WorldWideScience

Sample records for outer capsule surface

  1. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buice, E S; Alger, E T; Antipa, N A; Bhandarkar, S D; Biesiada, T A; Conder, A D; Dzenitis, E G; Flegel, M S; Hamza, A V; Heinbockel, C L; Horner, J; Johnson, M A; Kegelmeyer, L M; Meyer, J S; Montesanti, R C; Reynolds, J L; Taylor, J S; Wegner, P J

    2011-02-18

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 {micro}m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10{micro} diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1{sigma}), which corresponds to approximately 5 {micro}m linear error on the capsule surface.

  2. 3D Surface Mapping of Capsule Fill-Tube Assemblies used in Laser-Driven Fusion Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buice, E.S.; Alger, E.T.; Antipa, N.A.; Bhandarkar, S.D.; Biesiada, T.A.; Conder, A.D.; Dzenitis, E.G.; Flegel, M.S.; Hamza, A.V.; Heinbockel, C.L.; Horner, J.; Johnson, M.A.; Kegelmeyer, L.M.; Meyer, J.S.; Montesanti, R.C.; Reynolds, J.L.; Taylor, J.S.; Wegner, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a 3D surface mapping system used to measure the surface of a fusion target Capsule Fill-Tube Assembly (CFTA). The CFTA consists of a hollow Ge-doped plastic sphere, called a capsule, ranging in outer diameter between 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm and an attached 150 (micro)m diameter glass-core fill-tube that tapers down to a 10(micro) diameter at the capsule. The mapping system is an enabling technology to facilitate a quality assurance program and to archive 3D surface information of each capsule used in fusion ignition experiments that are currently being performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The 3D Surface Mapping System is designed to locate and quantify surface features with a height of 50 nm and 300 nm in width or larger. Additionally, the system will be calibrated such that the 3D measured surface can be related to the capsule surface angular coordinate system to within 0.25 degree (1σ), which corresponds to approximately 5 (micro)m linear error on the capsule surface.

  3. Ultrasonic examination of defects close to the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Serre, M.; Champigny, F.

    1986-11-01

    During the examination of a pressurized water reactor vessel with an in Service Inspection Machine (MIS), various welds are scanned with immersion ultrasonic focused transducers from the inside of the vessel. Defects close to the outer surface are sometimes detected, and sizing with the successive 6 dB drop method leads to oversize some indications; this is caused by various reflections on the outer wall; the corner echo is of particular importance here. CEA and EDF have started an experimental program in order to study the response of volumetric and planar defects located near the outer surface. We present here the first results obtained with artificial defects. 2 refs

  4. Stability of marginally outer trapped surfaces and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc, E-mail: acf@usal.e, E-mail: marc@usal.e [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-09-07

    We study the properties of stable, strictly stable and locally outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in spacelike hypersurfaces of spacetimes possessing certain symmetries such as isometries, homotheties and conformal Killings. We first obtain results for general diffeomorphisms in terms of the so-called metric deformation tensor and then particularize to different types of symmetries. In particular, we find restrictions at the surfaces on the vector field generating the symmetry. Some consequences are discussed. As an application, we present a result on non-existence of stable marginally outer trapped surfaces in slices of FLRW.

  5. Posterior capsule opacification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormstone, I Michael; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Christopher S C

    2009-02-01

    Posterior Capsule Opacification (PCO) is the most common complication of cataract surgery. At present the only means of treating cataract is by surgical intervention, and this initially restores high visual quality. Unfortunately, PCO develops in a significant proportion of patients to such an extent that a secondary loss of vision occurs. A modern cataract operation generates a capsular bag, which comprises a proportion of the anterior and the entire posterior capsule. The bag remains in situ, partitions the aqueous and vitreous humours, and in the majority of cases, houses an intraocular lens. The production of a capsular bag following surgery permits a free passage of light along the visual axis through the transparent intraocular lens and thin acellular posterior capsule. However, on the remaining anterior capsule, lens epithelial cells stubbornly reside despite enduring the rigours of surgical trauma. This resilient group of cells then begin to re-colonise the denuded regions of the anterior capsule, encroach onto the intraocular lens surface, occupy regions of the outer anterior capsule and most importantly of all begin to colonise the previously cell-free posterior capsule. Cells continue to divide, begin to cover the posterior capsule and can ultimately encroach on the visual axis resulting in changes to the matrix and cell organization that can give rise to light scatter. This review will describe the biological mechanisms driving PCO progression and discuss the influence of IOL design, surgical techniques and putative drug therapies in regulating the rate and severity of PCO.

  6. Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.

  7. Inverse analysis of inner surface temperature history from outer surface temperature measurement of a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, S; Ioka, S; Onchi, S; Matsumoto, Y

    2010-01-01

    When slug flow runs through a pipe, nonuniform and time-varying thermal stresses develop and there is a possibility that thermal fatigue occurs. Therefore it is necessary to know the temperature distributions and the stress distributions in the pipe for the integrity assessment of the pipe. It is, however, difficult to measure the inner surface temperature directly. Therefore establishment of the estimation method of the temperature history on inner surface of pipe is needed. As a basic study on the estimation method of the temperature history on the inner surface of a pipe with slug flow, this paper presents an estimation method of the temperature on the inner surface of a plate from the temperature on the outer surface. The relationship between the temperature history on the outer surface and the inner surface is obtained analytically. Using the results of the mathematical analysis, the inverse analysis method of the inner surface temperature history estimation from the outer surface temperature history is proposed. It is found that the inner surface temperature history can be estimated from the outer surface temperature history by applying the inverse analysis method, even when it is expressed by the multiple frequency components.

  8. Technology development on production of test specimens from irradiated capsule outer-tube and mechanical evaluation test of stainless steel with high dose carried out by the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shibata, Akira; Iwamatsu, Shigemi; Sozawa, Shizuo; Takada, Fumiki; Ohmi, Masao; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    2008-03-01

    The irradiation capsule 74M-52J was irradiated during total 136 cycles at reactor core of JMTR and the maximum neutron dose reached on 3.9x10 26 n/m 2 at the capsule outer-tube made of a type 304 stainless steel. In order to produce mechanical test specimens from the outer-tube, a punching technique was developed as a simple remote-handling method in a hot-cell. From comparison between the punching and the mechanical cutting methods, it was clarified that the punching technique was applicable to practical use. Moreover, an evaluation test of mechanical properties using specimens sampled from the 74M-52 was performed with in-water high temperature condition, less than 288degC. The result shows that the residual elongation is 18% at 150degC and 13% at 288degC. It was confirmed that the type 304 stainless steel irradiated up to such high dose shows enough ductility. (author)

  9. Study on residual stress across the pipes' thickness using outer surface rapid heating. Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Terasaki, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression plastic strain generates near the outer surface and the tensile plastic strain generates near the inner surface of pipes. The compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes by the plastic deformation. In this paper, the theoretical equation which calculates residual stress distribution from the inherent strain distribution in the thickness of pipes is derived. And, the relation between the distribution of temperature and the residual stress in the thickness is examined for various pipes size. (1) By rapidly heating from the outer surface, the residual stress near the inner surface of the pipe is improved to the compression stress. (2) Pipes size hardly affects the distribution of the residual stress in the stainless steel pipes for piping (JISG3459). (3) The temperature rising area from the outside is smaller, the area of the compression residual stress near the inner surface becomes wider. (author)

  10. Capsule of parotid gland tumor: evaluation by 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging using surface coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of parotid gland tumors has been widely reported, although few reports have evaluated the capsule of parotid gland tumors in detail. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils for detection of the parotid gland tumor capsule, and to clarify the characteristics of the capsules. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight patients with parotid gland tumors (63 benign and 15 malignant) were evaluated. Axial and coronal T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained using a 3.0 T MR scanner with 70 mm surface coils. It was retrospectively assessed whether each parotid gland tumor was completely surrounded by a capsule. The capsule was classified as regular or irregular in terms of capsular thickness, and as none, mildly, or strongly enhancing in terms of contrast enhancement. Visual interpretations were compared with histopathological findings to evaluate the diagnostic ability of MR imaging to detect parotid gland tumor capsules. Statistical evaluation was conducted concerning the presence of capsules, capsular irregularity, and the difference in contrast enhancement between benign and malignant tumors, and that between pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin's tumors. Results: Capsules completely surrounding the tumor on MR imaging yielded a sensitivity of 87.7% (50/57), specificity of 90.5% (19/21), and accuracy of 88.5% (69/78). Benign tumors had a capsule completely surrounding the tumor significantly more often than malignant tumors (P = 0.009). Concerning capsular irregularity, malignant tumors tended to have more irregular capsules than benign tumors, although there were no significant differences. The capsules of malignant tumors enhanced significantly more strongly than those of benign tumors (P = 0.018). Conclusion: 3.0 T MR imaging using surface coils could correctly depict parotid gland tumor capsules in most cases. Most benign and some malignant tumors had capsules

  11. Fine tuning the ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surface using ion mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Fearn, Sarah; Ismail, Nur L; McIntosh, Alastair J S; Lovelock, Kevin R J

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquid-vacuum outer atomic surfaces can be created that are remarkably different from the bulk composition. In this communication we demonstrate, using low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), that for ionic liquid mixtures the outer atomic surface shows significantly more atoms from anions with weaker cation-anion interactions (and vice versa).

  12. Development of a High Efficiency Dry Powder Inhaler: Effects of Capsule Chamber Design and Inhaler Surface Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P. Worth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) intended for excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery based on changes to the capsule orientation and surface modifications of the capsule and device. Methods DPIs were constructed by combining newly designed capsule chambers (CC) with a previously developed three-dimensional (3D) rod array for particle deagglomeration and a previously optimized EEG formulation. The new CCs oriented the capsule perpendicular to the incoming airflow and were analyzed for different air inlets at a constant pressure drop across the device. Modifications to the inhaler and capsule surfaces included use of metal dispersion rods and surface coatings. Aerosolization performance of the new DPIs was evaluated and compared with commercial devices. Results The proposed capsule orientation and motion pattern increased capsule vibrational frequency and reduced the aerosol MMAD compared with commercial/modified DPIs. The use of metal rods in the 3D array further improved inhaler performance. Coating the inhaler and capsule with PTFE significantly increased emitted dose (ED) from the optimized DPI. Conclusions High efficiency performance is achieved for EEG delivery with the optimized DPI device and formulation combination producing an aerosol with MMAD 90%, and ED > 80%. PMID:23949304

  13. Development of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler: effects of capsule chamber design and inhaler surface modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the performance of a high efficiency dry powder inhaler (DPI) intended for excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery based on changes to the capsule orientation and surface modifications of the capsule and device. DPIs were constructed by combining newly designed capsule chambers (CC) with a previously developed three-dimensional (3D) rod array for particle deagglomeration and a previously optimized EEG formulation. The new CCs oriented the capsule perpendicular to the incoming airflow and were analyzed for different air inlets at a constant pressure drop across the device. Modifications to the inhaler and capsule surfaces included use of metal dispersion rods and surface coatings. Aerosolization performance of the new DPIs was evaluated and compared with commercial devices. The proposed capsule orientation and motion pattern increased capsule vibrational frequency and reduced the aerosol MMAD compared with commercial/modified DPIs. The use of metal rods in the 3D array further improved inhaler performance. Coating the inhaler and capsule with PTFE significantly increased emitted dose (ED) from the optimized DPI. High efficiency performance is achieved for EEG delivery with the optimized DPI device and formulation combination producing an aerosol with MMAD  90%, and ED > 80%.

  14. SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Asoh, Tomokazu; Niimi, Motoji

    1992-10-01

    There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

  15. Charged particle modification of surfaces in the outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Voyager reflectance spectra data have indicated clear leading/trailing differences in the albedo of the icy Galilean and Saturian satellites. For the Galilean satellites, these have been analyzed by Nelson, et al. and, more recently, by McEwen. They have described the longitudinal dependence of this data and attempted to interpret this in terms of plasma and meteorite modification of the surface. Primary attention has been paid to Europa at which the leading/trailing differences are the largest. This data was reanalyzed extracting the single grain albedo (w) and constructing the Espat-function, W = (1-w)/w from this. Because w is near unity, W is approximately 2(alpha)D where alpha is the absorption coefficient and D is the grain size. In doing so, a direct comparison to the longitudinal plasma bombardment flux was found for the first time. This occurs primarily in the UV and is probably due to an absorption associated with implanted S, as the UV band of Voyager overlaps the IUE data of Lane et al. The relative importance of grain size effects and implant impurity effects can now be studied

  16. New configuration for efficient and durable copper coating on the outer surface of a tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A well-adhered copper coating on stainless steel power coupler parts is required in superconducting radio frequency (SRF accelerators. Radio frequency power coupler parts are complex, tubelike stainless steel structures, which require copper coating on their outer and inner surfaces. Conventional copper electroplating sometimes produces films with inadequate adhesion strength for SRF applications. Electroplating also requires a thin nickel strike layer under the copper coating, whose magnetic properties can be detrimental to SRF applications. Coaxial energetic deposition (CED and sputtering methods have demonstrated efficient conformal coating on the inner surfaces of tubes but coating the outer surface of a tube is challenging because these coating methods are line of sight. When the substrate is off axis and the plasma source is on axis, only a small section of the substrate’s outer surface is exposed to the source cathode. The conventional approach is to rotate the tube to achieve uniformity across the outer surface. This method results in poor film thickness uniformity and wastes most of the source plasma. Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC has developed a novel configuration called hollow external cathode CED (HEC-CED to overcome these issues. HEC-CED produces a film with uniform thickness and efficiently uses all eroded source material. The Cu film deposited on the outside of a stainless steel tube using the new HEC-CED configuration survived a high pressure water rinse adhesion test. HEC-CED can be used to coat the outside of any cylindrical structure.

  17. Further Characterization of the Capsule-Like Complex (CLC Produced by Francisella tularensis Subspecies tularensis: Protective Efficacy and Similarity to Outer Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Champion

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia, and subspecies tularensis (type A is the most virulent subspecies. The live vaccine strain (LVS of subspecies holarctica produces a capsule-like complex (CLC that consists of a large variety of glycoproteins. Expression of the CLC is greatly enhanced when the bacteria are subcultured in and grown on chemically defined medium. Deletion of two genes responsible for CLC glycosylation in LVS results in an attenuated mutant that is protective against respiratory tularemia in a mouse model. We sought to further characterize the CLC composition and to determine if a type A CLC glycosylation mutant would be attenuated in mice. The CLCs isolated from LVS extracted with 0.5% phenol or 1 M urea were similar, as determined by gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, but the CLC extracted with urea was more water-soluble. The CLC extracted with either 0.5% phenol or 1 M urea from type A strains was also similar to the CLC of LVS in antigenic properties, electrophoretic profile, and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The solubility of the CLC could be further enhanced by fractionation with Triton X-114 followed by N-Lauroylsarcosine detergents; the largest (>250 kDa molecular size component appeared to be an aggregate of smaller components. Outer membrane vesicles/tubules (OMV/T isolated by differential centrifugation and micro-filtration appeared similar to the CLC by TEM, and many of the proteins present in the OMV/T were also identified in soluble and insoluble fractions of the CLC. Further investigation is warranted to assess the relationship between OMV/T and the CLC. The CLC conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin or flagellin was highly protective against high-dose LVS intradermal challenge and partially protective against intranasal challenge. A protective response was associated with a significant rise in cytokines IL-12, IL-10, and IFN-γ. However, a type A CLC glycosylation mutant

  18. Analysis of the lipidated recombinant outer surface protein A from Borrelia burgdorferi by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchon, B.; Klein, Michele; Bischoff, Rainer; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Roitsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The outer surface protein A, OspA, from the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a lipoprotein of 25 kDa. The recombinant OspA (rOspA) expressed in Escherichia coli has been purified and analyzed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS). A heterogenous spectrum gave a measured mass of 28,462 +/- 9 Da

  19. Design procedure of capsule with multistage heater control (named MUSTAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Hiroyuki; Endoh, Yasuichi; Hoshiya, Taiji; Niimi, Motoji; Harayama, Yasuo

    1990-11-01

    A capsule with electric heaters at multistage (named MUSTAC) is a type of capsule used in JMTR. The heaters are assembled in the capsule. Supply electric current to the heaters can be independently adjusted with a control systems that keeps irradiation specimens to constant temperature. The capsule being used, the irradiation specimen are inserted into specimen holders. Gas-gap size, between outer surface of specimen holders and inner surface of capsule casing, is calculated and determined to be flatten temperature of loaded specimens over the region. The rise or drop of specimen temperature in accordance with reactor power fluctuations is corrected within the target temperature of specimen by using the heaters filled into groove at specimen holder surface. The present report attempts to propose a reasonable design procedure of the capsules by means of compiling experience for designs, works and irradiation data of the capsules and to prepare for useful informations against onward capsule design. The key point of the capsule lies on thermal design. Now design thermal calculations are complicated in case of specimen holder with multihole. Resolving these issues, it is considered from new on that an emphasis have to placed on settling a thermal calculation device, for an example, a computer program on calculation specimen temperature. (author)

  20. Area densitometry using rotating Scheimpflug photography for posterior capsule opacification and surface light scattering analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Keiichiro; Honbo, Masato; Mori, Yosai; Kataoka, Yasushi; Miyata, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    To compare area densitometry analysis using rotating Scheimpflug photography in quantifications of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) and surface light scattering with previous anterior-segment analyzer measurement. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan. Prospective observational case series. Scheimpflug images of eyes with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) were obtained using rotating and fixed Scheimpflug photography. Area densitometry on the posterior and anterior surfaces was conducted for PCO and surface light scattering analyses, respectively, with an identical area size. Correlation between two measurements was analyzed using linear regression. The study included 105 eyes of 74 patients who received IOLs 1 to 18 years (mean, 4.9 ± 4.5 years) postoperatively. In the PCO analysis on the posterior IOL surface, there was a significant correlation between the two measurements (P photography exhibited saturation due to intensive scatterings. Area densitometry combined with a rotating Scheimpflug photography was exchangeable to previously established densitometry measurement, and allowed successive evaluation in longer-term observations. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  2. Inverse estimation for temperatures of outer surface and geometry of inner surface of furnace with two layer walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Su, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an inverse analysis to estimate the boundary thermal behavior of a furnace with two layer walls. The unknown temperature distribution of the outer surface and the geometry of the inner surface were estimated from the temperatures of a small number of measured points within the furnace wall. The present approach rearranged the matrix forms of the governing differential equations and then combined the reversed matrix method, the linear least squares error method and the concept of virtual area to determine the unknown boundary conditions of the furnace system. The dimensionless temperature data obtained from the direct problem were used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of temperature measurement errors upon the precision of the estimated results was also investigated. The advantage of this approach is that the unknown condition can be directly solved by only one calculation process without initially guessed temperatures, and the iteration process of the traditional method can be avoided in the analysis of the heat transfer. Therefore, the calculation in this work is more rapid and exact than the traditional method. The result showed that the estimation error of the geometry increased with increasing distance between measured points and inner surface and in preset error, and with decreasing number of measured points. However, the geometry of the furnace inner surface could be successfully estimated by only the temperatures of a small number of measured points within and near the outer surface under reasonable preset error

  3. Finite element simulation of surface defects in the automobile door outer panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Masaru; Yamasaki, Yuji; Inage, Daisuke; Fujita, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a sheet metal forming simulation has become an indispensable tool for developing a new model of an automobile part within a limited short period. In these days, the utilization of a springback calculation of the formed part has been increasing. However, only a few papers on the prediction of surface defects have been reported in spite of serious needs.In this paper, surface defects in the door outer panel, especially those around the door handle embossment, have been investigated. Applying an explicit solver to the forming simulation, and an implicit solver to the springback calculation, we have tried to evaluate surface defects in the panel. In order to improve the accuracy of the simulation, numerical tools have been modeled including the precise shape of the draw beads so that the draw bead effects on both the material flow and the restraint on the springback deformation have been considered. Compared with the actual panel shape, which shows apparent surface defects, the simulated result has closely predicted the above defects around the embossment.To demonstrate the applicability of our simulation, a few sensitivity analyses have been carried out, modifying forming conditions such as blank holder force. Each result has shown slight but distinctive differences in the cross section profile of the panel. As a result, it has been realized that the influence of each considered factor on surface defects is qualitatively consistent with our practical knowledge

  4. Difference in radiocarbon ages of carbonized material from the inner and outer surfaces of pottery from a wetland archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Yoshiki; Minami, Masayo; Onbe, Shin; Sakamoto, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Toshio; Imamura, Mineo

    2011-01-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) radiocarbon dates for eight potsherds from a single piece of pottery from a wetland archaeological site indicated that charred material from the inner pottery surfaces (5052 ± 12 BP; N = 5) is about 90 (14)C years older than that from the outer surfaces (4961 ± 22 BP; N = 7). We considered three possible causes of this difference: the old wood effect, reservoir effects, and diagenesis. We concluded that differences in the radiocarbon ages between materials from the inner and outer surfaces of the same pot were caused either by the freshwater reservoir effect or by diagenesis. Moreover, we found that the radiocarbon ages of carbonized material on outer surfaces (soot) of pottery from other wetland archaeological sites were the same as the ages of material on inner surfaces (charred food) of the same pot within error, suggesting absence of freshwater reservoir effect or diagenesis.

  5. Study on the essential variables for pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP). Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Muroya, Itaru; Asada, Seiji; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes. In this paper, the essential variables for L-SIP is studied by experimental and FEM analysis. The range of the essential variables for L-SIP, which are defined by thermo-elastic FEM analysis, are Tmax=550 - 650degC, L Q /√rh ≥ 3, W Q /√rh ≥ 1.7, and, 0.04 ≤ F 0 ≤ 0.10 where Tmax is maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, F 0 is k x τ 0 /h 2 , k is thermal diffusivity coefficient, τ 0 is the temperature rise time from 100degC to maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, W Q is τ 0 x v, υ is moving velocity, L Q is the uniform temperature length in the axial direction, h is thickness of the pipe, and r is average radius of the pipe. It is showed by thermo-elastic-plastic FEM analysis that the residual stresses near the inner surface of pipes are improved in 4 different size pipes under the same essential variables. L-SIP is actually applied to welding joints of 4B x Sch160 and 2B x Sch80 SUS304 type stainless steel pipes within the defined range of the essential variables. The measured welding residual stresses on the inner surface near the welding joints are tensile. The residual stresses on the inner surface change to compression in all joints by L-SIP. (author)

  6. Scaling effects in spiral capsule robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Hu, Rong; Chen, Bai; Tang, Yong; Xu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Spiral capsule robots can be applied to human gastrointestinal tracts and blood vessels. Because of significant variations in the sizes of the inner diameters of the intestines as well as blood vessels, this research has been unable to meet the requirements for medical applications. By applying the fluid dynamic equations, using the computational fluid dynamics method, to a robot axial length ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2  m, the operational performance indicators (axial driving force, load torque, and maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall) of the spiral capsule robot and the fluid turbulent intensity around the robot spiral surfaces was numerically calculated in a straight rigid pipe filled with fluid. The reasonableness and validity of the calculation method adopted in this study were verified by the consistency of the calculated values by the computational fluid dynamics method and the experimental values from a relevant literature. The results show that the greater the fluid turbulent intensity, the greater the impact of the fluid turbulence on the driving performance of the spiral capsule robot and the higher the energy consumption of the robot. For the same level of size of the robot, the axial driving force, the load torque, and the maximum fluid pressure on the pipe wall of the outer spiral robot were larger than those of the inner spiral robot. For different requirements of the operating environment, we can choose a certain kind of spiral capsule robot. This study provides a theoretical foundation for spiral capsule robots.

  7. Modeling Surface Processes Occurring on Moons of the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umurhan, O. M.; White, O. L.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Schenk, P.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of processes, some with familiar terrestrial analogs, are known to take place on moon surfaces in the outer solar system. In this talk, we discuss the observed features of mass wasting and surface transport seen on both Jupiter's moon Calisto and one of Saturn's Trojan moons Helene. We provide a number of numerical models using upgraded version of MARSSIM in support of several hypotheses suggested on behalf of the observations made regarding these objects. Calisto exhibits rolling plains of low albedo materials surrounding relatively high jutting peaks harboring high albedo deposits. Our modeling supports the interpretation that Calisto's surface is a record of erosion driven by the sublimation of CO2 and H2O contained in the bedrock. Both solar insolation and surface re-radiation drives the sublimation leaving behind debris which we interpret to be the observed darkened regolith and, further, the high albedo peaks are water ice deposits on surface cold traps. On the other hand, the 45 km scale Helene, being a milligravity environment, exhibits mysterious looking streaks and grooves of very high albedo materials extending for several kilometers with a down-sloping grade of 7o-9o. Helene's cratered terrain also shows evidence of narrowed septa. The observed surface features suggest some type of advective processes are at play in this system. Our modeling lends support to the suggestion that Helene's surface materials behave as a Bingham plastic material - our flow modeling with such rheologies can reproduce the observed pattern of streakiness depending upon the smoothness of the underlying bedrock; the overall gradients observed; and the narrowed septa of inter-crater regions.

  8. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of a pressure vessel with an axial outer surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.

    1988-04-01

    Elastic-plastic finite element analyses of a test vessel (steel 1.6310=20 MnMoNi 55) with a semi-elliptical axial outer surface crack have been performed. The variations of J and CTOD along the crack front and the stresse state in the vicinity of the crack are presented. The applicability of approaches to determine J is examined. The FE results are compared with the experimental data. The results are analyzed with respect to the validity of J-controlled crack growth. It will be shown that the local ductile crack growth and, especially, the 'canoe effect' for a semi-elliptical crack can only be described correctly if local J R -curves are used which account for the varying triaxiality of the stress state along the crack front. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Michael; Zaini, Paulo A; Baccari, Clelia; Tran, Sophia; da Silva, Aline M; Lindow, Steven E

    2014-09-16

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as responding to envelope stress or trafficking various cargoes to prevent dilution or degradation by other bacterial species. Here we show that OMVs produced by Xylella fastidiosa, a xylem-colonizing plant pathogenic bacterium, block its interaction with various surfaces such as the walls of xylem vessels in host plants. The release of OMVs was suppressed by the diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum-sensing system, and a X. fastidiosa ΔrpfF mutant in which quorum signaling was disrupted was both much more virulent to plants and less adhesive to glass and plant surfaces than the WT strain. The higher virulence of the ΔrpfF mutant was associated with fivefold higher numbers of OMVs recovered from xylem sap of infected plants. The frequency of attachment of X. fastidiosa to xylem vessels was 20-fold lower in the presence of OMVs than in their absence. OMV production thus is a strategy used by X. fastidiosa cells to adjust attachment to surfaces in its transition from adhesive cells capable of insect transmission to an "exploratory" lifestyle for systemic spread within the plant host which would be hindered by attachment. OMV production may contribute to the movement of other bacteria in porous environments by similarly reducing their contact with environmental constituents.

  10. Pneumatic capsule with a measuring system for in-pile irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi; Yamazaki, Yasaburo; Hirata, Mitsuho; Ishii, Toshio; Shimozawa, Ryohei.

    1967-01-01

    A prior-art in-pile irradiation apparatus wherein a rabbit containing an irradiation specimen therein is inserted into and removed from a pile by a pneumatic system does not include means for measuring the temperature and pressure of the specimen under irradiation. When the rabbit is deformed during irradiation, it cannot be reliably recovered. A pneumatic capsule assembly with a measuring system according to this invention has a double structure which consists of an inner capsule containing the specimen therein and an outer capsule evacuated or filled with a gas. A thermocouple lace wire and a strain gauge are welded on the outside surface of the inner capsule as detection terminals for measuring the temperature and pressure. A rupture plate which bursts when the pressure in the inner capsule reaches a predetermined value is provided at a part of the inner capsule, and a fin for heat transmission is provided between the inner and outer capsules to thus prevent the deformation of the pneumatic capsule assembly as a whole. (Takasuka, S.)

  11. Simultaneous and long-lasting hydrophilization of inner and outer wall surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes by transferring atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Faze; Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Xu, Wenji; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xin; Xu, Sihao; Xia, Guangqing; Yang, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma hydrophilization is a general method to increase the surface free energy of materials. However, only a few works about plasma modification focus on the hydrophilization of tube inner and outer walls. In this paper, we realize simultaneous and long-lasting plasma hydrophilization on the inner and outer walls of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). Specifically, an Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to modify the PTFE tube’s outer wall and meanwhile to induce transferred He APP inside the PTFE tube to modify its inner wall surface. The optical emission spectrum (OES) shows that the plasmas contain many chemically active species, which are known as enablers for various applications. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the plasma hydrophilization. Results demonstrate that the wettability of the tube walls are well improved due to the replacement of the surface fluorine by oxygen and the change of surface roughness. The obtained hydrophilicity decreases slowly during more than 180 d aging, indicating a long-lasting hydrophilization. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the great potential of transferring APPs for surface modification of the tube’s inner and outer walls simultaneously. (paper)

  12. Methylation and in vivo expression of the surface-exposed Leptospira interrogans outer-membrane protein OmpL32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Azad; Pinne, Marija; Haake, David A; Zuerner, Richard L; Frank, Ami; Cameron, Caroline E

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer-membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immune response. In this study, 2D gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF MS identified a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 protein, corresponding to ORF LIC11848, which undergoes extensive and differential methylation of glutamic acid residues. Immunofluorescence microscopy implicated LIC11848 as a surface-exposed outer-membrane protein, prompting the designation OmpL32. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of golden Syrian hamster liver and kidney sections revealed expression of OmpL32 during colonization of these organs. Identification of methylated surface-exposed outer-membrane proteins, such as OmpL32, provides a foundation for delineating the role of this post-translational modification in leptospiral virulence.

  13. On the geodesic incompleteness of spacetimes containing marginally (outer) trapped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa e Silva, I P

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, Eichmair et al (2012 arXiv:1204.0278v1) have proved a Gannon–Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. A natural question is whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this paper, some variants of their result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting that the answer is generically negative, at least if the putative extension has no closed timelike curves. We consider first marginally trapped surfaces (MTS) in chronological spacetimes, introducing the natural notion of a generic MTS, a notion also applicable to MOTS. In particular, a Hawking–Penrose-type singularity theorem is proven in chronological spacetimes with dimension n ⩾ 3 containing a generic MTS. Such surfaces naturally arise as cross-sections of quasi-local generalizations of black hole horizons, such as dynamical and trapping horizons, and we discuss some natural conditions which ensure the existence of MTS in initial data sets. Nevertheless, much of the more recent literature has focused on MOTS rather than MTS as quasi-local substitutes for the description of black holes, as they are arguably more natural and easier to handle in a number of situations. It is therefore pertinent to ask to what extent one can deduce the existence of singularities in the presence of MOTS alone. We address this issue and show that singularities indeed arise in the presence of generic MOTS, but under slightly stronger causal conditions than those in the case of MTS (specifically, for causally simple spacetimes). On the other hand, we show that with additional conditions on the MOTS itself, namely that it is either the boundary of a compact spatial region, or strictly stable in a suitable sense, a Penrose–Hawking-type singularity theorem can still be established for

  14. Rapid outer-surface protein C DNA tattoo vaccination protects against Borrelia afzelii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, A; Mason, L M K; Oei, A; de Wever, B; van der Poll, T; Bins, A D; Hovius, J W R

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method that can be applied in a rapid vaccination schedule. We vaccinated C3H/HeN mice with B. afzelii strain PKo OspC (outer-surface protein C) using a codon-optimized DNA vaccine tattoo and compared this with recombinant protein vaccination in a 0-2-4 week vaccination schedule. We also assessed protection by DNA tattoo in a 0-3-6 day schedule. DNA tattoo and recombinant OspC vaccination induced comparable total IgG responses, with a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio after DNA tattoo. Two weeks after syringe-challenge with 5 × 10(5) B. afzelii spirochetes most vaccinated mice had negative B. afzelii tissue DNA loads and all were culture negative. Furthermore, DNA tattoo vaccination in a 0-3-6 day regimen also resulted in negative Borrelia loads and cultures after challenge. To conclude, DNA vaccination by tattoo was fully protective against B. afzelii challenge in mice in a rapid vaccination protocol, and induces a favorable humoral immunity compared to recombinant protein vaccination. Rapid DNA tattoo is a promising vaccination strategy against spirochetes.

  15. Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Neelakanta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and mammals is facilitated, at least in part, by the selective expression of lipoproteins. Outer surface protein (Osp A participates in spirochete adherence to the tick gut. As ospB is expressed on a bicistronic operon with ospA, we have now investigated the role of OspB by generating an OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi and examining its phenotype throughout the spirochete life cycle. Similar to wild-type isolates, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were able to readily infect and persist in mice. OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were capable of migrating to the feeding ticks but had an impaired ability to adhere to the tick gut and survive within the vector. Furthermore, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi bound poorly to tick gut extracts. The complementation of the OspB-deficient spirochete in trans, with a wild-type copy of ospB gene, restored its ability to bind tick gut. Taken together, these data suggest that OspB has an important role within Ixodes scapularis and that B. burgdorferi relies upon multiple genes to efficiently persist in ticks.

  16. Sedimentology and geochemistry of surface sediments, outer continental shelf, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Vallier, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Islands and the outer continental shelf and slope, indicates that Holocene sediment dynamics cannot be used to explain the observed distribution of surface sediment derived from the Aleutian Islands. We suggest that this pattern is relict and resulted from sediment dynamics during lower sea levels of the Pleistocene. ?? 1980.

  17. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  18. Laboratory Studies of Ethane Ice Relevant to Outer Solar System Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie; Raines, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Oort Cloud comets, as well as TNOs Makemake (2045 FYg), Quaoar, and Pluto, are known to contain ethane. However, even though this molecule is found on several outer Solar System objects relatively little information is available about its amorphous and crystalline phases. In new experiments, we have prepared ethane ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System, and have heated and ion-irradiated these ices to study phase changes and ethane's radiation chemistry using mid-IR spectroscopy (2.2 - 16.6 microns). Included in our work is the meta-stable phase that exists at 35 - 55 K. These results, including newly obtained optical constants, are relevant to ground-based observational campaigns, the New Horizons mission, and supporting laboratory work. An improved understanding of solid-phase ethane may contribute to future searches for this and other hydrocarbons in the outer Solar System.

  19. SrF2 capsule design for heat engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1976-04-01

    A number of design changes were considered to improve heat transfer characteristics of the WESF capsule. This capsule was evaluated in a design concept for use as a heat source in a helium-working fluid, Stirling heat engine. Throughout the study a heat block concept was used. The helium was assumed to be at 1200 0 F and 200 atm. The upper temperature limit at the fuel-metal interface was assumed to be 800 0 C because of material compatibility considerations. A 0.6-in. thick outer can was considered since it may be required for impact resistance and high pressure accident environments. The modifications considered were: (1) filling all gaps with helium rather than air, (2) filling gaps with powdered metal, and (3) adding a third can to the existing capsule. Also, enhancement of emissivity on metal surfaces was considered as a possible modification

  20. Computation of the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe from temperature measurements on the pipe's outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1999-01-01

    A method for computing the temperatures of a fluid flowing through a pipe on the basis of temperatures recorded at the pipe's outer surface is presented. The heat conduction in the pipe wall is described by one-dimensional heat conduction elements. Heat transfer between fluid, pipe and surrounding is allowed for. The equation system resulting from the standard finite element discretization is reformulated to enable the computation of temperature events preceding the recorded temperature in time. It is shown that the method can be used to identify the actual fluid temperature from temperature data obtained only at the outer surface of the pipe. The temperatures in the pipe wall are computed with good accuracy even in the case of a severe thermal shock. (orig.) [de

  1. In situ spectroscopic evidence for neptunium(V)-carbonate inner-sphere and outer-sphere ternary surface complexes on hematite surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuji; Moran, P B; Honeyman, B D; Davis, J A

    2007-06-01

    Np(V) surface speciation on hematite surfaces at pH 7-9 under pC2 = 10(-3.45) atm was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In situ XAS analyses suggest that bis-carbonato inner-sphere and tris-carbonato outer-sphere ternary surface species coexist at the hematite-water interface at pH 7-8.8, and the fraction of outer-sphere species gradually increases from 27 to 54% with increasing pH from 7 to 8.8. The results suggest that the heretofore unknown Np(V)-carbonato ternary surface species may be important in predicting the fate and transport of Np(V) in the subsurface environment down gradient of high-level nuclear waste respositories.

  2. Mass and heat transfer at the outer surface of helical coils under single and two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, M.H.; Nirdosh, I.; Sedahmed, G.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The work aims to develop reactors which need rapid temperature control. • Mass and heat transfer at the outer surface of helical coils was studied experimentally. • The experiments were conducted under gas sparing, single and two phase flow. • Variables were helical tube diameter, physical properties, and gas and liquid velocity. • Results verification in terms of natural convection and surface renewal mechanism was explained. - Abstract: The mass transfer behavior of the outer surface of vertical helical coil was studied by the electrochemical technique under single phase flow, gas sparging and two phase flow. Variables studied were helical tube diameter, physical properties of the solution, solution velocity and superficial gas velocity. The mass transfer data were correlated by dimensionless equations. Mass transfer enhancement ratio in case of two phase flow ranged from 1.1 to 4.9 compared to single phase flow. Implication of the results for the design and operation of helical coil reactors used to conduct L–S exothermic diffusion controlled reactions which need rapid temperature control were outlined. In this case the inner coil surface will act as a cooler while the outer surface will act a reaction surface. Immobilized enzyme catalyzed biochemical reactions where heat sensitive materials may be involved represent an example for the reactions which can employ the helical coil reactor. Also the importance of the results in the design of and operation of diffusion controlled membrane processes which employ helical coil membrane was noted. In view of the analogy between heat and mass transfer the possibility of using the results in the design and operation of helical coil heat exchangers was highlighted.

  3. Capsule Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because experience with it is limited and traditional upper endoscopy is widely available. Why it's done Your doctor might recommend a capsule endoscopy procedure to: Find the cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. If you have unexplained bleeding in your digestive ...

  4. Selective association of outer surface lipoproteins with the lipid rafts of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alvaro; Crowley, Jameson T; Coleman, James L; LaRocca, Timothy J; Chiantia, Salvatore; London, Erwin; Benach, Jorge L

    2014-03-11

    Borrelia burgdorferi contains unique cholesterol-glycolipid-rich lipid rafts that are associated with lipoproteins. These complexes suggest the existence of macromolecular structures that have not been reported for prokaryotes. Outer surface lipoproteins OspA, OspB, and OspC were studied for their participation in the formation of lipid rafts. Single-gene deletion mutants with deletions of ospA, ospB, and ospC and a spontaneous gene mutant, strain B313, which does not express OspA and OspB, were used to establish their structural roles in the lipid rafts. All mutant strains used in this study produced detergent-resistant membranes, a common characteristic of lipid rafts, and had similar lipid and protein slot blot profiles. Lipoproteins OspA and OspB but not OspC were shown to be associated with lipid rafts by transmission electron microscopy. When the ability to form lipid rafts in live B. burgdorferi spirochetes was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), strain B313 showed a statistically significant lower level of segregation into ordered and disordered membrane domains than did the wild-type and the other single-deletion mutants. The transformation of a B313 strain with a shuttle plasmid containing ospA restored the phenotype shared by the wild type and the single-deletion mutants, demonstrating that OspA and OspB have redundant functions. In contrast, a transformed B313 overexpressing OspC neither rescued the FRET nor colocalized with the lipid rafts. Because these lipoproteins are expressed at different stages of the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, their selective association is likely to have an important role in the structure of prokaryotic lipid rafts and in the organism's adaptation to changing environments. IMPORTANCE Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich clusters within the membranes of cells. Lipid rafts contain proteins that have functions in sensing the cell environment and transmitting signals. Although selective proteins are present in

  5. Pavement service life extension due to asphalt surface treatment interlayer : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (DOTD) has been : using asphalt surface treatment (AST) interlayers over soil cement base courses : as a means to mitigate shrinkage cracks from reflecting through the asphaltic : concrete (A...

  6. A Miniaturized Seismometer for Surface Measurements in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Pike, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    Seismology is a powerful tool for investigating the inner structure and dynamic processes of a planetary body. The interior structure information derived from seismic measurements is complementary to other methods of probing the subsurface (such as gravity and electromagnetics), both in terms of spatial and depth resolution and the relevant types of material properties being sensed. The propagation of seismic waves is sensitive to composition (via density and elastic parameters), temperature (via attenuation) and physical state (solid vs. liquid). In addition, the seismicity (level and distribution in space and time of seismic activity) provides information on the impact flux and tectonic forces currently active within the body. The major satellites of the outer solar system provide obvious targets for seismic investigations. In addition, small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, can also benefit from seismic measurements. We have developed an extremely small, lightweight, low-power seismometer for planetary applications which is ideally suited for use in the outer solar system. This instrument has previously been proposed and selected for use on a comet (on the Rosetta Lander, subsequently deselected for programmatic reasons) and Mars (on the NetLander mission). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Anode biofilm transcriptomics reveals outer surface components essential for high density current production in Geobacter sulfurreducens fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Nevin

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which Geobacter sulfurreducens transfers electrons through relatively thick (>50 microm biofilms to electrodes acting as a sole electron acceptor were investigated. Biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens were grown either in flow-through systems with graphite anodes as the electron acceptor or on the same graphite surface, but with fumarate as the sole electron acceptor. Fumarate-grown biofilms were not immediately capable of significant current production, suggesting substantial physiological differences from current-producing biofilms. Microarray analysis revealed 13 genes in current-harvesting biofilms that had significantly higher transcript levels. The greatest increases were for pilA, the gene immediately downstream of pilA, and the genes for two outer c-type membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcZ. Down-regulated genes included the genes for the outer-membrane c-type cytochromes, OmcS and OmcT. Results of quantitative RT-PCR of gene transcript levels during biofilm growth were consistent with microarray results. OmcZ and the outer-surface c-type cytochrome, OmcE, were more abundant and OmcS was less abundant in current-harvesting cells. Strains in which pilA, the gene immediately downstream from pilA, omcB, omcS, omcE, or omcZ was deleted demonstrated that only deletion of pilA or omcZ severely inhibited current production and biofilm formation in current-harvesting mode. In contrast, these gene deletions had no impact on biofilm formation on graphite surfaces when fumarate served as the electron acceptor. These results suggest that biofilms grown harvesting current are specifically poised for electron transfer to electrodes and that, in addition to pili, OmcZ is a key component in electron transfer through differentiated G. sulfurreducens biofilms to electrodes.

  8. Iodo-gen-catalysed iodination for identification of surface-exposed outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli K12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.C.S.; Almeida, D.F. de

    1987-01-01

    Surface proteins of Escherichia coli K12 were identified by radiolabelling using 1,3,4,6 - tatrachloro, 3-alpha, 6-alpha - diphenylgycoluryl (Iodo-Gen) and 131 I. Labelled proteins were localized in the outer membrane of the cells. Using this technique it has been possible to observe technique it has been possible to observe that the eletrophoretic pattern of surface proteins changes according to the growth phases in culture. Radiolabelling of E.coli cells inculbated at 42 0 C showed that the syntheses of two surface proteins were temperature-inducible. At least one such protein may be involved in the process of cell division in E.coli K12. (author) [pt

  9. Iodo-gen-catalysed iodination for identification of surface-exposed outer membrane proteins of Escherichia coli K12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L C.S.; Almeida, D.F. de

    1987-12-01

    Surface proteins of Escherichia coli K12 were identified by radiolabelling using 1,3,4,6 - tatrachloro, 3-alpha, 6-alpha - diphenylgycoluryl (Iodo-Gen) and /sup 131/I. Labelled proteins were localized in the outer membrane of the cells. Using this technique it has been possible to observe technique it has been possible to observe that the eletrophoretic pattern of surface proteins changes according to the growth phases in culture. Radiolabelling of E.coli cells inculbated at 42/sup 0/C showed that the syntheses of two surface proteins were temperature-inducible. At least one such protein may be involved in the process of cell division in E.coli K12.

  10. [A scanning electron microscopy study of the surface of porous-textured breast implants and their capsules. Description of the "velcro" effect of porous-textured breast prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, A; Rocher, F; Blanchet-Bardon, C; Revol, M; Servant, J M

    2001-02-01

    The efficacy of breast prosthesis texturing in the prevention of capsular contracture has been established for about 20 years. This successful procedure has led to the development and marketing of a number of different models. In the present study, four porous-textured breast prostheses have been examined: the Arion monoblock implant, the CUI (McGahn), the Biocell (Mcgahn), and the Sebbin LS21. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigation of the implant surfaces of the different prostheses was carried out on new samples received from the manufacturers. During a prospective study on eight patients, capsule samples corresponding to the four above-mentioned prostheses were taken to determine whether a secondary intervention was necessary for correction of asymmetry or malpositioning. These samples were analyzed by SEM to investigate whether there could be a correlation between prosthesis texturing and the aspect of the corresponding capsules. Significant ultrastructural differences were found between the various prostheses examined: the results showed that only the CUI and Biocell prostheses presented a mirror image of the capsule texturing, with a correspondence between the depressions on the prosthesis and the contacts on the capsule. This finding seems to be linked to the existence of a critical size for the pores that constitute the implant surface. This observation led to the hypothesis of an adhesive "velcro" effect between the prosthesis and its capsule. Although the latter may not be directly linked to the prevention of capsular contracture it can, however, have a major effect on implant stabilization in cases of primary breast reconstruction and in possible secondary adjustments of asymmetry and malpositioning.

  11. Surface expression, single-channel analysis and membrane topology of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClafferty Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens containing a cysteine-rich porin (Major Outer Membrane Protein, MOMP with important structural and, in many species, immunity-related roles. MOMP forms extensive disulphide bonds with other chlamydial proteins, and is difficult to purify. Leaderless, recombinant MOMPs expressed in E. coli have yet to be refolded from inclusion bodies, and although leadered MOMP can be expressed in E. coli cells, it often misfolds and aggregates. We aimed to improve the surface expression of correctly folded MOMP to investigate the membrane topology of the protein, and provide a system to display native and modified MOMP epitopes. Results C. trachomatis MOMP was expressed on the surface of E. coli cells (including "porin knockout" cells after optimizing leader sequence, temperature and medium composition, and the protein was functionally reconstituted at the single-channel level to confirm it was folded correctly. Recombinant MOMP formed oligomers even in the absence of its 9 cysteine residues, and the unmodified protein also formed inter- and intra-subunit disulphide bonds. Its topology was modeled as a (16-stranded β-barrel, and specific structural predictions were tested by removing each of the four putative surface-exposed loops corresponding to highly immunogenic variable sequence (VS domains, and one or two of the putative transmembrane strands. The deletion of predicted external loops did not prevent folding and incorporation of MOMP into the E. coli outer membrane, in contrast to the removal of predicted transmembrane strands. Conclusions C. trachomatis MOMP was functionally expressed on the surface of E. coli cells under newly optimized conditions. Tests of its predicted membrane topology were consistent with β-barrel oligomers in which major immunogenic regions are displayed on surface-exposed loops. Functional surface expression, coupled with improved understanding of MOMP

  12. Study of temperature distribution of pipes heated by moving rectangular gauss distribution heat source. Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Asada, Seiji; Terasaki, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes. In this paper, the theoretical equation for the temperature distributions of pipes heated by moving rectangular Gauss distribution heat source on the outer surface is derived. The temperature histories of pipes calculated by theoretical equation agree well with FEM analysis results. According to the theoretical equation, the controlling parameters of temperature distributions and histories are q/2a y , vh, a x /h and a y /h, where q is total heat input, a y is heat source length in the axial direction, a x is Gaussian radius of heat source in the hoop direction, ν is moving velocity, and h is thickness of the pipe. The essential variables for L-SIP, which are defined on the basis of the measured temperature histories on the outer surface of the pipe, are Tmax, F 0 =kτ 0 /h 2 , vh, W Q and L Q , where Tmax is maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, k is thermal diffusivity coefficient, τ 0 is the temperature rise time from 100degC to maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, W Q is τ 0 x ν, and L Q is the uniform temperature length in the axial direction. It is verified that the essential variables for L-SIP match the controlling parameters by the theoretical equation. (author)

  13. The moss Funaria hygrometrica has cuticular wax similar to vascular plants, with distinct composition on leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Budke, Jessica M; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Aerial surfaces of land plants are covered with a waxy cuticle to protect against water loss. The amount and composition of cuticular waxes on moss surfaces had rarely been investigated. Accordingly, the degree of similarity between moss and vascular plant waxes, and between maternal and offspring moss structure waxes is unknown. To resolve these issues, this study aimed at providing a comprehensive analysis of the waxes on the leafy gametophyte, gametophyte calyptra and sporophyte capsule of the moss Funaria hygrometrica Waxes were extracted from the surfaces of leafy gametophytes, gametophyte calyptrae and sporophyte capsules, separated by gas chromatography, identified qualitatively with mass spectrometry, and quantified with flame ionization detection. Diagnostic mass spectral peaks were used to determine the isomer composition of wax esters. The surfaces of the leafy gametophyte, calyptra and sporophyte capsule of F. hygrometrica were covered with 0·94, 2·0 and 0·44 μg cm(-2) wax, respectively. While each wax mixture was composed of mainly fatty acid alkyl esters, the waxes from maternal and offspring structures had unique compositional markers. β-Hydroxy fatty acid alkyl esters were limited to the leafy gametophyte and calyptra, while alkanes, aldehydes and diol esters were restricted to the sporophyte capsule. Ubiquitous fatty acids, alcohols, fatty acid alkyl esters, aldehydes and alkanes were all found on at least one surface. This is the first study to determine wax coverage (μg cm(-2)) on a moss surface, enabling direct comparisons with vascular plants, which were shown to have an equal amount or more wax than F. hygrometrica Wax ester biosynthesis is of particular importance in this species, and the ester-forming enzyme(s) in different parts of the moss may have different substrate preferences. Furthermore, the alkane-forming wax biosynthesis pathway, found widely in vascular plants, is active in the sporophyte capsule, but not in the leafy

  14. Fabrication of cell outer membrane mimetic polymer brush on polysulfone surface via RAFT technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qian; Zhang Hui; Zhao Jiang; Gong Yongkuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone surface. ► Graft density and polymerization degree were calculated from XPS results. ► Water contact angle measurements showed an extremely hydrophilic surface. ► Platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results suggested excellent antifouling ability. - Abstract: Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone (PSF) membrane by surface-induced reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The RAFT agent immobilized PSF substrate was prepared by successive chloromethylation, amination with ethylenediamine (EDA) and amidation of the amine group of grafted EDA with the carboxylic group of 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithiobenzoate (CPAD). The surface RAFT polymerization of MPC was initiated in aqueous solution by 4,4′-azobis-4-cyanopentanoic acid (ACPA). The formation of PMPC brush coating is evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. The degree of polymerization of PMPC and the polymer grafting density were calculated from the high resolution XPS spectra. The platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results showed that the PMPC-grafted PSF surface has excellent antifouling ability to resist platelet adhesion completely and suppress protein adsorption significantly. This biomimetic and bio-friendly surface RAFT polymerization strategy could be promising for a variety of biomedical applications.

  15. OPUS - Outer Planets Unified Search with Enhanced Surface Geometry Parameters - Not Just for Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mitchell; Showalter, Mark Robert; Ballard, Lisa; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Heather, Neil

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, with the massive influx of data into the PDS from a wide array of missions and instruments, finding the precise data you need has been an ongoing challenge. For remote sensing data obtained from Jupiter to Pluto, that challenge is being addressed by the Outer Planets Unified Search, more commonly known as OPUS.OPUS is a powerful search tool available at the PDS Ring-Moon Systems Node (RMS) - formerly the PDS Rings Node. While OPUS was originally designed with ring data in mind, its capabilities have been extended to include all of the targets within an instrument's field of view. OPUS provides preview images of search results, and produces a zip file for easy download of selected products, including a table of user specified metadata. For Cassini ISS and Voyager ISS we have generated and include calibrated versions of every image.Currently OPUS supports data returned by Cassini ISS, UVIS, VIMS, and CIRS (Saturn data through June 2010), New Horizons Jupiter LORRI, Galileo SSI, Voyager ISS and IRIS, and Hubble (ACS, WFC3 and WFPC2).At the RMS Node, we have developed and incorporated into OPUS detailed geometric metadata, based on the most recent SPICE kernels, for all of the bodies in the Cassini Saturn observations. This extensive set of geometric metadata is unique to the RMS Node and enables search constraints such as latitudes and longitudes (Saturn, Titan, and icy satellites), viewing and illumination geometry (phase, incidence and emission angles), and distances and resolution.Our near term plans include adding the full set of Cassini CIRS Saturn data (with enhanced geometry), New Horizons MVIC Jupiter encounter images, New Horizons LORRI and MVIC Pluto data, HST STIS observations, and Cassini and Voyager ring occultations. We also plan to develop enhanced geometric metadata for the New Horizons LORRI and MVIC instruments for both the Jupiter and the Pluto encounters.OPUS: http://pds-rings.seti.org/search/

  16. Structural analysis on the open basket type instrumented capsule for fuel irradiation tests in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Sik; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.; Cho, M. S.; Sohn, J. M.; Choo, K. N.; Oh, J. M.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    To develop the open basket type instrumented capsule to be used for the irradiation test of various nuclear fuels, it is necessary to ensure the compatibility of the capsule with HANARO and the structural integrity of the capsule. The dimensions of the open basket type instrumented capsule were determined in the basis of the pressure drop criteria in OR test hole of HANARO(mass flow rate <12.7kg/s, pressure drop {delta}P>200kPa). From the buckling stability analysis for this capsule, the critical buckling load P{sub cr} was 7.5kN. The vertical impact stress of the capsule under unit impact load was evaluated by the transient analysis, and the maximum vertical impact load calculated from the impact stress and the allowable stress was 60.5kN. Under the loading of the calculated Pcr, the maximum vertical impact stress was 20.4MPa. The structural integrity of the capsule under a horizontal impact loading was also examined. The mechanical stresses occurred by the pressure difference at the inner and outer surface of cladding and by the coolant pressure at the surface of cladding were 3.1MPa and 43.3MPa, respectively. These stress values were lower than the allowable stress in each case. Therefore, it was ensured that the instrumented capsule for the irradiation test of various nuclear fuels met the criteria on the structural integrity during installing and testing the capsule in HANARO. 8 refs., 61 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  17. Preparation of functions of computer code GENGTC and improvement for two-dimensional heat transfer calculations for irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Someya, Hiroyuki; Ito, Haruhiko.

    1992-11-01

    Capsules for irradiation tests in the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor), consist of irradiation specimens surrounded by a cladding tube, holders, an inner tube and a container tube (from 30mm to 65mm in diameter). And the annular gaps between these structural materials in the capsule are filled with liquids or gases. Cooling of the capsule is done by reactor primary coolant flowing down outside the capsule. Most of the heat generated by fission in fuel specimens and gamma absorption in structural materials is directed radially to the capsule container outer surface. In thermal performance calculations for capsule design, an one(r)-dimensional heat transfer computer code entitled (Generalyzed Gap Temperature Calculation), GENGTC, originally developed in Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S.A., has been frequently used. In designing a capsule, are needed many cases of parametric calculations with respect to changes materials and gap sizes. And in some cases, two(r,z)-dimensional heat transfer calculations are needed for irradiation test capsules with short length fuel rods. Recently the authors improved the original one-dimensional code GENGTC, (1) to simplify preparation of input data, (2) to perform automatic calculations for parametric survey based on design temperatures, ect. Moreover, the computer code has been improved to perform r-z two-dimensional heat transfer calculation. This report describes contents of the preparation of the one-dimensional code GENGTC and the improvement for the two-dimensional code GENGTC-2, together with their code manuals. (author)

  18. The outer disks of early-type galaxies. I. Surface-brightness profiles of barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwin, Peter; Pohlen, Michael; Beckman, John E.

    We present a study of 66 barred, early-type (S0-Sb) disk galaxies, focused on the disk surface brightness profile outside the bar region, with the aim of throwing light on the nature of Freeman type I and II profiles, their origins, and their possible relation to disk truncations. This paper

  19. Calculation of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of inner surface into outer one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Uvarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of plastic deformation of a conical shell with the transformation of internal surface into outer one was developed with a use of the kinematic method. The shell material was assumed to be perfectly plastic. The theory of thin shells and the kinematic theorem of limit equilibrium were utilized in this work. Both geometric and physical nonlinearities were taken into account. Dependences for calculating radius of curvature of the intensive deformation zones, value of chain ring deformation and values of the deforming force as a function of axial displacement were determined. Analysis showed the possibility of using a conical shell to absorb energy with high efficiency. Obtained results could be used for calculation and selection of optimal parameters of the energy-absorbing elements in shock absorbers.

  20. A countermeasure for external stress corrosion cracking in piping components by means of residual stress improvement on the outer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Umemoto, Tadahiro

    1988-01-01

    Many techniques have been proposed as countermeasures for the External Stress Corrosion Cracking (ESCC) on austenitic stainless steel piping caused by sea salt particles. However, not one seems perfect. The method proposed here is an expansion of IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) which has been successfully implemented in many nuclear power plants as a remedy for Intergranular Stress Corrossion Cracking. The proposed method named EIHSI (External IHSI) can make the residual stress compressive on the outer surface of the piping components. In order to confirm the effectiveness of EIHSI, one series of tests were conducted on a weld joint between the pipe flange and the straight pipe. The measured residual stresses and also the results of the cracking test revealed that EIHSI is a superior method to suppress the ESCC. The outline of EIHSI and the verification tests are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Performance indicators for carrier-based DPIs: Carrier surface properties for capsule filling and API properties for in vitro aerosolisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulhammer, E; Zellnitz, S; Wutscher, T; Stranzinger, S; Zimmer, A; Paudel, A

    2018-01-30

    This study investigates engineered carrier, as well as engineered API particles, and shows that there are distinct performance indicators of particle engineering for carrier-based dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Spray dried (SDSS) and jet-milled (JMSS) salbutamol sulphate (SS) was blended with untreated α-lactose monohydrate (LAC_R) and α-lactose monohydrate engineered (LAC_E). Subsequent capsule filling was performed with different process settings on a dosator nozzle capsule filling machine in order to reach a target fill weight of 20-25 mg. To evaluate the performance of the different mixtures, in vitro lung deposition experiments were carried out with a next generation impactor, the emitted dose (ED) and fine particle fraction (FPF) were calculated based on the specification of the European pharmacopoeia. The FPF of micronised powder blends is significantly higher (20%) compared to the FPF of spray dried blends (5%). Compared to API engineering, carrier engineering had a positive effect on the capsule filling performance (weight variability and mean fill weight) at lower compression ratios (setting 1). Results further showed that higher compression ratios appear to be beneficial in terms of capsule filling performance (higher fill weight and less fill weight variation). Concluding, it can be stated that the carrier engineering, or generally carrier properties, govern downstream processing, whereas the API engineering and API properties govern the aerosolisation performance and thereby significantly affect the dose delivery to the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biofunctionalization of silicone rubber with microgroove-patterned surface and carbon-ion implantation to enhance biocompatibility and reduce capsule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei ZY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ze-yuan Lei, Ting Liu, Wei-juan Li, Xiao-hua Shi, Dong-li Fan Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, XinQiao Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, ChongQing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Silicone rubber implants have been widely used to repair soft tissue defects and deformities. However, poor biocompatibility can elicit capsule formation, usually resulting in prosthesis contracture and displacement in long-term usage. To overcome this problem, this study investigated the properties of silicone rubber materials with or without a microgroove-patterned surface and with or without carbon (C-ion implantation. Materials and methods: Atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and a water contact angle test were used to characterize surface morphology and physicochemical properties. Cytocompatibility was investigated by a cell adhesion experiment, immunofluorescence staining, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and scanning electron microscopy in vitro. Histocompatibility was evaluated by studying the inflammatory response and fiber capsule formation that developed after subcutaneous implantation in rats for 7 days, 15 days, and 30 days in vivo. Results: Parallel microgrooves were found on the surfaces of patterned silicone rubber (P-SR and patterned C-ion-implanted silicone rubber (PC-SR. Irregular larger peaks and deeper valleys were present on the surface of silicone rubber implanted with C ions (C-SR. The silicone rubber surfaces with microgroove patterns had stable physical and chemical properties and exhibited moderate hydrophobicity. PC-SR exhibited moderately increased dermal fibroblast cell adhesion and growth, and its surface microstructure promoted orderly cell growth. Histocompatibility experiments on animals showed that both the anti-inflammatory and antifibrosis properties of PC-SR were slightly better than those of the other materials, and there was also a lower capsular contracture rate and less

  3. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF's pool

  4. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  5. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Wolery

    2005-01-01

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks

  6. Environment on the Surfaces of the Drip Shield and Waste Package Outer Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wolery

    2005-02-22

    This report provides supporting analysis of the conditions at which an aqueous solution can exist on the drip shield or waste package surfaces, including theoretical underpinning for the evolution of concentrated brines that could form by deliquescence or evaporation, and evaluation of the effects of acid-gas generation on brine composition. This analysis does not directly feed the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA), but supports modeling and abstraction of the in-drift chemical environment (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169863]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). It also provides analyses that may support screening of features, events, and processes, and input for response to regulatory inquiries. This report emphasizes conditions of low relative humidity (RH) that, depending on temperature and chemical conditions, may be dry or may be associated with an aqueous phase containing concentrated electrolytes. Concentrated solutions at low RH may evolve by evaporative concentration of water that seeps into emplacement drifts, or by deliquescence of dust on the waste package or drip shield surfaces. The minimum RH for occurrence of aqueous conditions is calculated for various chemical systems based on current understanding of site geochemistry and equilibrium thermodynamics. The analysis makes use of known characteristics of Yucca Mountain waters and dust from existing tunnels, laboratory data, and relevant information from the technical literature and handbooks.

  7. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of a pressure vessel with an axial outer surface flaw. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocks, W.; Kuenecke, G.

    1989-06-01

    Continuing preceding investigations, a further elastic-plastic finite element analysis of a test vessel with a semi-elliptical axial outer surface crack has been performed. The variations of J and CTOD along the crack front and the stress state in the vicinity of the crack are presented. The applicability of analytical approaches to determine J is examined. The FE results are used to analyze the experimental data with respect to the validity of J-controlled crack growth. Local J R -curves of the surface flaw are compared with J R -curves of various specimens of different geometries. Again, it became evident that the local ductile crack growth and, especially, the developing 'canoe shape' of the surface crack cannot be described by a single resistance curve which is assumed to be a material property. A method described in a previous report to predict the ductile crack growth by using local J R -curves which depend on the triaxiality of the stress state did not result in a satisfactory outcome, in the present case. The presumed reasons will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Rate of mass deposition of scaling compounds from seawater on the outer surface of heat exchangers in MED evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, W. [Department of Natural Resources and Chemical Engineering, Tafila Technical University, Tafila (Jordan); Ulrich, J. [FB Ingenieurwissenschaften, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The scaling problem in Multi Effect Distillation (MED) evaporators is investigated by the experimental measurement of the deposition rate under different operating conditions. The measurements are conducted in a batch vessel containing artificial seawater, which is allowed to contact the outer surface of a hot pipe under controlled temperature, salinity and pH. The rate of mass deposition is higher at elevated temperature. The salinity of the seawater also influences the scaling process - an increase in salinity from 47-59 g/L leads to an increase of 75.6 % in the deposition rate. Decreasing the pH value of seawater to 2.01 results in a complete inhibition of scaling, whereas the severity of the scaling increases in neutral and basic mediums. Polyacrylic acid is tested as an antifoulant and it was found that its presence in seawater reduces the scaling process. The nature of the heat transfer surface material also plays an important role in the scaling process. It is found experimentally that the rate of scaling is higher in the case of a Cu-Ni alloy as the surface material of the tube rather than stainless steel. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Oxygen fugacity and piston cylinder capsule assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, S.

    2011-12-01

    A double capsule assembly designed to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments has been tested at 1200 °C and 10 kbar. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO plus H2O) and an inner AuPd-capsule containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. To prevent direct contact with the buffer phases the AuPd-capsule is embedded in finely ground Al2O3 along with some coarser, fractured Al2O3 facilitating fluid inclusion formation. No water loss is observed in the sample even after 48 hrs but a slight increase in water content is observed in longer duration runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Carbon from the furnace also diffuses through the outer Pt-capsule but reacts with H2O in the outer capsule to form CO2 and never reaches the inner capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers was measured by analyzing the Fe content of the Pt-wire in the sample1 and by analyzing Fe dissolved in the AuPd capsule2. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. References 1. E. Medard, C. A. McCammon, J. A. Barr, T. L. Grove, Am. Mineral. 93, 1838 (2008). 2. J. Barr, T. Grove, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 631 (2010)

  10. Exposure of outer membrane proteins on the surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 revealed by labelling with [125I]lactoperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, P.A.; Booth, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have investigated the exposure of the major outer membrane proteins on the cell surface by treating whole cells of P. aeruginosa with [ 125 I]lactoperoxidase. This reagent catalyses the iodination of tyrosine and histidine residues of proteins in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. It is too large to penetrate the outer membrane (Msub(r) 77500), therefore it is assumed to label only those proteins which have such residues exposed on the cell surface and has been applied to a number of Gram-negative organisms. It is found that F was the major labelled protein, D1 and/or D2 were less heavily labelled, and G was very faintly labelled. In addition, two proteins (Msub(r) 72500 and 38000) which did not appear to be major outer membrane proteins were labelled. (Auth.)

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa outer membrane vesicles triggered by human mucosal fluid and lysozyme can prime host tissue surfaces for bacterial adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Maria Emiliano Metruccio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality that often targets epithelial surfaces. Host immunocompromise, or the presence of indwelling medical devices, including contact lenses, can predispose to infection. While medical devices are known to accumulate bacterial biofilms, it is not well understood why resistant epithelial surfaces become susceptible to P. aeruginosa. Many bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, release Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs in response to stress that can fuse with host cells to alter their function. Here, we tested the hypothesis that mucosal fluid can trigger OMV release to compromise an epithelial barrier. This was tested using tear fluid and corneal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. After 1 h both human tear fluid, and the tear component lysozyme, greatly enhanced OMV release from P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 compared to PBS controls (~100 fold. TEM and SDS-PAGE showed tear fluid and lysozyme-induced OMVs were similar in size and protein composition, but differed from biofilm-harvested OMVs, the latter smaller with fewer proteins. Lysozyme-induced OMVs were cytotoxic to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro and murine corneal epithelium in vivo. OMV exposure in vivo enhanced Ly6G/C expression at the corneal surface, suggesting myeloid cell recruitment, and primed the cornea for bacterial adhesion (~4-fold, P < 0.01. Sonication disrupted OMVs retained cytotoxic activity, but did not promote adhesion, suggesting the latter required OMV-mediated events beyond cell killing. These data suggest that mucosal fluid induced P. aeruginosa OMVs could contribute to loss of epithelial barrier function during medical device-related infections.

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) binds complement component C4b and confers bloodstream survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jennifer A; Lin, Yi-Pin; Kessler, Julie R; Sato, Hiromi; Leong, John M; Coburn, Jenifer

    2017-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States, a disease that can result in carditis, and chronic and debilitating arthritis and/or neurologic symptoms if left untreated. Bb survives in the midgut of the Ixodes scapularis tick, or within tissues of immunocompetent hosts. In the early stages of infection, the bacteria are present in the bloodstream where they must resist clearance by the innate immune system of the host. We have found a novel role for outer surface protein C (OspC) from B. burgdorferi and B. garinii in interactions with the complement component C4b and bloodstream survival in vivo. Our data show that OspC inhibits the classical and lectin complement pathways and competes with complement protein C2 for C4b binding. Resistance to complement is important for maintenance of the lifecycle of Bb, enabling survival of the pathogen within the host as well as in the midgut of a feeding tick when ospC expression is induced. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Analysis of influence of heat exchange conditions on the outer surface of the lithium-ion battery to electrolyte temperature under the conditions of high current loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoshlykov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal conditions of a lithium-ion battery using the software package ANSYS Electric and ANSYS Fluent has been carried out. Time dependence of the electrolyte temperature on the various heat exchange conditions on the outer surface has been obtained.

  14. Expression of the recombinant bacterial outer surface protein A in tobacco chloroplasts leads to thylakoid localization and loss of photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Anna; Bonfig, Katharina; Roitsch, Thomas; Warzecha, Heribert

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play crucial roles in host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis and are important targets for the immune system. A prominent example is the outer surface protein A (OspA) of Borrelia burgdorferi, which has been efficiently used as a vaccine for the prevention of Lyme disease. In a previous study, OspA could be produced in tobacco chloroplasts in a lipidated and immunogenic form. To further explore the potential of chloroplasts for the production of bacterial lipoproteins, the role of the N-terminal leader sequence was investigated. The amount of recombinant OspA could be increased up to ten-fold by the variation of the insertion site in the chloroplast genome. Analysis of OspA mutants revealed that replacement of the invariant cysteine residue as well as deletion of the leader sequence abolishes palmitolyation of OspA. Also, decoration of OspA with an N-terminal eukaryotic lipidation motif does not lead to palmitoylation in chloroplasts. Strikingly, the bacterial signal peptide of OspA efficiently targets the protein to thylakoids, and causes a mutant phenotype. Plants accumulating OspA at 10% total soluble protein could not grow without exogenously supplied sugars and rapidly died after transfer to soil under greenhouse conditions. The plants were found to be strongly affected in photosystem II, as revealed by the analyses of temporal and spatial dynamics of photosynthetic activity by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Thus, overexpression of OspA in chloroplasts is limited by its concentration-dependent interference with essential functions of chloroplastic membranes required for primary metabolism.

  15. THE HUBBLE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 TEST OF SURFACES IN THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM: SPECTRAL VARIATION ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Glass, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present additional photometry of targets observed as part of the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System. Twelve targets were re-observed with the WFC3 in the optical and NIR wavebands designed to complement those used during the first visit. Additionally, all of the observations originally presented by Fraser and Brown were reanalyzed through the same updated photometry pipeline. A re-analysis of the optical and NIR color distribution reveals a bifurcated optical color distribution and only two identifiable spectral classes, each of which occupies a broad range of colors and has correlated optical and NIR colors, in agreement with our previous findings. We report the detection of significant spectral variations on five targets which cannot be attributed to photometry errors, cosmic rays, point-spread function or sensitivity variations, or other image artifacts capable of explaining the magnitude of the variation. The spectrally variable objects are found to have a broad range of dynamical classes and absolute magnitudes, exhibit a broad range of apparent magnitude variations, and are found in both compositional classes. The spectrally variable objects with sufficiently accurate colors for spectral classification maintain their membership, belonging to the same class at both epochs. 2005 TV189 exhibits a sufficiently broad difference in color at the two epochs that span the full range of colors of the neutral class. This strongly argues that the neutral class is one single class with a broad range of colors, rather than the combination of multiple overlapping classes

  16. Outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, A.W.; Behannon, K.W.; Lepping, R.P.; Carbary, J.F.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc

  17. Processes to Open the Container and the Sample Catcher of the Hayabusa Returned Capsule in the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility of JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Okazaki, R.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Okada, T.; Yano, H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa, which returned from near-Earth-asteroid Itokawa, successfully returned its reentry capsule to the Earth, the Woomera Prohibited Area in Australia in Jun 13th, 2010, as detailed in another paper [1]. The capsule introduced into the Planetary Material Sample Curation Facility in the Sagamihara campus of JAXA in the early morning of June 18th. Hereafter, we describe a series of processes for the returned capsule and the container to recover gas and materials in there. A transportation box of the recovered capsule was cleaned up on its outer surface beforehand and introduced into the class 10,000 clean room of the facility. Then, the capsule was extracted from the box and its plastic bag was opened and checked and photographed the outer surface of the capsule. The capsule was composed of the container, a backside ablator, a side ablator, an electronic box and a supporting frame. The container consists of an outer lid, an inner lid, a frame for latches, a container and a sample catcher, which is composed of room A and B and a rotational cylinder. After the first check, the capsule was packed in a plastic bag with N2 again, and transferred to the Chofu campus in JAXA, where the X-ray CT instrument is situated. The first X-ray CT analysis was performed on the whole returned capsule for confirming the conditions of latches and O-ring seal of the container. The analysis showed that the latches of the container should have worked normally, and that the double Orings of the container seemed to be sealed its sample catcher with no problem. After the first X-ray CT, the capsule was sent back to Sagamihara and introduced in the clean room to exclude the electronic box and the side ablator from the container by hand tools. Then the container with the backside ablator was set firmly to special jigs to fix the lid of container tightly to the container and set to a milling machine. The backside ablator was drilled by the machine to expose heads of bolts

  18. Methylation and in vivo expression of the surface-exposed Leptospira interrogans outer membrane protein OmpL32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have revealed that bacterial protein methylation is a widespread post-translational modification that is required for virulence in selected pathogenic bacteria. In particular, altered methylation of outer membrane proteins has been shown to modulate the effectiveness of the host immu...

  19. Inductance and resistance measurement method for vessel detection and coil powering in all-surface inductive heating systems composed of outer squircle coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Veli Tayfun; Unal, Emre; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we investigate a method proposed for vessel detection and coil powering in an all-surface inductive heating system composed of outer squircle coils. Besides conventional circular coils, coils with different shapes such as outer squircle coils are used for and enable efficient all-surface inductive heating. Validity of the method, which relies on measuring inductance and resistance values of a loaded coil at different frequencies, is experimentally demonstrated for a coil with shape different from conventional circular coil. Simple setup was constructed with a small coil to model an all-surface inductive heating system. Inductance and resistance maps were generated by measuring coil's inductance and resistance values at different frequencies loaded by a plate made of different materials and located at various positions. Results show that in an induction hob for various coil geometries it is possible to detect a vessel's presence, to identify its material type and to specify its position on the hob surface by considering inductance and resistance of the coil measured on at least two different frequencies. The studied method is important in terms of enabling safe, efficient and user flexible heating in an all-surface inductive heating system by automatically detecting the vessel's presence and powering on only the coils that are loaded by the vessel with predetermined current levels.

  20. Rapid Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS Detection of Sibutramine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Capsules with a β-Cyclodextrin- Ag/Polyvivnyl Alcohol Hydrogel Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ouyang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sibutramine hydrochloride (SH is a banned weight-loss drug, but its illegal addition to health products is still rampant. This suggests a very urgent need for a fast and precise detection method for SH. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS is a promising candidate for this purpose, but the weak affinity between SH and bare metal limits its direct SERS detection. In the present work, β-cyclodextrin was capped in situ onto the surface of Ag nanoparticles to function as a scaffold to capture SH. The obtained Ag nanoparticles were encapsulated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA to fabricate a SERS active hydrogel with excellent reproducibility. A facile SERS strategy based on such substrate was proposed for trace SH quantification with a linear range of 7.0–150.0 µg·mL–1, and a detection limit low to 3.0 µg·mL−1. It was applied to analyze seven types of commercial slimming capsules with satisfactory results, showing good prospect for real applications.

  1. Rapid Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Detection of Sibutramine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Capsules with a β-Cyclodextrin- Ag/Polyvivnyl Alcohol Hydrogel Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lei; Jiang, Zuyan; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Lihua; Tang, Heqing

    2017-07-10

    Sibutramine hydrochloride (SH) is a banned weight-loss drug, but its illegal addition to health products is still rampant. This suggests a very urgent need for a fast and precise detection method for SH. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is a promising candidate for this purpose, but the weak affinity between SH and bare metal limits its direct SERS detection. In the present work, β-cyclodextrin was capped in situ onto the surface of Ag nanoparticles to function as a scaffold to capture SH. The obtained Ag nanoparticles were encapsulated into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to fabricate a SERS active hydrogel with excellent reproducibility. A facile SERS strategy based on such substrate was proposed for trace SH quantification with a linear range of 7.0-150.0 µg·mL -1 , and a detection limit low to 3.0 µg·mL -1 . It was applied to analyze seven types of commercial slimming capsules with satisfactory results, showing good prospect for real applications.

  2. Thermoregulation of Capsule Production by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O.; Tesorero, Rafael A.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface. PMID:22615992

  3. Passive sorting of capsules by deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Edgar; Juel, Anne

    We study passive sorting according to deformability of liquid-filled ovalbumin-alginate capsules. We present results for two sorting geometries: a straight channel with a half-cylindrical obstruction and a pinched flow fractioning device (PFF) adapted for use with capsules. In the half-cylinder device, the capsules deform as they encounter the obstruction, and travel around the half-cylinder. The distance from the capsule's centre of mass to the surface of the half-cylinder depends on deformability, and separation between capsules of different deformability is amplified by diverging streamlines in the channel expansion downstream of the obstruction. We show experimentally that capsules can be sorted according to deformability with their downstream position depending on capillary number only, and we establish the sensitivity of the device to experimental variability. In the PFF device, particles are compressed against a wall using a strong pinching flow. We show that capsule deformation increases with the intensity of the pinching flow, but that the downstream capsule position is not set by deformation in the device. However, when using the PFF device like a T-Junction, we achieve improved sorting resolution compared to the half-cylinder device.

  4. Reducing the effects of X-ray pre-heat in double shell NIF capsules by over-coating the high Z shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Douglas; Milovich, J. L.; Daughton, W. S.; Loomis, E. N.; Sauppe, J. P.; Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Montgomery, D. S.; Renner, D. B.; Haines, B. M.; Cardenas, T.; Desjardins, T.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.

    2017-10-01

    Hohlraum generated X-rays will penetrate the ablator of a double shell capsule and be absorbed in the outer surface of the inner capsule. The ablative pressure this generates drives a shock into the central fuel, and a reflected shock that reaches the inner high-Z shell surface before the main shock even enters the fuel. With a beryllium over-coat preheat X-rays deposit just inside the beryllium/high z interface. The beryllium tamps the preheat expansion, eliminating ablation, and dramatically reducing pressure. The slow shock or pressure wave it generates is then overtaken by the main shock, avoiding an early shock in the fuel and increasing capsule yield.

  5. Preface to the special issue of PSS on "Surfaces, atmospheres and magnetospheres of the outer planets, their satellites and ring systems: Part XII″

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Mueller-Wodarg, I.; Spilker, L.; Strazzulla, G.

    2018-06-01

    This issue contains six articles on original research and review papers presented in the past year in sessions organized during several international meetings and congresses including the European Geosciences Union (EGU), European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and others. The manuscripts cover recent observations and models of the atmospheres, magnetospheres and surfaces of the giant planets and their satellites based on ongoing and recent planetary missions. Concepts of architecture and payload for future space missions are also presented. The six articles in this special issue cover a variety of objects in the outer solar system ranging from Jupiter to Neptune and the possibilities for their exploration. A brief introductory summary of their findings follows.

  6. Monte carlo calculation of the neutron effective dose rate at the outer surface of the biological shield of HTR-10 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remetti, Romolo; Andreoli, Giulio; Keshishian, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deal with HTR-10, that is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated pebble bed reactor. ► We carried out Monte Carlo simulation of the core by MCNP5. ► Extensive use of MCNP5 variance reduction methods has been done. ► We calculated the trend of neutron flux within the biological shield. ► We calculated neutron effective dose at the outer surface of biological shield. - Abstract: Research on experimental reactors, such as HTR-10, provide useful data about potentialities of very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR). The latter is today rated as one of the six nuclear reactor types involved in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) Initiative. In this study, the MCNP5 code has been employed to evaluate the neutron radiation trend vs. the biological shield's thickness and to calculate the neutron effective dose rate at the outer surface. The reactor's geometry has been completely modeled by means of lattices and universes provided by MCNP, even though some approximations were required. Monte Carlo calculations have been performed by means of a simple PC and, as a consequence, in order to obtain acceptable run times, it was made an extensive recourse to variance reduction methods.

  7. Absence of Ni on the outer surface of Sr doped La 2 NiO 4 single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Burriel, Mó nica; Wilkins, Stuart; Hill, John P.; Muñ oz-Má rquez, Miguel A.; Brongersma, Hidde H.; Kilner, John A.; Ryan, Mary P.; Skinner, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of surface sensitive techniques was used to determine the surface structure and chemistry of La2-xSrxNiO 4+δ. These measurements unequivocally showed that Ni is not present in the outermost atomic layer, suggesting that the accepted model with the B-site cations exposed to the environment is incorrect. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract Is Modulated by Wall Teichoic Acid, Capsule, and Surface Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Misawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose, throat, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI tract of humans. GI carriage of S. aureus is difficult to eradicate and has been shown to facilitate the transmission of the bacterium among individuals. Although staphylococcal colonization of the GI tract is asymptomatic, it increases the likelihood of infection, particularly skin and soft tissue infections caused by USA300 isolates. We established a mouse model of persistent S. aureus GI colonization and characterized the impact of selected surface antigens on colonization. In competition experiments, an acapsular mutant colonized better than the parental strain Newman, whereas mutants defective in sortase A and clumping factor A showed impaired ability to colonize the GI tract. Mutants lacking protein A, clumping factor B, poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, or SdrCDE showed no defect in colonization. An S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA mutant (ΔtagO failed to colonize the mouse nose or GI tract, and the tagO and clfA mutants showed reduced adherence in vitro to intestinal epithelial cells. The tagO mutant was recovered in lower numbers than the wild type strain in the murine stomach and duodenum 1 h after inoculation. This reduced fitness correlated with the in vitro susceptibility of the tagO mutant to bile salts, proteases, and a gut-associated defensin. Newman ΔtagO showed enhanced susceptibility to autolysis, and an autolysin (atl tagO double mutant abrogated this phenotype. However, the atl tagO mutant did not survive better in the mouse GI tract than the tagO mutant. Our results indicate that the failure of the tagO mutant to colonize the GI tract correlates with its poor adherence and susceptibility to bactericidal factors within the mouse gut, but not to enhanced activity of its major autolysin.

  9. A distance measurement between specific sites on the cytoplasmic surface of bovine rhodopsin in rod outer segment disk membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A D; Watts, A; Spooner, P; Groebner, G; Young, J; Yeagle, P L

    1997-08-14

    Structural information on mammalian integral membrane proteins is scarce. As part of work on an alternative approach to the structure of bovine rhodopsin, a method was devised to obtain an intramolecular distance between two specific sites on rhodopsin while in the rod outer segment disk membrane. In this report, the distance between the rhodopsin kinase phosphorylation site(s) on the carboxyl terminal and the top of the third transmembrane helix was measured on native rhodopsin. Rhodopsin was labeled with a nuclear spin label (31P) by limited phosphorylation with rhodopsin kinase. Major phosphorylation occurs at serines 343 and 338 on the carboxyl terminal. The phosphorylated rhodopsin was then specifically labeled on cysteine 140 with an electron spin label. Magic angle spinning 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance revealed the resonance arising from the phosphorylated protein. The enhancement of the transverse relaxation of this resonance by the paramagnetic spin label was observed. The strength of this perturbation was used to determine the through-space distance between the phosphorylation site(s) and the spin label position. A distance of 18 +/- 3 A was obtained.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Compact Robot Imitating a Hermit Crab for Inspecting the Outer Surface of Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Imajo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial hermit crabs which are a type of hermit crabs live on land, whereas typical hermit crabs inhabit the sea. They have an ability of climbing a tree vertically. Their claws allow them to hang on the tree. In this study, an outer-pipe inspection robot was developed. Its locomotion mechanism was developed in imitation of the terrestrial hermit crab’s claws. It is equipped with two rimless wheels. Each of the spokes is tipped with a neodymium magnet, which allows the robot to remain attached to even a vertical steel pipe. Moreover, the robot has a mechanism for adjusting the camber angle of the right and left wheels, allowing it to tightly grip pipes with different diameters. Experiments were conducted to check the performance of the robot using steel pipes with different diameters, placed horizontally, vertically, or obliquely. The robot attempted to move a certain distance along a pipe, and its success rate was measured. It was found that the robot could successfully travel along pipes with vertical orientations, although it sometimes fell from oblique or horizontal pipes. The most likely reason for this is identified and discussed. Certain results were obtained in laboratory. Further experiments in actual environment are required.

  11. Polydopamine-coated capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Kang, Sen; Baginska, Marta B.

    2018-04-17

    One aspect of the invention is a polymer material comprising a capsule coated with PDA. In certain embodiments, the capsule encapsulates a functional agent. The encapsulated functional agent may be an indicating agent, healing agent, protecting agent, pharmaceutical drug, food additive, or a combination thereof.

  12. Vacuum Outer-Gap Structure in Pulsar Outer Magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui-Fang, Lin; Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We study the vacuum outer-gap structure in the outer magnetosphere of rotation-powered pulsars by considering the limit of trans-field height through a pair production process. In this case, the trans-field height is limited by the photon-photon pair production process and the outer boundary of the outer gap can be extended outside the light cylinder. By solving self-consistently the Poisson equation for electrical potential and the Boltzmann equations of electrons/positrons and γ-rays in a vacuum outer gap for the parameters of Vela pulsar, we obtain an approximate geometry of the outer gap, i.e. the trans-field height is limited by the pair-production process and increases with the radial distance to the star and the width of the outer gap starts at the inner boundary (near the null charge surface) and ends at the outer boundary which locates inside or outside the light cylinder depending on the inclination angle. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  13. Turbine airfoil with a compliant outer wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christian X [Oviedo, FL; Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-04-03

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine with a cooling system and a compliant dual wall configuration configured to enable thermal expansion between inner and outer layers while eliminating stress formation in the outer layer is disclosed. The compliant dual wall configuration may be formed a dual wall formed from inner and outer layers separated by a support structure. The outer layer may be a compliant layer configured such that the outer layer may thermally expand and thereby reduce the stress within the outer layer. The outer layer may be formed from a nonplanar surface configured to thermally expand. In another embodiment, the outer layer may be planar and include a plurality of slots enabling unrestricted thermal expansion in a direction aligned with the outer layer.

  14. Outer geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, R.L.

    1979-06-01

    This report presents an objective discussion of the importance of the atmospheric/solar-terrestrial system to national energy programs. A brief sketch is given of the solar-terrestrial environment, extending from the earth's surface to the sun. Processes in this natural system influence several energy activities directly or indirectly, and some present and potential energy activities can influence the natural system. It is not yet possible to assess the two-way interactions quantitatively or to evaluate the economic impact. An investment by the Department of Energy (DOE) in a long-range basic research program would be an important part of the department's mission. Existing programs by other agencies in this area of research are reviewed, and a compatible DOE program is outlined. 18 figures, 5 tables

  15. Device for positioning ultrasonic probes and/or television cameras on the outer surface of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipser, R.; Dose, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The device makes possible periodical in-service inspections of welding seams and material of a reactor pressure vessel without local human presence. A 'support ring' encloses the pressure vessel in a horizontal plane with free space. It is vertically moved up and down in the space between pressure vessel and thermal shield by means of tackles. At a control desk placed in a protected area its movement is controlled and its vertical position is indicated. A 'rotating track' with its own drive is rotating remote-controlled on the 'support ring'. By a combination of the vertical with the rotating movement, an ultrasonic probe placed removably on the 'rotating hack', or a television camera will be brought to any position on the cylindrical circumference of the pressure vessel. Special devices extend the radius of action, in upward direction for inspecting the welding seams of the coolant nozzles, and in downward direction for the inspection of welds on the hemispherical bottom of the pressure vessel or on the outlet pipe nozzle placed there. The device remains installed during reactor operation, but is moved down to the lower horizontal surface of the thermal shield. Parts which are sensible to radiation like probes or television cameras and special devices will then be removed respectively mounted before beginning an inspection compaign. This position may be reached by the lower access in the biological shield and through an opening in the horizontal surface of the thermal shield. (HP) [de

  16. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He dating of teschenite intrusions gives time constraints on accretionary processes and development of planation surfaces in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisik, Martin; Frisch, Wolfgang [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences; Panek, Tomas [Ostrava Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Matysek, Dalibor [Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Engineering; Dunkl, Istvan [Geoscience Center Goettingen (Germany). Sedimentology and Environmental Geology

    2008-09-15

    The age of planation surfaces in the Podbeskydska pahorkatina Upland in the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC, Czech Republic) is constrained by low-temperature thermochronological dating methods for the first time. Our apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He data measured on teschenite intrusions show that planation surfaces in the study area formed in post-Pannonian time (>7.1 Ma) and are therefore younger than traditionally believed. This contradicts the classical concepts, which stipulate that a large regional planation surface of Pannonian age (the so-called ''midmountain level'') developed in the whole Western Carpathians. Geodynamic implications of our data are the following: (i) the investigated Tesin and Godula nappes of the OWC were buried and thermally overprinted in the accretionary wedge in different ways, and consequently experienced different cooling histories. This indicates a dynamic basin setting with an active accretionary process in a subduction zone; (ii) accretionary processes in the OWC were active already during Late Eocene times. (orig.)

  17. Capsule Shields the Function of Short Bacterial Adhesins

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Mark A.; Dalsgaard, Dorte; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can occur in other gram-negative bacteria. Likewise, we show that other short adhesins exemplified by the AIDA-I protein are blocked by the presence of a capsule. The results support the notion that cap...

  18. Magnetically guided capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudhin, Naveen; Zverev, Vladimir I; Keller, Henrik; Pane, Salvador; Egolf, Peter W; Nelson, Bradley J; Tishin, Alexander M

    2017-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a powerful tool for medical screening and diagnosis, where a small capsule is swallowed and moved by means of natural peristalsis and gravity through the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The camera-integrated capsule allows for visualization of the small intestine, a region which was previously inaccessible to classical flexible endoscopy. As a diagnostic tool, it allows to localize the sources of bleedings in the middle part of the gastrointestinal tract and to identify diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease), polyposis syndrome, and tumors. The screening and diagnostic efficacy of the WCE, especially in the stomach region, is hampered by a variety of technical challenges like the lack of active capsular position and orientation control. Therapeutic functionality is absent in most commercial capsules, due to constraints in capsular volume and energy storage. The possibility of using body-exogenous magnetic fields to guide, orient, power, and operate the capsule and its mechanisms has led to increasing research in Magnetically Guided Capsule Endoscopy (MGCE). This work shortly reviews the history and state-of-art in WCE technology. It highlights the magnetic technologies for advancing diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities of WCE. Not restricting itself to the GI tract, the review further investigates the technological developments in magnetically guided microrobots that can navigate through the various air- and fluid-filled lumina and cavities in the body for minimally invasive medicine. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. The effect of cadmium shielding on the spatial neutron flux distribution inside one of the outer irradiation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, I.

    2009-06-01

    A permanent epithermal neutron irradiation facility was designed in the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) by using the cadmium (cylindrical vial 1.0 mm in thickness, 38.50 mm in diameter and 180 mm in length) as thermal neutron shielding material, for a permanent epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA). This site was designed by shielding the internal surface of the aluminum tube of the first outer irradiation site in the MNSR reactor. I was used the activation detectors 0.1143% Au-Al alloy foils with 0.1 mm thickness and 2.0 mm diameter for measurement the thermal neutron flux, epithermal and R c d=A b are/A c over ratio in the outer irradiation site. Distribution of the thermal neutron flux in the outer irradiation capsule has been found numerically using MCNP-4C code with and without cadmium shield, and experimentally by irradiating five copper wires using the outer irradiation capsule. Good agreements were obtained between the calculated and the measured results. (author)

  20. Stochastic Capsule Endoscopy Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Capsule endoscopy, which uses a wireless camera to take images of the digestive tract, is emerging as an alternative to traditional colonoscopy. The diagnostic values of these images depend on the quality of revealed underlying tissue surfaces. In this paper, we consider the problem of enhancing the visibility of detail and shadowed tissue surfaces for capsule endoscopy images. Using concentric circles at each pixel for random walks combined with stochastic sampling, the proposed method enhances the details of vessel and tissue surfaces. The framework decomposes the image into two detailed layers that contain shadowed tissue surfaces and detail features. The target pixel value is recalculated for the smooth layer using similarity of the target pixel to neighboring pixels by weighting against the total gradient variation and intensity differences. In order to evaluate the diagnostic image quality of the proposed method, we used clinical subjective evaluation with a rank order on selected KID image database and compared it to state-of-the-art enhancement methods. The result showed that the proposed method provides a better result in terms of diagnostic image quality and objective quality contrast metrics and structural similarity index.

  1. Production, deformation and mechanical investigation of magnetic alginate capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwar, Elena; Kemna, Andre; Richter, Lena; Degen, Patrick; Rehage, Heinz

    2018-02-01

    In this article we investigated the deformation of alginate capsules in magnetic fields. The sensitivity to magnetic forces was realised by encapsulating an oil in water emulsion, where the oil droplets contained dispersed magnetic nanoparticles. We solved calcium ions in the aqueous emulsion phase, which act as crosslinking compounds for forming thin layers of alginate membranes. This encapsulating technique allows the production of flexible capsules with an emulsion as the capsule core. It is important to mention that the magnetic nanoparticles were stable and dispersed throughout the complete process, which is an important difference to most magnetic alginate-based materials. In a series of experiments, we used spinning drop techniques, capsule squeezing experiments and interfacial shear rheology in order to determine the surface Young moduli, the surface Poisson ratios and the surface shear moduli of the magnetically sensitive alginate capsules. In additional experiments, we analysed the capsule deformation in magnetic fields. In spinning drop and capsule squeezing experiments, water droplets were pressed out of the capsules at elevated values of the mechanical load. This phenomenon might be used for the mechanically triggered release of water-soluble ingredients. After drying the emulsion-filled capsules, we produced capsules, which only contained a homogeneous oil phase with stable suspended magnetic nanoparticles (organic ferrofluid). In the dried state, the thin alginate membranes of these particles were rather rigid. These dehydrated capsules could be stored at ambient conditions for several months without changing their properties. After exposure to water, the alginate membranes rehydrated and became flexible and deformable again. During this swelling process, water diffused back in the capsule. This long-term stability and rehydration offers a great spectrum of different applications as sensors, soft actuators, artificial muscles or drug delivery systems.

  2. Polar tent for reduced perturbation of NIF ignition capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, B. A.; Pickworth, L.; Stadermann, M.; Field, J.; Robey, H.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V.

    2016-10-01

    In simulations, a tent that contacts the capsule near the poles and departs tangential to the capsule surface greatly reduces the capsule perturbation, and the resulting mass injected into the hot-spot, compared to current capsule support methods. Target fabrication appears feasible with a layered tent (43-nm polyimide + 8-nm C) for increased stiffness. We are planning quantitative measurements of the resulting shell- ρR perturbation near peak implosion velocity (PV) using enhanced self-emission backlighting, achieved by adding 1% Ar to the capsule fill in Symcaps (4He + H). Layered DT implosions are also planned for an integrated test of capsule performance. We will describe the design and simulation predictions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Capsule shields the function of short bacterial adhesins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Dalsgaard, D.; Klemm, Per

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial surface structures such as capsules and adhesins are generally regarded as important virulence factors. Here we demonstrate that capsules block the function of the self-recognizing protein antigen 43 through physical shielding. The phenomenon is not restricted to Escherichia coli but can...

  4. Characterization of an aged WESF capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Schultz, F.J.

    1983-07-01

    A joint effort by SNLA and ORNL was initiated for a detailed characterization of an 18-year-old WESF 137 Cs source which has been used in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids. The study included evaluation of the inner and outer stainless steel capsules by optical metallography, electron microprobe, and physical testing. Analysis of the residual atmospheres within the two containers was also done. The CsCl was analyzed for isotopic content and impurities. No potential problem areas, including corrosion, were found

  5. NIF capsule performance modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Post-shot modeling of NIF capsule implosions was performed in order to validate our physical and numerical models. Cryogenic layered target implosions and experiments with surrogate targets produce an abundance of capsule performance data including implosion velocity, remaining ablator mass, times of peak x-ray and neutron emission, core image size, core symmetry, neutron yield, and x-ray spectra. We have attempted to match the integrated data set with capsule-only simulations by adjusting the drive and other physics parameters within expected uncertainties. The simulations include interface roughness, time-dependent symmetry, and a model of mix. We were able to match many of the measured performance parameters for a selection of shots.

  6. Use of T7 RNA polymerase to direct expression of outer Surface Protein A (OspA) from the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John J.; Lade, Barbara N.

    1991-01-01

    The OspA gene from a North American strain of the Lyme disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, was cloned under the control of transciption and translation signals from bacteriophage T7. Full-length OspA protein, a 273 amino acid (31kD) lipoprotein, is expressed poorly in Escherichia coli and is associated with the insoluble membrane fraction. In contrast, a truncated form of OspA lacking the amino-terminal signal sequence which normally would direct localization of the protein to the outer membrane is expressed at very high levels (less than or equal to 100 mg/liter) and is soluble. The truncated protein was purified to homogeneity and is being tested to see if it will be useful as an immunogen in a vaccine against Lyme disease. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the secondary structure and study conformational changes in the protein. Studies underway with other surface proteins from B burgdorferi and a related spirochete, B. hermsii, which causes relapsing fever, leads us to conclude that a strategy similar to that used to express the truncated OspA can provide a facile method for producing variations of Borrelia lipoproteins which are highly expressed in E. coli and soluble without exposure to detergents.

  7. A study for the development of the capsule assembly machine for the re-irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Kim, J. K.; Yeom, K. Y.; Yoon, K. B.; Choi, M. H.; Kim, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    A series of in-pile tests are being carried out to support the advanced fuel development programs at the HANARO reactor. There are still some limitations for satisfying the test requirements. To meet the demands for the high burnup test at HANARO, new capsule assembling technology is required. This paper describes the design requirements, design and fabrication of the mockup, and pre-operational tests performed for the development of the new capsule assembly machine. The mockup manufactured consists of a base plate, a capsule stand, a capsule guide pipe and clamping device and is 1m in outer diameter, 1.8m in height and 136kg in weight. From the pre-operation tests, the optimum clamping torque was 450kgf·cm for preventing rotation and shaking of the capsule main body during assembling capsule main body and protection tube, and this remote assembling procedure can be applicable to the high burnup test

  8. Evidence for an intact polysaccharide capsule in Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, YiLin; Li, Rui; Howe, Josephine; Hoo, Regina; Pant, Aakanksha; Ho, SiYing; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharide capsules contribute to the pathogenesis of many bacteria species by providing resistance against various defense mechanisms. The production of a capsule in Bordetella pertussis, the etiologic agent of whooping cough, has remained controversial; earlier studies reported this pathogen as a capsulated microorganism whereas the recent B. pertussis genome analysis revealed the presence of a truncated capsule locus. In this work, using transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining approaches, we provide a formal evidence for the presence of an intact microcapsule produced at the surface of both laboratory strain and clinical isolates of B. pertussis. In agreement with previous studies, we found that the capsule is optimally produced in avirulent phase. Unexpectedly, the presence of the capsule was also detected at the surface of virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Consistently, a substantial transcriptional activity of the capsule operon was detected in virulent phase, suggesting that the capsular polysaccharide may play a role during pertussis pathogenesis. In vitro assays indicated that the presence of the capsule does not affect B. pertussis adherence to mammalian cells and does not further protect the bacterium from phagocytosis, complement-mediated killing or antimicrobial peptide attack. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. An overlapping region between the two terminal folding units of the outer surface protein A (OspA) controls its folding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Koki; Nakamura, Takashi; Dhar, Debanjan; Ikura, Teikichi; Koide, Shohei; Kuwajima, Kunihiro

    2018-04-27

    Although many naturally occurring proteins consist of multiple domains, most studies on protein folding to date deal with single-domain proteins or isolated domains of multi-domain proteins. Studies of multi-domain protein folding are required for further advancing our understanding of protein folding mechanisms. Borrelia outer surface protein A (OspA) is a β-rich two-domain protein, in which two globular domains are connected by a rigid and stable single-layer β-sheet. Thus, OspA is particularly suited as a model system for studying the interplays of domains in protein folding. Here, we studied the equilibria and kinetics of the urea-induced folding-unfolding reactions of OspA probed with tryptophan fluorescence and ultraviolet circular dichroism. Global analysis of the experimental data revealed compelling lines of evidence for accumulation of an on-pathway intermediate during kinetic refolding and for the identity between the kinetic intermediate and a previously described equilibrium unfolding intermediate. The results suggest that the intermediate has the fully native structure in the N-terminal domain and the single layer β-sheet, with the C-terminal domain still unfolded. The observation of the productive on-pathway folding intermediate clearly indicates substantial interactions between the two domains mediated by the single-layer β-sheet. We propose that a rigid and stable intervening region between two domains creates an overlap between two folding units and can energetically couple their folding reactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Introduction to the physics of ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion is an approach to fusion which relies on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. To achieve conditions under which this confinement is sufficient for efficient thermonuclear burn, high gain ICF targets designed to be imploded directly by laser light. These capsules are generally a spherical shell which is filled with low density DT gas. The shell is composed of an outer region which forms the ablator and an inner region of frozen or liquid DT which forms the main fuel. Energy from the driver is delivered to the ablator which heats up and expands. As the ablator expands and blows outward, the rest of the shell is forced inward to conserve momentum. In this implosion process, several features are important. We define the in-flight-aspect-ratio (IFAR) as the ratio of the shell radius R as it implodes to its thickness ΔR. Hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion impose limits on this ratio which results in a minimum pressure requirement of about 100 Mbar. The convergence ratio is defined as the ratio of the initial outer radius of the ablator to the final compressed radius of the hot spot. This hot spot is the central region of the compressed fuel which is required to ignite the main fuel in high gain designs. Typical convergence ratios are 30--40. To maintain a nearly spherical shape during the implosion, when convergence ratios are this large, the flux delivered to the capsule must be uniform to a few percent. The remainder of this paper discusses the conditions necessary to achieve thermonuclear ignition in these ICF capsules

  11. Application of Nanotrap technology for high sensitivity measurement of urinary outer surface protein A carboxyl-terminus domain in early stage Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Ruben; Espina, Benjamin H; Shah, Ketul; Lepene, Benjamin; Mayuga, Christine; Douglas, Temple A; Espina, Virginia; Rucker, Sally; Dunlap, Ross; Petricoin, Emanuel F Iii; Kilavos, Mary Frekko; Poretz, Donald M; Irwin, Gilbert R; Shor, Samuel M; Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra

    2015-11-04

    Prompt antibiotic treatment of early stage Lyme borreliosis (LB) prevents progression to severe multisystem disease. There is a clinical need to improve the diagnostic specificity of early stage Lyme assays in the period prior to the mounting of a robust serology response. Using a novel analyte harvesting nanotechnology, Nanotrap particles, we evaluated urinary Borrelia Outer surface protein A (OspA) C-terminus peptide in early stage LB before and after treatment, and in patients suspected of late stage disseminated LB. We employed Nanotrap particles to concentrate urinary OspA and used a highly specific anti-OspA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a detector of the C-terminus peptides. We mapped the mAb epitope to a narrow specific OspA C-terminal domain OspA236-239 conserved across infectious Borrelia species but with no homology to human proteins and no cross-reactivity with relevant viral and non-Borrelia bacterial proteins. 268 urine samples from patients being evaluated for all categories of LB were collected in a LB endemic area. The urinary OspA assay, blinded to outcome, utilized Nanotrap particle pre-processing, western blotting to evaluate the OspA molecular size, and OspA peptide competition for confirmation. OspA test characteristics: sensitivity 1.7 pg/mL (lowest limit of detection), % coefficient of variation (CV) = 8 %, dynamic range 1.7-30 pg/mL. Pre-treatment, 24/24 newly diagnosed patients with an erythema migrans (EM) rash were positive for urinary OspA while false positives for asymptomatic patients were 0/117 (Chi squared p antibiotic therapy, 10/10 were positive for urinary OspA. Urinary OspA of 8/8 patients switched from detectable to undetectable following symptom resolution post-treatment. Specificity of the urinary OspA test for the clinical symptoms was 40/40. Specificity of the urinary OspA antigen test for later serology outcome was 87.5 % (21 urinary OspA positive/24 serology positive, Chi squared p = 4.072e(-15)). 41 of 100 patients under

  12. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  13. Polysaccharide capsule-mediated resistance to opsonophagocytosis in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico, P; Salo, R J; Cross, A S; Cunha, B A

    1994-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important virulence factor that confers resistance to phagocytosis. The treatment of encapsulated bacteria with salicylate to inhibit capsule expression was found to enhance the phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria by human neutrophils only in the presence of cell surface-specific antibodies. Both type-specific rabbit antisera and anticapsular human hyperimmune globulin were employed as opsonins. Salicylate significantly enhanced phag...

  14. Co-ordinate action of bacterial adhesins and human carcinoembryonic antigen receptors in enhanced cellular invasion by capsulate serum resistant Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Helen A; Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Virji, Mumtaz

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a human specific opportunistic pathogen that occasionally penetrates mucosal barriers via the action of adhesins and invasins and evades host immune mechanisms during further dissemination via capsule expression. From in vitro studies, the primary adhesion of capsulate bacteria is believed to be mediated by polymeric pili, followed by invasion via outer membrane adhesins such as Opa proteins. As the latter requires the surface capsule to be down-modulated, invading bacteria would be serum sensitive and thus avirulent. However, there is recent evidence that capsulate bacteria may interact via Opa proteins when host cells express high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), their target receptors. Such a situation may arise following increased circulation of inflammatory cytokines that upregulate certain adhesion molecules on host cells. In this study, using a tetracycline controlled expression system, we have developed cell lines with inducible CEACAM expression to mimic post-inflammation state of target tissues and analysed the interplay between the three surface components capsule, pili and Opa proteins in cellular interactions. With two distinct cell lines, not only the level but also the rate of adhesion of capsulate Opa-expressing Nm increased concurrently with CEACAM density. Moreover, when threshold levels of receptor were reached, cellular invasion ensued in an Opa-dependent manner. In studies with cell lines intrinsically expressing pilus receptors, notable synergism in cellular interactions between pili and Opa of several meningococcal strains was observed and was independent of capsule type. A number of internalized bacteria were shown to express capsule and when directly isolated from host cells, these bacteria were as serum resistant as the inoculated phenotype. Furthermore, we observed that agents that block Opa-CEACAM binding substantially reduced cellular invasion, while maintaining

  15. Development of remote welding techniques for in-pile IASCC capsules and evaluation of material integrity on capsules for long irradiation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, A.; Nakano, J.; Ohmi, M.; Kawamata, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Tsukada, T.

    2012-03-01

    To simulate irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior by in-pile experiments, it is necessary to irradiate specimens up to a neutron fluence that is higher than the IASCC threshold fluence. Pre-irradiated specimens must be relocated from pre-irradiation capsules to in-pile capsules. Hence, a remote welding machine has been developed. And the integrity of capsule housing for a long term irradiation was evaluated by tensile tests in air and slow strain rate tests in water. Two type specimens were prepared. Specimens were obtained from the outer tubes of capsule irradiated to 1.0-3.9 × 1026 n/m2 (E > 1 MeV). And specimens were irradiated in a leaky capsule to 0.03-1.0 × 1026 n/m2. Elongation more than 15% in tensile test at 423 K was confirmed and no IGSCC fraction was shown in SSRT at 423 K which was estimated as temperature at the outer tubes of the capsule under irradiation.

  16. Development of remote welding techniques for in-pile IASCC capsules and evaluation of material integrity on capsules for long irradiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, A.; Nakano, J.; Ohmi, M.; Kawamata, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Tsukada, T.

    2012-01-01

    To simulate irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) behavior by in-pile experiments, it is necessary to irradiate specimens up to a neutron fluence that is higher than the IASCC threshold fluence. Pre-irradiated specimens must be relocated from pre-irradiation capsules to in-pile capsules. Hence, a remote welding machine has been developed. And the integrity of capsule housing for a long term irradiation was evaluated by tensile tests in air and slow strain rate tests in water. Two type specimens were prepared. Specimens were obtained from the outer tubes of capsule irradiated to 1.0–3.9 × 10 26 n/m 2 (E > 1 MeV). And specimens were irradiated in a leaky capsule to 0.03–1.0 × 10 26 n/m 2 . Elongation more than 15% in tensile test at 423 K was confirmed and no IGSCC fraction was shown in SSRT at 423 K which was estimated as temperature at the outer tubes of the capsule under irradiation.

  17. Capsule endoscopy: Beyond small bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Adler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the brief and dramatic history of capsule endoscopy of the digestive tract is reviewed. Capsule endoscopy offers a non invasive method to diagnose diseases that affect the esophagus, small bowel and colon. Technological improvements relating to optics, software, data recorders with two way communication have revolutionized this field. These advancements have produced better diagnostic performance.

  18. Development and Optimization of Osmotically Controlled Asymmetric Membrane Capsules for Delivery of Solid Dispersion of Lycopene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to develop and statistically optimize the osmotically controlled asymmetric membrane capsules of solid dispersion of lycopene. Solid dispersions of lycopene with β-cyclodextrin in different ratios were prepared using solvent evaporation method. Solubility studies showed that the solid dispersion with 1 : 5 (lycopene : β-cyclodextrin exhibited optimum solubility (56.25 mg/mL for osmotic controlled delivery. Asymmetric membrane capsules (AMCs were prepared on glass mold pins via dip coating method. Membrane characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed inner porous region and outer dense region. Central composite design response surface methodology was applied for the optimization of AMCs. The independent variables were ethyl cellulose (X1, glycerol (X2, and NaCl (X3 which were varied at different levels to analyze the effect on dependent variables (percentage of cumulative drug release (Y1 and correlation coefficient of drug release (Y2. The effect of independent variables on the response was significantly influential. The F18 was selected as optimized formulation based on percentage of CDR (cumulative drug release of 85.63% and correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The optimized formulation was subjected to analyze the effect of osmotic pressure and agitational intensity on percentage of CDR. The drug release was independent of agitational intensity but was dependent on osmotic pressure of dissolution medium.

  19. A Study on the Manufacturing Properties of Crack Self-Healing Capsules Using Cement Powder for Addition to Cement Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Wang; Oh, Sung-Rok; Choi, Byung-Keol

    2017-01-01

    We fabricated crack self-healing capsules using cement powder for mixing into cement composites and evaluated the properties of the capsule manufacturing process in this study. The manufacture of the self-healing capsules is divided into core production processing of granulating cement in powder form and a coating process for creating a wall on the surfaces of the granulated cement particles. The produced capsules contain unhardened cement and can be mixed directly with the cement composite m...

  20. Positron radiography of ignition-relevant ICF capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. J.; Chen, Hui; Field, J. E.; Landen, O. L.; Strozzi, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Laser-generated positrons are evaluated as a probe source to radiograph in-flight ignition-relevant inertial confinement fusion capsules. Current ultraintense laser facilities are capable of producing 2 × 1012 relativistic positrons in a narrow energy bandwidth and short time duration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the unique characteristics of such positrons allow for the reconstruction of both capsule shell radius and areal density between 0.002 and 2 g/cm2. The energy-downshifted positron spectrum and angular scattering of the source particles are sufficient to constrain the conditions of the capsule between preshot and stagnation. We evaluate the effects of magnetic fields near the capsule surface using analytic estimates where it is shown that this diagnostic can tolerate line integrated field strengths of 100 T mm.

  1. Optimizing the villi visualization by tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for comprehensive imaging of human duodenum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Emilie; Queneherve, Lucille H.; Grant, Catriona N.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Fasano, Alessio; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) affects around 1% of the global population and can cause serious long-term symptoms including malnutrition, fatigue, and diarrhea, amongst others. Despite this, it is often left undiagnosed. Currently, a tissue diagnosis of CD is made by random endoscopic biopsy of the duodenum to confirm the existence of microscopic morphologic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. However, duodenal endoscopic biopsy is problematic because the morphological changes can be focal and endoscopic biopsy is plagued by sampling error. Additionally, tissue artifacts can also an issue because cuts in the transverse plane can make duodenal villi appear artifactually shortened and can bias the assessment of intraepithelial inflammation. Moreover, endoscopic biopsy is costly and poorly tolerated as the patient needs to be sedated to perform the procedure. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. TCE involves swallowing an optomechanically-engineered pill that generates 3D images of the GI tract as it traverses the lumen of the organ via peristalsis, assisted by gravity. In several patients we have demonstrated TCE imaging of duodenal villi, however the current TCE device design is not optimal for CD diagnosis as the villi compress when in contact with the smooth capsule's wall. In this work, we present methods for structuring the outer surface of the capsule to improve the visualization of the villi height and crypt depth. Preliminary results in humans suggest that new TCE capsule enables better visualization of villous architecture, making it possibly to comprehensively scan the entire duodenum to obtain a more accurate tissue diagnosis of CD.

  2. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  3. Saturn's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, A. W.; Behannon, K. W.; Carbary, J. F.; Eviatar, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Similarities between the Saturnian and terrestrial outer magnetosphere are examined. Saturn, like Earth, has a fully developed magnetic tail, 80 to 100 RS in diameter. One major difference between the two outer magnetospheres is the hydrogen and nitrogen torus produced by Titan. This plasma is, in general, convected in the corotation direction at nearly the rigid corotation speed. Energies of magnetospheric particles extend to above 500 keV. In contrast, interplanetary protons and ions above 2 MeV have free access to the outer magnetosphere to distances well below the Stormer cutoff. This access presumably occurs through the magnetotail. In addition to the H+, H2+, and H3+ ions primarily of local origin, energetic He, C, N, and O ions are found with solar composition. Their flux can be substantially enhanced over that of interplanetary ions at energies of 0.2 to 0.4 MeV/nuc.

  4. Soft gelatin capsules (softgels).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna Prasad

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) coming out of the current drug discovery process have poor biopharmaceutical properties, such as low aqueous solubility and/or permeability. These suboptimal properties pose significant challenges for the oral absorption of the compounds and for the development of orally bioavailable dosage forms. Development of soft gelatin capsule (softgel) dosage form is of growing interest for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble compounds (BCS class II or class IV). The softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound, delivering a low melting compound, and minimizing potential generation of dust during manufacturing and thereby improving the safety of production personnel. However, due to the very dynamic nature of the softgel dosage form, its development and stability during its shelf-life are fraught with several challenges. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on the softgel dosage form to formulation scientists who are considering developing softgels for therapeutic compounds.

  5. Status of irradiation capsule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    For the irradiation test after the restart of JMTR, further precise temperature control and temperature prediction are required. In the design of irradiation capsule, particularly sophisticated irradiation temperature prediction and evaluation are urged. Under such circumstance, among the conventional design techniques of irradiation capsule, the authors reviewed the evaluation method of irradiation temperature. In addition, for the improvement of use convenience, this study examined and improved FINAS/STAR code in order to adopt the new calculation code that enables a variety of analyses. In addition, the study on the common use of the components for radiation capsule enabled the shortening of design period. After the restart, the authors will apply this improved calculation code to the design of irradiation capsule. (A.O.)

  6. Inner-sphere, outer-sphere and ternary surface complexes: a TRLFS study of the sorption process of europium(III) onto smectite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, Th.; Fanghaenel, Th.; Bauer, A.; Kim, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    The surface sorption process of Eu(III) onto smectite was investigated by TRLFS in the trace concentration range. With increasing pH the formation of an inner-sphere Eu(III) surface complex was observed. The differences in the spectra and the fluorescence emission lifetimes of the surface sorbed Eu(III) in presence and absence of carbonate indicate the formation of ternary clay/Eu(III)/carbonate complexes /1/. (orig.)

  7. Long-Lived Glass Mirrors For Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.; Maag, Carl R.; Heggen, Philip M.

    1988-01-01

    Paper summarizes available knowledge about glass mirrors for use in outer space. Strengths and weaknesses of various types of first and second reflective surfaces identified. Second-surface glass mirrors used in outer space designed to different criteria more stringent for terrestrial mirrors. Protons, electrons, cosmic rays, meteorites, and orbiting space debris affect longevities of components. Contamination also factor in space.

  8. Stability analysis of directly driven Nif capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V.N.; Skupsky, S.; McKenty, P.W.; Delettrez, J.A.; Town, R.P.J. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Cherfils-Clerouin, C. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, DIF, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France)

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model is presented to study perturbation evolution at the ablation and inner surfaces of the imploding shell. The model describes the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor and Bell-Plesset instabilities. The initial conditions for the model are determined by using existing theories of laser imprint, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, 'feed-out' and by performing a series of 2-D ORCHID simulations. The model and simulations show that the direct-drive cryogenic {alpha} = 3 NIF capsules remain intact during the implosion if laser nonuniformities are smoothed by 2-D SSD used in the current direct-drive target designs. (authors)

  9. Experimental Investigation of the Spiral Structure of a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fitting a wireless capsule endoscope (WCE with a navigation feature can maximize its functional benefits. The rotation of a spiral-type capsule can be converted to translational motion. The study investigated how the spiral structure and rotational speed affected the capsule's translation speed. A hand-held instrument, including two permanent magnets, a stepper motor, a controller and a power supplier, were designed to generate rotational magnetic fields. The surfaces of custom-built permanent magnet rings magnetized radially were mounted in spiral lines with different lead angles and diameters, acting as mock-up capsules. The experimental results demonstrate that the rotational speed of the magnetic field and the spiral have significant effects on the translational speed of a capsule. The spiral line with a larger lead angle and the rotating magnetic field with a higher speed can change the capsule's rotation into a translational motion more efficiently in the intestine.

  10. Capsule HRB-15B postirradiation examination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterer, J.W.; Bullock, R.E.

    1981-06-01

    Capsule HRB-15B design tested 184 thin graphite trays containing unbonded fuel particles to peak exposures of 6.6 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/ fast fluence, approx. 27% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) fissile burnup, and 6% FIMA fertile burnup at nominal time-averaged temperatures of 815 to 915 0 C. The capsule tested a variety of low-enriched uranium (approx. 19.5% U-235) fissile particle types, including UC 2 , UC/sub x/O/sub y/, UO 2 , zirconium-buffered UO 2 (referred to in this report as UO 2 /sup *), and 1:1(Th,U)O 2 with both TRISO and silicon-BISO coatings. All fertile particles were ThO 2 with BISO, silicon-BISO, or TRISO coatings. The findings indicated that all TRISO particles retained virtually all of their fission product inventories, except small quantities of silver, at these irradiation temperatures, while some of the silicon-BISO particles released significant amounts of both silver and cesium. No kernel migration, pressure vessel, or outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) failures were observed in the fuel particles, which had total diameters of 2 /sup */ particles exhibited no detrimental irradiation effects, but they contained pure carbon precipitates in the kernels after irradiation which were not observed in the undoped UO 2 particles. Postirradiation examination revealed no differences in the irradiation performance of three UC/sub x/O/sub y/ kernel types with varying oxygen/uranium ratios

  11. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  12. TPS for Outer Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Ellerby, D.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Hwang, H.; Prabhu, D.; Stackpoole, M.; Wercinski, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This invited talk will provide an assessment of the TPS needs for Outer Planet In-situ missions to destinations with atmosphere. The talk will outline the drivers for TPS from destination, science, mission architecture and entry environment. An assessment of the readiness of the TPS, both currently available and under development, for Saturn, Titan, Uranus and Neptune are provided. The challenges related to sustainability of the TPS for future missions are discussed.

  13. Combined natural convection and surface radiation in the annular region between a volumetrically heated inner tube and a finite conducting outer tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoulakis, S.; Klein, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven natural-convection heat transfer in enclosures has been the subject of considerable research with applications to electronic packaging, solar collectors, and shipping containers for spent nuclear fuel. A numerical study has been carried out to predict combined natural-convection and radiation heat transfer in the annular region between concentric tubes. The inner tube was volumetrically heated. Both tubes were of finite conductance. The surfaces of the annular region were diffuse and gray. The gas in the annulus was assumed to be nonparticipating. A newly developed hybrid finite element finite difference method was used for the study. This method combines finite element discretization of geometries with finite difference discretized solution procedures for the governing differential equations. This study examined the effects of surface radiative properties and material conductivities on the temperature and velocity fields and on local heat transfer rates. Fluid Raleigh numbers ranging from 10 3 to 10 7 , ratios of solid to fluid region thermal conductivities ranging from 10 to 10 4 , and surface total hemispherical emissivities ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 were examined in this study. It was found that the heat transfer across the annulus was dominated by conduction and radiation for the lower Raleigh number flows. As the fluid Raleigh number increased, convection became a primary mode of heat transfer. As the surface emissivity was increased in the annulus, the average Nusselt number on the inner tube surface decreased

  14. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  15. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  16. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative

  17. Endurance test for DUPIC capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Bae, K. K.; Lee, C. Y.; Park, J. M.; Ryu, J. S.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for mini-plate fuel rig which were designed fabricately by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate across the capsule corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 9.632 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the capsule ranges from 14 to 18.5 Hz. RMS (Root Mean Square) displacement for the fuel rig is less than 14 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 54 μm. Based on the endurance test results, the appreciable fretting wear for the DUPIC capsule was not detected. Oxidation on the support tube is observed, also tiny trace of wear between contact points observed. (author). 4 refs., 10 tabs., 45 figs

  18. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  19. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  20. Chemical design of pH-sensitive nanovalves on the outer surface of mesoporous silicas for controlled storage and release of aromatic amino acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roik, N.V.; Belyakova, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas with hexagonally arranged pore channels were synthesized in water–ethanol-ammonia solution using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as template. Directed modification of silica surface with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups was realized by postsynthetic activation of halogenoalkylsilicas, which have surface uniformly or selectively distributed 3-chloropropyl groups, with 2-aminodiphenylamine in the liquid phase. Chemical composition of silica materials was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of MCM-41-type silicas were determined from X-ray and low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption measurements. Release ability of synthesized silica carriers was established on encapsulation of 4-aminobenzoic acid in pore channels and subsequent delivery at pH=6.86 and pH=1.00. It was found that N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups block pore entrances at neutral pH preventing 4-aminobenzoic acid release. At pH=1.00 repulsion of positively charged surface aromatic amino groups localized near pore orifices provides unhindered liberation of aromatic amino acid from mesoporous channels. - Graphical abstract: Blocking of pores with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups at pH=6.86 for storage of ABA and opening of pore entrances at pH=1.00 for unhindered ABA liberation. - Highlights: • Modification of MCM-41 with N-[N′-(N′-phenyl)-2-aminophenyl]-3-aminopropyl groups. • Study of release ability of synthesized silica carriers in relation to amino acid. • Controlled blocking and opening of pores by amino groups at pH change were performed. • Retention of amino acid at pH=6.86 and its liberation at pH=1.00 was proved

  1. The double capsules in macro-textured breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giot, Jean-Philippe; Paek, Laurence S; Nizard, Nathanael; El-Diwany, Mostafa; Gaboury, Louis A; Nelea, Monica; Bou-Merhi, Joseph S; Harris, Patrick G; Danino, Michel A

    2015-10-01

    Breast implants are amongst the most widely used types of permanent implants in modern medicine and have both aesthetic and reconstructive applications with excellent biocompatibility. The double capsule is a complication associated with textured prostheses that leads to implant displacement; however, its etiology has yet to be elucidated. In this study, 10 double capsules were sampled from breast expander implants for in-depth analysis; histologically, the inner capsular layer demonstrated highly organized collagen in sheets with delamination of fibers. At the prosthesis interface (PI) where the implant shell contacts the inner capsular layer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a thin layer which mirrored the three-dimensional characteristics of the implant texture; the external surface of the inner capsular layer facing the intercapsular space (ICS) was flat. SEM examination of the inner capsule layer revealed both a large bacterial presence as well as biofilm deposition at the PI; a significantly lower quantity of bacteria and biofilm were found at the ICS interface. These findings suggest that the double capsule phenomenon's etiopathogenesis is of mechanical origin. Delamination of the periprosthetic capsule leads to the creation of the ICS; the maintained separation of the 2 layers subsequently alters the biostability of the macro-textured breast implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  3. Performance of HTGR fuel in HFIR capsule HT-33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Robbins, J.M.

    1979-06-01

    Irradiation capsule HT-33 was a cooperative effort between General Atomic Company (GA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this capsule ThO 2 particles (fabricated by GA), low-enriched uranium particles, inert carbon particles, and various fuel rod matrices were tested under accelerated irradiation in the High-Flux Isotope Reactor. Visual examination showed good irradiation behavior for fuel rods with slug-injected matrices (using a pitch binder) and warm-molded matrices (using a thermosetting resin binder). Rod debonding improved somewhat with fuel rods that used GLCC H-451 ground graphite shim particles rather than Speer fluid coke shim particles. Measurements of permeability (by inert gas intrusion) of the pyrocarbon on the inert particles showed that the disorder created by the neutron flux did not increase the inert gas permeability. Metallographic examination of Triso-coated particles irradiated both with and without an outer pyrocarbon coating revealed that the outer coating is necessary to suppress SiC degradation at temperatures above approximately 1375 0 C. The fission product behavior (determined by the electron microprobe) was similar in both low-enriched and high-enriched uranium particles made from weak-acid resins. Furthermore, fission product palladium caused severe SiC corrosion at time-averaged temperatures above 1400 0 C

  4. Mutations Blocking Side Chain Assembly, Polymerization, or Transport of a Wzy-Dependent Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule Are Lethal in the Absence of Suppressor Mutations and Can Affect Polymer Transfer to the Cell Wall▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Yother, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides of many bacteria are synthesized by the Wzy polymerase-dependent mechanism, where long-chain polymers are assembled from undecaprenyl-phosphate-linked repeat units on the outer face of the cytoplasmic membrane. In gram-positive bacteria, Wzy-dependent capsules remain largely cell associated via membrane and peptidoglycan linkages. Like many Wzy-dependent capsules, the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 capsule is branched. In this study, we found that deletions ...

  5. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  6. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions

  7. Programmed temperature control of capsule in irradiation test with personal computer at JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Uramoto, T.; Fukushima, M.; Obata, M.; Suzuki, S.; Nakazaki, C.; Tanaka, I.

    1992-01-01

    The capsule irradiation facility is one of various equipments employed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The capsule facility has been used in irradiation tests of both nuclear fuels and materials. The capsule to be irradiated consists of the specimen, the outer tube and inner tube with a annular space between them. The temperature of the specimen is controlled by varying the degree of pressure (below the atmospheric pressure) of He gas in the annular space (vacuum-controlled). Beside this, in another system the temperature of the specimen is controlled with electric heaters mounted around the specimen (heater-controlled). The use of personal computer in the capsule facility has led to the development of a versatile temperature control system at the JMTR. Features of this newly-developed temperature control system lie in the following: the temperature control mode for a operation period can be preset prior to the operation; and the vacuum-controlled irradiation facility can be used in cooperation with the heater-controlled. The introduction of personal computer has brought in automatic heat-up and cool-down operations of the capsule, setting aside the hand-operated jobs which had been conducted by the operators. As a result of this, the various requirements seeking a higher accuracy and efficiency in the irradiation can be met by fully exploiting the capabilities incorporated into the facility which allow the cyclic or delicate changes in the temperature. This paper deals with a capsule temperature control system with personal computer. (author)

  8. Outer atmospheric research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The region above the earth from about 90 km to 150 km is a major part of the upper or outer atmosphere. It is relatively unexplored, being too high for balloons or aircraft and too low for persistent orbiting spacecraft. However, the concept of a tethered subsatellite, deployed downward from an orbiting, more massive craft such as the Space Shuttle, opens the possibility of a research capability that could provide global mapping of this region. The need for research in this thick spherical shell above the earth falls into two major categories: (1) scientific data for understanding and modeling the global atmosphere and thereby determining its role in the earth system, and (2) engineering data for the design of future aerospace vehicles that will operate there. This paper presents an overview and synthesis of the currently perceived research needs and the state-of-the-art of the proposed tethered research capability. 16 references

  9. Capsule safety analysis of PRTF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwarto

    2013-01-01

    Power Ramp Test Facility (PRTF) is an irradiation facility used for fuel testing of power reactor. PRTF has a capsule which is a test fuel rod container. During operation, pressurized water of 160 bars flows through in the capsule. Due to the high pressure it should be analyzed the impact of the capsule on reactor core safety. This analysis has purpose to calculate the ability of capsule pressure capacity. The analysis was carried out by calculating pressure capacity. From the calculating results it can be concluded that the capsule with pressure capacity of 438 bars will be safe to prevent the operation pressure of PRTF. (author)

  10. Probing cell internalisation mechanics with polymer capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Ping, Yuan; Suma, Tomoya; Cavalieri, Francesca; Besford, Quinn A; Chen, George; Braunger, Julia A; Caruso, Frank

    2016-10-06

    We report polymer capsule-based probes for quantifying the pressure exerted by cells during capsule internalisation (P in ). Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) capsules with tuneable mechanical properties were fabricated through layer-by-layer assembly. The P in was quantified by correlating the cell-induced deformation with the ex situ osmotically induced deformation of the polymer capsules. Ultimately, we found that human monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells exerted up to approximately 360 kPa on the capsules during internalisation.

  11. Contraindications for video capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bandorski, Dirk; Kurniawan, Niehls; Baltes, Peter; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Hecker, Matthias; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has been applied in the last 15 years in an increasing field of applications. Although many contraindications have been put into perspective, some precautions still have to be considered. Known stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract is a clear contraindication for VCE unless surgery is already scheduled or at least has been considered as an optional treatment modality. In patients with a higher incidence of stenosis, as in an established diagnosis of Crohn?s dise...

  12. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Mariaelena; Pédron, Thierry; Rossi, Omar; Goulding, David; Pickard, Derek; Citiulo, Francesco; MacLennan, Calman A; Dougan, Gordon; Thomson, Nicholas R; Saul, Allan; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Gerke, Christiane

    2015-03-01

    Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg) of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  13. An O antigen capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis in Shigella sonnei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaelena Caboni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella is the leading cause for dysentery worldwide. Together with several virulence factors employed for invasion, the presence and length of the O antigen (OAg of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS plays a key role in pathogenesis. S. flexneri 2a has a bimodal OAg chain length distribution regulated in a growth-dependent manner, whereas S. sonnei LPS comprises a monomodal OAg. Here we reveal that S. sonnei, but not S. flexneri 2a, possesses a high molecular weight, immunogenic group 4 capsule, characterized by structural similarity to LPS OAg. We found that a galU mutant of S. sonnei, that is unable to produce a complete LPS with OAg attached, can still assemble OAg material on the cell surface, but a galU mutant of S. flexneri 2a cannot. High molecular weight material not linked to the LPS was purified from S. sonnei and confirmed by NMR to contain the specific sugars of the S. sonnei OAg. Deletion of genes homologous to the group 4 capsule synthesis cluster, previously described in Escherichia coli, abolished the generation of the high molecular weight OAg material. This OAg capsule strongly affects the virulence of S. sonnei. Uncapsulated knockout bacteria were highly invasive in vitro and strongly inflammatory in the rabbit intestine. But, the lack of capsule reduced the ability of S. sonnei to resist complement-mediated killing and to spread from the gut to peripheral organs. In contrast, overexpression of the capsule decreased invasiveness in vitro and inflammation in vivo compared to the wild type. In conclusion, the data indicate that in S. sonnei expression of the capsule modulates bacterial pathogenesis resulting in balanced capabilities to invade and persist in the host environment.

  14. Anterior Lens Capsule and Iris Thicknesses in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Muhammed; Seven, Erbil; Tekin, Serek; Yasar, Tekin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anatomic properties of the lens capsule and iris by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This prospective study included 62 eyes of 62 patients with PEX syndrome and 43 eyes of 43 age- and gender-matched controls. All subjects underwent full ophthalmologic examinations including AS-OCT. Pupillary diameter, midperipheral stromal iris thickness, central and temporal lens capsule thicknesses, and peripheral pseudoexfoliation material thickness on the anterior lens capsule surface were measured and recorded. Mean age was 66.8 ± 9.3 years in the PEX group and 65.5 ± 8.9 years in the control group (p = 0.44). The PEX group consisted of 62 patients: 38 men (61.3%) and 24 women (38.7%); the control group included 43 subjects: 25 men (58.1%) and 18 women (41.9%). Pupillary diameter after pharmacologic mydriasis was 21% smaller in the PEX group than controls. Mean midperipheral iris thickness was 36 ± 7.2 μm (7.8%) thinner in the PEX group than that of control group (p = 0.047). The central anterior capsule was a mean of 3.40 ± 0.51 μm (18%) thicker in the PEX group compared to the control group (p = 0.0001). The temporal anterior lens capsule was a mean of 0.17 ± 0.15 μm thicker in the PEX group compared to the control group (p = 0.81). With high-resolution OCT imaging, it has become possible to evaluate the anterior lens capsule without histologic examination and demonstrate that it is thicker than normal in PEX patients.

  15. State diagram for adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zheng Yuan; Bai, Bo Feng

    2016-08-17

    Due to the significance of understanding the underlying mechanisms of cell adhesion in biological processes and cell capture in biomedical applications, we numerically investigate the adhesion dynamics of deformable capsules under shear flow by using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model. This model is based on the coupling of the front tracking-finite element method for elastic mechanics of the capsule membrane and the adhesion kinetics simulation for adhesive interactions between capsules and functionalized surfaces. Using this model, three distinct adhesion dynamic states are predicted, such as detachment, rolling and firm-adhesion. Specifically, the effects of capsule deformability quantified by the capillary number on the transitions of these three dynamic states are investigated by developing an adhesion dynamic state diagram for the first time. At low capillary numbers (e.g. Ca state no longer appears, since capsules exhibit large deviation from the spherical shape.

  16. The effects of convergence ratio on the implosion behavior of DT layered inertial confinement fusion capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Brian M.; Yi, S. A.; Olson, R. E.; Khan, S. F.; Kyrala, G. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Bradley, P. A.; Peterson, R. R.; Kline, J. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Shah, R. C.

    2017-07-01

    The wetted foam capsule design for inertial confinement fusion capsules, which includes a foam layer wetted with deuterium-tritium liquid, enables layered capsule implosions with a wide range of hot-spot convergence ratios (CR) on the National Ignition Facility. We present a full-scale wetted foam capsule design that demonstrates high gain in one-dimensional simulations. In these simulations, increasing the convergence ratio leads to an improved capsule yield due to higher hot-spot temperatures and increased fuel areal density. High-resolution two-dimensional simulations of this design are presented with detailed and well resolved models for the capsule fill tube, support tent, surface roughness, and predicted asymmetries in the x-ray drive. Our modeling of these asymmetries is validated by comparisons with available experimental data. In 2D simulations of the full-scale wetted foam capsule design, jetting caused by the fill tube is prevented by the expansion of the tungsten-doped shell layer due to preheat. While the impacts of surface roughness and predicted asymmetries in the x-ray drive are enhanced by convergence effects, likely underpredicted in 2D at high CR, simulations predict that the capsule is robust to these features. Nevertheless, the design is highly susceptible to the effects of the capsule support tent, which negates all of the one-dimensional benefits of increasing the convergence ratio. Indeed, when the support tent is included in simulations, the yield decreases as the convergence ratio is increased for CR > 20. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the full-scale wetted foam design has the potential to outperform ice layer capsules given currently achievable levels of asymmetries when fielded at low convergence ratios (CR < 20).

  17. Generic Delivery of Payload of Nanoparticles Intracellularly via Hybrid Polymer Capsules for Bioimaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Haider; Maparu, Auhin K.; Kumar, Ashok; Sivakumar, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Towards the goal of development of a generic nanomaterial delivery system and delivery of the ‘as prepared’ nanoparticles without ‘further surface modification’ in a generic way, we have fabricated a hybrid polymer capsule as a delivery vehicle in which nanoparticles are loaded within their cavity. To this end, a generic approach to prepare nanomaterials-loaded polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM) capsules has been reported, where polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)/polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) polymer capsules were employed as nano/microreactors to synthesize variety of nanomaterials (metal nanoparticles; lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles; gadolinium based nanoparticles, cadmium based nanoparticles; different shapes of nanoparticles; co-loading of two types of nanoparticles) in their hollow cavity. These nanoparticles-loaded capsules were employed to demonstrate generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly (HeLa cells), without the need of individual nanoparticle surface modification. Validation of intracellular internalization of nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells was ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The green emission from Tb3+ was observed after internalization of LaF3:Tb3+(5%) nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells, which suggests that nanoparticles in hybrid capsules retain their functionality within the cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of these nanoparticles-loaded capsules showed less/no cytotoxicity in comparison to blank capsules or untreated cells, thus offering a way of evading direct contact of nanoparticles with cells because of the presence of biocompatible polymeric shell of capsules. The proposed hybrid delivery system can be potentially developed to avoid a series of biological barriers and deliver multiple cargoes (both simultaneous and individual delivery) without the need of individual cargo design/modification. PMID:22649489

  18. Generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly via hybrid polymer capsules for bioimaging applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Sami

    Full Text Available Towards the goal of development of a generic nanomaterial delivery system and delivery of the 'as prepared' nanoparticles without 'further surface modification' in a generic way, we have fabricated a hybrid polymer capsule as a delivery vehicle in which nanoparticles are loaded within their cavity. To this end, a generic approach to prepare nanomaterials-loaded polyelectrolyte multilayered (PEM capsules has been reported, where polystyrene sulfonate (PSS/polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH polymer capsules were employed as nano/microreactors to synthesize variety of nanomaterials (metal nanoparticles; lanthanide doped inorganic nanoparticles; gadolinium based nanoparticles, cadmium based nanoparticles; different shapes of nanoparticles; co-loading of two types of nanoparticles in their hollow cavity. These nanoparticles-loaded capsules were employed to demonstrate generic delivery of payload of nanoparticles intracellularly (HeLa cells, without the need of individual nanoparticle surface modification. Validation of intracellular internalization of nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells was ascertained by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The green emission from Tb(3+ was observed after internalization of LaF(3:Tb(3+(5% nanoparticles-loaded capsules by HeLa cells, which suggests that nanoparticles in hybrid capsules retain their functionality within the cells. In vitro cytotoxicity studies of these nanoparticles-loaded capsules showed less/no cytotoxicity in comparison to blank capsules or untreated cells, thus offering a way of evading direct contact of nanoparticles with cells because of the presence of biocompatible polymeric shell of capsules. The proposed hybrid delivery system can be potentially developed to avoid a series of biological barriers and deliver multiple cargoes (both simultaneous and individual delivery without the need of individual cargo design/modification.

  19. Alginate/sodium caseinate aqueous-core capsules: a pH-responsive matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Messaoud, Ghazi; Sánchez-González, Laura; Jacquot, Adrien; Probst, Laurent; Desobry, Stéphane

    2015-02-15

    Alginate capsules have several applications. Their functionality depends considerably on their permeability, chemical and mechanical stability. Consequently, the creation of composite system by addition of further components is expected to control mechanical and release properties of alginate capsules. Alginate and alginate-sodium caseinate composite liquid-core capsules were prepared by a simple extrusion. The influence of the preparation pH and sodium caseinate concentration on capsules physico-chemical properties was investigated. Results showed that sodium caseinate influenced significantly capsules properties. As regards to the membrane mechanical stability, composite capsules prepared at pH below the isoelectric point of sodium caseinate exhibited the highest surface Young's modulus, increasing with protein content, explained by potential electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate amino-groups and alginate carboxylic group. The kinetic of cochineal red A release changed significantly for composite capsules and showed a pH-responsive release. Sodium caseinate-dye mixture studied by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed complex formation at pH 2 by electrostatic interactions between sodium caseinate tryptophan residues and cochineal red sulfonate-groups. Consequently, the release mechanism was explained by membrane adsorption process. This global approach is useful to control release mechanism from macro and micro-capsules by incorporating guest molecules which can interact with the entrapped molecule under specific conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of preparation conditions on properties and permeability of chitosan-sodium hexametaphosphate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, N; Hunkeler, D

    2001-01-01

    Capsules were obtained by interpolymer complexation between chitosan (polycation) and sodium hexametaphosphate (SMP, oligoanion). The effect of the preparation conditions on the capsule characteristics was evaluated. Specifically, the influence of variables such as pH, ionic strength, reagent concentration, and additives on the capsule permeability properties was investigated using dextran as a model permeant. The capsule membrane permeability was found to increase by decreasing the chitosan/SMP ratio as well as adding mannitol to the oligoanion recipient bath. Increasing the ionic strength or the pH of the initial chitosan solution was also found to enhance the membrane permeability, moving the membrane exclusion limit to higher values. Generally, the capsules prepared tinder all tested conditions had a relatively low permeability which rarely exceeded a molecular cut-off of 40 kD based on dextran standards. Furthermore, the diffusion rate showed a strong temporal dependence, indicating that the capsules prepared under various conditions exhibit different apparent pore size densities on the surface. The results indicated that, in order to obtain the desired capsule mass-transfer properties, the preparation conditions should be carefully considered and adjusted. Adding a polyol as well as low salt amount (less than 0.15%) is preferable as a means of modulating the diffusion characteristics, without disturbing the capsule mechanical stability.

  1. Convective heat transport of high-pressure flows inside active, thick walled-tubes with isothermal outer surfaces: usage of Nusselt correlation equations for an inactive, thin walled-tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Antonio [Idaho State Univ., Nuclear Engineering Dept., Pocatello, ID (United States); Sanchez, Alejo [Universidad de los Andes, Depto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Merida (Venezuela)

    1998-03-01

    A semi-analytical analysis was conducted for the prediction of the mean bulk- and interface temperatures of gaseous and liquid fluids moving laminarly at high pressures inside thick-walled metallic tubes. The outer surfaces of the tubes are isothermal. The central goal of this article is to critically examine the thermal response of this kind of in-tube flows utilizing two versions of the 1-D lumped model: one is differential-numerical while the other is differential-algebraic. For the former, the local Nusselt number characterizing an inactive, isothermal tube was taken from correlation equations reported in the heat transfer literature. For the latter, a streamwise-mean Nusselt number associated with an active, isothermal tube was taken from standard correlation equations that appear in text-books on basic heat transfer. For the two different versions of the 1-D lumped model tested, the computed results consistently demonstrate that the differential-algebraic, provides accurate estimates of both the mean bulk- and the interface temperatures when compared with those temperature results computed with formal 2-D differential models. (author)

  2. Outer Solar System Nomenclature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Tobias C

    2000-01-01

    The work to be carried out on the subject grant during the next funding period will center on names needed for surface features on the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, names for the newly discovered...

  3. Fabrication of hybrid graphene oxide/polyelectrolyte capsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly on erythrocyte cell templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Irigoyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel and facile method was developed to produce hybrid graphene oxide (GO–polyelectrolyte (PE capsules using erythrocyte cells as templates. The capsules are easily produced through the layer-by-layer technique using alternating polyelectrolyte layers and GO sheets. The amount of GO and therefore its coverage in the resulting capsules can be tuned by adjusting the concentration of the GO dispersion during the assembly. The capsules retain the approximate shape and size of the erythrocyte template after the latter is totally removed by oxidation with NaOCl in water. The PE/GO capsules maintain their integrity and can be placed or located on other surfaces such as in a device. When the capsules are dried in air, they collapse to form a film that is approximately twice the thickness of the capsule membrane. AFM images in the present study suggest a film thickness of approx. 30 nm for the capsules in the collapsed state implying a thickness of approx. 15 nm for the layers in the collapsed capsule membrane. The polyelectrolytes used in the present study were polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH and polystyrenesulfonate sodium salt (PSS. Capsules where characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman microscopy, the constituent layers by zeta potential and GO by TEM, XRD, and Raman and FTIR spectroscopies.

  4. Will Outer Tropical Cyclone Size Change due to Anthropogenic Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, B. A.; Lin, N.; Chavas, D. R.; Vecchi, G. A.; Knutson, T. R.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Prior research has shown significant interbasin and intrabasin variability in outer tropical cyclone (TC) size. Moreover, outer TC size has even been shown to vary substantially over the lifetime of the majority of TCs. However, the factors responsible for both setting initial outer TC size and determining its evolution throughout the TC lifetime remain uncertain. Given these gaps in our physical understanding, there remains uncertainty in how outer TC size will change, if at all, due to anthropogenic warming. The present study seeks to quantify whether outer TC size will change significantly in response to anthropogenic warming using data from a high-resolution global climate model and a regional hurricane model. Similar to prior work, the outer TC size metric used in this study is the radius in which the azimuthal-mean surface azimuthal wind equals 8 m/s. The initial results from the high-resolution global climate model data suggest that the distribution of outer TC size shifts significantly towards larger values in each global TC basin during future climates, as revealed by 1) statistically significant increase of the median outer TC size by 5-10% (p<0.05) according to a 1,000-sample bootstrap resampling approach with replacement and 2) statistically significant differences between distributions of outer TC size from current and future climate simulations as shown using two-sample Kolmogorov Smirnov testing (p<<0.01). Additional analysis of the high-resolution global climate model data reveals that outer TC size does not uniformly increase within each basin in future climates, but rather shows substantial locational dependence. Future work will incorporate the regional mesoscale hurricane model data to help focus on identifying the source of the spatial variability in outer TC size increases within each basin during future climates and, more importantly, why outer TC size changes in response to anthropogenic warming.

  5. A performance test of a capsule for a material irradiation in the OR holes of HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Shin, Y. T.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H.; Kim, B. G.

    2008-01-01

    A test for a pressure drop and a vibration was performed to develop a material capsule for an irradiation at the OR hole in HANARO. It was analyzed before the test that a diameter of a material capsule for the OR holes should be more than 49mm by an evaluation of a flow rate and pressure drop in theory. According to this estimation, 3 kinds of mock-up capsules with a diameter of 52, 54, 56 mm were made and applied to a pressure drop test. As a result of the pressure drop test, the requirement for a pressure and a flow rate in HANARO was confirmed to be satisfied for the 3 kinds of diameters. The capsules with diameters of 54, 56mm were applied to a vibration test by taking into consideration a receptive capacity of the specimens. The capsule with a diameter of 56mm satisfied the requirement for an allowable limit of the vibration acceleration applied in HANARO. The heat transfer coefficient and the temperature on the surface of a capsule were estimated. As the temperature on the surface of the capsule was calculated to be 43.7 .deg. C, the ONB condition in HANARO was satisfied

  6. Status of the material capsule irradiation and the development of the new capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Kang, Young-Hwan; Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Cho, Man-Soon; Kim, Bong-Goo

    2006-01-01

    A material capsule system including a main capsule, fixing, control, cutting, and transport systems was developed for an irradiation test of non-fissile materials in HANARO. 14 irradiation capsules (12 instrumented and 2 non-instrumented capsules) have been designed, fabricated and successfully irradiated in the HANARO CT and IR test holes since 1995. The capsules were mainly designed for an irradiation of the RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel), reactor core materials, and Zr-based alloys. Most capsules were made for KAERI material research projects, but 5 capsules were made as a part of national projects for the promotion of the HANARO utilization for universities. Based on the accumulated irradiation experience and the user's sophisticated requirements, development of new instrumented capsule technologies for a more precise control of the irradiation temperature and fluence of a specimen irrespective of the reactor operation has been performed in HANARO. (author)

  7. NASPGHAN Capsule Endoscopy Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Joel A; Liu, Quin Y; Sahn, Benjamin; Kooros, Koorosh; Walsh, Catharine M; Kramer, Robert E; Lightdale, Jenifer R; Khlevner, Julie; McOmber, Mark; Kurowski, Jacob; Giefer, Matthew J; Pall, Harpreet; Troendle, David M; Utterson, Elizabeth C; Brill, Herbert; Zacur, George M; Lirio, Richard A; Lerner, Diana G; Reynolds, Carrie; Gibbons, Troy E; Wilsey, Michael; Liacouras, Chris A; Fishman, Douglas S

    2017-03-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 as a less invasive method to visualize the distal small bowel in adults. Because this technology has advanced it has been adapted for use in pediatric gastroenterology. Several studies have described its clinical use, utility, and various training methods but pediatric literature regarding CE is limited. This clinical report developed by the Endoscopic and Procedures Committee of the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition outlines the current literature, and describes the recommended current role, use, training, and future areas of research for CE in pediatrics.

  8. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  9. Diagnostic and therapeutic radio pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.; Morcos, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved pharmaceutical radioactive capsule consisting of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contact with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract is described. Each capsule is provided with filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract. The capsule is preferably of gelatin, methyl cellulose or polyvinyl alcohol and the filler is a polyethylene glycol. The radioactive compound may be iodine e.g. sodium radioiodide I-131 or 123. The capsule may also contain a reducing agent e.g. sodium thiosulphate, sulphite, or bisulphite. (author)

  10. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry

  11. Fabrication and operation of HFIR-MFE RB* spectrally tailored irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Pawel, J.E.; Heatherly, D.W.; Sitterson, R.G.; Wallace, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of four HFIR-MFE RB * capsules (60, 200, 330, and 400 degrees C) to accommodate MFE specimens previously irradiated in spectrally tailored experiments in the ORR are proceeding satisfactorily. With the exception of the 60 degrees C capsule, where the test specimens were in direct contact with the reactor cooling water, specimen temperatures (monitored by 21 thermocouples) are controlled by varying the thermal conductance of a thin gap region between the specimen holder outer sleeve and containment tube. Irradiation of the 60 and 330 degrees C capsules, which started on July 17, 1990, was completed on November 14, 1992, after 24 cycles of irradiation to an incremental damage level of approximately 10.9 displacements per atom (dpa). Assembly of the follow-up 200 and 400 degrees C capsules was completed in November 1992, and their planned 20-cycle irradiation to approximately 9.1 incremental dpa was started on November 21, 1992. As of February 11, 1993, the 200 and 400 degrees C capsules had successfully completed three cycles of irradiation to approximately 1.4 incremental dpa

  12. The design, fabrication, and testing of beryllium capsules for resonant ultrasound experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.A.; Salzer, L.; Day, R.

    1999-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition targets require smooth and well-characterized deuterium/tritium (DT) ice layers. Los Alamos is developing Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) to measure the internal pressure in the targets at room temperature after filling with DT. RUS techniques also can detect and measure the amplitudes of low modal surface roughness perturbations of the target shell interior. The experiments required beryllium capsules with a nominal inside radius of 1 mm and a spherical outside radius of 3 mm. The capsules have various spherical harmonic contours up to mode 12 machined into their interior surfaces. The capsules are constructed from hemispheres using an epoxy adhesive and then filled to ∼270 atm with helium or deuterium gas. This paper describes the adhesive joint design, machining techniques, and interior geometry inspection techniques. It also describes the fixtures needed to assemble, fill, and pressure test the capsules

  13. Cryovolcanism in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Cryovolcanism is defined as the extrusion of liquids and vapors of materials that would be frozen solid at the planetary surface temperatures of the icy bodies of the outer solar system. Active cryovolcanism is now known to occur on Saturn's moon Enceladus and on Neptune's moon Triton and is suspected on Jupiter's moon Europa, while evidence for past cryovolcanic activity is widespread throughout the outer solar system. This chapter examines the mechanisms and manifestations of cryovolcanism, beginning with a review of the materials that make up these unusual ‘‘magmas’’ and the means by which they might erupt and concluding with a volcanologist's tour of the farthest reaches of the solar system.

  14. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....... chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  15. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Han, Tae Il; Lee, Kwang Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Song, Mun Kab; Kwon, Soon Tae

    2001-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a clinical syndrome involving pain and decreased joint motion caused by thickening and contraction of the joint capsule. The purpose of this study is to describe the MR arthrographic findings of this syndrome. Twenty-nine sets of MR arthrographic images were included in the study. Fourteen patients had adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by physical examination and arthrography, and their MR arthrographic findings were compared with those of 15 subjects in the control group. The images were retrospectively reviewed with specific attention to the thickness of the joint capsule, volume of the axillary pouch (length, width, height(depth)), thinkness of the coracohumeral ligament, presence of extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrst filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Mean capsular thickness measured at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch was 4.1 mm in patients with adhesive capsulitis and 1.5 mm in the control group. The mean width of the axillary pouch was 2.5 mm in patients and 9.5 mm in controls. In patients, the capsule was significantly thicker and the axillary pouch significantly narrower than in controls (p<0.05). Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch (sensitivity 93%, specificity 80%) and a pouch narrower than 3.5 mm (sensitivity 93%, specificity 100%) were useful criteria for the diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis. In patients with this condition, extra-articular contrast extravasation was noted in six patients (43%) and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa in three (21%). The MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis are capsular thickening, a low-volume axillary pouch, extra-articular contrast extravasation, and contrast filling of the subcoracoid bursa. Capsule thickness greater than 2.5 mm at the inferior portion of the axillary pouch and a pouch width of less than 3.5 mm are useful diagnostic imaging characteristics

  16. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  17. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. NIF Double Shell outer/inner shell collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Cardenas, T.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Dodd, E. S.; Desjardins, T.; Renner, D. B.; Palaniyappan, S.; Batha, S. H.; Khan, S. F.; Smalyuk, V.; Ping, Y.; Amendt, P.; Schoff, M.; Hoppe, M.

    2017-10-01

    Double shell capsules are a potential low convergence path to substantial alpha-heating and ignition on NIF, since they are predicted to ignite and burn at relatively low temperatures via volume ignition. Current LANL NIF double shell designs consist of a low-Z ablator, low-density foam cushion, and high-Z inner shell with liquid DT fill. Central to the Double Shell concept is kinetic energy transfer from the outer to inner shell via collision. The collision determines maximum energy available for compression and implosion shape of the fuel. We present results of a NIF shape-transfer study: two experiments comparing shape and trajectory of the outer and inner shells at post-collision times. An outer-shell-only target shot measured the no-impact shell conditions, while an `imaging' double shell shot measured shell conditions with impact. The `imaging' target uses a low-Z inner shell and is designed to perform in similar collision physics space to a high-Z double shell but can be radiographed at 16keV, near the viable 2DConA BL energy limit. Work conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  19. NMR relaxation dispersion of Miglyol molecules confined inside polymeric micro-capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechifor, Ruben; Ardelean, Ioan; Mattea, Carlos; Stapf, Siegfried; Bogdan, Mircea

    2011-11-01

    Frequency dependent NMR relaxation studies have been carried out on Miglyol molecules confined inside core shell polymeric capsules to obtain a correlation between capsule dimension and the measurable parameters. The polymeric capsules were prepared using an interfacial polymerization technique for three different concentrations of Miglyol. It was shown that the variation of Miglyol concentration influences the capsule dimension. Their average size was estimated using the pulsed field gradient diffusometry technique. The relaxation dispersion curves were obtained at room temperature by a combined use of a fast field cycling instrument and a high-field instrument. The frequency dependence of relaxation rate shows a transition from a diffusion-limited to a surface-limited relaxation regime. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Thulium oxide fuel characterization study (thulium-170 fueled capsule parametric design)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DesChamps, N.H.

    1968-10-01

    A doubly encapsulated thulia wafer, i.e., individually lined wafers stacked one upon another inside a fuel capsule was studied. The temperature profiles were determined for thulia power densities ranging from 8 to 24 W/cc and fuel capsule surface temperatures ranging from 1000/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/C) to 2000/sup 0/F (1093/sup 0/C). Parametric studies were also carried out on a singly encapsulated configuration in which the thulia wafers were stacked face to face in an infinitely long, lined cylinder. The doubly encapsulated wafer configuration yielded a lower centerline temperature than the singly encapsulated capsule. Only in extreme cases of a large wafer diameter in combination with a high thulia power density did the fuel capsule centerline temperature exceed the thulia melt temperature of 4172/sup 0/F (2300/sup 0/C). Results are also given for the maximum radius attainable without having centerline melting when using a thulia microsphere fuel form.

  1. [Evaluation of nopal capsules in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati Munari, A C; Vera Lastra, O; Ariza Andraca, C R

    1992-01-01

    To find out if commercial capsules with dried nopal (prickle-pear cactus, Opuntia ficus indica may have a role in the management of diabetes mellitus, three experiments were performed: 30 capsules where given in fasting condition to 10 diabetic subjects and serum glucose was measured through out 3 hours; a control test was performed with 30 placebo capsules. OGTT with previous intake of 30 nopal or placebo capsules was performed in ten healthy individuals. In a crossover and single blinded study 14 diabetic patients withdrew the oral hypoglycemic treatment and received 10 nopal or placebo capsules t.i.d. during one week; serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels were measured before and after each one-week period. Five healthy subjects were also studied in the same fashion. Opuntia capsules did not show acute hypoglycemic effect and did not influence OGTT. In diabetic patients serum glucose, cholesterol and tryglycerides levels did not change with Opuntia, but they increased with placebo (P nopal, while cholesterol and triglycerides decreased (P < 0.01 vs. placebo). The intake of 30 Opuntia capsules daily in patients with diabetes mellitus had a discrete beneficial effect on glucose and cholesterol. However this dose is unpractical and at present it is not recommended in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  2. Interventional microadhesiolysis: A new nonsurgical release technique for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tae-Kyun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nonsurgical intervention, interventional microadhesiolysis, was developed to release adhesions in joints and soft tissues. This paper introduces the procedure and evaluates the efficacy of the intervention for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Methods Ten patients (five men and five women with primary adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder were treated at a chronic pain management center in Korea. Three specially made needles are used in interventional microadhesiolysis: the Round, Flexed Round, and Ahn's needles. A Round Needle is inserted on the skin over middle of supraspinatus and advanced under the acromion and acromioclavicular joint (subacromial release. A Flexed Round Needle is inserted two-fingers caudal to the inferior border of the scapular spine and advanced over the capsule sliding on the surface of infraspinatus muscle-tendon fascia. The capsule is released while an assistant simultaneously passively abducts the shoulder to full abduction (posteroinferior capsule release. An Ahn's Needle is inserted on the skin over the lesser tubercle and advanced under the coracoid process sliding on the surface of the subscapularis muscle (subcoracoid release. Results After the patients underwent interventional microadhesiolysis, the self-rated pain score or severity declined significantly (p p Conclusion Our findings suggest that interventional microadhesiolysis is effective for managing adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

  3. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  4. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of Wzi, a member of the capsule export and assembly pathway in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushell, Simon R.; Lou, Hubing; Wallat, Gregor D.; Beis, Konstantinos; Whitfield, Chris; Naismith, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Wzi is a membrane protein from E. coli thought to be involved in the attachment of capsular polysaccharides to the bacterial surface. This reports describes recombinant Wzi’s purification, crystallization and the results of initial diffraction studies. External polysaccharide capsules provide a physical barrier that is employed by many species of bacteria for the purposes of host evasion and persistence. Wzi is a 53 kDa outer membrane β-barrel protein that is thought to play a role in the attachment of group 1 capsular polysaccharides to the cell surface. The purification and crystallization of an Escherichia coli homologue of Wzi is reported and diffraction data from native and selenomethionine-incorporated protein crystals are presented. Crystals of C-terminally His 6 -tagged Wzi diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. Data processing showed that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 128.8, b = 152.8, c = 94.4 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. A His-tagged selenomethionine-containing variant of Wzi has also been crystallized in the same space group and diffraction data have been recorded to 3.8 Å resolution. Data processing shows that the variant crystal has similar unit-cell parameters to the native crystal

  6. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  7. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  8. Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan

    2010-11-01

    The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.

  9. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b... Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. (a) Specifications. The drug is in capsule form with each capsule containing 125 or 250 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride. Oxytetracycline is the antibiotic...

  10. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 12. Getting Sloshed in Outer Space - Liquid Behavior in Microgravity. N Ananthkrishnan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 12 December 2007 pp 40-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Outer space structure and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, J.; Novikov, I.

    1975-01-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses. (J.K.)

  12. Outer space structure and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, J; Novikov, I

    1975-10-01

    A brief account is presented answering the question of what in fact the outer space we observe consists of. The principle of spatial homogeneity of the universe and the idea of non-stationary cosmology are discussed. The origin and the future development of the universe are explained using the two above mentioned and some other hypotheses.

  13. Plasmas in the outer heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J. W.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.

    1995-01-01

    We review the observed properties of the solar wind in the outer heliosphere, including observations from Voyager and the Pioneers, as well as from inner heliospheric probes as appropriate. These observations are crucial to modeling of the heliosphere and its interactions with the interstellar medium, since the wind ram pressure and its temporal variations are important in understanding the distance to the termination shock and heliopause and how those boundaries might vary in time. We focus on results since Solar Wind 7. Among the issues we will discuss are: (1) the time scales for and statistical properties of variations in the ram pressure in the outer heliosphere, and how those variations might affect the morphology of the heliospheric/interstellar medium interface; (2) the question of possible solar wind slowing in the outer heliosphere due to the pick-up of interstellar ions; (3) the issue of whether there is bulk heating of the solar wind associated either with interstellar ion pick-up or with continued heating due to stream-stream interactions; (4) evidence for latitudinal variations in solar wind properties; and (5) the 1.3 year periodicities apparent in the outer heliosphere, and the close correspondence with similar variations seen with inner heliospheric probes.

  14. Adhesive capsulitis: review of imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Guy; Bou-Haider, Pascal; Harris, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder; however, early clinical diagnosis can be challenging. Treatment is most effective when commenced prior to the onset of capsular thickening and contracture; consequently, the role of imaging is increasing. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the typical imaging appearances of adhesive capsulitis and to examine some of the evidence regarding each of these imaging modalities. An evaluation of the various management options available to the clinician is also presented.

  15. Radioactive gas-containing polymeric capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Lewis, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A disposable ventilation study system for dispensing a single patient dosage of gaseous radioisotopes to patients for pulmonary function studies is disclosed. A gas impermeable capsule encloses the gaseous radioisotope and is stored within a radioactivity shielding body of valve means which shears the capsule to dispense the radioisotope to the patient. A breathing bag receives the patient's exhalation of the radioisotope and permits rebreathing of the radioisotope by the patient. 18 claims, 7 drawing figures

  16. Outer Synchronization of Complex Networks by Impulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wen; Yan Zizong; Chen Shihua; Lü Jinhu

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates outer synchronization of complex networks, especially, outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between the driving network and the response network. Employing the impulsive control method which is uncontinuous, simple, efficient, low-cost and easy to implement in practical applications, we obtain some sufficient conditions of outer complete synchronization and outer anti-synchronization between two complex networks. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed impulsive control scheme. (general)

  17. An x-ray-based capsule for colorectal cancer screening incorporating single photon counting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Ronen; Kimchy, Yoav; Gelbard, Nir; Leibushor, Avi; Golan, Oleg; Elgali, Avner; Hassoon, Salah; Kaplan, Max; Smirnov, Michael; Shpigelman, Boaz; Bar-Ilan, Omer; Rubin, Daniel; Ovadia, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An ingestible capsule for colorectal cancer screening, based on ionizing-radiation imaging, has been developed and is in advanced stages of system stabilization and clinical evaluation. The imaging principle allows future patients using this technology to avoid bowel cleansing, and to continue the normal life routine during procedure. The Check-Cap capsule, or C-Scan ® Cap, imaging principle is essentially based on reconstructing scattered radiation, while both radiation source and radiation detectors reside within the capsule. The radiation source is a custom-made radioisotope encased in a small canister, collimated into rotating beams. While traveling along the human colon, irradiation occurs from within the capsule towards the colon wall. Scattering of radiation occurs both inside and outside the colon segment; some of this radiation is scattered back and detected by sensors onboard the capsule. During procedure, the patient receives small amounts of contrast agent as an addition to his/her normal diet. The presence of contrast agent inside the colon dictates the dominant physical processes to become Compton Scattering and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), which differ mainly by the energy of scattered photons. The detector readout electronics incorporates low-noise Single Photon Counting channels, allowing separation between the products of these different physical processes. Separating between radiation energies essentially allows estimation of the distance from the capsule to the colon wall, hence structural imaging of the intraluminal surface. This allows imaging of structural protrusions into the colon volume, especially focusing on adenomas that may develop into colorectal cancer.

  18. Inner- and outer-sphere complexation of ions at the goethite-solution interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahnemaie, R.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of inner- and outer-sphere complexes of environmentally important divalent ions on the goethite surface was examined by applying the charge distribution CD model for inner- and outer-sphere complexation. The model assumes spatial charge distribution between the surface (0-plane) and the

  19. Capsule endoscopy in neoplastic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennazio, Marco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; de Franchis, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, diagnosis and management of small-bowel tumors were delayed by the difficulty of access to the small bowel and the poor diagnostic capabilities of the available diagnostic techniques. An array of new methods has recently been developed, increasing the possibility of detecting these tumors at an earlier stage. Capsule endoscopy (CE) appears to be an ideal tool to recognize the presence of neoplastic lesions along this organ, since it is non-invasive and enables the entire small bowel to be visualized. High-quality images of the small-bowel mucosa may be captured and small and flat lesions recognized, without exposure to radiation. Recent studies on a large population of patients undergoing CE have reported small-bowel tumor frequency only slightly above that reported in previous surgical series (range, 1.6%-2.4%) and have also confirmed that the main clinical indication to CE in patients with small-bowel tumors is obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The majority of tumors identified by CE are malignant; many were unsuspected and not found by other methods. However, it remains difficult to identify pathology and tumor type based on the lesion’s endoscopic appearance. Despite its limitations, CE provides crucial information leading in most cases to changes in subsequent patient management. Whether the use of CE in combination with other new diagnostic (MRI or multidetector CT enterography) and therapeutic (Push-and-pull enteroscopy) techniques will lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms, ultimately resulting in a survival advantage and in cost savings, remains to be determined through carefully-designed studies. PMID:18785274

  20. Assembly and Delivery of Rabbit Capsules for Irradiation of Silicon Carbide Cladding Tube Specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    heat flux configurations have been assembled, welded, evaluated, and delivered to the HFIR along with a complete quality assurance fabrication package. These rabbits contain a wide variety of specimens including monolith tubes, SiC fiber SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composites, duplex specimens (inner composite, outer monolith), and specimens with a variety of metallic or ceramic coatings on the outer surface. The rabbits are targeted for insertion during HFIR cycle 475, which is scheduled for September 2017.

  1. Short-wavelength and three-dimensional instability evolution in National Ignition Facility ignition capsule designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D. S.; Haan, S. W.; Cook, A. W.; Edwards, M. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Koning, J. M.; Marinak, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ignition capsule designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 443, 2841 (2004)] have continued to evolve in light of improved physical data inputs, improving simulation techniques, and, most recently, experimental data from a growing number of NIF sub-ignition experiments. This paper summarizes a number of recent changes to the cryogenic capsule design and some of our latest techniques in simulating its performance. Specifically, recent experimental results indicated harder x-ray drive spectra in NIF hohlraums than were predicted and used in previous capsule optimization studies. To accommodate this harder drive spectrum, a series of high-resolution 2-D simulations, resolving Legendre mode numbers as high as 2000, were run and the germanium dopant concentration and ablator shell thicknesses re-optimized accordingly. Simultaneously, the possibility of cooperative or nonlinear interaction between neighboring ablator surface defects has motivated a series of fully 3-D simulations run with the massively parallel HYDRA code. These last simulations include perturbations seeded on all capsule interfaces and can use actual measured shell surfaces as initial conditions. 3-D simulations resolving Legendre modes up to 200 on large capsule sectors have run through ignition and burn, and higher resolution simulations resolving as high as mode 1200 have been run to benchmark high-resolution 2-D runs. Finally, highly resolved 3-D simulations have also been run of the jet-type perturbation caused by the fill tube fitted to the capsule. These 3-D simulations compare well with the more typical 2-D simulations used in assessing the fill tube's impact on ignition. Coupled with the latest experimental inputs from NIF, our improving simulation capability yields a fuller and more accurate picture of NIF ignition capsule performance.

  2. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  3. UO2-PuO2 fuel pin capsule-irradiations of the test series FR 2-5a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienst, W.; Goetzmann, O.; Schulz, B.

    1975-06-01

    In the capsule-irradiation test series FR 2-5a, short UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel pins (80 mm fuel length) of 7 mm diameter were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux at mean rod powers of 400 - 450 W/cm and mean cladding surface temperatures of 500 - 550 0 C to burnups of 0.6, 1.8 and 5.0 at% (U + Pu). Void volume redistribution in the fuel pins was examined in micrographs of cross-sections by measuring crack widths, central void diameters, and fuel porosity. The width of the radial cracks at the outer fuel rim was taken as a basis for measuring the irradiation-induced densification of the UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel. The result was that the final fuel density after irradiation-induced densification amounted to 92 - 94% TD and had already been reached after 0.6 at% burnup. The porosity measurement on fuel cross-sections was to show a possible dependence of the radial porosity redistribution on the initial sintered density. Examining the fuel pin diameters after irradiation showed permanent cladding strains after 5 at% burnup, which must be due to mechanical interaction with the fuel. To judge if the chemical compatibility between the fuel and the cladding of Cr-Ni-stainless steel 1.4988, the depths of chemical attack on the cladding inside was measured by micrographs of fuel pin cross-sections. (orig./GSC) [de

  4. Development of Multiple Capsule Robots in Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Swallowable capsule robots which travel in body cavities to implement drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery, and diagnosis have provided great potential for medical applications. However, the space constraints of the internal environment and the size limitations of the robots are great challenges to practical application. To address the fundamental challenges of narrow body cavities, a different-frequency driven approach for multiple capsule robots with screw structure manipulated by external electromagnetic field is proposed in this paper. The multiple capsule robots are composed of driven permanent magnets, joint permanent magnets, and a screw body. The screw body generates a propulsive force in a fluidic environment. Moreover, robots can form new constructions via mutual docking and release. To provide manipulation guidelines for active locomotion, a dynamic model of axial propulsion and circumferential torque is established. The multiple start and step-out frequencies for multiple robots are defined theoretically. Moreover, the different-frequency driven approach based on geometrical parameters of screw structure and the overlap angles of magnetic polarities is proposed to drive multiple robots in an identical electromagnetic field. Finally, two capsule robots were prototyped and experiments in a narrow pipe were conducted to verify the different motions such as docking, release, and cooperative locomotion. The experimental results demonstrated the validity of the driven approach for multiple capsule robots in narrow body cavities.

  5. Out-pile test of the capsule with cone shape bottom structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. H.; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Son, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Oh, J. M

    2004-01-01

    The design modification of bottom guide structures for the instrumented capsule which is used for the irradiation test in the research reactor, HANARO is done because of the cutting trouble of the bottom guide arm's pin. The previous structure of the 3-pin arm shape is changed into one body of the cone shape. The specimens of the bottom end cap ring with three different sizes ({phi}68mm, {phi}70mm, {phi}72mm) are designed and manufactured. The out-pile test for the capsule with previous 3-pin arm and new three bottom structures of the cone shape is performed using the one-channel flow test facilities. In order to estimate the compatibility with HANARO, the structural stability and integrity of the capsule, the out-pile test such as a loading/unloading test, a pressure drop test, a thermal performance test, a displacement measurement due to a vibration and an endurance test etc. is conducted, and the outer diameter of the bottom end cap ring to meet the HANARO requirements is selected. From out-pile test results the capsule with cone shape bottom structures is evaluated as to have the structural stability and the benefit from the fluid's flow respect. Also the size satisfied various requirements among three kinds of bottom end cap rings is 70mm in diameter. It is expected that the new bottom structures of the cone shape with 70mm in diameter will be applicable to all material and special capsules which will be designed and manufactured for the purpose of irradiation tests in the future.

  6. Heating of the outer solar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the idea that there must be a source of magnetic fields somewhere below the solar surface. He starts by considering present day ideas about the sun's internal structure. The sun has a radius of approximately 700,000 km, of which the outer 100,000 km or so is the convective zone, according to mixing-length models. The dynamo is believed to operate in the convective zone, across which there may be a 5-10% variation in the angular velocity. There are the stretched east-west fields similar to the ones in the earth's core. Associated with these are poloidal fields which contribute to a net dipole moment of the sun and are generated by a dynamo. The author shows that essentially no magnetic field configuration has an equilibrium; they dissipate quickly in spite of the high conductivity in fluid motions and heating. This is probably the major part of the heating of the sun's outer atmosphere. (Auth.)

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  8. The first capsule implosion experiments on Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, W J; Horsfield, C J; Gales, S G; Leatherland, A E; Rubery, M S; Coltman, J E; Meadowcroft, A E; Rice, S J; Simons, A J; Woolhead, V E

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive capsule implosions are being developed on the Orion laser at AWE as a platform for ICF and HED physics experiments. The Orion facility combines both long pulse and short-pulse beams, making it well suited for studying the physics of alternative ignition approaches. Orion implosions also provide the opportunity to study aspects of polar direct drive. Limitations on drive symmetry from the relatively small number of laser beams makes predictive modelling of the implosions challenging, resulting in some uncertainty in the expected capsule performance. Initial experiments have been fielded to evaluate baseline capsule performance and inform future design optimization. Highly promising DD fusion neutron yields in excess of 10 9 have been recorded. Results from the experiments are presented alongside radiation-hydrocode modelling. (paper)

  9. Capsule endoscopy—A mechatronics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Rasouli, Mahdi; Kencana, Andy Prima; Tan, Su Lim; Wong, Kai Juan; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2011-03-01

    The recent advances in integrated circuit technology, wireless communication, and sensor technology have opened the door for development of miniature medical devices that can be used for enhanced monitoring and treatment of medical conditions. Wireless capsule endoscopy is one of such medical devices that has gained significant attention during the past few years. It is envisaged that future wireless capsule endoscopies replace traditional endoscopy procedures by providing advanced functionalities such as active locomotion, body fluid/tissue sampling, and drug delivery. Development of energy-efficient miniaturized actuation mechanisms is a key step toward achieving this goal. Here, we review some of the actuators that could be integrated into future wireless capsules and discuss the existing challenges.

  10. Production of 131I gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, A.; Hirshfeld, N.; Canfi, A.; Melamud, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) hard-gelatin capsules are widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various thyroid disorders. Until 1980 radioiodine was supplied by us as a liquid dosage. This proved to be a rather inconvenient form since it resulted in inaccurate dosing by the physicians and caused frequent contamination of the patients and the hospital personnel. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have designed and constructed a production facility for capsules in which 1311 is packaged. Because of the extreme precautions necessary in handling radioactive compounds, encapsulation of radioactive materials requires specifically designed production techniques, special instrumentation and unique quality control procedures that are not encountered in the standard capsule production processes in the pharmaceutical industry

  11. Chord length distribution for a compound capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitřík, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Chord length distribution is a factor important in the calculation of ionisation chamber responses. This article describes Monte Carlo calculations of the chord length distribution for a non-convex compound capsule. A Monte Carlo code was set up for generation of random chords and calculation of their lengths based on the input number of generations and cavity dimensions. The code was written in JavaScript and can be executed in the majority of HTML viewers. The plot of occurrence of cords of different lengths has 3 peaks. It was found that the compound capsule cavity cannot be simply replaced with a spherical cavity of a triangular design. Furthermore, the compound capsule cavity is directionally dependent, which must be taken into account in calculations involving non-isotropic fields of primary particles in the beam, unless equilibrium of the secondary charged particles is attained. (orig.)

  12. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Yersinia pestis through biotinylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smither, S.J.; Hill, J.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, A.L. de; Titball, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria contains proteins that might be good targets for vaccines, antimicrobials or detection systems. The identification of surface located proteins using traditional methods is often difficult. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, was labelled with

  13. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  14. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  15. Outer scale of atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vladimir P.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 70's, the scientists in Italy (A.Consortini, M.Bertolotti, L.Ronchi), USA (R.Buser, Ochs, S.Clifford) and USSR (V.Pokasov, V.Lukin) almost simultaneously discovered the phenomenon of deviation from the power law and the effect of saturation for the structure phase function. During a period of 35 years we have performed successively the investigations of the effect of low-frequency spectral range of atmospheric turbulence on the optical characteristics. The influence of the turbulence models as well as a outer scale of turbulence on the characteristics of telescopes and systems of laser beam formations has been determined too.

  16. Characterization of a WESF [Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility] cesium chloride capsule after fifteen months service in a dry operation/wet storage commercial irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjarmo, H.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1988-08-01

    After 15 months of service, a Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) 137 Cs gamma source capsule was removed for examination from a commercial irradiator at Radiation Sterilizers Incorporated (RSI), Westerville, Ohio. The examination was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and was the first study of a 137 Cs source capsule after use in a commercial dry operation/wet storage (dry/wet) irradiator. The capsule was cycled 3327 times during the 15-month period with steady-state temperature differences ranging from 70 to 82/degree/C during the air-to-water cycle. The capsule was examined to determine the amount of corrosion that had occurred during this period and to determine if any degradation of the container was evident as the result of thermal cycling. Metallographic examinations were performed on sections that were removed from the inner capsule wall and bottom end cap and the outer capsule bottom end cap weld. The three regions of the inner capsule that were examined for corrosion were the salt/void interface, midwall, and bottom (including the end cap weld). The amount of corrosion measured (0.0002 to 0.0007 in.) is comparable to the corrosion produced (about 0.001 in.) during the melt-cast filling of a capsule. No observable effects of irradiator operation were found during this examination. Consequently, based on this examination, no degradation of WESF 137 Cs capsules is expected when they are used in irradiators similar to the RSI irradiator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  18. Physics of ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The implosion of an ICF capsule must accomplish both compression of the main fuel to several hundred grams per cubic centimeter and heating and compression of the central region of the fuel to ignition. This report discusses the physics of these conditions

  19. Extended School Year. Information Capsule. Volume 0910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Extended school years are being considered by districts around the country as educators search for new ways to raise student achievement. The addition of time to the school calendar is also supported by President Barack Obama, who recently stated that American students do not spend enough time in school. This Information Capsule addresses research…

  20. Isolation of Capsulate Bacteria from Acute Dentoalveolar Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, M. A. O.; Milligan, S. G.; MacFarlane, T. W.; Carmichael, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a capsule was determined for 198 bacterial strains (57 facultative anaerobes, 141 strict anaerobes) isobdted from pus samples aspirated from 40 acute dentoalveolar abscesses. A total of 133 (67 per cent) of the isolates (42 facultative anaerobes, 91 strict anaerobes) were found to have a capsule. Possession ofa capsule may in part explain the apparent pathogenicity of the bacterial species encountered in acute dentoalveolar abscess.Keywords - Bacterial capsule; Acute dentoalve...

  1. Simulations of laser imprint for Nova experiments and for ignition capsules. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Key, M.H.; Remington, B.A.; Rothenberg, J.L.; Wolfrum, E.; Verdon, C.P.; Knauer, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    In direct drive ICF, nonuniformities in laser illumination seed ripples at the ablation front in a process called ''imprint''. These nonuniformities grow during the capsule implosion and, if initially large enough, can penetrate the capsule shell, impede ignition, or degrade burn. Imprint has been simulated for recent experiments performed on the Nova laser at LLNL examining a variety of beam smoothing conditions. Most used laser intensities similar to the early part of an ignition capsule pulse shape, 1 ≅ 10 13 W/cm 2 . The simulations matched most of the measurements of imprint modulation. The effect of imprint upon National Ignition Facility (NIF) direct drive ignition capsules has also been simulated. Imprint is predicted to give modulation comparable to an intrinsic surface finish of ∼10 nm RMS. Modulation growth was examined using the Haan [Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)] model, with linear growth factors as a function of spherical harmonic mode number obtained from an analytic dispersion relation. Ablation front amplitudes are predicted to become substantially nonlinear, so that saturation corrections are large. Direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional multimode growth were also performed. The capsule shell is predicted to remain intact, which gives a basis for believing that ignition can be achieved. 27 refs., 10 figs

  2. Controllable fabrication and characterization of biocompatible core-shell particles and hollow capsules as drug carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu; Zhang, Hong; Gong, Xiuqing; Jiang, Wanquan; Chen, Zuyao

    2006-10-01

    SiO 2@CdSe core-shell particles were fabricated by controllable deposition CdSe nanoparticles on silica colloidal spheres. Step-wise coating process was tracked by the TEM and XRD measurements. In addition, SiO 2@CdSe/polypyrrole(PPy) multi-composite particles were synthesized based on the as-prepared SiO 2@CdSe particles by cationic polymerization. The direct electrochemistry of myoglobin (Mb) could be performed by immobilizing Mb on the surface of SiO 2@CdSe particles. Immobilized with Mb, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy-Mb also displayed good bioelectrochemical activity. It confirmed the good biocompatible property of the materials with protein. CdSe hollow capsules were further obtained as the removal of the cores of SiO 2@CdSe spheres. Hollow and porous character of CdSe sub-meter size capsules made them becoming hopeful candidates as drug carriers. Doxorubicin, a typical an antineoplastic drug, was introduced into the capsules. A good sustained drug release behavior of the loading capsules was discovered via performing a release test in the PBS buffer (pH 7.4) solution at 310 k. Furthermore, SiO 2@CdSe/PPy could be converted to various smart hollow capsules via selectively removal of their relevant components.

  3. Recovery, Transportation and Acceptance to the Curation Facility of the Hayabusa Re-Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Fujimura, A.; Yano, H.; Okamoto, C.; Okada, T.; Yada, T.; Ishibashi, Y.; Shirai, K.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The "Hayabusa" re-entry capsule was safely carried into the clean room of Sagamihara Planetary Sample Curation Facility in JAXA on June 18, 2010. After executing computed tomographic (CT) scanning, removal of heat shield, and surface cleaning of sample container, the sample container was enclosed into the clean chamber. After opening the sample container and residual gas sampling in the clean chamber, optical observation, sample recovery, sample separation for initial analysis will be performed. This curation work is continuing for several manths with some selected member of Hayabusa Asteroidal Sample Preliminary Examination Team (HASPET). We report here on the 'Hayabusa' capsule recovery operation, and transportation and acceptance at the curation facility of the Hayabusa re-entry capsule.

  4. Irradiation performance of HTGR fuel in HFIR capsule HT-31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Robbins, J.M.; Hamner, R.L.; Montgomery, B.H.; Kania, M.J.; Lindemer, T.B.; Morgan, C.S.

    1979-05-01

    The capsule was irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL to peak particle temperatures up to 1600 0 C, fast neutron fluences (0.18 MeV) up to 9 x 10 25 n/m 2 , and burnups up to 8.9% FIMA for ThO 2 particles. The oxygen release from plutonium fissions was less than calculated, possibly because of the solid solution of SrO and rare earth oxides in UO 2 . Tentative results show that pyrocarbon permeability decreases with increasing fast neutron fluence. Fission products in sol-gel UO 2 particles containing natural uranium mostly behaved similarly to those in particles containing highly enriched uranium (HEU). Thus, much of the data base collected on HEU fuel can be applied to low-enriched fuel. Fission product palladium penetrated into the SiC on Triso-coated particles. Also the SiC coating provided some retention of /sup 110m/Ag. Irradiation above about 1200 0 C without an outer pyrocarbon coating degraded the SiC coating on Triso-coated particles

  5. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  6. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  7. On-the-fly detection of images with gastritis aspects in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, P. W.; Neumann, D.; Juloski, A. L.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.

    2011-03-01

    Capsule Endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 and has since become an established diagnostic procedure for the small bowel, colon and esophagus. For the CE examination the patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of the peristaltic movements. CE is not indicated for stomach examination, as the capsule movements can not be controlled from the outside and the entire surface of the stomach can not be reliably covered. Magnetically-guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) was introduced in 2010. For the MGCE procedure the stomach is filled with water and the capsule is navigated from the outside using an external magnetic field. During the examination the operator can control the motion of the capsule in order to obtain a sufficient number of stomach-surface images with diagnostic value. The quality of the examination depends on the skill of the operator and his ability to detect aspects of interest in real time. We present a novel computer-assisted diagnostic-procedure (CADP) algorithm for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre-processing methods and feature vectors that are suitably chosen for the challenges of the MGCE imaging (suspended particles, bubbles, lighting). An image is classified using an ada-boost trained classifier. For the classifier training, a number of possible features were investigated. Statistical evaluation was conducted to identify relevant features with discriminative potential. The proposed algorithm was tested on 12 video sequences stemming from 6 volunteers. A mean detection rate of 91.17% was achieved during leave-one out cross-validation.

  8. Ohmic losses in coaxial resonators with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenyong Hou, A. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408001 (China); Sheng Yu, B.; Hongfu Li, C.; Qixiang Zhao, D. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiang Li, E. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, a coaxial resonator with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation is introduced. Its eigen-equation and expression of ohmic losses are derived. Ohmic losses in the cavity are investigated. Results show that ohmic losses in the outer and inner conductors share a similar variation trend, while the former is larger than the later. What's more, changes of the inner and outer slot depth and width induce different variations of ohmic losses on the surface of the inner and outer conductors.

  9. Analytical Model for the Probability Characteristics of a Crack Penetrating Capsules in Capsule-Based Self-Healing Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong LV

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous crack healing using pre-embedded capsules containing healing agent is becoming a promising approach to restore the strength of damaged structures. In addition to the material properties, the size and volume fraction of capsules influence crack healing in the matrix. Understanding the crack and capsule interaction is critical in the development and design of structures made of capsule-based self-healing materials. Continuing our previous study, in this contribution a more practical rupturing mode of capsules characterizing the rupturing manner of capsules fractured by cracks in cementitious materials is presented, i.e., penetrating mode. With the underlying assumption that a crack penetrating capsules undoubtedly leads to crack healing, geometrical probability theory is employed to develop the quantitative relationship between crack size and capsule size, capsule concentration in capsule-based self-healing virtual cementitious material. Moreover, an analytical expression of probability of a crack penetrating with randomly dispersed capsules is developed in two-dimensional material matrix setup. The influences of the induced rupturing modes of capsules embedded on the self-healing efficiency are analyzed. Much attention is paid to compare the penetrating probability and the hitting probability, in order to assist the designer to make a choice of the optimal rupturing modes of capsules embedded. The accuracy of results of the theoretical model is also compared with Monte-Carlo numerical analysis of crack interacting with capsules. It shows that the developed probability characteristics of a crack interaction with capsules for different rupturing modes is helpful to provide guidelines for designer working with capsule-based self-healing cementitious materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16888

  10. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku, E-mail: ono.t@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  11. Rotational instability in the outer region of protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Nomura, Hideko; Takeuchi, Taku

    2014-01-01

    We analytically calculate the marginally stable surface density profile for the rotational instability of protoplanetary disks. The derived profile can be utilized for considering the region in a rotating disk where radial pressure gradient force is comparable to the gravitational force, such as an inner edge, steep gaps or bumps, and an outer region of the disk. In this paper, we particularly focus on the rotational instability in the outer region of disks. We find that a protoplanetary disk with a surface density profile of similarity solution becomes rotationally unstable at a certain radius, depending on its temperature profile and a mass of the central star. If the temperature is relatively low and the mass of the central star is high, disks have rotationally stable similarity profiles. Otherwise, deviation from the similarity profiles of surface density could be observable, using facilities with high sensitivity, such as ALMA.

  12. A Study on the Manufacturing Properties of Crack Self-Healing Capsules Using Cement Powder for Addition to Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Wang Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated crack self-healing capsules using cement powder for mixing into cement composites and evaluated the properties of the capsule manufacturing process in this study. The manufacture of the self-healing capsules is divided into core production processing of granulating cement in powder form and a coating process for creating a wall on the surfaces of the granulated cement particles. The produced capsules contain unhardened cement and can be mixed directly with the cement composite materials because they are protected from moisture by the wall material. Therefore, the untreated cement is present in the form of a capsule within the cement composite, and hydration can be induced by moisture penetrating the crack surface in the event of cracking. In the process of granulating the cement, it is important to obtain a suitable consistency through the kneading agent and to maintain the moisture barrier performance of the wall material. We can utilize the results of this study as a basis for advanced self-healing capsule technology for cement composites.

  13. Simulation of instability growth on ICF capsule ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    It is believed that the ablation-front instabilities are mainly responsible for the hot-spot mix that impacts the performance of ICF capsules. Understanding the formation of these instabilities is therefore a first step towards a better control of the implosion dynamics and the optimization of the fusion yield. Using the Chimera code currently in development at Imperial College, we have performed several spherical wedge simulations of the low and high adiabat ablation phase pre-imposing different single-mode 2D and 3D perturbations on the capsule surface. Synthetic Sc, Fe and V X-ray backlighter images are generated by the Spk code and used to measure the growth of modes 30-160 with initial amplitude <= 3.4 μm PTV. The growth of imposed 2D perturbations is assessed for both low-foot and high-foot radiation pulse shapes on the National Ignition Facility. Results showing the merger of spike and bubble structures in multi-mode perturbations in both 2D and 3D simulations are explored and preliminary assessments of the difference between 2D and 3D non-linear behaviour is discussed. The sensitivity of shock timing to NLTE changes in opacity is also assessed.

  14. Outer grid strap protruding spring repair apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widener, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly grid spring repair apparatus for repairing a spring formed on an outer strap of a fuel assembly grid and having a portion protruding outwardly beyond the strap, the apparatus comprising: (a) a support frame defining an opening and having means defining a guide channel extending along the opening in a first direction; (b) means mounted on the frame and being adjustable for attaching the frame to the outer strap of the support grid so that the frame opening is aligned with the outwardly protruding spring on the outer strap; (c) an outer slide having a passageway defined therethrough and being mounted in the guide channel for reciprocable movement along the frame opening in the first direction for aligning the passageway with the outwardly protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap. The outer slide also has means defining a guide way extending along the passageway in a second direction generally orthogonal to the first direction; (d) a spring reset mechanism being operable for resetting the protruding spring to a nonprotruding position relative to the outer strap when the mechanism is aligned with the protruding portion of the spring; and (e) an inner slide supporting the spring reset mechanism and being mounted to the guide way for reciprocable movement along the passageway of the outer slide in the second direction for aligning the spring reset mechanism with the protruding portion of the spring on the outer strap

  15. Radiation research of materials using irradiation capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamrad, B.

    1976-01-01

    The methods are briefly characterized of radiation experiments on the WWR-S research reactor. The irradiation capsule installed in the reactor including the electronic instrumentation is described. Irradiated samples temperature is stabilized by an auxiliary heat source placed in the irradiation space. The electronic control equipment of the system is automated. In irradiation experiments, experimental and operating conditions are recorded by a digital measuring centre with electric typewriter and paper tape data recording and by an analog compensating recorder. The irradiation experiment control system controls irradiated sample temperature, the supply current size and the heating element temperature of the auxiliary stabilizing source, inert and technological pressures of the capsule atmosphere and the thermostat temperature of the thermocouple junctions. (O.K.)

  16. Automatic blood detection in capsule endoscopy video

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novozámský, Adam; Flusser, Jan; Tachecí, I.; Sulík, L.; Bureš, J.; Krejcar, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2016), s. 1-8, č. článku 126007. ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Automatic blood detection * capsule endoscopy video Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.530, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0466936.pdf

  17. Small bowel endoluminal imaging (capsule and enteroscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murino, Alberto; Despott, Edward J

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 16 years, the disruptive technologies of small bowel capsule endoscopy and device-assisted enteroscopy have revolutionised endoluminal imaging and minimally invasive therapy of the small bowel. Further technological developments continue to expand their indications and use. This brief review highlights the state-of-the-art in this arena and aims to summarise the current and potential future role of these technologies in clinical practice.

  18. Heterolytic cleavage of ammonia N-H bond by bifunctional activation in silica-grafted single site Ta(V) imido amido surface complex. Importance of the outer sphere NH3 assistance

    KAUST Repository

    Gouré, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia N-H bond is cleaved at room temperature by the silica-supported tantalum imido amido complex [(≡SiO)2Ta(NH)(-NH2)], 2, if excess ammonia is present, but requires 150 °C to achieve the same reaction if only one equivalent NH3 is added to 2. MAS solid-state 15N NMR and in situ IR spectroscopic studies of the reaction of either 15N or 2H labeled ammonia with 2 show that initial coordination of the ammonia is followed by scrambling of either 15N or 2H among ammonia, amido and imido groups. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations with a cluster model [{(μ-O)[(H3SiO) 2SiO]2}Ta(NH)(-NH2)(NH3)], 2 q·NH3, show that the intramolecular H transfer from Ta-NH2 to TaNH is ruled out, but the H transfers from the coordinated ammonia to the amido and imido groups have accessible energy barriers. The energy barrier for the ammonia N-H activation by the Ta-amido group is energetically preferred relative to the Ta-imido group. The importance of excess NH3 for getting full isotope scrambling is rationalized by an outer sphere assistance of ammonia acting as proton transfer agent, which equalizes the energy barriers for H transfer from coordinated ammonia to the amido and imido groups. In contrast, additional coordinated ammonia does not favor significantly the H transfer. These results rationalize the experimental conditions used. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2011.

  19. Capsule impairs efficient adherence of Streptococcus agalactiae to intestinal epithelium in tilapias Oreochromis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, P; Martins, E R; Vasquez, G M; Ramirez, M; Melo-Cristino, J; Martínez, N; Iregui, C

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most important diseases in the tilapia aquaculture industry. The role of the capsule of Streptococcus agalactiae in adherence to fish surfaces has not been evaluated and the mechanism of capsular regulation during adhesion has not been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the capsule of S. agalactiae during adhesion to intestinal epithelium of tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) in an ex vivo infection model. We show that the capsule impairs the adhesion of bacteria to host intestinal epithelium. Wild type (WT) strain SaTiBe08-18 (S. agalactiae recovered from tilapia) had reduced adhesion (P S. agalactiae to tilapia intestine and that the acidic milieu could regulate adherence of encapsulated strains. We found GlcNAc on the surface of adherent Δcps but not over the capsule in WT. This difference could be explained by the GlcNAc composition of Lancefield group B antigen and the peptidoglycan in GBS (Group B Streptococcus) and also may be related with better exposure of glycosylated adhesins in unencapsulated fish GBS. Understanding capsular regulation during adhesion of S. agalactiae may provide new leads to find a successful anti-adherence therapy to prevent streptococcosis in tilapia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Collapse of experimental capsules under external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, F.A.; Shippell, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stress analyses and developmental tests of capsules fabricated from thick-walled tubing were performed for an external pressure design condition. In the design procedure no credit was taken for the expected margin in pressure between yielding of the capsule wall and catastrophic collapse or flattening. In tests of AISI-1018 low carbon steel capsules, a significant margin was seen between yield and collapse pressure. However, the experimental yield pressures were significantly below predictions, essentially eliminating the safety margin present in the conservative design approach. The differences between predictions and test results are attributed to deficiencies in the plasticity theories commonly in use for engineering stress analyses. The results of this study show that the von Mises yield condition does not accurately describe the yield behavior of the AISI-1018 steel tubing material for the triaxial stress conditions of interest. Finite element stress analyses successfully predicted the transition between uniform inward plastic deformation and ovalization that leads to catastrophic collapse. After adjustments to correct for the unexpected yield behavior of the tube material, the predicted pressure-deflection trends were found to follow the experimental data

  1. Infrared Observations of the Orion Capsule During EFT-1 Hypersonic Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Rufer, Shann J.; Schuster, David M.; Mendeck, Gavin F.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Schwartz, Richard J.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Mercer, C. David; Tack, Steven; Ingram, Ben; hide

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution infrared observations of the Orion capsule during its atmospheric reentry on December 5, 2015 were made from a US Navy NP-3D. This aircraft, equipped with a long-range optical sensor system, tracked the capsule from Mach 10 to 7 from a distance of approximately 60 nmi. Global surface temperatures of the capsule's thermal heatshield were derived from near infrared intensity measurements. The global surface temperature measurements complemented onboard instrumentation and were invaluable to the interpretation of the in-depth thermocouple measurements which rely on inverse heat transfer methods and material response codes to infer the desired surface temperature from the sub-surface measurements. The full paper will address the motivations behind the NASA Engineering Safety Center sponsored observation and highlight premission planning processes with an emphasis on aircraft placement, optimal instrument configuration and sensor calibrations. Critical aspects of mission operations coordinated from the NASA Johnson Spaceflight Center and integration with the JSC Flight Test Management Office will be discussed. A summary of the imagery that was obtained and processed to global surface temperature will be presented. At the capsule's point of closest approach relative to the imaging system, the spatial resolution was estimated to be approximately 15-inches per pixel and was sufficient to identify localized temperature increases associated with compression pad support hardware on the heatshield. The full paper will discuss the synergy of the quantitative imagery derived temperature maps with in-situ thermocouple measurements. Comparison of limited onboard surface thermocouple data to the image derived surface temperature will be presented. The two complimentary measurements serve as an example of the effective leveraging of resources to advance the understanding of high Mach number environments associated with an ablated heatshield and provide unique data

  2. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule and HANARO capsule in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Oh, Wan Ho; Yoo, Byung Ok; Jung, Yang Hong; Ahn, Sang Bok; Baik, Seung Je; Song, Wung Sup; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2000-01-01

    For the maintenance of integrity and safety of pressurizer of commercial power plant until its life span, it is required by US NRC 10CFR50 APP. G and H and ASTM E185-94 to periodically monitor irradiation embrittlement by neutron irradiation. In order to accomplished the requirement reactor operator has been carrying out the test by extracting the monitoring capsule embeded in reactor during the period of planned preventive maintenance. In relation to this irradiation samples are being used for prediction of reactor vessel life span and reactor vessel's adjusted reference temperature by irradiation of neutron flux enough to reach to end of life span. And also irradiation capsules with and without instrumentation are used for R and D on nuclear materials. Each capsule contains high radioactivity, therefore, post irradiation examination has to be handled by all means in the hot cell. The facility available for this purpose is Irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) to handle such works as capsule receiving, capsule cut and dismantling, sample classification, various examination, and finally development and improvement of examination equipment and instrumentation. (Hong, J. S.)

  3. Host-adaptation of Francisella tularensis alters the bacterium's surface-carbohydrates to hinder effectors of innate and adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Zarrella

    Full Text Available The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with both intracellular and extracellular phases and could reasonably be expected to express distinct phenotypes in these environments. The presence of a capsule on this bacterium has been controversial with some groups finding such a structure while other groups report that no capsule could be identified. Previously we reported in vitro culture conditions for this bacterium which, in contrast to typical methods, yielded a bacterial phenotype that mimics that of the bacterium's mammalian, extracellular phase.SDS-PAGE and carbohydrate analysis of differentially-cultivated F. tularensis LVS revealed that bacteria displaying the host-adapted phenotype produce both longer polymers of LPS O-antigen (OAg and additional HMW carbohydrates/glycoproteins that are reduced/absent in non-host-adapted bacteria. Analysis of wildtype and OAg-mutant bacteria indicated that the induced changes in surface carbohydrates involved both OAg and non-OAg species. To assess the impact of these HMW carbohydrates on the access of outer membrane constituents to antibody we used differentially-cultivated bacteria in vitro to immunoprecipitate antibodies directed against outer membrane moieties. We observed that the surface-carbohydrates induced during host-adaptation shield many outer membrane antigens from binding by antibody. Similar assays with normal mouse serum indicate that the induced HMW carbohydrates also impede complement deposition. Using an in vitro macrophage infection assay, we find that the bacterial HMW carbohydrate impedes TLR2-dependent, pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. Lastly we show that upon host-adaptation, the human-virulent strain, F. tularensis SchuS4 also induces capsule production with the effect of reducing macrophage-activation and accelerating tularemia pathogenesis in mice.F. tularensis undergoes host-adaptation which

  4. Effects of food on a gastrically degraded drug: azithromycin fast-dissolving gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curatolo, William; Liu, Ping; Johnson, Barbara A; Hausberger, Angela; Quan, Ernest; Vendola, Thomas; Vatsaraj, Neha; Foulds, George; Vincent, John; Chandra, Richa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules (Zithromax®) are known to be bioequivalent to commercial azithromycin tablets (Zithromax®) when dosed in the fasted state. These capsules exhibit a reduced bioavailability when dosed in the fed state, while tablets do not. This gelatin capsule negative food effect was previously proposed to be due to slow and/or delayed capsule disintegration in the fed stomach, resulting in extended exposure of the drug to gastric acid, leading to degradation to des-cladinose-azithromycin (DCA). Azithromycin gelatin capsules were formulated with "superdisintegrants" to provide fast-dissolving capsules, and HPMC capsule shells were substituted for gelatin capsule shells, in an effort to eliminate the food effect. Healthy volunteers were dosed with these dosage forms under fasted and fed conditions; pharmacokinetics were evaluated. DCA pharmacokinetics were also evaluated for the HPMC capsule subjects. In vitro disintegration of azithromycin HPMC capsules in media containing food was evaluated and compared with commercial tablets and commercial gelatin capsules. When the two fast-dissolving capsule formulations were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 38.9% and 52.1% lower than after fasted-state dosing. When HPMC capsules were dosed to fed subjects, the azithromycin AUC was 65.5% lower than after fasted-state dosing. For HPMC capsules, the absolute fasting-state to fed-state decrease in azithromycin AUC (on a molar basis) was similar to the increase in DCA AUC. In vitro capsule disintegration studies revealed extended disintegration times for commercial azithromycin gelatin capsules and HPMC capsules in media containing the liquid foods milk and Ensure®. Interaction of azithromycin gelatin and HPMC capsules with food results in slowed disintegration in vitro and decreased bioavailability in vivo. Concurrent measurement of serum azithromycin and the acid-degradation product DCA demonstrates that the loss of azithromycin

  5. Noninvasive control of rhodamine-loaded capsules distribution in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashchuk, O.; Tarakanchikova, Y.; Seryogina, E.; Piavchenko, G.; Zherebtsov, E.; Dunaev, A.; Popov, A.; Meglinski, I.

    2018-04-01

    Using fluorescence spectroscopy system with fibre-optical probe, we investigated the dynamics of propagation and circulation in the microcirculatory system of experimental nanocapsules fluorescent-labelled (rhodamine TRITC) nanocapsules. The studies were carried out in clinically healthy Wistar rats. The model animals were divided into control group and group received injections of the nanocapsules. The fluorescent measurements conducted transcutaneously on the thigh surface. The administration of the preparation with the rhodamine concentration of 5 mg/kg of animal weight resulted in twofold increase of fluorescence intensity by reference to the baseline level. As a result of the study, it was concluded that fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for transdermal measurements of the rhodamine-loaded capsules in vivo.

  6. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  7. Thermal characteristic test for saturated temperature type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Motoji; Someya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Ohuchi, Mitsuo; Harayama, Yasuo

    1989-08-01

    The Japan Material Testing Reactor Project is developing a new type capsule so-called 'Saturated Temperature Capsule', as a part of irradiation technique improvement program. This type capsule, in which the water is supplied and boiled, bases on the conception of keeping the coolant at the saturated temperature and facilitating the temperature setting of specimens heated by gamma-ray in reactor. However, out-pile test was planned, because there were few usable data for design and operation of the capsule into which the coolant was injected. A out-pile apparatus, simulated the capsule with electric heaters, was fabricated and experiments were carried out, to obtain data concerning design and operation for the capsule into which the water was injected. As a structure of simulated capsule, a type of downward coolant supply was adopted. The downward coolant tube type injectes the water in the bottom of capsule by tube through the upper flange. Major objects of experiences were to grasp thermal features under operation and to provide performances of capsule control equipment. Experimental results proved that the temperature of water within the capsule was easily varied by controlling supply water flow rate, and that the control equipment was operated stably and safety. (author)

  8. Analyses of copper from a prototype capsule 5 and 6; Analyser av koppar fraan prototypkapsel 5 och 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taxen, Claes; Lundholm, Martin; Persson, Dan; Jakobsson, Dan; Sedlakova, Miroslava; Randelius, Mats; Karlsson, Oskar; Rydgren, Pontus; Kimab, Swerea

    2012-12-15

    'Prototype' is a series of experiments where SKB, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, expose the full scale copper canisters under conditions intended to be representative of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, however, without radioactivity (SKB 2012) . Copper from one of these installations, deposition 5, has been studied for corrosion . Samples were also taken from the capsule that had been exposed in deposition 6. Drill cores across the capsule wall has been documented regarding microstructure. All samples have been exposed for about seven years in the prototype repository. Studies carried out leads to the following conclusions: Regarding the ring on top of the capsule from the deposition 5; There are local corrosion with a depth of 3-5 microns. The general or uniform corrosion that has occurred can not be quantified. The relatively sharp traces of processing of the material before exposure indicates that the general corrosion was minor. Small amounts of corrosion product has been detected in surface analysis. The surface profile on the copper surface, aside from the grooves after processing and areas of local corrosion, are relatively even. Metallographic examination of cross section shows no tendency to pitting or intergranular corrosion. Analysis for hydrogen by melting a quantity of metal does not show any increased hydrogen content. Regarding the material of the capsule from the deposition 6: The capsule has not been specifically tested for corrosion. Cross sections of drill cores through the copper canister has been documented and metallo graphically exhibits nothing remarkable.

  9. Mapping of the seasonal dynamic properties of building walls in actual periodic conditions and effects produced by solar radiation incident on the outer and inner surfaces of the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzeo, D.; Oliveti, G.; Arcuri, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic thermal behaviour of building walls subjected to actual periodic loadings. • Dynamic parameters of wall in terms of energy and of heat flux are defined. • Different solar absorption coefficients and orientations of wall are considered. • On the internal surface is present or absent a shortwave radiant field. • Seasonal thermal characteristics for different plant operating regime are provided. - Abstract: In this work, the dynamic characteristics of the external walls of air-conditioned buildings subject to the joint action of periodic non-sinusoidal external and internal loadings are determined. The dynamic parameters used are the energy decrement factor, which is evaluated by means of the fluctuating heat flux in a semi-period exiting and entering the wall, the decrement factor of the maximum peak and minimum peak of the heat flux in a period and the relative time lags. The fluctuating heat flux in the wall in steady periodic regime conditions is determined with an analytical model obtained by resolving the equivalent electrical circuit. The preceding parameters are used for a study of the influence of solar radiation on the dynamic characteristics of the walls in summer and winter air-conditioning. Solar radiation is considered as operating on the external surface and on the internal surface due to the presence in the indoor environments of a shortwave radiant field. The absorbed solar heat flux by the external surface varies, modifying the solar absorption coefficient and wall orientation. Indoors, we considered a continuous operating regime of the plant and a regime with nocturnal attenuation. The results obtained, relating to 1152 different boundary conditions, were used for the construction of maps of dynamic characteristics, different on variation of the plant functioning regime and of the shortwave radiant load on the internal surface. The maps show the dependence of the decrement factors and of the time lags on variation of

  10. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  11. Poppy Crop Height and Capsule Volume Estimation from a Single UAS Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate poppy plant height and capsule volume with remote sensing using an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS. Data were obtained from field measurements and UAS flights over two poppy crops at Cambridge and Cressy in Tasmania. Imagery acquired from the UAS was used to produce dense point clouds using structure from motion (SfM and multi-view stereopsis (MVS techniques. Dense point clouds were used to generate a digital surface model (DSM and orthophoto mosaic. An RGB index was derived from the orthophoto to extract the bare ground spaces. This bare ground space mask was used to filter the points on the ground, and a digital terrain model (DTM was interpolated from these points. Plant height values were estimated by subtracting the DSM and DTM to generate a Crop Height Model (CHM. UAS-derived plant height (PH and field measured PH in Cambridge were strongly correlated with R2 values ranging from 0.93 to 0.97 for Transect 1 and Transect 2, respectively, while at Cressy results from a single flight provided R2 of 0.97. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered an important step towards crop surface model (CSM generation from a single UAS flight in situations where a bare ground DTM is unavailable. High correlations were found between UAS-derived PH and poppy capsule volume (CV at capsule formation stage (R2 0.74, with relative error of 19.62%. Results illustrate that plant height can be reliably estimated for poppy crops based on a single UAS flight and can be used to predict opium capsule volume at capsule formation stage.

  12. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  13. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N.

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules

  14. Capsule-odometer: a concept to improve accurate lesion localisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karargyris, Alexandros; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2013-09-21

    In order to improve lesion localisation in small-bowel capsule endoscopy, a modified capsule design has been proposed incorporating localisation and - in theory - stabilization capabilities. The proposed design consists of a capsule fitted with protruding wheels attached to a spring-mechanism. This would act as a miniature odometer, leading to more accurate lesion localization information in relation to the onset of the investigation (spring expansion e.g., pyloric opening). Furthermore, this capsule could allow stabilization of the recorded video as any erratic, non-forward movement through the gut is minimised. Three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology was used to build a capsule prototype. Thereafter, miniature wheels were also 3-D printed and mounted on a spring which was attached to conventional capsule endoscopes for the purpose of this proof-of-concept experiment. In vitro and ex vivo experiments with porcine small-bowel are presented herein. Further experiments have been scheduled.

  15. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B G; Joo, K N [and others

    2000-05-01

    The development program of advanced nuclear structural and fuel materials includes the in-pile tests using the instrumented capsule at HANARO. The tests were performed in the in-core test holes of CT, IR 1 and 2 and OR 4 and 5 of HANARO. Extensive efforts have also been made to establish design and manufacturing technology for the instrumented capsule and its related system, which should be compatible with the HANARO's characteristics. Since the first instrumented capsule(97M-01K) had been designed and successfully fabricated, five tests were done to support the users and provided the economic benefits to user by generating the essential in-pile information on the performance and structural integrity of materials. This paper describes the present status and future plans of these R and D activities for the development of the instrumented capsule including in-situ material property measurement capsules and nuclear fuel test capsules.

  16. Operation and postirradiation examination of ORR capsule OF-2: accelerated testing of HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Thoms, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    Irradiation capsule OF-2 was a test of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel types under accelerated irradiation conditions in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The results showed good irradiation performance of Triso-coated weak-acid-resin fissile particles and Biso-coated fertile particles. These particles had been coated by a fritted gas distributor in the 0.13-m-diam furnace. Fast-neutron damage (E > 0.18 MeV) and matrix-particle interaction caused the outer pyrocarbon coating on the Triso-coated particles to fail. Such failure depended on the optical anisotropy, density, and open porosity of the outer pyrocarbon coating, as well as on the coke yield of the matrix. Irradiation of specimens with values outside prescribed limits for these properties increased the failure rate of their outer pyrocarbon coating. Good irradiation performance was observed for weak-acid-resin particles with conversions in the range from 15 to 75% UC 2

  17. Non-destructive tests of capsules for JMTR irradiation examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidetaka; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Sato, Masashi; Osawa, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    Irradiation examination are increasing in advanced irradiation research for accurate prediction control and evaluation of irradiation parameter such as neutron fluence, etc. by using JMTR. Irradiation capsule internals are therefore structurally complicated recently. This report described the procedure of non destructive tests such as radiographic test, penetrant test, ultrasonic test, etc. for inspection of irradiation capsules in JMTR, and the result of Test-case of confirmation procedure for internal parts of irradiation capsules. (author)

  18. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with j...

  19. Myofibroblast Numbers are Elevated in Human Elbow Capsules After Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; van Snellenberg, Wistara; King, Graham J. W.; Hart, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Elbow contractures, a frequent problem after injury, can be treated by excision of the joint capsule. However, the underlying changes in the joint capsule are poorly understood. Based on skin healing work, we examined the hypotheses that myofibroblast numbers and expression of a myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin, are elevated in patients with posttraumatic joint contractures. Anterior capsules were obtained from six patients who had operative release of posttraumatic contractures gre...

  20. Incorporation of squalene into rod outer segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.K.; Fliesler, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    We have reported previously that squalene is the major radiolabeled nonsaponifiable lipid product derived from [ 3 H]acetate in short term incubations of frog retinas. In the present study, we demonstrate that newly synthesized squalene is incorporated into rod outer segments under similar in vitro conditions. We show further that squalene is an endogenous constituent of frog rod outer segment membranes; its concentration is approximately 9.5 nmol/mumol of phospholipid or about 9% of the level of cholesterol. Pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled precursors revealed no metabolism of outer segment squalene to sterols in up to 20 h of chase. Taken together with our previous absolute rate studies, these results suggest that most, if not all, of the squalene synthesized by the frog retina is transported to rod outer segments. Synthesis of protein is not required for squalene transport since puromycin had no effect on squalene incorporation into outer segments. Conversely, inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis with mevinolin had no effect on the incorporation of opsin into the outer segment. These latter results support the conclusion that the de novo synthesis and subsequent intracellular trafficking of opsin and isoprenoid lipids destined for the outer segment occur via independent mechanisms

  1. Chitosan Derivatives/Calcium Carbonate Composite Capsules Prepared by the Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Core/shell capsules composed of calcium carbonate whisker core (rod-like shape and chitosan/chitosansulfate shell were prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique. Two chitosan samples of different molecular weights (Mw=9.7×104 and 1.09×106g·mol-1 were used as original materials. Hollow capsules were also obtained by dissolution of the core in hydrochloric acid. Electron microscopy revealed that the surface of the shell is rather ragged associated with some agglomerates. The shell thickness l obeys a linear relation with respect to the number of deposited layers m as l=md+a(a>0. The values of d (thickness per layer were 4.0 and 1.0 nm for the higher and lower Mw chitosan materials, respectively, both of which are greater than the thickness of the monolayer. The results suggest that the feature of the deposition does not obey an ideal homogeneous monolayer-by-monolayer deposition mechanism. Shell crosslinked capsules were also prepared via photodimerization reaction of cinnamoyl groups after a deposition of cinnamoyl chitosan to the calcium carbonate whisker core. The degree of crosslink was not enough to stabilize the shell structure, and hollow capsule was not obtained.

  2. Welding of iridium heat source capsule components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaleski, T.M.; Yearwood, J.C.; Burgan, C.E.; Green, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    Interplanetary spacecraft have long used radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) to produce power for instrumentation. These RTG produce electrical energy from the heat generated through the radioactive decay of plutonium-238. The plutonium is present as a ceramic pellet of plutonium oxide. The pellet is encapsulated in a containment shell of iridium. Iridium is the material of choice for these capsules because of its compatibility with the plutonium dioxide. The high-energy beam welding (electron beam and laser) processes used in the fabrication of the capsules has not been published. These welding procedures were originally developed at the Mound Laboratories and have been adapted for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The work involves joining of thin material in small sizes to exacting tolerances. There are four different electron beam welds on each capsule, with one procedure being used in three locations. There is also a laser weld used to seal the edges of a sintered frit assembly. An additional electron beam weld is also performed to seal each of the iridium blanks in a stainless steel waster sheet prior to forming. In the transfer of these welding procedures from one facility to another, a number of modifications were necessary. These modifications are discussed in detail, as well as the inherent problems in making welds in material which is only 0.005 in. thick. In summary, the paper discusses the welding of thin components of iridium using the high energy beam processes. While the peculiarities of iridium are pertinent to the discussion, much of the information is of general interest to the users of these processes. This is especially true of applications involving thin materials and high-precision assemblies

  3. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC 2 and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO 2 fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted

  4. C5 capsule operation modes analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gh.; Ancuta, Mirela; Stefan, Violeta

    2008-01-01

    This paper is part of the Nuclear Research Institute Program 13 dedicated to 'TRIGA Research Reactor performance enhancing' and its objective is improving the engineering of the structural materials irradiation. The paper raises the knowledge level on C5 capsule irradiation modes and utilizes previous results in order to increase C5 performances. In the paper the irradiation modes to test zirconium yttrium sample are assessed. These tests are proposed by AECL. There are presented the C5 initial conditions and models. Also. there are presented the thermal hydraulic conditions during normal and accidental operation. The results will be used in the C5 safety report. (authors)

  5. Method of forming capsules containing a precise amount of material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1986-06-24

    A method of forming a sealed capsule containing a submilligram quantity of mercury or the like, the capsule being constructed from a hollow glass tube, by placing a globule or droplet of the mercury in the tube. The tube is then evacuated and sealed and is subsequently heated so as to vaporize the mercury and fill the tube therewith. The tube is then separated into separate sealed capsules by heating spaced locations along the tube with a coiled heating wire means to cause collapse spaced locations there along and thus enable separation of the tube into said capsules. 7 figs.

  6. Increasing Z-pinch vacuum hohlraum capsule coupling efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, Debbie; Vesey, Roger Alan; Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Nikroo, A.; Bennett, Guy R.; Schroen, Diana Grace; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Porter, John L.; Streit, Jon; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cuneo, Michael Edward

    2004-01-01

    Symmetric capsule implosions in the double-ended vacuum hohlraum (DEH) on Z have demonstrated convergence ratios of 14-21 for 2.15-mm plastic ablator capsules absorbing 5-7 kJ of x-rays, based on backlit images of the compressed ablator remaining at peak convergence (1). Experiments with DD-filled 3.3-mm diameter capsules designed to absorb 14 kJ of x-rays have begun as an integrated test of drive temperature and symmetry, complementary to thin-shell symmetry diagnostic capsules. These capsule implosions are characterized by excellent control of symmetry (< 3% time-integrated), but low hohlraum efficiency (< 2%). Possible methods to increase the capsule absorbed energy in the DEH include mixed-component hohlraums, large diameter foam ablator capsules, transmissive shine shields between the z-pinch and capsule, higher spoke electrode x-ray transmission, a double-sided power feed, and smaller initial radius z-pinch wire arrays. Simulations will explore the potential for each of these modifications to increase the capsule coupling efficiency for near-term experiments on Z and ZR

  7. 21 CFR 520.1920 - Prochlorperazine, isopropamide sustained release capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS... dogs in which gastrointestinal disturbances are associated with emotional stress. (2)(i) Capsules...

  8. Diagnostic and therapeutic capsules and method of producing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.A.; Haney, T.A.; Wedeking, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    An article of manufacture comprising a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule formed essentially of a non-toxic, water soluble material adapted to being ingested and rapidly disintegrating on contract with fluids of the gastro-intestinal tract, and having a filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound absorbable from the gastro-intestinal tract said filler material being supported by said capsule. And a method of filling a pharmaceutical radioactive capsule comprising providing filler material supporting a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound and transporting said filler material carrying a pharmaceutically useful radioactive compound into the chamber of said capsule

  9. Small RNAs controlling outer membrane porins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Johansen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Anders A

    2007-01-01

    are key regulators of environmental stress. Recent work has revealed an intimate interplay between small RNA regulation of outer membrane proteins and the stress-induced sigmaE-signalling system, which has an essential role in the maintenance of the integrity of the outer membrane.......Gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs has been recognized as an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism for several years. In Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, these RNAs control stress response and translation of outer membrane proteins and therefore...

  10. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Christian B; Holst, Camilla Bjørnbak; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides...... diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6-21st weeks post...

  11. Predicting corrosion of 316L stainless steel capsule by low level radioactive wastes (Am-241 and Co-60) in underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunoo, R.

    2013-07-01

    Most of radioactive wastes in Ghana are of low level in activity, (i.e LLRW) and are currently kept under lock in a secured room. The proposed plan by the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is to seal the LLRW In 316L stainless steel disposal capsule for borehole repository. The research presented in this thesis was aimed at predicting the rate of both uniform and pitting corrosion of the 316L stainless steel disposal capsule by LLRW that will be kept in the capsule as a function of temperature, PH and chloride concentration for a period of up to 1000 years of disposal. The prediction analysis was based on the point defect deterministic model which assumed Schottky defects as the defect of the oxide formed on the surfaces of the disposal capsule. Faradays law and Fick first law of diffusion were used to determine the current across the internal and external surfaces of the capsule used to predict the uniform corrosion rate and corrosion loss of the 316L stainless steel disposal capsule. By imposing chlorine on the external environment of the disposal capsule, pit growth rate and pit depth of capsule were also predicted over a period of 1000 years. The capsule containing disused Am-241 source at activity level of 1.67×10 3 Bq had an average uniform corrosion rate of 3.65×10 -7 m/year and average pit growth rate of 1.79×10 -6 m/year while the corrosion rate and pit growth rate of the capsule containing disused Co-60 with activity level of 2.78×10 8 Bq were 6.9×10 -7 m/year and 2.1×10 -6 m/year respectively at PH value of 8 and repository temperature of 75°C and chloride concentration of 0.5 M. The uniform corrosion rate indicated that at PH=8 and T=75°C, 80.04% of the disposal capsule containing disused Am-241 would remain whiles 62.34% of that containing Co-60 disused source would remain after 1000 years when undergoing uniform corrosion, and an arbitrary position on the disposal capsule will have a pit depth of 1.98×10 -3 m after 100 years. Hence the integrity

  12. Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiz, B K; Yavuz, A

    2014-01-01

    Students’ misconceptions about Newton's second law in frictionless outer space were investigated. The research was formed according to an epistemic game theoretical framework. The term ‘epistemic’ refers to students’ participation in problem-solving activities as a means of constructing new knowledge. The term ‘game’ refers to a coherent activity that consists of moves and rules. A set of questions in which students are asked to solve two similar Newton's second law problems, one of which is on the Earth and the other in outer space, was administered to 116 undergraduate students. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between students’ epistemic game preferences and race-type (outer space or frictional surface) question. So students who used Newton's second law on the ground did not apply this law and used primitive reasoning when it came to space. Among these students, voluntary interviews were conducted with 18 students. Analysis of interview transcripts showed that: (1) the term ‘space’ causes spontaneity among students that prevents the use of the law; (2) students hesitate to apply Newton's second law in space due to the lack of a condition—the friction; (3) students feel that Newton's second law is not valid in space for a variety of reasons, but mostly for the fact that the body in space is not in contact with a surface. (paper)

  13. Potassium iodide capsule treatment of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Erica G; Gremião, Isabella D F; Kitada, Amanda A B; Rocha, Raphael F D B; Castro, Verônica S P; Barros, Mônica B L; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Pereira, Sandro A; Schubach, Tânia M P

    2012-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis caused by Sporothrix schenckii. The most affected animal is the cat; it has played an important role in the zoonotic transmission of this disease, especially in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 1998. In order to evaluate the treatment of feline sporotrichosis with potassium iodide, an observational cohort was conducted in 48 cats with sporotrichosis at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fiocruz. All cats received potassium iodide capsules, 2.5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg q24h. The cure rate was 47.9%, treatment failure was 37.5%, treatment abandonment was 10.4% and death was 4.2%. Clinical adverse effects were observed in 52.1% of the cases. Thirteen cats had a mild increase in hepatic transaminase levels during the treatment, six of them presented clinical signs suggestive of hepatotoxicity. Compared to previous studies with itraconazole and iodide in saturated solution, potassium iodide capsules are an alternative for feline sporotrichosis treatment.

  14. Petrous bone fractures violating otic capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliulo, Giuseppe; Ciniglio Appiani, Mario; Iannella, Giannicola; Artico, Marco

    2012-12-01

    This study presents our experience with a series of patients suffering from petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule who underwent subtotal petrosectomy combined with eustachian tube, middle ear, and mastoid obliteration, with the goal of preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and meningitis. This study enrolled 26 patients between 1997 and 2011. The clinical symptoms, otoscopy, and preoperative and postoperative audiometry and facial function, as well as CSF leak or meningitis, were evaluated in each patient. The entire group underwent a subtotal petrosectomy using the technique described in detail by Fisch. In addition, each patient was interviewed using a questionnaire to evaluate the impact on quality of life. Intraoperatively, we found significant CSF leaks in 14 patients (42.5%). No patient reported other episodes of CSF leak or meningitis after the surgery. The patients' responses of facial nerve function were slightly worse than the House-Brackmann evaluation (50% versus 42.3%; p < 0.05). The vast majority (88.5%) of the patients experienced no social impact. Our findings suggest the importance of not underestimating the risk for CSF leak in the petrous bone fractures violating the otic capsule. Preoperative counseling regarding the various troublesome complications must adequately motivate candidates to undergo surgery by pointing out the positive impact of the proposed treatment.

  15. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-09-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.

  16. In vivo osteogenic differentiation of stem cells inside compartmentalized capsules loaded with co-cultured endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Clara R; Santos, Tírcia C; Pirraco, Rogério P; Cerqueira, Mariana T; Marques, Alexandra P; Reis, Rui L; Mano, João F

    2017-04-15

    Capsules coated with polyelectrolytes and co-encapsulating adipose stem (ASCs) and endothelial (ECs) cells with surface modified microparticles are developed. Microparticles and cells are freely dispersed in a liquified core, responsible to maximize the diffusion of essential molecules and allowing the geometrical freedom for the autonomous three-dimensional (3D) organization of cells. While the membrane wraps all the instructive cargo elements within a single structure, the microparticles provide a solid 3D substrate for the encapsulated cells. Our hypothesis is that inside this isolated biomimetic 3D environment, ECs would lead ASCs to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage to ultimately generate a mineralized tissue in vivo. For that, capsules encapsulating only ASCs (MONO capsules) or co-cultured with ECs (CO capsules) are subcutaneously implanted in nude mice up to 6weeks. Capsules implanted immediately after production or after 21days of in vitro osteogenic stimulation are tested. The most valuable outcome of the present study is the mineralized tissue in CO capsules without in vitro pre-differentiation, with similar levels compared to the pre-stimulated capsules in vitro. We believe that the proposed bioencapsulation strategy is a potent self-regulated system, which might find great applicability in bone tissue engineering. The diffusion efficiency of essential molecules for cell survival is a main issue in cell encapsulation. Former studies reported the superior biological outcome of encapsulated cells within liquified systems. However, most cells used in TE are anchorage-dependent, requiring a solid substrate to perform main cellular processes. We hypothesized that liquified capsules encapsulating microparticles are a promising attempt. Inspired by the multiphenotypic cellular environment of bone, we combine the concept of liquified capsules with co-cultures of stem and endothelial cells. After implantation, results show that co-cultured capsules

  17. Outer Magnetospheric Boundaries Cluster Results

    CERN Document Server

    Paschmann, Goetz; Schwartz, S J

    2006-01-01

    When the stream of plasma emitted from the Sun (the solar wind) encounters Earth's magnetic field, it slows down and flows around it, leaving behind a cavity, the magnetosphere. The magnetopause is the surface that separates the solar wind on the outside from the Earth's magnetic field on the inside. Because the solar wind moves at supersonic speed, a bow shock must form ahead of the magnetopause that acts to slow the solar wind to subsonic speeds. Magnetopause, bow shock and their environs are rich in exciting processes in collisionless plasmas, such as shock formation, magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and wave-particle interactions. They are interesting in their own right, as part of Earth's environment, but also because they are prototypes of similar structures and phenomena that are ubiquitous in the universe, having the unique advantage that they are accessible to in situ measurements. The boundaries of the magnetosphere have been the target of direct in-situ measurements since the beginning ...

  18. Performance of HTGR fertile particles irradiated in HFIR capsule HT-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.L. Jr.; Robbins, J.M.; Tiegs, T.N.; Kania, M.J.

    1980-04-01

    The HT-32 experiment was an uninstrumented capsule irradiated for four cycles in the target position of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The experiment was designed to: provide supplemental simulated fuel rods for thermal transport and expansion measurements; test fertile kernels with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 additives for improved fission product retention; study the stability and permeability of low-temperature isotropic (LTI) pyrocarbon coatings; test Biso- and Triso-coatings derived in a large (0.24-m-dia) coating furnace with a frit distributor; investigate the performance of particles with an outer layer of SiC both as loose particles and as resin-bonded fuel rods; and evaluate high-density alumina as a potential high-temperature thermometry sheathing material

  19. Iodometric determination of ampicillin in proprietary capsules | Ejele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of ampicillin in ampicillin capsule preparations purchased in Owerri main market, Imo State of Nigeria, was determined using the iodometric titration method. The results showed that the ampicillin concentrations in the capsules contained between 250 and 260 mg/cap of ampicillin trihydrate. Statistical ...

  20. The development of the nasal capsule of the silver carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of the nasal capsule, including the procartilaginous as well as some mesenchymatous developmental stages, is described in the chinese silver carp,. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (VaL). In the nasal capsule a primitive feature, namely the presence of a complete paraphysial bridge was observed.

  1. Temporary presence of myofibroblasts in human elbow capsule after trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornberg, Job N.; Bosse, Tjalling; Cohen, Mark S.; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Ring, David; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Elbow stiffness is a common complication after elbow trauma. The elbow capsule is often thickened, fibrotic, and contracted at the time of surgical release. The limited studies available suggest that the capsule is contracted because of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesize

  2. Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical effect of Resina Draconis capsules on primary dysmenorrhoea. Li Sun, Jia Wang. Abstract. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of Resina Draconis capsules in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Methods: In total, 324 patients with primary dysmenorrhoea were randomly allocated to three groups based on ...

  3. Inner Synovial Membrane Footprint of the Anterior Elbow Capsule: An Arthroscopic Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Kamineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe the inner synovial membrane (SM of the anterior elbow capsule, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two cadaveric human elbows were dissected and the distal humerus and SM attachments were digitized using a digitizer. The transepicondylar line (TEL was used as the primary descriptor of various landmarks. The distance between the medial epicondyle and medial SM edge, SM apex overlying the coronoid fossa, the central SM nadir, and the apex of the SM insertion overlying the radial fossa and distance from the lateral epicondyle to lateral SM edge along the TEL were measured and further analyzed. Gender and side-to-side statistical comparisons were calculated. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 80.4 years, with six male and five female cadavers. The SM had a distinctive double arched attachment overlying the radial and coronoid fossae. No gender-based or side-to-side quantitative differences were noted. In 18 out of 22 specimens (81.8%, an infolding extension of the SM was observed overlying the medial aspect of the trochlea. The SM did not coincide with the outer fibrous attachment in any specimen. Conclusion. The humeral footprint of the synovial membrane of the anterior elbow capsule is more complex and not as capacious as commonly understood from the current literature. The synovial membrane nadir between the two anterior fossae may help to explain and hence preempt technical difficulties, a reduction in working arthroscopic volume in inflammatory and posttraumatic pathologies. This knowledge should allow the surgeon to approach this aspect of the anterior elbow compartment space with the confidence that detachment of this synovial attachment, to create working space, does not equate to breaching the capsule. Alternatively, stripping the synovial attachment from the anterior humerus does not constitute an anterior capsular release.

  4. Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Pike, Rosemary E.; Bannister, Michele T.; Marsset, Michaël; Kavelaars, J. J.; Benecchi, Susan; Delsanti, Audrey C.; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Thirouin, Audrey; Nesvorný, David

    2018-01-01

    The vast majority of the known dwarf-planet sized bodies are bright enough to be studied through optical and infrared spectroscopy. As a result, we have an understanding of the surface properties for the largest Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) which retain their primordial inventory of volatile ices. For the typically smaller > 22 mag KBO, we must rely instead on what colors reveal by proxy; yet this picture remains incomplete. Most KBO physical property studies examine the hodgepodge set of objects discovered by various surveys with different and varying detection biases that make it difficult if not impossible to reliably estimate the sizes of the different surface color groupings (compositional classes) residing in the modern-day Kuiper belt.The Colours of the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (Col-OSSOS) probes the surface properties within the Kuiper belt primarily through near simultaneous g,r and J colors with the Gemini North Telescope and u-band with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The project aims to target ~100 KBOs brighter than 23.6 r‧ mag found by the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS), a survey with a well-measured detection efficiency. Thus, Col-OSSOS provides the first brightness-complete, compositional-dynamical map of the Outer Solar System, probing in a new light the radial color distribution in the primordial planetesimal disk from which KBOs originated. We will provide an update on the current status of the program highlighting results from the first two years of the survey; including size estimates of the two color KBO subgroups (the red and neutral surfaces) within the dynamically excited Kuiper belt and implications for the early planetesimal disk composition based on neutral-colored binaries found in the cold classical Kuiper belt.

  5. Water and Volatiles in the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, O.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Guillot, T.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tosi, F.

    2017-10-01

    Space exploration and ground-based observations have provided outstanding evidence of the diversity and the complexity of the outer solar system. This work presents our current understanding of the nature and distribution of water and water-rich materials from the water snow line to the Kuiper Belt. This synthesis is timely, since a thorough exploration of at least one object in each region of the outer solar system has now been achieved. Next steps, starting with the Juno mission now in orbit around Jupiter, will be more focused on understanding the processes at work than on describing the general characteristics of each giant planet systems. This review is organized in three parts. First, the nature and the distribution of water and volatiles in giant and intermediary planets are described from their inner core to their outer envelopes. A special focus is given to Jupiter and Saturn, which are much better understood than the two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) thanks to the Galileo and Cassini missions. Second, the icy moons will be discussed. Space missions and ground-based observations have revealed the variety of icy surfaces in the outer system. While Europa, Enceladus, and maybe Titan present past or even active tectonic and volcanic activities, many other moons have been dead worlds for more than 3 billion years. Ice compositions found at these bodies are also complex and it is now commonly admitted that icy surfaces are never composed of pure ices. A detailed review of the distribution of non-ice materials on the surfaces and in the tenuous atmospheres of the moons is proposed, followed by a more focused discussion on the nature and the characteristics of the liquid layers trapped below the cold icy crusts that have been suggested in the icy Galilean moons, and in Enceladus, Dione, and Titan at Saturn. Finally, the recent observations collected by Dawn at Ceres and New Horizons at Pluto, as well as the state of knowledge of other transneptunian objects

  6. Irradiation Test Plan and Safety Analysis of the Fatigue Capsule(05S-05K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choo, K. N.; Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Shin, Y. T.; Seo, C. K

    2007-01-15

    In this report, the design, fabrication, the out-pile test and the irradiation test plan of the fatigue capsule 05S-05K were described and the safety aspect during the design, fabrication and irradiation test was reviewed. A cyclic load device necessary for the fatigue test was newly designed and manufactured. By using the cyclic load device the performance test and the preliminary fatigue test were performed with STS316L specimen of {phi}1.8 mm x 12.5 mm gage length under the same condition(550 .deg. C) as the temperature of the specimen during the irradiation test. As a result of the test, the fracture of the specimen occurs at a total of 70,120 cycles, at which the displacement was 2.02 mm. The reactivity effect was reviewed and an analysis for the structural and thermal integrity was performed to review the safety of the capsule, which will be irradiated at a temperature higher than 550 .deg. C And the thermal analysis shows that the temperatures of the parts are less than the melting temperatures of the corresponding materials. The structural analysis considering this temperature shows that the combined stress on the outer tube is less than the allowable stress limits and so the structural integrity is maintained.

  7. Oscillations of the Outer Boundary of the Outer Radiation Belt During Sawtooth Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hun Kim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report three sawtooth oscillation events observed at geosynchronous orbit where we find quasi-periodic (every 2-3 hours sudden flux increases followed by slow flux decreases at the energy levels of ˜50-400 keV. For these three sawtooth events, we have examined variations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt. In order to determine L values of the outer boundary, we have used data of relativistic electron flux observed by the SAMPEX satellite. We find that the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt oscillates periodically being consistent with sawtooth oscillation phases. Specifically, the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt expands (namely, the boundary L value increases following the sawtooth particle flux enhancement of each tooth, and then contracts (namely, the boundary L value decreases while the sawtooth flux decreases gradually until the next flux enhancement. On the other hand, it is repeatedly seen that the asymmetry of the magnetic field intensity between dayside and nightside decreases (increases due to the dipolarization (the stretching on the nightside as the sawtooth flux increases (decreases. This implies that the periodic magnetic field variations during the sawtooth oscillations are likely responsible for the expansion-contraction oscillations of the outer boundary of the outer radiation belt.

  8. Adsorption and desorption of phosphorus in ceramic capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, J.R.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to analyse the capacity of adsorving P from water using ceramic capsules with 32P, in the presence and absence of water flow through the capsule. Also studied was the desorption of 32 P from the capsule in water, with and without water flow. The desorption of residual 32 P was analysed by isotopic exchange with 31 P, also with and without water flow. It was observed that, in the presence of a flow, the capsule retained 32 P from the solution, which was weakly desorbed by water but was isotopically exchanged with 31 P. In the absence of a flow, the capsule was not an efficient P adsorber. (Author) [pt

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of Nova capsule implosion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinak, M.M.; Tipton, R.E.; Landen, O.L.

    1995-01-01

    Capsule implosion experiments carried out on the Nova laser are simulated with the three-dimensional HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code. Simulations of ordered near single mode perturbations indicate that structures which evolve into round spikes can penetrate farthest into the hot spot. Bubble-shaped perturbations can burn through the capsule shell fastest, however, causing even more damage. Simulations of a capsule with multimode perturbations shows spike amplitudes evolving in good agreement with a saturation model during the deceleration phase. The presence of sizable low mode asymmetry, caused either by drive asymmetry or perturbations in the capsule shell, can dramatically affect the manner in which spikes approach the center of the hot spot. Three-dimensional coupling between the low mode shell perturbations intrinsic to Nova capsules and the drive asymmetry brings the simulated yields into closer agreement with the experimental values

  10. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule of SA 533 cl. 1 reactor pressure vessel (1st test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Jung, Y. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Baik, S. J.; Oh, W. H.; Soong, W. S.; Hong, K. P

    2000-08-01

    The post-irradiated examinations such as impact test, tensile test, composition analysis and etc. were conducted to monitor and to evaluate the radiation-induced changes, so called radiation embrittlement, in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials. Those data should be applied to confirm safety as well as reliability of reactor pressure vessel. The scopes and contents of hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule are as follows; - Capsule transportation, cutting, dismantling and classification - Shim block and Dosimeter cutting and dismantling - Impact test - Tensile test - Composition analysis by EPMA - SEM observation on the fractured surface - Hardness test - Radwaste treatment.

  11. No stabilizing effect of the elbow joint capsule. A kinematic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K K; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1999-01-01

    We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule.......We dissected 7 cadaveric elbow specimens, leaving the collateral ligaments and the joint capsule intact. The anterior and the posterior capsule were sequentially transected, followed by kinematic testings. We found no change in joint laxity after total transection of the capsule....

  12. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements

  13. Toward an integrated model of capsule regulation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Haynes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes serious human disease in immunocompromised populations. Its polysaccharide capsule is a key virulence factor which is regulated in response to growth conditions, becoming enlarged in the context of infection. We used microarray analysis of cells stimulated to form capsule over a range of growth conditions to identify a transcriptional signature associated with capsule enlargement. The signature contains 880 genes, is enriched for genes encoding known capsule regulators, and includes many uncharacterized sequences. One uncharacterized sequence encodes a novel regulator of capsule and of fungal virulence. This factor is a homolog of the yeast protein Ada2, a member of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex that regulates transcription of stress response genes via histone acetylation. Consistent with this homology, the C. neoformans null mutant exhibits reduced histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. It is also defective in response to a variety of stress conditions, demonstrating phenotypes that overlap with, but are not identical to, those of other fungi with altered SAGA complexes. The mutant also exhibits significant defects in sexual development and virulence. To establish the role of Ada2 in the broader network of capsule regulation we performed RNA-Seq on strains lacking either Ada2 or one of two other capsule regulators: Cir1 and Nrg1. Analysis of the results suggested that Ada2 functions downstream of both Cir1 and Nrg1 via components of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway. To identify direct targets of Ada2, we performed ChIP-Seq analysis of histone acetylation in the Ada2 null mutant. These studies supported the role of Ada2 in the direct regulation of capsule and mating responses and suggested that it may also play a direct role in regulating capsule-independent antiphagocytic virulence factors. These results validate our experimental approach to dissecting

  14. Photophysics Applied to Cavitands and Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Dube, Henry; Rebek, Julius

    2011-07-01

    The use of light as a stimulus to control functional materials or nano-devices is appealing as it provides convenient control of triggering events where and when they are desired without introducing extra components to the system. Many photophysical and photochemical processes are extremely fast, giving rise to nearly instantaneous onset of events. However, these fast processes can be challenging to engineer into chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry offers a convenient way to study and control photoprocesses. Given the reversible and self-programmed nature of modern host-guest systems, a modular approach can be considered in which different photoprocesses are coupled to obtain complex functions that emerge and are controlled solely by light inputs. In this review, we highlight recent examples of photoswitching and photophysics applied in the context of supramolecular host-guest systems, with a particular emphasis on resorcinarene based cavitands and hydrogen bonded capsules.

  15. Nitrogen-doped carbon capsules via poly(ionic liquid)-based layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2012-07-13

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique is applied for the first time for the preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon capsules. This approach uses colloid silica as template and two polymeric deposition components, that is, poly(ammonium acrylate) and a poly (ionic liquid) poly(3-cyanomethyl-1-vinylimidazolium bromide), which acts as both the carbon precursor and nitrogen source. Nitrogen-doped carbon capsules are prepared successfully by polymer wrapping, subsequent carbonization and template removal. The as-synthesized carbon capsules contain ≈7 wt% of nitrogen and have a structured specific surface area of 423 m(2) g(-1). Their application as supercapacitor has been briefly introduced. This work proves that LbL assembly methodology is available for preparing carbon structures of complex morphology. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Spheres of influence: Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, M J; Dashper, S G; Slakeski, N; Chen, Y-Y; Reynolds, E C

    2016-10-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are asymmetrical single bilayer membranous nanostructures produced by Gram-negative bacteria important for bacterial interaction with the environment. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, produces OMVs that act as a virulence factor secretion system contributing to its pathogenicity. Despite their biological importance, the mechanisms of OMV biogenesis have not been fully elucidated. The ~14 times more curvature of the OMV membrane than cell outer membrane (OM) indicates that OMV biogenesis requires energy expenditure for significant curvature of the OMV membrane. In P. gingivalis, we propose that this may be achieved by upregulating the production of certain inner or outer leaflet lipids, which causes localized outward curvature of the OM. This results in selection of anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and associated C-terminal domain (CTD) -family proteins on the outer surface due to their ability to accommodate the curvature. Deacylation of A-LPS may further enable increased curvature leading to OMV formation. Porphyromonas gingivalis OMVs that are selectively enriched in CTD-family proteins, largely the gingipains, can support bacterial coaggregation, promote biofilm development and act as an intercessor for the transport of non-motile bacteria by motile bacteria. The P. gingivalis OMVs are also believed to contribute to host interaction and colonization, evasion of immune defense mechanisms, and destruction of periodontal tissues. They may be crucial for both micro- and macronutrient capture, especially heme and probably other assimilable compounds for its own benefit and that of the wider biofilm community. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Outer planet probe cost estimates: First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination was made of early estimates of outer planetary atmospheric probe cost by comparing the estimates with past planetary projects. Of particular interest is identification of project elements which are likely cost drivers for future probe missions. Data are divided into two parts: first, the description of a cost model developed by SAI for the Planetary Programs Office of NASA, and second, use of this model and its data base to evaluate estimates of probe costs. Several observations are offered in conclusion regarding the credibility of current estimates and specific areas of the outer planet probe concept most vulnerable to cost escalation.

  18. High-gain capsule design for the HIDIF project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honrubia, J.J.; Cerrada, J.A.; Gomez, R.

    2000-01-01

    A high-gain capsule has been designed for the HIDIF project. The goal has been to relax the accelerator requirements by using a radiation pulse with lower peak temperature (220 eV) than previous designs (260 eV). The ablator material is beryllium doped with a very low concentration (0.2 atom %) of copper. The capsule absorbs 1.3 MJ and yields, approximately, 450 MJ in I-D simulations. The effect of the opacity of the ablator on capsule performance has been studied in detail. (authors)

  19. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colosimo, S.J.; Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S.; Lazarus, I.H.; Nolan, P.J.; Simpson, J.; Unsworth, C.

    2015-01-01

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array

  20. Characterisation of two AGATA asymmetric high purity germanium capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colosimo, S.J., E-mail: sjc@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Moon, S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Harkness-Brennan, L.; Judson, D.S. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.H. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Unsworth, C. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The AGATA spectrometer is an array of highly segmented high purity germanium detectors. The spectrometer uses pulse shape analysis in order to track Compton scattered γ-rays to increase the efficiency of nuclear spectroscopy studies. The characterisation of two high purity germanium detector capsules for AGATA of the same A-type has been performed at the University of Liverpool. This work will examine the uniformity of performance of the two capsules, including a comparison of the resolution and efficiency as well as a study of charge collection. The performance of the capsules shows good agreement, which is essential for the efficient operation of the γ-ray tracking array.

  1. Irradiation capsules VISA-2a-f, chapter VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1962-01-01

    Irradiation capsules VISA-2a, b,c,d, and e were constructed in Saclay according to the drawings from Vinca and according to the demand of the experimentators. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-2 project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device. Irradiation capsule VISA-2f was placed in the RA reactor core in September 1962. It was completely manufactured in Vinca including sample holders and leak tight shells. It will remain in the reactor core for about month in order to obtain the integral fast neutron flux [sr

  2. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  3. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ...

  4. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya. [The Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Drukarev, E.G. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  5. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University.

  6. Intershell correlations in photoionization of outer shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Drukarev, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the cross sections for photoionization of the outer shells are noticeably modified at the photon energies close to the thresholds of ionization of the inner shells due to correlations with the latter. The correlations may lead to increase or to decrease of the cross sections just above the ionization thresholds.

  7. [effectiveness of open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule on tibial plateau fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Xu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yonghui; Cao, Xingbing; Meng, Chen; Cao, Xueshu; Wei, Changbao

    2014-12-01

    To introduce the surgery method to reset and fix tibial plateau fracture without opening joint capsule, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this method. Between July 2011 and July 2013, 51 patients with tibial plateau fracture accorded with the inclusion criteria were included. All of 51 patients, 17 cases underwent open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule in trial group, and 34 cases underwent traditional surgery method in control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, cause of injury, time from injury to admission, side of injury, and types of fracture between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, incision length, incision healing, and fracture healing were compared between 2 groups. The tibial-femoral angle and collapse of joint surface were measured on X-ray film. At last follow-up, joint function was evaluated with Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee function scale. The intraoperative blood loss in trial group was significantly less than that in control group (P time and the rate of incision healing between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The patients were followed up 12-30 months (mean, 20.4 months) in trial group and 12-31 months (mean, 18.2 months) in control group. X-ray films indicated that all cases in 2 groups obtained fracture healing; there was no significant difference in the fracture healing time between 2 groups (t=1.382, P=0.173). On X-ray films, difference was not significant in tibial-femoral angle and collapse of joint surface between 2 groups (P > 0.05). HSS score of the knee in trial group was significantly higher than that of control group (t=3.161, P=0.003). It can reduce the intraoperative blood loss and shorten the incision length to use open reduction and internal fixation without opening joint capsule for tibial plateau fracture. Traction of joint capsule is helpful in the reduction and good recovery of joint surface collapse. In addition, the surgery without

  8. Outer Sphere Adsorption of Pb(II)EDTA on Goethite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargar, John R

    1999-07-16

    FTIR and EXAFS spectroscopic measurements were performed on Pb(II)EDTA adsorbed on goethite as functions of pH (4-6), Pb(II)EDTA concentration (0.11 {micro}M - 72 {micro}M), and ionic strength (16 {micro}M - 0.5M). FTIR measurements show no evidence for carboxylate-Fe(III) bonding or protonation of EDTA at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Both FTIR and EXAFS measurements suggest that EDTA acts as a hexadentate ligand, with all four of its carboxylate and both amine groups bonded to Pb(II). No evidence was observed for inner-sphere Pb(II)-goethite bonding at Pb:EDTA = 1:1. Hence, the adsorbed complexes should have composition Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}}. Since substantial uptake of PbEDTA(II){sup 2{minus}} occurred in the samples, we infer that Pb(II)EDTA{sup 2{minus}} adsorbed as outer-sphere complexes and/or as complexes that lose part of their solvation shells and hydrogen bond directly to goethite surface sites. We propose the term ''hydration-sphere'' for the latter type of complexes because they should occupy space in the primary hydration spheres of goethite surface functional groups, and to distinguish this mode of sorption from common structural definitions of inner- and outer-sphere complexes. The similarity of Pb(II) uptake isotherms to those of other divalent metal ions complexed by EDTA suggests that they too adsorb by these mechanisms. The lack of evidence for inner-sphere EDTA-Fe(III) bonding suggests that previously proposed metal-ligand - promoted dissolution mechanisms should be modified, specifically to account for the presence of outer-sphere precursor species.

  9. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layer- forming Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... high negatively charged components, showed more than 1.5 fold increase as compared to capsulated ... Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals released in ... ion exchange, activated carbon adsorption and separation.

  10. [Acute caffeine intoxication after intake of 'herbal energy capsules'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, H.E.; Landstra, A.M.; Luin, M. van; Setten, P.A. van

    2008-01-01

    Two males, 15 and 17 years old respectively, presented at the Emergency Department complaining of cramping abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingestion of energy capsules. Physical examination revealed sinus tachycardia and slight abdominal pain. Laboratory examination showed substantial

  11. Versatile Loading of Diverse Cargo into Functional Polymer Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Maina, James W; Ejima, Hirotaka; Hu, Ming; Guo, Junling; Choy, Mei Y; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Lybaert, Lien; Hagemeyer, Christoph E; De Geest, Bruno G; Caruso, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Polymer microcapsules are of particular interest for applications including self-healing coatings, catalysis, bioreactions, sensing, and drug delivery. The primary way that polymer capsules can exhibit functionality relevant to these diverse fields is through the incorporation of functional cargo in the capsule cavity or wall. Diverse functional and therapeutic cargo can be loaded into polymer capsules with ease using polymer-stabilized calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) particles. A variety of examples are demonstrated, including 15 types of cargo, yielding a toolbox with effectively 500+ variations. This process uses no harsh reagents and can take less than 30 min to prepare, load, coat, and form the hollow capsules. For these reasons, it is expected that the technique will play a crucial role across scientific studies in numerous fields.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Capsule-based Chronomodulated Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cross-linked gelatin capsule shells containing salbutamol pellets, and sealed with a suitable mixture of ... delivered at a constant rate, since the drug effect decreases with time at .... parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed. Rank test for ...

  13. Regional gastrointestinal contractility parameters using the wireless motility capsule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, A D; Wegeberg, A-M L; Brock, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent...

  14. Bufei Huoxue Capsule Attenuates PM2.5-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 may carry many toxic substances on its surface and this may pose a public health threat. Epidemiological research indicates that cumulative ambient PM2.5 is correlated to morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mitigating the toxic effects of PM2.5 is therefore highly desired. Bufei Huoxue (BFHX capsules have been used in China to treat pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale. Thus, we assessed the effects of BFHX capsules on PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation and the underlying mechanisms of action. Using Polysearch and Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, pharmacological targets of BFHX capsules in atmospheric PM2.5-related respiratory disorders were predicted and found to be related to biological pathways of inflammation and immune function. In a mouse model of PM2.5-induced inflammation established with intranasal instillation of PM2.5 suspension, BFHX significantly reduced pathological response and inflammatory mediators including IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1β. BFHX also reduced keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, and collagen fibers deposition in lung and improved lung function. Thus, BFHX reduced pathological responses induced by PM2.5, possibly via regulation of inflammatory mediators in mouse lungs.

  15. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Stephen R

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement 'orthogonal' T p (B) of the tangent space T p (B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hyperbolic system as the evolution equations for our numerical simulation of the model

  16. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Stephen R.

    2002-06-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement ⊥Tp(B) of the tangent space Tp(B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hyperbolic system as the evolution equations for our numerical simulation of the model.

  17. Outer boundary as arrested history in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, S

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit outer boundary conditions for the canonical variables of general relativity. The conditions are associated with the causal evolution of a finite Cauchy domain, a so-called quasilocal boost, and they suggest a consistent scheme for modelling such an evolution numerically. The scheme involves a continuous boost in the spacetime orthogonal complement 'orthogonal' T sub p (B) of the tangent space T sub p (B) belonging to each point p on the system boundary B. We show how the boost rate may be computed numerically via equations similar to those appearing in canonical investigations of black-hole thermodynamics (although here holding at an outer two-surface rather than the bifurcate two-surface of a Killing horizon). We demonstrate the numerical scheme on a model example, the quasilocal boost of a spherical three-ball in Minkowski spacetime. Developing our general formalism with recent hyperbolic formulations of the Einstein equations in mind, we use Anderson and York's 'Einstein-Christoffel' hy...

  18. Water Landing Impact of Recovery Space Capsule: A Research Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Eiichiro; Uchikawa, Hideaki; Tanno, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Ryu

    2014-01-01

    For the design of a manned or cargo space capsule, it is important to precisely estimate the Earth landing loads to the crew or cargo, and to limit the loads to within a permissible range. Water landing simulations and scale-model water landing tests with varying conditions for descending velocity, pitch angle, and horizontal velocity during splashdown were conducted to estimate the magnitude of water impact on the recovery space capsule. This paper describes the results of the simulation and...

  19. Fabrication of mechanical system of the FPM capsule puller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirdjo, Hari; Prasetya, Hendra

    2000-01-01

    A mechanical system of the FPM capsule puller has been fabricated, which has a function to pull the irradiated FPM capsule. The construction of the system consist of driving motor equipped with reduction gear, spindle, and puller wire. The system has puller stroke of 700 mm, therefore the puller will be terminated at the outside of the reactor core. A function test had been done and shows that the system has fulfilled the requirements

  20. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  1. The position control of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, E.J.; Park, M.K.; Yamane, R.; Oshima, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, in order to establish the technique of a nozzle-flapper system of a servo valve using magnetic fluid in hydraulic system, a governing equation regarding the levitation of a capsule filled with magnetic fluid is formulated. Using PID control, an experiment for the position control of a capsule was performed. The experimental results were compared with the simulation results found by the governing equation

  2. Mutations blocking side chain assembly, polymerization, or transport of a Wzy-dependent Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule are lethal in the absence of suppressor mutations and can affect polymer transfer to the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Yother, Janet

    2007-05-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides of many bacteria are synthesized by the Wzy polymerase-dependent mechanism, where long-chain polymers are assembled from undecaprenyl-phosphate-linked repeat units on the outer face of the cytoplasmic membrane. In gram-positive bacteria, Wzy-dependent capsules remain largely cell associated via membrane and peptidoglycan linkages. Like many Wzy-dependent capsules, the Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 capsule is branched. In this study, we found that deletions of cps2K, cps2J, or cps2H, which encode a UDP-glucose dehydrogenase necessary for side chain synthesis, the putative Wzx transporter (flippase), and the putative Wzy polymerase, respectively, were obtained only in the presence of suppressor mutations. Most of the suppressor mutations were in cps2E, which encodes the initiating glycosyltransferase for capsule synthesis. The cps2K mutants containing the suppressor mutations produced low levels of high-molecular-weight polymer that was detected only in membrane fractions. cps2K-repaired mutants exhibited only modest increases in capsule production due to the effect of the secondary mutation, but capsule was detectable in both membrane and cell wall fractions. Lethality of the cps2K, cps2J, and cps2H mutations was likely due to sequestration of undecaprenyl-phosphate in the capsule pathway and either preclusion of its turnover for utilization in essential pathways or destabilization of the membrane due to an accumulation of lipid-linked intermediates. The results demonstrate that proper polymer assembly requires not only a functional transporter and polymerase but also complete repeat units. A central role for the initiating glycosyltransferase in controlling capsule synthesis is also suggested.

  3. Increasing robustness of indirect drive capsule designs against short wavelength hydrodynamic instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Dittrich, T.R.; Fetterman, A.J.; Marinak, M.M.; Munro, D.H.; Pollaine, S.M.; Salmonson, J.D.; Strobel, G.L.; Suter, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Targets meant to achieve ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] have been redesigned and their performance simulated. Simulations indicate dramatically reduced growth of short wavelength hydrodynamic instabilities, resulting from two changes in the designs. First, better optimization results from systematic mapping of the ignition target performance over the parameter space of ablator and fuel thickness combinations, using techniques developed by one of us (Herrmann). After the space is mapped with one-dimensional simulations, exploration of it with two-dimensional simulations quantifies the dependence of instability growth on target dimensions. Low modes and high modes grow differently for different designs, allowing a trade-off of the two regimes of growth. Significant improvement in high-mode stability can be achieved, relative to previous designs, with only insignificant increase in low-mode growth. This procedure produces capsule designs that, in simulations, tolerate several times the surface roughness that could be tolerated by capsules optimized by older more heuristic techniques. Another significant reduction in instability growth, by another factor of several, is achieved with ablators with radially varying dopant. In this type of capsule the mid-Z dopant, which is needed in the ablator to minimize x-ray preheat at the ablator-ice interface, is optimally positioned within the ablator. A fabrication scenario for graded dopants already exists, using sputter coating to fabricate the ablator shell. We describe the systematics of these advances in capsule design, discuss the basis behind their improved performance, and summarize how this is affecting our plans for NIF ignition

  4. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility.

  5. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, B. G.; Joo, K. N.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this project was to establish basic capsule irradiation technology using the multi-purpose research reactor [HANARO] to eventually support national R and D projects of advanced fuel and materials related to domestic nuclear power plants and next generation reactors. There are several national nuclear projects in KAERI, which require several irradiation tests to investigate in-pile behavior of nuclear reactor fuel and materials for the R and D of several types of fuels such as advanced PWR and DUPIC fuels and for the R and D of structural materials such as RPV(reactor pressure vessel) steel, Inconel, zirconium alloy, and stainless steel. At the moment, internal and external researchers in institutes, industries and universities are interested in investigating the irradiation characteristics of materials using the irradiation facilities of HANARO. For these kinds of material irradiation tests, it is important to develop various capsules using our own techniques. The development of capsules requires several leading-edge technologies and our own experiences related to design and fabrication. In the second phase from April 1,2000 to March 31, 2003, the utilization technologies were developed using various sensors for the measurements of temperature, pressure and displacement, and instrumented capsule technologies for the required fuel irradiation tests were developed. In addition, the improvement of the existing capsule technologies and the development of an in-situ measurable creep capsule for specific purposes were done to meet the various requirements of users

  6. Failure of the capsule for coated particles irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Jikei; Nomura, Yasushi; Nagamatsuya, Takaaki; Yamahara, Takeshi; Sakai, Haruyuki

    1975-10-01

    During operation cycle No. 27 of the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) on May 20, 1974, leakage of the fission product gas occurred from the capsule 72F-7A, which contained coated particles for the irradiation; the coated particles are for the development of a multi-purpose high temperature gas cooled reactor. The capsule was designed for heat 1600 0 C. Three nickel plates as the heat reflector were sandwiched in between the plates of titanium and zirconium, which were adsorbents for the impurity gases in the cladding tube (Nb-1%Zr). Temperatures of the plates were about 1000 0 C under the irradiation, so one metal diffused into the other metal through interfaces, resulting in the formation of an alloy. Its melting point was lower than those of metals in the capsule. The cladding material Nb-1%Zr was melted by the alloy and finally a pin hole developed through the cladding. The process of failure, design of the capsule, post-irradiation test of the capsule and the failure-reproducing experiment with a mock-up capsule are described. (auth.)

  7. Design and fabrication of non-instrumented capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Jeong Young; Kim, Joon Yeon; Lee, Sung Ho; Ji, Dae Young; Kim, Suk Hoon; Ahn, Sung Ho

    1995-04-01

    The use of non-instrumented capsule designed and fabricated in this time is for the evaluation of material irradiation performance, it is to be installed in the inner core of HANARO. The design process of non-instrumented capsule was accomplished by the decision of the quality of material and the shape, thermal analysis, structural analysis. The temperature of the specimen and the stress in capsule during irradiation test was calculated by the thermal analysis and the structural analysis. GGENGTC code and ABAQUS code were used for the calculation of non-instrumented capsule. In case of installing the capsule in irradiation hole, the coolant flow rate and the pressure drop in the hole is changed, which will affect the coolant flow rate of the fuel region. Eventually the coolant flow rate outside capsule have to be restricted to the allowable range. In order to obtain the required pressure drop, the flow rate control mechanism, end plate and orifice ring were used in this test. The test results are compared with 36-element fuel pressure drop data which AECL performed by the SCTR facility

  8. Thermal analysis of an instrumented capsule using an ANSYS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Choo, Kee Nam; Kang, Young Hwan; Cho, Man Soon; Sohn, Jae Min; Kim, Bong Goo

    2006-01-01

    An instrumented capsule has been used for an irradiation test of various nuclear materials in the research reactor, HANARO. To obtain the design data of the instrumented capsule, a thermal analysis is performed using a finite element analysis program, ANSYS. The 2-dimensional model for a cross section of the capsule including the specimens is generated, and a gamma-heating rate of the materials for the HANARO power of 24 or 30 MW is considered as an input force. The effect of the gap size and the control rod position on the temperature of the specimens or other components is discussed. From the analysis it is found that the gap between the thermal media and the external tube has a significant effect on the temperature of the specimen. In the case of the material capsule, the maximum temperature for the reactor power of 24 MW is 255degC for an irradiation test and 257degC for a FE analysis at the center stage of the capsule in the axial direction. It is expected that the analysis models using an ANSYS program will be useful in designing the instrumented capsules for an irradiation test and estimating the test results. (author)

  9. Some views on mechanical safety of capsules for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, F.

    1978-02-01

    Three different concepts for encapsulation of used nuclear fuel are discussed with respect to their mechanical safety. In the first concept the burnt out fuel elements are encapsulated into a copper capsule. The material properties of copper are discussed especially with reference to toughness and creep. A simple fracture mechanical analysis shows that the risk for direct fracture is negligible at the actual stress levels. The loads on the capsule are studied and are found to be normally less than 40 MPa (residual stresses). Transient loads that might arise in the handling of the capsule might however be dangerous to its integrity. The next concept is encapsulation of the fuel elements into a sintered aluminium oxide capsule. A fracture probability analysis based on Weibull's statistical fracture theory gives fracture probabilities that are acceptable. Extended studies of this concept, especially of the risk for delayed fracture, is recommended. The last concept is a Pb-Ti capsule for glassed refined fuel. An analysis of the relaxation of internal stresses is performed. The critical point of these capsules appears to be the welds on the titanium shell where the risk for a direct fracture is not neglibigle

  10. Outer- and middle-ear contributions to presbycusis in the Brown Norway rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Michael Anne; Bateman, Kristin; Cannuscio, Joseph F; Saunders, James C

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of the outer and middle ears to the hearing loss associated with presbycusis in Brown Norway rats. Animals were formed into two groups; young adults (2-3 months old) and aged animals (approximately 34 months old). Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were obtained with the outer ear intact or surgically removed. Tympanic membrane (TM) velocity transfer functions were measured from the umbo with the outer ear removed. The length of the auditory meatus, TM surface area, and TM thickness were quantified. The ABR thresholds were 17-26 dB less sensitive in the aged animals between 8.0 and 40.0 kHz when the outer ear was intact. A significant and reliable reduction in the aged rat velocity transfer function of 5-8 dB occurred between 10.0 and 32.0 kHz, while the low frequency velocity response was only a few decibels greater in the younger animals. The ABR threshold differences between young adult and aged ears were compensated by removing the outer/middle ear effects of aging to reveal a purely sensorineural component of presbycusis. The outer and middle ear effects were calculated directly when the ABR and TM velocity data were obtained with the outer ear removed. The outer ear intact condition was modeled in order to compare the ABR data obtained with the outer ear intact with the TM velocity data obtained with the outer removed. With either procedure, removal of the age-related contributions of the outer and middle ear to the ABR threshold resulted in similar age-related ABR threshold shifts between the two age groups. The pure sensorineural threshold shift component of the ABR response was restricted to frequencies between 5.0 and 20.0 kHz and reached a maximum of approximately 15 dB. These results support the conclusion that there is an outer- and middle-ear contribution to the threshold loss defining presbycusis. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Acute Zonal Cone Photoreceptor Outer Segment Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S; Sandhu, Harpal S; Serrano, Leona W; Traband, Anastasia; Lau, Marisa K; Adamus, Grazyna; Avery, Robert A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnostic path presented narrows down the cause of acute vision loss to the cone photoreceptor outer segment and will refocus the search for the cause of similar currently idiopathic conditions. To describe the structural and functional associations found in a patient with acute zonal occult photoreceptor loss. A case report of an adolescent boy with acute visual field loss despite a normal fundus examination performed at a university teaching hospital. Results of a complete ophthalmic examination, full-field flash electroretinography (ERG) and multifocal ERG, light-adapted achromatic and 2-color dark-adapted perimetry, and microperimetry. Imaging was performed with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) and short-wavelength (SW) fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and NIR reflectance (REF). The patient was evaluated within a week of the onset of a scotoma in the nasal field of his left eye. Visual acuity was 20/20 OU, and color vision was normal in both eyes. Results of the fundus examination and of SW-FAF and NIR-FAF imaging were normal in both eyes, whereas NIR-REF imaging showed a region of hyporeflectance temporal to the fovea that corresponded with a dense relative scotoma noted on light-adapted static perimetry in the left eye. Loss in the photoreceptor outer segment detected by SD-OCT co-localized with an area of dense cone dysfunction detected on light-adapted perimetry and multifocal ERG but with near-normal rod-mediated vision according to results of 2-color dark-adapted perimetry. Full-field flash ERG findings were normal in both eyes. The outer nuclear layer and inner retinal thicknesses were normal. Localized, isolated cone dysfunction may represent the earliest photoreceptor abnormality or a distinct entity within the acute zonal occult outer retinopathy complex. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy should be considered in patients with acute vision loss and abnormalities on NIR-REF imaging, especially if

  12. Performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Arink, R; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Band, H.; Bauer, Th.; Berkien, A.; Farber, Ch.; Bien, A.; Blouw, J.; Ceelie, L.; Coco, V.; Deckenhoff, M.; Deng, Z.; Dettori, F.; van Eijk, D.; Ekelhof, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Grillo, L.; Hulsbergen, W.D.; Karbach, T.M.; Koopman, R.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Langenbruch, Ch.; Lavrentyev, V.; Linn, Ch.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Meissner, M.; Michalowski, J.; Morawski, P.; Nawrot, A.; Nedos, M.; Pellegrino, A.; Polok, G.; van Petten, O.; Rovekamp, J.; Schimmel, F.; Schuylenburg, H.; Schwemmer, R.; Seyfert, P.; Serra, N.; Sluijk, T.; Spaan, B.; Spelt, J.; Storaci, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Swientek, S.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wiedner, D.; Witek, M.; Zeng, M.; Zwart, A.

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5x6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The detector with its services are described together with the commissioning and calibration procedures. Based on data of the first LHC running period from 2010 to 2012, the performance of the readout electronics and the single hit resolution and efficiency are presented. The efficiency to detect a hit in the central half of the straw is estimated to be 99.2%, and the position resolution is determined to be approximately 200 um. The Outer Tracker received a dose in the hottest region corresponding to 0.12 C/cm, and no signs of gain deterioration or other ageing effects are observed.

  13. The Outer Space as an Educational Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Melquíades; Hernández-López, Montserrat

    2017-06-01

    STEAM is an educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. The end results are students who take thoughtful risks, engage in experiential learning, persist in problem-solving, embrace collaboration, and work through the creative process. The Outer Space is a window to the past and the future of our travel around the history of the Universe and can be used as a educational tool in primary and secondary education. This paper talks about the integration of the resources of European Space Agency, Space Awareness, Nuclio, Scientix and Schoolnet as motivation to integrate STEAM methodology in secondary education. Keywords: STEAM, outer space, motivation, methodology

  14. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry F.; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  15. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  16. Outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruester, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables, updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick, and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 are used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared to check their differences concerning the neutron drip line, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the drip line in the outer crust of nonaccreting cold neutron stars

  17. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of 'flux transfer events' and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics.

  18. Boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma-sheet boundary layer are the primary boundary layers of the earth's outer magnetosphere. Recent satellite observations indicate that they provide for more than 50 percent of the plasma and energy transport in the outer magnetosphere although they constitute less than 5 percent by volume. Relative to the energy density in the source regions, plasma in the magnetospheric boundary layer is predominantly deenergized whereas plasma in the plasma-sheet boundary layer has been accelerated. The reconnection hypothesis continues to provide a useful framework for comparing data sampled in the highly dynamic magnetospheric environment. Observations of flux transfer events and other detailed features near the boundaries have been recently interpreted in terms of nonsteady-state reconnection. Alternative hypotheses are also being investigated. More work needs to be done, both in theory and observation, to determine whether reconnection actually occurs in the magnetosphere and, if so, whether it is important for overall magnetospheric dynamics. 30 references

  19. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  20. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  1. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  2. Outer Limits of Biotechnologies: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Loike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of biomedical research focuses on new biotechnologies such as gene editing, stem cell biology, and reproductive medicine, which have created a scientific revolution. While the potential medical benefits of this research may be far-reaching, ethical issues related to non-medical applications of these technologies are demanding. We analyze, from a Jewish legal perspective, some of the ethical conundrums that society faces in pushing the outer limits in researching these new biotechnologies.

  3. Effect of Subsurface Irrigation with Porous Clay Capsules on Quantitative and Quality of Grape Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani Vaghei

    2016-02-01

    characteristics showed that cluster weight, cluster length, solid solution and pH content has not significant different at 5% level in two system irrigation. Also, the foliar analysis showed that chlorophyll content and relative humidity of leaf has not been affected in two irrigation systems. Meanwhile, irrigation types were significantly effect on water consumption and water use efficiency. The average water consumption and yield production with buried clay capsules and drip irrigation methods on grapevine plant were 4050 and 6668 M3.ha-1 and 14.2 and 14.8 Ton.ha-1 respectively. The reducing water consumption with buried clay capsules irrigation method in related to drip irrigation was 39% on grapevine plants. Meanwhile, the average yield production with buried clay capsules and drip irrigation methods on grapevine plant was 14.2 and 14.8 Ton.ha-1 respectively. Also, the statistics analysis show that the yield and component yield have not significant different at 5% level in the surface and subsurface irrigation. According to the water consumption and yield production, using buried porous clay capsules created a better water use efficiency than drip irrigation method. In other words, Iran has been localized at arid and semi arid and have huge water consumption in agriculture, and therefore it is necessary to optimize water consumption especially in agriculture using new technology. According to the results of this research, using buried porous clay capsules is recommended in order to optimize water consumption for grape plants in different place in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Conclusion: The purpose of an efficient irrigation system is to apply the water in such a way that the largest fraction thereof is available for beneficial use by the plant. According to the experimental results reported here, it could be concluded that the reducing water consumption with buried clay capsules irrigation method in related to drip irrigation was 39% on grapevine plants. Meanwhile

  4. A New Strain Collection for Improved Expression of Outer Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Meuskens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all integral membrane proteins found in the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria belong to the transmembrane β-barrel family. These proteins are not only important for nutrient uptake and homeostasis, but are also involved in such processes as adhesion, protein secretion, biofilm formation, and virulence. As surface exposed molecules, outer membrane β-barrel proteins are also potential drug and vaccine targets. High production levels of heterologously expressed proteins are desirable for biochemical and especially structural studies, but over-expression and subsequent purification of membrane proteins, including outer membrane proteins, can be challenging. Here, we present a set of deletion mutants derived from E. coli BL21(DE3 designed for the over-expression of recombinant outer membrane proteins. These strains harbor deletions of four genes encoding abundant β-barrel proteins in the outer membrane (OmpA, OmpC, OmpF, and LamB, both single and in all combinations of double, triple, and quadruple knock-outs. The sequences encoding these outer membrane proteins were deleted completely, leaving only a minimal scar sequence, thus preventing the possibility of genetic reversion. Expression tests in the quadruple mutant strain with four test proteins, including a small outer membrane β-barrel protein and variants thereof as well as two virulence-related autotransporters, showed significantly improved expression and better quality of the produced proteins over the parent strain. Differences in growth behavior and aggregation in the presence of high salt were observed, but these phenomena did not negatively influence the expression in the quadruple mutant strain when handled as we recommend. The strains produced in this study can be used for outer membrane protein production and purification, but are also uniquely useful for labeling experiments for biophysical measurements in the native membrane environment.

  5. Validity, Reliability, and Inertia of Four Different Temperature Capsule Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Coen C W G; Daanen, Hein A M; Bogerd, Cornelis P; Hopman, Maria T E; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2018-01-01

    Telemetric temperature capsule systems are wireless, relatively noninvasive, and easily applicable in field conditions and have therefore great advantages for monitoring core body temperature. However, the accuracy and responsiveness of available capsule systems have not been compared previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the validity, reliability, and inertia characteristics of four ingestible temperature capsule systems (i.e., CorTemp, e-Celsius, myTemp, and VitalSense). Ten temperature capsules were examined for each system in a temperature-controlled water bath during three trials. The water bath temperature gradually increased from 33°C to 44°C in trials 1 and 2 to assess the validity and reliability, and from 36°C to 42°C in trial 3 to assess the inertia characteristics of the temperature capsules. A systematic difference between capsule and water bath temperature was found for CorTemp (0.077°C ± 0.040°C), e-Celsius (-0.081°C ± 0.055°C), myTemp (-0.003°C ± 0.006°C), and VitalSense (-0.017°C ± 0.023°C; P 0.05). Comparable inertia characteristics were found for CorTemp (25 ± 4 s), e-Celsius (21 ± 13 s), and myTemp (19 ± 2 s), whereas the VitalSense system responded more slowly (39 ± 6 s) to changes in water bath temperature (P inertia were observed between capsule systems, an excellent validity, test-retest reliability, and inertia was found for each system between 36°C and 44°C after removal of outliers.

  6. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: evaluation with MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Chun, Ho Jong; Kim, Yang-Soo; Chung, Yang Guk; Kim, Jung-Man

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography for diagnosing adhesive capsulitis. Shoulder MR images of 28 patients with (n=14) and without (n=14) adhesive capsulitis were retrospectively analyzed. MR images were assessed for capsule and synovium thickness as well as the width of the axillary recess on oblique coronal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images and T2-weighted images, respectively. On oblique sagittal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, the width of the rotator interval and the presence of abnormal tissue in the interval were evaluated. Significant differences were found between the two groups in capsule and synovium thickness on both sides of the recess on oblique coronal T2-weighted images (P=0.000), whereas thickness on the humeral aspect showed no significant difference on oblique coronal fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (P=0.109). On oblique coronal T2-weighted images, a cut-off value of 3-mm thickness gave the highest diagnostic accuracy for adhesive capsulitis with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 79% (11/14), 100% (14/14), and 89% (25/28) at the humeral side and 93% (13/14), 86% (12/14), and 89% (25/28) at the glenoid side, respectively. There were significant differences in rotator interval width, presence of abnormal tissue in the rotator interval, and axillary recess width between the two groups (P<0.05). Thickness of capsule and synovium of the axillary recess greater than 3 mm is a practical MR criterion for diagnosing adhesive capsulitis when measured on oblique coronal T2-weighted MR arthrography images without fat suppression. The presence of abnormal tissue in the rotator interval showed high sensitivity but rather low specificity. (orig.)

  7. Formulation and statistical optimization of gastric floating alginate/oil/chitosan capsules loading procyanidins: in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rencai; Guo, Xiaomin; Liu, Xuecong; Cui, Haiming; Wang, Rui; Han, Jing

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop gastric floating capsules containing oil-entrapped beads loading procyanidins. The floating beads were prepared by ionotropic gelation method using sodium alginate, CaCl 2 and chitosan. The effect of three independent parameters (concentration of sodium alginate, CaCl 2 and chitosan) on entrapment efficiency were analyzed by Box-Behnken design. The floating beads were evaluated for surface morphology, particle size, density, entrapment efficiency, buoyancy, release behavior in vitro and floating ability in vivo. The prepared beads were grossly spherical in shape and the mean size was approximately 1.54±0.17mm. The density was 0.97g/cm 3 . And the optimal conditions were as follows: concentration of sodium alginate, CaCl 2 and chitosan were 33.75mg/mL, 9.84mg/mL and 9.05mg/mL, respectively. The optimized formulation showed entrapment efficiency of 88.84±1.04% within small error-value (0.65). The release mechanism of floating capsules followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model (r 2 =0.9902) with non-Fickian release. The gastric floating capsules exhibited 100% floating percentage in vitro and they could float on the top of gastric juice for 5h in vivo. Therefore, the floating capsules are able to prolong the gastroretentive delivery of procyanidins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Micro- and nano-capsulated fungal pectinase with outstanding capabilities of eliminating turbidity in freshly produced juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Khaled F; Abo-Elmagd, Heba I; Housseiny, Manal M

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the pectinase forms produced from Trichoderma viride-free, micro-capsule, and nano-capsule-in sodium alginate to analyze the pectin that causes the turbidity of orange juice. This was performed along with an estimation of viscosity, residual of pectin, and turbidity. The extracted and purified enzyme was 24.35-fold better than that of the crude enzyme. After application of free one, it loses most of the activity on low degrees of acidity and remains constant on the temperatures of pasteurization. Therefore, the tested enzyme was encapsulated by two different ways using the same polymer. The morphology of the three pectinase forms was obtained by transmission electron microscopy, and the micrographs clearly showed the pores on the surface of sodium alginate matrix after encapsulation. The size of the wall (sodium alginate) ranged from 3.24 to 3.76 µm diameter but was 3.15 µm for core of enzyme. Micro-capsuled and nano-capsuled pectinase can be used in the hydrolysis of pectic substances in orange juice with natural ways and maintaining the quality of final product. Consequently, the cost of juice clarifying can be reduced due to reusing the enzyme several times.

  9. Capsule endoscopy in the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yaron NivDepartment of Gastroenterology, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, IsraelAbstract: Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but frequently involves the small and large bowel. Typical presenting symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhea. Patients with this disorder may also have extraintestinal manifestations, including arthritis, uveitis, and skin lesions. The PillCam™SB capsule is an ingestible disposable video camera that transmits high quality images of the small intestinal mucosa. This enables the small intestine to be readily accessible to physicians investigating for the presence of small bowel disorders, such as Crohn’s disease. Four meta-analyses have demonstrated that capsule endoscopy identifies Crohn’s disease when other methods are not helpful. It should be noted that it is the best noninvasive procedure for assessing mucosal status, but is not superior to ileocolonoscopy, which remains the gold standard for assessment of ileocolonic disease. Mucosal healing along the small bowel can only be demonstrated by an endoscopic procedure such as capsule endoscopy. Achievement of long-term mucosal healing has been associated with a trend towards a decreased need for hospitalization and a decreased requirement for corticosteroid treatment in patients with Crohn’s disease. Recently, we have developed and validated the Capsule Endoscopy Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (also known as the Niv score for Crohn’s disease of the small bowel. The next step is to expand our score to the colon, and to determine the role and benefit of a capsule endoscopy activity score in patients suffering from Crohn’s ileocolitis and/or colitis. This scoring system will also serve to improve our understanding of the impact of capsule endoscopy, and therefore treatment, on the immediate outcome of this disorder. As the best procedure available for assessing

  10. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  11. A legged anchoring mechanism for capsule endoscopes using micropatterned adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Paul; Cheung, Eugene; Sitti, Metin

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a new concept for an anchoring mechanism to enhance existing capsule endoscopes. The mechanism consists of three actuated legs with compliant feet lined with micropillar adhesives to be pressed into the intestine wall to anchor the device at a fixed location. These adhesive systems are inspired by gecko and beetle foot hairs. Single-leg and full capsule mathematical models of the forces generated by the legs are analyzed to understand capsule performance. Empirical friction models for the interaction of the adhesives with an intestinal substrate were experimentally determined in vitro using dry and oil-coated elastomer micropillar arrays with 140 microm pillar diameter, 105 microm spacing between pillars, and an aspect ratio of 1:1 on fresh porcine small intestine specimens. Capsule prototypes were also tested in a simulated intestine environment and compared with predicted peristaltic loads to assess the viability of the proposed design. The experimental results showed that a deployed 10 gr capsule robot can withstand axial peristaltic loads and anchor reliably when actuation forces are greater than 0.27 N using dry micropillars. Required actuation forces may be reduced significantly by using micropillars coated with a thin silicone oil layer.

  12. Capsule-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Small Pupil Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schojai, Merita; Schultz, Tim; Burkhard Dick, H

    2017-08-01

    To describe a new technique for implantation of capsule-fixated intraocular lenses (IOLs) (FEMTIS; Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) in patients with small pupils. In 4 eyes with small pupils, an anterior capsule-fixated IOL was implanted into the capsular bag after femtosecond laser treatment. The two large and two small flaps of the IOL were elevated to the front of the iris and the anterior capsule. Finally, the iris was flipped over the flaps to ensure a fixation of the capsule inside of the capsulotomy. In all cases, the implantation of anterior capsule-fixated IOLs was possible. No complications occurred during surgery or within the first months after surgery. With the described technique, capsulefixated IOLs can be implanted in eyes with small pupil easily and safely. This type of IOL has great potential to improve the refractive outcome by better prediction of the postoperative IOL position and eliminating IOL rotation after cataract surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):568-570.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. A modular and programmable development platform for capsule endoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tareq Hasan; Shrestha, Ravi; Wahid, Khan A

    2014-06-01

    The state-of-the-art capsule endoscopy (CE) technology offers painless examination for the patients and the ability to examine the interior of the gastrointestinal tract by a noninvasive procedure for the gastroenterologists. In this work, a modular and flexible CE development system platform consisting of a miniature field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronic capsule, a microcontroller based portable data recorder unit and computer software is designed and developed. Due to the flexible and reprogrammable nature of the system, various image processing and compression algorithms can be tested in the design without requiring any hardware change. The designed capsule prototype supports various imaging modes including white light imaging (WLI) and narrow band imaging (NBI), and communicates with the data recorder in full duplex fashion, which enables configuring the image size and imaging mode in real time during examination. A low complexity image compressor based on a novel color-space is implemented inside the capsule to reduce the amount of RF transmission data. The data recorder contains graphical LCD for real time image viewing and SD cards for storing image data. Data can be uploaded to a computer or Smartphone by SD card, USB interface or by wireless Bluetooth link. Computer software is developed that decompresses and reconstructs images. The fabricated capsule PCBs have a diameter of 16 mm. An ex-vivo animal testing has also been conducted to validate the results.

  14. Wireless powered capsule endoscopy for colon diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wenwen; Yan, Guozheng; He, Shu; Ke, Quan; Wang, Zhiwu; Liu, Hua; Jiang, Pingping

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transfer system integrated with an active locomotion and biopsy module in an endoscopic capsule for colon inspection. The capsule, which can move automatically, is designed for non-invasive biopsy and visual inspection of the intestine. To supply enough power for multiple functions and ensure safety for the human body, the efficiency of the current power transmission system needs to be improved. To take full advantage of the volume in the capsule body, a novel structure of receiving coils wound on a multi-core of MnZn ferrite hollow cylinder was used; with this new core, the efficiency increased to more than 7.98%. Up to 1.4 W of dc power can be delivered to the capsule as it travels along the gastrointestinal tract. Three micro motors were integrated for pumping, anchoring, locomotion and biopsy. A user interface and RF communication enables the operator to drive the capsule in an intuitive manner. To gauge the efficacy of the wireless power supply in a simulated real-world application, the biopsy and locomotion capabilities of the device were successfully tested in a slippery, soft tube and gut environment in vitro. (paper)

  15. Improvement and utilization of irradiation capsule technology in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Cho, Man-Soon; Kim, Bong-Goo; Lee, Cheol-Yong; Yang, Sung-Woo; Shin, Yoon-Taek; Park, Seng-Jae; Jung, Hoan-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Several improvements of irradiation capsule technology regarding irradiation test parameters, such as temperature and neutron flux/fluence, and regarding instrumentation have progressed at HANARO since the last KAERI-JAERI joint seminar held in 2008. The standard HANARO capsule technology that was developed for use in a commercial power plant temperature of about 300degC was improved to apply to a temperature range of 100-1000degC for the irradiation test of materials of new research reactors and future nuclear systems. Low-flux and long-term irradiation technologies have been developed at HANARO. As a beginning step of the localization of capsule instrumentation technology, the irradiation performance of a domestically produced thermocouple and LVDT will be examined at HANARO. The accuracy of an evaluation of neutron fluence and precise welding technology are also being examined at HANARO. Based on these accumulated capsule technologies, a HANARO irradiation capsule system is being actively utilized for the national R and D programme on commercial nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea. HANARO has recently started the irradiation support of R and D relevant to future nuclear systems including SMART, VHTR, and SFR, and HANARO is preparing new support relevant to new research and Fusion reactors. (author)

  16. Associations Between Egg Capsule Morphology and Predation Among Populations of the Marine Gastropod, Nucella emarginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, T A

    1990-12-01

    Intraspecific variation in the morphology of egg capsules is ideal for assessing the costs and benefits of encapsulation, yet little is known about the extent of such variation among populations of a single species. In the present study, I compared capsule morphology among three populations of the intertidal gastropod, Nucella emarginata. Significant differences were found both in capsule wall thickness and capsule strength. Mean capsule wall thickness varied as much as 25% among populations, with the dry weight of capsular cases differing accordingly. Capsule strength, measured as resistance to puncturing and squeezing forces, also varied among populations, but did not directly reflect differences in capsule wall thickness. Despite extensive variation in capsule morphology within this species, the number and size of eggs contained within capsules of equal volume did not differ significantly among populations. I also compared the type of capsule-eating predators that were present at each site. Shore crabs, Hemigrapsus spp., were abundant at all three sites; however, the predatory isopods Idotea wosnesenskii were only present at sites containing relatively thick-walled capsules. Although Hemigrapsus and Idotea were able to chew through both thick- and thin-walled capsules, laboratory experiments revealed that Idotea preferentially opened thin-walled capsules. These results suggest that variation in capsule morphology among populations of N. emarginata may, at least in part, reflect selection for the protection of embryos against predation.

  17. Definition phase of Grand Tour missions/radio science investigations study for outer planets missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Scientific instrumentation for satellite communication and radio tracking systems in the outer planet exploration mission is discussed. Mission planning considers observations of planetary and satellite-masses, -atmospheres, -magnetic fields, -surfaces, -gravitational fields, solar wind composition, planetary radio emissions, and tests of general relativity in time delay and ray bending experiments.

  18. Issues concerning outer space investments in international law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues concerning outer space investments in international law. ... Recent improvements in technology have in essence increased the viability of outer space as the next frontier for international investment and development. In addition to ... Key words: Outer Space, Investments, International Law, International Space Station ...

  19. Dark matter in the outer solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, T.; Cruikshank, D.; De Bergh, C.; Geballe, T.

    1994-01-01

    There are now a large number of small bodies in the outer solar system that are known to be covered with dark material. Attempts to identify that material have been thwarted by the absence of discrete absorption features in the reflection spectra of these planetesimals. An absorption at 2.2 micrometers that appeared to be present in several objects has not been confirmed by new observations. Three absorptions in the spectrum of the unusually red planetesimal 5145 Pholus are well-established, but their identity remains a mystery.

  20. Inner and Outer Life at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    involving people to people interactions offered by psychodynamic theories and methods take up a pivotal position. Psychoanalytic organisational and work life research explores how work, organisations and individuals are affected by psychic dynamics, the influence of the unconscious in the forms of human...... development and interaction situated in a societal context. Based on this substantial work I draw upon two influential psychoanalytical positions—the British Tavistock position and German psychoanalytic social psychology in order to situate and identify how to understand the inner and outer life at work...

  1. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  2. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  3. The effect of glicerol and sorbitol plasticizers toward disintegration time of phyto-capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Hendradi, Esti; Wafiroh, Siti; Harsini, Muji; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko

    2016-03-01

    The aim of research is determining the effect of glycerol and sorbitol toward the disintegration time of phyto-capsules, originated capsules from plant polysaccharides. Phyto-capsules were made from polysaccharides and 0.5% (v/v) of glycerol and sorbitol of each. The seven capsules of each were determined the disintegration time using Erweka disintegrator. The mean of disintegration time of phyto-capsules without plasticizers, with glycerol and sorbitol were 25'30"; 45'15" and 35'30" respectively. The color and colorless gelatin capsules showed the mean of disintegration time 7'30" and 2'35" respectively.

  4. Evaluation of hard gelatin capsules and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Gonçalves Weigert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and evaluate formulations containing ampicillin in capsules of gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. Two formulations (A and B were developed. The final product quality was evaluated by testing for quality control and the results were in agreement with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The formulations with HPMC capsules showed lower percentages of drug dissolved (99.67%, HPMC-A and 87.70%, HPMC-B than the gelatin (100.18%, GEL-A and 101.16% GEL-B. Because of the delay of the ampicillin release observed in the dissolution profiles, it becomes necessary to evaluate the drugs that can be conditioned in the HPMC capsules.

  5. Swallowable Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Progress and Technical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guobing Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE offers a feasible noninvasive way to detect the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract and revolutionizes the diagnosis technology. However, compared with wired endoscopies, the limited working time, the low frame rate, and the low image resolution limit the wider application. The progress of this new technology is reviewed in this paper, and the evolution tendencies are analyzed to be high image resolution, high frame rate, and long working time. Unfortunately, the power supply of capsule endoscope (CE is the bottleneck. Wireless power transmission (WPT is the promising solution to this problem, but is also the technical challenge. Active CE is another tendency and will be the next geneion of the WCE. Nevertheless, it will not come true shortly, unless the practical locomotion mechanism of the active CE in GI tract is achieved. The locomotion mechanism is the other technical challenge, besides the challenge of WPT. The progress about the WPT and the active capsule technology is reviewed.

  6. Imaging of High-Z doped, Imploded Capsule Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Edwards, M. John; Suter, Larry J.

    2006-10-01

    The ability to correctly ascertain the shape of imploded fusion capsules is critical to be able to achieve the spherical symmetry needed to maximize the energy yield of proposed fusion experiments for the National Ignition Facility. Implosion of the capsule creates a hot, dense core. The introduction of a high-Z dopant into the gas-filled core of the capsule increases the amount of bremsstrahlung radiation produced in the core and should make the imaging of the imploded core easier. Images of the imploded core can then be analyzed to ascertain the symmetry of the implosion. We calculate that the addition of Ne gas into a deuterium gas core will increase the amount of radiation emission while preserving the surrogacy of the radiation and hydrodynamics in the indirect drive NIF hohlraum in the proposed cryogenic hohlraums. The increased emission will more easily enable measurement of asymmetries and tuning of the implosion.

  7. Capsule performance optimization in the national ignition campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Haan, S W; Edwards, J

    2010-01-01

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [1] to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  8. Capsule performance optimization in the National Ignition Campaigna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landen, O. L.; Boehly, T. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Braun, D. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Hoffman, N.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Kyrala, G. A.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Munro, D. H.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R. E.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Thomas, C. A.; Weber, S. V.; Wilson, D. C.; Marinak, M. M.; Suter, L. J.; Hammel, B. A.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Atherton, J.; Edwards, J.; Haan, S. W.; Lindl, J. D.; MacGowan, B. J.; Moses, E. I.

    2010-05-01

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition by laser-driven hohlraums [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the OMEGA facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  9. Capsule performance optimization in the national ignition campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Haan, S. W.; Edwards, J.

    2010-08-01

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [1] to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  10. Capsule performance optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O. L.; Bradley, D. K.; Braun, D. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A.; Hicks, D. G.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Munro, D. H.; Robey, H. F.; Spears, B. K.; Thomas, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)] to substantially increase the probability of ignition by laser-driven hohlraums [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)]. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the OMEGA facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  11. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility

  12. Validating Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) predictive capability using perturbed capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mark; Magelssen, Glenn; Tregillis, Ian; Hsu, Scott; Bradley, Paul; Dodd, Evan; Cobble, James; Flippo, Kirk; Offerman, Dustin; Obrey, Kimberly; Wang, Yi-Ming; Watt, Robert; Wilke, Mark; Wysocki, Frederick; Batha, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Achieving ignition on NIF is a monumental step on the path toward utilizing fusion as a controlled energy source. Obtaining robust ignition requires accurate ICF models to predict the degradation of ignition caused by heterogeneities in capsule construction and irradiation. LANL has embarked on a project to induce controlled defects in capsules to validate our ability to predict their effects on fusion burn. These efforts include the validation of feature-driven hydrodynamics and mix in a convergent geometry. This capability is needed to determine the performance of capsules imploded under less-than-optimum conditions on future IFE facilities. LANL's recently initiated Defect Implosion Experiments (DIME) conducted at Rochester's Omega facility are providing input for these efforts. Recent simulation and experimental results will be shown.

  13. Capsule Performance Optimization in the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Haan, S W; Edwards, J

    2009-10-13

    A capsule performance optimization campaign will be conducted at the National Ignition Facility to substantially increase the probability of ignition. The campaign will experimentally correct for residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. The required tuning techniques using a variety of ignition capsule surrogates have been demonstrated at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design and shown to meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, a roll-up of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors has been derived that meets the required budget.

  14. Sensitive Detection of Deliquescent Bacterial Capsules through Nanomechanical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden K

    2015-10-20

    Encapsulated bacteria usually exhibit strong resistance to a wide range of sterilization methods, and are often virulent. Early detection of encapsulation can be crucial in microbial pathology. This work demonstrates a fast and sensitive method for the detection of encapsulated bacterial cells. Nanoindentation force measurements were used to confirm the presence of deliquescent bacterial capsules surrounding bacterial cells. Force/distance approach curves contained characteristic linear-nonlinear-linear domains, indicating cocompression of the capsular layer and cell, indentation of the capsule, and compression of the cell alone. This is a sensitive method for the detection and verification of the encapsulation status of bacterial cells. Given that this method was successful in detecting the nanomechanical properties of two different layers of cell material, i.e. distinguishing between the capsule and the remainder of the cell, further development may potentially lead to the ability to analyze even thinner cellular layers, e.g. lipid bilayers.

  15. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  16. Capsule Performance Optimization for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landen, Otto

    2009-11-01

    The overall goal of the capsule performance optimization campaign is to maximize the probability of ignition by experimentally correcting for likely residual uncertainties in the implosion and hohlraum physics used in our radiation-hydrodynamic computational models before proceeding to cryogenic-layered implosions and ignition attempts. This will be accomplished using a variety of targets that will set key laser, hohlraum and capsule parameters to maximize ignition capsule implosion velocity, while minimizing fuel adiabat, core shape asymmetry and ablator-fuel mix. The targets include high Z re-emission spheres setting foot symmetry through foot cone power balance [1], liquid Deuterium-filled ``keyhole'' targets setting shock speed and timing through the laser power profile [2], symmetry capsules setting peak cone power balance and hohlraum length [3], and streaked x-ray backlit imploding capsules setting ablator thickness [4]. We will show how results from successful tuning technique demonstration shots performed at the Omega facility under scaled hohlraum and capsule conditions relevant to the ignition design meet the required sensitivity and accuracy. We will also present estimates of all expected random and systematic uncertainties in setting the key ignition laser and target parameters due to residual measurement, calibration, cross-coupling, surrogacy, and scale-up errors, and show that these get reduced after a number of shots and iterations to meet an acceptable level of residual uncertainty. Finally, we will present results from upcoming tuning technique validation shots performed at NIF at near full-scale. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [4pt] [1] E. Dewald, et. al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79 (2008) 10E903. [0pt] [2] T.R. Boehly, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 16 (2009) 056302. [0pt] [3] G. Kyrala, et. al., BAPS 53 (2008) 247. [0pt] [4] D. Hicks, et. al., BAPS 53 (2008) 2.

  17. First beryllium capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Olson, R. E.; Wilson, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Zylstra, A. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Ralph, J. E.; Strozzi, D. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Rygg, J. R.; Khan, S. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    The first indirect drive implosion experiments using Beryllium (Be) capsules at the National Ignition Facility confirm the superior ablation properties and elucidate possible Be-ablator issues such as hohlraum filling by ablator material. Since the 1990s, Be has been the preferred Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ablator because of its higher mass ablation rate compared to that of carbon-based ablators. This enables ICF target designs with higher implosion velocities at lower radiation temperatures and improved hydrodynamic stability through greater ablative stabilization. Recent experiments to demonstrate the viability of Be ablator target designs measured the backscattered laser energy, capsule implosion velocity, core implosion shape from self-emission, and in-flight capsule shape from backlit imaging. The laser backscatter is similar to that from comparable plastic (CH) targets under the same hohlraum conditions. Implosion velocity measurements from backlit streaked radiography show that laser energy coupling to the hohlraum wall is comparable to plastic ablators. The measured implosion shape indicates no significant reduction of laser energy from the inner laser cone beams reaching the hohlraum wall as compared with plastic and high-density carbon ablators. These results indicate that the high mass ablation rate for beryllium capsules does not significantly alter hohlraum energetics. In addition, these data, together with data for low fill-density hohlraum performance, indicate that laser power multipliers, required to reconcile simulations with experimental observations, are likely due to our limited understanding of the hohlraum rather than the capsule physics since similar multipliers are needed for both Be and CH capsules as seen in experiments.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic Convection in the Outer Core and its Geodynamic Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2004-01-01

    The Earth's fluid outer core is in vigorous convection through much of the Earth's history. In addition to generating and maintaining Earth s time-varying magnetic field (geodynamo), the core convection also generates mass redistribution in the core and a dynamical pressure field on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). All these shall result in various core-mantle interactions, and contribute to surface geodynamic observables. For example, electromagnetic core-mantle coupling arises from finite electrically conducting lower mantle; gravitational interaction occurs between the cores and the heterogeneous mantle; mechanical coupling may also occur when the CMB topography is aspherical. Besides changing the mantle rotation via the coupling torques, the mass-redistribution in the core shall produce a spatial-temporal gravity anomaly. Numerical modeling of the core dynamical processes contributes in several geophysical disciplines. It helps explain the physical causes of surface geodynamic observables via space geodetic techniques and other means, e.g. Earth's rotation variation on decadal time scales, and secular time-variable gravity. Conversely, identification of the sources of the observables can provide additional insights on the dynamics of the fluid core, leading to better constraints on the physics in the numerical modeling. In the past few years, our core dynamics modeling efforts, with respect to our MoSST model, have made significant progress in understanding individual geophysical consequences. However, integrated studies are desirable, not only because of more mature numerical core dynamics models, but also because of inter-correlation among the geophysical phenomena, e.g. mass redistribution in the outer core produces not only time-variable gravity, but also gravitational core-mantle coupling and thus the Earth's rotation variation. They are expected to further facilitate multidisciplinary studies of core dynamics and interactions of the core with other

  19. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective of the Materials Interaction Test (MIT) is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low level neutron fields. Compatibility, structural properties, and chemical transformations will be studied. The multiple test samples are contained within test capsules connected end-to-end to form a test train. Only passive instrumentation has been used to monitor temperatures and record neutron fluence. The test train contains seven capsules: three to test compatibility, two for structural tests, and two for chemical transformation studies. The materials tested are potential candidates for the spent fuel package canister and repository geologies

  20. Cystic adventitial degeneration: ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, J; Widmer, M K; Gretener, S; Do, D D; Willenberg, T; Daliri, A; Baumgartner, I

    2009-11-01

    Cystic adventitial degeneration is a rare non-atherosclerotic cause of peripheral arterial occlusive disease, mainly seen in young men without other evidence of vascular disease. Diagnosis will be established by clinical findings and by ultrasound or angiography and can be treated by excision or enucleation of the affected arterial segment or by percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration. However, the etiology of adventitial cysts remains unknown. We report a case of cystic adventitial degeneration showing a connection between the joint capsule and the adventitial cyst, supporting the theory that cystic adventitial degeneration may represent ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

  1. Welding iridium heat-source capsules for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    A remote computer-controlled welding station was developed to encapsulate radioactive PuO 2 in iridium. Weld quench cracking caused an interruption in production of capsules for upcoming space missions. Hot crack sensitivity of the DOP-26 iridium alloy was associated with low melting constituents in the grain boundaries. The extent of cracking was reduced but could not be eliminated by changes to the welding operation. An ultrasonic test was developed to detect underbead cracks exceeding a threshold size. Production was continued using the ultrasonic test to reject capsules with detectable cracks

  2. Advances in pediatric gastroenterology: introducing video camera capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Emmanuel O

    2006-04-01

    The video camera capsule endoscope is a gastrointestinal endoscope approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001 for use in diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders in adults. In 2003, the agency approved the device for use in children ages 10 and older, and the endoscope is currently in use at Arkansas Children's Hospital. A capsule camera, lens, battery, transmitter and antenna together record images of the small intestine as the endoscope makes its way through the bowel. The instrument is used with minimal risk to the patient while offering a high degree of accuracy in diagnosing small intestine disorders.

  3. Cosmics in the LHCb Outer Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider studies the decay of B mesons to test the description of CP violation in the Standard Model and to search for new physics. The decay $B_s \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ has been identified as very promising in the search for new physics. An excellent invariant mass resolution is required to suppress backgrounds to this decay. This in turn requires a momentum resolution of dp/p = 0.4%. The Outer Tracker is part of the LHCb tracking system and has been commissioned with cosmic muons. The noise in the Outer Tracker is shown to be less than 0.05%. To use drift time information in the reconstruction of cosmic tracks, the event time must be known. Four methods to obtain the event time are studied and compared. It is shown that the event time can be obtained with a resolution better than 2.6 ns. Using drift time information, tracks are reconstructed with a resolution of 344 $\\mu$m. Knowledge of the event time enables the calibration of electronic time offsets and the r(t)– relati...

  4. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  5. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  6. Radioiodination of an outer membrane protein in intact Rickettsia prowazekii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.K.; Winkler, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Intact Rickettsia prowazekii was radiolabeled with the glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method of iodination. Separation of the rickettsial extract into cytoplasmic, outer and inner membrane fractions demonstrated that the outer membrane was preferentially labeled. Analysis of the polypeptides of these fractions on high-resolution slab polyacrylamide gels showed that most of the 125 I was in polypeptide T49, an outer membrane constituent. Additional outer membrane polypeptides were iodinated in broken envelope preparations, demonstrating that T49 is uniquely accessible to the external environment and the asymmetric polypeptide organization of the outer membrane

  7. Factors affecting capsule size and production by lactic acid bacteria used as dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A N; Frank, J F; Shalabi, S I

    2001-02-28

    The effects of sugar substrates on capsule size and production by some capsule-forming nonropy and ropy dairy starter cultures were studied. Test sugars (glucose, lactose, galactose, or sucrose) were used as a sole carbohydrate source and the presence of a capsule and its size were determined by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Nonropy strains produced maximum capsule size when grown in milk. Strains that did not produce capsules in milk did not produce them in any other growth medium. Specific sugars required for capsule production were strain-dependent. Increasing lactose content of Elliker broth from 0.5 to 5% or adding whey protein or casein digest produced larger capsules. Whey protein concentrate stimulated production of larger capsules than did casamino acids or casitone. Some Streptococcus thermophilus strains produced capsules when grown on galactose only. Nonropy strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced capsules on lactose, but not on glucose. A ropy strain of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus produced a constant capsule size regardless of the growth medium. The ability of some strains of Streptococcus thermophilus to use galactose in capsule production could reduce browning of mozzarella cheese during baking by removing a source of reducing sugar. Media that do not support capsule production may improve cell harvesting.

  8. Hydro-instability growth of perturbation seeds from alternate capsule-support strategies in indirect-drive implosions on National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J.; Casey, D. T.; Weber, C. R.; Robey, H. F.; Chen, K.-C.; Clark, D. S.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Stadermann, M.; Hsing, W. W.; Kroll, J. J.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Pickworth, L.; Rice, N.

    2017-10-01

    Hydrodynamic instability growth of the capsule support membranes (or "tents") and fill tubes has been studied in spherical, glow discharge polymer plastic capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Campbell et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. In NIF implosions, the capsules are supported by tents because the nominal 10-μm thick fill tubes are not strong enough to support capsules by themselves. After it was recognized that the tents had a significant impact of implosion stability, new support methods were investigated, including thicker, 30-μm diameter fill tubes and cantilevered fill tubes, as described in this article. A new "sub-scale" version of the existing x-ray radiography platform was developed for measuring growing capsule perturbations in the acceleration phase of implosions. It was calibrated using hydrodynamic growth measurements of pre-imposed capsule modulations with Legendre modes of 60, 90, 110, and 140 at convergence ratios up to ˜2.4. Subsequent experiments with 3-D perturbations have studied instability growth of 10-μm and 30-μm thick fill tubes to compare them with 30-nm thick tent perturbations at convergence ratios up to ˜3. In other experiments, the perturbations from cantilevered fill tubes were measured and compared to the tent perturbations. The cantilevered fill tubes were supported by 12-μm thick SiC rods, offset by 100 μm, 200 μm, and 300 μm from the capsule surfaces. Based on these experiments, 30-μm thick fill tubes and 300-μm offset cantilevered fill tubes were recommended for further tests using layered deuterium-tritium implosions. The effects of x-ray shadowing during the drive and oxygen-induced perturbations during target assembly produced additional seeds for instabilities and were also measured in these experiments.

  9. Modulation of Kingella kingae adherence to human epithelial cells by type IV Pili, capsule, and a novel trimeric autotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsch, Eric A; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; St Geme, Joseph W

    2012-10-23

    Kingella kingae is an emerging bacterial pathogen that is being recognized increasingly as an important etiology of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and bacteremia, especially in young children. Colonization of the posterior pharynx is a key step in the pathogenesis of K. kingae disease. Previous work established that type IV pili are necessary for K. kingae adherence to the respiratory epithelium. In this study, we set out to identify additional factors that influence K. kingae interactions with human epithelial cells. We found that genetic disruption of the gene encoding a predicted trimeric autotransporter protein called Knh (Kingella NhhA homolog) resulted in reduced adherence to human epithelial cells. In addition, we established that K. kingae elaborates a surface-associated polysaccharide capsule that requires a predicted ABC-type transporter export operon called ctrABCD for surface presentation. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of a surface capsule interferes with Knh-mediated adherence to human epithelial cells by nonpiliated organisms and that maximal adherence in the presence of a capsule requires the predicted type IV pilus retraction machinery, PilT/PilU. On the basis of the data presented here, we propose a novel adherence mechanism that allows K. kingae to adhere efficiently to human epithelial cells while remaining encapsulated and more resistant to immune clearance. Kingella kingae is a Gram-negative bacterium that is being recognized increasingly as a cause of joint and bone infections in young children. The pathogenesis of disease due to K. kingae begins with bacterial colonization of the upper respiratory tract, and previous work established that surface hair-like fibers called type IV pili are necessary for K. kingae adherence to respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, we set out to identify additional factors that influence K. kingae interactions with respiratory epithelial cells. We discovered a novel surface protein called

  10. Structure of Rotavirus Outer-Layer Protein VP7 Bound with a Neutralizing Fab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Scott T.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Trask, Shane D.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; (Stanford-MED); (CH-Boston)

    2009-06-17

    Rotavirus outer-layer protein VP7 is a principal target of protective antibodies. Removal of free calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) dissociates VP7 trimers into monomers, releasing VP7 from the virion, and initiates penetration-inducing conformational changes in the other outer-layer protein, VP4. We report the crystal structure at 3.4 angstrom resolution of VP7 bound with the Fab fragment of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. The Fab binds across the outer surface of the intersubunit contact, which contains two Ca{sup 2+} sites. Mutations that escape neutralization by other antibodies suggest that the same region bears the epitopes of most neutralizing antibodies. The monovalent Fab is sufficient to neutralize infectivity. We propose that neutralizing antibodies against VP7 act by stabilizing the trimer, thereby inhibiting the uncoating trigger for VP4 rearrangement. A disulfide-linked trimer is a potential subunit immunogen.

  11. A New Family of Capsule Polymerases Generates Teichoic Acid-Like Capsule Polymers in Gram-Negative Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litschko, Christa; Oldrini, Davide; Budde, Insa; Berger, Monika; Meens, Jochen; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Berti, Francesco; Schubert, Mario; Fiebig, Timm

    2018-05-29

    Group 2 capsule polymers represent crucial virulence factors of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. They are synthesized by enzymes called capsule polymerases. In this report, we describe a new family of polymerases that combine glycosyltransferase and hexose- and polyol-phosphate transferase activity to generate complex poly(oligosaccharide phosphate) and poly(glycosylpolyol phosphate) polymers, the latter of which display similarity to wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria. Using modeling and multiple-sequence alignment, we showed homology between the predicted polymerase domains and WTA type I biosynthesis enzymes, creating a link between Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell wall biosynthesis processes. The polymerases of the new family are highly abundant and found in a variety of capsule-expressing pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Escherichia coli with both human and animal hosts. Five representative candidates were purified, their activities were confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and their predicted folds were validated by site-directed mutagenesis. IMPORTANCE Bacterial capsules play an important role in the interaction between a pathogen and the immune system of its host. During the last decade, capsule polymerases have become attractive tools for the production of capsule polymers applied as antigens in glycoconjugate vaccine formulations. Conventional production of glycoconjugate vaccines requires the cultivation of the pathogen and thus the highest biosafety standards, leading to tremendous costs. With regard to animal husbandry, where vaccines could avoid the extensive use of antibiotics, conventional production is not sufficiently cost-effective. In contrast, enzymatic synthesis of capsule polymers is pathogen-free and fast, offers high stereo- and regioselectivity, and works with high efficacy

  12. Outer membrane lipoprotein biogenesis: Lol is not the end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Anna; Silhavy, Thomas J

    2015-10-05

    Bacterial lipoproteins are lipid-anchored proteins that contain acyl groups covalently attached to the N-terminal cysteine residue of the mature protein. Lipoproteins are synthesized in precursor form with an N-terminal signal sequence (SS) that targets translocation across the cytoplasmic or inner membrane (IM). Lipid modification and SS processing take place at the periplasmic face of the IM. Outer membrane (OM) lipoproteins take the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) export pathway, which ends with the insertion of the N-terminal lipid moiety into the inner leaflet of the OM. For many lipoproteins, the biogenesis pathway ends here. We provide examples of lipoproteins that adopt complex topologies in the OM that include transmembrane and surface-exposed domains. Biogenesis of such lipoproteins requires additional steps beyond the Lol pathway. In at least one case, lipoprotein sequences reach the cell surface by being threaded through the lumen of a beta-barrel protein in an assembly reaction that requires the heteropentomeric Bam complex. The inability to predict surface exposure reinforces the importance of experimental verification of lipoprotein topology and we will discuss some of the methods used to study OM protein topology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. The Outer Planets and their Moons Comparative Studies of the Outer Planets prior to the Exploration of the Saturn System by Cassini-Huygens

    CERN Document Server

    Encrenaz, T; Owen, T. C; Sotin, C

    2005-01-01

    This volume gives an integrated summary of the science related to the four giant planets in our solar system. It is the result of an ISSI workshop on «A comparative study of the outer planets before the exploration of Saturn by Cassini-Huygens» which was held at ISSI in Bern on January 12-16, 2004. Representatives of several scientific communities, such as planetary scientists, astronomers, space physicists, chemists and astrobiologists have met with the aim to review the knowledge on four major themes: (1) the study of the formation and evolution processes of the outer planets and their satellites, beginning with the formation of compounds and planetesimals in the solar nebula, and the subsequent evolution of the interiors of the outer planets, (2) a comparative study of the atmospheres of the outer planets and Titan, (3) the study of the planetary magnetospheres and their interactions with the solar wind, and (4) the formation and properties of satellites and rings, including their interiors, surfaces, an...

  14. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R Ducken

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to

  15. Fabrication of aerogel capsule, bromine-doped capsule, and modified gold cone in modified target for the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Keiji; Yang, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Azechi, H.; Belkada, F.; Fujimoto, Y.; Fujimura, T.; Fujioka, K.; Fujioka, S.; Homma, H.; Ito, F.; Iwamoto, A.; Jitsuno, T.; Kaneyasu, Y.; Nakai, M.; Nemoto, N.; Saika, H.; Shimoyama, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Yamanaka, K.; Mima, K.

    2009-09-01

    The development of target fabrication for the Fast Ignition Realization EXperiment (FIREX) Project is described in this paper. For the first stage of the FIREX Project (FIREX-I), the previously designed target has been modified by using a bromine-doped ablator and coating the inner gold cone with a low-density material. A high-quality bromine-doped capsule without vacuoles was fabricated from bromine-doped deuterated polystyrene. The gold surface was coated with a low-density material by electrochemical plating. For the cryogenic fuel target, a brand new type of aerogel material, phloroglucinol/formaldehyde (PF), was investigated and encapsulated to meet the specifications of 500 µm diameter and 20 µm thickness, with 30 nm nanopores. Polystyrene-based low-density materials were investigated and the relationship between the crosslinker content and the nanopore structure was observed.

  16. The application value of capsule endoscopy in diagnosing small intestinal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Capsule endoscopy demonstrated a high diagnostic value for various small bowel diseases, including both tumor and inflammatory lesions. Given its simplicity, safety, and reliability, capsule endoscopy was an important examination tool for the diagnosis of small bowel diseases.

  17. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop and test a sub-scale version of the Maraia Entry Capsule on a high altitude balloon. The capsule is released at 100,000 ft. The...

  18. 76 FR 59141 - Determination That LOXITANE (Loxapine Succinate) Capsules and Three Other Drug Products Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Applicant NDA 017525 LOXITANE (loxapine Watson Laboratories succinate) Inc., 417 Wakara Capsules, Way, Suite.../milliliter. NDA 020828 FORTOVASE Hoffmann La Roche (saquinavir) Inc., 340 Kingsland Capsule, 200 mg. St...

  19. Are Social Networking Websites Educational? Information Capsule. Volume 0909

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    More and more school districts across the country are joining social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace. This Information Capsule discusses the frequency with which school districts are using social networking sites, how districts are using the sites, and potential drawbacks associated with their use. Issues for districts to consider…

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE ADDED TEA BAGS AND CAPSULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    supported the use of artemisia annua tea and capsules for the treatment of malaria ... There is also the need for further studies to determine the active ... night sleep, cleared nasal and head stuffiness', and felt relieved from malaria .... antioxidants and their potential synergism with artemisinin against malaria and cancer.

  1. 21 CFR 520.90a - Ampicillin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Use of the drug is contraindicated in animals with a history of an allergic reaction to any of the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ampicillin capsules. 520.90a Section 520.90a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  2. Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaicheng; Traverso, Giovanni; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Wang, Zhao; Potsaid, Benjamin; Giacomelli, Michael; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Barman, Ross; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Fujimoto, James G

    2015-04-01

    Depth resolved and en face OCT visualization in vivo may have important clinical applications in endoscopy. We demonstrate a high speed, two-dimensional (2D) distal scanning capsule with a micromotor for fast rotary scanning and a pneumatic actuator for precision longitudinal scanning. Longitudinal position measurement and image registration were performed by optical tracking of the pneumatic scanner. The 2D scanning device enables high resolution imaging over a small field of view and is suitable for OCT as well as other scanning microscopies. Large field of view imaging for screening or surveillance applications can also be achieved by proximally pulling back or advancing the capsule while scanning the distal high-speed micromotor. Circumferential en face OCT was demonstrated in living swine at 250 Hz frame rate and 1 MHz A-scan rate using a MEMS tunable VCSEL light source at 1300 nm. Cross-sectional and en face OCT views of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract were generated with precision distal pneumatic longitudinal actuation as well as proximal manual longitudinal actuation. These devices could enable clinical studies either as an adjunct to endoscopy, attached to an endoscope, or as a swallowed tethered capsule for non-endoscopic imaging without sedation. The combination of ultrahigh speed imaging and distal scanning capsule technology could enable both screening and surveillance applications.

  3. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  4. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  5. Adhesive capsulitis: role of MR imaging in differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, David; Padmanabhan, Ravi; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the MR imaging findings in a group of patients who underwent surgery for adhesive capsulitis. Twenty-four MR imaging studies in 24 consecutive patients with clinical evidence of adhesive capsulitis were performed prior to arthroscopic capsulotomy. There were 17 women and 7 men with a mean age of 53.5 years. Images were scrutinised for changes in the synovium particularly in the rotator interval, around the biceps anchor and axillary pouch. Intravenous gadolinium was given routinely. We also examined a control group of 22 patients who underwent the same MR imaging protocol after referral for rotator cuff pathology. Soft tissue density showing variable enhancement after gadolinium administration was visible in the rotator interval in 22 of 24 studies on MR imaging. Seventeen patients showed soft tissue density partially encasing the biceps anchor. Ten patients showed thickening and gadolinium enhancement of the axillary pouch. Three patients from the study cohort had partial tears of the supraspinatus tendon. All the patients subsequently had surgery which confirmed fibrovascular scar tissue in the rotator interval, around the biceps anchor and a variable degree of synovial inflammation of the glenohumeral capsule. Two patients from a control group with suspected rotator cuff pathology showed abnormal intensity in the rotator interval on MR imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging can identify changes in the shoulder joint that correspond to abnormalities seen at surgery. This may be useful for discriminating adhesive capsulitis from other causes of shoulder pain. (orig.)

  6. 21 CFR 520.2605 - Trimeprazine tartrate and prednisolone capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2605...) Amount. Administer either capsule orally once daily to dogs as follows: Animal weight (pounds) Number of... dermatitis (allergic, parasitic, pustular, and nonspecific). It is also used in dogs as adjunctive therapy in...

  7. Development of target capsules for muon catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, K.D.; Jones, S.E.; Caffrey, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A series of Muon Catalyzed Fusion experiments has been conducted at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility to determine how many fusion reactions one muon would catalyze under various temperature, pressure, contamination, and tritium concentration conditions. Target capsules to contain deuterium and tritium at elevated temperatures and pressures were engineered for a maximum temperature of 540 K (512 0 F) and a maximum pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig). Experimental data collected with these capsules indicated that the number of fusion reactions per muon continued to increase with temperature up to the 540-K design limit. Theory had indicated that the reaction rate should peak at approximately 540 K, but this was not confirmed during the experiments. A second generation of capsules which have a maximum design temperature of 800 K (980 0 F) and a maximum design pressure of 103 MPa (15,000 psig) has now been engineered. These new capsules will be used to further study the muon catalysis rate versus deuterium-tritium mixture temperature

  8. Adhesive capsulitis: contrast-enhansed shoulder MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokalp, Gokhan; Yildirim, Nalan; Yazici, Zeynep; Algin, Oktay

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Evaluation of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) findings in cases clinically diagnosed as adhesive capsulitis (AC). CE-MRI images of 12 cases diagnosed as AC (13 shoulder joints) and nine control cases were retrospectively evaluated. AC diagnosis was establlished based on the history and clinical symptoms. MR signal intensity changes in the axillary pouch, rotator interval, biceps anchor and anterior posterior capsules were analysed with regard to the presence of abnormal soft tissue and contrast enhancement. Capsular and synovial thickening were measured in the axillary recess and rotator interval on coronal oblique CE T1-weighted images. Patient and control groups were compared by Fisher's exact and McNemar tests in terms of signal intensity changes and contrast enhancement in the described areas. Results: Comparison of the group with AC and the control group regarding intensity changes showed a statistically significant difference in the axillary pouch (P 0.05). Comparison of AC and control groups in terms of contrast enhancement revealed statistically significant differences in the axillary pouch, rotator interval, biceps anchor and anterior-posterior capsules (P < 0.001). A significant difference was determined between the AC and control groups with regard to thickening in axillary pouch and rotator interval (P < 0.001). CE studies are useful for diagnosis of AC as it demonstrates thickening of specific soft-tissue areas like joint capsule and synovium.

  9. Biosorption of mercury by capsulated and slime layerforming Gram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosorption of mercury by two locally isolated Gram-ve bacilli: Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumonia (capsulated) and slime layer forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was characterized. Mercury adsorption was found to be influenced by the pH value of the biosorption solution, initial metal concentration, amount of the ...

  10. Thin film drainage between pre-inflated capsules or vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keh, Martin; Walter, Johann; Leal, Gary

    2013-11-01

    Capsules and vesicles are often used as vehicles to carry active ingredients or fragrance in drug delivery and consumer products and oftentimes in these applications the particles may be pre-inflated due to the existence of a small osmotic pressure difference between the interior and exterior fluid. We study the dynamics of thin film drainage between capsules and vesicles in flow as it is crucial to fusion and deposition of the particles and, therefore, the stability and effectiveness of the products. Simulations are conducted using a numerical model coupling the boundary integral method for the motion of the fluids and a finite element method for the membrane mechanics. For low capillary numbers, the drainage behavior of vesicles and capsules are approximately the same, and also similar to that of drops as the flow-independent and uniform tension due to pre-inflation dominates. The tension due to deformation caused by flow will become more important as the strength of the external flow (i.e. the capillary number) increases. In this case, the shapes of the thin film region are fundamentally different for capsules and vesicles, and the drainage behavior in both cases differs from a drop. Funded by P&G.

  11. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions. (paper)

  12. Video-based measurements for wireless capsule endoscope tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Evaggelos; Iakovidis, Dimitris K.

    2014-01-01

    The wireless capsule endoscope is a swallowable medical device equipped with a miniature camera enabling the visual examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It wirelessly transmits thousands of images to an external video recording system, while its location and orientation are being tracked approximately by external sensor arrays. In this paper we investigate a video-based approach to tracking the capsule endoscope without requiring any external equipment. The proposed method involves extraction of speeded up robust features from video frames, registration of consecutive frames based on the random sample consensus algorithm, and estimation of the displacement and rotation of interest points within these frames. The results obtained by the application of this method on wireless capsule endoscopy videos indicate its effectiveness and improved performance over the state of the art. The findings of this research pave the way for a cost-effective localization and travel distance measurement of capsule endoscopes in the GI tract, which could contribute in the planning of more accurate surgical interventions.

  13. Wireless capsule endoscopy in adolescents with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Debora; Ballardini, Giovanni; Ferrari, Andrea; Delconte, Gabriele; Signoroni, Stefano; Sala, Paola; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Massimino, Maura; Bertario, Lucio; Vitellaro, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for surveillance in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) recommend mutation carriers to undergo periodic colorectal examination starting in the early teens. Performing colonoscopy in children may lead to complications. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been introduced recently to evaluate both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, and seems suitable as a first screening examination for adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pros and cons of WCE. This was a retrospective review of a single institution database of adolescent patients with FAP identified through the Hereditary Colorectal Tumor Registry between 2007 and 2013. The main outcomes were identification of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract polyps, tolerance of the examination, and number and size of polyps. Of 46 adolescent patients with FAP, 14 (30.4%) patients carrying adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) mutation, 6 male and 8 female, age (median, range) 12 (10-17) years, body mass index 19 (13-24), underwent WCE as first screening examination. The examination was completed in 13 patients (93.3%). Wireless capsule endoscopy identified the duodenal papilla in 4 patients and colonic and rectal polyps in all 13 patients. In 7 patients, fewer than 25 polyps were identified. No complications were recorded related to the use of the video capsule. Wireless capsule endoscopy is feasible and well-tolerated as a first screening examination in adolescent patients. It cannot be used as alternative to the colonoscopy, but could improve compliance with colonoscopy, and increase early adherence to a surveillance program.

  14. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin

    2016-05-01

    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  15. Ageing of the LHCb outer tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, M R; Tuning, N

    2009-01-01

    The modules of the LHCb outer tracker have shown to suffer severe gain loss under moderate irradiation. This process is called ageing. Ageing of the modules results from contamination of the gas system by glue, araldite AY 103-1, used in their construction. In this thesis the ageing process will be shown. The schemes known to reduce, reverse, or prevent ageing have been investigated to determine their effect on the detector performance. The addition of O2 to the gas mixture lowers the detector response by an acceptable amount and does not affect the gas transport properties significantly. The ageing rate is decreased after extensive flushing and HV training could eventually repair the irradiation damage. The risks of HV training have been assessed. Furthermore, several gaseous and aquatic additions have been tested for their capability to prevent, or moderate ageing, but none showed significant improvement.

  16. The fate of the outer plasmasphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elphic, R.C.; Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Both the solar wind and the ionosphere contribute to Earth close-quote s magnetospheric plasma environment. However, it is not widely appreciated that the plasmasphere is a large reservoir of ionospheric ions that can be tapped to populate the plasma sheet. We employ empirical models of high-latitude ionospheric convection and the geomagnetic field to describe the transport of outer plasmasphere flux tubes from the dayside, over the polar cap and into the magnetotail during the early phases of a geomagnetic storm. We calculate that this process can give rise to high densities of cold plasma in the magnetotail lobes and in the near-Earth plasma sheet during times of enhanced geomagnetic activity, and especially during storms. This model can help explain both polar cap ionization patches and the presence of cold flowing ions downtail.copyright 1997 American Geophysical Union

  17. A simple method for preparing radioactive capsules in colon transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shyhjen; Lin Wanyu; Tsai Shihchuan; Chen Granhun

    2000-01-01

    Colon transit study is currently performed by delivering technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled activated charcoal to the colon in a methacrylate-coated capsule (coated capsule). However, the coating procedure is complicated and methacrylate has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Therefore, a simpler method is needed for the clinical routine use of colon transit study. In this study, we used a commercial empty enteric capsule and a coated capsule for the measurement of colon transit time. We compared the in vitro stability and in vivo scintigraphy of 99m Tc-labelled activated charcoal in the coated capsule and the enteric capsule to evaluate the possibility of clinical usage of the enteric capsule for colon transit time study. Activated charcoal powder was mixed with 99m Tc-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) and vaporized to dryness. The dry 99m Tc-DTPA activated charcoal was loaded into the coated capsule and the enteric capsule. In vitro stability study was performed by immersing these capsules in a colourless buffer of variable pH which mimicked the conditions in the stomach and the small bowel. Capsule disruption was determined. Colon transit scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DTPA charcoal was performed in five normal volunteers using these two capsules. The in vitro stability of these two types of capsule was similar and the colon transit scintigraphy findings were almost identical. Most capsules dissolved in the ascending colon and very few in the terminal ileum. It is concluded that enteric capsule is a suitable alternative to coated capsule for measurement of colon transit. (orig.)

  18. Preparation of finasteride capsules-loaded drug nanoparticles: formulation, optimization, in vitro, and pharmacokinetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Ahmed1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: In this study, optimized freeze-dried finasteride nanoparticles (NPs were prepared from drug nanosuspension formulation that was developed using the bottom–up technique. The effects of four formulation and processing variables that affect the particle size and solubility enhancement of the NPs were explored using the response surface optimization design. The optimized formulation was morphologically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Physicochemical interaction among the studied components was investigated. Crystalline change was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD. Crystal growth of the freeze-dried NPs was compared to the corresponding aqueous drug nanosuspension. Freeze-dried NPs formulation was subsequently loaded into hard gelatin capsules that were examined for in vitro dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior. Results revealed that in most of the studied variables, some of the quadratic and interaction effects had a significant effect on the studied responses. TEM image illustrated homogeneity and shape of the prepared NPs. No interaction among components was noticed. XRPD confirmed crystalline state change in the optimized NPs. An enhancement in the dissolution rate of more than 2.5 times from capsules filled with optimum drug NPs, when compared to capsules filled with pure drug, was obtained. Crystal growth, due to Ostwald ripening phenomenon and positive Gibbs free energy, was reduced following lyophilization of the nanosuspension formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameters from drug NPs were superior to that of pure drug and drug microparticles. In conclusion, freeze-dried NPs based on drug nanosuspension formulation is a successful

  19. Preparation of raspberry-like γ-Fe2O3/crackled nitrogen-doped carbon capsules and their application as supports to improve catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junshuai; Yao, Tongjie; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Jie

    2016-11-10

    In this manuscript, we have introduced a novel method to improve the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles via optimizing the support structure. To this end, raspberry-like γ-Fe 2 O 3 /crackled nitrogen-doped carbon (CNC) capsules were prepared by a two-step method. Compared with traditional magnetic capsules, in γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC capsules, the γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were embedded in a CNC shell; therefore, they neither occupied the anchoring sites for metal nanoparticles nor came into contact with them, which was beneficial for increasing the metal nanoparticle loading. Numerous tiny cracks appeared on the porous CNC shell, which effectively improved the mass diffusion and transport in catalytic reactions. Additionally, the coordination interaction could be generated between the precursor metal ions and doped-nitrogen atoms in the capsule shell. With the help of these structural merits, γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC capsules were ideal supports for Pd nanoparticles, because they were beneficial for improving the Pd loading, reducing the nanoparticle size, increasing their dispersity and maximizing the catalytic performance of Pd nanoparticles anchored on the inner shell surface. As expected, γ-Fe 2 O 3 /CNC@Pd catalysts exhibited a dramatically enhanced catalytic activity towards hydrophilic 4-nitrophenol and hydrophobic nitrobenzene. The reaction rate constant k was compared with recent work and the corresponding reference samples. Moreover, they could be easily recycled by using a magnet and reused without an obvious loss of catalytic activity.

  20. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  1. Study of a wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxin

    2010-03-01

    An active capsule endoscope (ACE) will consume much more energy than can be power by batteries. Its orientation and position are always undetermined when it continues the natural way down the gastrointestinal track. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy to ACE safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a Helmholtz primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. The Helmholtz primary coil is driven to generate a uniform alternating magnetic field covering the whole of the alimentary tract, and the multiple secondary coils receive energy regardless of the ACE's position and orientation relative to the generated magnetic field. The human tissue safety of the electromagnetic field generated by transmitting coil was evaluated, based on a high-resolution realistic human model. At least 310 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions. Outer dimensions of the power receiver, 10 mm diameter x 12 mm; transmitting power, 25 W; resonant frequency, 400 kHz. The maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density of human tissues are 0.329 W/kg and 3.82 A/m(2), respectively, under the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The designed wireless power transmission is shown to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Quantitative Characterization of Collagen in the Fibrotic Capsule Surrounding Implanted Polymeric Microparticles through Second Harmonic Generation Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilbekova, Dana; Bratlie, Kaitlin M

    2015-01-01

    The collagenous capsule formed around an implant will ultimately determine the nature of its in vivo fate. To provide a better understanding of how surface modifications can alter the collagen orientation and composition in the fibrotic capsule, we used second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to evaluate collagen organization and structure generated in mice subcutaneously injected with chemically functionalized polystyrene particles. SHG is sensitive to the orientation of a molecule, making it a powerful tool for measuring the alignment of collagen fibers. Additionally, SHG arises from the second order susceptibility of the interrogated molecule in response to the electric field. Variation in these tensor components distinguishes different molecular sources of SHG, providing collagen type specificity. Here, we demonstrated the ability of SHG to differentiate collagen type I and type III quantitatively and used this method to examine fibrous capsules of implanted polystyrene particles. Data presented in this work shows a wide range of collagen fiber orientations and collagen compositions in response to surface functionalized polystyrene particles. Dimethylamino functionalized particles were able to form a thin collagenous matrix resembling healthy skin. These findings have the potential to improve the fundamental understanding of how material properties influence collagen organization and composition quantitatively.

  3. Quantitative Characterization of Collagen in the Fibrotic Capsule Surrounding Implanted Polymeric Microparticles through Second Harmonic Generation Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Akilbekova

    Full Text Available The collagenous capsule formed around an implant will ultimately determine the nature of its in vivo fate. To provide a better understanding of how surface modifications can alter the collagen orientation and composition in the fibrotic capsule, we used second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy to evaluate collagen organization and structure generated in mice subcutaneously injected with chemically functionalized polystyrene particles. SHG is sensitive to the orientation of a molecule, making it a powerful tool for measuring the alignment of collagen fibers. Additionally, SHG arises from the second order susceptibility of the interrogated molecule in response to the electric field. Variation in these tensor components distinguishes different molecular sources of SHG, providing collagen type specificity. Here, we demonstrated the ability of SHG to differentiate collagen type I and type III quantitatively and used this method to examine fibrous capsules of implanted polystyrene particles. Data presented in this work shows a wide range of collagen fiber orientations and collagen compositions in response to surface functionalized polystyrene particles. Dimethylamino functionalized particles were able to form a thin collagenous matrix resembling healthy skin. These findings have the potential to improve the fundamental understanding of how material properties influence collagen organization and composition quantitatively.

  4. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y. H.; Cho, M. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  5. Capsule Development and Utilization for Material Irradiation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Goo; Kang, Y H; Cho, M S [and others

    2007-06-15

    The essential technology for an irradiation test of materials and nuclear fuel has been successively developed and utilized to meet the user's requirements in Phase I(July 21, 1997 to March 31, 2000). It enables irradiation tests to be performed for a non-fissile material under a temperature control(300{+-}10 .deg. C) in a He gas environment, and most of the irradiation tests for the internal and external users are able to be conducted effectively. The basic technology was established to irradiate a nuclear fuel, and a creep capsule was also developed to measure the creep property of a material during an irradiation test in HANARO in Phase II(April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2003). The development of a specific purpose capsule, essential technology for a re-irradiation of a nuclear fuel, advanced technology for an irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel were performed in Phase III(April 1, 2003 to February 28, 2007). Therefore, the technology for an irradiation test was established to support the irradiation of materials and a nuclear fuel which is required for the National Nuclear R and D Programs. In addition, an improvement of the existing capsule design and fabrication technology, and the development of an instrumented capsule for a nuclear fuel and a specific purpose will be able to satisfy the user's requirements. In order to support the irradiation test of materials and a nuclear fuel for developing the next generation nuclear system, it is also necessary to continuously improve the design and fabrication technology of the existing capsule and the irradiation technology.

  6. Fabrication, characterization and evaluation of bacterial cellulose-based capsule shells for oral drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Hanif; Badshah, Munair; Mäkilä, Ermei

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) was investigated for the first time for the preparation of capsule shells for immediate and sustained release of drugs. The prepared capsule shells were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The BC...... to gelatin capsules with both immediate and sustained drug release properties depending upon the compositions of the encapsulated materials....

  7. Capsule physics comparison of National Ignition Facility implosion designs using plastic, high density carbon, and beryllium ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Haan, S. W.; Weber, C. R.

    2018-03-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer plastic, high density carbon, and beryllium. How do these different ablators compare in current and proposed implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This paper compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and potential future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition on NIF.

  8. Predictions of the microstructural contribution to instability seeding in beryllium ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Swift, Damian C.

    2004-01-01

    The constitutive properties of beryllium are anisotropic. During the implosion of an inertial confinement fusion capsule, it is possible for instabilities to be seeded from the microstructure. We are using experiment and theory to place constraints on the microstructure and loading history. The relation between surface roughness and amplitude of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities has been characterized well. Here we present a method of relating the microstructure to an equivalent surface roughness, using continuum mechanical simulations of shock waves in polycrystalline beryllium. Beryllium was treated using a single-crystal plasticity model developed using ab initio quantum mechanics for the equation of state and elasticity, and laser-driven shock wave measurements to calibrate representations of dislocation and disclination dynamics

  9. Modular nuclear fuel element, modular capsule for a such element and fabrication process for a modular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotard, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear fuel rod is made by a tubular casing closed at both ends and containing a series of modular capsules with little play with the casing and made by a jacket closed by porous plugs at both ends and containing a stack of fuel pellets [fr

  10. Crosslinking studies in gelatin capsules treated with formaldehyde and in capsules exposed to elevated temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner, C M; Zhang, Y E; Jobeck, V C; Bowman, B J

    2001-01-01

    Incomplete in vitro capsule shell dissolution and subsequent drug release problems have recently received attention. A modified USP dissolution method was used to follow capsule shell dissolution, and a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) assay was used to follow loss of epsilon-amino groups to study this shell dissolution problem postulated to be due to gelatin crosslinking. The dissolution problems were simulated using hard gelatin capsule (HGC) shells previously treated with formaldehyde to crosslink the gelatin. These methods were also used to study the effect of uncrosslinked HGC stored under stressed conditions (37 degrees C and 81% RH) with or without the presence of soft gelatin capsule shells (SGC). A 120 ppm formaldehyde treatment reduced gelatin shell dissolution to 8% within 45 min in water at 37 degrees C. A 200 ppm treatment reduced gelatin epsilon-amino groups to 83% of the original uncrosslinked value. The results also support earlier reports of non-amino group crosslinking by formaldehyde in gelatin. Under stressed conditions, HGC stored alone showed little change over 21 weeks. However, by 12 to 14 weeks, the HGC exposed to SGC showed a 23% decrease in shell dissolution and an 8% decrease in the number of epsilon-amino groups. These effects on the stressed HGC are ascribed to a volatile agent from SGC shells, most likely formaldehyde, that crosslinked nearby HGC shells. This report also includes a summary of the literature on agents that reduce gelatin and capsule shell dissolution and the possible mechanisms of this not-so-simple problem. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 90: 79-88, 2001

  11. Development of a Low Temperature Irradiation Capsule for Research Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Kee Nam; Cho, Man Soon; Lee, Cheol Yong; Yang, Sung Woo; Shin, Yoon Taek; Park, Seng Jae; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kang, Young Hwan; Park, Sang Jun

    2013-01-01

    A new capsule design was prepared and tested at HANARO for a neutron irradiation of core materials of research reactors as a part of the research reactor development project. Irradiation testing of the materials including graphite, beryllium, and zircaloy-4 that are supposed to be used as core materials in research reactors was required for irradiation at up to 8 reactor operation cycles at low temperature (<100 .deg. C). Therefore, three instrumented capsules were designed and fabricated for an evaluation of the neutron irradiation properties of the core materials (Graphite, Be, Zircaloy-4) of research reactors. The capsules were first designed and fabricated to irradiate materials at low temperature (<100 .deg. C) for a long cycle of 8 irradiation cycles at HANARO. Therefore, the safety of the new designed capsule should be fully checked before irradiation testing. Out-pile performance and endurance testing before HANARO irradiation testing was performed using a capsule under a 110% condition of a reactor coolant flow amount. The structural integrity of the capsule was analyzed in terms of a vibration-induced fatigue cracking of a rod tip of the capsule that is suspected to be the most vulnerable part of a capsule. Another two capsules were irradiated at HANARO for 4 cycles, and one capsule was transferred to a hot cell to examine the integrity of the rod tip of the capsule. After confirming the soundness of the 4 cycle-irradiated capsule, the remaining capsule was irradiated at up to 8 cycles at HANARO. Based on the structural integrity analysis of the capsule, an improved capsule design will be suggested for a longer irradiation test at HANARO

  12. Residual mercury content and leaching of mercury and silver from used amalgam capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M E; Pederson, E D; Cohen, M E; Ragain, J C; Karaway, R S; Auxer, R A; Saluta, A R

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to carry out residual mercury (Hg) determinations and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) analysis of used amalgam capsules. For residual Hg analysis, 25 capsules (20 capsules for one brand) from each of 10 different brands of amalgam were analyzed. Total residual Hg levels per capsule were determined using United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 7471. For TCLP analysis, 25 amalgam capsules for each of 10 brands were extracted using a modification of USEPA Method 1311. Hg analysis of the TCLP extracts was done with USEPA Method 7470A. Analysis of silver (Ag) concentrations in the TCLP extract was done with USEPA Method 6010B. Analysis of the residual Hg data resulted in the segregation of brands into three groups: Dispersalloy capsules, Group A, retained the most Hg (1.225 mg/capsule). These capsules were the only ones to include a pestle. Group B capsules, Valliant PhD, Optaloy II, Megalloy and Valliant Snap Set, retained the next highest amount of Hg (0.534-0.770 mg/capsule), and were characterized by a groove in the inside of the capsule. Group C, Tytin regular set double-spill, Tytin FC, Contour, Sybraloy regular set, and Tytin regular set single-spill retained the least amount of Hg (0.125-0.266 mg/capsule). TCLP analysis of the triturated capsules showed Sybraloy and Contour leached Hg at greater than the 0.2 mg/l Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit. This study demonstrated that residual mercury may be related to capsule design features and that TCLP extracts from these capsules could, in some brands, exceed RCRA Hg limits, making their disposal problematic. At current RCRA limits, the leaching of Ag is not a problem.

  13. Dynamic computed tomography of hepatocellular carcinoma with particular reference to capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuji, Hideaki [Nara Prefectural Hospital (Japan); Uchida, Hideo; Ohishi, H

    1983-11-01

    Dynamic CT of 117 hepatocellular carcinoma was analyzed about the capsule. Capsules were detected in 57 cases (49%) and they were classified into three types. The tumor showed high density during 15 to 26 sec after bolus injection of conrast medium, but the capsule was not enhanced. Incidence of the capsule enhanced as ring high density was 73% during 37 to 90 sec and over 90% after 4 min. Dynamic CT was very useful in the elucidation of hemodynamics of capsules of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Results from annual testing of ARECO cesium capsules from 1990-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile the results of the cesium capsule inspections and testing at the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) facility in Lynchburg, VA, performed in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994. The 25 cesium capsules at the ARECO facility were visually identified and clunk tested. A Go/No Go gauge test was required for capsules failing the clunk test. A visual inspection of capsules was required for the initial testing (1990). All 25 capsules passed the inspections and testing each year.

  15. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J.; Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Merín, Bruno; Najita, Joan

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d ∼ 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huélamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 μm without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond ∼40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  16. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Menard, Francois [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Agency (ESAC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Najita, Joan, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    T Cha is a nearby (d {approx} 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 {mu}m without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond {approx}40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  17. Application of zwitterionic detergent to the solubilization of Klebsiella pneumoniae outer membrane proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz-Misa, I; Serek, P; Dudek, B; Pawlak, A; Bugla-Płoskońska, G; Gamian, A

    2014-12-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent cause of nosocomial respiratory, urinary and gastrointestinal tract infections and septicemia with the multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae being a major public health concern. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are important virulence factors responsible for the appropriate adaptation to the host environment. They constitute of the antigens being the first in contact with infected organism. However, K. pneumoniae strains are heavily capsulated and it is important to establish the OMPs isolation procedure prior to proteomics extensive studies. In this study we used Zwittergent Z 3-14® as a detergent to isolate the OMPs from K. pneumoniae cells and resolve them using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). As a result we identified 134 protein spots. The OMPs identified in this study are possible candidates for the development of a protein-based vaccine against K. pneumoniae infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Comparative assessment of hepatic Glisson's capsule and bovine pericardium in heart valve bioprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagramanov, I I; Kokshenev, I V; Dobrova, N B; Kastava, V T; Serov, R A; Zaets, S B

    1998-05-01

    The optimal material for heart valve bioprostheses remains disputable. This investigation was initiated to compare the properties of hepatic Glisson's capsule, clinical experience of which in cardiovascular surgery is minimal, with those of bovine pericardium. Hepatic Glisson's capsule was harvested from bull calves and used to create composite pulmonary arterial monocusp grafts and bioprostheses. Comparison of the strength and elastic properties of Glisson's capsule and bovine pericardium, as well as the hydrodynamic characteristics of valves made from these materials, was performed. Late results of operations using these materials were estimated echocardiographically. Although Glisson's capsule tissue is thinner than the bovine pericardium, its elasticity modulus is greater. However, the hydrodynamic characteristics of heart valves made from either tissue are similar. Moreover, valves made from Glisson's capsule have a lower systolic pressure gradient on the prosthesis and a higher effective orifice area. Composite pulmonary arterial xenopericardial grafts with a monocusp of Glisson's capsule were used in 30 patients during tetralogy of Fallot repair. Glisson's capsule was also used for tricuspid valve reconstruction and as a bioprosthesis in six patients with Ebstein's anomaly. At 1-2 years after surgery, the Glisson's capsule tissue remained thin and flexible, with no calcification. Although the hydrodynamic properties of hepatic Glisson's capsule and the bovine pericardium are similar, the capsule tissue is thinner and has a greater elasticity modulos. Thus, Glisson's capsule may be used for bioprosthesis construction both independently and in combination with bovine pericardium.

  20. Effect of Heat Flux on the Specimen Temperature of an LBE Capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y. H.; Park, S. J.; Cho, M. S.; Choo, K. N.; Lee, Y. S.

    2011-01-01

    For application of high-temperature irradiation tests in the HANARO reactor for Gen IV reactor material development, a number of newly designed LBE capsules have been investigated at KAERI since 2008. Recent study on heat transfer experiment of an LBE capsule with a single heater has shown that the specimen temperature of the mock-up increased linearly with an increase of heat input. The work highlighted only the heat transfer capability of an LBE capsule with a single heater as a simulated specimen in a liquid metal medium. Hence, a new LBE capsule with multi specimen sets has been designed and fabricated for the heat transfer experiment of an LBE capsule of 11M-01K. In this paper, a series of thermal analyses and heat transfer experiments for a newly designed LBE capsule was implemented to study the effect of an increase in the value of heat input and its influence on temperature distribution in the capsule mock-up

  1. Fabrication of Non-instrumented capsule for DUPIC simulated fuel irradiation test in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.G.; Kang, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Shin, Y.T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    In order to develope DUPIC nuclear fuel, the irradiation test for simulated DUPIC fuel was planed using a non-instrumented capsule in HANARO. Because DUPIC fuel is highly radioactive material the non-instrumented capsule for an irradiation test of simulated DUPIC fuel in HANARO was designed to remotely assemble and disassemble in hot cell. And then, according to the design requirements the non-instrumented DUPIC capsule was successfully manufactured. Also, the manufacturing technologies of the non-instrumented capsule for irradiating the nuclear fuel in HANARO were established, and the basic technology for the development of the instrumented capsule technology was accumulated. This report describes the manufacturing of the non-instrumented capsule for simulated DUPIC fuel. And, this report will be based to develope the instrumented capsule, which will be utilized to irradiate the nuclear fuel in HANARO. 26 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  2. [A wireless power transmission system for capsule endoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxing

    2010-06-01

    In order to deliver power to the capsule endoscope, whose position and orientation are always changing when traveling along the alimentary tract, a wireless power transmission system based on electromagnetic coupling was proposed. The system is composed of Helmholtz transmitting coil and three-dimensional receiving coil. Helmholtz coil outside the body generates a uniform magnetic field covering the whole alimentary tract; three-dimensional coil inside retrieves stable power regardless of its position and orientation. The transmitter and receiver were designed and implemented, and the experiments validated the feasibility of the system. The results show that at least 320 mW of usable power can be transmitted to capsule endoscope when its position and orientation are changing at random and the transmitting power is 25W.

  3. Features of Joint Capsule Formation After Antenatal Action of Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Fedotchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using morphometric, histological, histochemical and statistical methods, we have investigated the dynamics of hip joint capsule formation in white laboratory rats during the postnatal period after intrefetal introduction of antigen. It is found that antenatal effect of antigen leads to an increase in the number of lymphocytes, in particular PNA+, in joint capsule. Against this background, we observed an increase in the proportion of cells, the basic substance and elastic fibers, while reducing the content of collagen fibers, violations in polysaccharides and fibroblasts distribution that indicates the development of dysplastic processes in the hip joint and can be regarded as the leading factor of coxarthrosis development. Experimentally, we have detected arachnodactylia as a visual clinical manifestation of dysplasia.

  4. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas [Malmoe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Aabakken, Lars [Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-12-15

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  5. Postirradiation thermal analysis of capsule P13T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketterer, J.W.

    1978-12-01

    In determining fuel rod temperature histories for the P13T capsule, a technique which combined measured temperature and dimensional data, TAC-2D computer modeling, and a calculational procedure was employed. TAC-2D models were constructed for each of the capsule's four fuel bodies and temperature matching runs were made at five time points of the irradiation history. The agreement between TAC-calculated and measured temperatures was good; at all times the TAC-calculated temperatures were within 20 0 C of the Chromel-Alumel (C/A) measurements and 40 0 C of the corrected tungsten-rhenium (W/Re) temperatures. Thermocouple decalibration was treated in detail and corrected temperatures for all W/Re thermocouples were calculated over the irradiation period

  6. Remote controlled capsules in human drug absorption (HDA) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Ian R; Prior, David V

    2003-01-01

    The biopharmaceutical complexity of today's new drug candidates provides significant challenges for pharmaceutical scientists in terms of both candidate selection and optimizing subsequent development strategy. In addition, life cycle management of marketed drugs has become an important income stream for pharmaceutical companies, but the selection of least risk/highest benefit strategies is far from simple. The proactive adoption of human drug absorption (HDA) studies using remote controlled capsules offers the pharmaceutical scientist significant guidance for planning a route through the maze of product development. This review examines the position of HDA studies in drug development, using a variety of case histories and an insightful update on remote controlled capsules to achieve site-specific delivery.

  7. Polyp Detection and Segmentation from Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Surya Prasath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Video capsule endoscopy (VCE is used widely nowadays for visualizing the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Capsule endoscopy exams are prescribed usually as an additional monitoring mechanism and can help in identifying polyps, bleeding, etc. To analyze the large scale video data produced by VCE exams, automatic image processing, computer vision, and learning algorithms are required. Recently, automatic polyp detection algorithms have been proposed with various degrees of success. Though polyp detection in colonoscopy and other traditional endoscopy procedure based images is becoming a mature field, due to its unique imaging characteristics, detecting polyps automatically in VCE is a hard problem. We review different polyp detection approaches for VCE imagery and provide systematic analysis with challenges faced by standard image processing and computer vision methods.

  8. Capsule Design for Blue Light Therapy against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhangyong; Ren, Binbin; Tan, Haiyan; Liu, Shengrong; Wang, Wei; Pang, Yu; Lin, Jinzhao; Zeng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    A photo-medical capsule that emits blue light for Helicobacter pylori treatment was described in this paper. The system consists of modules for pH sensing and measuring, light-emitting diode driver circuit, radio communication and microcontroller, and power management. The system can differentiate locations by monitoring the pH values of the gastrointestinal tract, and turn on and off the blue light according to the preset range of pH values. Our experimental tests show that the capsule can operate in the effective light therapy mode for more than 32 minutes and the wireless communication module can reliably transmit the measured pH value to a receiver located outside the body.

  9. Development of endplug welding technology for irradiation testing capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Shin, Y. T.; Kim, S. S.; Kim, B. K.; Kang, Y. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of newly developed nuclear fuel, it is necessary to irradiate the fuel at a research reactor and examine the irradiated fuel. For the irradiation test in a reasearch reactor, a fuel assembly which is generally called a capsule should be fabricated, considering the fuel irradiation plan and the characteristics of the reactor to be used. And also the fuel elements containing the developed fuel pellets should be made and assembled into a capsule. In this study, the welding method, welding equipment, welding conditions and parameters were developed to make fuel elements for the irradiation test at the HANARO research reactor. The TIG welding method using automatic orbital tube welding system was adopted and the welding joint design was developed for the fabrication of various kinds of irradiation fuel elements. And the optimal welding conditions and parameters were also established for the endplug welding of Zircaloy-4 cladding tube.

  10. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fork, Frans-Thomas; Aabakken, Lars

    2007-01-01

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology. The limitations of capsule endoscopy include difficulty in localising mucosal lesions anatomically and its restricted use in patients with dysphagia, strictures or motor dysfunction. Strictures, transmural and extra-mural lesions in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease are evaluated by MRI- enterography and CT-enterography. (orig.)

  11. Dynamics of an elastic capsule in moderate Reynolds number Poiseuille flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soo Jai; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamics of a capsule in moderate Re Poiseuille flow were explored numerically. ► Capsule tends to tumbling motion for larger membrane elasticity and higher Re flow. ► Capsule undergoes swinging motion for larger size and aspect ratio of the capsule. ► Capsule tends to migrate to a specific lateral equilibrium as Re increases. ► Equilibrium position varies differently around the transition of the dynamic motion. - Abstract: The dynamic motions and lateral equilibrium positions of a two-dimensional elastic capsule in a Poiseuille flow were explored at moderate Reynolds number (10 ⩽ Re ⩽ 100) as a function of the initial lateral position (y 0 ), Re, aspect ratio (ε), size ratio (λ), membrane stretching coefficient (φ) and bending coefficient (γ). The transition between tank-treading (TT) and swinging (SW) to tumbling (TU) motions was observed and the lateral equilibrium positions of the capsules varied according to the conditions. The initial behavior of the elastic capsule was influenced by variation in the initial lateral position (y 0 ), but the equilibrium position and dynamic motion of the capsule were not affected by such variation. The capsules had a stronger tendency toward TU motion at higher values of Re, φ and γ, whereas the capsules underwent TT or SW motion as the values of ε and λ increased. Under moderate Re Poiseuille flows, capsules tended to migrate across streamlines to a specific equilibrium position. The lateral equilibrium position shifted toward the centerline at larger λ and migrated toward the wall at larger ε,φandγ. As Re increased, the equilibrium position first shifted toward the bottom wall, then toward the channel center. However, different equilibrium position trends were obtained around the SW–TU transition. The capsule undergoing TU motion tended to migrate downward toward the bottom wall more than the capsule undergoing SW motion, all other conditions being similar.

  12. Radiolysis of Amino Acids in Outer Solar-System Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2011-01-01

    Amino acids have been found in cometary dust particles and in the organic component of meteorites. These molecules, important for pre-biotic chemistry and for active biological systems, might be formed in cold planetary or interstellar environments and then delivered to H20-rich surfaces in the outer solar system. Many models for the availability of organic species on Earth and elsewhere depend on the ability of these molecules to survive in radiation-rich space environments. This poster presents results of O.8-MeV proton radiolysis of ice films at lS-140K. using infrared spectroscopy, the destruction rates of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine have been determined for both pure films and those containing amino acids diluted in H2o. our results are discussed in terms of the survivability of these molecules in the icy surfaces present in the outer solar system and the possibility of their detection by instruments on board the New Horizons spacecraft

  13. Small leiomyosarcoma of the renal capsule: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C.; Pfleger, D.; Tuchmann, C.; Guth, S.; Gangi, A. [Department of Radiology B, Chirurgie A, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg (France); Lindner, V. [Department of Pathology, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg (France); Morel, M. [Clinique Saint-Francois, 1, rue Colome, F-67 500 Haguenau (France)

    1998-03-01

    Three unusual cases of small-size leiomyosarcoma of the perirenal space were studied with CT. The renal capsule has been proved to be the origin of this type of tumor. A CT examination is accurate in suggesting the site of origin and excluding a renal cell carcinoma. However, unless evidence of invasion is noted, it is impossible on CT features to discriminate leiomyosarcoma from a benign leiomyoma. (orig.) With 3 figs., 21 refs.

  14. 21 CFR 520.2100 - Selenium, vitamin E capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selenium, vitamin E capsules. 520.2100 Section 520... to 1 milligram of selenium) and 56.2 milligrams of vitamin E (68 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid... of vitamin E (17 I.U.) (as d-alpha tocopheryl acid succinate.) (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510...

  15. Postirradiation gamma scans of GCFR capsule GB-10 at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1977-11-01

    The Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor capsule GB-10 was examined by gamma spectroscopy at Oak Ridge National Laboratory after fuel rod irradiation tests. The short-lived iodine fission products concentrated at the upper fuel-blanket interface, and cesium fission products concentrated at the fuel-blanket interfaces and in the charcoal trap. High concentrations of ruthenium isotopes were observed in the same positions at which neutron radiographs showed inclusions in the central void

  16. Arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the results of arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder associated as for improved range of motion after a minimum follow up of six years. METHODS: from August 2002 to December 2004, ten patients with adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment underwent arthroscopic surgery. One interscalene catheter was placed for postoperative analgesia before the procedure. All were in Phase II, with a minimum follow up of two years. The mean age was 52.9 years (39-66, predominantly female (90%, six on the left shoulder. The time between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment ranged from six to 20 months. Four adhesive capsulitis were found to be primary (40% and six secondary (60%. RESULTS: the preoperative mean of active anterior elevation was 92°, of external rotation was 10.5° of the L5 level internal rotation; the postoperative ones were 149°, 40° and T12 level, respectively. Therefore, the average gain was 57° for the anterior elevation, 29.5° for external rotation in six spinous processes. There was a significant difference in movements' gains between the pre and post-operative periods (p<0.001. By the Constant Score (range of motion, there was an increase of 13.8 (average pre to 32 points (average post. CONCLUSION: the arthroscopic treatment proved effective in refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder resistant to conservative treatment, improving the range of joint movements of patients evaluated after a minimum follow up of six years.

  17. Myofibroblast Upregulators are Elevated in Joint Capsules in Posttraumatic Contractures

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; Hart, David A.

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized specific growth factors are increased in the elbow capsules of patients with post traumatic elbow contractures. A model of surgically induced joint contracture in rabbit knees was developed to study the growth factor expression in joint contractures. This study demonstrates this model mimics the human condition and analyzes how the growth factor levels decrease with time in rabbit knees with contractures. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA...

  18. Reinforcing effects of caffeine in coffee and capsules.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1989-01-01

    In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference ...

  19. Capsule enteroscopy and radiology of the small intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Fork, Thomas; Aabakken, Lars

    2007-01-01

    In a very few years, the video capsule for small bowel enteroscopy has gained widespread clinical acceptance. It is readily ingested, disposable, and allows for a complete, low-invasive endoscopic examination of the entire mucosa of the small bowel. It is a patient-friendly method and a first-line procedure in the difficult evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. It has the highest proven figure of diagnostic sensitivity for detecting lesions of the mucosa, irrespective of aetiology....

  20. MRI findings of experimentally induced hepatic infarction: Correlation between changes of MRI findings of liver parenchyma and capsule with time lapse and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Guhn; Kim, Gang Deuk; Min, Kyung Yoon; Choi, See Sung; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Noh, Byung Suk; Won, Jong Jin

    1994-01-01

    We experimentally induced hepatic infarction in rabbit to evaluate MR findings of liver parenchyma and capsule and its changes with time and to confirm the capsular structure correlating with its histologic findings. After ligation of hepatic artery, vein and duct of right inferior posterior lobe of liver, T1, T2 weighted and enhanced T1 weighted images were obtained at several time intervals. Histologic samples were taken of two rabbits or more at each time intervals. During the first several days, the signal intensity of the ischemic necrosis showed strong high signal intensity relative to normal liver on both T1 and T2 weighted images. After 2 weeks , however, the necrotic areas gradually changed to isointensity or low signal intensity. Capsule structure was observed as slightly high signal intensity compare to ischemic areas on both enhanced T1 and T2 weighted images in six cases, and five cases of 12, retrospectively. From the first day, homogeneous coagulation necrosis without hemorrhage or liquefaction was observed. Fibrous thickening with rich vascularity was observed along the surface of the necrosis area after two weeks. During the first several days, the signal intensity of the ischemic necrosis showed strong high signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images and gradually changed to isointensity or low signal intensity. Liver capsule was shown and slightly high signal intensity along the surface of the necrosis area and could be explained by fibrous thickening of the liver capsule and rich vascularity within in it

  1. Evidence Suggesting That Francisella tularensis O-Antigen Capsule Contains a Lipid A-Like Molecule That Is Structurally Distinct from the More Abundant Free Lipid A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason H Barker

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium that causes tularemia, produces a high molecular weight capsule that is immunologically distinct from Francisella lipopolysaccharide but contains the same O-antigen tetrasaccharide. To pursue the possibility that the capsule of Francisella live vaccine strain (LVS has a structurally unique lipid anchor, we have metabolically labeled Francisella with [14C]acetate to facilitate highly sensitive compositional analysis of capsule-associated lipids. Capsule was purified by two independent methods and yielded similar results. Autoradiographic and immunologic analysis confirmed that this purified material was largely devoid of low molecular weight LPS and of the copious amounts of free lipid A that the Francisellae accumulate. Chemical hydrolysis yielded [14C]-labeled free fatty acids characteristic of Francisella lipid A but with a different molar ratio of 3-OH C18:0 to 3-OH C16:0 and different composition of non-hydroxylated fatty acids (mainly C14:0 rather than C16:0 than that of free Francisella lipid A. Mild acid hydrolysis to induce selective cleavage of KDO-lipid A linkage yielded a [14C]-labeled product that partitioned during Bligh/Dyer extraction and migrated during thin-layer chromatography like lipid A. These findings suggest that the O-antigen capsule of Francisella contains a covalently linked and structurally distinct lipid A species. The presence of a discrete lipid A-like molecule associated with capsule raises the possibility that Francisella selectively exploits lipid A structural heterogeneity to regulate synthesis, transport, and stable bacterial surface association of the O-antigen capsular layer.

  2. ALARA implementation in 131I therapeutic capsule production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumawat, Lalit; Swaminathan, N.; Sudheer, T.S.; Sachdev, S.S.; Arora, S.S.; Vairalkar, K.G.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium iodide 131 I solution had been invariably administered to patients for both diagnosis and therapy of thyrotoxicosis. The undue exposure to non-target organs has been over come by introducing NaI ( 131 I) in a gelatin capsule. BRIT has set up experimental facility for the preparation and the production volume has augmented into four fold due to increase in demand and the same facility is being used to cater the need. However, the adequately shielded facility (fume hood) used for (manual) dispensing activity in capsules, capsules and product vial capping, transfer of the vials into lead pots and activity measurement of each vial has resulted in significant increase in the personnel exposure. The sources had been identified and efforts were made to reduce the exposure in these operations. An annular shield was introduced around the dispenser, resulted in the reduction of radiation field at wrist level by a factor of three. Introduction of shielded automated dispenser and usage of longer tools for transfer and capping of vials has effected in two times reduction of collective wrist dose. Currently, the relocated capping station two meters away from the source certainly will bring down further exposure. (author)

  3. Benchmarking uranyl peroxide capsule chemistry in organic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Harrison A.; Nyman, May [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Szymanowski, Jennifer; Fein, Jeremy B.; Burns, Peter C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Uranyl peroxide capsules are a recent addition to polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry. Ten years of development has ensued only in water, while transition metal POMs are commonly exploited in aqueous and organic media, controlled by counterions or ligation to render the clusters hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Here, new uranyl POM behavior is recognized in organic media, including (1) stabilization and immobilization of encapsulated hydrophilic countercations, identified by Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, (2) formation of new cluster species upon phase transfer, (3) extraction of uranyl clusters from different starting materials including simulated spent nuclear fuel, (4) selective phase transfer of one cluster type from a mixture, and (5) phase transfer of clusters from both acidic and alkaline media. The capsule morphology of the uranyl POMs renders accurate characterization by X-ray scattering, including the distinction of geometrically similar clusters. Compositional analysis of the aqueous phase post-extraction provided a quantitative determination of the ion exchange process that enables transfer of the clusters into the organic phase. Preferential partitioning of uranyl POMs into organic media presents new frontiers in metal ion behavior and chemical reactions in the confined space of the cluster capsules in hydrophobic media, as well as the reactivity of clusters at the organic/aqueous interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Reduced anterior internal capsule white matter integrity in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Prem, Martin; Baglioni, Chiara; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Schnell, Susanne; Kiselev, Valerij G; Hennig, Jürgen; Riemann, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system diseases, however, its neurobiology is poorly understood. Up to now, nothing is known about the integrity of white matter tracts in insomnia patients. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used in a well-characterized sample of primary insomnia (PI) patients and good sleeper controls to fill this void. Voxelwise between-group comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) were performed in 24 PI patients (10 males; 14 females; 42.7 ± 14.5 years) and 35 healthy good sleepers (15 males; 20 females; 40.1 ± 9.1 years) with age and sex as covariates. PI patients showed reduced FA values within the right anterior internal capsule and a trend for reduced FA values in the left anterior internal capsule. The results suggest that insomnia is associated with a reduced integrity of white matter tracts in the anterior internal capsule indicating that disturbed fronto-subcortical connectivity may be a cause or consequence of the disorder.

  5. Benchmarking uranyl peroxide capsule chemistry in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Harrison A.; Nyman, May; Szymanowski, Jennifer; Fein, Jeremy B.; Burns, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Uranyl peroxide capsules are a recent addition to polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry. Ten years of development has ensued only in water, while transition metal POMs are commonly exploited in aqueous and organic media, controlled by counterions or ligation to render the clusters hydrophilic or hydrophobic. Here, new uranyl POM behavior is recognized in organic media, including (1) stabilization and immobilization of encapsulated hydrophilic countercations, identified by Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, (2) formation of new cluster species upon phase transfer, (3) extraction of uranyl clusters from different starting materials including simulated spent nuclear fuel, (4) selective phase transfer of one cluster type from a mixture, and (5) phase transfer of clusters from both acidic and alkaline media. The capsule morphology of the uranyl POMs renders accurate characterization by X-ray scattering, including the distinction of geometrically similar clusters. Compositional analysis of the aqueous phase post-extraction provided a quantitative determination of the ion exchange process that enables transfer of the clusters into the organic phase. Preferential partitioning of uranyl POMs into organic media presents new frontiers in metal ion behavior and chemical reactions in the confined space of the cluster capsules in hydrophobic media, as well as the reactivity of clusters at the organic/aqueous interface. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. MRI diagnosis of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaofeng; Zhou Chengtao; Mu Renqi; Zhang Guanghui; Xu Yongzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscal articular capsule. Methods: MR imaging of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule confirmed by surgery and arthroscope were analyzed retrospectively in 8 cases. Results: The 'Butterfly knot sign' disappeared and was replaced with fluid signal on the sagittal slice of meniscal body in 8 cases. Part of back angle remained in 3 cases. 'Double anterior cruciate ligament sign' was showed on one side of middle sagittal slice in 7 cases. 'Reverse meniscus sign' was revealed in intercondylar fossa on the coronary view in 8 cases. Abnormal high signal was showed in the injured meniscus in 6 cases. Abnormal high signal was detected in the opposite meniscus in 5 cases. Conclusion: The MR findings of reverse and separation of meniscus articular capsule include disappearance of 'butterfly knot sign', appearance of 'reverse meniscus sign' and 'double anterior cruciate ligament sign'. The diagnosis would be established if the former 2 signs were present or all the 3 signs were present simultaneously. (authors)

  7. Technology Insight: current status of video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, David R

    2006-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the most recent major practical and conceptual development in the field of endoscopy. The video capsule endoscope-a small, pill-sized, passive imaging device-has been demonstrated to be the pre-eminent imaging device for disorders of the small intestine. The initial use for VCE was to detect the origin of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Several other indications have now been justified, or are in the process of evaluation. More than 200,000 of these disposable devices have been used worldwide, with an extraordinarily good safety record: indeed, the device has been approved for use in children as young as 10 years of age. In addition, a double-ended capsule has now been approved for the evaluation of mucosal disease in the esophagus. The now-widespread deployment of the device into gastrointestinal practice in the US and many other countries suggests that VCE has achieved mainstream utility. The development of similar competitor devices, and devices whose movement can be controlled, is in progress.

  8. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  9. Outer space and nuclear deterrence: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparini Alves, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation deals with the role of outer-space applications and prospects for near future developments in nuclear deterrence. Outer space capabilities of United Sates, Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, China, and United Kingdom as well as other states are analyzed. Conceptual problems of offensive and defensive doctrines are reviewed together with legal implications

  10. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…

  11. Proteomics of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Outer Membrane Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kieselbach

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral and systemic pathogen associated with aggressive forms of periodontitis and with endocarditis. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by this species have been demonstrated to deliver effector proteins such as cytolethal distending toxin (CDT and leukotoxin (LtxA into human host cells and to act as triggers of innate immunity upon carriage of NOD1- and NOD2-active pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. To improve our understanding of the pathogenicity-associated functions that A. actinomycetemcomitans exports via OMVs, we studied the proteome of density gradient-purified OMVs from a rough-colony type clinical isolate, strain 173 (serotype e using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. This analysis yielded the identification of 151 proteins, which were found in at least three out of four independent experiments. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002509. Through this study, we not only confirmed the vesicle-associated release of LtxA, and the presence of proteins, which are known to act as immunoreactive antigens in the human host, but we also identified numerous additional putative virulence-related proteins in the A. actinomycetemcomitans OMV proteome. The known and putative functions of these proteins include immune evasion, drug targeting, and iron/nutrient acquisition. In summary, our findings are consistent with an OMV-associated proteome that exhibits several offensive and defensive functions, and they provide a comprehensive basis to further disclose roles of A. actinomycetemcomitans OMVs in periodontal and systemic disease.

  12. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests; study on the in-pile creep measuring method of zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong; Lee, Byung Kee; Lee, Jong Jea; Kim, Chang Sik; Kim, B. Hun; Cho, I. Sik [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The final objective of this project is to obtain a design and fabrication technology of an in-pile creep test machine of zirconium alloys. First, design concepts of the in-pile creep test machines of various foreign countries were reviewed and a preliminary design of the equipment was carried. Second, the mock-up of the in-pile creep test machine was fabricated based on the preliminary design. The mock-up consisted of upper and lower grips, a yoke, a pressure chamber including a bellows, a push rod and LVDT. Each part was made of 304 L stainless steel. The average surface roughness of the parts was 1.0-14.7 {mu}m. The mock-up precisely determined an extension of a specimen by gas pressure. Finally, in-pile creep capsule was designed, fabricated and modified. High pure aluminum blocks were put in the capsule. Considering heat transfer coefficients of helium and nitrogen gases, the cooling efficiency is about 4 .deg. C at the condition of 300 .deg. C creep test. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation at 300 .deg. C were 335 MPa, 591 MPa, 19.8%, respectively. which were lower than the values at room temperature, 353 MPa, 740 MPa, 12.5%. This study gave an important technology related to design, fabrication and performance tests of the in-pile creep test machine, which is applied to the fabrication of a special capsule and also used for the fundamental data for the fabrication of various in-pile creep capsules. 6 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  13. Are the soft, liquid-like structures detected around bacteria by ambient dynamic atomic force microscopy capsules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Vilas, A; Labajos-Broncano, L; Perera-Núñez, J; González-Martín, M L

    2011-05-01

    High-resolution imaging of bacterial capsules by microscopy is of paramount importance in microbiology due to their role in pathogenesis. This is, however, quite a challenging task due to their delicate nature. In this context, recent reports have claimed successful exploitation of the capacity of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for imaging of extremely deformable (even liquid) surfaces under ambient conditions to detect bacterial capsules in the form of tiny amounts of liquid-like substances around bacteria. In order to further explore this supposed capacity of AFM, in this work, three staphylococcal strains have been scrutinized for the presence of capsules using such an AFM-based approach with a phosphate buffer and water as the suspending liquids. Similar results were obtained with the three strains. AFM showed the presence of liquid-like substances identical to those attributed to bacterial capsules in the previous literature. Extensive imaging and chemical analysis point out the central role of the suspending liquid (buffer) in the formation of these substances. The phenomenon has been reproduced even by using nonliving particles, a finding that refutes the biological origin of the liquid-like substances visualized around the cells. Deliquescence of major components of biological buffers, such as K(2)HPO(4), CaCl(2), or HEPES, is proposed as the fundamental mechanism of the formation of these ultrasmall liquid-like structures. Such an origin could explain the high similarity of our results obtained with three very different strains and also the high similarity of these results to others reported in the literature based on other bacteria and suspending liquids. Finally, possible biological/biomedical implications of the presence of these ultrasmall amounts of liquids wrapping microorganisms are discussed.

  14. Iodine capsules in thyroid therapy: An individually controlled study of I-131 uptake kinetics as compared to liquid administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schulthess, G.K.; Seelentag, W.W.; Pfeiffer, G.; Blauenstein, P.; Bekier, A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the additional radiation dose sustained by parts of the patients gastric mucosa when given I-131 therapy in capsular rather than liquid form, and thus to establish the safety of this procedure. 16 patients with benign thyroid disease were studied by measuring serum radioactivity at 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min. after administration of the capsule (120-200 MBq I131). These serum uptake values were compared to the uptake after administration of a liquid diagnostic dose of I-131 (2 MBq). From the resulting uptake curves the delay due to capsular dissolution was determined. The average dissolution time was found to be 12 min. with a large standard deviation of 7 min. Also, a theoretical curve was computed to indicate the dose rate as a function of the distance from the surface of the capsule. Based on this information the maximum dose to the gastric mucosa is of the order of 250 cGy for a therapeutic activity of 185 MBq, which is the maximum dose which may be given as single application to outpatients in Switzerland. By having the patient swallow some liquid during the first ten minutes, the capsule can be made to move around, and hence, the local radiation dose can be reduced substantially. The authors conclude, that I-131 in capsular form is a safe galenic form for therapeutic use in patients with thyroid disease. When large doses are given, administration of the dose in several capsules may be advisable

  15. Evaluation of the possibility to use thick slabs of reconstructed outer breast tomosynthesis slice images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Hannie; Dustler, Magnus; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2016-03-01

    The large image volumes in breast tomosynthesis (BT) have led to large amounts of data and a heavy workload for breast radiologists. The number of slice images can be decreased by combining adjacent image planes (slabbing) but the decrease in depth resolution can considerably affect the detection of lesions. The aim of this work was to assess if thicker slabbing of the outer slice images (where lesions seldom are present) could be a viable alternative in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes. The suggested slabbing (an image volume with thick outer slabs and thin slices between) were evaluated in two steps. Firstly, a survey of the depth of 65 cancer lesions within the breast was performed to estimate how many lesions would be affected by outer slabs of different thicknesses. Secondly, a selection of 24 lesions was reconstructed with 2, 6 and 10 mm slab thickness to evaluate how the appearance of lesions located in the thicker slabs would be affected. The results show that few malignant breast lesions are located at a depth less than 10 mm from the surface (especially for breast thicknesses of 50 mm and above). Reconstruction of BT volumes with 6 mm slab thickness yields an image quality that is sufficient for lesion detection for a majority of the investigated cases. Together, this indicates that thicker slabbing of the outer slice images is a promising option in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes.

  16. COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIKROO, A.; PONTELANDOLFO, J.M.; CASTILLO, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES. Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) need to be about 200 (micro)m thick and 2 mm in diameter. These dimensions are well beyond those currently fabricated on a routine basis. They have investigated fabrication of near NIF scale targets using the depolymerizable mandrel technique. Poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrels, about 2 mm in diameter, of varying qualities were coated with as much as 125 (micro)m of glow discharge polymer (GDP). The surface finish of the final shells was examined using a variety of techniques. A clear dependence of the modal spectrum of final GDP shell on the quality of the initial PAMS mandrels was observed. isolated features were found to be the greatest cause for a shell not meeting the NIF standard

  17. Design Improvements of the Capsule Components and the Handling Tools for an Effective Utilization of the Capsule Assembly Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Kim, Jong Kium; Youm, Ki Un; Yoon, Ki Byung; Choi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Bong Gu

    2006-01-01

    Various in-pile test programs for the development of new fuels and materials are planned for the HANARO reactor. To meet the demands for the required tests in the HANARO reactor, new capsule assembling technology is required in the HANARO reactor. For this reason, a series of analyses and experiments was performed in 2005. For the assembly workability tests of the capsule components, three different kinds of protection tubes and two different shapes of the locking bolt heads were proposed and tested. It was confirmed that the newly designed protection tube and bolts worked quite well without any problems. Since the new structure is quite similar to that of the currently used capsule, it was assumed that an additional vibration tests and seismic analysis would not be needed. Through the stress analysis of the three proposed structures by using ANSYS code, it showed that the maximum displacement and stress intensity for the tube reducer were 1.57mm and 21MPa, respectively. To improve the workability and handling capability of the bolting and clamping tools of stainless steel 304, Al6061/T6 was selected as one of the candidates and thus new tools were manufactured and tested. The assembly test results showed that the new tools were found to be useful for executing key tasks such as a bolting and a clamping and they were much faster than the old tools made of stainless steel, thereby increasing the workability rate and lowering the manufacturing costs

  18. Bowman Capsulitis Predicts Poor Kidney Allograft Outcome in T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallan, Alexander J; Chon, W James; Josephson, Michelle A; Cunningham, Patrick N; Henriksen, Kammi J; Chang, Anthony

    2018-02-28

    Acute T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is an important cause of renal allograft loss. The Banff classification for tubulointerstitial (type I) rejection is based on the extent of both interstitial inflammation and tubulitis. Lymphocytes may also be present between parietal epithelial cells and Bowman capsules in this setting, which we have termed "capsulitis." We conducted this study to determine the clinical significance of capsulitis. We identified 42 patients from the pathology archives at the University of Chicago with isolated Banff type I TCMR from 2010-2015. Patient demographic data, Banff classification, and graft outcome measurements were compared between capsulitis and non-capsulitis groups using Mann-Whitney U test. Capsulitis was present in 26 (62%), and was more frequently seen in Banff IB than IA TCMR (88% vs 44%, P=.01). Patients with capsulitis had a higher serum creatinine at biopsy (4.6 vs 2.9mg/dL, P=.04) and were more likely to progress to dialysis (42% vs 13%, P=.06) with fewer recovering their baseline serum creatinine (12% vs 38%, P=.08). Patients with both Banff IA TCMR and capsulitis have clinical outcomes similar or possibly worse than Banff IB TCMR compared to those with Banff IA and an absence of capsulitis. Capsulitis is an important pathologic parameter in the evaluation of kidney transplant biopsies with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications in the setting of TCMR. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Eccentric Kozai-Lidov Mechanism for Outer Test Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoz, Smadar; Li, Gongjie; Zanardi, Macarena; de Elía, Gonzalo Carlos; Di Sisto, Romina P.

    2017-07-01

    The secular approximation of the hierarchical three body systems has been proven to be very useful in addressing many astrophysical systems, from planets to stars to black holes. In such a system, two objects are on a tight orbit and the tertiary is on a much wider orbit. Here, we study the dynamics of a system by taking the tertiary mass to zero and solve the hierarchical three body system up to the octupole level of approximation. We find a rich dynamics that the outer orbit undergoes due to gravitational perturbations from the inner binary. The nominal result of the precession of the nodes is mostly limited for the lowest order of approximation; however, when the octupole level of approximation is introduced, the system becomes chaotic, as expected, and the tertiary oscillates below and above 90°, similarly to the non-test particle flip behavior. We provide the Hamiltonian of the system and investigate the dynamics of the system from the quadrupole to the octupole level of approximations. We also analyze the chaotic and quasi-periodic orbital evolution by studying the surfaces of sections. Furthermore, including general relativity, we showcase the long-term evolution of individual debris disk particles under the influence of a far-away interior eccentric planet. We show that this dynamics can naturally result in retrograde objects and a puffy disk after a long timescale evolution (a few Gyr) for initially aligned configuration.

  20. Geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, M.A. (Alexandria, Egypt)

    1983-04-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal.

  1. A geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkader, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal. (Auth.)

  2. The Eccentric Kozai–Lidov Mechanism for Outer Test Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoz, Smadar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Gongjie [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zanardi, Macarena; De Elía, Gonzalo Carlos; Di Sisto, Romina P., E-mail: snaoz@astro.ucla.edu [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CCT La Plata-CONICET-UNLP Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-07-01

    The secular approximation of the hierarchical three body systems has been proven to be very useful in addressing many astrophysical systems, from planets to stars to black holes. In such a system, two objects are on a tight orbit and the tertiary is on a much wider orbit. Here, we study the dynamics of a system by taking the tertiary mass to zero and solve the hierarchical three body system up to the octupole level of approximation. We find a rich dynamics that the outer orbit undergoes due to gravitational perturbations from the inner binary. The nominal result of the precession of the nodes is mostly limited for the lowest order of approximation; however, when the octupole level of approximation is introduced, the system becomes chaotic, as expected, and the tertiary oscillates below and above 90°, similarly to the non-test particle flip behavior. We provide the Hamiltonian of the system and investigate the dynamics of the system from the quadrupole to the octupole level of approximations. We also analyze the chaotic and quasi-periodic orbital evolution by studying the surfaces of sections. Furthermore, including general relativity, we showcase the long-term evolution of individual debris disk particles under the influence of a far-away interior eccentric planet. We show that this dynamics can naturally result in retrograde objects and a puffy disk after a long timescale evolution (a few Gyr) for initially aligned configuration.

  3. Spheroidal and conical shapes of ferrofluid-filled capsules in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischnewski, Christian; Kierfeld, Jan

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the deformation of soft spherical elastic capsules filled with a ferrofluid in external uniform magnetic fields at fixed volume by a combination of numerical and analytical approaches. We develop a numerical iterative solution strategy based on nonlinear elastic shape equations to calculate the stretched capsule shape numerically and a coupled finite element and boundary element method to solve the corresponding magnetostatic problem and employ analytical linear response theory, approximative energy minimization, and slender-body theory. The observed deformation behavior is qualitatively similar to the deformation of ferrofluid droplets in uniform magnetic fields. Homogeneous magnetic fields elongate the capsule and a discontinuous shape transition from a spheroidal shape to a conical shape takes place at a critical field strength. We investigate how capsule elasticity modifies this hysteretic shape transition. We show that conical capsule shapes are possible but involve diverging stretch factors at the tips, which gives rise to rupture for real capsule materials. In a slender-body approximation we find that the critical susceptibility above which conical shapes occur for ferrofluid capsules is the same as for droplets. At small fields capsules remain spheroidal and we characterize the deformation of spheroidal capsules both analytically and numerically. Finally, we determine whether wrinkling of a spheroidal capsule occurs during elongation in a magnetic field and how it modifies the stretching behavior. We find the nontrivial dependence between the extent of the wrinkled region and capsule elongation. Our results can be helpful in quantitatively determining capsule or ferrofluid material properties from magnetic deformation experiments. All results also apply to elastic capsules filled with a dielectric liquid in an external uniform electric field.

  4. The roles of Tenascin C and Fibronectin 1 in adhesive capsulitis: a pilot gene expression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cohen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated mRNA expression levels of genes that encode TGF-β1; the TGF-β1 receptor; the collagen-modifying enzymes LOX, PLOD1, and PLOD2; and the extracellular matrix proteins COMP, FN1, TNC and TNXB in synovial/capsule specimens from patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis. Possible associations between the measured mRNA levels and clinical parameters were also investigated. METHODS: We obtained glenohumeral joint synovium/capsule specimens from 9 patients with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis who had not shown improvement in symptoms after 5 months of physiotherapy. Adhesive capsulitis was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging. We also obtained specimens from 8 control patients who had underwent surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation and who had radiological indication of glenohumeral capsule alteration based on arthroscopic evaluation. mRNA expression in the synovium/capsule specimens was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The B2M and HPRT1 genes were used as references to normalize target gene expression in the shoulder tissue samples. RESULTS: The synovium/capsule samples from the patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly higher TNC and FN1 expression than those from the controls. Additionally, symptom duration directly correlated with expression of TGFβ1 receptor I. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of TNC and FN1 expression may be a marker of capsule injury. Upregulation of TGFβ1 receptor I seems to be dependent on symptom duration; therefore, TGFβ signaling may be involved in adhesive capsulitis. As such, TNC, FN1 and TGFβ1 receptor I may also play roles in adhesive capsulitis by contributing to capsule inflammation and fibrosis.

  5. Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2010-12-01

    The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to

  6. Quantitative kinetic analysis of blood vessels in the outer membranes of chronic subdural hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kentaro; Adachi, Keiji; Cho, Kajin; Ishimaru, Sumio; Maeda, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic biologic modeling was used to calculate the transfer rate constant for gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) and capillary permeability in the outer membrane of chronic subdural hematomas and effusions. Following intravenous Gd-DTPA injection, Gd concentrations in the subdural fluid and in timed arterial blood samples were measured by ion-coupled plasma emission spectrometry in 53 chronic subdural hematomas and 18 chronic subdural effusions. The capillary surface area in outer membrane was assessed morphometrically. Transfer rate constants for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 12.4±1.0 and 20.6±1.7 (x 10 -4 )min -1 , respectively. Capillary permeabilities for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 16±1.2 and 19±3.7 ml·min -1 (mm 2 /mm 3 ) -1 , respectively. The capillary surface areas for subdural hematomas and subdural effusions were 48±3 and 77±10 mm 2 /mm 3 , respectively. The high degree of infiltration of Gd into subdural effusions reflects the high capillary surface area in the outer membrane rather than greater permeability of individual capillaries. The value of transfer rate constant was correlated inversely with the duration of the chronic subdural fluid collection. Immature outer membrane has a high transfer rate constant which allows extravasation of plasma components into the subdural space, resulting in increasing volume of the subdural effusion. Delayed magnetic resonance imaging following Gd administration may be clinically useful for estimating the age of chronic subdural fluid accumulations. (author)

  7. Nodulation outer proteins: double-edged swords of symbiotic rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehelin, Christian; Krishnan, Hari B

    2015-09-15

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish a nodule symbiosis with legumes. Nodule formation depends on signals and surface determinants produced by both symbiotic partners. Among them, rhizobial Nops (nodulation outer proteins) play a crucial symbiotic role in many strain-host combinations. Nops are defined as proteins secreted via a rhizobial T3SS (type III secretion system). Functional T3SSs have been characterized in many rhizobial strains. Nops have been identified using various genetic, biochemical, proteomic, genomic and experimental approaches. Certain Nops represent extracellular components of the T3SS, which are visible in electron micrographs as bacterial surface appendages called T3 (type III) pili. Other Nops are T3 effector proteins that can be translocated into plant cells. Rhizobial T3 effectors manipulate cellular processes in host cells to suppress plant defence responses against rhizobia and to promote symbiosis-related processes. Accordingly, mutant strains deficient in synthesis or secretion of T3 effectors show reduced symbiotic properties on certain host plants. On the other hand, direct or indirect recognition of T3 effectors by plant cells expressing specific R (resistance) proteins can result in effector triggered defence responses that negatively affect rhizobial infection. Hence Nops are double-edged swords that may promote establishment of symbiosis with one legume (symbiotic factors) and impair symbiotic processes when bacteria are inoculated on another legume species (asymbiotic factors). In the present review, we provide an overview of our current understanding of Nops. We summarize their symbiotic effects, their biochemical properties and their possible modes of action. Finally, we discuss future perspectives in the field of T3 effector research. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. Prevention of an arms race in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The space age may be the to have begun in 1957, when for the first time a man-made object was lofted into orbit round the Earth. Since that date, the new problems of outer space have been discussed in the United Nations, particularly in the General Assembly, in the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its subsidiary bodies, and in the Conference on Disarmament. The discussions have contributed to the conclusion of a number of international agreements concerning both military and peaceful aspects of the use of outer space. This paper reports that according to the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, known as the outer space Treaty, outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means (article II), and the parties undertake not to place in orbit around the earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of ass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner (article IV). Detailed norms for States' actions in this environment are included in the 1979 Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and other Celestial Bodies to ensure that the Moon and other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than Earth, are used exclusively for peaceful purposes

  9. Legal Provisions Applicable to the Definition of Outer Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorin, T.

    2002-01-01

    and decreeing the basic principle that no state can make claims to sovereignty or territory in space. This is followed by the Agreement of 11th September 1984 which governs the activities of states on the Moon and other celestial bodies. There are also three multilateral agreements which provide guiding principles in three specific areas: the Agreement on the Rescue and Return of Astronauts; the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects; and, the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. We shall then discuss other sources of law which also contribute towards defining the notion of space. These are essentially doctrinal positions which surface from the fundamental debate among legal experts divided between "functionalists" and "spacialists", which discussion is part of the general economic framework of international law, and considering naturally that Space law is an integral part of this framework. We shall also examine, as mentioned previously, the position taken by the various political and thus economic players in the international arena and we shall see that their somewhat diverging conceptions are often legitimised by very concrete concerns, far removed from theoretical debates, contributing to the development of international law. Finally, this will lead us to consider the pragmatic approach to such a problem, by discussing the various applications of legitimacy in demarcating space. So, we will among others discuss whether it is feasible to study a given territory without the permission of the country concerned; if "forbidden" orbits exist; in particular considering frequencies allocations and, of course, the simple right of flying and crossing, by shuttle designed vehicles both plane and rocket, over various states and their upper areas. In summary, the purpose of this paper is to determine when space law takes over from air law.

  10. Outer membrane biogenesis in Helicobacter pylori: A deviation from the paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Liechti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is capable of colonizing the gastric mucosa of the human stomach using a variety of factors associated with or secreted from its outer membrane (OM. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS and numerous outer membrane proteins have been shown to be involved in adhesion and immune stimulation/evasion. Many of these factors are essential for colonization and/or pathogenesis in a variety of animal models. Despite this wide array of potential targets present on the bacterial surface, the ability of H. pylori to vary its outer membrane profile limits the effectiveness of vaccines that use any single one of these components. However, it has become evident that the proteins comprising the complexes that transport the majority of these molecules to the OM are highly conserved and often essential. The field of membrane biogenesis has progressed remarkably in the last few years, and the possibility now exists for targeting the mechanisms by which β-barrel proteins, lipoproteins, and LPS are transported to the OM, resulting in loss of bacterial fitness and significant altering of membrane permeability. In this review, the OM transport machinery for LPS, lipoproteins, and outer membrane proteins are discussed. While the principal investigations of these transport mechanisms have been conducted in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, here these systems will be presented in the genetic context of ε- proteobacteria. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that minimalist genomes, such as that of Helicobacter pylori, offer insight into the smallest number of components required for these essential pathways to function. Interestingly, in the majority of ε-proteobacteria, while the inner and outer membrane associated apparatus of LPS, lipoprotein, and OM protein transport pathways appear to all be intact, most of the components associated with the periplasmic compartment are either missing or are almost unrecognizable when compared to

  11. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane.

  12. The Antiphagocytic Activity of SeM of Streptococcus equi Requires Capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoney, John F; Suther, Pranav; Velineni, Sridhar; Artiushin, Sergey C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to phagocytosis is a crucial virulence property of Streptococcus equi (Streptococcus equi subsp. equi; Se), the cause of equine strangles. The contribution and interdependence of capsule and SeM to killing in equine blood and neutrophils were investigated in naturally occurring strains of Se. Strains CF32, SF463 were capsule and SeM positive, strains Lex90, Lex93 were capsule negative and SeM positive and strains Se19, Se1-8 were capsule positive and SeM deficient. Phagocytosis and killing of Se19, Se1-8, Lex90 and Lex93 in equine blood and by neutrophils suspended in serum were significantly (P ≤ 0.02) greater compared to CF32 and SF463. The results indicate capsule and SeM are both required for resistance to phagocytosis and killing and that the anti-phagocytic property of SeM is greatly reduced in the absence of capsule.

  13. Work plan for testing silicone impression material and fixture on pool cell capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work plan is to provide a safe procedure to test a cesium capsule impression fixture at Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The impression will be taken with silicone dental impression material pressed down upon the capsule using the impression fixture. This test will evaluate the performance of the fixture and impression material under high radiation and temperature conditions on a capsule in a WESF pool cell

  14. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract

    OpenAIRE

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times we...

  16. Medical capsule robots: A renaissance for diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapara, Sanyat S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2017-09-10

    The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market. They are slightly larger than regular oral capsules, made up of a biocompatible case and have electronic circuitry and mechanisms to capture and transmit images. In addition, robots with diagnostic features such as in vivo body temperature detection and pH monitoring have also been launched in the market. However, a multi-functional unit that will diagnose and cure diseases inside the body has not yet been realized. A remote controlled capsule that will undertake drug delivery and surgical treatment has not been successfully launched in the market. High cost, inadequate power supply, lack of control over drug release, limited space for drug storage on the capsule, inadequate safety and no mechanisms for active locomotion and anchoring have prevented their entry in the market. The capsule robots can revolutionize the current way of diagnosis and treatment. This paper discusses in detail the applications of medical capsule robots in diagnostics, drug delivery and surgical treatment. In diagnostics, detailed analysis has been presented on wireless capsule endoscopes, issues associated with the marketed versions and their corresponding solutions in literature. Moreover, an assessment has been made of the existing state of remote controlled capsules for targeted drug delivery and surgical treatment and their future impact is predicted. Besides the need for multi-functional capsule robots and the areas for further research have also been

  17. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 2000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlin, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 200 0 C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented

  18. The use of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker with inner and outer reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabacigil Bihter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the potential use and effectiveness of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker was experimentally investigated during daylight and late evening hours. For these experiments, a cooker having an inner reflecting surface was designed, constructed by filling paraffin wax and metal shavings. The side- and sub-surface temperatures of the paraffin wax in the cooker are measured in the summer months of June and July. The thermal efficiency of the cooker was tested on different conditions. The results show that the optimum angle of the outer reflector is 30°. Here, the peak temperature of the paraffin wax in the solar cooker was 83.4 °C. The average solar radiation reflected makes a contribution of 9.26% to the temperature of paraffin wax with the outer reflector. The solar cooker with the outer reflector angle of 30° receives also reflected radiation from the inner reflectors. Besides, the heating time is decreased to approximately 1 hour. The designed solar cooker can be effectively used with 30.3% daily thermal efficiency and paraffin wax due to the amount of energy stored.

  19. Anti-proliferative effect of olmesartan on Tenon's capsule fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the inhibitive effect of olmesartan to fibroblast proliferation and the anti-scarring effect in Tenon’s capsule, both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human primary Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts were cultured in vitro, treated with up titrating concentrations of olmesartan. The rate of inhibition was tested with methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT method. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze changes in mRNA expressions of the fibrosis-related factors: matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1,2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Thirty rabbits were divided into 5 groups (3, 7, 14, 21, and 28d. A rabbit conjunctiva flap model was created in each eye. Olmesartan solution was injected subconjunctivally and then evaluated its anti-proliferation and anti-fibrosis effects through the histological morphology and immunohistochemistry of MMP-2 and PCNA in each group. Only the 7d group was treated with Masson’s trichrome to compare the neovascularization in the subconjunctiva area. RESULTS: In vitro, cultured Tenon's capsule human fibroblasts showed a dose dependent inhibition by olmesartan in MTT. Olmesartan reduced mRNA expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA but increased mRNA expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. In vivo, the rabbit eyes treated with olmesartan at 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days demonstrated a significant reduced expressions of MMP-2 and PCNA compared with control eye, no significant difference observed in 28th day group. The cellular proliferation and neovascularization was suppressed by olmesartan in Masson’s trichrome observation. CONCLUSION: By inhibiting fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, olmesartan prevents the proliferation and activity of fibroblasts in scar tissue formation, which might benefit glaucoma filtering surgery.

  20. Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vilhelmsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The head capsule of a taxon sample of three outgroup and 86 ingroup taxa is examined for characters of possible phylogenetic significance within Hymenoptera. 21 morphological characters are illustrated and scored, and their character evolution explored by mapping them onto a phylogeny recently produced from a large morphological data set. Many of the characters are informative and display unambiguous changes. Most of the character support demonstrated is supportive at the superfamily or family level. In contrast, only few characters corroborate deeper nodes in the phylogeny of Hymenoptera.