Defense-response-related genes such as those encoding heat-shock proteins, antioxidative stress defense or production of osmoprotectant metabolites were mostly induced in the inner scale in response to the heat exposure. These transcriptomic data led to a conceptual model that suggests sequential processes for browning development and desiccation of the outer scales versus processes associated with defense response and heat tolerance in the inner scale. Thus, the observed physiological differences between the outer and inner scales is supported by the identified molecular differences.

  12. 大黄鱼三种病原弧菌外膜蛋白交叉保护性抗原筛选%Selection of cross-protective antigens from outer membrane proteins of three pathogenic vibrios isolated from infected large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇文; 毛芝娟; 于涟

    2012-01-01

    . parahaemolyticus and one V. alginolyticus by physiological, biochemical and molecular biological methods. Their outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were extracted and the SDS-PAGE and Western blotting results show that three immuno-blots with common molecular weight presented at approximate 45 kDa, 35 kDa and 22 kDa on their OMP electrophoretogram, indicating the existence of antigens with cross-protection in their OMPs. With the aids of combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-D) and Western blotting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), a deduced porin (GenBank Accession No. ZP01260407) from V. alginolyticus and a maltoporin precursor (GenBank Accession No. NP801154) from V. parahaemolyticus were able to react with polyclonal antibody to whole V. harveyi, suggesting these two proteins could act as the cross-protective antigens and the vaccines prepared with these porins would be probable to bring cross protection to three different vibrios.

  13. TEM/STEM study of Zircaloy-2 with protective FeAl(Cr) layers under simulated BWR environment and high-temperature steam exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghee; Mouche, Peter A.; Zhong, Weicheng; Mandapaka, Kiran K.; Was, Gary S.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2018-04-01

    FeAl(Cr) thin-film depositions on Zircaloy-2 were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with respect to oxidation behavior under simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions and high-temperature steam. Columnar grains of FeAl with Cr in solid solution were formed on Zircaloy-2 coupons using magnetron sputtering. NiFe2O4 precipitates on the surface of the FeAl(Cr) coatings were observed after the sample was exposed to the simulated BWR environment. High-temperature steam exposure resulted in grain growth and consumption of the FeAl(Cr) layer, but no delamination at the interface. Outward Al diffusion from the FeAl(Cr) layer occurred during high-temperature steam exposure (700 °C for 3.6 h) to form a 100-nm-thick alumina oxide layer, which was effective in mitigating oxidation of the Zircaloy-2 coupons. Zr intermetallic precipitates formed near the FeAl(Cr) layer due to the inward diffusion of Fe and Al. The counterflow of vacancies in response to the Al and Fe diffusion led to porosity within the FeAl(Cr) layer.

  14. Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    space NPS are significantly different from those for terrestrial nuclear systems and are not addressed in safety guidance for terrestrial nuclear applications. After a period of initial discussion and preparation, the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed in 2007 to jointly draft a safety framework for NPS applications in outer space. This partnership integrated the expertise of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee in the use of space NPS with the well-established procedures of IAEA for developing safety standards pertaining to nuclear safety of terrestrial applications. The Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Applications in Outer Space represents a technical consensus of both bodies. The Safety Framework is intended to be utilized as a guide for national purposes. As such, it provides voluntary guidance and is not legally binding under international law. The Safety Framework is not a publication in the IAEA Safety Standards Series, but it is intended to complement the Safety Standards Series by providing high-level guidance that addresses unique nuclear safety considerations for relevant launch, operation and end-of-service mission phases of space NPS applications. It complements existing national and international safety guidance and standards pertaining to terrestrial activities that involve the design, manufacture, testing and transportation of space NPS. The Safety Framework has been developed with due consideration of relevant principles and treaties. The Safety Framework does not supplement, alter or interpret any of those principles or treaties. The focus of the Safety Framework is the protection of people and the environment in Earth's biosphere from potential hazards associated with relevant launch, operation and end-of-service mission phases of space NPS applications. The protection of humans in space is an area of

  15. 75 FR 19880 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER at Walker Ridge 249, Outer Continental Shelf FPSO, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, at Walker Ridge 249 in the Outer Continental Shelf. The purpose of the safety zone is to protect the FPSO from vessels operating... reduces the threat of allisions, oil spills, and releases of natural gas, and thereby protects the safety...

  16. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  17. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  18. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  19. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  20. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  1. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  2. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  3. Application of waterproof breathable fabric in thermal protective clothing exposed to hot water and steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Li, R.; Song, G.; Li, J.

    2017-10-01

    A hot water and steam tester was used to examine thermal protective performance of waterproof and breathable fabric against hot water and steam hazards. Time to cause skin burn and thermal energy absorbed by skin during exposure and cooling phases was employed to characterize the effect of configuration, placing order and properties of waterproof and breathable fabric on the thermal protective performance. The difference of thermal protective performance due to hot water and steam hazards was discussed. The result showed that the configuration of waterproof and breathable fabric presented a significant effect on the thermal protective performance of single- and double-layer fabric system, while the difference between different configurations in steam hazard was greater than that in hot water hazard. The waterproof and breathable fabric as outer layer provided better protection than that as inner layer. Increasing thickness and moisture regain improved the thermal protective performance of fabric system. Additionally, the thermal energy absorbed by skin during the cooling phase was affected by configuration, thickness and moisture regain of fabric. The findings will provide technical data to improve performance of thermal protective clothing in hot water and steam hazards.

  4. Formation and Role of Gel Fractions in the Corrosion Layer of Zirconium Cladding as the First-stage Protection of the Nuclear Power Plant Fuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Vrtílková, V.; Bláhová, O.; Maixner, J.

    -, č. 16 (2007), s. 29-38 ISSN 1214-9691 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/04/0043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : zirconium alloys * corrosion layer * hydrated ZrO2 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. Inner-outer predictive wall model for wall-bounded turbulence in hypersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. Pino; Helm, Clara M.

    2017-11-01

    The inner-outer predictive wall model of Mathis et al. is modified for hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The model is based on a modulation of the energized motions in the inner layer by large scale momentum fluctuations in the logarithmic layer. Using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of turbulent boundary layers with free stream Mach number 3 to 10, it is shown that the variation of the fluid properties in the compressible flows leads to large Reynolds number (Re) effects in the outer layer and facilitate the modulation observed in high Re incompressible flows. The modulation effect by the large scale increases with increasing free-stream Mach number. The model is extended to include spanwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations and is generalized through Morkovin scaling. Temperature fluctuations are modeled using an appropriate Reynolds Analogy. Density fluctuations are calculated using an equation of state and a scaling with Mach number. DNS data are used to obtain the universal signal and parameters. The model is tested by using the universal signal to reproduce the flow conditions of Mach 3 and Mach 7 turbulent boundary layer DNS data and comparing turbulence statistics between the modeled flow and the DNS data. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant FA9550-17-1-0104.

  6. Manufacturing and assembly of the plasma- and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Hein@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Cardella, Antonio; Hermann, Dieter; Hansen, Andreas [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Leher, Franz; Binni, Andreas; Segl, Juergen [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE Deggendorf, Werftstrasse 17, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Wendelstein 7-X is an advanced helical stellarator, which is presently under construction at the Greifswald branch of IPP. A set of 70 superconducting coils arranged in five modules provides a twisted shaped magnetic cage for the plasma and allows steady state operation. Operation of the magnet system at cryogenic temperatures requires a cryostat which provides thermal protection and gives access to the plasma. The main components of the cryostat are the plasma vessel, the outer vessel, the ports, and the thermal insulation. The German company, MAN Diesel and Turbo SE Deggendorf (former MAN DWE GmbH Deggendorf), is responsible for the manufacture and assembly of the plasma vessel, the outer vessel and the thermal insulation. This paper describes the manufacturing and assembly technology of the plasma and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X.

  7. Manufacturing and assembly of the plasma- and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Bernd; Cardella, Antonio; Hermann, Dieter; Hansen, Andreas; Leher, Franz; Binni, Andreas; Segl, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Wendelstein 7-X is an advanced helical stellarator, which is presently under construction at the Greifswald branch of IPP. A set of 70 superconducting coils arranged in five modules provides a twisted shaped magnetic cage for the plasma and allows steady state operation. Operation of the magnet system at cryogenic temperatures requires a cryostat which provides thermal protection and gives access to the plasma. The main components of the cryostat are the plasma vessel, the outer vessel, the ports, and the thermal insulation. The German company, MAN Diesel and Turbo SE Deggendorf (former MAN DWE GmbH Deggendorf), is responsible for the manufacture and assembly of the plasma vessel, the outer vessel and the thermal insulation. This paper describes the manufacturing and assembly technology of the plasma and outer vessel of the cryostat for Wendelstein 7-X.

  8. Lightning Protection for Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, G. O.

    1985-01-01

    Lightning protection system consisting of two layers of aluminum foil separated by layer of dielectric material protects graphite/epoxy composite structures on aircraft. Protective layer is secondarily applied lightning protection system, prime advantage of which is nullification of thermal and right angle effect of lightning arc attachment to graphite/epoxy laminate.

  9. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  10. The Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 protein is secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Brittany K; Voegel, Tanja; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a gram-negative, xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in a variety of economically important agricultural crops including Pierce's disease of grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa biofilms formed in the xylem vessels of plants play a key role in early colonization and pathogenicity by providing a protected niche and enhanced cell survival. Here we investigate the role of Xylella fastidiosa PD1063, the predicted ortholog of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968, which encodes an outer membrane protein. To assess the function of the Xylella fastidiosa ortholog, we created Xylella fastidiosa mutants deleted for PD1063 and then assessed biofilm formation, cell-cell aggregation and cell growth in vitro. We also assessed disease severity and pathogen titers in grapevines mechanically inoculated with the Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 mutant. We found a significant decrease in cell-cell aggregation among PD1063 mutants but no differences in cell growth, biofilm formation, disease severity or titers in planta. Based on the demonstration that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO_03968 encodes an outer membrane protein, secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles, we predicted that PD1063 would also be secreted in a similar manner. Using anti-PD1063 antibodies, we found PD1063 in the supernatant and secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles. PD1063 purified from the supernatant, outer membrane fractions and outer membrane vesicles was 19.2 kD, corresponding to the predicted size of the processed protein. Our findings suggest Xylella fastidiosa PD1063 is not essential for development of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera grapevines although further research is required to determine the function of the PD1063 outer membrane protein in Xylella fastidiosa.

  11. Corrosion protective performance of amino trimethylene phosphonic acid-metal complex layers fabricated on the cold-rolled steel substrate via one-step assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ru; He, Wei; Zhai, Tianhua; Ma, Houyi

    2018-06-01

    Seeing that amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) possesses very strong complexation ability to metal ions and the phosphonic acid group has good affinity for the oxidized iron surface, herein a simple and rapid film-forming method (one-step assembly method) was developed to construct the ATMP-Zn complex conversion layers (ATMP-Zn layers for short) on the cold-rolled steel (CRS) substrate. Zinc ions were found to participate in the formation process of ATMP-based composite film, which made the Zn-containing ATMP film significantly different in appearance, thickness, microstructure and film-forming mechanisms from the Zn-free ATMP film. There was mainly iron (ш) phosphonate in the Zn-free ATMP film, whereas there were Zn2+-ATMP complex and a certain amount of ZnO in the ATMP-Zn composite film. In addition, electrochemical test results clearly indicate that corrosion resistance of ATMP-Zn composite film was greatly enhanced due to the presence of Zn component. Moreover, the corrosion resistance performance could be controlled by adjusting film-forming time, pH and ATMP concentration in the film-forming solutions. The present study provides a new method for the design and fabrication of high-quality environmentally-friendly conversion layers.

  12. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  13. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  14. Inner and Outer Life at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human...... development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work...

  15. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  16. Simultaneous protection of organic p- and n-channels in complementary inverter from aging and bias-stress by DNA-base guanine/Al2O3 double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyeong; Hwang, Hyuncheol; Min, Sung-Wook; Shin, Jae Min; Kim, Jin Sung; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-28

    Although organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have various advantages of lightweight, low-cost, mechanical flexibility, and nowadays even higher mobility than amorphous Si-based FET, stability issue under bias and ambient condition critically hinder its practical application. One of the most detrimental effects on organic layer comes from penetrated atmospheric species such as oxygen and water. To solve such degradation problems, several molecular engineering tactics are introduced: forming a kinetic barrier, lowering the level of molecule orbitals, and increasing the band gap. However, direct passivation of organic channels, the most promising strategy, has not been reported as often as other methods. Here, we resolved the ambient stability issues of p-type (heptazole)/or n-type (PTCDI-C13) OFETs and their bias-stability issues at once, using DNA-base small molecule guanine (C5H5N5O)/Al2O3 bilayer. The guanine protects the organic channels as buffer/and H getter layer between the channels and capping Al2O3, whereas the oxide capping resists ambient molecules. As a result, both p-type and n-type OFETs are simultaneously protected from gate-bias stress and 30 days-long ambient aging, finally demonstrating a highly stable, high-gain complementary-type logic inverter.

  17. Methods for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film for solid state electrolytes and protective electrode coatings for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Meng, Xiangbo

    2018-03-13

    A method for using atomic layer deposition to produce a film configured for use in an anode, cathode, or solid state electrolyte of a lithium-ion battery or a lithium-sulfur battery. The method includes repeating a cycle for a predetermined number of times in an inert atmosphere. The cycle includes exposing a substrate to a first precursor, purging the substrate with inert gas, exposing the substrate to a second precursor, and purging the substrate with inert gas. The film is a metal sulfide.

  18. Numerical simulations of the stratified oceanic bottom boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John R.

    Numerical simulations are used to consider several problems relevant to the turbulent oceanic bottom boundary layer. In the first study, stratified open channel flow is considered with thermal boundary conditions chosen to approximate a shallow sea. Specifically, a constant heat flux is applied at the free surface and the lower wall is assumed to be adiabatic. When the surface heat flux is strong, turbulent upwellings of low speed fluid from near the lower wall are inhibited by the stable stratification. Subsequent studies consider a stratified bottom Ekman layer over a non-sloping lower wall. The influence of the free surface is removed by using an open boundary condition at the top of the computational domain. Particular attention is paid to the influence of the outer layer stratification on the boundary layer structure. When the density field is initialized with a linear profile, a turbulent mixed layer forms near the wall, which is separated from the outer layer by a strongly stable pycnocline. It is found that the bottom stress is not strongly affected by the outer layer stratification. However, stratification reduces turbulent transport to the outer layer and strongly limits the boundary layer height. The mean shear at the top of the boundary layer is enhanced when the outer layer is stratified, and this shear is strong enough to cause intermittent instabilities above the pycnocline. Turbulence-generated internal gravity waves are observed in the outer layer with a relatively narrow frequency range. An explanation for frequency content of these waves is proposed, starting with an observed broad-banded turbulent spectrum and invoking linear viscous decay to explain the preferential damping of low and high frequency waves. During the course of this work, an open-source computational fluid dynamics code has been developed with a number of advanced features including scalar advection, subgrid-scale models for large-eddy simulation, and distributed memory

  19. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  20. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  1. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  2. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  3. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  4. Exploring the interaction network of the Bacillus subtilis outer coat and crust proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajčíková, Daniela; Forgáč, Vladimír; Szabo, Adam; Barák, Imrich

    2017-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores, representatives of an exceptionally resistant dormant cell type, are encircled by a thick proteinaceous layer called the spore coat. More than 80 proteins assemble into four distinct coat layers: a basement layer, an inner coat, an outer coat and a crust. As the spore develops inside the mother cell, spore coat proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm are gradually deposited onto the prespore surface. A small set of morphogenetic proteins necessary for spore coat morphogenesis are thought to form a scaffold to which the rest of the coat proteins are attached. Extensive localization and proteomic studies using wild type and mutant spores have revealed the arrangement of individual proteins within the spore coat layers. In this study we examined the interactions between the proteins localized to the outer coat and crust using a bacterial two hybrid system. These two layers are composed of at least 25 components. Self-interactions were observed for most proteins and numerous novel interactions were identified. The most interesting contacts are those made with the morphogenetic proteins CotE, CotY and CotZ; these could serve as a basis for understanding the specific roles of particular proteins in spore coat morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. A protective layer formation in saturated solution of sulfohydric acid in water at pH = 4.43. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzoni, P.; Burkart, A.L.; Garavaglia, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    As complement to the experiences on carbon steel passivation for its use in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water production plants, the results herein obtained are given, processing the material with a saturated solution at 2.3 MPa of full pressure and 125 temperature degree of H 2 S in NaOH 5 x 10 -3 M, which, at an equilibrium point, the pH is 4.43. The characteristics, the composition and adherence to the layer formed and the corrosion velocity data are analyzed. (Author) [es

  6. Post-heat treatment of arc-sprayed coating prepared by the wires combination of Mg-cathode and Al-anode to form protective intermetallic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rongzheng; Song Gang

    2011-01-01

    A Mg-Al intermetallic compounds coating was prepared on the surface of Mg-steel lap joint by arc-sprayed Al-Mg composite coating (Mg-cathode and Al-anode) and its post-heat treatment (PHT). The effect of PHT temperature on the phase transition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coating was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscope and microhardness test. The result shows that the intermetallic compounds layer that is mainly composed of Al 3 Mg 2 and Mg 17 Al 12 is formed by the self-diffusion reaction of Mg and Al splats in the coating after PHT for 4 h at 430 deg. C.

  7. Stability of the calcium hydroxyzincate protective layer developed on galvanized reinforcements after a further increase of the pH value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade, C.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works on galvanized reinforcements in contact with Ca- containing highly alkaline media, the authors have reported the existence of a threshold pH of 13,3 ± 0,1, below which the Zn in contact with such a medium is passivated by formation of a continuous layer of calcium hydroxyzincate, but at pH values above this it corrodes continuously until it totally disappears. The investigation on the stability of the calcium hydroxyzincate layer after an increase of the pH to very high alkaline values, is the aim of the present paper. It has been establised that if the calcium hydroxyzincate is perfectly developed, a later increase of the pH does not affect the stability.

    En trabajos anteriores que estudian el comportamiento de armaduras galvanizadas en contacto con medios muy alcalinos que contienen calcio, los autores han señalado la existencia de un umbral de pH = 13,3 ±0,1 por debajo del cual el Zn en contacto con tales medios se pasiva por formación de una capa continua de hidroxizincato calcico, mientras que para valores de pH superiores se corroe continuamente hasta su total desaparición. Establecer la estabilidad del recubrimiento protector de hidroxizincato calcico a un aumento de pH a valores muy alcalinos posterior a su formación, es el objetivo del presente artículo. Como resultado de las investigaciones realizadas ha podido concluirse que si el recubrimiento de hidroxizincato cálcico se ha desarrollado perfectamente, un posterior incremento del pH del medio no afecta su estabilidad.

  8. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  9. Ageing of the LHCb outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, M R; Tuning, N

    2009-01-01

    The modules of the LHCb outer tracker have shown to suffer severe gain loss under moderate irradiation. This process is called ageing. Ageing of the modules results from contamination of the gas system by glue, araldite AY 103-1, used in their construction. In this thesis the ageing process will be shown. The schemes known to reduce, reverse, or prevent ageing have been investigated to determine their effect on the detector performance. The addition of O2 to the gas mixture lowers the detector response by an acceptable amount and does not affect the gas transport properties significantly. The ageing rate is decreased after extensive flushing and HV training could eventually repair the irradiation damage. The risks of HV training have been assessed. Furthermore, several gaseous and aquatic additions have been tested for their capability to prevent, or moderate ageing, but none showed significant improvement.

  10. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth close-quote s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.copyright 1997 American Geophysical Union

  11. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  12. New configuration for efficient and durable copper coating on the outer surface of a tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A well-adhered copper coating on stainless steel power coupler parts is required in superconducting radio frequency (SRF accelerators. Radio frequency power coupler parts are complex, tubelike stainless steel structures, which require copper coating on their outer and inner surfaces. Conventional copper electroplating sometimes produces films with inadequate adhesion strength for SRF applications. Electroplating also requires a thin nickel strike layer under the copper coating, whose magnetic properties can be detrimental to SRF applications. Coaxial energetic deposition (CED and sputtering methods have demonstrated efficient conformal coating on the inner surfaces of tubes but coating the outer surface of a tube is challenging because these coating methods are line of sight. When the substrate is off axis and the plasma source is on axis, only a small section of the substrate’s outer surface is exposed to the source cathode. The conventional approach is to rotate the tube to achieve uniformity across the outer surface. This method results in poor film thickness uniformity and wastes most of the source plasma. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC has developed a novel configuration called hollow external cathode CED (HEC-CED to overcome these issues. HEC-CED produces a film with uniform thickness and efficiently uses all eroded source material. The Cu film deposited on the outside of a stainless steel tube using the new HEC-CED configuration survived a high pressure water rinse adhesion test. HEC-CED can be used to coat the outside of any cylindrical structure.

  13. AC losses for the various voltage-leads in a semi-triple layer BSCCO conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Ryu, K.; Hwang, S.D.; Cha, G.; Song, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer. Voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses. In order to investigate the AC loss of the multilayer conductor in a high temperature superconductor cable, a voltage-lead was generally attached to the outermost layer of the conductor. But the conductor's AC loss has not been completely cleared due to the various contact positions and arrangements of the voltage-lead. In this paper, we prepared a semi-triple layer conductor consisting of an inner layer and an outer layer with double layer structure. To measure the AC loss of the conductor, two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer and arranged along their surfaces, as well as another voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The results show that the AC losses for each layer measured from the inner-lead and the outer-lead, respectively, are identical to the sum of the wire losses. The AC losses in the semi-triple layer conductor measured from the total-lead and the outer-lead are identical for the uniform layer current density, and similar to the sum of the wire losses in both layers. However, the losses measured for the non-uniform layer current density from three voltage-leads are unequal to each other, and the loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses.

  14. Role of Outer Membrane Vesicles of Bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    tion and protection of the bacterial cells from various stress factors. Recent ... role of a pathogen inside the body of plants and animals. The secretion of proteins ..... peroxide (which imparts oxidative stress inside the bacterial cell). Unlike what ...

  15. Coenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schipani, Christian; Bergamini, Christian; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate if coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis and, when instilled as eye drops on the cornea, if it can reach the retina and exert its antiapoptotic activity in this area in a mouse model of kainate (KA)-induced retinal damage. Rat primary or cultured RGCs were subjected to glutamate (50 μM) or chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A, 200 μM) or serum withdrawal (FBS, 0.5%) in the presence or absence of CoQ10 (10 μM). Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrion depolarization tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester analysis. CoQ10 transfer to the retina following its instillation as eye drops on the cornea was quantified by HPLC. Retinal protection by CoQ10 (10 μM) eye drops instilled on the cornea was then evaluated in a mouse model of KA-induced excitotoxic retinal cell apoptosis by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistofluorescence, caspase 3/7 activity assays, and quantification of inhibition of RGC loss. CoQ10 significantly increased viable cells by preventing RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, when topically applied as eye drops to the cornea, it reached the retina, thus substantially increasing local CoQ10 concentration and protecting retinal layers from apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 eye drops to protect retinal cells from apoptosis in the mouse model of KA-induced retinal damage suggests that topical CoQ10 may be evaluated in designing therapies for treating apoptosis-driven retinopathies.

  16. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H.; Nahalparvari, H.

    2005-01-01

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN) 6 4- and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement

  17. Linear stability of resistive MHD modes: axisymmetric toroidal computation of the outer region matching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Bondeson, A.; Dewar, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    The quest to determine accurately the stability of tearing and resistive interchange modes in two-dimensional toroidal geometry led to the development of the PEST-3 code, which is based on solving the singular, zero-frequency ideal MHD equation in the plasma bulk and determining the outer data Δ', Γ' and A' needed to match the outer region solutions to those arising in the inner layers. No assumption regarding the aspect ratio, the number of rational surfaces or the pressure are made a priori. This approach is numerically less demanding than solving the full set of resistive equations, and has the major advantage of non-MHD theories of the non-ideal layers. Good convergence is ensured by the variational Galerkin scheme used to compute the outer matching data. To validate the code, we focus on the growth rate calculations of resistive kink modes which are reproduced in good agreement with those obtained by the full resistive MHD code MARS. (author) 11 figs., 27 refs

  18. Restoration of outer segments of foveal photoreceptors after resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Yumiko; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamashiro, Kenji; Ooto, Sotaro; Tamura, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2010-01-01

    To study morphologically and functionally the prognosis of damaged outer segments of the foveal photoreceptor layer in eyes with resolved central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). We studied retrospectively the medical records of 70 patients (74 eyes) with resolved CSC. Optical coherence tomography was used to detect the junctions between inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors (IS/OS) as a hallmark of the integrity of the outer photoreceptor layer. In 53 eyes (71.6%), the IS/OS line was clearly detected beneath the fovea immediately after resolution of the retinal detachment, with good visual acuity (VA). In the remaining 21 eyes (28.4%), however, the foveal IS/OS line could not be detected shortly after resolution of CSC, and VA was variable, ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 (median, 0.9). Of these 21 eyes, 15 had a follow-up examination with OCT, and in four the foveal IS/OS line was not detected at the follow-up and vision in these eyes remained poor. However, nine eyes showed recovery of the foveal IS/OS line during follow-up, and these eyes had substantial visual recovery. Immediately after resolution of active CSC, although the IS/OS line cannot be detected beneath the fovea, it often shows restoration over time, with visual recovery, though in some eyes no restoration takes place and the prognosis remains poor.

  19. Direct force-reflecting two-layer approach for passive bilateral teleoperation with time delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.; Saccon, A.; Beerens, R.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a two-layer control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with communication delays. The controller is structured with an (inner) performance layer and an (outer) passivity layer. In the performance layer, any traditional controller for bilateral teleoperation can be implemented. The

  20. A two-layer architecture for force-reflecting bilateral teleoperation with time delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, D.J.F.; Saccon, A.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a two-layer control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with communication delays. The controller is structured with an (outer) performance layer and an (inner) passivity layer. In the performance layer, any traditional controller for bilateral teleoperation can be implemented. In

  1. Will Outer Tropical Cyclone Size Change due to Anthropogenic Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, B. A.; Lin, N.; Chavas, D. R.; Vecchi, G. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown significant interbasin and intrabasin variability in outer tropical cyclone (TC) size. Moreover, outer TC size has even been shown to vary substantially over the lifetime of the majority of TCs. However, the factors responsible for both setting initial outer TC size and determining its evolution throughout the TC lifetime remain uncertain. Given these gaps in our physical understanding, there remains uncertainty in how outer TC size will change, if at all, due to anthropogenic warming. The present study seeks to quantify whether outer TC size will change significantly in response to anthropogenic warming using data from a high-resolution global climate model and a regional hurricane model. Similar to prior work, the outer TC size metric used in this study is the radius in which the azimuthal-mean surface azimuthal wind equals 8 m/s. The initial results from the high-resolution global climate model data suggest that the distribution of outer TC size shifts significantly towards larger values in each global TC basin during future climates, as revealed by 1) statistically significant increase of the median outer TC size by 5-10% (p<0.05) according to a 1,000-sample bootstrap resampling approach with replacement and 2) statistically significant differences between distributions of outer TC size from current and future climate simulations as shown using two-sample Kolmogorov Smirnov testing (p<<0.01). Additional analysis of the high-resolution global climate model data reveals that outer TC size does not uniformly increase within each basin in future climates, but rather shows substantial locational dependence. Future work will incorporate the regional mesoscale hurricane model data to help focus on identifying the source of the spatial variability in outer TC size increases within each basin during future climates and, more importantly, why outer TC size changes in response to anthropogenic warming.

  2. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: pournaghiazar@tabrizu.ac.ir; Nahalparvari, H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Stress-Relief Effects of Protective Layer Extraction / Symulacja numeryczna skutków odprężenia warstwy zabezpieczającej w trakcie jej wybierania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian-Rang, Jia; Zi-Min, Zhang; Chun-An, Tang; Yong-Jun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Field test and laboratory analog model test on the stress-relief effects of protective layer extraction are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, on the basis of full consideration of rock heterogeinity and in combination with gas geology at Pingdingshan Mine 5, a numerical model was estalished with the gas-solid coupling rock failure process analysis system RFPA-Gas to simulate the stress variation law, roof and floor deformation, fracture evolution law, displacement in the protected seam, change in gas permeability and gas migration law during protective layer extraction. The simulation results repoduced stress variations in coal and rock strata, roof and floor deformation and fracture evolution process during protective layer extraction. The movement of rock strata were characterized by upper three zones and lower two zones: caving zone, fracture zone and bending subsidence zone in the vertical direction in the overlying strata; floor deformation and failure zone and elasto-plastic deformation zone in the vertical direction in the underlying strata. It showed that stress relief occurred in the protected seam, which led to vertical and horizontal displacements, significant increase in gas permeability, gas desorption and migration. Hence, the outburst threat in the protected seam was eliminated. Meanwhile, with comprehensive analysis of variaition of stress state, deformation characteristics and fracture distribution in coal seam and with consideration of changes in gas leakage rate, gas pressure and permeability, according to gas leakage rate, the floor strata of the protecive layer were divided into four leakage zones. They corresponded to four zones with different stress states and fracture development: original leakage zone - slow reducing leakage zone - dramatic increasing leakage zone- steady increasing leakage zone. This classification provides a clear direction for gas control in the protective layer. The simulation results are in good agreement

  4. Reflective article having a sacrificial cathodic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Buchanan, Michael J.; Scott, Matthew S.; Rearick, Brian K.; Medwick, Paul A.; McCamy, James W.

    2017-09-12

    The present invention relates to reflective articles, such as solar mirrors, that include a sacrificial cathodic layer. The reflective article, more particularly includes a substrate, such as glass, having a multi-layered coating thereon that includes a lead-free sacrificial cathodic layer. The sacrificial cathodic layer includes at least one transition metal, such as a particulate transition metal, which can be in the form of flakes (e.g., zinc flakes). The sacrificial cathodic layer can include an inorganic matrix formed from one or more organo-titanates. Alternatively, the sacrificial cathodic layer can include an organic polymer matrix (e.g., a crosslinked organic polymer matrix formed from an organic polymer and an aminoplast crosslinking agent). The reflective article also includes an outer organic polymer coating, that can be electrodeposited over the sacrificial cathodic layer.

  5. 77 FR 1019 - Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental Shelf-Acquire a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ...-0045] RIN 1010-AD79 Renewable Energy Alternate Uses of Existing Facilities on the Outer Continental... rule related to acquiring a lease non-competitively for offshore renewable energy projects. DATES... or Timothy Redding, Renewable Energy, BOEM, at (703) 787-1219 or email [email protected

  6. 76 FR 48861 - Notice of Issuance of Final Outer Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Continental Shelf Air Permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... final Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) air permit for Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Anadarko). The permit... Petroleum Corporation regarding the project. EPA carefully reviewed each of the comments submitted and...

  7. Interplay between edge and outer core fluctuations in the tokamak Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Capes, H.; Devynck, P.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the tokamak Tore Supra, when a poloidally and toroidally localized limiter, called a modular limiter, is introduced into the lower part of the scrape-off layer, density fluctuations located in the vicinity of this limiter present a specific feature with the appearance of a new spectral pattern in the associated frequency spectrum. This leads to a strong up-down asymmetry observed in both the plasma edge and the plasma outer core, with a maximum level of turbulence at the bottom of the plasma. The observed asymmetry characteristics show that magnetic connection lengths play a critical role here and that the limiter configuration has some effect on the outer core turbulence. (author)

  8. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins’ key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins. PMID:28416660

  10. Fluorescence spectral properties of outer antenna LHC II

    CERN Document Server

    He Jun Fang; Zhang, Shu; He Fang Tao; Ren Zhao You; Li Liang Bi; Kuang Ting Yun

    2002-01-01

    Outer antenna LHC II acts to absorb and transfer energy for photosynthesis. The authors studied the fluorescence properties of LHC II of spinach with scanning imaging fluorescence spectroscopy. After it had been excited by 514.5 nm laser, the integral fluorescence spectrum of LHC II was detected. It was shown that energy transfer existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll. Seven bands of LHC II fluorescence emission were resolved by Gauss combination, viz. 656.7, 664.6, 671.5, 677.2, 683.5, 689.6, 695.3 nm, and the percentages of them were 3.0%, 13.1%,13.3%, 21.1%, 13.2%, 33.3%, 3.0% respectively. The emission of 658.7 nm was attributed to chlorophyll b, the other emission bands were produced by chlorophyll a molecules with the maximum absorption 662, 670/671, 676, 680 nm and over 690 nm. The band 656.7 nm, whose percentage was 3.0%, shows that the most energy was absorbed by chlorophyll a. The percentage of band 689.6 nm was the most, which was possibly correlated with one type of self protective mechanism o...

  11. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2017-05-02

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a permeability barrier and an intrinsic antibiotic resistance factor. Lipoproteins are OM components that function in cell wall synthesis, diverse secretion systems, and antibiotic efflux pumps. Moreover, each of the essential OM machines that assemble the barrier requires one or more lipoproteins. This dependence is thought to explain the essentiality of the periplasmic chaperone LolA and its OM receptor LolB that traffic lipoproteins to the OM. However, we show that in strains lacking substrates that are toxic when mislocalized, both LolA and LolB can be completely bypassed by activating an envelope stress response without compromising trafficking of essential lipoproteins. We identify the Cpx stress response as a monitor of lipoprotein trafficking tasked with protecting the cell from mislocalized lipoproteins. Moreover, our findings reveal that an alternate trafficking pathway exists that can, under certain conditions, bypass the functions of LolA and LolB, implying that these proteins do not perform any truly essential mechanistic steps in lipoprotein trafficking. Instead, these proteins' key function is to prevent lethal accumulation of mislocalized lipoproteins.

  12. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  13. The properties of the outer membrane localized Lipid A transporter LptD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haarmann, Raimund; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Stevanovic, Mara; Bredemeier, Rolf; Schleiff, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall including the outer membrane. The outer membrane is composed of two distinct monolayers where the outer layer contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS) with the non-phospholipid Lipid A as the core. The synthesis of Lipid A is initiated in the cytosol and thereby the molecule has to be transported across the inner and outer membranes. The β-barrel lipopolysaccharide-assembly protein D (LptD) was discovered to be involved in the transfer of Lipid A into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. At present the molecular procedure of lipid transfer across the outer membrane remains unknown. Here we approached the functionality of the transfer system by an electrophysiological analysis of the outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli named ecLptD. In vitro the protein shows cation selectivity and has an estimated pore diameter of about 1.8 nm. Addition of Lipid A induces a transition of the open state to a sub-conductance state with two independent off-rates, which might suggest that LptD is able to bind and transport the molecule in vitro. To generalize our findings with respect to the Lipid A transport system of other Gram-negative bacteria we have explored the existence of the proteins involved in this pathway by bioinformatic means. We were able to identify the membrane-inserted components of the Lipid A transport system in all Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the periplasmic components appear to be species-specific. The LptD proteins of different bacteria are characterized by their periplasmic N-terminal domain and a C-terminal barrel region. The latter shows distinct sequence properties, particularly in LptD proteins of cyanobacteria, and this specific domain can be found in plant proteins as well. By electrophysiological experiments on LptD from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 we are able to confirm the functional relation of anaLptD to Lipid A transport.

  14. Martian Low-Aspect-Ratio Layered Ejecta (LARLE) craters: Distribution, characteristics, and relationship to pedestal craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Boyce, Joseph M.; Cornwall, Carin

    2014-09-01

    Low-Aspect-Ratio Layered Ejecta (LARLE) craters are a unique landform found on Mars. LARLE craters are characterized by a crater and normal layered ejecta pattern surrounded by an extensive but thin outer deposit which terminates in a sinuous, almost flame-like morphology. We have conducted a survey to identify all LARLE craters ⩾1-km-diameter within the ±75° latitude zone and to determine their morphologic and morphometric characteristics. The survey reveals 140 LARLE craters, with the majority (91%) located poleward of 40°S and 35°N and all occurring within thick mantles of fine-grained deposits which are likely ice-rich. LARLE craters range in diameter from the cut-off limit of 1 km up to 12.2 km, with 83% being smaller than 5 km. The radius of the outer LARLE deposit displays a linear trend with the crater radius and is greatest at higher polar latitudes. The LARLE deposit ranges in length between 2.56 and 14.81 crater radii in average extent, with maximum length extending up to 21.4 crater radii. The LARLE layer is very sinuous, with lobateness values ranging between 1.45 and 4.35. LARLE craters display a number of characteristics in common with pedestal craters and we propose that pedestal craters are eroded versions of LARLE craters. The distribution and characteristics of the LARLE craters lead us to propose that impact excavation into ice-rich fine-grained deposits produces a dusty base surge cloud (like those produced by explosion craters) that deposits dust and ice particles to create the LARLE layers. Salts emplaced by upward migration of water through the LARLE deposit produce a surficial duricrust layer which protects the deposit from immediate removal by eolian processes.

  15. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  16. Outer space and nuclear deterrence: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini Alves, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation deals with the role of outer-space applications and prospects for near future developments in nuclear deterrence. Outer space capabilities of United Sates, Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, and United Kingdom as well as other states are analyzed. Conceptual problems of offensive and defensive doctrines are reviewed together with legal implications

  17. Long-Lived Glass Mirrors For Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.; Heggen, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Paper summarizes available knowledge about glass mirrors for use in outer space. Strengths and weaknesses of various types of first and second reflective surfaces identified. Second-surface glass mirrors used in outer space designed to different criteria more stringent for terrestrial mirrors. Protons, electrons, cosmic rays, meteorites, and orbiting space debris affect longevities of components. Contamination also factor in space.

  18. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  19. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kieselbach

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT and leukotoxin (LtxA into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease.

  20. Investigation of the thermal behavior of 2 1/2 ton cylinder protective overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    UF 6 cylinders containing reactor grade enriched uranium are transported in protective overpacks. Recently, the design of the 2 1/2 ton UF 6 cylinder overpack was modified to insure the safety of the cylinder inside the overpack. Modifications include a continuous stainless steel liner from the outer surface to the inner surface of the overpack and step joints between the upper and lower halves of the overpack. The effects of a continuous stainless steel liner and moisture in the insulation layer of a UF 6 cylinder protective overpack were investigated with a numerical code. Results were compared with limited available field data. The purpose of comparing the numerical results with field data is to insure the validity of the numerical analysis and the physical properties used in the analysis. The study indicates that the continuous stainless steel liner did not influence the heat transfer rate much from the outer surface of the overpack to the 30B cylinder inside. The effect of step joints was not modeled due to the difficulty of quantifying the leakage rate through the gap. With a continuous stainless steel liner from the outside of the overpack to the inside, the overpack satisfies the thermal design criteria of protecting the cylinder inside for a minimum of 30 minutes when the overpack is exposed to a fire. The effect of moisture inside the insulation layer in the overpack is to reduce the energy to the cylinder with its high thermal capacity. The high pressure steam generated from the moisture will be relieved externally through the vent holes on the outer surface of the overpack. Although these holes are sealed after the overpack is dried, the plug sealing the holes will melt when the overpack is exposed to a fire

  1. Reinforcement of Bacillus subtilis spores by cross-linking of outer coat proteins during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas; Pandey, Rachna; Ter Beek, Alexander; Brul, Stanley; de Koning, Leo J; de Koster, Chris G

    2015-02-01

    Resistance characteristics of bacterial endospores towards various environmental stresses such as chemicals and heat are in part attributed to their coat proteins. Heat resistance is developed in a late stage of sporulation and during maturation of released spores. Using our gel-free proteomic approach and LC-FT-ICR-MS/MS analysis we have monitored the efficiency of the tryptic digestion of proteins in the coat during spore maturation over a period of eight days, using metabolically (15)N labeled mature spores as reference. The results showed that during spore maturation the loss of digestion efficiency of outer coat and crust proteins synchronized with the increase in heat resistance. This implicates that spore maturation involves chemical cross-linking of outer coat and crust layer proteins leaving the inner coat layer proteins unmodified. It appears that digestion efficiencies of spore surface proteins can be linked to their location within the coat and crust layers. We also attempted to study a possible link between spore maturation and the observed heterogeneity in spore germination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electroplating offers embrittlement protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Thin copper electrodeposited layer protects metal parts in environments with which they may be incompatible. Originally developed for main engine of Space Shuttle where high strength nickle alloy bellows must operate in high-pressure hydrogen, technique protects nickel and is unaffected by forming process or subsequent heat treatment and preinstallation processing.

  3. Atmospheric chemistry and transport modeling in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Tai (Anthony)

    2001-11-01

    This thesis consists of 1-D and 2-D photochemical- dynamical modeling in the upper atmospheres of outer planets. For 1-D modeling, a unified hydrocarbon photochemical model has been studied in Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan, by comparing with the Voyager observations, and the recent measurements of methyl radicals by ISO in Saturn and Neptune. The CH3 observation implies a kinetically sensitive test to the measured and estimated hydrocarbon rate constants at low temperatures. We identify the key reactions that control the concentrations of CH3 in the model, such as the three-body recombination reaction, CH3 + CH3 + M --> C 2H6 + M, and the recycling reaction H + CH3 + M --> CH4 + M. The results show reasonable agreement with ISO values. In Chapter 4, the detection of PH3 in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere of Jupiter has provided a photochemical- dynamical coupling model to derive the eddy diffusion coefficient in the upper troposphere of Jupiter. Using a two-layers photochemical model with updated photodissociation cross-sections and chemical rate constants for NH3 and PH 3, we find that the upper tropospheric eddy diffusion coefficient 106 cm2 sec-1, are required to match the derived PH3 vertical profile by the observation. The best-fit functional form derivation of eddy diffusion coefficient in the upper troposphere of Jupiter above 400 mbar is K = 2.0 × 104 (n/2.2 × 1019)-0.5 cm 2 sec-1. On the other hand, Chapter 5 demonstrates a dynamical-only 2-D model of C2H6 providing a complete test for the current 2-D transport models in Jovian lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (270 to 0.1 mbar pressure levels). Different combinations of residual advection, horizontal eddy dispersion, and vertical eddy mixing are examined at different latitudes.

  4. Characterization of corrosion resistant on NiCoCr coating layer exposed to 5%NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, E.; Sundawa, R.; Desiati, R. D.; Zaini, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Highly corrosion resistant of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was applied in corrosive of marine environtment. Carbon steel coated NiCoCr was prepared by a two step technique of NiCo electro-deposition and Cr pack cementation. The samples were exposed to 5 wt.% NaCl for 48 and 168 hours. The microstructure and corrosion product were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr was found to be better than that of carbon steel substrate without coating. The results showed the microstructure of 48 h corroded sample has duplex layer composed of inner α-(Ni,Co), α-Cr and outer Cr2O3, while a quite thin and continues protective oxide of Cr2O3 was observed in outer layer of 168 h corroded sample. The formation of oxide scale rich in Cr2O3 has contributed for the better corrosion resistance of carbon steel coated NiCoCr, whereas the formation of non protective oxide of iron might caused low corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrate.

  5. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel working in areas or engaged in activities where there is a reasonable probability...

  6. 33 CFR 142.30 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 142.30 Section 142.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel in areas where there is a hazard of falling objects or of contact with electrical...

  7. Prevention of an arms race in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The space age may be the to have begun in 1957, when for the first time a man-made object was lofted into orbit round the Earth. Since that date, the new problems of outer space have been discussed in the United Nations, particularly in the General Assembly, in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies, and in the Conference on Disarmament. The discussions have contributed to the conclusion of a number of international agreements concerning both military and peaceful aspects of the use of outer space. This paper reports that according to the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, known as the outer space Treaty, outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means (article II), and the parties undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of ass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner (article IV). Detailed norms for States' actions in this environment are included in the 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies to ensure that the Moon and other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than Earth, are used exclusively for peaceful purposes

  8. Defects in the outer limiting membrane are associated with rosette development in the Nrl-/- retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W Stuck

    Full Text Available The neural retinal leucine zipper (Nrl knockout mouse is a widely used model to study cone photoreceptor development, physiology, and molecular biology in the absence of rods. In the Nrl(-/- retina, rods are converted into functional cone-like cells. The Nrl(-/- retina is characterized by large undulations of the outer nuclear layer (ONL commonly known as rosettes. Here we explore the mechanism of rosette development in the Nrl(-/- retina. We report that rosettes first appear at postnatal day (P8, and that the structure of nascent rosettes is morphologically distinct from what is seen in the adult retina. The lumen of these nascent rosettes contains a population of aberrant cells protruding into the subretinal space that induce infolding of the ONL. Morphologically adult rosettes do not contain any cell bodies and are first detected at P15. The cells found in nascent rosettes are photoreceptors in origin but lack inner and outer segments. We show that the adherens junctions between photoreceptors and Müller glia which comprise the retinal outer limiting membrane (OLM are not uniformly formed in the Nrl(-/- retina and thus allow protrusion of a population of developing photoreceptors into the subretinal space where their maturation becomes delayed. These data suggest that the rosettes of the Nrl(-/- retina arise due to defects in the OLM and delayed maturation of a subset of photoreceptors, and that rods may play an important role in the proper formation of the OLM.

  9. The outer tracker detector of the HERA-B experiment. Pt. 3. Operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Bauer, T.S.; Utrecht Univ.; Beck, M.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper we describe the operation and performance of the HERA-B Outer Tracker, a 112674 channel system of planar drift tube layers. The performance of the HERA-B Outer Tracker system fullfilled all requirements for stable and efficient operation in a hadronic environment, thus confirming the adequacy of the honeycomb drift tube technology and of the front-end readout system. The detector was stably operated with a gas gain of 3 . 10 4 in an Ar/CF 4 /CO 2 (65:35:5) gas mixture, yielding a good efficiency for triggering and track reconstruction, larger than 95 % for tracks with momenta above 5 GeV/c. The hit resolution of the drift cells was 300 to 320 μm and the relative momentum resolution can be described as: σ(p)/p(%) = (1.61 ± 0.02) + (0.0051 ± 0.0006) . p. At the end of the HERA-B running no aging effects in the Outer Tracker cells were observed. (orig.)

  10. Aging of vacuum plasma sprayed MCrAlY protective layers and their interaction with nickel- and cobalt-based γ/γ'-superalloys; Alterung von Vakuum-plasmagespritzten MCrAlY-Schutzschichten und ihre Wechselwirkung mit Nickel- und Cobalt-basierten γ/γ'-Superlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terberger, Philipp J.

    2015-07-01

    γ/γ' single crystal superalloys with plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems are used as turbine rotor blades in gas turbines if the blades are exposed to high temperatures and high mechanical loads. A bond coat (BC) is part of the thermal barrier coating system. It protects the substrate from oxidation and ensures good bonding of the ceramic coating that serves as a thermal insulator. MCrAlY (M=Ni,Co) alloys are commonly used as BCs. They form a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This study investigates four different vacuum plasma-sprayed MCrAlY BCs with and without Re after thermal treatment of up to 1000 h at 1044 C in air. The employed substrates are the Ni-based superalloy ERBO1 and the novel Co-based γ/γ' superalloy ERBOCo-1. Additionally, the ternary γ/γ' alloy Co-9Al-9W (in at.%) was aged with a BC for up to 500 h at 900 C. Up to now little is known about the interaction of the Co-based substrates and the BCs. Oxidation and Al depletion of the BC as well as the interdiffusion of BCs and substrates are analysed primarily on the basis of SEM/EDX and XRD. The effect of Y and Hf on the microstructure of the oxide scale is discussed. Rate constants show that Hf results in higher oxidation rates while Re slows down the oxidation. The influence of the alloying elements on the BC microstructure is described. For example, Co prevents the formation of γ' phase, Re slows down diffusion and results in the formation of brittle phases. The choice of substrate material has no measurable influence on the oxidation. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) shows that the choice of substrate surface pre-treatment (grit blasting or grinding) has a major influence on the interdiffusion behaviour with the BC. Grinding results in a thinner IDZ and fewer topologically closed packed (TCP) phases. The reason for this is the recrystallisation of the single crystal substrate. A study of the influence of the substrate

  11. Ultrasonic examination of defects close to the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Serre, M.; Champigny, F.

    1986-11-01

    During the examination of a pressurized water reactor vessel with an in Service Inspection Machine (MIS), various welds are scanned with immersion ultrasonic focused transducers from the inside of the vessel. Defects close to the outer surface are sometimes detected, and sizing with the successive 6 dB drop method leads to oversize some indications; this is caused by various reflections on the outer wall; the corner echo is of particular importance here. CEA and EDF have started an experimental program in order to study the response of volumetric and planar defects located near the outer surface. We present here the first results obtained with artificial defects. 2 refs

  12. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  13. Effects of alterations of the E. coli lipopolysaccharide layer on membrane permeabilization events induced by Cecropin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag; Weisshaar, James C

    2018-04-22

    The outermost layer of Gram negative bacteria is composed of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) network that forms a dense protective hydrophilic barrier against entry of hydrophobic drugs. At low μM concentrations, a large family of cationic polypeptides known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are able to penetrate the LPS layer and permeabilize the outer membrane (OM) and the cytoplasmic membrane (CM), causing cell death. Cecropin A is a well-studied cationic AMP from moth. Here a battery of time-resolved, single-cell microscopy experiments explores how deletion of sugar layers and/or phosphoryl negative charges from the core oligosaccharide layer (core OS) of K12 E. coli alters the timing of OM and CM permeabilization induced by Cecropin A. Deletion of sugar layers, or phosphoryl charges, or both from the core OS shortens the time to the onset of OM permeabilization to periplasmic GFP and also the lag time between OM permeabilization and CM permeabilization. Meanwhile, the 12-h minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) changes only twofold with core OS alterations. The results suggest a two-step model in which the core oligosaccharide layers act as a kinetic barrier to penetration of Cecropin A to the lipid A outer leaflet of the OM. Once a threshold concentration has built up at the lipid A leaflet, nucleation occurs and the OM is locally permeabilized to GFP and, by inference, to Cecropin A. Whenever Cecropin A permeabilizes the OM, CM permeabilization always follows, and cell growth subsequently halts and never recovers on the 45 min observation timescale. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electromagnetic field analyses of two-layer power transmission cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates and AC losses in their superconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahata, Masaaki; Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic field analyses were undertaken using two representative cross sections of two-layer cables consisting of coated conductors with magnetic and non-magnetic substrates. The following two arrangements were used for the coated conductors between the inner and outer layers: (1) tape-on-tape and (2) alternate. The calculated magnetic flux profile around each coated conductor was visualized. In the case of the non-magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which coated conductors in the outer layer are exposed contains more perpendicular component to the conductor wide face (perpendicular field component) when compared to that in the inner layer. On the other hand, for the tape-on-tape arrangement of coated conductors with a magnetic substrate, the reverse is true. In the case of the alternate arrangement of the coated conductor with a magnetic substrate, the magnetic field to which the coated conductors in the inner and outer layers are exposed experiences a small perpendicular field component. When using a non-magnetic substrate, the AC loss in the superconductor layer of the coated conductors in the two-layer cables is dominated by that in the outer layer, whereas the reverse is true in the case of a magnetic substrate. When comparing the AC losses in superconductor layers of coated conductors with non-magnetic and magnetic substrates in two-layer cables, the latter is larger than the former, but the influence of the magnetism of substrates on AC losses in superconductor layers is not remarkable

  15. Retinal single-layer analysis with optical coherence tomography shows inner retinal layer thinning in Huntington's disease as a potential biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulmez Sevim, Duygu; Unlu, Metin; Gultekin, Murat; Karaca, Cagatay

    2018-02-12

    There have been ongoing clinical trials of therapeutic agents in Huntington's disease (HD) which requires development of reliable biomarkers of disease progression. There have been studies in the literature with conflicting results on the involvement of retina in HD, and up to date there is not a study evaluating the single retinal layers in HD. We aimed to evaluate the specific retinal changes in HD and their usability as potential disease progression markers. This cross-sectional study used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with automatic segmentation to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and the thickness and volume of retinal layers in foveal scans of 15 patients with HD and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Genetic testing results, disease duration, HD disease burden scores and Unified HD Rating Scales motor scores were acquired for the patients. Temporal pRNFL, macular RNFL (mRNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer and outer plexiform layer thicknesses and IPL, retinal pigment epithelium and outer macular volume were found lower in HD compared to controls, while outer nuclear layer and outer retinal layer thickness were increased (p layer thicknesses, most significantly with mRNFL and GCL and disease progression markers. The outcomes of this study points out that retinal layers, most significantly mRNFL and GCL, are strongly correlated with the disease progression in HD and could serve as useful biomarkers for disease progression.

  16. Synthesis, Interdiction, and Protection of Layered Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Infrastructure: A Quantitative Geographic Perspective, 2006. 113. Lawrence V. Snyder, Maria P. Scaparra, Mark S. Daskin , and Richard L. Church. Planning for...09-01 Abstract This research developed the foundation, theory, and framework for a set of analysis techniques to assist decision makers in analyzing...demonstrated on notional examples and were tested on a range of sample problem sets. iv Acknowledgements There are many people that I owe a great deal of

  17. Phase characterization of Re-based diffusion barrier layer on Nb substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarti, Eni; Wang, Youngmin; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei; Narita, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    An electron microscopy phase characterization was carried out for a Re-based diffusion barrier layer, which was deposited on the Nb substrate used as an ultra high temperature material. The coating process produced three layers; an outer Cr(Re) layer, an intermediate Cr-Nb-Re layer, and an inner Nb(Re) layer. The Cr-Nb-Re layer is considered to act as a diffusion barrier layer between the substrate and the outer Cr(Re) reservoir layer. The Cr(Re) and Nb(Re) layers are in single phase with a similar bcc structures, but they are different in structure from the intermediate layer, which is composed of a dual phase of Re 63 Cr 20 Nb 17 with a cubic structure and Nb 42 Re 33 Cr 25 with a hexagonal structure determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in this study. (author)

  18. Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System: Outer Planet Orbital Transfer and Lander Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and deuterium can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and deuterium were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. Analyses of orbital transfer vehicles (OTVs), landers, and the issues with in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) mining factories are included. Preliminary observations are presented on near-optimal selections of moon base orbital locations, OTV power levels, and OTV and lander rendezvous points. For analyses of round trip OTV flights from Uranus to Miranda or Titania, a 10- Megawatt electric (MWe) OTV power level and a 200 metricton (MT) lander payload were selected based on a relative short OTV trip time and minimization of the number of lander flights. A similar optimum power level is suggested for OTVs flying from low orbit around Neptune to Thalassa or Triton. Several moon base sites at Uranus and Neptune and the OTV requirements to support them are also addressed.

  19. Outer hair cell piezoelectricity: frequency response enhancement and resonance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Erik K; Tasker, Ron; Brownell, William E

    2003-09-01

    Stretching or compressing an outer hair cell alters its membrane potential and, conversely, changing the electrical potential alters its length. This bi-directional energy conversion takes place in the cell's lateral wall and resembles the direct and converse piezoelectric effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. A piezoelectric model of the lateral wall has been developed that is based on the electrical and material parameters of the lateral wall. An equivalent circuit for the outer hair cell that includes piezoelectricity shows a greater admittance at high frequencies than one containing only membrane resistance and capacitance. The model also predicts resonance at ultrasonic frequencies that is inversely proportional to cell length. These features suggest all mammals use outer hair cell piezoelectricity to support the high-frequency receptor potentials that drive electromotility. It is also possible that members of some mammalian orders use outer hair cell piezoelectric resonance in detecting species-specific vocalizations.

  20. Inner and Outer Recursive Neural Networks for Chemoinformatics Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Gregor; Subrahmanya, Niranjan; Baldi, Pierre

    2018-02-26

    Deep learning methods applied to problems in chemoinformatics often require the use of recursive neural networks to handle data with graphical structure and variable size. We present a useful classification of recursive neural network approaches into two classes, the inner and outer approach. The inner approach uses recursion inside the underlying graph, to essentially "crawl" the edges of the graph, while the outer approach uses recursion outside the underlying graph, to aggregate information over progressively longer distances in an orthogonal direction. We illustrate the inner and outer approaches on several examples. More importantly, we provide open-source implementations [available at www.github.com/Chemoinformatics/InnerOuterRNN and cdb.ics.uci.edu ] for both approaches in Tensorflow which can be used in combination with training data to produce efficient models for predicting the physical, chemical, and biological properties of small molecules.

  1. Photoreceptor atrophy in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibrandtsen, N.; Munch, I.C.; Klemp, K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess retinal morphology in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Methods: Three patients with a normal ophthalmoscopic fundus appearance, a history of photopsia, and visual field loss compatible with AZOOR were examined using optical coherence tomography, automated perimetry...

  2. Proposal for the LHCb outer tracker front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Deppe, H; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Srowig, A; Stange, U; Hommels, B; Sluijk, T

    2001-01-01

    A market survey on available TDCs for reading out the LHCb Outer Tracker has left over only one TDC, which is not optimal for this purpose. Hence, a new readout architecture which is based on a TDC to be developed anew has been defined. This system fits optimal the requirements of the LHCb Outer Tracker and also should be much cheaper. The system and its main issues are described in this paper.

  3. Inner and outer cylinders of the CMS vacuum tank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the already installed outer cylinder, through which this photo was taken.

  4. Star laws: legal controls on armed conflict in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Dale

    2016-01-01

    An undeclared military space race is unfolding yet there is no clear understanding of how international las operates in the field of armed conflict in outer space. In conjunction with McGill University Law School, Montreal, Canada, a 'Manual on international law applicable to military uses of outer space' has been drafted. This article looks at types of space weapons, previous space treaties and discusses humanitarian law.

  5. Nuclear reactor installation with outer shell enclosing a primary pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The high temperature nuclear reactor installation described includes a fluid cooled nuclear heat source, a primary pressure vessel and outer shell around the primary pressure vessel and acting as a protection for it against outside projectiles. A floor is provided internally dividing the outside shell into two upper and lower sections and an inside wall dividing the lower section into one part containing the primary pressure vessel and a second part, both made pressure tight with respect to each other and with the outside shell and forming with the latter a secondary means of containment [fr

  6. Outer-selective thin film composite (TFC) hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2016-01-14

    The pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) process is a green technique for power generation to respond the world\\'s need of energy sustainability. In this study, we have developed the vital component of the process, i.e. membrane, in the configuration of the outer-selective thin-film composite (TFC) hollow fiber, which is more practical than other configurations in the real applications. The support layer morphology and the formation of the selective polyamide layer have been optimized for a good PRO performance. The results show that the bore fluid with higher amount of the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone leads to full finger-like hollow fibers, which provide higher flux but lower pressure tolerance. The addition of higher amount of diethylene glycol into the dope solution, improves the pore formation and suppresses the macrovoid formation, while properly lowering the take-up speed increases their wall thickness and pressure tolerance. A simple alcohol-pre-wetting approach on the fiber support leads to a smooth and thin polyamide layer, which is favorable for a high water flux and power density. Its efficiency follows this order: n-propanol>ethanol>methanol>water. The n-propanol pre-wetted TFC membrane can tolerate 17 bar with a peak power density of 9.59 W/m2 at room temperature, using 1 M NaCl solution as the draw solution and DI water as feed. This work demonstrates the potential of outer-selective TFC hollow fiber membranes for energy conversion via PRO process, provides useful database to fabricate suitable support morphology and raise a simple technique to practically form a thin and smooth polyamide layer.

  7. Fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomographic findings in acute zonal occult outer retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takamitsu; Imamura, Yutaka; Giovinazzo, Vincent J; Spaide, Richard F

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). A retrospective observational case series of the fundus autofluorescence and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a series of patients with AZOOR. There were 19 eyes of 11 patients (10 women), who had a mean age of 49.1 +/- 13.9 years. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities were seen in 17 of the 19 eyes, were more common in the peripapillary area, and were smaller in extent than the optical coherence tomography abnormalities. Nine eyes showed progression of hypoautofluorescence area during the mean follow-up of 69.7 months. The mean thickness of the photoreceptor layer at fovea was 177 microm in eyes with AZOOR, which was significantly thinner than controls (193 microm, P = 0.049). Abnormal retinal laminations were found in 12 eyes and were located over areas of loss of the photoreceptors. The subfoveal choroidal thickness was 243 microm, which is normal. Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities in AZOOR showed distinct patterns of retinal pigment epithelial involvement, which may be progressive. Thinning of photoreceptor cell layer with loss of the outer segments and abnormal inner retinal lamination in the context of a normal choroid are commonly found in AZOOR.

  8. Polar spacecraft observations of the turbulent outer cusp/magnetopause boundary layer of Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 RE. The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfvén waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.

  9. Polar Spacecraft Observations of the Turbulent Outer Cusp/Magnetopause Boundary Layer of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J. S.; Menietti, J. D.; Dowell, J. H.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scudder, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The orbit of the Polar spacecraft has been ideally suited for studying the turbulent region of the cusp that is located near or just outside the magnetopause current sheet at 7-9 R(sub E). The wave data obtained in this region show that electromagnetic turbulence is dominant in the frequency range 1-10 Hz. The waves responsible for this turbulence usually propagate perpendicular to the local magnetic field and have an index of refraction that generally falls between the estimated cold plasma theoretical values of the electromagnetic lower hybrid and whistler modes and may be composed of both modes in concert with kinetic Alfven waves and/or fast magnetosonic waves. Fourier spectra of the higher frequency wave data also show the electromagnetic turbulence at frequencies up to and near the electron cyclotron frequency. This higher frequency electromagnetic turbulence is most likely associated with whistler mode waves. The lower hybrid drift and current gradient instabilities are suggested as possible mechanisms for producing the turbulence. The plasma and field environment of this turbulent region is examined and found to be extremely complex. Some of the wave activity is associated with processes occurring locally, such as changes in the DC magnetic field, while others are associated with solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field changes.

  10. Monolithic pixel development in 180 nm CMOS for the outer pixel layers in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kugathasan, Thanushan; Buttar, Craig; Berdalovic, Ivan; Blochet, Bastien; Cardella, Roberto Calogero; Dalla, Marco; Egidos Plaja, Nuria; Hemperek, Tomasz; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Maneuski, Dima; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Mugnier, Herve; Musa, Luciano; Pernegger, Heinz; Riedler, Petra; Riegel, Christian; Rousset, Jerome; Sbarra, Carla; Schaefer, Douglas Michael; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Sharma, Abhishek; Snoeys, Walter; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Wang, Tianyang; Wermes, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN plans to upgrade its Inner Tracking System for the High-Luminosity LHC in 2026. After the ALPIDE monolithic sensor for the ALICE ITS was successfully implemented in a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor technology, the process was modified to combine full sensor depletion with a low sensor capacitance (≈ 2.5fF), for increased radiation tolerance and low analog power consumption. Efficiency and charge collection time were measured with comparisons before and after irradiation. This paper summarises the measurements and the ATLAS-specific development towards full-reticle size CMOS sensors and modules in this modified technology.

  11. Analysis of Boundary Layer Meteorological Data Collected at the White Sands Missile Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Sean; Tofsted, David; Yarbrough, Jimmy; Elliott, D. S; Quintis, David

    2007-01-01

    ... Sands Missile Range (WSMR). Our primary motivation for collecting these measurements is to refine the accuracy of outer and inner scale effects models for optical, thermal, and absolute humidity turbulence for the desert boundary layer...

  12. Legal Consequences of the Pollution of Outer Space with Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Space debris has grown to be a significant problem for outer space activities. The remnants of human activities in space are very diverse; they can be tiny paint flakes, all sorts of fragments, or entirely intact—but otherwise nonfunctional spacecraft and rocket bodies. The amount of debris is increasing at a growing pace, thus raising the risk of collision with operational satellites. Due to the relative high velocities involved in on-orbit collisions, their consequences are severe; collisions lead to significant damage or the complete destruction of the affected spacecraft. Protective measures and collision avoidance have thus become a major concern for spacecraft operators. The pollution of space with debris must, however, not only be seen as an unfavorable circumstance that accompanies space activities and increases the costs and complexity of outer space activities. Beyond this rather technical perspective, the presence of man-made, nonfunctional objects in space represents a global environmental concern. Similar to the patterns of other environmental problems on Earth, debris generation appears to have surpassed the absorption capacity of the space environment. Studies indicate that the evolution of the space object environment has crossed the tipping point to a runaway situation in which an increasing number of collisions―mostly among debris―leads to an uncontrolled population growth. It is thus in the interest of all mankind to address the debris problem in order to preserve the space environment for future generations. International space law protects the space environment. Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty obligates States to avoid the harmful contamination of outer space. The provision corresponds to the obligation to protect the environment in areas beyond national jurisdiction under the customary "no harm" rule of general environmental law. These norms are applicable to space debris and establish the duty not to pollute outer space by limiting

  13. Plasma-Sprayed LSM Protective Coating on Metallic Interconnect of SOFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a (La0.8Sr0.20.98MnO3 protective layer was prepared on the C276, Crofer22 APU, SUS304, and SUS430 alloys by the atmospheric plasma spraying technique (APS. The oxidation behavior and electrical property of these metal alloys have been investigated isothermally at 800 °C in air for up to 300 h. Results showed that the ferritic steels transform into MnCr2O4 spinels and a Cr2O3 layer during isothermal oxidation. The C276 alloy formed NiCr2O4 and FeCr2O4 layers; these are protective and act as an effective barrier against chromium migration into the outer oxide layer, and the alloy demonstrated good oxidation resistance and a reasonable match to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate and a low-oxide scale area-specific resistance. The ASR effects on the formation of oxide scale have been investigated, and the ASR of coated samples was below 0.024 Ω·cm2. It has good electrical conductivity for SOFC in long-term use.

  14. A Chemical-Adsorption Strategy to Enhance the Reaction Kinetics of Lithium-Rich Layered Cathodes via Double-Shell Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lichao; Li, Jiajun; Cao, Tingting; Wang, Huayu; Zhao, Naiqin; He, Fang; Shi, Chunsheng; He, Chunnian; Liu, Enzuo

    2016-09-21

    Sluggish surface reaction kinetics hinders the power density of Li-ion battery. Thus, various surface modification techniques have been applied to enhance the electronic/ionic transfer kinetics. However, it is challenging to obtain a continuous and uniform surface modification layer on the prime particles with structure integration at the interface. Instead of classic physical-adsorption/deposition techniques, we propose a novel chemical-adsorption strategy to synthesize double-shell modified lithium-rich layered cathodes with enhanced mass transfer kinetics. On the basis of experimental measurement and first-principles calculation, MoO2S2 ions are proved to joint the layered phase via chemical bonding. Specifically, the Mo-O or Mo-S bonds can flexibly rotate to bond with the cations in the layered phase, leading to the good compatibility between the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and layered cathode. Followed by annealing treatment, the lithium-excess-spinel inner shell forms under the thiomolybdate adsorption layer and functions as favorable pathways for lithium and electron. Meanwhile, the nanothick MoO3-x(SO4)x outer shell protects the transition metal from dissolution and restrains electrolyte decomposition. The double-shell modified sample delivers an enhanced discharge capacity almost twice as much as that of the unmodified one at 1 A g(-1) after 100 cycles, demonstrating the superiority of the surface modification based on chemical adsorption.

  15. Effect of biomolecules adsorption on oxide layers developed on metallic materials used in cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Bautista, Blanca-Estela

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was carried out in the frame of the BIOCOR ITN European project, in collaboration with the industrial partner RSE S.p.A. (Italy). Metallic materials commonly used in cooling systems of power plants may be affected by bio-corrosion induced by biofilm formation. The objective of this work was to study the influence of biomolecules adsorption, which is the initial stage of biofilm formation, on the electrochemical behaviour and the surface chemical composition of three metallic materials (70Cu-30Ni alloy, 304L stainless steel and titanium) in seawater environments. In a first step, the interactions between a model protein, the bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the surface of these materials were investigated. Secondly, tightly bound (TB) and loosely bound (LB) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), that play a fundamental role in the different stages of biofilm formation, maturation and maintenance, were extracted from Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 marine strain, and their effects on oxide layers were also evaluated. For that purpose, electrochemical measurements (corrosion potential E(corr) vs time, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) performed during the very first steps of oxide layers formation (1 h immersion time) were combined to surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Compared to 70Cu-30Ni alloy in static artificial seawater (ASW) without biomolecules, for which a thick duplex oxide layer (outer redeposited Cu 2 O layer and inner oxidized nickel layer) is shown, the presence of BSA, TB EPS and LB EPS leads to a mixed oxide layer (oxidized copper and nickel) with a lower thickness. In the biomolecules-containing solutions, this oxide layer is covered by an adsorbed organic layer, mainly composed of proteins. A model is proposed to analyse impedance data obtained at E(corr). The results show a slow-down of the anodic reaction in the presence

  16. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  17. The Effects of Urethane on Rat Outer Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cochlea converts sound vibration into electrical impulses and amplifies the low-level sound signal. Urethane, a widely used anesthetic in animal research, has been shown to reduce the neural responses to auditory stimuli. However, the effects of urethane on cochlea, especially on the function of outer hair cells, remain largely unknown. In the present study, we compared the cochlear microphonic responses between awake and urethane-anesthetized rats. The results revealed that the amplitude of the cochlear microphonic was decreased by urethane, resulting in an increase in the threshold at all of the sound frequencies examined. To deduce the possible mechanism underlying the urethane-induced decrease in cochlear sensitivity, we examined the electrical response properties of isolated outer hair cells using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We found that urethane hyperpolarizes the outer hair cell membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner and elicits larger outward current. This urethane-induced outward current was blocked by strychnine, an antagonist of the α9 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Meanwhile, the function of the outer hair cell motor protein, prestin, was not affected. These results suggest that urethane anesthesia is expected to decrease the responses of outer hair cells, whereas the frequency selectivity of cochlea remains unchanged.

  18. Software alignment of the LHCb Outer Tracker chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deissenroth, Marc

    2010-04-21

    This work presents an alignment algorithm that was developed to precisely determine the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker detector elements. The algorithm is based on the reconstruction of tracks and exploits that misalignments of the detector change the residual between a measured hit and the reconstructed track. It considers different levels of granularities of the Outer Tracker geometry and fully accounts for correlations of all elements which are imposed by particle trajectories. In extensive tests, simulated shifts and rotations for different levels of the detector granularity have been used as input to the track reconstruction and alignment procedure. With about 260 000 tracks the misalignments are recovered with a statistical precision of O(10 - 100 {mu}m) for the translational degrees of freedom and of O(10{sup -2} - 10{sup -1} mrad) for rotations. A study has been performed to determine the impact of Outer Tracker misalignments on the performance of the track reconstruction algorithms. It shows that the achieved statistical precision does not decrease the track reconstruction performance in a significant way. During the commissioning of the LHCb detector, cosmic ray muon events have been collected. The events have been analysed and used for the first alignment of the 216 Outer Tracker modules. The module positions have been determined within {proportional_to} 90 {mu}m. The developed track based alignment algorithm has demonstrated its reliability and is one of the core algorithms which are used for the precise determination of the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker elements. (orig.)

  19. AN OUTER ARM IN THE SECOND GALACTIC QUADRANT: STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xinyu; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji; Sun, Yan; Li, Facheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Zhou, Xin, E-mail: xydu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-05-01

    The lack of arm tracers, especially remote tracers, is one of the most difficult problems preventing us from studying the structure of the Milky Way. Fortunately, with its high-sensitivity CO survey, the Milky Way Imaging Scroll Painting (MWISP) project offers such an opportunity. Since completing about one-third of its mission, an area of l = [100, 150]°, b = [−3, 5]° has nearly been covered. The Outer arm of the Milky Way first clearly revealed its shape in the second galactic quadrant in the form of molecular gas—this is the first time that the Outer arm has been reported in such a large-scale mapping of molecular gas. Using the 115 GHz {sup 12}CO(1–0) data of MWISP at the LSR velocity ≃[−100, −60] km s{sup −1} and in the area mentioned above, we have detected 481 molecular clouds in total, and among them 332 (about 69%) are newly detected and 457 probably belong to the Outer arm. The total mass of the detected Outer arm clouds is ∼3.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}. Assuming that the spiral arm is a logarithmic spiral, the pitch angle is fitted as ∼13.°1. Besides combining both the CO data from MWISP and the 21 cm H i data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), the gas distribution, warp, and thickness of the Outer arm are also studied.

  20. Software alignment of the LHCb Outer Tracker chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissenroth, Marc

    2010-01-01

    This work presents an alignment algorithm that was developed to precisely determine the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker detector elements. The algorithm is based on the reconstruction of tracks and exploits that misalignments of the detector change the residual between a measured hit and the reconstructed track. It considers different levels of granularities of the Outer Tracker geometry and fully accounts for correlations of all elements which are imposed by particle trajectories. In extensive tests, simulated shifts and rotations for different levels of the detector granularity have been used as input to the track reconstruction and alignment procedure. With about 260 000 tracks the misalignments are recovered with a statistical precision of O(10 - 100 μm) for the translational degrees of freedom and of O(10 -2 - 10 -1 mrad) for rotations. A study has been performed to determine the impact of Outer Tracker misalignments on the performance of the track reconstruction algorithms. It shows that the achieved statistical precision does not decrease the track reconstruction performance in a significant way. During the commissioning of the LHCb detector, cosmic ray muon events have been collected. The events have been analysed and used for the first alignment of the 216 Outer Tracker modules. The module positions have been determined within ∝ 90 μm. The developed track based alignment algorithm has demonstrated its reliability and is one of the core algorithms which are used for the precise determination of the positions of the LHCb Outer Tracker elements. (orig.)

  1. Multi-layer casing of a steam turbine for high steam pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remberg, A.

    1978-01-01

    In previous turbine casings there is no sealing provided between the inner layer and the outer layer, so that the steam pressure acts fully on the casing top and on the shaft seal housing situated there. To reduce the displacement which occurs there due to pressure differences in the various steam spaces, the normal inner casing is made with the shaft sealing housing in an inner layer, which cannot be divided in the axial direction. The inner layer can be inserted from the high pressure side into the unit outer casing. A horizontal section through the turbine in the attached drawing makes the construction and operation of the invention clear. (GL) [de

  2. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  3. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  4. Substrate specificity within a family of outer membrane carboxylate channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria, including human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, do not have large-channel porins. This results in an outer membrane (OM that is highly impermeable to small polar molecules, making the bacteria intrinsically resistant towards many antibiotics. In such microorganisms, the majority of small molecules are taken up by members of the OprD outer membrane protein family. Here we show that OprD channels require a carboxyl group in the substrate for efficient transport, and based on this we have renamed the family Occ, for outer membrane carboxylate channels. We further show that Occ channels can be divided into two subfamilies, based on their very different substrate specificities. Our results rationalize how certain bacteria can efficiently take up a variety of substrates under nutrient-poor conditions without compromising membrane permeability. In addition, they explain how channel inactivation in response to antibiotics can cause resistance but does not lead to decreased fitness.

  5. Knitted outer gloves in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Wraighte, P; Howard, P

    2006-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the rate of perforation to inner gloves when comparing latex with knitted gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty. Members of the surgical team were randomised to wear either two pairs of latex gloves (standard double gloving) or a knitted glove on top of a latex glove. In addition, participants completed a visual analogue assessment of their overall satisfaction with the gloves. A total of 406 inner gloves were tested for perforations over a four-month period: 23% of inner gloves were perforated when latex outer gloves were used and 6% of inner gloves were perforated when knitted outer gloves were used. In total, there were 64 perforations to the inner gloves; only one of these perforations was detected by the glove wearer. Wearing knitted outer gloves during hip and knee arthroplasty statistically significantly reduces the risk of perforation to inner latex gloves (p<0.0001).

  6. Outer Planet Missions with Electric Propulsion Systems—Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Huaura Solórzano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For interplanetary missions, efficient electric propulsion systems can be used to increase the mass delivered to the destination. Outer planet exploration has experienced new interest with the launch of the Cassini and New Horizons Missions. At the present, new technologies are studied for better use of electric propulsion systems in missions to the outer planets. This paper presents low-thrust trajectories using the method of the transporting trajectory to Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. They use nuclear and radio isotopic electric propulsion. These direct transfers have continuous electric propulsion of low power along the entire trajectory. The main goal of the paper is to optimize the transfers, that is, to provide maximum mass to be delivered to the outer planets.

  7. The outer magnetosphere. [composition and comparison with earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  8. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    of interfering nodes and usage of spatial reservation mechanisms. Specifically, we introduce a reserved area in order to protect the nodes involved in two-way relaying from the interference caused by neighboring nodes. We analytically derive the end-to-end rate achieved by PLNC considering the impact......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  9. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  10. Colors of Outer Solar System Objects Measured with VATT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, William; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    Over the past 7 years, we have measured optical B-V and V-R colors for about 40 minor outer solar system objects using the 1.8-m Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) located on Mt. Graham in southeast Arizona. We will present these colors and use them to update the discussion of colors of minor bodies in the outer solar system. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program to Northern Arizona University and the U. of Oklahoma which helped support this work.

  11. Stability of marginally outer trapped surfaces and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc, E-mail: acf@usal.e, E-mail: marc@usal.e [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-09-07

    We study the properties of stable, strictly stable and locally outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in spacelike hypersurfaces of spacetimes possessing certain symmetries such as isometries, homotheties and conformal Killings. We first obtain results for general diffeomorphisms in terms of the so-called metric deformation tensor and then particularize to different types of symmetries. In particular, we find restrictions at the surfaces on the vector field generating the symmetry. Some consequences are discussed. As an application, we present a result on non-existence of stable marginally outer trapped surfaces in slices of FLRW.

  12. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K; Sakurai, N; Kuraishi, S

    1990-07-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account.

  13. Sugar Composition and Molecular Weight Distribution of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Outer and Inner Tissues from Segments of Dark Grown Squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) Hypocotyls 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Kuraishi, Susumu

    1990-01-01

    The elongation growth of stem segments is determined by the outer cell layers (epidermis and collenchyma). We measured the sugar composition and molecular weight distribution of pectin and hemicellulose fractions obtained from inner and outer tissues of squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) hypocotyls. In addition, we studied the changes in these parameters after a 9 hour period of incubation of the segments. The results show that outer tissues have higher molecular weight pectin and hemicellulose compared to inner tissues (2-3 times higher). Incubation results in a 13 to 25% decrease in the amount of pectin and hemicellulose in inner tissues and an increase of 11 to 32% in the outer tissues. This increase in the outer tissues is accompanied by a decrease in the molecular weight of some of the components. These results clearly show that cell wall metabolism during elongation growth differs markedly in inner and outer tissues, and that future studies on the effect of auxin need to take these differences into account. PMID:16667612

  14. TFG facilitates outer coat disassembly on COPII transport carriers to promote tethering and fusion with ER-Golgi intermediate compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Michael G; Block, Samuel; Frankel, E B; Hou, Feng; Johnson, Adam; Yuan, Lin; Knight, Gavin; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Ashton, Randolph; Schekman, Randy; Tong, Yufeng; Audhya, Anjon

    2017-09-12

    The conserved coat protein complex II (COPII) mediates the initial steps of secretory protein trafficking by assembling onto subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in two layers to generate cargo-laden transport carriers that ultimately fuse with an adjacent ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Here, we demonstrate that Trk-fused gene (TFG) binds directly to the inner layer of the COPII coat. Specifically, the TFG C terminus interacts with Sec23 through a shared interface with the outer COPII coat and the cargo receptor Tango1/cTAGE5. Our findings indicate that TFG binding to Sec23 outcompetes these other associations in a concentration-dependent manner and ultimately promotes outer coat dissociation. Additionally, we demonstrate that TFG tethers vesicles harboring the inner COPII coat, which contributes to their clustering between the ER and ERGIC in cells. Together, our studies define a mechanism by which COPII transport carriers are retained locally at the ER/ERGIC interface after outer coat disassembly, which is a prerequisite for fusion with ERGIC membranes.

  15. Pressure Shell Approach to Integrated Environmental Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of exploration mission human systems will require environmental protection such as radiation protection that is effective and efficient. In order to continue human exploration, habitat systems will require special shells to protect astronauts from hostile environments. The Pressure Shell Approach to integrated environmental (radiation) protection is a multi-layer shell that can be used for multifunctional environmental protection. Self-healing, self-repairing nano technologies and sensors are incorporated into the shell. This shell consists of multiple layers that can be tailored for specific environmental protection needs. Mainly, this innovation focuses on protecting crew from exposure to micrometeorites, thermal, solar flares, and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation. The Pressure Shell Approach consists of a micrometeoroid and secondary ejecta protection layer; a thin, composite shell placed in between two layers that is non-structural; an open cavity layer that can be filled with water, regolith, or polyethylene foam; a thicker composite shell that is a structural load bearing that is placed between two layers; and a bladder coating on the interior composite shell. This multi-layer shell creates an effective radiation protection system. Most of its layers can be designed with the materials necessary for specific environments. In situ materials such as water or regolith can be added to the shell design for supplemental radiation protection.

  16. Research of the punch interaction with composite protective panel

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, N.; Lyubin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The work examines the structure of a protection composite panel consisting of a crushing layer (ceramic discrete elements of a cylindrical shape) and a restraining layer below (metallic leaf). This protection panel can be used for an armour-piercing bullet protection of the car. Here is the strength calculation of ceramic elements and metallic protective layer dynamic interaction under bullet impact. The problem was solved under a variety of protection panel parameters in order to define thei...

  17. Outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flow over gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert L.; Fox, James F.

    2017-06-01

    The theoretical basis for outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flows over gravel is derived and tested for the first time. Owing to the gradual expansion of the flow within the nonuniform case presented, it is hypothesized that the flow can be defined as an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer using the asymptotic invariance principle. The hypothesis is supported using similarity analysis to derive a solution, followed by further testing with experimental datasets. For the latter, 38 newly collected experimental velocity profiles across three nonuniform flows over gravel in a hydraulic flume are tested as are 43 velocity profiles previously published in seven peer-reviewed journal papers that focused on fluid mechanics of nonuniform open channel over gravel. The findings support the nonuniform flows as equilibrium defined by the asymptotic invariance principle, which is reflective of the consistency of the turbulent structure's form and function within the expanding flow. However, roughness impacts the flow structure when comparing across the published experimental datasets. As a secondary objective, we show how previously published mixed scales can be used to assist with freestream velocity scaling of the velocity deficit and thus empirically account for the roughness effects that extend into the outer region of the flow. One broader finding of this study is providing the theoretical context to relax the use of the elusive friction velocity when scaling nonuniform flows in gravel bed rivers; and instead to apply the freestream velocity. A second broader finding highlighted by our results is that scaling of nonuniform flow in gravel bed rivers is still not fully resolved theoretically since mixed scaling relies to some degree on empiricism. As researchers resolve the form and function of macroturbulence in the outer region, we hope to see the closing of this research gap.

  18. Success in the protection of the ozone layer is at risk. An interview concerning the German view on CFC- and H-CFC-phaseout all over the world; Bisherige Erfolge zum Schutz der Ozonschicht sind gefaehrdet. Ein Fachgespraech ueber die deutsche Meinung zum FCKW- und H-FCKW-Phaseout ueberall in der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, H.W.; Weissenborn, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article repeats an interview with the commissioner of international measures for the protection of the ozone layer of the Federal Ministry of the Environment which took place in the run-up to the 7th conference of the signatory states of the Montreal Protocol. (BWI) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt ein Interview wieder, das mit dem Beauftragten fuer internationale Massnahmen zum Schutz der Ozonschicht beim Bundesumweltministerium im Vorfeld der 7. Konferenz der Vertragsstaaten zum Montrealer Protokoll gefuehrt wurde. (BWI)

  19. Sorting of an integral outer membrane protein via the lipoprotein-specific Lol pathway and a dedicated lipoprotein pilotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Séverine; Guilvout, Ingrid; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Pugsley, Anthony P

    2011-05-01

    The lipoprotein PulS is a dedicated chaperone that is required to target the secretin PulD to the outer membrane in Klebsiella or Escherichia coli, and to protect it from proteolysis. Here, we present indirect evidence that PulD protomers do not assemble into the secretin dodecamer before they reach the outer membrane, and that PulS reaches the outer membrane in a soluble heterodimer with the general lipoprotein chaperone LolA. However, we could not find any direct evidence for PulD protomer association with the PulS-LolA heterodimer. Instead, in cells producing PulD and a permanently locked PulS-LolA dimer (in which LolA carries an R43L substitution that prevents lipoprotein transfer to LolB in the outer membrane), LolAR43L was found in the inner membrane, probably still associated with PulS bound to PulD that had been incorrectly targeted because of the LolAR43L substitution. It is speculated that PulD protomers normally cross the periplasm together with PulS bound to LolA but when the latter cannot be separated (due to the mutation in lolA), the PulD protomers form dodecamers that insert into the inner membrane. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Thermographic studies of outer target heat fluxes on KSTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A new infra-red (IR thermography system with high spatial resolution has been installed on KSTAR and is now mainly applied to measure the outer divertor heat load profile. The first measurement results of the outer divertor heat load profiles between ELMs have been applied to characterize the inter-ELMs outer divertor heat loads in KSTAR H-mode plasmas. In particular, the power decay length (λq of the divertor heat load profile has been determined by fitting the profile to a convolution of an exponential decay and a Gaussian function. The analysis on the power decay length shows a good agreement with the recent multi-machine λq scaling, which predicts λq of the inter-ELMs divertor heat load to be ∼1 mm under the standard H-mode scenario in ITER. The divertor IR thermography system has also successfully measured the strike point splitting of the outer divertor heat flux during the application of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP fields. In addition, it has provided a clear evidence that the strike point splitting pattern depends on the RMP fields configuration.

  1. 75 FR 71734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Scientific Committee (SC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Environmental Studies Program (ESP) and environmental aspects of the offshore energy and marine minerals... oceanography, as well as studies of the social and economic impacts of OCS energy and marine minerals... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer...

  2. Detergent organisation in crystals of monomeric outer membrane phospholipase A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, HJ; Timmins, PA; Kalk, KH; Dijkstra, BW

    The structure of the detergent in crystals of outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) has been determined using neutron diffraction contrast variation. Large crystals were soaked in stabilising solutions, each containing a different H2O/D2O contrast. From the neutron diffraction at five contrasts,

  3. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Ishan; Ghai, Shashank

    2017-01-01

    One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps) is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels.

  4. Outer casing of the AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling.

  5. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  6. A progenitor of the outer membrane LamB trimer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stader, J; Silhavy, T J

    1988-01-01

    During its localization to the outer membrane, LamB possesses distinctive biochemical properties as it passes through the cytoplasmic membrane. Because LamB entered this dynamic state with an attached signal sequence and leaves after cleavage, we call this export-related form of LamB the early-translocation form (et-LamB).

  7. Ethane Ices in the Outer Solar System: Spectroscopy and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Raines, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    We report recent experiments on ethane ices made at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System. New near- and mid-infrared data for crystalline and amorphous ethane, including new spectra for a seldom-studied solid phase that exists at 35-55 K, are presented along with radiation-chemical experiments showing the formation of more-complex hydrocarbons

  8. The outer membrane protein assembly machinery of Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volokhina, E.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837202

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are characterized by a cell envelope consisting of an inner membrane (IM) and an outer membrane (OM), which are separated by the peptidoglycan-containing periplasm. While the integral IM proteins are alpha-helical, all but one known integral OM proteins (OMPs) are

  9. Exploring bacterial outer membrane barrier to combat bad bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai I

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ishan Ghai,1 Shashank Ghai2 1School of Engineering and Life Sciences, Jacobs University, Bremen, 2Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany Abstract: One of the main fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria comprises an effective change in the membrane permeability to antibiotics. The Gram-negative bacterial complex cell envelope comprises an outer membrane that delimits the periplasm from the exterior environment. The outer membrane contains numerous protein channels, termed as porins or nanopores, which are mainly involved in the influx of hydrophilic compounds, including antibiotics. Bacterial adaptation to reduce influx through these outer membrane proteins (Omps is one of the crucial mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance. Thus to interpret the molecular basis of the outer membrane permeability is the current challenge. This review attempts to develop a state of knowledge pertinent to Omps and their effective role in antibiotic influx. Further, it aims to study the bacterial response to antibiotic membrane permeability and hopefully provoke a discussion toward understanding and further exploration of prospects to improve our knowledge on physicochemical parameters that direct the translocation of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane protein channels. Keywords: antibiotics, Gram-negative bacteria, cell envelope, protein channels, nanopores, influx, antibiotic resistance

  10. The VP7 Outer Capsid Protein of Rotavirus Induces Polyclonal B-Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2004-01-01

    The early response to a homologous rotavirus infection in mice includes a T-cell-independent increase in the number of activated B lymphocytes in the Peyer's patches. The mechanism of this activation has not been previously determined. Since rotavirus has a repetitively arranged triple-layered capsid and repetitively arranged antigens can induce activation of B cells, one or more of the capsid proteins could be responsible for the initial activation of B cells during infection. To address this question, we assessed the ability of rotavirus and virus-like particles to induce B-cell activation in vivo and in vitro. Using infectious rotavirus, inactivated rotavirus, noninfectious but replication-competent virus, and virus-like particles, we determined that neither infectivity nor RNA was necessary for B-cell activation but the presence of the rotavirus outer capsid protein, VP7, was sufficient for murine B-cell activation. Preincubation of the virus with neutralizing VP7 antibodies inhibited B-cell activation. Polymyxin B treatment and boiling of the virus preparation were performed, which ruled out possible lipopolysaccharide contamination as the source of activation and confirmed that the structural conformation of VP7 is important for B-cell activation. These findings indicate that the structure and conformation of the outer capsid protein, VP7, initiate intestinal B-cell activation during rotavirus infection. PMID:15194774

  11. Readout architecture for the Pixel-Strip module of the CMS Outer Tracker Phase-2 upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Caratelli, Alessandro; Jan Kaplon; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Simone Scarfi

    2017-01-01

    The Outer Tracker upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN introduces new challenges for the front-end readout electronics. In particular, the capability of identifying particles with high transverse momentum using modules with double sensor layers requires high speed real time interconnects between readout ASICs. The Pixel-Strip module combines a pixelated silicon layer with a silicon-strip layer. Consequently, it needs two different readout ASICs, namely the Short Strip ASIC (SSA) for the strip sensor and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixelated sensor. The architecture proposed in this paper allows for a total data flow between readout ASICs of $\\sim$100\\,Gbps and reduces the output data flow from 1.3\\,Tbps to 30\\,Gbps per module while limiting the total power density to below 100\\,mW/cm$^2$. In addition a system-level simulation framework of all the front-end readout ASICs is developed in order to verify the data processing algorithm and the hardware implementation allowing mult...

  12. Effect of enzyme location on activity and stability of trypsin and urease immobilized on porous membranes by using layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyelectrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Guedidi, Sadika; Yürekli, Yılmaz; Deratani, André; Déjardin, Philippe; Innocent, Christophe; Altınkaya, Sacide; Roudesli, Sadok; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of polyelectrolyte is one of the simplest ways to immobilize enzyme on membrane. In this paper, the immobilization of trypsin (TRY) and urease (URE) on polyacrylonitrile based membranes using the LbL assembly technique was presented. The studied systems consisted in bilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the outer layer and trilayered assemblies with the enzyme layer as the inner sandwiched layer. The membrane pore size was chosen so that the smal...

  13. Wisps in the outer edge of the Keeler Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Arnault, Ethan G.

    2015-11-01

    Superposed upon the relatively smooth outer edge of the Keeler Gap are a system of "wisps," which appear to be ring material protruding inward into the gap, usually with a sharp trailing edge and a smooth gradation back to the background edge location on the leading side (Porco et al. 2005, Science). The radial amplitude of wisps is usually 0.5 to 1 km, and their azimuthal extent is approximately a degree of longitude (~2400 km). Wisps are likely caused by an interplay between Daphnis (and perhaps other moons) and embedded moonlets within the ring, though the details remain unclear.Aside from the wisps, the Keeler Gap outer edge is the only one of the five sharp edges in the outer part of Saturn's A ring that is reasonably smooth in appearance (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), with occultations indicating residuals less than 1 km upon a possibly non-zero eccentricity (R.G. French, personal communication, 2014). The other four (the inner and outer edges of the Encke Gap, the inner edge of the Keeler Gap, and the outer edge of the A ring itself) are characterized by wavy structure at moderate to high spatial frequencies, with amplitudes ranging from 2 to 30 km (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS).We will present a catalogue of wisp detections in Cassini images. We carry out repeated gaussian fits of the radial edge location in order to characterize edge structure and visually scan those fitted edges in order to detect wisps. With extensive coverage in longitude and in time, we will report on how wisps evolve and move, both within an orbit period and on longer timescales. We will also report on the frequency and interpretation of wisps that deviate from the standard morphology. We will discuss the implications of our results for the origin and nature of wisps, and for the larger picture of how masses interact within Saturn's rings.

  14. Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines from Biosafe Surrogates Prevent Acute Lethal Glanders in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Norris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted Gram-negative mammalian pathogen that causes the severe disease glanders. Glanders can manifest as a rapid acute progression or a chronic debilitating syndrome primarily affecting solipeds and humans in close association with infected animals. In USA, B. mallei is classified as one of the most important bacterial biothreat agents. Presently, there is no licensed glanders vaccine available for humans or animals. In this work, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs were isolated from three attenuated biosafe bacterial strains, Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp82, B. thailandensis E555, and B. thailandensis TxDOH and used to vaccinate mice. B. thailandensis OMVs induced significantly higher antibody responses that were investigated. B. mallei specific serum antibody responses were of higher magnitude in mice vaccinated with B. thailandensis OMVs compared to levels in mice vaccinated with B. pseudomallei OMVs. OMVs derived from biosafe strains protected mice from acute lethal glanders with vesicles from the two B. thailandensis strains affording significant protection (>90% up to 35 days post-infection with some up to 60 days. Organ loads from 35-day survivors indicated bacteria colonization of the lungs, liver, and spleen while those from 60 days had high CFUs in the spleens. The highest antibody producing vaccine (B. thailandensis E555 OMVs also protected C57BL/6 mice from acute inhalational glanders with evidence of full protection.

  15. LHCb: The Performance and Radiation Hardness of the Outer Tracker Detector for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Färber, C

    2012-01-01

    The LHC bexperiment is designed to study B-decays at the LHC. It is crucial to accurately and efficiently detect the charged decay particles in the high-density particle environment of the LHC. For this, the Outer Tracker (OT) has been constructed, consisting of 53,760 straw tubes, covering in total an area of 360 m2 of double layers. At the time of the conference, the detector will have operated under nominal LHC conditions for a period of about 2 years, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.5 fb$^{-1}$ . The performance of the detector will be discussed in terms of high voltage stability, noise rate, single hit efficiency and resolution. Finally, first results on the radiation tolerance of this sensitive gas detector will be shown, after having received a total dose corresponding to about 100 mC/cm in the hottest region.

  16. Time travel and chemical evolution - a look at the outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the chemical conditions today on the planets and moons of the outer solar system are similar to conditions on earth soon after it formed. If this is so, much can be learned about the chemistry that led to life on earth. While Jupiter is a poor terrestrial analog, its satellite Europa has a smooth icy surface that may cover a layer of liquid water tens of kilometers deep. It is possible that sunlight could filter through cracks in the ice, providing energy to drive chemical reactions in the water below the ice. It is noted that the surface of Titan may include lakes or oceans of ethane and that Triton may also have liquids on its surface. Studies of cometary nuclei will be undertaken during the Comet Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby mission

  17. Multi-layered silicides coating for vanadium alloys for generation IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, S.; Chaia, N.; Vilasi, M.; Le Flem, M.

    2012-01-01

    The halide-activated pack-cementation technique was employed to fabricate a diffusion coating that is resistant both to isothermal and to cyclic oxidation in air at 650 degrees C on the surface of the V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy that is a potential core component of future nuclear systems. A thermodynamic assessment determined the deposit conditions in terms of master alloy, activator, filler and temperature. The partial pressures of the main gaseous species (SiCl 4 , SiCl 2 and VCl 2 ) in the pack were calculated with the master alloy Si and the mixture VSi 2 + Si. The VSi 2 + Si master alloy was used to limit vanadium loss from the surface. The obtained coating consisted of multi-layered V x Si y silicides with an outer layer of VSi 2 . This silicide developed a protective layer of silica at 650 degrees C in air and was not susceptible to the pest phenomenon, unlike other refractory silicides (MoSi 2 , NbSi 2 ). We suggest that VSi 2 exhibits no risk of rapid degradation in the gas fast reactor (GFR) conditions. (authors)

  18. Plasticity and fracture modeling of three-layer steel composite Tribond® 1200 for crash simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eller, Tom; Ramaker, Kenny; Greve, Lars; Andres, M.T.; Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2017-01-01

    A constitutive model is presented for the three-layer steel composite Tribond® 1200. Tribond® is a hot forming steel which consists of three layers: a high strength steel core between two outer layers of ductile low strength steel. The model is designed to provide an accurate prediction of the

  19. Components of SurA required for outer membrane biogenesis in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M Watts

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available SurA is a periplasmic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase and chaperone of Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. In contrast to other PPIases, SurA appears to have a distinct role in chaperoning newly synthesized porins destined for insertion into the outer membrane. Previous studies have indicated that the chaperone activity of SurA rests in its "core module" (the N- plus C-terminal domains, based on in vivo envelope phenotypes and in vitro binding and protection of non-native substrates.In this study, we determined the components of SurA required for chaperone activity using in vivo phenotypes relevant to disease causation by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC, namely membrane resistance to permeation by antimicrobials and maturation of the type 1 pilus usher FimD. FimD is a SurA-dependent, integral outer membrane protein through which heteropolymeric type 1 pili, which confer bladder epithelial binding and invasion capacity upon uropathogenic E. coli, are assembled and extruded. Consistent with prior results, the in vivo chaperone activity of SurA in UPEC rested primarily in the core module. However, the PPIase domains I and II were not expendable for wild-type resistance to novobiocin in broth culture. Steady-state levels of FimD were substantially restored in the UPEC surA mutant complemented with the SurA N- plus C-terminal domains. The addition of PPIase domain I augmented FimD maturation into the outer membrane, consistent with a model in which domain I enhances stability of and/or substrate binding by the core module.Our results confirm the core module of E. coli SurA as a potential target for novel anti-infective development.

  20. Rapid outer-surface protein C DNA tattoo vaccination protects against Borrelia afzelii infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, A.; Mason, L. M. K.; Oei, A.; de Wever, B.; van der Poll, T.; Bins, A. D.; Hovius, J. W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method

  1. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  2. Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein Mep45 of rumen anaerobe Selenomonas ruminantium forms a non-specific diffusion pore via its C-terminal transmembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Hayashi, Kanako; Tochigi, Saeko; Kusano, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The major outer membrane protein Mep45 of Selenomonas ruminantium, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, comprises two distinct domains: the N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain, whose function has been unknown. Here, we solubilized and purified Mep45 and characterized its function using proteoliposomes reconstituted with Mep45. We found that Mep45 forms a nonspecific diffusion channel via its C-terminal region. The channel was permeable to solutes smaller than a molecular weight of roughly 600, and the estimated pore radius was 0.58 nm. Truncation of the SLH domain did not affect the channel property. On the basis of the fact that Mep45 is the most abundant outer membrane protein in S. ruminantium, we conclude that Mep45 serves as a main pathway through which small solutes diffuse across the outer membrane of this bacterium.

  3. Shear layer flame stabilization sensitivities in a swirling flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Foley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A variety of different flame configurations and heat release distributions exist in high swirl, annular flows, due to the existence of inner and outer shear layers as well a vortex breakdown bubble. Each of these different configurations, in turn, has different thermoacoustic sensitivities and influences on combustor emissions, nozzle durability, and liner heating. This paper presents findings on the sensitivities of the outer shear layer- stabilized flames to a range of parameters, including equivalence ratio, bulkhead temperature, flow velocity, and preheat temperature. There is significant hysteresis for flame attachment/detachment from the outer shear layer and this hysteresis is also described. Results are also correlated with extinction stretch rate calculations based on detailed kinetic simulations. In addition, we show that the bulkhead temperature near the flame attachment point has significant impact on outer shear layer detachment. This indicates that understanding the heat transfer between the edge flame stabilized in the shear layer and the nozzle hardware is needed in order to predict shear layer flame stabilization limits. Moreover, it shows that simulations cannot simply assume adiabatic boundary conditions if they are to capture these transitions. We also show that the reference temperature for correlating these transitions is quite different for attachment and local blow off. Finally, these results highlight the deficiencies in current understanding of the influence of fluid mechanic parameters (e.g. velocity, swirl number on shear layer flame attachment. For example, they show that the seemingly simple matter of scaling flame transition points with changes in flow velocities is not understood.

  4. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  5. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonelli, D.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Mckay, C.P.; Reynolds, R.T.; Summers, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The compositional contrast between the giant-planet satellites and the significantly rockier Pluto/Charon system is indicative of different formation mechanisms; cosmic abundance calculations, in conjunction with an assumption of the Pluto/Charon system's direct formation from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that most of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in CO form, in keeping with both the inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, and/or the Lewis and Prinn (1980) kinetic-inhibition model of solar nebula chemistry. Laboratory studies of carbonaceous chondrites and Comet Halley flyby studies suggest that condensed organic material, rather than elemental carbon, is the most likely candidate for the small percentage of the carbon-bearing solid in the outer solar nebula. 71 refs

  6. LO2/LH2 propulsion for outer planet orbiter spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, P. W.; Sigurdson, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Galileo class orbiter missions (750-1500 kg) to the outer planets require a large postinjection delta-V for improved propulsion performance. The present investigation shows that a pump-fed low thrust LO2/LH2 propulsion system can provide a significantly larger net on-orbit mass for a given delta-V than a state-of-the-art earth storable, N2O4/monomethylhydrazine pressure-fed propulsion system. A description is given of a conceptual design for a LO2/LH2 pump-fed propulsion system developed for a Galileo class mission to the outer planets. Attention is given to spacecraft configuration, details regarding the propulsion system, the thermal control of the cryogenic propellants, and aspects of mission performance.

  7. Defining the limits of outer space for regulatory purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt Neto, Olavo de Oliviera

    2015-01-01

    With different countries ascribing to different theories of air space and outer space law, Dr. Bittencourt Neto proposes in this Brief a reassessment of the international law related to the extension of state territories vertically. Taking into consideration the vast number of proposals offered by scholars and diplomatic delegations on this subject matter, as well as the principles of comparative law, a compromise to allow for peaceful development is the only way forward. The author argues for setting the delimitation of the frontier between air space and outer space at 100 km above mean sea level through an international treaty. This would also regulate passage rights for space objects during launchings and reentries, as long as those space activities are peaceful, conducted in accordance with international Law and respecting the sovereign interests of the territorial State. Continuing expansion of the commercial space industry and conflicting national laws require a stable and fair legal framework best ...

  8. Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy

    2017-08-01

    Long time base observations of the outer planets are critical in understanding the atmospheric dynamics and evolution of the gas giants. We propose yearly monitoring of each giant planet for the remainder of Hubble's lifetime to provide a lasting legacy of increasingly valuable data for time-domain studies. The Hubble Space Telescope is a unique asset to planetary science, allowing high spatial resolution data with absolute photometric knowledge. For the outer planets, gas/ice giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, many phenomena happen on timescales of years to decades, and the data we propose are beyond the scope of a typical GO program. Hubble is the only platform that can provide high spatial resolution global studies of cloud coloration, activity, and motion on a consistent time basis to help constrain the underlying mechanics.

  9. Low velocity encounters of minor bodies with the outer planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Perozzi, E.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    Previous studies of close encounters of minor bodies with Jupiter have shown that the perturbations are stronger either if the encounter is very deep or if the velocity of the minor body relative to the planet is low. In the present research the author investigates the effects of low velocity encounters between fictitious minor bodies and the four outer planets. Two possible outcomes of this type of encounter are the temporary satellite capture of the minor body by the planet, and the exchange of perihelion with aphelion of the minor body orbit. Different occurrence rates of these processes are found for different planets, and the implications for the orbital evolution of minor bodies in the outer Solar System are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables by outer approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several variants of an outer approximation method are proposed to solve truss topology optimization problems with discrete design variables to proven global optimality. The objective is to minimize the volume of the structure while satisfying constraints on the global stiffness of the structure...... for classical outer approximation approaches applied to optimal design problems. A set of two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems are solved and the numerical results suggest that the proposed approaches are competitive with other special-purpose global optimization methods for the considered class...... under the applied loads. We extend the natural problem formulation by adding redundant force variables and force equilibrium constraints. This guarantees that the designs suggested by the relaxed master problems are capable of carrying the applied loads, a property which is generally not satisfied...

  11. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku, E-mail: ono.t@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  12. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku

    2014-01-01

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  13. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Possible origin of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehlmann, D.

    1986-01-01

    Within a planetogonic model the self-gravitationally caused formation of pre-planetary and pre-satellite rings from an earlier thin disk is reported. The theoretically derived orbital radii of these rings are compared with the orbital levels in the planetary system and the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. From this comparison it is concluded that at the radial position of Saturn's newly discovered outer ring an early pre-satellite ring of more or less evolved satellites could have existed. These satellites should have been disturbed in their evolution by the gravitation of the neighbouring massive satellite Titan. The comparison also may indicate similarities between the asteroidal belt and the newly discovered outer ring of Saturn

  15. Growth behavior of surface oxide layer on SUS316L stainless steel at the early stage of exposure to 288degC water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Surface oxide layer on SUS316L stainless steels exposed to 288degC pure water with 2 ppm dissolved oxygen (DO) for 1-100 h were analyzed using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) technique to understand the early stage of surface oxide layer formation. In order to analyze the multi layered surface oxide, the interfaces between the outer and the inner oxide layers and that between the inner oxide layer and SUS316L substrate were determined from Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) line profiles. At 1 h exposure, double oxide layer which is composed of compact inner oxide layer and outer oxide layer with Fe-rich and Ni-rich oxide particles was formed. At the outermost region of the SUS316L substrate, Ni and Cr were enriched. At 100 h exposure, growth of the inner oxide layer was suppressed and the Ni and Cr enriched region at the alloy substrate was preserved underneath the Ni-rich outer oxide particles. At 1 h exposure, most of the outer oxide particles were composed of Fe-rich ones, at 10 h exposure, another Ni-rich outer oxide particles were nucleated and grew faster than Fe-rich ones. Consequently, a part of pre-formed Fe-rich outer oxide particles were covered with Ni-rich ones. (author)

  16. Imaging Shock Fronts in the Outer Ejecta of Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2017-08-01

    Although Eta Car has been imaged many times with HST to monitor the central star and the bright Homunculus Nebula, we propose the first WFC3 imaging of Eta Car to study the more extended Outer Ejecta from previous eruptions. WFC3 has two key filters that have not been used before to image Eta Car, which will provide critical physical information about its eruptive history: (1) F280N with WFC3/UVIS will produce the first Mg II 2800 image of Eta Car, the sharpest image of its complex Outer Ejecta, and will unambiguously trace shock fronts, and (2) F126N with WFC3/IR will sample [Fe II] 12567 arising in the densest post-shock gas. Eta Car is surrounded by a bright, soft X-ray shell seen in Chandra images, which arises from the fastest 1840s ejecta overtaking slower older material. Our recent proper motion measurements show that the outer knots were ejected in two outbursts several hundred years before the 1840s eruption, and spectroscopy of light echoes has recently revealed extremely fast ejecta during the 1840s that indicate an explosive event. Were those previous eruptions explosive as well? If so, were they as energetic, did they also have such fast ejecta, and did they have the same geometry? The structure and excitation of the Outer Ejecta hold unique clues for reconstructing Eta Car's violent mass loss history. The locations of shock fronts in circumstellar material provide critical information, because they identify past discontinuities in the mass loss. This is one of the only ways to investigate the long term (i.e. centuries) evolution and duty cycle of eruptive mass loss in the most massive stars.

  17. Progressive outer retinal necrosis and immunosuppressive therapy in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  18. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solène Coisy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report: A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion: VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  19. Spheres of influence: Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, M J; Dashper, S G; Slakeski, N; Chen, Y-Y; Reynolds, E C

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are asymmetrical single bilayer membranous nanostructures produced by Gram-negative bacteria important for bacterial interaction with the environment. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, produces OMVs that act as a virulence factor secretion system contributing to its pathogenicity. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms of OMV biogenesis have not been fully elucidated. The ~14 times more curvature of the OMV membrane than cell outer membrane (OM) indicates that OMV biogenesis requires energy expenditure for significant curvature of the OMV membrane. In P. gingivalis, we propose that this may be achieved by upregulating the production of certain inner or outer leaflet lipids, which causes localized outward curvature of the OM. This results in selection of anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and associated C-terminal domain (CTD) -family proteins on the outer surface due to their ability to accommodate the curvature. Deacylation of A-LPS may further enable increased curvature leading to OMV formation. Porphyromonas gingivalis OMVs that are selectively enriched in CTD-family proteins, largely the gingipains, can support bacterial coaggregation, promote biofilm development and act as an intercessor for the transport of non-motile bacteria by motile bacteria. The P. gingivalis OMVs are also believed to contribute to host interaction and colonization, evasion of immune defense mechanisms, and destruction of periodontal tissues. They may be crucial for both micro- and macronutrient capture, especially heme and probably other assimilable compounds for its own benefit and that of the wider biofilm community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  2. Multimission nuclear electric propulsion system for outer planet exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A 100-kW reactor power system with a specific mass of 15 to 30 kg/kW/sub e/ and an electric thrust system with a specific mass of 5 to 10 kg/kW/sub e/ can be combined into a nuclear electric propulsion system. The system can be used for outer planet missions as well as earth orbital transfer vehicle missions. 5 refs

  3. The usage of phase change materials in fire fighter protective clothing: its effect on thermal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng

    2017-12-01

    The thermal protective performance of the fire fighter protective clothing is of vital importance for fire fighters. In the study fabrics treated by phase change materials (PCMs) were applied in the multi-layered fabrics of the fire fighter protective clothing ensemble. The PCM fabrics were placed at the different layers of the clothing and their thermal protective performance were measured by a TPP tester. Results show that with the application of the PCM fabrics the thermal protection of the multi-layered fabrics was greatly increased. The time to reach a second degree burn was largely reduced. The location of the PCM fabrics at the different layers did not affect much on the thermal protective performance. The higher amount of the PCM adds on, the higher thermal protection was brought. The fabrics with PCMs of a higher melting temperature could contribute to higher thermal protection.

  4. Biology on the outer planets. [life possibility in atmospheres and moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review is given of information on the structure and composition of the outer planets and the organic reactions that may be occurring on them. The possibility of life arising or surviving in the atmospheres of these planets is considered, and the problem of contamination during future unmanned missions is assessed. Atmospheric models or available atmospheric data are reviewed for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, the Galilean satellites, and Titan. The presence of biologically interesting gases on Jupiter and Saturn is discussed, requirements for life on Jupiter are summarized, and possible sources of biological energy are examined. Proposals are made for protecting these planets and satellites from biological contamination by spacecraftborne terrestrial organisms.

  5. Periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of outer membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhi Xin; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2015-04-01

    The β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are integral membrane proteins that reside in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and perform a diverse range of biological functions. Synthesized in the cytoplasm, OMPs must be transported across the inner membrane and through the periplasmic space before they are assembled in the outer membrane. In Escherichia coli, Skp, SurA and DegP are the most prominent factors identified to guide OMPs across the periplasm and to play the role of quality control. Although extensive genetic and biochemical analyses have revealed many basic functions of these periplasmic proteins, the mechanism of their collaboration in assisting the folding and insertion of OMPs is much less understood. Recently, biophysical approaches have shed light on the identification of the intricate network. In the present review, we summarize recent advances in the characterization of these key factors, with a special emphasis on the multifunctional protein DegP. In addition, we present our proposed model on the periplasmic quality control in biogenesis of OMPs.

  6. Living among giants exploring and settling the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The outer Solar System is rich in resources and may be the best region in which to search for life beyond Earth. In fact, it may ultimately be the best place for Earthlings to set up permanent abodes. This book surveys the feasibility of that prospect, covering the fascinating history of exploration that kicks off our adventure into the outer Solar System.   Although other books provide surveys of the outer planets, Carroll approaches it from the perspective of potential future human exploration, exploitation and settlement, using insights from today’s leading scientists in the field. These experts take us to targets such as the moons Titan, Triton, Enceladus, Iapetus and Europa, and within the atmospheres of the gas and ice giants. In these pages you will experience the thrill of discovery awaiting those who journey through the giant worlds and their moons.   All the latest research is included, as are numerous illustrations, among them original paintings by the author, a renowned prize-winning space art...

  7. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  8. Structural basis for alginate secretion across the bacterial outer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, J.C.; Robinson, H.; Hay, I. D.; Li, C.; Eckford, P. D. W.; Amaya, M. F.; Wood, L. F.; Ohman, D. E.; Bear, C. E.; Rehm, B. H.; Howell, P. L.

    2011-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  9. Structural Basis for Alginate Secretion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Whitney; I Hay; C Li; P Eckford; H Robinson; M Amaya; L Wood; D Ohman; C Bear; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant pathogen associated with chronic lung infection among cystic fibrosis patients. During colonization of the lung, P. aeruginosa converts to a mucoid phenotype characterized by the overproduction of the exopolysaccharide alginate. Secretion of newly synthesized alginate across the outer membrane is believed to occur through the outer membrane protein AlgE. Here we report the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of AlgE, which reveals a monomeric 18-stranded {beta}-barrel characterized by a highly electropositive pore constriction formed by an arginine-rich conduit that likely acts as a selectivity filter for the negatively charged alginate polymer. Interestingly, the pore constriction is occluded on either side by extracellular loop L2 and an unusually long periplasmic loop, T8. In halide efflux assays, deletion of loop T8 ({Delta}T8-AlgE) resulted in a threefold increase in anion flux compared to the wild-type or {Delta}L2-AlgE supporting the idea that AlgE forms a transport pathway through the membrane and suggesting that transport is regulated by T8. This model is further supported by in vivo experiments showing that complementation of an algE deletion mutant with {Delta}T8-AlgE impairs alginate production. Taken together, these studies support a mechanism for exopolysaccharide export across the outer membrane that is distinct from the Wza-mediated translocation observed in canonical capsular polysaccharide export systems.

  10. Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammy S. Edgecumble Summers

    2001-08-23

    This Analysis Model Report (AMR) was prepared in accordance with the Work Direction and Planning Document, ''Aging and Phase Stability of Waste Package Outer Barrier'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). ICN 01 of this AMR was developed following guidelines provided in TWP-MGR-MD-000004 REV 01, ''Technical Work Plan for: Integrated Management of Technical Product Input Department'' (BSC 2001, Addendum B). It takes into consideration the Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), which has been selected as the preferred design for the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) by the License Application Design Selection (LADS) program team (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The salient features of the EDA II design for this model are a waste package (WP) consisting of an outer barrier of Alloy 22 and an inner barrier of Type 316L stainless steel. This report provides information on the phase stability of Alloy 22l, the current waste-package-outer-barrier (WPOB) material. These phase stability studies are currently divided into three general areas: (1) Long-range order reactions; (2) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in the base metal; and (3) Intermetallic and carbide precipitation in welded samples.

  11. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  12. Distribution of flexural deflection in the worldwide outer rise area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Jun; Lin, Jing-Yi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chin, Shao-Jinn; Chen, Yen-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The outer rise on the fringe of a subduction system is caused by an accreted load on the flexed oceanic lithosphere. The magnitude of the deflection is usually linked to the stress state beard by the oceanic plate. In a coupled subduction zone, the stress is abundantly accumulated across the plate boundary which should affect the flexural properties of the subducted plate. Thus, the variation of the outer rise in shape may reflect the seismogenic characteristics of the subduction system. In this study, we intent to find the correlation between the flexure deflection (Wb) of the outer rise and the subduction zone properties by comparing several slab parameters and the Wb distribution. The estimation of Wb is performed based on the available bathymetry data and the statistic analysis of earthquakes is from the global ISC earthquake catalog for the period of 1900-2015. Our result shows a progressive change of Wb in space, suggesting a robust calculation. The average Wb of worldwise subduction system spreads from 348 to 682 m. No visible distinction in the ranging of Wb was observed for different subduction zones. However, in a weak coupling subduction system, the standard variation of Wb has generally larger value. Relatively large Wb generally occurs in the center of the trench system, whereas small Wb for the two ends of trench. The comparison of Wb and several slab parameters shows that the Wb may be correlated with the maximal magnitude and the number of earthquakes. Otherwise, no clear relationship with other parameters can be obtained.

  13. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A

    2014-01-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)

  14. Similar Simulation Test on Permeability Evolution of Floor During Upper Protective Layer Mining in "Three Soft" Coal Seam%“三软”煤层上保护层开采底板围岩透气性演化相似试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    撒占友; 李磊; 卢守青; 刘杰; 张辉

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the permeability evolution law of floor surrounding rock in "three soft" coal seam of high stress zone during the upper protective seam mining,taking the protective seam mining in Ji15-23130 working face of Henan Pingdingshan No.4 mine as the research object,similar experiments are carried out.The results show that the closer distance of the protective layers are,the larger displacement of the bottom is,the higher peak value of the stress curve is,and the smaller the minimum value is,the higher the permeability coefficient is.The permeability coefficient of floor in upper protective layer mining process has successively experienced three stages,they are "slow down-increase dramatically-slow down again",and there is little difference in the improvement of permeability coefficient at different positions of the same layer.The test also shows that the abrupt change and pressure relief in the process of upper protection layer mining is the important reason for the abnormal gas emission in the mining face.%为了探讨高应力区“三软”煤层上保护层开采底板围岩透气性演化规律,以河南平顶山四矿己15-23130工作面作上保护层煤层开采为研究对象,进行相似试验研究.结果表明,距保护层越近,底板位移量越大,应力曲线峰值越高,极小值越小,透气性系数提升越显著;底板透气性系数在上保护层开采过程中依次经历“缓慢下降-大幅提高-再次缓慢降低”3个阶段,同一层位不同水平位置底板透气性系数提高程度差别不大;上保护层开采过程中底板压力陡变卸压是导致工作面瓦斯异常涌出的重要原因.

  15. The carbon budget in the outer solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, D P; Pollack, J B; McKay, C P; Reynolds, R T; Summers, A L

    1989-01-01

    Detailed models of the internal structures of Pluto and Charon, assuming rock and water ice as the only constituents, indicate that the mean silicate mass fraction of this two-body system is on the order of 0.7; thus the Pluto/Charon system is significantly "rockier" than the satellites of the giant planets (silicate mass fraction approximately 0.55). This compositional contrast reflects different formation mechanisms: it is likely that Pluto and Charon formed directly from the solar nebula, while the circumplanetary nebulae that produced the giant planet satellites were derived from envelopes that surrounded the forming giant planets (envelopes in which icy planetesimals dissolved more readily than rocky planetesimals). Simple cosmic abundance calculations, and the assumption that the Pluto/Charon system formed directly from solar nebula condensates, strongly suggest that the majority of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of carbon monoxide; these results are consistent with (1) inheritance from the dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium (where CH4/CO nebula chemistry. Theoretical predictions of the C/H enhancements in the atmospheres of the giant planets, when compared to the actual observed enhancements, suggest that 10%, or slightly more, of the carbon in the outer solar nebula was in the form of condensed materials (although the amount of condensed C may have dropped slightly with increasing heliocentric distance). Strict compositional limits computed for the Pluto/Charon system using the densities of CH4 and CO ices indicate that these pure ices are at best minor components in the interiors of these bodies, and imply that CH4 and CO ices were not the dominant C-bearing solids in the outer nebula. Clathrate-hydrates could not have appropriated enough CH4 or CO to be the major form of condensed carbon, although such clathrates may be necessary to explain the presence of methane on Pluto after its formation from a CO-rich nebula

  16. Inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel by layer-by-layer deposition and surface-initiated atom-transfer-radical polymerization for combating biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2009-03-01

    To improve the biocorrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to confer the bactericidal function on its surface for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of the inner compact titanium oxide multilayers and outer dense poly(vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium) brushes, were successfully developed. Nanostructured titanium oxide multilayer coatings were first built up on the SS substrates via the layer-by-layer sol-gel deposition process. The trichlorosilane coupling agent, containing the alkyl halide atom-transfer-radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was subsequently immobilized on the titanium oxide coatings for surface-initiated ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). The pyridium nitrogen moieties of the covalently immobilized 4VP polymer, or P(4VP), brushes were quaternized with hexyl bromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium salt on the SS surfaces. The excellent antibacterial efficiency of the grafted polycations, poly(vinyl-N-pyridinium bromide), was revealed by viable cell counts and atomic force microscopy images of the surface. The effectiveness of the hybrid coatings in corrosion protection was verified by the Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.

  17. Dispersion properties of three-layered orthotropic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper studies the harmonic wave propagation in thick, cylindrical, three-layered shells of infinite length. Both the outer layers and the core are composites made of short strand fiberglass and polyester resin. The randomly oriented fibers were approximately in parallel planes to constitute a transversely isotropic fibre composite. The planes of isotropy in the outer layers are orthogonal to the plane of isotropy at the core. A closed form solution of the exact linear equations of elasticity in sought in terms of a Frobenius series. The influence of the core thickness on the dynamics of the wave motion is estimated from numerically computed dispersion curves. Asymmetric wave motion is given prime consideration and the different types of waves which can occur are identified over a wide range of wave numbers

  18. Nitrite reduction on a multimetallic porphyrin/polyoxotungstate layer-by-layer modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Macarena; Honores, Jessica; Quezada, Diego; Díaz, Carlos; Dreyse, Paulina; Celis, Freddy; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Canzi, Gabriele; Guzmán, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Electro and photoelectrochemical reduction of nitrite in aqueous solution was studied using a multielectrocatalysts modified ITO electrode. ITO modification was carried out using the layer-by-layer (LBL) method, where sequential electrostatic assemblies were formed using a μ-(meso-5,10,15,20-tetra(pirydil)porphyrin)tetrakis{bis(bipyridine)chloride ruthenium (II)} [MTRP] n+ , coordinated in its central cavity with Mn(III), Zn(II) or Ni(II) as a cationic layer, and polyoxotungstate [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− as the anionic layer. Electrochemical measurements and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to monitor the modification process. Optimal results were obtained when three layers were deposited onto the ITO surface and were stable in aqueous solution. The order of the multilayer formation was explored by comparing a modified electrode where [Zn(II)TRP] 4+ was the outermost layer with an electrode where [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− was the outer layer. Results show that the best performing electrode is one with [SiW 12 O 40 ] 4− as the outer layer. Nitrite reduction on these electrode surfaces was studied in dark conditions and under light irradiation. Potential controlled electrolysis experiments were also performed, finding hydroxylamine, hydrazine and ammonia as the reduction products in dark conditions. Under light irradiation, only hydrazine and ammonia were found and, we observed an increase in the amount of obtained product. In this case, the electrolysis was carried out 150 mV less and half of time than in dark conditions. These results show that the combination of light and potential give rise to an improvement in the electrocatalytic properties of the modified electrodes. Continuous photolysis and IR spectroelectrochemical experiments were carried out to determinate the nature of this phenomena, evidencing the formation of an intermediary species between nitrite and [Mn(III)TRP] 5+.

  19. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  20. Correlation of Optical Coherence Tomography and Autofluorescence in the Outer Retina and Choroid of Patients With Choroideremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kanmin; Oldani, Marta; Jolly, Jasleen K; Edwards, Thomas L; Groppe, Markus; Downes, Susan M; MacLaren, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the relationships between RPE, photoreceptor, and choroidal degeneration in choroideremia. Enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and autofluorescence (AF) were performed on 39 patients (78 eyes) with choroideremia. The edges of surviving outer retina on OCT and residual AF were aligned. The distribution of outer retinal tubulations was mapped over a range of ages (16-71 years), and comparison made between pre- and postsubretinal gene therapy. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) was compared between 23 choroideremia patients (42 eyes) and 20 age- and refraction-matched male controls (40 eyes). The edges of RPE AF aligned with a reduction in outer nuclear layer thickness (Spearman's rho = 0.9992). Correlation was also found between the quality of AF and integrity of ellipsoid zone within islands of surviving retina. Tubulations existed in 71 of 78 (91%) eyes with choroideremia and remained stable following gene therapy. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was reduced at baseline in choroideremia (179.7 ± 17.2 μm) compared with controls (302.0 ± 4.8 μm; P retina and hence being potentially light responsive (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01461213).

  1. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  2. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  3. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.

    2003-01-01

    This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

  4. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  5. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  6. TaxHf1−xB2–SiC multiphase oxidation protective coating for SiC-coated carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Xuanru; Li, Hejun; Fu, Qiangang; Li, Kezhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 –SiC coating was prepared on SiC coated C/C by in-situ reaction method. • TaB 2 and HfB 2 were introduced in the form of solid solution Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 . • The coating could protect C/C for 1480 h with only 0.57% mass loss at 1773 K in air. • Oxidation layer consists of out Ta–Si–O compound layer and inner SiO 2 glass layer. • Ta–Si–O compound silicate layer presents a better stability than SiO 2 glass layer. - Abstract: A Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 –SiC coating was prepared by in-situ reaction method on SiC coated C/C composites. Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 phase is the form of solid solution between TaB 2 and HfB 2 . Isothermal oxidation behavior at 1773 K and ablation behavior of the coated C/C were tested. Ta x Hf 1−x B 2 –SiC/SiC coating could protect the C/C from oxidation at 1773 K for 1480 h and ablation above 2200 K for 40 s. During oxidation, oxides of Ta and Hf atoms exist as “pinning phases” in the compound glass layer consisted of outer Ta–Si–O compound silicate layer and inner SiO 2 glass layer, which was responsible for the excellent oxidation resistance

  7. The depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabogal Nelson

    2000-01-01

    The protection of the Earth's ozone layer is of the highest importance to mankind. The dangers of its destruction are by now well known. The depletion of that layer has reached record levels. The Antarctic ozone hole covered this year a record area. The ozone layer is predicted to begin recovery in the next one or two decades and should be restored to pre-1980 levels by 2050. This is the achievement of the regime established by the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The regime established by these two agreements has been revised, and made more effective in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), and Beijing (1999)

  8. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  9. Modeling the transmitted and stored energy in multilayer protective clothing under low-level radiant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; He, Jiazhen; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical model from heating source to skin tissues through multilayer fabric system is developed. • The numerical model is comprehensively validated with experimental data. • The model is used to investigate the relationship between the transmitted and stored energy and the influencing factors. - Abstract: A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn.

  10. Quench Protection System Optimization for the High Luminosity LHC Nb $_3$Sn Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Ravaioli, E; Auchmann, B; Ferracin, P; Maciejewski, M; Rodriguez-Mateos, F; Sabbi, GL; Todesco, E; Verweij, A P

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the large hadron collider to achieve higher luminosity requires the installation of twenty-four 150 mm aperture, 12 T, $Nb_3Sn$ quadrupole magnets close to the two interaction regions at ATLAS and CMS. The protection of these high-field magnets after a quench is particularly challenging due to the high stored energy density, which calls for a fast, effective, and reliable protection system. Three design options for the quench protection system of the inner triplet circuit are analyzed, including quench heaters attached to the coil's outer and inner layer, Coupling-Loss Induced Quench (CLIQ), and combinations of those. The discharge of the magnet circuit and the electromagnetic and thermal transients occurring in the coils are simulated by means of the TALES and LEDET programs. The sensitivity to strand parameters and the effects of several failure cases on the coil's hot-spot temperature and peak voltages to ground are assessed. A protection system based only on quench heaters attached to the o...

  11. Analysis of the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, R. E.; Grossman, B.

    1974-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to analyze the interaction of a normal shock wave with an unseparated turbulent boundary layer on a flat surface at transonic speeds. The theory leads to a three-layer description of the interaction in the double limit of Reynolds number approaching infinity and Mach number approaching unity. The interaction involves an outer, inviscid rotational layer, a constant shear-stress wall layer, and a blending region between them. The pressure distribution is obtained from a numerical solution of the outer-layer equations by a mixed-flow relaxation procedure. An analytic solution for the skin friction is determined from the inner-layer equations. The significance of the mathematical model is discussed with reference to existing experimental data.

  12. Legal Implications of Military Uses of Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Johanna

    2002-01-01

    Acquisition of Space Weapons, the Legal, Political and Military Impact for International Peace and At the dawn of a new century an immediate danger is upon us: The weaponization of outer space, including potential cost implications upon the prospect of ushering an era of peace and prosperity. But, can such statements be explained as pure sentimentality for hopes of a new era? Or is the danger misplaced that the threat to peace and security is an ever more ominous? By militarising outer space one could monitor crisis areas that could become a potential threat and this would in turn build confidence and security amongst nations. However the Outer Space Treaty prohibits placing in orbit nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. This does not include other military systems. Many countries feel the prohibition should be extended in the Treaty. Other military systems may involve anti-satellite weapons, (ASATS), emitting or simply placing technologies in space using laser and /or particle beams from space to intercept presently specific military targets such as ballistic missiles and hostile satellites, but in the future this may extend to destroying a target on earth. Military presence in space however, is not founded on weapons alone, but also through military surveillance systems and seen by some countries as an effective measure in verification on arms control. It is also seen as intensifying an arms race. At the forefront of the debate for space weapons is the possibility of countries deploying a National Missile Defence system. How does one reconcile such a system with present treaties? There has always been a direct relationship between weapons and space exploration, particularly if traced through the history of the late nineteenth century to the era of the space race. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, (1857 - 1935), was one of the founders to astronautics. Robert Goddard, (1882-1945) an Englishman, developed Tsiolkovskys' work further. He built the first liquid

  13. HYDROGEN IN THE EARTH’S OUTER CORE, AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEEP EARTH GEODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Rumyantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of hydrogen in the outer core of the Earth is roughly quantified from the dependence of the density of iron (viewed as the main component of the core on the amount of hydrogen dissolved in the core, with account of the most likely presence of iron hydrogen in the outer core, and the matter’s density jumps at the boundaries between the outer liquid core and the internal solid core (that is devoid of hydrogen and the mantle. Estimations for the outer liquid core show that the hydrogen content varies from 0.67 wt. % at the boundary with the solid inner core to 3.04 wt. % at the boundary with the mantle.Iron occlusion is viewed as the most likely mechanism for the iron–nickel core to capture such a significant amount of hydrogen. Iron occlusion took place at the stage of the young sun when the metallic core emerged in the cooling protoplanetary cloud containing hydrogen in high amounts, and non-volatile hydrogen was accumulated. Absorption (occlusion of molecular hydrogen was preceded by dissociation of molecules into atoms and ionization of the atoms, as proved by results of studies focused on Fe–H2 system, and hydrogen dissipation was thus prevented. The core matter was subject to gravitational compression at high pressures that contributed to the forced rapprochement of protons and electrons which interaction resulted by the formation of hydrogen atoms. Highly active hydrogen atoms reacted with metals and produced hydrides of iron and nickel, FeH and NiH. While the metallic core and then the silicate mantle were growing and consolidating, the stability of FeH and NiH was maintained due to pressures that were steadily increasing. Later on, due to the impacts of external forces on the Earth, marginal layers at the mantle–core boundary were detached and displaced, pressures decreased in the system, and iron and nickel hydrides were decomposed to produce molecular hydrogen. Consequences of the hydrides transformation into

  14. 33 CFR 165.1402 - Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apra Outer Harbor, Guam-regulated....1402 Apra Outer Harbor, Guam—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a regulated navigation area—The waters of the Pacific Ocean and Apra Outer Harbor enclosed by a line beginning at latitude 13...

  15. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Willoughby

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are specialized light sensing neurons. The photoreceptor outer segment is a highly modified cilium where photons of light are transduced into a chemical and electrical signal. The outer segment has the typical cilary axoneme but, in addition, it has a large number of densely packed, stacked, intramembranous discs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed throughout the life of the animal through the combined process of distal outer segment shedding and proximal outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we still lack an understanding of how photoreceptors renew their outer segments and few, if any, molecular mechanisms that regulate outer segment growth or shedding have been described. Our lack of progress in understanding how photoreceptors renew their outer segments has been hampered by the difficulty in measuring rates of renewal. We have created a new method that uses heat-shock induction of a fluorescent protein that can be used to rapidly measure outer segment growth rates. We describe this method, the stable transgenic line we created, and the growth rates observed in larval and adult rod photoreceptors using this new method. This new method will allow us to begin to define the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate rod outer segment renewal, a crucial aspect of photoreceptor function and, possibly, viability.

  16. Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Bannister, Michele T.; Marsset, Michaël; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey C.; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Thirouin, Audrey; Nesvorný, David

    2018-01-01

    The vast majority of the known dwarf-planet sized bodies are bright enough to be studied through optical and infrared spectroscopy. As a result, we have an understanding of the surface properties for the largest Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) which retain their primordial inventory of volatile ices. For the typically smaller > 22 mag KBO, we must rely instead on what colors reveal by proxy; yet this picture remains incomplete. Most KBO physical property studies examine the hodgepodge set of objects discovered by various surveys with different and varying detection biases that make it difficult if not impossible to reliably estimate the sizes of the different surface color groupings (compositional classes) residing in the modern-day Kuiper belt.The Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS) probes the surface properties within the Kuiper belt primarily through near simultaneous g,r and J colors with the Gemini North Telescope and u-band with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The project aims to target ~100 KBOs brighter than 23.6 r‧ mag found by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS), a survey with a well-measured detection efficiency. Thus, Col-OSSOS provides the first brightness-complete, compositional-dynamical map of the Outer Solar System, probing in a new light the radial color distribution in the primordial planetesimal disk from which KBOs originated. We will provide an update on the current status of the program highlighting results from the first two years of the survey; including size estimates of the two color KBO subgroups (the red and neutral surfaces) within the dynamically excited Kuiper belt and implications for the early planetesimal disk composition based on neutral-colored binaries found in the cold classical Kuiper belt.

  17. Outer Sphere Adsorption of Pb(II)EDTA on Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargar, John R

    1999-07-16

    FTIR and EXAFS spectroscopic measurements were performed on Pb(II)EDTA adsorbed on goethite as functions of pH (4-6), Pb(II)EDTA concentration (0.11 {micro}M - 72 {micro}M), and ionic strength (16 {micro}M - 0.5M). FTIR measurements show no evidence for carboxylate-Fe(III) bonding or protonation of EDTA at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Both FTIR and EXAFS measurements suggest that EDTA acts as a hexadentate ligand, with all four of its carboxylate and both amine groups bonded to Pb(II). No evidence was observed for inner-sphere Pb(II)-goethite bonding at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Hence, the adsorbed complexes should have composition Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}}. Since substantial uptake of PbEDTA(II){sup 2{minus}} occurred in the samples, we infer that Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}} adsorbed as outer-sphere complexes and/or as complexes that lose part of their solvation shells and hydrogen bond directly to goethite surface sites. We propose the term ''hydration-sphere'' for the latter type of complexes because they should occupy space in the primary hydration spheres of goethite surface functional groups, and to distinguish this mode of sorption from common structural definitions of inner- and outer-sphere complexes. The similarity of Pb(II) uptake isotherms to those of other divalent metal ions complexed by EDTA suggests that they too adsorb by these mechanisms. The lack of evidence for inner-sphere EDTA-Fe(III) bonding suggests that previously proposed metal-ligand - promoted dissolution mechanisms should be modified, specifically to account for the presence of outer-sphere precursor species.

  18. Frames and outer frames for Hilbert C^*-modules

    OpenAIRE

    Arambašić, Ljiljana; Bakić, Damir

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to extend the theory of frames for countably generated Hilbert $C^*$-modules over arbitrary $C^*$-algebras. In investigating the non-unital case we introduce the concept of outer frame as a sequence in the multiplier module $M(X)$ that has the standard frame property when applied to elements of the ambient module $X$. Given a Hilbert $\\A$-module $X$, we prove that there is a bijective correspondence of the set of all adjointable surjections from the generalize...

  19. Dynamically hot Super-Earths from outer giant planet scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chelsea X.; Petrovich, Cristobal; Deibert, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The hundreds of multiple planetary systems discovered by the \\textit{Kepler} mission are typically observed to reside in close-in ($\\lesssim0.5$ AU), low-eccentricity, and low-inclination orbits. We run N-body experiments to study the effect that unstable outer ($\\gtrsim1$ AU) giant planets, whose end orbital configurations resemble those in the Radial Velocity population, have on these close-in multiple super-Earth systems. Our experiments show that the giant planets greatly reduce the multi...

  20. Design of a Bearingless Outer Rotor Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Sun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A bearingless induction (BI motor with an outer rotor for flywheel energy storage systems is proposed due to the perceived advantages of simple rotor structure, non-contact support and high speed operation. Firstly, the configuration and operation principle of the proposed motor are described. Then several leading dimensional parameters are optimally calculated for achieving the maximum average values and the minimum ripples of torque output and suspension force. Finally, by using the finite element method, the characteristics and performance of the proposed machine are analyzed and verified.

  1. Aircraft crash upon outer containment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, H.; Paul, D.K.; Godbole, P.N.; Nayak, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of an aircraft crash upon an outer containment of a nuclear power plant is presented. The effect of target yielding is considered simultaneously by calculating the reaction time in a time marching scheme. The concrete model employed is capable of predicting the cracking and yielding. The response for different cracking strains and different locations of aircraft strike for different aircraft has been studied. Critical location of aircraft strike for the containment has been investigated. The analytical procedure and the material model used are found to be capable of representing the aircraft impact response of the containment structure. (orig.)

  2. Progressive outer retinal necrosis after rituximab and cyclophosphamide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Dogra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA, being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. rituximab, which might have led to reactivation of the virus causing necrotizing retinitis lesions. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide are extremely potent drugs, which are necessary to manage immunological disorders such as MPA. However, they may predispose the patient to serious complications like viral infections, including PORN.

  3. Progressive outer retinal necrosis after rituximab and cyclophosphamide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Mohit; Bajgai, Priya; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Aman

    2018-04-01

    We report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in a patient of microscopic polyangitis (MPA), being treated with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide and rituximab. Her aqueous tap was positive for Varicella Zoster virus and she was treated with oral and intravitreal antivirals, along with discontinuation of one of the immunosuppressive agents, i.e. rituximab, which might have led to reactivation of the virus causing necrotizing retinitis lesions. Rituximab and cyclophosphamide are extremely potent drugs, which are necessary to manage immunological disorders such as MPA. However, they may predispose the patient to serious complications like viral infections, including PORN.

  4. Redefining the essential trafficking pathway for outer membrane lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowicz, Marcin; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, most lipoproteins synthesized in the inner membrane (IM) are trafficked to the outer membrane (OM). The Lol pathway is the trafficking paradigm: LolCDE releases lipoproteins from the IM; LolA shuttles them between membranes to LolB in the OM. Several OM lipoproteins are essential for viability. In apparent concordance, the Lol proteins are each essential in wild-type cells. However, we show that Escherichia coli grows well without LolA and LolB in the absence of one...

  5. Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Unlike all the planets closer to the Sun, known since antiquity, the farthest reaches are the discoveries of the modern world. Uranus was discovered in 1781, Neptune in 1846, Pluto in 1930, the Kuiper belt group of objects in 1992, and though the Oort cloud has been theorized since 1950, its first member was found in 2004. The discovery of the outer planets made such an impression on the minds of mankind that they were immortalized in the names of the newly discovered elements: uranium, neptunium, and plutonium, an astonishingly deadly constituent of atomic bombs. Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and t

  6. The straw tube technology for the LHCb outer tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, S; Bagaturia, I; Deppe, H; Eisele, F; Haas, T; Hajduk, L; Langenegger, U; Michalowski, J; Nawrot, A; Polok, G; Pellegrino, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schwierz, R; Sluijk, T; Spelt, J

    2004-01-01

    For the outer tracking system of the LHCb spectrometer 53.760 straws of 2.5 m length will be used. They are arranged in detector modules of 5 m length and 0.34 m width. The envisaged spatial resolution over the entire active area is 200$mu$m resulting in stringent requirements on the accuracy for the module construction. In this paper we discuss the optimisation of the straws, design and construction of detector modules. The long term operation properties of straws in two different counting g...

  7. Thermo-fluid-dynamics of turbulent boundary layer over a moving continuous flat sheet in a parallel free stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Bushra; Noor Afzal Team; Bushra Afzal Team

    2014-11-01

    The momentum and thermal turbulent boundary layers over a continuous moving sheet subjected to a free stream have been analyzed in two layers (inner wall and outer wake) theory at large Reynolds number. The present work is based on open Reynolds equations of momentum and heat transfer without any closure model say, like eddy viscosity or mixing length etc. The matching of inner and outer layers has been carried out by Izakson-Millikan-Kolmogorov hypothesis. The matching for velocity and temperature profiles yields the logarithmic laws and power laws in overlap region of inner and outer layers, along with friction factor and heat transfer laws. The uniformly valid solution for velocity, Reynolds shear stress, temperature and thermal Reynolds heat flux have been proposed by introducing the outer wake functions due to momentum and thermal boundary layers. The comparison with experimental data for velocity profile, temperature profile, skin friction and heat transfer are presented. In outer non-linear layers, the lowest order momentum and thermal boundary layer equations have also been analyses by using eddy viscosity closure model, and results are compared with experimental data. Retired Professor, Embassy Hotel, Rasal Ganj, Aligarh 202001 India.

  8. 2-Shock layered tuning campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Laurent; Dittrich, T.; Khan, S.; Kyrala, G.; Ma, T.; MacLaren, S.; Ralph, J.; Salmonson, J.; Tipton, R.; Los Alamos Natl Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab Team

    2016-10-01

    The 2-Shock platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase of an indirect-drive target implosion and produce a stagnating hot spot in a quasi 1D-like manner. A sub-scale, 1700 _m outer diameter, and thick, 200 _m, uniformly Silicon doped, gas-filled plastic capsule is driven inside a nominal size 5750 _m diameter ignition hohlraum. The hohlraum fill is near vacuum to reduce back-scatter and improve laser/drive coupling. A two-shock pulse of about 1 MJ of laser energy drives the capsule. The thick capsule prevents ablation front feed-through to the imploded core. This platform has demonstrated its efficiency to tune a predictable and reproducible 1-D implosion with a nearly round shape. It has been shown that the high foot performance was dominated by the local defect growth due to the ablation front instability and by the hohlraum radiation asymmetries. The idea here is to take advantage of this 2-Shock platform to design a 1D-like layered implosion and eliminates the deleterious effects of radiation asymmetries and ablation front instability growth. We present the design work and our first experimental results of this near one-dimensional 2-Shock layered design. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Anti corrosion layer for stainless steel in molten carbonate fuel cell - comprises phase vapour deposition of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride layer then oxidising layer in molten carbonate electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Forming an anticorrosion protective layer on a stainless steel surface used in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) - comprises the phase vapour deposition (PVD) of a layer comprising at least one of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride and then forming a protective layer in situ...

  10. A Study of Calcareous Deposits on Cathodically Protected Mild Steel in Artificial Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous deposits were formed on steel under conditions of cathodic protection in artificial seawater at applied constant current densities ranging from 50 to 400 mA·m−2. The calcareous layers were characterized using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG SEM in conjunction with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. At cathodic current densities of 50–100 mA·m−2 where corrosion was still occurring, a clear correlation existed between the iron containing corrosion product and the overlying magnesium hydroxide layer. This revealed that the mapping of magnesium rich areas on a steel surface can be used in the identification of local corrosion sites. At current densities of 150–200 mA·m−2, a layered deposit was shown to occur consisting of an inner magnesium-containing layer and an outer calcium-containing layer. At current densities of 300–400 mA·m−2, intense hydrogen bubbling through macroscopic pores in the deposits gave rise to cracking of the deposited film. Under such conditions deposits do not have a well-defined double layer structure. There is also preferential formation of magnesium-rich compounds near the steel surface at the early stages of polarisation and within the developing pores and cracks of calcareous deposits later on. Based on SEM/EDX investigation of calcareous depositions the impedance model was proposed and used to monitor in situ variations in steel corrosion resistance, and to calculate the thickness of formed deposits using the length of oxygen diffusion paths.

  11. Innovative protection cookbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A large portion of the international community relies on expert judgment and military expertise to form the protection strategy of weapons-grade nuclear materials. This approach can be less than effectual for two primary reasons. First, much of the nuclear material that needs the most protection is not in a static form and located in easily secured storage locations. Some of the most effective measures for protection of in-process material are administrative and procedural in nature. There are basic protection differences between countries just like there are differences in baking bread. However, the necessary steps to produce bread are basically the same around the world. Certain ingredients are required to give it flavor, make it rise, and have a certain texture. So it is in the development of protection systems. A measure of intrusion detection, some access controls and searches, a pinch of computerized accounting, a layer of delay barriers, and a smidgen of armed response--and the basis for a 'cookbook' is born. Any and all protection systems can begin with simple elements that can be just as effective as the most sophisticated modern components. This paper will describe some of those simple, but effective, innovative protection measures. (author)

  12. Outer Retinal Changes Including the Ellipsoid Zone Band in Usher Syndrome 1B due to MYO7A Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaroka, Alexander; Matsui, Rodrigo; Cideciyan, Artur V; McGuigan, David B; Sheplock, Rebecca; Schwartz, Sharon B; Jacobson, Samuel G

    2016-07-01

    To study transition zones from normal to abnormal retina in Usher syndrome IB (USH1B) caused by myosin 7A (MYO7A) mutations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scattering layers in outer retina were segmented in patients (n = 16, ages 2-42; eight patients had serial data, average interval 4.5 years) to quantify outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer segments (OS) as well as the locus of EZ (ellipsoid zone) edge and its extent from the fovea. Static perimetry was measured under dark-adapted (DA) and light-adapted (LA) conditions. Ellipsoid zone edge in USH1B-MYO7A could be located up to 23° from the fovea. Ellipsoid zone extent constricted at a rate of 0.51°/year with slower rates at smaller eccentricities. A well-defined EZ line could be associated with normal or abnormal ONL and/or OS thickness; detectable ONL extended well beyond EZ edge. At the EZ edge, the local slope of LA sensitivity loss was 2.6 (±1.7) dB/deg for central transition zones. At greater eccentricities, the local slope of cone sensitivity loss was shallower (1.1 ± 0.4 dB/deg for LA) than that of rod sensitivity loss (2.8 ± 1.2 dB/deg for DA). In USH1B-MYO7A, constriction rate of EZ extent depends on the initial eccentricity of the transition. Ellipsoid zone edges in the macula correspond to large local changes in cone vision, but extramacular EZ edges show more pronounced losses on rod-based vision tests. It is advisable to use not only the EZ line but also other structural and functional parameters for estimating natural history of disease and possible therapeutic effects in future clinical trials of USH1B-MYO7A.

  13. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  14. Inter-annual variability of exchange processes at the outer Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Yuan, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    The advection of cold water below the surface mixed layer has a significant role in shaping the properties of the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL) in the Black Sea, and thus the horizontal redistribution of nutrients. The minimal temperature of the CIL in the southwest deep region of the sea in summer was shown to be lower than the winter surface temperature at the same location, indicating the horizontal advective nature of CIL formation in the area (Kolesnikov, 1953). In addition to advection in the deep area of the sea, the transport of cold waters from the northwest Black Sea shelf across the shelf break in winter was shown to contribute to the formation of the CIL (Filippov, 1968; Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However less is known of the exchanges between the CIL waters and the outer shelf areas in summer, when a surface mixed layer and the underlying seasonal thermocline are formed. Ivanov et al. (1997) suggested that the cross frontal exchange within the CIL is strongly inhibited, so that CIL waters formed in the deep sea (i.e. offshore of the Rim Current) do not replenish the CIL waters onshore of the Rim Current (also known as near-bottom shelf waters, or BSW), due to strong cross frontal gradients in potential vorticity (PV). To the contrary, Shapiro et al. (2011) analysed in-situ observations over the period of 1950-2001 and showed a high correlation between the CIL temperatures in the open sea and outer shelf. However, the statistical methods alone were not able to clearly establish the relation between the cause and the consequences. In this study we use a 3D numerical model of the Black Sea (NEMO-SHELF-BLS) to quantify the exchange of CIL waters between the open sea and the outer northwest Black Sea shelf and to assess its significance for the replenishment of BSW on the outer shelf. The model has a resolution of 1/16º latitude × 1/12º longitude and 33 levels in the vertical. In order to represent near-bottom processes better, the model uses a hybrid

  15. Tomographic Structural Changes of Retinal Layers after Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Macular Hole Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno P; Cristóvao, Diana M; Mano, Sofia; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Monteiro-Grillo, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    To highlight tomographic structural changes of retinal layers after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole surgery. Nonrandomized prospective, interventional study in 38 eyes (34 patients) subjected to pars plana vitrectomy and ILM peeling for idiopathic macular hole. Retinal layers were assessed in nasal and temporal regions before and 6 months after surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Total retinal thickness increased in the nasal region and decreased in the temporal region. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL) showed thinning on both nasal and temporal sides of the fovea. The thickness of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) increased. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) and outer retinal layers (ORL) increased in thickness after surgery in both nasal and temporal regions. ILM peeling is associated with important alterations in the inner retinal layer architecture, with thinning of the RNFL-GCL-IPL complex and thickening of OPL, ONL, and ORL. These structural alterations can help explain functional outcome and could give indications regarding the extent of ILM peeling, even though peeling seems important for higher rate of hole closure. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Effects of Earth's Outer Core's Viscosity on Geodynamo Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Jiao, L.; Zhang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Geodynamo process is controlled by mathematic equations and input parameters. To study effects of parameters on geodynamo system, MoSST model has been used to simulate geodynamo outputs under different outer core's viscosity ν. With spanning ν for nearly three orders when other parameters fixed, we studied the variation of each physical field and its typical length scale. We find that variation of ν affects the velocity field intensely. The magnetic field almost decreases monotonically with increasing of ν, while the variation is no larger than 30%. The temperature perturbation increases monotonically with ν, but by a very small magnitude (6%). The averaged velocity field (u) of the liquid core increases with ν as a simple fitted scaling relation: u∝ν0.49. The phenomenon that u increases with ν is essentially that increasing of ν breaks the Taylor-Proudman constraint and drops the critical Rayleigh number, and thus u increases under the same thermal driving force. Forces balance is analyzed and balance mode shifts with variation of ν. When compared with former studies of scaling laws, this study supports the conclusion that in a certain parameter range, the magnetic field strength doesn't vary much with the viscosity, but opposes to the assumption that the velocity field has nothing to do with the outer core viscosity.

  17. Dynamical limits on dark mass in the outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, D.W.; Quinlan, G.D.; Tremaine, S.

    1991-01-01

    Simplified model solar systems with known observational errors are considered in conducting a dynamical search for dark mass and its minimum detectable amount, and in determining the significance of observed anomalies. The numerical analysis of the dynamical influence of dark mass on the orbits of outer planets and comets is presented in detail. Most conclusions presented are based on observations of the four giant planets where the observational errors in latitude and longitude are independent Gaussian variables with a standard deviation. Neptune's long orbital period cannot be predicted by modern ephemerides, and no evidence of dark mass is found in considering this planet. Studying the improvement in fit when observations are fitted to models that consider dark mass is found to be an efficient way to detect dark mass. Planet X must have a mass of more than about 10 times the minimum detectable mass to locate the hypothetical planet. It is suggested that the IRAS survey would have already located the Planet X if it is so massive and close that it dynamically influences the outer planets. Orbital residuals from comets are found to be more effective than those from planets in detecting the Kuiper belt. 35 refs

  18. Fields and plasmas in the outer solar system. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Wolfe, J H [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (USA). Ames Research Center

    1979-04-01

    The most significant information about fields and plasmas in the outer solar system, based on observations by Pioneer 10 and 11 investigations, is reviewed. The characteristic evolution of solar wind streams beyond 1 AU has been observed. The region within which the velocity increases continuously near 1 AU is replaced at larger distances by a thick interaction region with abrupt jumps in the solar wind speed at the leading and trailing edges. These abrupt increases, accompanied by corresponding jumps in the field magnitude and in the solar wind density and temperature, consist typically of a forward and a reverse shock. The existance of two distinct corotating regions, separated by sharp boundaries, is a characteristic feature of the interplanetary medium in the outer solar system. Within the interaction regions, compression effects are dominant and the field strength, plasma density, plasma temperature and the level of fluctuations are enhanced. Within the intervening quiet regions, rarefaction effects dominante and the field magnitude, solar wind density and fluctuation level are very low. These changes in the structure of interplanetary space have significant consequences for the many energetic particles propagating through the medium.

  19. The CMS Outer Tracker for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dierlamm, Alexander Hermann

    2018-01-01

    The LHC is planning an upgrade program, which will bring the luminosity to about $5-7\\times10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ in 2026, with a goal of an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ by the end of 2037. This High Luminosity LHC scenario, HL-LHC, will require a preparation program of the LHC detectors known as Phase-2 Upgrade. The current CMS Tracker is already running beyond design specifications and will not be able to cope with the HL-LHC radiation conditions. CMS will need a completely new Tracker in order to fully exploit the highly demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Outer Tracker system is designed to provide robust tracking as well as Level-1 trigger capabilities using closely spaced modules composed of silicon macro-pixel and/or strip sensors. Research and development activities are ongoing to explore options and develop module components and designs for the HL-LHC environment. The design choices for the CMS Outer Tracker Upgrade are discussed along with some highlig...

  20. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Stephen R

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement 'orthogonal' T p (B) of the tangent space T p (B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hyperbolic system as the evolution equations for our numerical simulation of the model